... ourselves to saving lives and eliminating drunk, drugged, and distracted driving. Impaired drivers are... tools and training to decrease drunk and drugged driving. We are designing effective, targeted... Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2013 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register...
... involving drunk, drugged, or distracted driving claim thousands of lives, leaving families to face the... or drunk driving, and we rededicate ourselves to preventing it this December and throughout the year... National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A...
... National Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Though we have made progress in the fight to reduce drunk driving, our Nation continues to suffer... to effect change and work to end drunk, drugged, and distracted driving in America. In our homes and...
... drugs poses the same risks as drunk driving, and we must do more to stop this growing epidemic. Families... Traffic Safety Administration is again sponsoring the campaign known as “Drunk Driving. Over the Limit... Impaired Driving Prevention Month, 2009 8461 Proclamation 8461 Presidential Documents Proclamations...
... property in a moment. This reckless behavior not only includes drunk driving, but also the growing problem... dedicated to strengthening efforts against drunk, drugged, and distracted driving. To lead by example, we... Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is also sponsoring the campaign, ``Drunk Driving...
Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B
To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.
Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier
The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…
Beck, Kenneth H; Yan, Alice F; Wang, Min Qi; Kerns, Timothy J; Burch, Cynthia A
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between impaired driving crashes and public beliefs and concerns about impaired driving across each of Maryland's twenty-four counties (including Baltimore City). It was hypothesized that residents of counties that experience higher impaired driving crashes would express more concerns about impaired driving and perceive more risks about driving impaired than residents of counties that have lower rates of impaired driving. Data for alcohol impaired driving crashes were obtained for the years 2004-2006. These data were compared to public opinion data that was obtained annually by random-digit-dial telephone surveys from 2004 to 2007. Concerns about drunk driving as well as perceptions of the likelihood of being stopped by the police if one were to drive after having too much to drink were related to counties with higher serious impaired driving crash rates, as were perceptions that the police and the legal system were too lenient. Perceptions about the likelihood of being stopped by the police were higher in those counties with more impaired driving enforcement activity. Perceptions of concern appear to be shaped more by crash exposure than enforcement activity. Campaigns that address impaired driving prevention should substantially increase enforcement, strengthen the adjudication process of impaired drivers, and emphasize the potential seriousness of drinking-driving crashes in their promotional activities.
... 2012 Data DOT HS 812 017 May 2014 State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates This fact sheet contains ... alcohol involvement in fatal crashes for the United States and individually for the 50 States, the District ...
... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. Most Widely Used Sleep Drug Zolpidem—which has been on the market ...
Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Coopersmith, Henry; Mayo, Nancy; Leblanc, Ginette; Kaizer, Franceen
Perceptual and cognitive disorders that frequently accompany stroke and head injury influence an individual's ability to drive a motor vehicle. Canadian physicians are legally responsible for identifying patients who are potentially unsafe to drive and, if they fail to do so, may be held liable in a civil action suit. The authors review the guidelines for physicians evaluating a patient's fitness to drive after brain injury. They also examine the actions a physician should take when a patient with perceptual and cognitive problems wants to drive. Ultimately, by taking these actions, physicians will help to prevent driving accidents. PMID:21234047
Alcohol-impaired (AI) driving continues to cause a disproportionate number of fatalities within the college and : young adult populations, indicating optimal prevention programs for AI driving have yet to be developed. The : current study tested the ...
This project provides information about norms and attitudes related to alcohol use and driving. This booklet was developed to assist highway safety program officials in assimulating recent research findings on primary prevention into their DWI commun...
...: Prevention [ssquf] Panel Seven: International Perspective --Session Four: Next Steps [ssquf] Panel Eight... NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Reaching Zero: Actions to Eliminate Substance-Impaired Driving Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a Public Forum to address...
Meng, A.; Siren, A.; Teasdale, Thomas William
drivers may recognise cognitive problems, they tend not to recognise changes to their driving, which may reflect reluctance to acknowledge the impact of cognitive impairment on their driving. Furthermore, the results suggest that driving-related discomfort plays an important role in the self-regulation......The results of a previous study indicate that in general, older drivers who recognise cognitive problems show realistic self-assessment of changes in their driving skills and that driving-related discomfort may function as an indirect monitoring of driving ability, contributing to their safe...... of driving among cognitively impaired older drivers. However, it is less clear what triggers driving-related discomfort among cognitively impaired older drivers indicating that it may be a less reliable aspect of their self-monitoring of driving ability....
Berger, D E; Marelich, W D
This research was designed to provide information on the legal and social forces that influence change in control of alcohol-impaired driving. Attitudes, perceptions and behaviors concerning drinking and driving for California drivers in 1994 (n = 608) were compared to similar information collected from California drivers in 1983 and 1986 (n = 291) through random-digit-dialing telephone interviews. Self-reported drinking-driving violations showed a substantial decline, paralleling the well-documented drop in alcohol-related traffic crashes during this time span. A large reduction in drinking before driving was reported for all age groups, men and women, and for both heavy drinkers and light drinkers. There was evidence of an increase in the levels of both general deterrence and general prevention. Increased external control was reflected in greater knowledge of drinking-driving laws and trends toward an increased expectation that violations would be followed by unpleasant consequences. Strong gains in creating a social norm for control of alcohol-impaired driving were indicated by perceptions that friends and relatives were more likely to disapprove of driving after drinking, observations of more control of drinking by drivers at occasions where alcohol is served and an increase in the view that it is morally wrong to drive after heavy drinking. California has made substantial progress in efforts to control alcohol-impaired driving, through increases in both general deterrence (fear of punishment) and general prevention (moral inhibitions and socialization of preventive habits), especially the latter.
Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Brookhuis, Karel A; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Melis-Dankers, Bart J M
To investigate how well visually impaired individuals can learn to use mobility scooters and which parts of the driving task deserve special attention. A mobility scooter driving skill test was developed to compare driving skills (e.g. reverse driving, turning) between 48 visually impaired (very low visual acuity = 14, low visual acuity = 10, peripheral field defects = 11, multiple visual impairments = 13) and 37 normal-sighted controls without any prior experience with mobility scooters. Performance on this test was rated on a three-point scale. Furthermore, the number of extra repetitions on the different elements were noted. Results showed that visually impaired participants were able to gain sufficient driving skills to be able to use mobility scooters. Participants with visual field defects combined with low visual acuity showed most problems learning different skills and needed more training. Reverse driving and stopping seemed to be most difficult. The present findings suggest that visually impaired individuals are able to learn to drive mobility scooters. Mobility scooter allocators should be aware that these individuals might need more training on certain elements of the driving task. Implications for rehabilitation Visual impairments do not necessarily lead to an inability to acquire mobility scooter driving skills. Individuals with peripheral field defects (especially in combination with reduced visual acuity) need more driving ability training compared to normal-sighted people - especially to accomplish reversing. Individual assessment of visually impaired people is recommended, since participants in this study showed a wide variation in ability to learn driving a mobility scooter.
This digest reports the status of State laws that are concerned with impaired driving offenses and alcoholic beverage control. Unless otherwise indicated, the status of the laws reported is January 1, 2006.
This report was prepared in accordance with Section 4008 (Marijuana-Impaired Driving) of the Fixing Americas Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act), Pub. L. 114-94. The report summarizes what is known about marijuana use and driving. The report des...
Bradly T Stone
Full Text Available Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem, worldwide; estimates show that 18-23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; NHTSA, 2010; Walsh et al., 2004. Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009. Currently, drug recognition experts (law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving, have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS depressants (Smith, Hayes, Yolton, Rutledge, & Citek, 2002. The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake, Michie, Carter, & Jones, 2011, further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSim™. This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (EEG, ECG. While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009, we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of drug recognition experts. Our analyses revealed that 1 specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and; 2 the neurocognitive tasks’ metrics were able to classify impaired vs. unimpaired with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in
Some medical disorders can impair performance, increasing the risk of driving safety errors that can lead to vehicle crashes. The causal pathway often involves a concatenation of factors or events, some of which can be prevented or controlled. Effective interventions can operate before, during, or after a crash occurs at the levels of driver capacity, vehicle and road design, and public policy. A variety of systemic, neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders put drivers at potential increased risk of a car crash in the short or long term. Medical diagnosis and age alone are usually insufficient criteria for determining fitness to drive. Strategies are needed for determining what types and levels of reduced function provide a threshold for disqualification in drivers with medical disorders. Evidence of decreased mileage, self-restriction to driving in certain situations, collisions, moving violations, aggressive driving, sleepiness, alcohol abuse, metabolic disorders, and multiple medications may trigger considerations of driver safety. A general framework for evaluating driver fitness relies on a functional evaluation of multiple domains (cognitive, motor, perceptual, and psychiatric) that are important for safe driving and can be applied across many disorders, including conditions that have rarely been studied with respect to driving, and in patients with multiple conditions and medications. Neurocognitive tests, driving simulation, and road tests provide complementary sources of evidence to evaluate driver safety. No single test is sufficient to determine who should drive and who should not. PMID:21364126
Lodha, Neha; Moon, Hwasil; Kim, Changki; Onushko, Tanya; Christou, Evangelos A
The functional declines with aging relate to deficits in motor control and strength. In this study, we determine whether older adults exhibit impaired driving as a consequence of declines in motor control or strength. Young and older adults performed the following tasks: (i) maximum voluntary contractions of ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion; (ii) sinusoidal tracking with isolated ankle dorsiflexion; and (iii) a reactive driving task that required responding to unexpected brake lights of the car ahead. We quantified motor control with ankle force variability, gas position variability, and brake force variability. We quantified reactive driving performance with a combination of gas pedal error, premotor and motor response times, and brake pedal error. Reactive driving performance was ~30% more impaired (t = 3.38; p motor output variability during both isolated ankle dorsiflexion contractions (t = 2.76; p motor output variability (R 2 = .48; p .05). This study provides novel evidence that age-related declines in motor control but not strength impair reactive driving. These findings have implications on rehabilitation and suggest that interventions should focus on improving motor control to enhance driving-related function in older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Beratis, Ion N; Andronas, Nikos; Kontaxopoulou, Dionysia; Fragkiadaki, Stella; Pavlou, Dimosthenis; Papatriantafyllou, John; Economou, Alexandra; Yannis, George; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G
Previous studies indicate a negative association between depression and driving fitness in the general population. Our goal was to cover a gap in the literature and to explore the link between depressive symptoms and driving behavior in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) through the use of a driving simulator experiment. Twenty-four individuals with MCI (mean age = 67.42, SD = 7.13) and 23 cognitively healthy individuals (mean age = 65.13, SD = 7.21) were introduced in the study. A valid driving license and regular car use served as main inclusion criteria. Data collection included a neurological/neuropsychological assessment and a driving simulator evaluation. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Significant interaction effects indicating a greater negative impact of depressive symptoms in drivers with MCI than in cognitively healthy drivers were observed in the case of various driving indexes, namely, average speed, accident risk, side bar hits, headway distance, headway distance variation, and lateral position variation. The associations between depressive symptoms and driving behavior remained significant after controlling for daytime sleepiness and cognition. Depressive symptoms could be a factor explaining why certain patients with MCI present altered driving skills. Therefore, interventions for treating the depressive symptoms of individuals with MCI could prove to be beneficial regarding their driving performance.
The purpose of the guide is to assist State officials and other stakeholders who are interested in establishing an : Impaired-Driving Statewide Task Force or who are exploring ways to improve their current Task Force. The guide : addresses issues suc...
Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Gonzálvez, María T; Orgilés, Mireia
Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for motor vehicle accidents in young drivers. Crashes associated with alcohol consumption typically have greater severity. This study examines the prevalence of driving under the influence among Spanish youth and tests the theory of reasoned action as a model for predicting driving under the influence. Participants included 478 Spanish university students aged 17-26 years. Findings indicated that alcohol was the substance most associated with impaired driving, and was involved in more traffic crashes. Men engage in higher levels of alcohol and other drug use, and perceived less risk in drunk driving (p theory of reasoned action as a predictive model of driving under the influence of alcohol among youth in Spain (p < .001) and can help in the design of prevention programs.
Miller, Melissa A; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T
Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Both biological and social-cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.
Voas, Robert B; DuPont, Robert L; Talpins, Stephen K; Shea, Corinne L
To describe a proposed national model for controlling the risk presented by offenders convicted of driving while impaired (DWI) and promoting behavioral change to reduce future recidivism. Traditional methods of controlling the risk they present to the driving public are not adequate, as indicated by the fact that approximately 1000 people are killed each year-in alcohol-related crashes involving drivers convicted of DWI in the previous three years. However, stimulated by the success of special drug courts for substance abusers and new technological methods for monitoring drug and alcohol use, new criminal justice programs for managing impaired driving offenders are emerging. A national model for a comprehensive system applicable to both drug and alcohol impaired drivers is proposed. The program focuses on monitoring offender drinking or the offender driving employing vehicle interlocks with swift, sure but moderate penalties for non-compliance in which the ultimate sanction is based on offender performance in meeting monitoring requirements. Several new court programs, such as the 24/7 Sobriety Project in South Dakota and North Dakota and the Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) Project, which feature alcohol/drug consumption monitoring, have produced evidence that indicates even dependent drinkers can conform to abstinence monitoring requirements and avoid the short-term jail consequence for failure. Based on the apparent success of emerging court monitoring systems, it appears that the cost of incarcerating driving-while-impaired offenders can be minimized by employing low-cost community correction programs paid for by the offender. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Lewis, Todd F.; Scott Olds, R.; Thombs, Dennis L.; Ding, Kele
The aim of this study was to determine whether possession of a driver's license increases the risk of impaired driving among adolescents who use alcohol or marijuana. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to secondary school students in northeast Ohio across multiple school districts. Logistic regression analyses revealed that after…
Liguori, A; Robinson, J H
The extent to which caffeine antagonizes alcohol-induced impairment of simulated automobile driving at the current lowest legal American limit (0.08% BrAC) was the focus of this study. Fifteen adults swallowed a capsule (0, 200, or 400 mg caffeine) then drank a beverage (0.0 or 0.6 g/kg ethanol) in a within-subject, double-blind, randomized procedure. Forty-five minutes later, participants completed a test battery of subjective effects scales, dynamic posturography, critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), divided attention (Stroop test), and simulated driving. Alcohol alone increased ratings of 'dizzy', 'drug effect', and 'high', slowed CRT and brake latency, and increased body sway. Caffeine alone increased ratings of 'alert' and 'jittery', but did not significantly affect body sway or psychomotor performance. Both caffeine doses comparably counteracted alcohol impairment of brake latency but not CRT or body sway. Brake latency with either alcohol-caffeine combination remained significantly longer than that with placebo. Stroop and CFF performance were unaffected by any drug condition. The results suggest that caffeine may increase alertness and improve reaction time after alcohol use but will not completely counteract alcohol impairment in a driver.
Braun, Kees P J
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive impairments are common in children with epilepsy. They may already be present before the onset of epilepsy or occur – and even progress – during its course. Many variables contribute to cognitive dysfunction. Those that can be targeted to prevent (further) cognitive
Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Jaanus
Road traffic collisions caused by drunk driving pose a significant public health problem all over the world. Therefore additional preventive activities against drunk driving should be worked out. The aim of the study was to assess drunk driving in novice drivers after a psychological intervention taking into account also impulsivity, law obedience, and alcohol-related measures. An intervention study was started with 1889 car driver's license attempters during their driving school studies. Subjects were classified as intervention group (n=1083, mean age 23.1 (SD=7.4) years), control group (n=517, mean age 22.8 (SD=7.1) years) and "lost" group (n=289, mean age 23.0 (SD=6.9) years). "Lost" group subjects had been assigned into the intervention group, but they did not participate in the intervention. Subjects of the intervention group participated in a psychological intervention on the dangers of impulsive behavior in traffic. After a three year follow-up period it appeared that in the control group and in the lost group there was a significantly higher proportion of drunk drivers than in the intervention group, 3.3% (n=17), 3.5% (n=10) and 1.5% (n=10) (p=0.026), respectively. Survival analysis confirmed that psychological intervention had a significant impact on drunk driving (p=0.015), and the impact of the intervention was persistent also in the case of higher scores in Mild social deviance. In subjects with higher scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems the impact of short psychological intervention was not sufficient for preventing drunk driving. It can be concluded that psychological intervention used during the driving school studies is an effective primary prevention activity against drunk driving. However, for drivers with high scores in impulsivity measures and alcohol-related problems, the short psychological intervention is not sufficient in reducing drunk driving behavior.
Youth Driving without Impairment. Report on the Youth Impaired Driving Public Hearings (Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; Fort Worth, Texas; Seattle, Washington). A Community Challenge.
National Commission against Drunk Driving, Washington, DC.
The testimony heard by the National Commission against Drunk Driving on how to prevent alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes, which constitute the leading cause of death for youth of driving age, resulted in some of the recommendations in this report. The document consists of an executive summary, a preface, an explanation of the Youth Impaired…
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Foran, Kathleen; Grove-White, Aidan
Following an ecological model to specify risks for impaired driving, we assessed the effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults and peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on the youths' own driving after drinking or using cannabis. Participants were 2594 students in grades 10 and 12 (mean age = 16 years and 2 months; 50% girls) from public high schools in urban (994) and rural communities (1600) on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada; 1192 of these were new drivers with restricted licenses. Self-report data were collected in anonymous questionnaires. Regression analyses were used to assess the independent and interacting effects of youth attitudes about substance use and their experiences of riding in cars with adults or peers who drove after drinking alcohol or smoking cannabis on youth driving. Youth driving risk behaviors were associated independently with their own high-risk attitudes and experiences riding with peers who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. However, risks were highest for the youth who also report more frequent experiences of riding with adults who drink alcohol or use cannabis and drive. Prevention efforts should be expanded to include the adults and peers who are role models for new drivers and to increase youths' awareness of their own responsibilities for their personal safety as passengers.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 2005-2014; All persons killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC >= .08 g/dL. Occupant Fatalities 2005-2014; All occupants...
In late 2004, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provided funds through a Cooperative Agreement to the New Mexico Department of Transportation to demonstrate a process for implementing a comprehensive State impaired-driving system. NH...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities 2003-2012; All persons killed in crashes involving a driver with BAC >= .08 g/dL. Occupant Fatalities 2003-2012; All occupants...
Schultheis, M T; Garay, E; DeLuca, J
To examine the influence of impaired cognitive processing on measures of driving skills in persons with MS. Twenty-eight subjects with documented MS were divided into two groups-with [MS(+), n = 13] and without [MS(-), n = 15] cognitive impairment-based on neuropsychological performance. Healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 17) matched on age and driving experience were also studied. Driving-related skills were compared between the groups based on performance on two computerized driving tests: the Useful Field of Vision (UFOV) and the Neurocognitive Driving Test (NDT). The MS(+) group performed significantly worse than both the MS(-) and HC groups in the latency to perform several driving-specific functions on the NDT, but no overall group differences were observed in actual errors on the NDT. On the UFOV, when compared to MS(-) and HC subjects, the MS(+) group demonstrated poorer performance on two of the three subtests. Additionally, a significantly higher percentage of MS(+) individuals were rated within the high risk (probability of crash involvement) category, relative to the MS(-) and HC groups. Cognitive impairment can negatively affect driving-related skills in persons with MS and should be considered in the determination of driving ability.
The National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations 2006 Drunk Driving. Over the Limit. Under Arrest. Labor Day holiday campaign had three main components: (1) DWI enforcement, (2) public awareness efforts, and (3) evaluation. The 2006 program use...
Williams, Allan F
Progress in dealing with the alcohol-impaired driving problem in the United States during the past 25 years is addressed. Trends in various measures of the problem were tracked and a thorough review of the relevant literature conducted. In the 1980s and continuing into the early 1990s, major decreases occurred in alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences. The contribution of alcohol to fatal crashes dropped by 35-40% during this period. Two primary reasons for the decline appear to be the emergence of citizen activist groups that mobilized public support and attention to the problem, and the proliferation of effective laws. Since about 1995 the alcohol-impaired driving problem has stabilized at a reduced but still quite high level. Highway safety organizations and citizen activist groups have continued to highlight the problem, but its status as a social issue has diminished. We basically know what the primary target groups are, and we know measures that would work to reduce the problem if implemented more fully. We know that political leadership, state task forces, and media advocacy are important ingredients in addressing the problem. It is likely that a resurgence in citizen activism will be necessary to foster these elements and refocus the nation on the unfinished battle against alcohol-impaired driving. Alcohol-impaired driving is still a major problem that needs continuing attention.
Furr-Holden, Debra; Voas, Robert B; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Miller, Brenda
Drug-impaired driving has received increased attention resulting from development of rapid drug-screening procedures used by police and state laws establishing per se limits for drug levels in drivers. Venues that host electronic music dance events (EMDEs) provide a unique opportunity to assess drug-impaired driving among a high proportion of young adult drug users. EMDEs are late-night dance parties marked by a substantial number of young adult attendees and elevated drug involvement. No studies to date have examined drug-impaired driving in a natural environment with active drug and alcohol users. Six EMDEs were sampled in San Diego, California, and Baltimore, Maryland. A random sample of approximately 40 attendees per event were administered surveys about alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and driving status, given breath tests for alcohol, and asked to provide oral fluid samples to test for illicit drug use upon entering and exiting the events. Driving status reduced the level of alcohol use (including abstaining) but the impact on drug-taking was not significant. However, 62% of individuals who reported their intention to drive away from the events were positive for drugs or alcohol upon leaving. This suggests that these events and settings are appropriate ones for developing interventions for reducing risks for young adults.
Linde, Ann C.; Toomey, Traci L.; Wolfson, Julian; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J.
We explored potential associations between the strength of state Responsible Beverage Service (RBS) laws and self-reported binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the U.S. A multi-level logistic mixed-effects model was used, adjusting for potential confounders. Analyses were conducted on the overall BRFSS sample and drinkers only. Seven…
Russell, A; Voas, R B; Dejong, W; Chaloupka, M
The "Rating the States" (RTS) Program of Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is designed to bring public attention to the status of State government efforts to combat alcohol-impaired driving. MADD's 1993 report, which evaluated each State with a grade from A to D, brought renewed visibility to MADD's fight for new prevention policies and helped to advance key State legislation. Because of MADD's national press conference and other media activities, more than 60 million Americans saw or heard a news story related to the program. This article outlines the program's objectives and methodology, efforts to publicize the results, and what was achieved in terms of news media coverage and in advancing public policy change. The RTS Program is a proven media advocacy strategy for prompting State legislatures and Governors to enact new policies. The article concludes with guidelines for other public health advocacy groups that may want to emulate this strategy.
Bernhoft, Inger Marie
, resulting in a calculation of the relative risk for drug drivers of being seriously injured in an accident. The influence of confounding factors (like gender, age, day of the week and time of the day) will be adjusted for. Risk estimations will also be based on a comparison of individual medication records......Objectives: To describe the various relative risk estimations of driving while impaired within the DRUID project (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines) and results so far. Methods: Risk estimates for drug impaired drivers are based on linkage of drugs in drivers in traffic...... with the person’s accident data. The impact of specific medicinal drug use patterns will be revealed, like the risk associated with the first period after the start of medication Finally, the relative risk for being responsible for a fatal accident or being killed as a driver while impaired will be based...
Full Text Available To assess drug induced driving impairment, initial screening is needed. However, no consensus has been reached about which initial screening tools have to be used. The present study aims to determine the ability of a battery of psychometric tests to detect performance impairing effects of clinically relevant levels of drowsiness as induced by one night of sleep deprivation.Twenty four healthy volunteers participated in a 2-period crossover study in which the highway driving test was conducted twice: once after normal sleep and once after one night of sleep deprivation. The psychometric tests were conducted on 4 occasions: once after normal sleep (at 11 am and three times during a single night of sleep deprivation (at 1 am, 5 am, and 11 am.On-the-road driving performance was significantly impaired after sleep deprivation, as measured by an increase in Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP of 3.1 cm compared to performance after a normal night of sleep. At 5 am, performance in most psychometric tests showed significant impairment. As expected, largest effect sizes were found on performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT. Large effects sizes were also found in the Divided Attention Test (DAT, the Attention Network Test (ANT, and the test for Useful Field of View (UFOV at 5 and 11 am during sleep deprivation. Effects of sleep deprivation on SDLP correlated significantly with performance changes in the PVT and the DAT, but not with performance changes in the UFOV.From the psychometric tests used in this study, the PVT and DAT seem most promising for initial evaluation of drug impairment based on sensitivity and correlations with driving impairment. Further studies are needed to assess the sensitivity and validity of these psychometric tests after benchmark sedative drug use.
Fisher, Carri; Chekaluk, Eugene; Irwin, Julia
High comorbidity and an overlap in symptomology have been demonstrated between dyslexia and visual stress. Several researchers have hypothesized an underlying or causal influence that may account for this relationship. The magnocellular theory of dyslexia proposes that a deficit in visuo-temporal processing can explain symptomology for both disorders. If the magnocellular theory holds true, individuals who experience symptomology for these disorders should show impairment on a visuo-temporal task, such as driving. Eighteen male participants formed the sample for this study. Self-report measures assessed dyslexia and visual stress symptomology as well as participant IQ. Participants completed a drive simulation in which errors in response to road signs were measured. Bivariate correlations revealed significant associations between scores on measures of dyslexia and visual stress. Results also demonstrated that self-reported symptomology predicts magnocellular impairment as measured by performance on a driving task. Results from this study suggest that a magnocellular deficit offers a likely explanation for individuals who report high symptomology across both conditions. While conclusions about the impact of these disorders on driving performance should not be derived from this research alone, this study provides a platform for the development of future research, utilizing a clinical population and on-road driving assessment techniques. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, Maria; Bonnin, Caterina del Mar; Torres, Imma; Varo, Cristina; Grande, Iria; Valls, Elia; Salagre, Estela; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Carvalho, André F
Abstract Over the last decade, there has been a growing appreciation of the importance of identifying and treating cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, since it persists in remission periods. Evidence indicates that neurocognitive dysfunction may significantly influence patients’ psychosocial outcomes. An ever-increasing body of research seeks to achieve a better understanding of potential moderators contributing to cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder in order to develop prevention strategies and effective treatments. This review provides an overview of the available data from studies examining treatments for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder as well as potential novel treatments, from both pharmacological and psychological perspectives. All these data encourage the development of further studies to find effective strategies to prevent and treat cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder. These efforts may ultimately lead to an improvement of psychosocial functioning in these patients. PMID:28498954
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Howat, Peter; And Others
Used experimental driving simulator as basis for strategy to encourage a reduction in drunk driving prevalence using adult male subjects (n=36) who participated in a study group and controls (n=36). Results indicated study group subjects significantly decreased their drunk driving compared to the control group. (ABL)
Barkley, Russell A
Available research provides compelling evidence that ADHD is associated with significantly increased risks for various adverse outcomes while driving, including increased traffic citations (particularly speeding), motor vehicle crashes for which the driver is at fault, repeated crash occurrences,and more severe crashes as determined from dollar damage and likelihood of bodily injuries from the crash. Not surprisingly, teens and adults with ADHD are more likely to have their licenses suspended and even fully revoked. Research further suggests that these driving risks cannot be accounted for by the comorbid disorders likely to be associated with ADHD, such as ODD, conduct disorder (CD), depression, or anxiety, or by lower than normal levels of intelligence. Recent attempts to study the processes or mechanisms involved in driving in adults with ADHD offer some explanation of how the disorder conveys such increased risks. Driving can be conceptualized usefully as involving at least three or more dimensions or levels, including basic cognitive abilities necessary for driving (operational), actual skills for maneuvering the vehicle in traffic (tactical), and the more executive, goal-directed aspects of driving(strategic). The findings of studies indicate that ADHD interferes with the basic operational components of driving by means of the impairments it produces in attention, resistance to distraction, response inhibition, slower and more variable reaction time, and the capacity to follow rules that may compete with ongoing sensory information. Accumulating evidence also points to a problem in the tactical level of driving, such that those with ADHDrate themselves and are rated by others as employing less safe driving habits during their normal operation of a vehicle than are adults in community control groups. Although this has been more elusive to demonstrate through the use of simple laboratory-based driving simulators. more modern virtual reality driving platforms
Ungerleider, Steven; And Others
While drunk driving has become widely recognized as a serious social problem with deadly consequences, no systematic research has been undertaken to identify the principal components of service delivery programs offered by citizen action groups in the drinking and driving movement. Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD), founded in 1980, now has a…
Alzoubi, Karem H; Khabour, Omar F; Albawaana, Amal S; Alhashimi, Farah H; Athamneh, Rabaa Y
Sleep deprivation is associated with oxidative stress that causes learning and memory impairment. Tempol is a nitroxide compound that promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has antioxidant and neuroprotective effect. The current study investigated whether chronic administration of tempol can overcome oxidative stress and prevent learning and memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was induced in rats using multiple platform model. Tempol was administered to rats via oral gavages. Behavioral studies were conducted to test the spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze. The hippocampus was dissected; antioxidant biomarkers (GSH, GSSG, GSH/GSSG ratio, GPx, SOD, and catalase) were assessed. The result of this project revealed that chronic sleep deprivation impaired both short and long term memory (Ptempol treatment prevented such effect. Furthermore, tempol normalized chronic sleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD (PTempol also enhanced the ratio of GSH/GSSG in chronically sleep deprived rats treated with tempol as compared with only sleep deprived rats (Ptempol prevented this impairment probably through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shore, Elsie R.; Compton, Kristi L.
College students (N=100) who had tried to stop someone from driving while drunk, or who someone had tried to stop, provided information about their interactions. Results suggest that the manner in which people intervene can affect the likelihood that the impaired person will not drive. Threat of competence is discussed, as are implications for…
Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Al Yacoub, Omar N
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health disorder that can develop after a terrifying or life threatening event. Multiple symptoms are noticed in patients with PTSD including cognitive impairment, which was shown to be is associated with oxidative stress. Tempol is a highly efficient membrane-permeable antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effect of tempol on PTSD-induced memory impairment. To test this hypothesis, we used single prolonged stress (SPS) model (2h restrain, 20min forced swimming, 15min rest, and 1-2min diethyl ether exposure) as a model of PTSD. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control (provided distilled water), tempol (provided tempol; 80mg/kg/day by oral gavage for 4weeks), SPS (exposed to prolonged stress and administered distilled water) and tempol/SPS (exposed to prolonged stress and administered tempol for 4weeks). We used radial arm water maze to test spatial learning and memory functions and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to measure levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus. Results showed that SPS model of PTSD impaired both short and long-term memories (Ptempol administration prevented such effect. Tempol also prevented decreases in hippocampal catalase, and SOD activities, GSH/GSSG ratio and increases TBARS levels, which were all impaired by SPS model of PTSD (Ptempol administration against SPS model of PTSD-induced short- and long- term memory impairment, and we believe that this protective effect of tempol is accomplished, at least partly, through prevention of alternation in oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schwienbacher, Stefan; Aghayev, Emin; Hofmann, Ulf Krister; Jordan, Maurice; Marmotti, Antongiulio; Röder, Christoph; Ipach, Ingmar
To assess whether reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT), as the two components of the total brake response time (TBRT) and brake force (BF) are different in patients with a foot joint arthrodesis in comparison to controls. The study was a comparative case series in a driving simulator under realistic driving conditions. Mobile patients without a walker, ≥6 months after surgery who were driving a car and had no neurological co-morbidity, knee or hip joint prosthesis were included in the study. The selection criteria resulted in 12 patients with right tibiotalar joint arthrodesis (TTJA) and 12 patients with another right foot joint arthrodesis (OFJA), who were compared to 17 individuals without any ankle-joint pathology. For TBRT, an empirical safe driving threshold of 700 ms was used. The outcome measures were RT, MT, TBRT, BF and McGuire score. MT (p = 0.034) and TBRT (p = 0.026) were longer in TTJA patients in comparison with the controls. Also, more patients with TTJA than patients with OFJA and controls exceeded the safe driving threshold (p = 0.028). The outcomes in OFJA patients and in controls were comparable. The McGuire score was similar between the TTJA and OFJA patients (p = 0.26). Significantly slower MT and TBRT, and significantly more patients exceeding the safe driving threshold, were observed after a tibiotalar-joint arthrodesis in comparison to the controls. Patients with OFJAs were not significantly different from the controls. Driving and emergency braking may be impaired after tibiotalar-joint arthrodesis.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: To explore the effects of sulforaphane (SFN on neuronal apoptosis in hippocampus and memory impairment in diabetic rats. Methods: Thirty male rats were randomly divided into normal control, diabetic model and SFN treatment groups (N = 10 in each group. Streptozotocin (STZ was applied to establish diabetic model. Water Morris maze task was applied to test learning and memory. Tunel assaying was used to detect apoptosis in hippocampus. The expressions of Caspase-3 and myeloid cell leukemia 1(MCL-1 were detected by western blotting. Neurotrophic factor levels and AKT/GSK3β pathway were also detected. Results: Compared with normal control, learning and memory were apparently impaired, with up-regulation of Caspase-3 and down-regulation of MCL-1 in diabetic rats. Apoptotic neurons were also found in CA1 region after diabetic modeling. By contrast, SFN treatment prevented the memory impairment, decreased the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons. SFN also attenuated the abnormal expression of Caspase-3 and MCL-1 in diabetic model. Mechanically, SFN treatment reversed diabetic modeling-induced decrease of p-Akt, p-GSK3β, NGF and BDNF expressions. Conclusion: SFN could prevent the memory impairment and apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in diabetic rat. The possible mechanism was related to the regulation of neurotropic factors and Akt/GSK3β pathway.
Gieteling, Esther W.; Bakker, Marije S.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Maurits, Natasha M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.
Background: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is considered to be responsible for increased collision rate and impaired driving simulator performance in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) patients. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) patients also frequently report EDS and may also have
Young adult drivers 21 to 34 years old are a particularly highrisk : group for impaired-driving-related crashes. Numerous : studies have found that approximately half of intoxicated drivers : had their last drink at a licensed bar or restaurant, and ...
Hassani, Sahar; Kelly, Erin H; Smith, Jennifer; Thorpe, Sara; Sozzer, Fatima H; Atchley, Paul; Sullivan, Elroy; Larson, Dean; Vogel, Lawrence C
Based on the National Highway Traffic Safety Association's (NHTSA) Report, fatalities due to distracted driving are on the rise and the highest proportion of fatalities by age group is the 20-29 year old category. To date little has been done to educate college students about the dangers of distracted driving and engage these students in promoting a safe driving culture. Intervening among college students has the potential for making real-time behavior change, can foster a lifetime of safe driving habits among these students, and can help contribute to a culture of safe driving that can be created and sustained through positive messages from peers. The goals of this study were to develop, implement and evaluate a distracted driving presentation for college students to change knowledge, attitude and behavior on distracted driving. A 30-min, multi-media presentation on distracted driving was presented to 19 colleges and universities, totaling 444 college students (mean age 23.7±7.0 years of age, 61% females, 39% males). Students completed three surveys: prior to the workshop (interview 1), immediately after the workshop (interview 2), and 3 months following the workshop (interview 3). We assessed changes between interview 1 and interview 2 and found 15 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions significantly improved after the course. In addition, we assessed changes from interviews 1 and 3, and found 11 of the 15 attitude-knowledge based questions maintained their significance. Responses to behavior related questions at three months were also compared to baseline, and significant improvements were found for 12 of the 14 questions. While this study was successful in improving the short-term attitude-knowledge and behaviors on distracted driving, work is needed to sustain (and evaluate) long-term effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Vinod; Simpson, Richard C; LoPresti, Edmund F; Schmeler, Mark
Nonambulatory, visually impaired individuals mostly rely on caregivers for their day-to-day mobility needs. The Drive-Safe System (DSS) is a modular, semiautonomous smart wheelchair system aimed at providing independent mobility to people with visual and mobility impairments. In this project, clinical evaluation of the DSS was performed in a controlled laboratory setting with individuals who have visual impairment but no mobility impairment. Their performance using DSS was compared with their performance using a standard cane for navigation assistance. Participants rated their subjective appraisal of the DSS by using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index inventory. DSS significantly reduced the number and severity of collisions compared with using a cane alone and without increasing the time required to complete the task. Users rated DSS favorably; they experienced less physical demand when using the DSS, but did not feel any difference in perceived effort, mental demand, and level of frustration when using the DSS alone or along with a cane in comparison with using a cane alone. These findings suggest that the DSS can be a safe, reliable, and easy-to-learn and operate independent mobility solution for visually impaired wheelchair users.
Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph
The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug-impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug-impaired drivers (RWI). The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009-2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p parenting practices and selected covariates. Father's monitoring knowledge predicted lower DWI prevalence at Wave 2 when controlling for covariates and teenage substance use (OR = 0.66, p parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors.
Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Ehsani, Johnathon; Hingson, Ralph
Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which 10th-grade substance use and parenting practices predicted 11th-grade teenage driving while alcohol-/other drug–impaired (DWI) and riding with alcohol-/other drug–impaired drivers (RWI). Method: The data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the NEXT Generation study, with longitudinal assessment of a nationally representative sample of 10th graders starting in 2009–2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the prospective associations between proposed predictors (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, parental monitoring knowledge and control) in Wave 1 and DWI/RWI. Results: Heavy episodic drinking at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 DWI (odds ratio [OR] = 3.73, p teen substance use. Conclusions: Heavy episodic drinking predicted DWI and RWI. In addition, parental monitoring knowledge, particularly by fathers, was protective against DWI, independent of the effect of substance use. This suggests that the enhancement of parenting practices could potentially discourage adolescent DWI. The findings suggest that the parenting practices of fathers and mothers may have differential effects on adolescent impaired-driving behaviors. PMID:24411792
Lapham, Sandra C; Stout, Robert; Laxton, Georgia; Skipper, Betty J
We compared the prevalence of alcohol use and other psychiatric disorders in offenders 15 years after a first conviction for driving while impaired with a general population sample. To determine whether high rates of addictive and other psychiatric disorders previously demonstrated in this sample remain disproportionately higher compared with a matched general population sample. Point-in-time cohort study. Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation, Albuquerque, New Mexico. We interviewed convicted first offenders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. We calculated rates of diagnoses for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic women (n = 362) and men (n = 220) adjusting for missing data using multiple imputation and compared psychiatric diagnoses with findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication by sex and Hispanic ethnicity. Eleven percent of non-Hispanic white women and 12.8% of Hispanic women in the driving while impaired sample reported 12-month alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with 1.0% and 1.8%, respectively, in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (comparison) sample. Almost 12% of non-Hispanic white men and 17.5% of Hispanic men in the driving while impaired sample reported 12-month alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with to 2.0% and 1.8%, respectively, in the comparison sample. These differences were statistically significant. Rates of drug use disorders and nicotine dependence were also elevated compared with the general population sample, while rates of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder were similar. In this sample, high rates of addictive disorders persisted over 10 years among first offenders and greatly exceeded those found in a general population sample.
Wilson, Hollie; Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander
Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile app aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter "calculators") were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps.
Full Text Available Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. β-Conglycinin (β-CG, one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of β-CG, we investigated the effect of β-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months were randomly divided into β-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in β-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of β-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in β-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV, which protects vasculature. β-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in β-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. β-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that β-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress.
Liu, Yung-Ching; Ho, Chin Heng
A study using simulator methodology was conducted to investigate the effects of (1) different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of 0, 0.05, 0.08, and 0.10 percent and (2) post-alcohol impairment (where BAC approximately 0%) on driving behavior and subsidiary cognitive task performance. Two driving sessions were investigated, that is, drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, with each requiring approximately 20 min of driving. In addition to driving safely, participants were instructed to perform the critical flicker fusion (CFF) test and completed the NASA-TLX mental workload questionnaire. Eight licensed drivers (6 males, 2 females) participated in this 2 (road complexities) x 2 (simulated driving sessions) x 4 (levels of BAC) within-subjects experiment. The study revealed that higher BAC levels were associated with lower performing driving behavior. The driver's mental workload reached the highest values in the post-alcohol session. In terms of tasks involving divided attention, the traffic sign distance estimation showed significant deterioration with increased BAC levels. The relationship between drunk-driving behavior and alcohol dosage was supported in this study. Noticeably, no significant difference was found between drunk driving and post-alcohol driving, indicating that even in the post-alcohol situation, the impairment still remained significant enough to jeopardize traffic safety as much as it does in the case of drunk driving. In real-life situations, adopting a rest-time strategy to avoid post-alcohol impairment effects may not be the most appropriate solution by drivers; rather, drivers should be given some tests to verify the probability of post-alcohol effects on driving.
... resulting in nearly 11,000 deaths in 2009. Driving drunk is never OK. Choose not to drink and ... interlocks prevent drivers who were convicted of alcohol-impaired driving from operating their vehicles if they have been ...
Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.
Self-driving cars have the potential to bring significant benefits to drivers and society at large. However, all envisaged scenarios are predicted to increase the risk of motion sickness. This will negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and hence negate the benefits of this technology. Here we
Manning, Kevin J; Davis, Jennifer D; Papandonatos, George D; Ott, Brian R
Clock drawing is recommended by medical and transportation authorities as a screening test for unsafe drivers. The objective of the present study was to assess the usefulness of different clock drawing systems as screening measures of driving performance in 122 healthy and cognitively impaired older drivers. Clock drawing was measured using four different scoring systems. Driving outcomes included global ratings of safety and the error rate on a standardized on-road test. Findings revealed that clock drawing was significantly correlated with the driving score on the road test for each of the scoring systems. However, receiver operator curve analyses showed limited clinical utility for clock drawing as a screening instrument for impaired on-road driving performance with the area under the curve ranging from 0.53 to 0.61. Results from this study indicate that clock drawing has limited utility as a solitary screening measure of on-road driving, even when considering a variety of scoring approaches.
Couper, Fiona J; Peterson, Brianna L
In December 2012, the possession and private use of limited quantities of marijuana and marijuana products became legal in the state of Washington. At the same time, the state's driving under the influence statutes were amended to include a per se level of 5 ng/mL delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in whole blood for drivers aged 21 years and older. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of marijuana legalization on the prevalence of marijuana in suspected impaired driving cases. The prevalence of both active THC and its metabolite carboxy-THC detected in such cases pre-legalization was compared with the prevalence post-legalization. In 2009-2012, the average yearly percentage of cases positive for THC and carboxy-THC was 19.1% (range: 18.2-20.2%) and 27.9% (range: 26.3-28.6%), respectively. In 2013, the percentages had significantly increased to 24.9 and 40.0%, respectively (P 5 ng/mL over the 5-year period. The prevalence of alcohol and the majority of other drugs in this same population of suspected impaired drivers submitted for testing did not change during this same 5-year period-marijuana was the only drug to show such an increase in frequency. Further, this observed increase remained after the data had been normalized to account for changes in laboratory testing procedures that occurred during this time period. Future studies need be conducted to ascertain whether the observed increase has had any effect on the incidence of crashes, serious injuries and/or traffic fatalities. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B
Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arroyo, Amparo; Sánchez, Marta; Barberia, Eneko; Barbal, Maria; Marrón, M Teresa; Mora, Agustí
In recent years, the interest in oral fluid as a biological matrix has significantly increased, particularly for detecting driving under the influence of drugs. In this study, the concentration of cocaine and its relationship with clinical symptoms in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs was evaluated. A total of 154 samples of oral fluid, which tested positive for cocaine in previous immunoassay screening, Cozart Drug Detector System, were confirmed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method. In Catalonia, during 2007-2010, there were 1791 samples positive for cocaine among a total of 3468 samples taken from drivers who tested positive for any drug of abuse. The evaluation of clinical symptoms was through a questionnaire that was filled in by the police officers who collected the samples. The mean concentration of cocaine was 4.11 mg/l and median concentration was 0.38 mg/l (range 0.01-345.64 mg/l). Clinical impairment symptoms such as motor coordination, walking, speech, mood and state of pupils were not significant. The testing of oral fluids presents fewer ethical problems than blood or urine.
Full Text Available Driving while impaired (DWI is a grave and persistent high-risk behavior. Previous work demonstrated that DWI recidivists had attenuated cortisol reactivity compared to non-DWI drivers. This suggests that cortisol is a neurobiological marker of high-risk driving. The present study tested the hypothesis that this initial finding would extend to first-time DWI (fDWI offenders compared to non-DWI drivers. Male fDWI offenders ( n = 139 and non-DWI drivers ( n = 31 were exposed to a stress task, and their salivary cortisol activity (total output and reactivity was measured. Participants also completed questionnaires on sensation seeking, impulsivity, substance use, and engagement in risky and criminal behaviors. As hypothesized, fDWI offenders, compared to non-DWI drivers, had lower cortisol reactivity; fDWI offenders also showed lower total output. In addition, cortisol activity was the most important predictor of group membership, after accounting for alcohol misuse patterns and consequences and other personality and problem behavior characteristics. The findings indicate that attenuated cortisol activity is an independent factor associated with DWI offending risk at an earlier stage in the DWI trajectory than previously detected.
Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Skurtveit, Svetlana; Mørland, Jørg
Driving under the influence of drugs is a growing problem as the number of apprehended drivers in Norway has increased 2.5 times since 1990. At least two drugs are usually detected. The majority of offenders have been arrested earlier. This paper gives an overview of studies of impaired drivers. The re-arrest rate among 1102 drivers under the influence of drugs was followed for 7.5 years and compared with a group of 850 drivers under the influence of alcohol. Another study included 874 drivers with benzodiazepine detections followed retrospectively for 11 years. Earlier arrests and drugs detected first time were recorded. The third study recorded deaths among drugged (n = 918) and drunken (n = 2531) drivers for 7.5 years, compared with same age group in the general population. 57% of drugged and 28% of drunken drivers were re-arrested. More the 60% of drivers with benzodiazepine detections had been arrested earlier. Alcohol was most the commonly detected substance at first arrest. The standardised mortality ratio for male drugged drivers was 18.1 (14.9-21.8), for drunken drivers 3.7 (2.9-4.7). Our results show that drugged drivers represent risk groups with multi-drug use, frequent re-arrests and early death. Other efforts combined with fines, prison and withdrawal of driving licence should be considered. Some countries have follow-up programmes that include control of drug use by urine testing before a re-issue of the driving licence is considered.
Leendertse, A.J.; Dijk, E.A. van; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Egberts, T.C.; Bemt, P.M. van den
BACKGROUND: Medication errors and renal impairment contribute to severe adverse drug events, which may lead to hospital admission. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether medication errors and renal impairment contribute to hospital admission and examine these errors for strategies to prevent admissions.
Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald; Antin, Jonathan F; Wood, Joanne M; Elgin, Jennifer
Older drivers aged ≥70 years old have among the highest rates of motor vehicle collisions (MVC) compared to other age groups. Driving is a highly visual task, and older adults have a high prevalence of vision impairment compared to other ages. Most studies addressing visual risk factors for MVCs by older drivers utilize vehicle accident reports as the primary outcome, an approach with several methodological limitations. Naturalistic driving research methods overcome these challenges and involve installing a high-tech, unobtrusive data acquisition system (DAS) in an older driver's own vehicle. The DAS continuously records multi-channel video of driver and roadway, sensor-based kinematics, GPS location, and presence of nearby objects in front of the vehicle, providing an objective measure of driving exposure. In this naturalistic driving study, the purpose is to examine the relationship between vision and crashes and near-crashes, lane-keeping, turning at intersections, driving performance during secondary tasks demands, and the role of front-seat passengers. An additional aim is to compare results of the on-road driving evaluation by a certified driving rehabilitation specialist to objective indicators of driving performance derived from the naturalistic data. Drivers ≥70 years old are recruited from ophthalmology clinics and a previous population-based study of older drivers, with the goal of recruiting persons with wide ranging visual function. Target samples size is 195 drivers. At a baseline visit, the DAS is installed in the participant's vehicle and a battery of health and functional assessments are administered to the driver including visual-sensory and visual-cognitive tests. The DAS remains installed in the vehicle for six months while the participant goes about his/her normal driving with no imposed study restrictions. After six months, the driver returns for DAS de-installation, repeat vision testing, and an on-road driving evaluation by a certified
DeMuro, Scott; Wanberg, Kenneth; Anderson, Rachel
The therapeutic educator who provides services to driving while impaired (DWI) offenders is a unique professional hybrid, combining education and therapeutic service delivery. In an effort to understand and address this service provider, a 69-item DWI Therapeutic Educator Inventory (DTEI) was constructed. Using principal components and common…
Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Ceretta, Renan A; Dominguini, Diogo; Ferrari, Pâmela; Gubert, Carolina; Jornada, Luciano K; Budni, Josiane; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the relevant cause of bacterial meningitis, with a high-mortality rate and long-term neurological sequelae, affecting up to 50% of survivors. Pneumococcal compounds are pro-inflammatory mediators that induce an innate immune response and tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway. Vitamin B6 acts as a cofactor at the active sites of enzymes that catalyze a great number of reactions involved in the metabolism of tryptophan, preventing the accumulation of neurotoxic intermediates. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of vitamin B6 on memory and on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the brain of adult Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. The animals received either 10 µL of artificial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. The animals were divided into four groups: control, control treated with vitamin B6, meningitis, and meningitis treated with vitamin B6. Ten days after induction, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests: open-field task and step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In the open-field task, there was a significant reduction in both crossing and rearing in the control group, control/B6 group, and meningitis/B6 group compared with the training session, demonstrating habituation memory. However, the meningitis group showed no difference in motor and exploratory activity between training and test sessions, demonstrating memory impairment. In the step-down inhibitory avoidance task, there was a difference between training and test sessions in the control group, control/B6 group, and meningitis/B6 group, demonstrating aversive memory. In the meningitis group, there was no difference between training and test sessions, demonstrating impairment of aversive memory. In the hippocampus, BDNF expression decreased in the meningitis group when compared to the control group; however, adjuvant treatment with vitamin B6 increased BDNF
Racinais, S; Gaoua, N; Grantham, J
The aims of this study were to determine (i) the effect of passive hyperthermia on motor drive and cognitive function, and (ii) whether head cooling can limit the hyperthermia-induced alterations. Sixteen subjects were randomly exposed for 2 h to three different conditions: control (Con, 20 degrees C), hot (Hot, 50 degrees C) and hot head cool (HHC--where cold packs were applied to the head under Hot conditions). Three cognitive tests measuring attention and two measuring memory were performed. Neuromuscular testing included electrically evoked muscle action potentials (M-waves) and reflex waves (H-reflex) at rest and during brief (4-5 s) and sustained (120 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the plantar flexors. All the tests were performed in the environmental room. During brief MVC, torque was significantly lower in both Hot and HHC as compared to Con (P Hot (P Hot as compared with Con (P < 0.05) but not in simple tests (attention tests) that were not affected by hyperthermia. The decrement in memory capacity suggested the existence of frontal lobe activity impairments. Thus, HHC preserved memory capacity but not the visual memory.
Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar
The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This program planner's kit is based on the experiences of the first 12 years of the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month program and provides practical advice to help readers plan activities for this year's campaign. Included in the kit is a background and resource guide that explains the background and goals of the program and…
Oshri, Assaf; Carlson, Matthew W; Bord, Shiran; Zeichner, Amos
The rate of alcohol-impaired driving (AID) increases during the college years and students who have reported adverse rearing environments appear to be at increased risk for the development of alcohol and drug use behaviors. Alcohol and cannabis are the most commonly used drugs by college students, and these substances are particularly predictive of substance-impaired driving. The present study aimed to investigate whether adverse rearing environment experiences and level of alcohol and cannabis use are related to the frequency of alcohol-impaired driving and whether anxiety might buffer or accelerate this effect. Data regarding adversity, drug use, anxiety, and AID were obtained from 1,265 students annually, from first to final year of college, over four waves (Mean Age at wave 1 = 18.5 years). Structural equation modeling supported associations among childhood adversity, alcohol, cannabis, and anxiety symptoms. A significant mediation effect was found such that adversity was predictive of AID via alcohol use and cannabis use. Among men, anxiety symptoms accelerated the path from increased cannabis use and decelerated the path from increased alcohol use to AID frequency. Conclusions/Importance: Childhood adversity is a developmental risk precursor to drug use and AID, whereas anxiety might serve a risk or protective factor to AID, contingent on the drug used.
Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E; Rapp, Stephen R; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A; Snively, Beverly M; Shumaker, Sally A; Sink, Kaycee M
To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). Academic medical center. Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Anund, Anna; Antonson, Hans; Ihlström, Jonas
There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars. New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process
Full Text Available To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom.The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London or August 2009 (West Yorkshire were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks ("Black/African/Caribbean/Black British" and South Asians ("Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent". We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately <6/9 (b visual impairment (<6/12 and (c severe visual impairment (<6/60, standardising the prevalence of visual impairment in the minority ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population.Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331 individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI 3.2% to 3.5% and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%. Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%. Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire.Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in the minority ethnic groups in the UK.
Sivaprasad, Sobha; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gulliford, Martin C.; Dodhia, Hiten; Mann, Samantha; Nagi, Dinesh; Evans, Jennifer
Purpose To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom). Methods The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK) Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London) or August 2009 (West Yorkshire) were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks (“Black/African/Caribbean/Black British”) and South Asians (“Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent”). We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a) loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately <6/9) (b) visual impairment (<6/12) and (c) severe visual impairment (<6/60), standardising the prevalence of visual impairment in the minority ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population. Results Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 3.5%) and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%). Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively) compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%). Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire. Conclusions Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in
Verdelho, Ana; Madureira, Sofia; Ferro, José M
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We aimed to study if physical activity could interfere with progression for cognitive impairment and dementia in older people with white matter changes living independently. METHODS: The LADIS (Leukoaraiosis and Disability) prospective multinational European study evaluates....... Physical activity was recorded during the clinical interview. MRI was performed at entry and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Six hundred thirty-nine subjects were included (74.1±5 years old, 55% women, 9.6±3.8 years of schooling, 64% physically active). At the end of follow-up, 90 patients had dementia...... (vascular dementia, 54; Alzheimer disease with vascular component, 34; frontotemporal dementia, 2), and 147 had cognitive impairment not dementia. Using Cox regression analysis, physical activity reduced the risk of cognitive impairment (dementia and not dementia: β=-0.45, P=0.002; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95...
Banks, Siobhan; Catcheside, Peter; Lack, Leon; Grunstein, Ron R; McEvoy, R Doug
Partial sleep deprivation and alcohol consumption are a common combination, particularly among young drivers. We hypothesized that while low blood alcohol concentration (sleep deprivation and low blood alcohol concentration would cause significant performance impairment. Experimental Sleep Disorders Unit Laboratory 20 healthy volunteers (mean age 22.8 years; 9 men). Subjects underwent driving simulator testing at 1 am on 2 nights a week apart. On the night preceding simulator testing, subjects were partially sleep deprived (5 hours in bed). Alcohol consumption (2-3 standard alcohol drinks over 2 hours) was randomized to 1 of the 2 test nights, and blood alcohol concentrations were estimated using a calibrated Breathalyzer. During the driving task subjects were monitored continuously with electroencephalography for sleep episodes and were prompted every 4.5 minutes for answers to 2 perception scales-performance and crash risk. Mean blood alcohol concentration on the alcohol night was 0.035 +/- 0.015 g/dL. Compared with conditions during partial sleep deprivation alone, subjects had more microsleeps, impaired driving simulator performance, and poorer ability to predict crash risk in the combined partial sleep deprivation and alcohol condition. Women predicted crash risk more accurately than did men in the partial sleep deprivation condition, but neither men nor women predicted the risk accurately in the sleep deprivation plus alcohol condition. Alcohol at legal blood alcohol concentrations appears to increase sleepiness and impair performance and the detection of crash risk following partial sleep deprivation. When partially sleep deprived, women appear to be either more perceptive of increased crash risk or more willing to admit to their driving limitations than are men. Alcohol eliminated this behavioral difference.
A.J. Leendertse (Anne); E.A. van Dijk (Elisabeth); P.A. de Smet (Peter); T.C.G. Egberts (Toine); P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)
textabstractBackground: Medication errors and renal impairment contribute to severe adverse drug events, which may lead to hospital admission. Objective: To determine whether medication errors and renal impairment contribute to hospital admission and examine these errors for strategies to prevent
Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.
Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R
In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.
A review of the scientific literature concerning the effects of antihistamines on driving-related skills was conducted. After reviewing all pertinent publications from 1998 and earlier, a total of 130 publications were found to meet criteria for incl...
Rowland, Bosco; Toumbourou, John W; Allen, Felicity
The Good Sports program uses a systematic accreditation process to implement gradual alcohol-related harm-reduction strategies in Australian community sports clubs that aim to reduce the incidence of harmful alcohol-related behaviors, such as drink driving. This study tested whether the Good Sports program reduced the incidence of drink driving and whether reductions are related to the level of program implementation. An adoption versus nonadoption pilot study was undertaken with 65 cricket and 48 Australian Football League clubs (N = 1,968 individuals). Associations between the stage of accreditation (Stage 1 and Stage 2) and the likelihood of driving with an illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were examined. Alcohol-use diary accounts were used to calculate BAC before driving home from the club. The percentage of club members driving at least once in the previous week with a BAC estimate greater than .05% (the legal limit in Australia) was lower in clubs that had achieved Stage 2 Good Sports accreditation (7%, 95% CI [5%, 9%]) than those that had not (8%, 95% CI [6%, 9%]), but this was not significantly different. However, multilevel modeling identified a larger number of the safe-transport strategies, implemented as part of Stage 2 accreditation, which were associated with a significantly lower probability of drink driving. Being a risky drinker at the club, and the average number of risky drinkers at the club, was also predictive of drink driving. The findings of this pilot study suggest that implementation of the Good Sports program is likely to have a significant effect on harms associated with drink driving in Australia and elsewhere. Further community studies will be required, however, to examine precisely how the program is achieving improvements and whether it can be refined to have a greater impact in both Australia and overseas.
Can progress in reducing alcohol-impaired driving fatalities be resumed? Results of a workshop sponsored by the Transportation Research Board, Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50).
Fell, James C; Beirness, Douglas J; Voas, Robert B; Smith, Gordon S; Jonah, Brian; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Price, Jana; Hedlund, James
Despite successes in the 1980s and early 1990s, progress in reducing impaired driving fatalities in the United States has stagnated in recent years. Since 1997, the percentage of drivers involved in fatal crashes with illegal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels has remained at approximately 20 to 22%. Many experts believe that public complacency, competing social and public health issues, and the lack of political fortitude have all contributed to this stagnation. The number of alcohol-related crashes, injuries, and fatalities is still unacceptable, and most are preventable. The public needs to be aware that the problem presented by drinking drivers has not been solved. Political leaders need guidance on which measures will affect the problem, and stakeholders need to be motivated once again to implement effective strategies. The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Transportation Research Board (TRB), Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Transportation Committee (ANB50) sponsored a workshop held at the NAS facility in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on August 24-25, 2015, to discuss the lack of progress in reducing impaired driving and to make recommendations for future progress. A total of 26 experts in research and policy related to alcohol-impaired driving participated in the workshop. The workshop began by examining the static situation in the rate of alcohol-impaired driving fatal crashes to determine what factors may be inhibiting further progress. The workshop then discussed 8 effective strategies that have not been fully implemented in the United States. Workshop participants (16 of the 26) rated their top 3 strategies. 3 strategies received the most support: 1. Impose administrative sanctions for drivers with BACs = 0.05 to 0.08 g/dL. 2. Require alcohol ignition interlocks for all alcohol-impaired driving offenders. 3. Increase the frequency of sobriety checkpoints, including enacting legislation to allow them in the 11 states that currently prohibit them. 5 other
Malveiro, Jorge; de Jesus, Saul Neves; Viseo, Joao; Pechorro, Pedro; Pacheco, Eusébio; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta
Alcohol consumption among university students has reached worrying levels, its effects on driving being highly dangerous. This aspect emphasizes the need to develop prevention programs, intended to raise subjects' awareness about the effects of alcohol on driving. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention program «Tú decides», implemented at the Algarve University during several students festivals, between 2010-2014. Quasi-experimental study, pre-post test without control group. A total of 5,079 participants were inquired. They were asked, at two different moments, before and after the measurement of the blood alcohol level and giving an information session with technical recommendations to prevent driving under alcohol effects. One factor ANOVA test used, in order to perform a mean comparison, as well as the Chi-square statistics, to perform a proportion comparison (p<.05). It was found that the intention to drive was lower at the second moment (42.1%) (χ(2)=2078.71; p=.000). This intention was influenced by blood alcohol level different levels (χ(2)=338.252; p=.000), gender (χ(2)=35.718; p=.000), age (χ(2)=62.805; p=.000) and professional situation of the participants (χ(2)=27.397; p=.001). We can affirm that the main objective of this intervention was achieved, since the participants followed the technical recommendations based on the blood alcohol level results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Smith, Ryan C; Robinson, Zechariah; Bazdar, Alexandra; Geller, E Scott
The efficacy of novel field sobriety tests to predict breath alcohol content (BAC) and perceptions of driving risk was evaluated. Participants (N = 210) were passersby at two downtown locations near local bars and one on-campus location near a late-night dining facility between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 2:00 a.m. Participants gave ratings of their perceived risk to drive at their current level of intoxication, then completed three sobriety tests (a hand-pat, tracing test, and Romberg test), and finally provided new ratings of their perceived risk to drive. After completing the final set of questions, participants were administered a Lifeloc FC20 breath alcohol test (±.005 g/dL). Each of the sobriety tests performed better than chance at predicting participant intoxication, but the performance feedback did not enhance awareness of one's risk to drive at a given BAC. Actually, after the sobriety tests, Greek-life females perceived themselves to be less at-risk to drive.
V. V. Neroev
Full Text Available The system of blindness prevention and visual impairment in children with retinopathy of prematurity is a multidisciplinary medical problem, and includes the prevention of the preterm birth, the correction of terms of caring for premature babies, early detection, monitoring, and treatment of retinopathy of prematurity, as well as the organization of the long clinical supervision. Patients with retinopathy of prematurity need a comprehensive approach to the prevention of the visual impairment in order to ensure high functional outcomes and improve their quality of life.
van Damme, Wim; Bredewoud, Ruud; Heutink, Joost; Melis-Dankers, Bart
Background: European legislation prohibits driving a passenger car when visual acuity is below 0.50 or visual field is less than 120 degrees horizontal. However insufficient acuity might be compensated using a bioptic telescope, and people with hemianopia might learn to use compensatory saccadic eye
Aleisa, A M; Helal, G; Alhaider, I A; Alzoubi, K H; Srivareerat, M; Tran, T T; Al-Rejaie, S S; Alkadhi, K A
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (SD) is implicated in impairment of spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). An increase in nicotine consumption among habitual smokers and initiation of tobacco use by nonsmokers was observed during SD. Although nicotine treatment was reported to attenuate the impairment of learning and memory and LTP associated with several mental disorders, the effect of nicotine on SD-induced learning and memory impairment has not been studied. Modified multiple platform paradigm was used to induce SD for 24 or 48 h during which rats were injected with saline or nicotine (1 mg kg(-1) s.c.) twice a day. In the radial arm water maze (RAWM) task, 24- or 48-h SD significantly impaired learning and short-term memory. In addition, extracellular recordings from CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus in urethane anesthetized rats showed a significant impairment of LTP after 24- and 48-h SD. Treatment of normal rats with nicotine for 24 or 48 h did not enhance spatial learning and memory or affect magnitude of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. However, concurrent, acute treatment of rats with nicotine significantly attenuated SD-induced impairment of learning and STM and prevented SD-induced impairment of LTP in the CA1 and DG regions. These results show that acute nicotine treatment prevented the deleterious effect of sleep loss on cognitive abilities and synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Barichello, Tatiana; Simões, Lutiana R; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Sangiogo, Gustavo; Danielski, Lucineia Gainski; Florentino, Drielly; Dominguini, Diogo; Comim, Clarissa M; Petronilho, Fabricia; Quevedo, João
Pneumococcal meningitis is characterized by a severe inflammatory reaction in the subarachnoid and ventricular space of the brain, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, hearing loss, and neurologic sequelae in as many as 27% of surviving patients. Several experimental studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor are expressed in the central nervous system and have neuroprotective properties through the inhibition of apoptosis, as well as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, angiogenic, and neurotrophic effects. In the current study, we demonstrated the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and behavioral parameters in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. EPO decreased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, and it prevented protein degradation in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. MPO activity was decreased, and both SOD and CAT activity were increased in the first 6 hours after pneumococcal meningitis induction. Novel object recognition memory was impaired in the meningitis group; however, adjuvant treatment with EPO prevented memory impairment during both the short- and long-term retention tests. The meningitis group showed no difference in motor and exploratory activity between training and test sessions in the open-field task, which indicates that habituation memory was impaired; however, adjuvant treatment with EPO prevented habituation memory impairment. Although there are some limitations with respect to the animal model of pneumococcal meningitis, this study suggests that adjuvant treatment with EPO contributed to decreased oxidative stress and prevented cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Franz, Anna; Wood, Will; Martin, Paul
Adipocytes have many functions in various tissues beyond energy storage, including regulating metabolism, growth, and immunity. However, little is known about their role in wound healing. Here we use live imaging of fat body cells, the equivalent of vertebrate adipocytes in Drosophila, to investigate their potential behaviors and functions following skin wounding. We find that pupal fat body cells are not immotile, as previously presumed, but actively migrate to wounds using an unusual adhesion-independent, actomyosin-driven, peristaltic mode of motility. Once at the wound, fat body cells collaborate with hemocytes, Drosophila macrophages, to clear the wound of cell debris; they also tightly seal the epithelial wound gap and locally release antimicrobial peptides to fight wound infection. Thus, fat body cells are motile cells, enabling them to migrate to wounds to undertake several local functions needed to drive wound repair and prevent infections. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marczinski, Cecile A; Stamates, Amy L; Maloney, Sarah F
Consumers of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) are more likely to drive while impaired when compared to alcohol alone consumers. In addition, acute tolerance to the internal cues of feelings of intoxication is known to contribute to maladaptive decisions to drive while impaired. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there is differential development of acute tolerance for AmED versus alcohol alone for ratings of willingness to drive after alcohol consumption. Social drinkers (n = 12) attended 4 separate sessions where they received alcohol and energy drinks, alone and in combination. The development of acute tolerance to alcohol was assessed for several objective (a computerized cued go/no-go reaction time task) and subjective measures at matched breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) for the ascending and descending limbs of the BrAC curve. The results indicated that alcohol administration decreased willingness to drive ratings. Acute tolerance was observed in the AmED dose condition for only the willingness to drive ratings that were significantly higher on the descending versus ascending test. Alcohol-induced impairments of the computer task performance did not exhibit any acute tolerance. Therefore, the differential development of acute tolerance may explain why many studies observe higher rates of impaired driving for AmED consumers compared to alcohol alone consumers. Because drunk driving is a major public health concern, alcohol consumers should be warned that the use of energy drink mixers with alcohol could lead to a false sense of security in one's ability to drive after drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Although many studies have shown that isoflurane exposure impairs spatial memory in aged animals, there are no clinical treatments available to prevent this memory deficit. The anticholinergic properties of volatile anesthetics are a biologically plausible cause of cognitive dysfunction in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that pretreatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil, which has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, prevents isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. In present study, eighteen-month-old mice were administered donepezil (5 mg/kg or an equal volume of saline by oral gavage with a feeding needle for four weeks. Then the mice were exposed to isoflurane (1.2% for six hours. Two weeks later, mice were subjected to the Morris water maze to examine the impairment of spatial memory after exposure to isoflurane. After the behavioral test, the mice were sacrificed, and the protein expression level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE, choline acetylase (ChAT and α7 nicotinic receptor (α7-nAChR were measured in the brain. Each group consisted of 12 mice. We found that isoflurane exposure for six hours impaired the spatial memory of the mice. Compared with the control group, isoflurane exposure dramatically decreased the protein level of ChAT, but not AChE or α7-nAChR. Donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairments and increased ChAT levels, which were downregulated by isoflurane. In conclusions, pretreatment with the AChE inhibitor donepezil prevented isoflurane-induced spatial memory impairment in aged mice. The mechanism was associated with the upregulation of ChAT, which was decreased by isoflurane.
Bjerre, Bo; Kostela, Johan; Selén, Jan
To compare the costs of hospital care and sick leave/disability pensions between two groups of driving while impaired (DWI) offenders: participants in an alcohol ignition interlock programme (AIIP) and controls with revoked licences, but with no comparable opportunity to participate in an AIIP. As an alternative to licence revocation DWI offenders can participate in a voluntary 2-year AIIP permitting the offender to drive under strict regulations entailing regular medical check-ups. The participants are forced to alter their alcohol habits and those who cannot demonstrate sobriety are dismissed from the programme. Participants are liable for all costs themselves. Quasi-experimental, with a non-equivalent control group used for comparison; intent-to-treat design. Based on the number of occasions/days in hospital and on sick leave/disability pension, the health-care costs for public insurance have been calculated. Average total health-care costs were 25% lower among AIIP participants (1156 individuals) than among controls (815 individuals) during the 2-year treatment period. This corresponds to over 1000 euros (SEK9610) less annual costs per average participant. For those who complete the 2-year programme the cost reduction was more pronounced; 37% during the treatment and 20% during the post-treatment period. The positive health-care effects were due apparently to reduced alcohol consumption. The social benefit of being allowed to drive while in the AIIP may also have contributed. The reduction in health-care costs was significant only during the 2-year treatment period, but among those who completed the entire AIIP sustained effects were also observed in the post-treatment period. The effects were comparable to those of regular alcoholism treatment programmes.
Burnett, Anthea; Yashadhana, Aryati; Cabrera Aguas, Maria; Hanni, Yvonne; Yu, Mitasha
A person's capability to access services and achieve good eye health is influenced by their behaviours, perceptions, beliefs and experiences. As evidence from Papua New Guinea (PNG) about people's lived experience with vision impairment is limited, the purpose of the present study was to better understand the beliefs, perceptions and emotional responses to vision impairment in PNG. A qualitative study, using both purposive and convenience sampling, was undertaken to explore common beliefs and perceptions about vision impairment, as well as the emotional responses to vision impairment. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 51 adults from five provinces representing culturally and geographically diverse regions of PNG. Grounded theory was used to elicit key themes from interview data. Participants described activities of everyday life impacted by vision impairment and the related worry, sadness and social exclusion. Common beliefs about the causes of vision impairment were environmental stressors (sun, dust, dirt and smoke), ageing and sorcery. Findings provide insight into the unique social context in PNG and identify a number of programmatic and policy implications, such as the need for preventative eye health information and services, addressing persisting beliefs in sorcery when developing health information packages, and the importance of coordinating with counselling and well-being services for people experiencing vision impairment.
Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dongier, Maurice; Di Leo, Ivana; Legault, Lucie; Tremblay, Jacques; Chanut, Florence; Brown, Thomas G
In a previously published randomized controlled trial (Brown et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34, 292-301), our research team showed that a 30-minute brief motivational interviewing (BMI) session was more effective in reducing percentages of risky drinking days in drunk driving recidivists than a control information-advice intervention at 12-month follow-up. In this sequel to the initial study, 2 main hypotheses were tested: (i) exposure to BMI increases the time to further arrests and crashes compared with exposure to the control intervention (CTL) and (ii) characteristics, such as age, moderate the benefit of BMI. A sample of 180 community-recruited recidivists who had drinking problems participated in the study. Participants gave access to their provincial driving records at baseline and were followed up for a mean of 1,684.5 days (SD = 155.7) after randomization to a 30-minute BMI or CTL session. Measured outcomes were driving arrests followed by convictions including driving while impaired (DWI), speeding, or other moving violations as well as crashes. Age, readiness to change alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse severity, and number of previous DWI convictions were included as potential moderators of the effect of the interventions. For arrests, Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed no significant differences between the BMI and the CTL group. When analyses were adjusted to age tertile categories, a significant effect of BMI in the youngest age tertile (<43 years old) emerged. For crashes, no between-group differences were detected. BMI was better at delaying DWI and other dangerous traffic violations in at-risk younger drivers compared with a CTL similar to that provided in many remedial programs. BMI may be useful as an opportunistic intervention for DWI recidivism prevention in settings such as DWI courts. Treatment effectiveness studies are needed to ascertain how the present findings generalize to the real-world conditions of mandated
Richardson, G. S.; Miner, J. D.; Czeisler, C. A.
A substantial and growing percentage of the U.S. work force now works on a rotating shift schedule. The repeated changes in sleep-wake, meal and work times inherent in such schedules conflict with the dictates of the internal biological clock and have adverse consequences for the health of the shiftworker population. An important consequence of this conflict is impaired performance, both on and off the job, as indexed by the increased incidence of motor vehicle accidents in shift workers. In this paper we report the results of a survey administered to rotating shift and straight day workers at a manufacturing plant in the eastern U.S. This survey documents an increased incidence of motor vehicle accidents or "near misses" in which sleepiness was implicated as a cause by the respondent. Complaints of poor sleep and increased sleepiness were also significantly more common in shiftworkers than day workers. Last, shiftworkers reported higher caffeine and alcohol consumption, and were more likely to use alcohol as a sleep aid. Although causal links cannot be established using these associative observations alone, previously reported experience with alteration of shift schedules, improvement of levels of alertness, and reduction in adverse performance outcomes corroborate the possibility of a causal link and suggest potential interventions.
He, Bin; Peng, Hua; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Hui; Zhao, Zhongxin
Previous work showed that sleep deprivation (SD) impairs hippocampal-dependent cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, and a novel wake-promoting agent modafinil prevents SD-induced memory impairment in rat. However, the mechanisms by which modafinil prevented REM-SD-induced impairment of brain function remain poorly understood. In the present study, rats were sleep-deprived by using the modified multiple platform method and brain function was detected. The results showed that modafinil treatment prevented REM-SD-induced impairment of cognitive function. Modafinil significantly reduced the number of errors compared to placebo and upregulated synapsin I expression in the dorsal hippocampal CA3 region. A synaptic plasticity-related gene, MMP-9 expression was also upregulated in modafinil-treated rats. Importantly, downregulation of MMP-9 expression by special siRNA decreased synapsin I protein levels and synapse numbers. Therefore, we demonstrated that modafinil increased cognition function and synaptic plasticity, at least in part by increasing MMP-9 expression in REM-SD rats. 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available In recent decades, several pharmacological strategies have been developed to prevent age-related cognitive impairment. However, the ineffectiveness of the majority of these strategies has led to growing interest in behavioural intervention. Cognitive stimulation and physical activity have been shown to provide significant benefits by counteracting cognitive impairment and dementia. Animal models have provided information on the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the formation of cognitive and brain reserve. This paper reviews several studies on aged rodents showing the positive effects of environmental enrichment and aerobic exercise on brain and cognitive function of these animals. The implications of this research for human aging is discussed.
McPherson, Jacob G; Chen, Albert; Ellis, Michael D; Yao, Jun; Heckman, C J; Dewald, Julius P A
Activation of the shoulder abductor muscles in the arm opposite a unilateral brain injury causes involuntary increases in elbow, wrist and finger flexion in the same arm, a phenomenon referred to as the flexion synergy. It has been proposed that flexion synergy expression is related to reduced output from ipsilesional motor cortex and corticospinal pathways. In this human subjects study, we provide evidence that the magnitude of flexion synergy expression is instead related to a progressive, task-dependent recruitment of contralesional cortex. We also provide evidence that recruitment of contralesional cortex may induce excessive activation of ipsilateral reticulospinal descending motor pathways that cannot produce discrete movements, leading to flexion synergy expression. We interpret these findings as an adaptive strategy that preserves low-level motor control at the cost of fine motor control. A hallmark of hemiparetic stroke is the loss of fine motor control in the contralesional arm and hand and the constraint to a grouped movement pattern known as the flexion synergy. In the flexion synergy, increasing shoulder abductor activation drives progressive, involuntary increases in elbow, wrist and finger flexion. The neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Here, across 25 adults with moderate to severe hemiparesis following chronic stroke and 18 adults without neurological injury, we test the overall hypothesis that two inter-related mechanisms are necessary for flexion synergy expression: increased task-dependent activation of the intact, contralesional cortex and recruitment of contralesional motor pathways via ipsilateral reticulospinal projections. First, we imaged brain activation in real time during reaching motions progressively constrained by flexion synergy expression. Using this approach, we found that cortical activity indeed shifts towards the contralesional hemisphere in direct proportion to the degree of shoulder abduction loading
Ratnaditya, Akurati; Ravuri, Srinivas; Tadi, Durga Prasad; Kandregula, Chaitanya Ram; Kopuri, Rajkumar Chowdary; Pentakota, Venkata Girish
Objectives: To prevent accidental ingestion of implant hex dive. Materials and Methods: Dental floss which is used to stabilize the hex drive is tied to the operator's finger ring to overcome sudden aspiration of fallen instrument. Results: It showed excellent grip of the instrument during stage two uncover time and also saved operators time. Conclusions: Accidental aspiration or swallowing of the dental instruments during routine implant surgeries can be prevented by tying the implant instru...
Full Text Available General anesthesia increases the risk for cognitive impairment post operation, especially in the elderly and vulnerable individuals. Recent animal studies on the impact of anesthesia on postoperative cognitive impairment have provided some valuable insights, but much remains to be understood. Here, by using mice of various ages and conditions, we found that anesthesia with propofol and sevoflurane caused significant deficits in spatial learning and memory, as tested using Morris Water Maze (MWM 2–6 days after anesthesia exposure, in aged (17–18 months old wild-type (WT mice and in adult (7–8 months old 3xTg-AD mice (a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but not in adult WT mice. Anesthesia resulted in long-term neurobehavioral changes in the fear conditioning task carried out 65 days after exposure to anesthesia in 3xTg-AD mice. Importantly, daily intranasal administration of insulin (1.75 U/mouse/day for only 3 days prior to anesthesia completely prevented the anesthesia-induced deficits in spatial learning and memory and the long-term neurobehavioral changes tested 65 days after exposure to anesthesia in 3xTg-AD mice. These results indicate that aging and AD-like brain pathology increase the vulnerability to cognitive impairment after anesthesia and that intranasal treatment with insulin can prevent anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment.
Alzoubi, Karem H; Mayyas, Fadia A; Khabour, Omar F; Bani Salama, Fatima M; Alhashimi, Farah H; Mhaidat, Nizar M
Sleep deprivation (SD) has been associated with memory impairment through induction of oxidative stress. Melatonin, which promotes the metabolism of many reactive oxygen species (ROS), has antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. In this study, the effect of melatonin on memory impairment induced by 4 weeks of SD was investigated using rat animal model. Animals were sleep deprived using modified multiple platform model. Melatonin was administered via oral gavage (100 mg/kg/day). Spatial learning and memory were assessed using the radial arm water maze (RAWM). Changes in oxidative stress biomarkers in the hippocampus following treatments were measured using ELISA procedure. The result revealed that SD impaired both short- and long-term memory (P memory impairment induced by SD. Furthermore, melatonin normalized SD-induced reduction in the hippocampus activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In addition, melatonin enhanced the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione GSH/GSSG in sleep-deprived rats (P 0.05). In conclusion, SD induced memory impairment, which was prevented by melatonin. This was correlated with normalizing hippocampus antioxidant mechanisms during chronic SD.
Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alkadhi, Karim A
This study was undertaken to provide a detailed account of the effect of chronic treatment with a small dose of caffeine on the deleterious effects of sleep loss on brain function in rats. We investigated the effects of chronic (4 weeks) caffeine treatment (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on memory impairment in acutely (24 h) sleep-deprived adult male Wistar rats. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform model. The effects of caffeine on sleep deprivation-induced hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits were studied by 3 approaches: learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze task, electrophysiological recording of early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in area CA1 of the hippocampus, and levels of memory- and synaptic plasticity-related signaling molecules after E-LTP induction. The results showed that chronic caffeine treatment prevented impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning, shortterm memory and E-LTP of area CA1 in the sleep-deprived rats. In correlation, chronic caffeine treatment prevented sleep deprivation-associated decrease in the levels of phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) during expression of E-LTP. The results suggest that long-term use of a low dose of caffeine prevents impairment of short-term memory and E-LTP in acutely sleep-deprived rats.
Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Mangialasche, Francesca; Nissinen, Aulikki; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Peltonen, Markku; Rauramaa, Rainer; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka
Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) is a multi-center, randomized, controlled trial ongoing in Finland. Participants (1200 individuals at risk of cognitive decline) are recruited from previous population-based non-intervention studies. Inclusion criteria are CAIDE Dementia Risk Score ≥6 and cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age (but not substantial impairment) assessed with the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery. The 2-year multidomain intervention consists of: nutritional guidance; exercise; cognitive training and social activity; and management of metabolic and vascular risk factors. Persons in the control group receive regular health advice. The primary outcome is cognitive performance as measured by the modified Neuropsychological Test Battery, Stroop test, and Trail Making Test. Main secondary outcomes are: dementia (after extended follow-up); disability; depressive symptoms; vascular risk factors and outcomes; quality of life; utilization of health resources; and neuroimaging measures. Screening began in September 2009 and was completed in December 2011. All 1200 persons are enrolled and the intervention is ongoing as planned. Baseline clinical characteristics indicate that several vascular risk factors and unhealthy lifestyle-related factors are present, creating a window of opportunity for prevention. The intervention will be completed during 2014. The FINGER is at the forefront of international collaborative efforts to solve the clinical and public health problems of early identification of individuals at increased risk of late-life cognitive impairment, and of developing intervention strategies to prevent or delay the onset of cognitive impairment and dementia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Austin, S Bryn
Public health attention to childhood obesity has increased in tandem with the growing epidemic, but despite this intense focus, successes in prevention have lagged far behind. There is a blind spot in our drive for childhood obesity prevention that prevents us from generating sufficiently broad solutions. Eating disorders and the constellation of perilous weight-control behaviors are in that blind spot. Evidence is mounting that obesity and eating disorders are linked in myriad ways, but entrenched myths about eating disorders undermine our ability to see the full range of leverage points to target in obesity preventive intervention studies. Our efforts to prevent childhood obesity can no longer afford to ignore eating disorders and the assemblage of related behaviors that persist unabated.
Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the reasons of impaired vision after LASIK and explore its preventive treatment measures preliminarily. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 175 eyes of 134 patients whose vision was decreased after LASIK were included. The constituent ratio of every reason was counted and uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAbetween pre-treatment and post-treatment were compared by paired t-test respectively. RESULTS: The overall incidence of impaired vision after LASIK was 1.86%. The constituent ratio of regression was 51.43% and UCVA increased from 0.61±0.22 to 0.90±0.38(t=8.00, Pt=20.00, Pt=8.14, Pt=6.33, Pt=2.53, P0.05after treatment. The constituent ratio of fundus lesions and diffuse lamellar keratitis(DLKwas 2.86% and UCVA all increased by different degrees after treatment. CONCLUSION: The reasons of impaired vision after LASIK are many and varied. These cases could recover their vision by discovery and treatment in time, and the appropriate preventive measures were essential.
Dao, An T; Zagaar, Munder A; Levine, Amber T; Salim, Samina; Eriksen, Jason L; Alkadhi, Karim A
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive memory loss. In contrast, accumulating evidence suggests a neuroprotective role of regular exercise in aging associated memory impairment. In this study, we investigated the ability of regular exercise to prevent impairments of short-term memory (STM) and early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in area CA1 of the hippocampus in a rat model of AD (i.c.v. infusion of 250 pmol/day Aβ1-42 peptides). We utilized behavioral assessment, in vivo electrophysiological recording, and immunoblotting in 4 groups of adult Wistar rats: control, treadmill exercise (Ex), β-amyloid-infused (Aβ), and amyloid-infused/treadmill exercised (Ex/Aβ). Our findings indicated that Aβ rats made significantly more errors in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) compared to all other groups and exhibited suppressed E-LTP in area CA1, which correlated with deleterious alterations in the levels of memory and E-LTP-related signaling molecules including calcineurin (PP2B), brain derivedneurotrophic factor (BDNF) and phosphorylated CaMKII (p-CaMKII). Compared to controls, Ex and Ex/Aβ rats showed a similar behavioral performance and a normal E-LTP with no detrimental changes in the levels of PP2B, BDNF, and p- CaMKII. We conclude that treadmill exercise maybe able to prevent cognitive impairment associated with AD pathology.
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Alzoubi, Karem H; Rababa'h, Abeer M; Owaisi, Amani; Khabour, Omar F
Sleep deprivation (SD) negatively impacts memory, which was related to oxidative stress induced damage. L-carnitine is a naturally occurring compound, synthesized endogenously in mammalian species and known to possess antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of L-carnitine on learning and memory impairment induced by rapid eye movement sleep (REM-sleep) deprivation was investigated. REM-sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform model (8h/day, for 6 weeks). Simultaneously, L-carnitine was administered (300mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 6 weeks. Thereafter, the radial arm water maze (RAWM) was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Additionally, the hippocampus levels of antioxidant biomarkers/enzymes: reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were assessed. The results showed that chronic REM-sleep deprivation impaired both short- and long-term memory (Psleep deprivation induced reduction in the hippocampus ratio of GSH/GSSG, activity of catalase, GPx, and SOD. No change was observed in TBARS among tested groups (P>0.05). In conclusion, chronic REM-sleep deprivation induced memory impairment, and treatment with L-carnitine prevented this impairment through normalizing antioxidant mechanisms in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Su, Jenny C; Tran, Alisia G T T; Wirtz, John G; Langteau, Rita A; Rothman, Alexander J
Did the September 11 terrorist attacks elicit a subsequent increase in traffic fatalities? Gigerenzer (2004) argued that decreases in flying and increases in driving in the 3 months after the attacks led to 353 "surplus" traffic fatalities. We applied a more systematic analysis to the same data and found no evidence of a significant increase in miles driven or of a significant increase in traffic fatalities. However, we did find evidence for a regional effect of the attacks on driving behaviors. We hypothesized that geographic proximity to the attacks increased stress, which in turn decreased driving quality. Our analyses revealed that in the last 3 months of 2001, the Northeast exhibited a significant increase in traffic fatalities, as well as a significant increase in fatal accidents involving an alcohol- or drug-related citation. Increased stress related to physical proximity to the attacks may explain the increase in traffic fatalities.
Dina Rustemovna Khasanova
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to comparatively analyze the rate of post-stroke depression and cognitive impairments in escitalopram (cipralex-treated and untreated (control patients. Emotional and affective cognitive symptoms, neurological deficit, and day-to-day activity were evaluated over time 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The results of the study indicated that escitalopram used to prevent depression in the acute phase of stroke provided a good effect. This drug caused a prompter recovery of cognitive impairments and reduced the pace of development of neurodegenerative disorders underlying the post-stroke 2D (depression and dementia syndrome. The study group was recorded to have more favorable functional outcomes of stroke and patient mobility indicators associated with lower disability rates.
Hong, Sung-Woon; Yoo, Dae-Hyung; Woo, Jae-Yeon; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Yang, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Dong-Hyun
Soy (Glycine max, family Leguminosae), which contains isoflavones and saponins as main constituents, is known to exhibit memory-enhancing effects. Therefore, to investigate the role of soyasaponins in memory impairments, we isolated soyasaponins Ab (SA) and Bb (SB) from soybean and measured their protective effects against scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. SA and SB significantly prevented scopolamine-induced memory impairment in passive avoidance and Y-maze tasks. Compared to SA, SB rescued memory impairment more potently. Treatment with SB (10 mg/kg, p.o.) protected memory impairment in passive avoidance and Y-maze tasks to 97% (F = 68.10, P scopolamine-induced memory impairment in Morris water maze task (F = 14.51, P mice. However, SA and SB did not inhibit acetylcholinesterase in vitro and ex vivo. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that soybean, particularly soyasaponins, may protect memory impairment by increasing BDNF expression and CREB phosphorylation.
Du, Chun Nan; Min, A Young; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Shin, Suk Kyung; Yu, Ha Ni; Sohn, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Chang-Won; Jung, Sung Ug; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Mee Ree
Deer bone has been used as a health-enhancing food as well as an antiaging agent in traditional Oriental medicine. Recently, the water extract of deer bone (DBE) showed a neuroprotective action against glutamate or Aβ1-42-induced cell death of mouse hippocampal cells by exerting antioxidant activity through the suppression of MAP kinases. The present study is to examine whether DBE improves memory impairment induced by scopolamine. DBE (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg) was administered orally to mice for 14 days, and then scopolamine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered together with DBE for another 7 days. Memory performance was evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM) test and passive avoidance test. Also, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, biomarkers of oxidative stress and the loss of neuronal cells in the hippocampus, was evaluated by histological examinations. Administration of DBE significantly restored memory impairments induced by scopolamine in the MWM test (escape latency and number of crossing platform area), and in the passive avoidance test. Treatment with DBE inhibited the AChE activity and increased the ChAT activity in the brain of memory-impaired mice induced by scopolamine. Additionally, the administration of DBE significantly prevented the increase of lipid peroxidation and the decrease of glutathione level in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine. Also, the DBE treatment restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase to control the level. Furthermore, scopolamine-induced oxidative damage of neurons in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions were prevented by DBE treatment. It is suggested that DBE may be useful for memory improvement through the regulation of cholinergic marker enzyme activities and the suppression of oxidative damage of neurons in the brain of mice treated with scopolamine.
von Hofe, I; Latza, U; Lönnfors, S; Muckelbauer, R
Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of online health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. Methods: The databases EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO were systematically searched for English, French and German references. Included were RCTs that examined the influence of online health services on stress-associated impairment in adult employees at the workplace. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist was used for quality appraisal. Results: Out of 5 632 identified references, 13 RCTs were included in this study. The intervention approaches included movement and relaxation exercises, imparting of knowledge, cognitive-behavioral/social-behavioral interventions, risk communication, health coaching, mindfulness training, and career identity training. In 4 RCTs among mainly white collar employees, the interventions led to improvements in stress-associated outcomes (2 RCTs of high, one of medium and one of low quality level). 9 further RCTs (5 of them of a medium and 4 of a low quality level) did not show a beneficial intervention effect. Conclusion: There are effective health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. A final conclusion on the kind of intervention that is effective cannot be drawn due to the limited number of RCTs using various intervention approaches. Interventions of at least 12 weeks and a combination of multiple approaches were more often effective. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Inoue, Takahiro; Ikeda, Masataka; Ide, Tomomi; Fujino, Takeo; Matsuo, Yuka; Arai, Shinobu; Saku, Keita; Sunagawa, Kenji
Cardiac rupture is a fatal complication after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the detailed mechanism underlying cardiac rupture after MI remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondria in the pathophysiology of cardiac rupture by analyzing Twinkle helicase overexpression mice (TW mice). Twinkle overexpression increased mtDNA copy number approximately twofold and ameliorated ischemic cardiomyopathy at day 28 after MI. Notably, Twinkle overexpression markedly prevented cardiac rupture and improved post-MI survival, accompanied by the suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the MI border area at day 5 after MI when cardiac rupture frequently occurs. Additionally, these cardioprotective effects of Twinkle overexpression were abolished in transgenic mice overexpressing mutant Twinkle with an in-frame duplication of amino acids 353-365, which resulted in no increases in mtDNA copy number. Furthermore, although apoptosis and oxidative stress were induced and mitochondria were damaged in the border area, these injuries were improved in TW mice. Further analysis revealed that mitochondrial biogenesis, including mtDNA copy number, transcription, and translation, was severely impaired in the border area at day 5 In contrast, Twinkle overexpression maintained mtDNA copy number and restored the impaired transcription and translation of mtDNA in the border area. These results demonstrated that Twinkle overexpression alleviated impaired mitochondrial biogenesis in the border area through maintained mtDNA copy number and thereby prevented cardiac rupture accompanied by the reduction of apoptosis and oxidative stress, and suppression of MMP activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Reis, Patricia A; Alexandre, Pedro C B; D'Avila, Joana C; Siqueira, Luciana D; Antunes, Barbara; Estato, Vanessa; Tibiriça, Eduardo V; Verdonk, Franck; Sharshar, Tarek; Chrétien, Fabrice; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo C; Bozza, Fernando A
Acute brain dysfunction is a frequent condition in sepsis patients and is associated with increased mortality and long-term neurocognitive consequences. Impaired memory and executive function are common findings in sepsis survivors. Although neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction have been associated with acute brain dysfunction and its consequences, no specific treatments are available that prevent cognitive impairment after sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced in Swiss Webster mice by intraperitoneal injection of cecal material (5mg/kg, 500μL). Control groups (n=5/group each experiment) received 500μL of saline. Support therapy recover (saline 0.9%, 1mL and imipenem 30mg/kg) were applied (6, 24 and 48h post injection, n=5-10/group, each experiment), together or not with additive orally treatment with statins (atorvastatin/simvastatin 20mg/kg b.w.). Survival rate was monitored at 6, 24 and 48h. In a setting of experiments, animals were euthanized at 6 and 24h after induction for biochemical, immunohistochemistry and intravital analysis. Statins did not prevented mortality in septic mice, however survivors presented lower clinical score. At another setting of experiments, after 15days, mice survivors from fecal supernatant peritoneal sepsis presented cognitive dysfunction for contextual hippocampal and aversive amygdala-dependent memories, which was prevented by atorvastatin/simvastatin treatment. Systemic and brain tissue levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines and activation of microglial were lower in septic mice treated with statins. Brain lipid peroxidation and myeloperoxidase levels were also reduced by statins treatment. Intravital examination of the brain vessels of septic animals revealed decreased functional capillary density and increased rolling and adhesion of leukocytes, and blood flow impairment, which were reversed by treatment with statins. In addition, treatment with statins restored the cholinergic vasodilator response
В. А. Щирба
Full Text Available Research Objective. The objective of our research was to provide theoretical substantiation and implement corrective gymnastics in practice for the purposes of prevention and correction of faults in schoolchildren’s posture. The main means for shaping the correct posture, preventing and correcting faults in posture are callisthenic routine and special corrective exercises. Research methods: anamnesis, somatoscopy, clinical and mathematical methods. Research results. The medical examination revealed that only six of 60 pupils had normal correctly shaped posture, which accounts for 10%. The posture of the other 90% of the pupils was impaired. The most common faults were: asymmetrical pectoral girdle and shoulder blades, stooping posture. The examination revealed 19 pupils with scoliotic posture, which accounts for 44 %. The posture of 24 pupils, or 40%, was hyperkyphotic and stooping. In other words, the posture of 84% of the pupils was scoliotic or hyperkyphotic. The rest of the pupils had flat and kypholordic posture. It is worth mentioning that some of the pupils examined had more serious disorders of their musculoskeletal system, namely: organic disorders, such as spinal disorders in the sagittal plane — the scoliosis types excluded from the study. Significantly, the first main reason of posture disorders is weakness of the pectoral muscle sling. Conclusions. The principal means of prevention and correction of impaired posture are using special physical exercises designed to create a muscular corpus and correct particular faults in posture. We therefore developed sets of exercises intended to correct posture defects and proposed them to the physical education teacher and class teachers.
Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Moeller, Manfred R
A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling/testing device (Dräger DrugTest System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms. Analysis for cannabinoids, amphetamine and its derivatives, opiates and cocaine was performed in urine using the Mahsan Kombi/DOA4-test, in serum using immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation and in oral fluid by GC-MS. Police and medical officer observations of impairment symptoms were rated and evaluated using a threshold value for the classification of driving inability. Accuracy in correlating drug detection in oral fluid and serum were >90% for all substances and also >90% in urine and serum except for THC (71.0%). Of the cases with oral fluid positive for any drug 97.1% of corresponding serum samples were also positive for at least one drug; of drug-positive urine samples this were only 82.4%. In 119 of 146 cases, impairment symptoms above threshold were observed (81.5%). Of the cases with drugs detected in serum, 19.1% appeared not impaired which were the same with drug-positive oral fluid while more persons with drug-positive urine samples appeared uninfluenced (32.7%). The data demonstrate that oral fluid is superior to urine in correlating with serum analytical data and impairment symptoms of drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse.
Sui, Zifang; Qi, Ce; Huang, Yunxiang; Ma, Shufeng; Wang, Xinguo; Le, Guowei; Sun, Jin
Aqueous extracts from Asparagus officinalis L. stems (AEAS) are rich in polysaccharides, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), and steroidal saponin. This study was designed to investigate the effects of AEAS on learning, memory, and acetylcholinesterase-related activity in a scopolamine-induced model of amnesia. Sixty ICR mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10) including the control group (CT), scopolamine group (SC), donepezil group (DON), low, medium, and high dose groups of AEAS (LS, MS, HS; 1.6 mL kg -1 , 8 mL kg -1 , 16 mL kg -1 ). The results showed that 8 mL kg -1 of AEAS used in this study significantly reversed scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments in mice in the novel object recognition test (P < 0.05) and the Y-maze test (P < 0.05), and also improved the latency to escape in the Morris water maze test (P < 0.05). Moreover, it significantly increased acetylcholine and inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in the hippocampus, which was directly related to the reduction in learning and memory impairments. It also reversed scopolamine-induced reduction in the hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) mRNA expression. AEAS protected against scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In conclusion, AEAS protected learning and memory function in mice by enhancing the activity of the cholinergic nervous system, and increasing BDNF and CREB expression. This suggests that AEAS has the potential to prevent cognitive impairments in age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.
Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Kim, Won-Yong; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue
The Pinus densiflora leaf has been traditionally used to treat mental health disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine. Here we examined the ethnopharmacological relevance of pine needle on memory impairment caused by stress. To elucidate the possible modulatory actions of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on stress-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity, we adopted an acute restraint stress mouse model. Mice were orally administered with PNE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) for 9 days, and were then subjected to restraint stress (6h/day) for 3 days (from experimental day 7-9). To evaluate spatial cognitive and memory function, the Morris water maze was performed during experimental days 5-9. Restraint stress induced the memory impairment (the prolonged escape latency and cumulative path-length, and reduced time spent in the target quadrant), and these effects were significantly prevented by PNE treatment. The levels of corticosterone and its receptor in the sera/hippocampus were increased by restraint stress, which was normalized by PNE treatment. Restraint stress elicited the hippocampal excitotoxicity, the inflammatory response and oxidative injury as demonstrated by the increased glutamate levels, altered levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and imbalanced oxidant-antioxidant balance biomarkers. Two immunohistochemistry activities against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons supported the finding of excitotoxicity especially in the cornu ammonis (CA)3 region of the hippocampus. Those alterations were notably attenuated by administration of PNE. The above findings showed that PNE has pharmacological properties that modulate the hippocampal excitotoxicity-derived memory impairment under severe stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Montero-Odasso, Manuel; Speechley, Mark
To provide an overview of the role of cognition in falls, with potential implications for managing and preventing falls in older adults. Review. Observational and interventional studies addressing the role of cognition on falls. Community-dwelling older adults (65 years and older). The relationship between gait and cognition in aging and neurodegeneration was reviewed in the medical literature to highlight the role of brain motor control deficits in fall risk. The benefits of dual-task gait assessments as a marker of fall risk were reviewed. Therapeutic approaches for reducing falls by improving certain aspects of cognition were appraised. Low performance in attention and executive function are associated with gait slowing, instability, and future falls. Drug-enhancement of cognition may reduce falls in Parkinson's disease, and cognitive training, dual-task training, and virtual reality modalities are promising to improve mobility in sedentary older adults and in those with cognitive impairment and dementia. Falls remain common in older people, with higher prevalence and morbidity in those who are cognitively impaired. Disentangling the mechanism and contribution of cognitive deficits in fall risk may open new treatment approaches. Mounting evidence supports that cognitive therapies help reduce falls. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.
Aslan, Lokman; Aslankurt, Murat; Aksoy, Adnan; Altun, Hatice
To assess the preventable visual impairment in children with nonprofound intellectual disability (ID). A total of 215 children with IDs (90 Down syndrome [DS], 125 nonprofound ID) and 116 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. All participants underwent ophthalmologic examinations including cycloplegic refraction measurements, ocular movement evaluation, screening for strabismus (Hirschberg, Krimsky, or prism cover test), slit-lamp biomicroscopy, funduscopy, and intraocular pressure measurements. All data were recorded for statistical analysis. Ocular findings in decreasing prevalence were as follows: refractive errors 55 (61.1%), strabismus 30 (33.2%), cataract 7 (7.8%), and nystagmus 7 (7.8%) in children with DS; refractive errors 57 (45.6%), strabismus 19 (15.2%), cataract 7 (6.4%), nystagmus 5 (4%), and glaucoma 1 (0.8%) in children with other ID; and refractive errors 13 (11.2%) and strabismus 4 (3.5%) in controls. Cataracts, glaucoma, and nystagmus were not observed in the control group. The most common ophthalmic findings in children with DS compared with other ID and controls were with hyperopia (pvisual impairments, refractive errors, strabismus, and cataracts. The prevalence of strabismus and refractive errors was more frequent in children with DS. The importance of further health screenings including ophthalmic examinations should be utilized to implement appropriate care management and improve quality of life.
Ota, Simone M; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Suchecki, Deborah; Oliveira, Maria Gabriela M; Tiba, Paula A
Pre-training rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) deprivation affects memory acquisition and/or consolidation. It also produces major REMS rebound at the cost of waking and slow wave sleep (SWS). Given that both SWS and REMS appear to be important for memory processes, REMS rebound after training may disrupt the organization of sleep cycles, i.e., excessive amount of REMS and/or little SWS after training could be harmful for memory formation. To examine whether lithium, a drug known to increase SWS and reduce REMS, could prevent the memory impairment induced by pre-training sleep deprivation. Animals were divided in 2 groups: cage control (CC) and REMS-deprived (REMSDep), and then subdivided into 4 subgroups, treated either with vehicle or 1 of 3 doses of lithium (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) 2 h before training on the multiple trial inhibitory avoidance task. Animals were tested 48 h later to make sure that the drug had been already metabolized and eliminated. Another set of animals was implanted with electrodes and submitted to the same experimental protocol for assessment of drug-induced sleep-wake changes. Wistar male rats weighing 300-400 g. Sleep deprived rats required more trials to learn the task and still showed a performance deficit during test, except from those treated with 150 mg/kg of lithium, which also reduced the time spent in REM sleep during sleep recovery. Lithium reduced rapid eye movement sleep and prevented memory impairment induced by sleep deprivation. These results indicate that these phenomena may be related, but cause-effect relationship cannot be ascertained.
Barichello, Tatiana; Ceretta, Renan A; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Moreira, Ana Paula; Simões, Lutiana R; Comim, Clarissa M; Quevedo, João; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José A; Teixeira, Antônio Lucio
Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by an acute infection affecting the pia matter, arachnoid and subarachnoid space. The intense inflammatory response is associated with a significant mortality rate and neurologic sequelae, such as, seizures, sensory-motor deficits and impairment of learning and memory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute and extended administration of cannabidiol on pro-inflammatory cytokines and behavioral parameters in adult Wistar rats submitted to pneumococcal meningitis. Male Wistar rats underwent a cisterna magna tap and received either 10μl of sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of S. pneumoniae suspension. Rats subjected to meningitis were treated by intraperitoneal injection with cannabidiol (2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg once or daily for 9 days after meningitis induction) or a placebo. Six hours after meningitis induction, the rats that received one dose were killed and the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained to assess cytokines/chemokine and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. On the 10th day, the rats were submitted to the inhibitory avoidance task. After the task, the animals were killed and samples from the hippocampus and frontal cortex were obtained. The extended administration of cannabidiol at different doses reduced the TNF-α level in frontal cortex. Prolonged treatment with canabidiol, 10mg/kg, prevented memory impairment in rats with pneumococcal meningitis. Although descriptive, our results demonstrate that cannabidiol has anti-inflammatory effects in pneumococcal meningitis and prevents cognitive sequel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bai, Jian-biao; Shen, Wen-long; Guo, Guan-long; Wang, Xiang-yu; Yu, Yang
In mining excavation, the roof bending subsidence of gob-side entry driving heading adjacent to the advancing working face (HAWF) can be considerable. Influenced by the original rock pressure, the front and lateral abutment pressure of the adjacent working face, and the front abutment pressure of the current working face, the support body can easily fail, leading to serious instability of the rock mass surrounding the tunnel. To study the stress state and the deformation failure mechanism of the HAWF roof structure, we use on-site survey data, numerical simulation, and theoretical calculations to fit the spatial distribution law of mining abutment pressure piecewise, and establish a dynamic mechanical model of the roof structure. We then propose a roof failure criterion and examine the roof flexure deformation behavioral pattern. We found that the central part of the roof is the main point that controls the surrounding rock. To prevent the deformation and collapse of the roof and rock surrounding the tunnel, we propose techniques that can be applied to HAWF gob-side entry driving, including setting the coal pillar width, the driving stop and restart timing, and other control concepts.
Tim O. Vilz
Full Text Available Background: Postoperative ileus (POI is an iatrogenic complication of abdominal surgery, mediated by a severe inflammation of the muscularis externa (ME. We demonstrated that orally applicated CPSI-2364 prevents POI in rodents by blockade of p38 MAPK pathway and abrogation of NO production in macrophages. In the present experimental swine study we compared the effect of orally and intravenously administered CPSI-2364 on POI and examined CPSI-2364 effect on anastomotic healing. Methods: CPSI-2364 was administered preoperatively via oral or intravenous route. POI was induced by intestinal manipulation of the small bowel. ME specimens were examined by quantitative PCR for CCL2 chemokine gene expression and myeloperoxidase activity. Functional analyzes included measurement of ileal smooth-muscle ex vivo contractility, in vivo intestinal and colonic transit. Furthermore, anastomotic healing of a rectorectostomy after CPSI-2364 treatment was assessed by perianastomotic hydroxyproline concentration, a histochemically evaluated healing score and anastomotic bursting pressure (ABP. Results: CPSI-2364 abolished inflammation of the ME and improved postoperative smooth muscle contractility and intestinal transit independently of its application route. Hydroxyproline concentration and ABP measurement revealed no wound healing disturbances after oral or intravenous CPSI-2364 treatment whereas histological scoring demonstrated delayed anastomotic healing after intravenous treatment. Conclusion: CPSI-2364 effectively prevents POI in swine independently of its application route. Impairment of anastomotic healing could be observed after intravenous but not oral preoperative CPSI-2364 treatment. Subsumed, an oral preoperative administration of CPSI-2364 appears to be a safe and efficient strategy for prophylaxis of POI.
Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E
The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.
Full Text Available The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age‐related increases in intraocular pressure, retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 ‐12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo‐spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the sensory impairment hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic‐XE, 0.00, 0.25 or 0.50% daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50% maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00% exhibited impaired performance in visually‐dependent, but not non‐visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.
Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish
Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Weiwei; Cheng, Xiang; Chen, Jinzhong; Yi, Xin; Nie, Dekang; Sun, Xiaohui; Qin, Jianbing; Tian, Meiling; Jin, Guohua; Zhang, Xinhua
Lycium barbarum is used both as a food additive and as a medicinal herb in many countries, and L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), a major cell component, are reported to have a wide range of beneficial effects including neuroprotection, anti-aging and anticancer properties, and immune modulation. The effects of LBPs on neuronal function, neurogenesis, and drug-induced learning and memory deficits have not been assessed. We report the therapeutic effects of LBPs on learning and memory and neurogenesis in scopolamine (SCO)-treated rats. LBPs were administered via gastric perfusion for 2 weeks before the onset of subcutaneous SCO treatment for a further 4 weeks. As expected, SCO impaired performance in novel object and object location recognition tasks, and Morris water maze. However, dual SCO- and LBP-treated rats spent significantly more time exploring the novel object or location in the recognition tasks and had significant shorter escape latency in the water maze. SCO administration led to a decrease in Ki67- or DCX-immunoreactive cells in the dentate gyrus and damage of dendritic development of the new neurons; LBP prevented these SCO-induced reductions in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation. LBP also protected SCO-induced loss of neuronal processes in DCX-immunoreactive neurons. Biochemical investigation indicated that LBP decreased the SCO-induced oxidative stress in hippocampus and reversed the ratio Bax/Bcl-2 that exhibited increase after SCO treatment. However, decrease of BDNF and increase of AChE induced by SCO showed no response to LBP administration. These results suggest that LBPs can prevent SCO-induced cognitive and memory deficits and reductions in cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation. Suppression of oxidative stress and apoptosis may be involved in the above effects of LBPs that may be a promising candidate to restore memory functions and neurogenesis.
Full Text Available Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT, forced swimming test (FST, and Morris water maze (MWM. Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.
Lapmanee, Sarawut; Charoenphandhu, Jantarima; Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol
Several severe stressful situations, e.g., natural disaster, infectious disease out break, and mass casualty, are known to cause anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment, and preventive intervention for these stress complications is worth exploring. We have previously reported that the serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, venlafaxine, as well as voluntary wheel running are effective in the treatment of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in stressed rats. But whether they are able to prevent deleterious consequences of restraint stress in rats, such as anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment that occur afterward, was not known. Herein, male Wistar rats were pre-treated for 4 weeks with anti-anxiety/anti-depressive drugs, agomelatine and venlafaxine, or voluntary wheel running, followed by 4 weeks of restraint-induced stress. During the stress period, rats received neither drug nor exercise intervention. Our results showed that restraint stress induced mixed anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and memory impairment as determined by elevated plus-maze, elevated T-maze, open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and Morris water maze (MWM). Both pharmacological pre-treatments and running successfully prevented the anxiety-like behavior, especially learned fear, in stressed rats. MWM test suggested that agomelatine, venlafaxine, and running could prevent stress-induced memory impairment, but only pharmacological treatments led to better novel object recognition behavior and positive outcome in FST. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that venlafaxine and running exercise upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. In conclusion, agomelatine, venlafaxine as well as voluntary wheel running had beneficial effects, i.e., preventing the restraint stress-induced anxiety/depression-like behaviors and memory impairment.
Henderson, V W
The slow, progressive accumulation of pathology characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is the principal determinant of cognitive decline leading to dementia. Risk-reduction strategies during midlife focus on raising the clinical threshold for the appearance of cognitive symptoms and on reducing the extent of Alzheimer pathology. Best available evidence suggests an approach based on three, conceptually distinct strategies. (1) Raise the threshold for cognitive symptoms by improving brain health. To achieve this goal, the tactic is to reduce cerebrovascular risks mediated by hypertension, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and hyperlipidemia. (2) Raise the threshold for cognitive symptoms by enhancing cognitive reserve. Here, tactics focus on mental stimulation associated with occupation, leisure activities and social engagement. (3) Reduce the burden of Alzheimer pathology. The most promising tactic toward this end is regular aerobic exercise. Tactics in support of strategies to reduce cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer pathology are not yet substantiated by robust, consistent clinical trial evidence. There is pressing need for well-designed pragmatic trials to provide stronger evidence on preventive strategies for late-life cognitive decline and dementia.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The onset of cachexia is a frequent feature in cancer patients. Prominent characteristic of this syndrome is the loss of body and muscle weight, this latter being mainly supported by increased protein breakdown rates. While the signaling pathways dependent on IGF-1 or myostatin were causally involved in muscle atrophy, the role of the Mitogen-Activated-Protein-Kinases is still largely debated. The present study investigated this point on mice bearing the C26 colon adenocarcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C26-bearing mice display a marked loss of body weight and muscle mass, this latter associated with increased phosphorylated (p-ERK. Administration of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 to tumor bearers attenuates muscle depletion and weakness, while restoring normal atrogin-1 expression. In C26 hosts, muscle wasting is also associated with increased Pax7 expression and reduced myogenin levels. Such pattern, suggestive of impaired myogenesis, is reversed by PD98059. Increased p-ERK and reduced myosin heavy chain content can be observed in TNFα-treated C2C12 myotubes, while decreased myogenin and MyoD levels occur in differentiating myoblasts exposed to the cytokine. All these changes are prevented by PD98059. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that ERK is involved in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in cancer cachexia and could thus be proposed as a therapeutic target.
Fell, James C; Fisher, Deborah A; Yao, Jie; McKnight, A Scott
Studies of alcohol-related harm (violence, injury, illness) suggest that the most significant risk factors are the amount of alcohol consumed and whether obviously intoxicated patrons continue to be served. This study's objective was to investigate the effects of a responsible beverage service (RBS)/enhanced alcohol enforcement intervention on bars, bar patrons, and impaired driving. Two communities-Monroe County, New York, and Cleveland, Ohio-participated in a demonstration program and evaluation. The intervention applied RBS training, targeted enforcement, and corrective actions by law enforcement to a random sample of 10 identified problem bars in each community compared to 10 matched nonintervention problem bars. Data were collected over 3 waves on bar serving practices, bar patron intoxication, drinking and driving, and other alcohol-related harm from intervention and control bars and treatment and comparison communities. In Monroe County, New York, of the 14 outcome measures analyzed, 7 measures showed statistically significant differences from pre- to postintervention. Six of those measures indicated changes in the desired or positive direction and 2 measures were in the undesired or negative direction. Of note in the positive direction, the percentage of intervention bar patrons who were intoxicated decreased from 44 to 27% and the average blood alcohol concentration of patrons decreased from 0.097 to 0.059 g/dL pre- to postintervention. In Cleveland, Ohio, 6 of the 14 measures showed statistically significant changes pre- to postintervention with 6 in the positive direction and 4 in the negative direction. Of note, the percentage of pseudo-intoxicated patrons denied service in intervention bars increased from 6 to 29%. Of the 14 outcome measures that were analyzed in each community, most indicated positive changes associated with the intervention, but others showed negative associations. About half of the measures showed no significance, the sample sizes
Matyas, Nina; Auer, Stefanie; Gisinger, Christoph; Kil, Monika; Keser Aschenberger, Filiz; Klerings, Irma; Gartlehner, Gerald
Because of the enormous social and economic burden of disease, the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia has become a major global public health priority. Studies show that cognitively stimulating activities during middle adulthood might have a protective effect on the brain by boosting the cognitive reserve. The aim of this review is to identify evidence investigating the effects of continuing education for the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia in late life. Our approach employs a two-stage design: First, we will conduct a systematic review to assess the preventive effects of continuing education on mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia. Second, because we expect to find few studies, we will perform a review of systematic reviews on leisure activities that mimic formal continuing education to determine their effects on the prevention of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's-type dementia. We will search electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and Scopus) for published studies and gray literature databases (e.g., trial registries) for unpublished studies. Two authors will independently screen abstracts and full-texts using pre-defined eligibility criteria, select studies, extract data, and assess the quality of included studies or reviews. Outcomes of interest include the incidence of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's-type dementia, quality of life, functional capacity, and psychological wellbeing. Intermediate outcomes are cognitive (test) performance, cognitive functioning, and social inclusion. The review team is a multidisciplinary group consisting of methodological experts and dementia, geriatrics, and continuing education researchers. We anticipate that our review will highlight serious gaps in the current evidence. Results will build the basis for further research regarding the relation of continuing education and cognitive decline
Chauveau, Frédéric; Lange, Maren Denise; Jüngling, Kay; Lesting, Jörg; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Pape, Hans-Christian
Stressful and traumatic events can create aversive memories, which are a predisposing factor for anxiety disorders. The amygdala is critical for transforming such stressful events into anxiety, and the recently discovered neuropeptide S transmitter system represents a promising candidate apt to control these interactions. Here we test the hypothesis that neuropeptide S can regulate stress-induced hyperexcitability in the amygdala, and thereby can interact with stress-induced alterations of fear memory. Mice underwent acute immobilization stress (IS), and neuropeptide S and a receptor antagonist were locally injected into the lateral amygdala (LA) during stress exposure. Ten days later, anxiety-like behavior, fear acquisition, fear memory retrieval, and extinction were tested. Furthermore, patch-clamp recordings were performed in amygdala slices prepared ex vivo to identify synaptic substrates of stress-induced alterations in fear responsiveness. (1) IS increased anxiety-like behavior, and enhanced conditioned fear responses during extinction 10 days after stress, (2) neuropeptide S in the amygdala prevented, while an antagonist aggravated, these stress-induced changes of aversive behaviors, (3) excitatory synaptic activity in LA projection neurons was increased on fear conditioning and returned to pre-conditioning values on fear extinction, and (4) stress resulted in sustained high levels of excitatory synaptic activity during fear extinction, whereas neuropeptide S supported the return of synaptic activity during fear extinction to levels typical of non-stressed animals. Together these results suggest that the neuropeptide S system is capable of interfering with mechanisms in the amygdala that transform stressful events into anxiety and impaired fear extinction.
Bagci, Eyup; Aydin, Emel; Ungureanu, Eugen; Hritcu, Lucian
Anthriscus nemorosa (Bieb.) Sprengel is used for medicinal purposes in traditional medicine around the world, including Turkey. Ethnobotanical studies suggest that Anthriscus essential oil could improve memory in Alzheimer's disease. The current study was hypothesized to investigate the beneficial effects of inhaled Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil on memory, anxiety and depression in scopolamine-treated rats. Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil was administered by inhalation in the doses of 1% and 3% for 21 continuous days and scopolamine (0.7mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30min before the behavioral testing. Y-maze and radial arm-maze tests were used for assessing memory processes. Also, the anxiety and depressive responses were studied by elevated plus-maze and forced swimming tests. As expected, the scopolamine alone-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease the percentage of the spontaneous alternation in Y-maze test, increase the number of working and reference memory errors in radial arm-maze test, decrease of the exploratory activity, the percentage of the time spent and the number of entries in the open arm within elevated plus-maze test and decrease of swimming time and increase of immobility time within forced swimming test. However, dual scopolamine and Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil-treated rats showed significant improvement of memory formation and exhibited anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects in scopolamine-treated rats. These results suggest that Anthriscus nemorosa essential oil inhalation can prevent scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Pan, Yan-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Wu, Mei-Na; Ma, Cun-Gen; Qi, Jin-Shun
Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) is thought to be responsible for loss of memory in Alzheimer's disease (AD). A significant decrease in [Arg(8)]-vasopressin (AVP) has been found in the AD brain and in plasma; however, it is unclear whether this decrease in AVP is involved in Abeta-induced impairment of spatial cognition and whether AVP can protect against Abeta-induced deficits in cognitive function. The present study examined the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of AVP on spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze test and investigated the potential protective function of AVP against Abeta-induced impairment in spatial cognition. The results were as follows: (1) i.c.v. injection of 25 nmol Abeta(25-35) resulted in a significant decline in spatial learning and memory; (2) 1 nmol and 10 nmol, but not 0.1 nmol, AVP injections markedly improved learning and memory; (3) pretreatment with 1 nmol or 10 nmol, but not 0.1 nmol, AVP effectively reversed the impairment in spatial learning and memory induced by Abeta(25-35); and (4) none of the drugs, including Abeta(25-35) and different concentrations of AVP, affected the vision or swimming speed of the rats. These results indicate that Abeta(25-35) could significantly impair spatial learning and memory in rats, and pretreatment with AVP centrally can enhance spatial learning and effectively prevent the behavioral impairment induced by neurotoxic Abeta(25-35). Thus, the present study provides further insight into the mechanisms by which Abeta impairs spatial learning and memory, suggesting that up-regulation of central AVP might be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of AD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol; Lee, Seolyoung
Automated driving systems (ADSs) are expected to prevent traffic accidents caused by driver carelessness on freeways. There is no doubt regarding this safety benefit if all vehicles in the transportation system were equipped with ADSs; however, it is implausible to expect that ADSs will reach 100% market penetration rate (MPR) in the near future. Therefore, the following question arises: 'Can ADSs, which consider only situations in the vicinity of an equipped vehicle, really contribute to a significant reduction in traffic accidents?' To address this issue, the interactions between equipped and unequipped vehicles must be investigated, which is the purpose of this study. This study evaluated traffic safety at different MPRs based on a proposed index to represent the overall rear-end crash risk of the traffic stream. Two approaches were evaluated for adjusting longitudinal vehicle maneuvers: vehicle safety-based maneuvering (VSM), which considers the crash risk of an equipped vehicle and its neighboring vehicles, and traffic safety-based maneuvering (TSM), which considers the overall crash risk in the traffic stream. TSM assumes that traffic operational agencies are able to monitor all the vehicles and to intervene in vehicle maneuvering. An optimization process, which attempts to obtain vehicle maneuvering control parameters to minimize the overall crash risk, is integrated into the proposed evaluation framework. The main purpose of employing the optimization process for vehicle maneuvering in this study is to identify opportunities to improve traffic safety through effective traffic management rather than developing a vehicle control algorithm that can be implemented in practice. The microscopic traffic simulator VISSIM was used to simulate the freeway traffic stream and to conduct systematic evaluations based on the proposed methodology. Both TSM and VSM achieved significant reductions in the potential for rear-end crashes. However, TSM obtained much greater
Guevara-Guzmán, R; Arriaga, V; Kendrick, K M; Bernal, C; Vega, X; Mercado-Gómez, O F; Rivas-Arancibia, S
There is increasing concern about the neurodegenerative and behavioral consequences of ozone pollution in industrialized urban centers throughout the world and that women may be more susceptible to brain neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic (30 or 60 days) exposure to ozone on olfactory perception and memory and on levels of lipid peroxidation, alpha and beta estrogen receptors and dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the olfactory bulb in ovariectomized female rats. The ability of 17beta-estradiol to prevent these effects was then assessed. Results showed that ozone exposure for 30 or 60 days impaired formation/retention of a selective olfactory recognition memory 120 min after exposure to a juvenile stimulus animal with the effect at 60 days being significantly greater than at 30 days. They also showed impaired speed in locating a buried chocolate reward after 60 days of ozone exposure indicating some loss of olfactory perception. These functional impairments could all be prevented by coincident estradiol treatment. In the olfactory bulb, levels of lipid peroxidation were increased at both 30- and 60-day time-points and numbers of cells with immunohistochemical staining for alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase were reduced as were alpha and beta estrogen receptor protein levels. These effects were prevented by estradiol treatment. Oxidative stress damage caused by chronic exposure to ozone does therefore impair olfactory perception and social recognition memory and may do so by reducing noradrenergic and estrogen receptor activity in the olfactory bulb. That these effects can be prevented by estradiol treatment suggests increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders in aging women may be contributed to by reduced estrogen levels post-menopause.
Tripathi, Sunil Jamuna; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Srikumar, B N; Raju, T R; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S
Chronic stress causes detrimental effects on various forms of learning and memory. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) not only plays a crucial role in mediating certain forms of memory, but also in the modulation of the effects of stress. Chronic immobilization stress (CIS) results in hypertrophy of the BLA, which is believed to be one of the underlying causes for stress' effects on learning. Thus, it is plausible that preventing the effects of CIS on amygdala would preclude its deleterious cognitive effects. Accordingly, in the first part, we evaluated the effect of excitotoxic lesion of the BLA on chronic stress-induced hippocampal-dependent spatial learning using a partially baited radial arm maze task. The BLA was ablated bilaterally using ibotenic acid prior to CIS. Chronically stressed rats showed impairment in spatial learning with decreased percentage correct choice and increased reference memory errors. Excitotoxic lesion of the BLA prevented the impairment in spatial learning and reference memory. In the retention test, lesion of the BLA was able to rescue the chronic stress-induced impairment. Interestingly, stress-induced enhanced plasma corticosterone levels were partially prevented by the lesion of BLA. These results motivated us to evaluate if the same effects can be observed with temporary inactivation of BLA, only during stress. We found that chronic stress-induced spatial learning deficits were also prevented by temporary inactivation of the BLA. Additionally, temporary inactivation of BLA partially precluded the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone levels. Thus, inactivation of BLA precludes stress-induced spatial learning deficits, and enhanced plasma corticosterone levels. It is speculated that BLA inactivation-induced reduction in corticosterone levels during stress, might be crucial in restoring spatial learning impairments. Our study provides evidence that amygdalar modulation during stress might be beneficial for strategic
Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Faller, Cristiano Julio; Ceretta, Renan A; Petronilho, Fabricia; Lopes-Borges, Jéssica; Valvassori, Samira S; Quevedo, João
Pneumococcal meningitis is a serious infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with high fatality rates that causes reduced psychomotor performance, slight mental slowness, impairments in attention executive functions and learning and memory deficiencies. Previously, we demonstrated a correlation between memory impairment and decreased levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampi of rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. Emerging evidence demonstrates that histone acetylation regulates neurotrophins; therefore, a potential molecular intervention against cognitive impairment in bacterial meningitis may be the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, sodium butyrate, which stimulates the acetylation of histones and increases BDNF expression. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid as a placebo or a Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The animals received antibiotic treatment as usual and received saline or sodium butyrate as an adjuvant treatment. Ten days after, meningitis was induced; the animals were subjected to open-field habituation and the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Immediately after these behavioural tasks, the animals were killed, and their hippocampi were removed to evaluate the expression of BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In the meningitis group that received saline, the animals presented memory impairment in both behavioural tasks, and hippocampal BDNF and GDNF expression was decreased. Sodium butyrate was able to prevent memory impairment and re-establish hippocampal neurotrophin expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.
Pierre, Joseph D.
Information security systems (ISS) have been designed to protect assets from damages and from unauthorized access internally as well as externally. This research is promising similar protection from ISS methods that could prevent intoxicated individuals under the influence of alcohol from driving. However, previous research has shown significant…
Blasco-Baque, Vincent; Garidou, Lucile; Pomié, Céline; Escoula, Quentin; Loubieres, Pascale; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Lemaitre, Mathieu; Nicolas, Simon; Klopp, Pascale; Waget, Aurélie; Azalbert, Vincent; Colom, André; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Kemoun, Philippe; Serino, Matteo; Burcelin, Rémy
To identify a causal mechanism responsible for the enhancement of insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia following periodontitis in mice fed a fat-enriched diet. We set-up a unique animal model of periodontitis in C57Bl/6 female mice by infecting the periodontal tissue with specific and alive pathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis ( Pg ), Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia . The mice were then fed with a diabetogenic/non-obesogenic fat-enriched diet for up to 3 months. Alveolar bone loss, periodontal microbiota dysbiosis and features of glucose metabolism were quantified. Eventually, adoptive transfer of cervical (regional) and systemic immune cells was performed to demonstrate the causal role of the cervical immune system. Periodontitis induced a periodontal microbiota dysbiosis without mainly affecting gut microbiota. The disease concomitantly impacted on the regional and systemic immune response impairing glucose metabolism. The transfer of cervical lymph-node cells from infected mice to naive recipients guarded against periodontitis-aggravated metabolic disease. A treatment with inactivated Pg prior to the periodontal infection induced specific antibodies against Pg and protected the mouse from periodontitis-induced dysmetabolism. Finally, a 1-month subcutaneous chronic infusion of low rates of lipopolysaccharides from Pg mimicked the impact of periodontitis on immune and metabolic parameters. We identified that insulin resistance in the high-fat fed mouse is enhanced by pathogen-induced periodontitis. This is caused by an adaptive immune response specifically directed against pathogens and associated with a periodontal dysbiosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Undernourished children exhibit impaired development of their gut microbiota. Transplanting microbiota from 6- and 18-month-old healthy or undernourished Malawian donors into young germ-free mice that were fed a Malawian diet revealed that immature microbiota from undernourished infants and children...
Marisco, Patricia C; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Rosa, Michelle M; Girardi, Bruna A; Gutierres, Jessié M; Jaques, Jeandre A S; Salla, Ana P S; Pimentel, Víctor C; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Leal, Daniela B R; Mello, Carlos F; Rubin, Maribel A
Piracetam improves cognitive function in animals and in human beings, but its mechanism of action is still not completely known. In the present study, we investigated whether enzymes involved in extracellular adenine nucleotide metabolism, adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase), 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) are affected by piracetam in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of animals subjected to scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Piracetam (0.02 μmol/5 μL, intracerebroventricular, 60 min pre-training) prevented memory impairment induced by scopolamine (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, immediately post-training) in the inhibitory avoidance learning and in the object recognition task. Scopolamine reduced the activity of NTPDase in hippocampus (53 % for ATP and 53 % for ADP hydrolysis) and cerebral cortex (28 % for ATP hydrolysis). Scopolamine also decreased the activity of 5'-nucleotidase (43 %) and ADA (91 %) in hippocampus. The same effect was observed in the cerebral cortex for 5'-nucleotidase (38 %) and ADA (68 %) activities. Piracetam fully prevented scopolamine-induced memory impairment and decrease of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine deaminase activities in synaptosomes from cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In vitro experiments show that piracetam and scopolamine did not alter enzymatic activity in cerebral cortex synaptosomes. Moreover, piracetam prevented scopolamine-induced increase of TBARS levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. These results suggest that piracetam-induced improvement of memory is associated with protection against oxidative stress and maintenance of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase and ADA activities, and suggest the purinergic system as a putative target of piracetam.
Full Text Available Introduction. Renin-angiotensin system has a role in inflammation and also is involved in many brain functions such as learning, memory, and emotion. Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of memory impairments. In the present study, the effect of captopril on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity impairments induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS was investigated. Methods. The rats were divided and treated into control (saline, LPS (1 mg/kg, LPS-captopril (LPS-Capto; 50 mg/kg captopril before LPS, and captopril groups (50 mg/kg before saline. Morris water maze was done. Long-term potentiation (LTP from CA1 area of hippocampus was assessed by 100 Hz stimulation in the ipsilateral Schaffer collateral pathway. Results. In the LPS group, the spent time and traveled path to reach the platform were longer than those in the control, while, in the LPS-Capto group, they were shorter than those in the LPS group. Moreover, the slope and amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP decreased in the LPS group, as compared to the control group, whereas, in the LPS-Capto group, they increased compared to the LPS group. Conclusion. The results of the present study showed that captopril improved the LPS-induced memory and LTP impairments induced by LPS in rats. Further investigations are required in order to better understand the exact responsible mechanism(s.
Fernanda Fiel Peres
Full Text Available Cannabidiol (CBD is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa that presents antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In Parkinson’s disease patients, CBD is able to attenuate the psychotic symptoms induced by L-DOPA and to improve quality of life. Repeated administration of reserpine in rodents induces motor impairments that are accompanied by cognitive deficits, and has been applied to model both tardive dyskinesia and Parkinson’s disease. The present study investigated whether CBD administration would attenuate reserpine-induced motor and cognitive impairments in rats. Male Wistar rats received four injections of CBD (0.5 or 5 mg/kg or vehicle (days 2-5. On days 3 and 5, animals received also one injection of 1 mg/kg reserpine or vehicle. Locomotor activity, vacuous chewing movements and catalepsy were assessed from day 1 to day 7. On days 8 and 9, we evaluated animals’ performance on the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task, for learning/memory assessment. CBD (0.5 and 5 mg/kg attenuated the increase in catalepsy behavior and in oral movements – but not the decrease in locomotion – induced by reserpine. CBD (0.5 mg/kg also ameliorated the reserpine-induced memory deficit in the discriminative avoidance task. Our data show that CBD is able to attenuate motor and cognitive impairments induced by reserpine, suggesting the use of this compound in the pharmacotherapy of Parkinson’s disease and tardive dyskinesia.
Siren, Anu Kristiina; Haustein, Sonja
, and not having illnesses that impaired driving ability. Three of these factors were strongly correlated with gender, indicating that efforts to prevent premature driving cessation should especially focus on increasing women’s confidence and experience in driving.......This study focuses on the decision to either stop or continue driving among a cohort of Danish seniors whose driving licenses expire, for the first time, at the age of 70. Based on 1,537 standardized telephone interviews with licensed drivers, we compared persons who intended to renew...
Corrigan, Frances; Arulsamy, Alina; Teng, Jason; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and death worldwide, affecting as many as 54,000,000-60,000,000 people annually. TBI is associated with significant impairments in brain function, impacting cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and physical functioning. Although much previous research has focused on the impairment immediately following injury, TBI may have much longer-lasting consequences, including neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment. TBI, even mild brain injury, has also been recognized as a significant risk factor for the later development of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Although the link between TBI and dementia is currently unknown, several proposed mechanisms have been put forward, including alterations in glucose metabolism, excitotoxicity, calcium influx, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. A treatment for the devastating long-term consequences of TBI is desperately needed. Unfortunately, however, no such treatment is currently available, making this a major area of unmet medical need. Increasing the level of neurotrophic factor expression in key brain areas may be one potential therapeutic strategy. Of the neurotrophic factors, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be particularly effective for preventing the emergence of long-term complications of TBI, including dementia, because of its ability to reduce apoptosis, stimulate neurogenesis, and increase neuroplasticity.
Hassanzadeh, Parichehr; Arbabi, Elham; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul
Some conventional antiepileptic drugs induce oxidative stress and cognitive impairment which may limit their clinical applications. Ferulic acid is a phenolic phytochemical with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties that prompted us to evaluate its therapeutic potential in epilepsy which is usually associated with oxidative stress and cognitive decline. Male Wistar rats received 30mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) intraperitoneally (i.p.) once every alternate day until the development of kindling. The locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, and passive avoidance tests were performed. Oxidative stress was evaluated by the determination of brain malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione. The effects of pre-treatment with ferulic acid (25, 50, 75, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) against PTZ-kindled seizures, cognitive impairment, and oxidative stress were investigated. Kindling was developed 34.18±1.54days after PTZ treatment which was associated with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), myoclonic jerks, cognitive deficit, and oxidative stress. Ferulic acid at doses of 75 and 100mg/kg significantly reduced the seizure score, number of myoclonic jerks, cognitive decline and oxidative stress. Spontaneous locomotor activity did not significantly differ between the groups. Ferulic acid exhibits antiepileptogenic effect and prevents oxidative stress and cognitive impairment induced by PTZ kindling. Therefore, this phenolic phytochemical appears as a promising adjuvant for antiepileptic drugs. Meanwhile, further experimental and clinical studies are required to provide insights into the cellular/molecular mechanism(s) underlying the action of ferulic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Veisten, Knut; Houwing, Sjoerd; Mathijssen, M P M René; Akhtar, Juned
Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for decades in many countries, but new legislation and testing of drivers for drug use have recently been implemented in some countries. In this article we present a methodology for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of increased law enforcement of roadside drug screening. This is an analysis of the profitability for society, where costs of control are weighed against the reduction in injuries expected from fewer drugged drivers on the roads. We specify assumptions regarding costs and the effect of the specificity of the drug screening device, and quantify a deterrence effect related to sensitivity of the device yielding the benefit estimates. Three European countries with different current enforcement levels were studied, yielding benefit-cost ratios in the approximate range of 0.5-5 for a tripling of current levels of enforcement, with costs of about 4000 EUR per convicted and in the range of 1.5 and 13 million EUR per prevented fatality. The applied methodology for CBA has involved a simplistic behavioural response to enforcement increase and control efficiency. Although this methodology should be developed further, it is clearly indicated that the cost-efficiency of increased law enforcement of drug driving offences is dependent on the baseline situation of drug-use in traffic and on the current level of enforcement, as well as the RR and prevalence of drugs in road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Christopher A. Kahn
Full Text Available For years, public health experts have been concerned about the effect of cell phone use on motor vehicle collisions, part of a phenomenon known as “distracted driving.” The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR article “Mobile Device Use While Driving - United States and Seven European Countries 2011” highlights the international nature of these concerns. Recent (2011 estimates from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration are that 10% of fatal crashes and 17% of injury crashes were reported as distraction-affected. Of 3,331 people killed in 2011 on roadways in the U.S. as a result of driver distraction, 385 died in a crash where at least one driver was using a cell phone. For drivers 15-19 years old involved in a fatal crash, 21% of the distracted drivers were distracted by the use of cell phones. Efforts to reduce cell phone use while driving could reduce the prevalence of automobile crashes related to distracted driving. The MMWR report shows that there is much ground to cover with distracted driving. Emergency physicians frequently see the devastating effects of distracted driving on a daily basis and should take a more active role on sharing the information with patients, administrators, legislators, friends and family.
Troughton, Jacqui; Chatterjee, Sudesna; Hill, Siân E; Daly, Heather; Martin Stacey, Lorraine; Stone, Margaret A; Patel, Naina; Khunti, Kamlesh; Yates, Thomas; Gray, Laura J; Davies, Melanie J
We report development of a group-based lifestyle intervention, Let's Prevent, using the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework, and delivered by structured education to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in people with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in a UK multi-ethnic population. Diabetes Education and Self-Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DESMOND) is the first national T2DM programme that meets National Institute for Health and Care Excellence criteria and formed the basis for Let's Prevent. An iterative cycle of initial development, piloting, collecting and collating qualitative and quantitative data, and reflection and modification, was used to inform and refine lifestyle intervention until it was fit for evaluation in a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT). The programme encouraged IGR self-management using simple, non-technical language and visual aids. Qualitative and quantitative data suggested that intervention resulted in beneficial short-term behaviour change such as healthier eating patterns, improved health beliefs and greater participant motivation and empowerment. We also demonstrated that recruitment strategy and data collection methods were feasible for RCT implementation. Let's Prevent was developed following successful application of MRC framework criteria and the subsequent RCT will determine whether it is feasible, reliable and transferable from research into a real-world NHS primary healthcare setting. ISRCTN80605705. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Akese, M I; Adejumo, P O; Ilesanmi, R E; Obilor, H N
The increase in the prevalence of pressure ulcer among patients with impaired physical mobility has currently been associated with nurses' inadequate knowledge of preventive interventions. To assess nurses' knowledge of pressure ulcer identification/staging, risk factors and evidence-based preventive practices. This descriptive study was carried out at the University Teaching Hospital Maiduguri (UMTH), Borno State, Nigeria. Total sampling technique was utilized in the recruitment of the study participants. An adapted 75-item-pressure ulcer questionnaire was used for data collection. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. The hypotheses on nurses' knowledge were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Chi square test. A total of 219 nurses participated in this study with response rate of 68.0%. The nurses' years of professional practice ranged from 1 to 35 years with a mean of 11.7 (± 7.8) years. Approximately, 73% of the nurses demonstrated a low level of knowledge of pressure ulcer identification/staging, 69.4% demonstrated an average level of knowledge of risk factors and 79.9% demonstrated high level of knowledge of preventive practices. The relationship between nurses' knowledge of risk factors and knowledge of preventive practices (p = 0.37) was not significant. Nurses demonstrated a knowledge deficit in core areas on pressure ulcer identification/staging, risk factors' assessment and evidence-based preventive practices. In order to address this dearth, there is a need to institute an educational-based practice-guideline on pressure ulcer prevention for nurses.
Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.
João M N Duarte
Full Text Available Diabetic conditions are associated with modified brain function, namely with cognitive deficits, through largely undetermined processes. More than understanding the underlying mechanism, it is important to devise novel strategies to alleviate diabetes-induced cognitive deficits. Caffeine (a mixed antagonist of adenosine A(1 and A(2A receptors emerges as a promising candidate since caffeine consumption reduces the risk of diabetes and effectively prevents memory deficits caused by different noxious stimuli. Thus, we took advantage of a novel animal model of type 2 diabetes to investigate the behavioural, neurochemical and morphological modifications present in the hippocampus and tested if caffeine consumption might prevent these changes. We used a model closely mimicking the human type 2 diabetes condition, NONcNZO10/LtJ mice, which become diabetic at 7-11 months when kept under an 11% fat diet. Caffeine (1 g/l was applied in the drinking water from 7 months onwards. Diabetic mice displayed a decreased spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze accompanied by a decreased density of nerve terminal markers (synaptophysin, SNAP25, mainly glutamatergic (vesicular glutamate transporters, and increased astrogliosis (GFAP immunoreactivity compared to their wild type littermates kept under the same diet. Furthermore, diabetic mice displayed up-regulated A(2A receptors and down-regulated A(1 receptors in the hippocampus. Caffeine consumption restored memory performance and abrogated the diabetes-induced loss of nerve terminals and astrogliosis. These results provide the first evidence that type 2 diabetic mice display a loss of nerve terminal markers and astrogliosis, which is associated with memory impairment; furthermore, caffeine consumption prevents synaptic dysfunction and astrogliosis as well as memory impairment in type 2 diabetes.
Garcia, Pierre; Youssef, Ihsen; Utvik, Jo K; Florent-Béchard, Sabrina; Barthélémy, Vanassa; Malaplate-Armand, Catherine; Kriem, Badreddine; Stenger, Christophe; Koziel, Violette; Olivier, Jean-Luc; Escanye, Marie-Christine; Hanse, Marine; Allouche, Ahmad; Desbène, Cédric; Yen, Frances T; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Oster, Thierry; Niclou, Simone P; Pillot, Thierry
The development of novel therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents one of the biggest unmet medical needs today. Application of neurotrophic factors able to modulate neuronal survival and synaptic connectivity is a promising therapeutic approach for AD. We aimed to determine whether the loco-regional delivery of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) could prevent amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomer-induced synaptic damages and associated cognitive impairments that typify AD. To ensure long-term administration of CNTF in the brain, we used recombinant cells secreting CNTF encapsulated in alginate polymers. The implantation of these bioreactors in the brain of Abeta oligomer-infused mice led to a continuous secretion of recombinant CNTF and was associated with the robust improvement of cognitive performances. Most importantly, CNTF led to full recovery of cognitive functions associated with the stabilization of synaptic protein levels in the Tg2576 AD mouse model. In vitro as well as in vivo, CNTF activated a Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-mediated survival pathway that prevented synaptic and neuronal degeneration. These preclinical studies suggest that CNTF and/or CNTF receptor-associated pathways may have AD-modifying activity through protection against progressive Abeta-related memory deficits. Our data also encourage additional exploration of ex vivo gene transfer for the prevention and/or treatment of AD.
Ito, Yasuyo; Urakami, Katsuya
The number of elderly people with dementia in Japan is likely to increase as the population ages. In some areas in Tottori Prefecture, dementia-prevention classes have been conducted for several years. In the present study, we evaluated dementia-prevention classes in nine districts of Tottori Prefecture in terms of cognitive function, assessment by the leader and subjective evaluation by participants. The study's subjects included 112 community-dwelling elderly residents who were selected after a two-step screening. Data were collected according to the following four factors: (i) evaluation of cognitive function at the beginning and end of classes; (ii) the content of the classes; (iii) observations regarding the state of subjects; and (iv) participants' subjective evaluation obtained via a questionnaire distributed at the final class. In terms of cognitive function among all subjects, scores significantly improved after the dementia-prevention classes. However, there were no significant cognitive improvements in the districts where programmes were biased towards a single category (e.g. systemic exercise, creative activities). Based on class leaders' assessments, subjects showed improved appearance and facial expression in later classes. Participants became more involved in the programmes, and their interests in others increased. In terms of their daily lives, subjects became more involved with others and more active after participating in the classes. Dementia-prevention classes improved not only cognitive function but also other aspects of daily life, as well. We thought it was important to evaluate both objective and subjective factors related to the classes. © 2012 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2012 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.
Full Text Available Jie Luo, Su Min, Ke Wei, Jun Cao, Bin Wang, Ping Li, Jun Dong, Yuanyuan Liu Department of Anesthesiology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Although a rapid and efficient psychiatric treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT induces memory impairment. Modified ECT requires anesthesia for safety purposes. Although traditionally found to exert amnesic effects in general anesthesia, which is an inherent part of modified ECT, some anesthetics have been found to protect against ECT-induced cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol on memory in depressed rats undergoing electroconvulsive shock (ECS, the analog of ECT in animals, under anesthesia as well as its mechanisms.Methods: Chronic unpredictable mild stresses were adopted to reproduce depression in a rodent model. Rats underwent ECS (or sham ECS with anesthesia with propofol or normal saline. Behavior was assessed in sucrose preference, open field and Morris water maze tests. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP was measured using electrophysiological techniques. PSD-95, CREB, and p-CREB protein expression was assayed with western blotting.Results: Depression induced memory damage, and downregulated LTP, PSD-95, CREB, and p-CREB; these effects were exacerbated in depressed rats by ECS; propofol did not reverse the depression-induced changes, but when administered in modified ECS, propofol improved memory and reversed the downregulation of LTP and the proteins. Conclusion: These findings suggest that propofol prevents ECS-induced memory impairment, and modified ECS under anesthesia with propofol improves memory in depressed rats, possibly by reversing the excessive changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These observations provide a novel insight into potential targets for optimizing the clinical use of ECT for psychiatric
Edwards, Jodi D
Multiple cardiac pathologies have been shown to contribute to progressive cognitive decline and dementia in elderly populations, including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), a marker of prolonged exposure to hypertension. Although associations between chronic hypertension and cognitive function are thought to be mediated primarily by these end organ effects, there is increasing evidence that early changes in cardiac structure and function, such as LVH, may independently contribute to cognitive decline and impairment. In the current issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Mahinrad and colleagues report important new findings on the association between LVH and cognitive function that are incremental to cardiovascular risk and co-morbidity, including hypertension. Emerging evidence that early changes in cardiac structure and function may independently contribute to cognitive decline in elderly populations has resulted in an increased interest in these preclinical substrates as potential treatment targets for the prevention of cognitive decline and in their putative contributions to the pathogenesis of dementia.
Zager, Adriano; Brandão, Wesley Nogueira; Margatho, Rafael Oliveira
to the open field and elevated plus maze test 2h later. After 24h, mice were subjected to tail suspension test, followed by either flow cytometry with whole brain for CD11b+CD45+ cells or qPCR in brain areas for cytokine gene expression. Modafinil treatment prevented the LPS-induced motor impairment, anxiety...... was to evaluate the effect of Modafinil pretreatment in the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness and depressive-like behaviors. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with Vehicle or Modafinil (90mg/Kg) and, 30min later, received a single saline or LPS (2mg/Kg) administration, and were submitted...
Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Siddiqui, Rafat Ali; Haider, Saida
Scopolamine, an anti-muscarinic agent, has been shown to induce amnesia and oxidative stress similar to that observed in the older age. The present study was designed to determine the relationship between the oxidative status and memory improvement in scopolamine injected rats pre-administered with almonds. Rats (n = 8) in the almond group were administered orally with 400 mg/kg almond suspension for 28 days daily before the intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). Passive avoidance task (PAT) was used to assess memory function at the end of treatment. The present study revealed that scopolamine injection significantly impaired the memory function in rats pre-treated with saline which was accompanied by increased oxidative stress as evident by increased brain malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced activities of antioxidant enzymes as compared to healthy controls. Pre-treatment with almond significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced oxidative stress and memory dysfunction. These findings suggest that dietary supplementation with almonds may have a beneficial effect in reducing the risk of oxidative stress-induced memory loss and delaying or preventing the onset of age-related memory impairment.
Jennifer C. Harvey
Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that a high fat meal (HFM would impair cutaneous vasodilation, while thermotherapy (TT would reverse the detrimental effects. Eight participants were instrumented with skin heaters and laser-Doppler (LD probes and tested in three trials: control, HFM, and HFM + TT. Participants wore a water-perfused suit perfused with 33°C (control and HFM or 50°C (HFM + TT water. Participants consumed 1 g fat/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken at baseline and two hours post-HFM. Blood pressure was measured every 5–10 minutes. Microvascular function was assessed via skin local heating from 33°C to 39°C two hours after HFM. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC was calculated and normalized to maximal vasodilation (%CVCmax. HFM had no effect on initial peak (48 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control (49 ± 4 %CVCmax but attenuated the plateau (51 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control (63 ± 4 %CVCmax, P < 0.001. Initial peak was augmented in HFM + TT (66 ± 4 %CVCmax compared to control and HFM (P < 0.05, while plateau (73 ± 3 % CVCmax was augmented only compared to the HFM trial (P < 0.001. These data suggest that HFM negatively affects cutaneous vasodilation but can be minimized by TT.
Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; de Almeida, Paulo César; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida
ABSTRACT Objective: to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. Method: a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. Results: on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. Conclusion: the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. PMID:27556880
Full Text Available Objective. To study the opportunities to increase the efficiency of pathogenetic therapy in patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CVD (discirculatory encephalopathy, DE on the background of metabolic syndrome (MS using the drug Vitaxon®. The feature of the work was to identify strategic areas of the brain in cognitive and emotional disorders in patients with MS and its absence. Materials and methods. We observed 49 patients with DE II degree aged 37 to 73 years against the background of MS. The main group — 30 patients — received Vitaxon® as a part of treatment. The control group consisted of 19 patients with DE degree II following MS, comparable in the age and stage of the disease, who were not taking Vitaxon®. Patients were observed for 12 weeks. In addition to neurological, general clinical examinations, detection of MS signs, we have used neuropsychological tests by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (МоСА, Spielberger anxiety scale; Beck depression scale; study of attention: search of numbers by Schulte tables with the assessment of task-performance time. The brain and its liquor system in 41 patients (27 patients with MS — the first group and 14 patients without MS — the second group were evaluated using the method of volumetry (measuring the volume of certain brain regions, on the magnetic resonance imaging scanner Toshiba Vantage Titan 1.5. Results. Cognitive impairment in both groups manifested by the loss of memory, attention disorders, slowing of mental processes. After 12 weeks, the median by the MMSE significantly increased by 3.3 % (p < 0.05 compared with the first test in patients who received Vitaxon®. By МоСА, which is more sensitive when determining the mild cognitive impairment, in a group of Vitaxon® cognitive functions improved by 5 %, while in the control group — by 1.66 %. By Spielberger scale, state anxiety indicators improved more in the group of
Swartz, Richard H; Cayley, Megan L; Lanctôt, Krista L; Murray, Brian J; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E; Sicard, Michelle N; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J; Herrmann, Nathan
Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment ("DOC") are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and treatment
Richard H Swartz
Full Text Available Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and Cognitive impairment ("DOC" are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool ("DOC" screen to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment.All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines.1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes, less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index, had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens.Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may facilitate improved identification and
Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael
The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441
Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Zhou, Ming; Yau, Joyce L W; Webster, Scott P; Walker, Brian R; Seckl, Jonathan R; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes intracellular regeneration of corticosterone and cortisol, thereby enhancing glucocorticoid action. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 reverses the deficits in cognition with aging, a state of elevated glucocorticoid levels. However, any impact of 11β-HSD1 inhibition during high glucocorticoid states in younger animals is unknown. Here we examined whether a single injection of the selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor UE2316 modifies the effect of stress on hippocampal long-term potentiation and fear conditioning, a learning paradigm that is strongly modulated by glucocorticoids. We found that novelty stress suppresses hippocampal synaptic potentiation. This effect was completely prevented by administration of UE2316 one hour before stress exposure. A single injection of UE2316 also impaired contextual, but not tone-cue-fear conditioning. These observations suggest that local metabolism of glucocorticoids is relevant for the outcome of stress effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may be an interesting new approach to the prevention of trauma-associated psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Leiby, Benjamin E
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) affects 25% of older African Americans and predicts progression to Alzheimer's disease. An extensive epidemiologic literature suggests that cognitive, physical, and/or social activities may prevent cognitive decline. We describe the methods of a randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of Behavior Activation to prevent cognitive decline in older African Americans with the amnestic multiple domain subtype of MCI. Community Health Workers deliver 6 initial in-home treatment sessions over 2-3 months and then 6 subsequent in-home booster sessions using language, materials, and concepts that are culturally relevant to older African Americans during this 24 month clinical trial. We are randomizing 200 subjects who are recruited from churches, senior centers, and medical clinics to Behavior Activation or Supportive Therapy, which controls for attention. The primary outcome is episodic memory as measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised at baseline and at months 3, 12, 18, and 24. The secondary outcomes are general and domain-specific neuropsychological function, activities of daily living, depression, and quality-of-life. The negative results of recent clinical trials of drug treatments for MCI and Alzheimer's disease suggest that behavioral interventions may provide an alternative treatment approach to preserve cognition in an aging society. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder accompanied with structural and functional changes in central and peripheral nervous system. Researches showed, memory disturbance were occurred in the course of diabetes. On the other hand, magnesium deficit has been described in diabetic patients. Some researches were showed that, appropriate magnesium supplementation can play a positive role in diabetic control.Methods: Locally produced male rats were used. Diabetes was induced with intravenous injection of 40 mg/kg streptozotosin. In treatment groups, the animals were received magnesium sulfate via drinking water (10 g/l. Eight weeks after diabetes confirmation, the animals were assessed on Morris Water Maze.Results: A significant decrease in time of platform finding (latency and distance of swimming in all four experimental days were seen in all groups. Mean latency in diabetic group was significantly higher than the other. This weak response was almost completely prevented by magnesium sulfate administration.Conclusion: It seems that after eight weeks magnesium sulfate administration (10g/l, spatial memory of the animals was improved in comparison to diabetic group that can suggest role of magnesium in recovery of diabetic animal memory.
Christopher J Folts
Full Text Available Neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs are severe and untreatable, and mechanisms underlying cellular dysfunction are poorly understood. We found that toxic lipids relevant to three different LSDs disrupt multiple lysosomal and other cellular functions. Unbiased drug discovery revealed several structurally distinct protective compounds, approved for other uses, that prevent lysosomal and cellular toxicities of these lipids. Toxic lipids and protective agents show unexpected convergence on control of lysosomal pH and re-acidification as a critical component of toxicity and protection. In twitcher mice (a model of Krabbe disease [KD], a central nervous system (CNS-penetrant protective agent rescued myelin and oligodendrocyte (OL progenitors, improved motor behavior, and extended lifespan. Our studies reveal shared principles relevant to several LSDs, in which diverse cellular and biochemical disruptions appear to be secondary to disruption of lysosomal pH regulation by specific lipids. These studies also provide novel protective strategies that confer therapeutic benefits in a mouse model of a severe LSD.
Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; De Bellis, Michela; Cannone, Maria; Gramegna, Gianluca; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Simonetti, Simonetta; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Basco, Davide; Svelto, Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte
Hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats induces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in postural slow-twitch muscles, as occurs in human disuse conditions, such as spaceflight or bed rest. In rats, a reduction of soleus muscle weight and a decrease of cross-sectional area (CSA) were observed as signs of atrophy. An increased expression of the fast-isoform of myosin heavy chain (MHC) showed the phenotype transition. In parallel the resting cytosolic calcium concentration (restCa) was decreased and the resting chloride conductance (gCl), which regulates muscle excitability, was increased toward the values of the fast-twitch muscles. Here, we investigated the possible role of taurine, which is known to modulate calcium homeostasis and gCl, in the restoration of muscle impairment due to 14-days-HU. We found elevated taurine content and higher expression of the taurine transporter TauT in the soleus muscle as compared to the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of control rats. Taurine level was reduced in the HU soleus muscle, although, TauT expression was not modified. Taurine oral supplementation (5 g/kg) fully prevented this loss, and preserved resting gCl and restCa together with the slow MHC phenotype. Taurine supplementation did not prevent the HU-induced drop of muscle weight or fiber CSA, but it restored the expression of MURF-1, an atrophy-related gene, suggesting a possible early protective effect of taurine. In conclusion, taurine prevented the HU-induced phenotypic transition of soleus muscle and might attenuate the atrophic process. These findings argue for the beneficial use of taurine in the treatment of disuse-induced muscle dysfunction.
Serra-Pérez, Anna; Planas, Anna M; Núñez-O'Mara, Analía; Berra, Edurne; García-Villoria, Judit; Ribes, Antònia; Santalucía, Tomàs
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that activates the cellular response to hypoxia. The HIF1alpha subunit is constantly synthesized and degraded under normoxia, but degradation is rapidly inhibited when oxygen levels drop. Oxygen-dependent hydroxylation by prolyl-4-hydroxylases (PHD) mediates HIF1alpha proteasome degradation. Brain ischemia limits the availability not only of oxygen but also of glucose. We hypothesized that this circumstance could have a modulating effect on HIF. We assessed the separate involvement of oxygen and glucose in HIF1alpha regulation in differentiated neuroblastoma cells subjected to ischemia. We report higher transcriptional activity and HIF1alpha expression under oxygen deprivation in the presence of glucose (OD), than in its absence (oxygen and glucose deprivation, OGD). Unexpectedly, HIF1alpha was not degraded at reoxygenation after an episode of OGD. This was not due to impairment of proteasome function, but was associated with lower HIF1alpha hydroxylation. Krebs cycle metabolites fumarate and succinate are known inhibitors of PHD, while alpha-ketoglutarate is a co-substrate of the reaction. Lack of HIF1alpha degradation in the presence of oxygen was accompanied by a very low alpha-ketoglutarate/fumarate ratio. Furthermore, treatment with a fumarate analogue prevented HIF1alpha degradation under normoxia. In all, our data suggest that postischemic metabolic alterations in Krebs cycle metabolites impair HIF1alpha degradation in the presence of oxygen by decreasing its hydroxylation, and highlight the involvement of metabolic pathways in HIF1alpha regulation besides the well known effects of oxygen.
Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; De Seigneux, Sophie; Dupuis-Lozeron, Elise; Sarasin, François; Becker, Christoph D; Perneger, Thomas; Saudan, Patrick; Martin, Pierre-Yves
Patients admitted to the emergency room with renal impairment and undergoing a contrast computed tomography (CT) are at high risk of developing contrast nephropathy as emergency precludes sufficient hydration prior to contrast use. The value of an ultra-high dose of intravenous N-acetylcysteine in this setting is unknown. From 2008 to 2010, we randomized 120 consecutive patients admitted to the emergency room with an estimated clearance lower than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 by MDRD (mean GFR 42 ml/min/1.73 m2) to either placebo or 6000 mg N-acetylcysteine iv one hour before contrast CT in addition to iv saline. Serum cystatin C and creatinine were measured one hour prior to and at day 2, 4 and 10 after contrast injection. Nephrotoxicity was defined either as 25% or 44 μmol/l increase in serum creatinine or cystatin C levels compared to baseline values. Contrast nephrotoxicity occurred in 22% of patients who received placebo (13/58) and 27% of patients who received N-acetylcysteine (14/52, p = 0.66). Ultra-high dose intravenous N-acetylcysteine did not alter creatinine or cystatin C levels. No secondary effects were noted within the 2 groups during follow-up. An ultra-high dose of intravenous N-acetylcysteine is ineffective at preventing nephrotoxicity in patients with renal impairment undergoing emergency contrast CT. The study was registered as Clinical trial (NCT01467154).
Oliveira, Giselly Oseni Barbosa; Cavalcante, Luana Duarte Wanderley; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag; Almeida, Paulo César de; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida
to validate an educational text in the context of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) for visually impaired persons, making it accessible to this population. a validation study, in a virtual environment. Data collection occurred from May to September 2012 by emailing the subjects, and was composed by seven content experts about STDs. Analysis was based on the considerations of the experts about Objectives, Structure and Presentation, and Relevance. on the Objectives and Structure and Presentation blocks, 77 (84.6%) and 48 (85.7%) were fully adequate or appropriate, respectively. In the Relevance block, items 3.2 - Allows transfer and generalization of learning, and 3.5 - Portrays aspects needed to clarify the family, showed bad agreement indices of 0.42 and 0.57, respectively. The analysis was followed by reformulating the text according to the relevant suggestions. the text was validated regarding the content of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 35 stanzas were removed and nine others included, following the recommendations of the experts. validar texto educativo no contexto das doenças sexualmente transmissíveis para pessoas com deficiência visual para torná-lo acessível a essa população. estudo de validação, em ambiente virtual. Coleta de dados de maio a setembro de 2012, por meio da utilização dos e-mails eletrônicos dos sujeitos, compostos por sete especialistas em conteúdo na temática, através de instrumento próprio. Análise ocorreu com base nas considerações dos especialistas sobre os Objetivos, Estrutura e Apresentação e Relevância. nos blocos de Objetivos e Estrutura e Apresentação, 77 (84,6%) e 48 (85,7%) eram totalmente adequados ou adequados, respectivamente. No bloco de Relevância, os itens 3.2 - Permite transferência e generalização da aprendizagem, e 3.5 - Mostra aspectos necessários para informar a família, revelaram índices de concordância ruins de 0,42 e 0,57, respectivamente. Após a análise, o texto foi
Hesselink, Arlette E.; Bilo, Henk J. G.; Jonkers, Ruud; Martens, Marloes; de Weerdt, Inge; Rutten, Guy E. H.
Background: Effective diabetes prevention strategies that can be implemented in daily practice, without huge amounts of money and a lot of personnel are needed. The Dutch Diabetes Federation developed a protocol for coaching people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; according to WHO criteria: 6.1
Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Michelon, Cleonice M; Simões, Lutiana R; Elias, Samuel G; Vuolo, Franciele; Comim, Clarissa M; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João
Pneumococcal meningitis is a relevant clinical disease characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction into the subarachnoid and ventricular spaces, leading to blood-brain barrier breakdown, hearing loss, and cognitive impairment. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are capable of degrading components of the basal laminin, thus contributing to BBB damage and neuronal injury. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-2/9 inhibitors on BBB integrity, learning, and memory in Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. The animals underwent a magna cistern tap and received either 10 µL sterile saline as a placebo or an equivalent volume of a Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 10(9)cfu/mL. The rats were randomized into different groups that received adjuvant treatment with MMP-2, MMP-9 or MMP-2/9 inhibitors. The BBB integrity was evaluated, and the animals were habituated to open-field and object recognition tasks 10 days after meningitis induction. Adjuvant treatments with inhibitors of MMP-2 or MMP-2/9 prevented BBB breakdown in the hippocampus, and treatments with inhibitors of MMP-2, MMP-9 or MMP-2/9 prevented BBB breakdown in the cortex. Ten days after meningitis induction, the animals that received adjuvant treatment with the inhibitor of MMP-2/9 demonstrated that animals habituated to the open-field task faster and enhanced memory during short-term and long-term retention test sessions in the object recognition task. Further investigation is necessary to provide support for MMP inhibitors as an alternative treatment for bacterial meningitis; however, these findings suggest that the meningitis model could be a good research tool for studying the biological mechanisms involved in the behavioral alterations associated with pneumococcal meningitis.
Singh, Rumani; Manchanda, Shaffi; Kaur, Taranjeet; Kumar, Sushil; Lakhanpal, Dinesh; Lakhman, Sukhwinder S; Kaur, Gurcharan
Intermittent fasting dietary restriction (IF-DR) is recently reported to be an effective intervention to retard age associated disease load and to promote healthy aging. Since sustaining long term caloric restriction regimen is not practically feasible in humans, so use of alternate approach such as late onset short term IF-DR regimen which is reported to trigger similar biological pathways is gaining scientific interest. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of IF-DR regimen implemented for 12 weeks in middle age rats on their motor coordination skills and protein and DNA damage in different brain regions. Further, the effect of IF-DR regimen was also studied on expression of energy regulators, cell survival pathways and synaptic plasticity marker proteins. Our data demonstrate that there was an improvement in motor coordination and learning response with decline in protein oxidative damage and recovery in expression of energy regulating neuropeptides. We further observed significant downregulation in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) levels and moderate upregulation of mortalin and synaptophysin expression. The present data may provide an insight on how a modest level of short term IF-DR, imposed in middle age, can slow down or prevent the age-associated impairment of brain functions and promote healthy aging by involving multiple regulatory pathways aimed at maintaining energy homeostasis.
Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent
Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033
Raafat P Fares
Full Text Available Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage, which offers: (1 minimally stressful social interactions; (2 increased voluntary exercise; (3 multiple entertaining activities; (4 cognitive stimulation (maze exploration, and (5 novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week. The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories.
Lutiana R. Simões
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lithium on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF expression in the hippocampus and on memory in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. The mood-stabilizer lithium is known as a neuroprotective agent with many effects on the brain. In this study, animals received either artificial cerebrospinal fluid or Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension at a concentration of 5 × 109 CFU/mL. Eighteen hours after induction, all animals received ceftriaxone. The animals received saline or lithium (47.5 mg/kg or tamoxifen (1 mg/kg as adjuvant treatment, and they were separated into six groups: control/saline, control/lithium, control/tamoxifen, meningitis/saline, meningitis/lithium, and meningitis/tamoxifen. Ten days after meningitis induction, animals were subjected to open-field habituation and the step-down inhibitory avoidance tasks. Immediately after these tasks, the animals were killed and their hippocampus was removed to evaluate the expression of BDNF, NGF, and GDNF. In the meningitis group, treatment with lithium and tamoxifen resulted in improvement in memory. Meningitis group showed decreased expression of BDNF and GDNF in the hippocampus while lithium reestablished the neurotrophin expression. Lithium was able to prevent memory impairment and reestablishes hippocampal neurotrophin expression in experimental pneumococcal meningitis.
Greenberg, Michael D; Morral, Andrew R; Jain, Arvind K
Public policy interventions designed to deter or prevent drunk driving depend, in part, on modifying beliefs concerning the riskiness, social acceptability and immorality of driving under the influence of alcohol. The current study examines the association of these beliefs with the incidence of alcohol-impaired driving. Interviews were conducted with 273 people with multiple driving under the influence (DUI) offenses. Data included self-reported frequency of driving after drinking in the past year, as well as measures of moral and prescriptive beliefs concerning alcohol-impaired driving (internal behavioral controls), perceived risks of criminal punishment and accidents associated with alcohol-impaired driving (external behavioral controls) and perceived peer group attitudes toward alcohol-impaired driving (social controls). Logit regression modeling showed significant, unique protective associations with behavioral control items in each category. Behavioral controls may protect against alcohol-impaired driving behavior even in a high-risk sample of repeat DUI offenders. Policy interventions designed to curtail drunk driving might seek to enhance these sorts of behavioral controls among DUI offenders.
... find the loss of driving privileges and the inherent loss of independence upsetting. Encourage the individual with ... to modify their driving. This can reduce the risk of an accident if the individual’s driving skills ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...
С. А. Пашкевич
Full Text Available The objective is to implement a visual impairment prevention program into a vocational school’s academic process for the risk group students and to determine its effectiveness based on the dynamics of comprehensive scoring assessment of the degree of visual pathology risk. Materials and methods. Observed were 91 students (35 boys and 56 girls. For the formative experiment purposes, a study group (SG consisting of 10 persons (4 boys and 6 girls with a visual organ pathology who performed the designed preventive program and a reference group (RG consisting of 10 persons (5 boys and 5 girls with a visual organ pathology who studied under the usual program were selected The program effectiveness was evaluated by changes in the students’ subjective evaluation of their visual comfort. The Relative Risk Index (RR was used to perform a rough evatuation of the cause-effect relations between the acting factor and the effect appearance. The output characteristics were compared between the groups using χ2 tests (binary variables, t-tests (continuous variables, Mann-Whitney test for comparing the distribution of ordinal variables, and Wilcoxon test (related sampling. Results. The dynamics in the RG over the academic year showed an increase in the scoring assessment of the visual fatigue, which constituted 90.6 ± 10.3%. At the same time, the students in the SG demonstrated a reduced intensity and number of complaints about the visual analyzer fatigue. In the SG, the complex scoring assessment reliably decreased from 9.8 ± 0.8 to 7.2 ± 0.9 c.u. The implemented preventive program had a positive effect on the complaints: “the desire to bring the text closer to the eyes” (relative risk (RR = 6.0, χ2 = 5.6, p <0.05, “the feeling of existence of certain periods of change in the visual acuity” (relative risk (RR = 3.5; χ2 = 5.1; p <0.05, and the overall assessment of the questionnaire (relative risk (RR = 7.0; χ2 = 7.5; p <0.01. The
Mancini, Simona; Balducci, Claudia; Micotti, Edoardo; Tolomeo, Daniele; Forloni, Gianluigi; Masserini, Massimo; Re, Francesca
The failure of clinical trials largely focused on mild to moderate stages of Alzheimer disease has suggested to the scientific community that the effectiveness of Amyloid-β (Aβ)-centered treatments should be evaluated starting as early as possible, well before irreversible brain damage has occurred. Accordingly, also the preclinical development of new therapies should be carried out taking into account this suggestion. In the present investigation we evaluated the efficacy of a treatment with liposomes multifunctionalized for crossing the blood-brain barrier and targeting Aβ, carried out on young APP/PS1 Tg mice, taken as a model of pre-symptomatic disease stage. Liposomes were administered once a week to Tg mice for 7months, starting at the age of 5months and up to the age of 12 when they display AD-like cognitive and brain biochemical/anatomical features. The treatment prevented the onset of the long-term memory impairment and slowed down the deposition of brain Aβ; at anatomical level, prevented both ventricle enlargement and entorhinal cortex thickness reduction, otherwise occurring in untreated mice. Strikingly, these effects were maintained 3months after treatment discontinuation. An increase of Aβ levels in the liver was detected at the end of the treatment, then followed also by reduction of brain Amyloid Precursor Protein and increase of Aβ-degrading enzymes. These results suggest that the treatment promotes brain Aβ clearance by a peripheral 'sink' effect and ultimately affects Aβ turnover in the brain. Worth of note, the treatment was apparently not toxic for all the organs analyzed, in particular for brain, as suggested by the lower brain TNF-α and MDA levels, and by higher level of SOD activity in treated mice. Together, these findings promote a very early treatment with multi-functional liposomes as a well-tolerated nanomedicine-based approach, potentially suitable for a disease-modifying therapy of AD, able to delay or prevent relevant
Veisten, K. Houwing, S. Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Akhtar, J.
Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for
Veisten, K. Houwing, S. Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Akhtar, J.
Road users driving under the influence of psychoactive substances may be at much higher relative risk (RR) in road traffic than the average driver. Legislation banning blood alcohol concentrations above certain threshold levels combined with roadside breath-testing of alcohol have been in lieu for
Rieche, Franziska; Carmine-Simmen, Katia; Poeck, Burkhard; Kretzschmar, Doris; Strauss, Roland
The β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) plays a central role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its normal physiological functions are still unclear. APP is cleaved by various secretases whereby sequential processing by the β- and γ-secretases produces the β-amyloid peptide that is accumulating in plaques that typify AD. In addition, this produces secreted N-terminal sAPPβ fragments and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). Alternative cleavage by α-secretase results in slightly longer secreted sAPPα fragments and the identical AICD. Whereas the AICD has been connected with transcriptional regulation, sAPPα fragments have been suggested to have a neurotrophic and neuroprotective role . Moreover, expression of sAPPα in APP-deficient mice could rescue their deficits in learning, spatial memory, and long-term potentiation . Loss of the Drosophila APP-like (APPL) protein impairs associative olfactory memory formation and middle-term memory that can be rescued with a secreted APPL fragment . We now show that APPL is also essential for visual working memory. Interestingly, this short-term memory declines rapidly with age, and this is accompanied by enhanced processing of APPL in aged flies. Furthermore, reducing secretase-mediated proteolytic processing of APPL can prevent the age-related memory loss, whereas overexpression of the secretases aggravates the aging effect. Rescue experiments confirmed that this memory requires signaling of full-length APPL and that APPL negatively regulates the neuronal-adhesion molecule Fasciclin 2. Overexpression of APPL or one of its secreted N termini results in a dominant-negative interaction with the FASII receptor. Therefore, our results show that specific memory processes require distinct APPL products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siska, Peter J.; van der Windt, Gerritje J. W.; Kishton, Rigel J.; Cohen, Sivan; Eisner, William; MacIver, Nancie J.; Kater, Arnon P.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Rathmell, Jeffrey C.
Leukemia can promote T cell dysfunction and exhaustion that contributes to increased susceptibility to infection and mortality. The treatment-independent mechanisms that mediate leukemia-associated T cell impairments are poorly understood, but metabolism tightly regulates T cell function and may
Mauck, Samuel R.; Zagumny, Matthew J.
Surveys college students (N=119) to examine psychosocial predictors of interventions to prevent drunk driving. Results show that the level of comparative impairment between the intervenor and the drunk driver, the sense of moral/social obligation to intervene, and the number of people consulted about the intervention significantly predicted…
Poor folate status is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults. Although impaired brain methylation activity and homocysteine toxicity are widely believed to account for this association, how folate deficiency impairs cognition is uncertain. To better define the role of folate ...
Robbins, Mike E.; Payne, Valerie B.S.; Tommasi, Ellen B.S.; Diz, Debra I.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Brown, William R.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Olson, John; Zhao Weiling
Purpose: We hypothesized that administration of the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, L-158,809, to young adult male rats would prevent or ameliorate fractionated whole-brain irradiation (WBI)-induced cognitive impairment. Materials and Methods: Groups of 80 young adult male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway (F344xBN) rats, 12-14 weeks old, received either: (1) fractionated WBI; 40 Gy of γ rays in 4 weeks, 2 fractions/week, (2) sham-irradiation; (3) WBI plus L-158,809 (20 mg/L drinking water) starting 3 days prior, during, and for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation; and (4) sham-irradiation plus L-158,809 for 14, 28, or 54 weeks postirradiation. An additional group of rats (n = 20) received L-158,809 before, during, and for 5 weeks postirradiation, after which they received normal drinking water up to 28 weeks postirradiation. Results: Administration of L-158,809 before, during, and for 28 or 54 weeks after fractionated WBI prevented or ameliorated the radiation-induced cognitive impairment observed 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. Moreover, giving L-158,809 before, during, and for only 5 weeks postirradiation ameliorated the significant cognitive impairment observed 26 weeks postirradiation. These radiation-induced cognitive impairments occurred without any changes in brain metabolites or gross histologic changes assessed at 28 and 54 weeks postirradiation, respectively. Conclusions: Administering L-158,809 before, during, and after fractionated WBI can prevent or ameliorate the chronic, progressive, cognitive impairment observed in rats at 26 and 52 weeks postirradiation. These findings offer the promise of improving the quality of life for brain tumor patients
Ikram, M. Arfan; Karlawish, Jason; Langbaum, Jessica B.; Neuhaus, John M.; Reiman, Eric M.; Roberts, J. Scott; Seshadri, Sudha; Tariot, Pierre N.; Betensky, Rebecca A.
Background With the onset of prevention trials for individuals at high risk for Alzheimer disease, there is increasing need for accurate risk prediction to inform study design and enrollment, but available risk estimates are limited. We developed risk estimates for the incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia among cognitively unimpaired individuals by APOE-e4 dose for the genetic disclosure process of the Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative Generation Study, a prevention trial in cognitively unimpaired APOE-e4/e4 homozygote individuals. Methods and findings We included cognitively unimpaired individuals aged 60–75 y, consistent with Generation Study eligibility criteria, from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC) (n = 5,073, 158 APOE-e4/e4), the Rotterdam Study (n = 6,399, 156 APOE-e4/e4), the Framingham Heart Study (n = 4,078, 67 APOE-e4/e4), and the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (SALSA) (n = 1,294, 11 APOE-e4/e4). We computed stratified cumulative incidence curves by age (60–64, 65–69, 70–75 y) and APOE-e4 dose, adjusting for the competing risk of mortality, and determined risk of MCI and/or dementia by genotype and baseline age. We also used subdistribution hazard regression to model relative hazard based on age, APOE genotype, sex, education, family history of dementia, vascular risk, subjective memory concerns, and baseline cognitive performance. The four cohorts varied considerably in age, education, ethnicity/race, and APOE-e4 allele frequency. Overall, cumulative incidence was uniformly higher in NACC than in the population-based cohorts. Among APOE-e4/e4 individuals, 5-y cumulative incidence was as follows: in the 60–64-y age stratum, it ranged from 0% to 5.88% in the three population-based cohorts versus 23.06% in NACC; in the 65–69-y age stratum, from 9.42% to 10.39% versus 34.62%; and in the 70–75-y age stratum, from 18.64% to 33.33% versus 38.34%. Five-year incidence of dementia was negligible
Beck, Kenneth H; Lee, Clark J; Weiner, Talia
This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. Four focus groups of college students. A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Notes and transcripts from the focus group sessions were analyzed to identify recurring themes regarding attitudes, motivations, experiences, influences, and potential preventive messaging strategies related to drowsy driving. Although most participants had heard of drowsy driving and were concerned about it, they did not associate it with legal risks and were more concerned about alcohol-impaired and distracted driving as crash risks. Participants viewed drowsy driving as a normal and unavoidable part of their lives over which they had little control. For potential anti-drowsy driving messaging strategies, participants preferred messages delivered via audiovisual or social media that featured graphic and emotional portrayals of crashes and their consequences. Participants also voiced strong support for preventive messaging strategies equating various degrees of sleep deprivation to known impairing levels of alcohol, as well as messages providing cues to action to actual drowsy drivers on roadways. Increased enforcement, education, and public messaging campaigns are needed to increase knowledge and influence attitudes and opinions among young drivers about the dangers and social unacceptability of drowsy driving. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Varun K Gupta
Full Text Available Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ, increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age. These age-induced AZ changes, however, were fully suppressed by spermidine feeding. A genetically enforced enlargement of AZ scaffolds (four gene-copies of BRP impaired memory formation in young animals. Thus, in the Drosophila nervous system, aging AZs seem to steer towards the upper limit of their operational range, limiting synaptic plasticity and contributing to impairment of memory formation. Spermidine feeding suppresses age-dependent memory impairment by counteracting these age-dependent changes directly at the synapse.
Miao, Zhengqiang; Tan, Kaeling; Vyas, Valmik K.; Whiteway, Malcolm; Robbins, Nicole; Wong, Koon Ho; Cowen, Leah E.
The capacity to respond to temperature fluctuations is critical for microorganisms to survive within mammalian hosts, and temperature modulates virulence traits of diverse pathogens. One key temperature-dependent virulence trait of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans is its ability to transition from yeast to filamentous growth, which is induced by environmental cues at host physiological temperature. A key regulator of temperature-dependent morphogenesis is the molecular chaperone Hsp90, which has complex functional relationships with the transcription factor Hsf1. Although Hsf1 controls global transcriptional remodeling in response to heat shock, its impact on morphogenesis remains unknown. Here, we establish an intriguing paradigm whereby overexpression or depletion of C. albicans HSF1 induces morphogenesis in the absence of external cues. HSF1 depletion compromises Hsp90 function, thereby driving filamentation. HSF1 overexpression does not impact Hsp90 function, but rather induces a dose-dependent expansion of Hsf1 direct targets that drives overexpression of positive regulators of filamentation, including Brg1 and Ume6, thereby bypassing the requirement for elevated temperature during morphogenesis. This work provides new insight into Hsf1-mediated environmentally contingent transcriptional control, implicates Hsf1 in regulation of a key virulence trait, and highlights fascinating biology whereby either overexpression or depletion of a single cellular regulator induces a profound developmental transition. PMID:29590106
In control rod drives, differential pressure sensors are disposed at the inlet and the exit of a driving water pressure control valve disposed in a driving water supply device and, when deviation of fluctuation of the differential pressure from a set value is detected, a pressure control valve for driving water is controlled so as to make the differential pressure constant. The differential pressure sensors detect the differential pressure between the pressure of the control rod drives at the inlet and the exit of the driving water pressure control valve and a pressure in a reactor dome. A judging circuit judges whether the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control valve is deviated from a set value or not and, if it deviates from the set value, outputs of judging signal to the control device. In the control device, the opening degree of the driving water pressure control valve is controlled, so that the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control value is constant and does not deviate from the set value. There are provided advantageous effects of preventing abnormal control rod withdrawing phenomenon to improve safety and reliability for the control of the reactor operation. (N.H.)
Asbridge, Mark; Smart, Reginald G; Mann, Robert E
Road rage has become a serious concern in many countries, and preventive efforts are required. This article reviews what can be done to prevent road rage by exploring potential prevention avenues in five areas. First, legal changes aimed at increasing the penalties for road rage behavior could be instituted, drawing on models from aggressive-driving or impaired-driving laws. A second approach would involve the adoption of court programs for convicted road ragers. Third, car redesign offers a means of reducing crime through environmental design. Fourth, mass media education could be implemented to inform drivers of the risk from road rage and how to avoid situations that facilitate road rage. Finally, prevention efforts could be directed to long-term societal changes that emphasize structural modifications, such as reducing congestion on the roads, reduced driver stress, or promoting public transportation. The strengths and weaknesses of these strategies are discussed.
Full Text Available The current idea behind brain pathology is that disease is initiated by mild disturbances of common physiological processes. Overtime, the disruption of the neuronal homeostasis will determine irreversible degeneration and neuronal apoptosis. This could be also true in the case of nerve growth factor (NGF alterations in sporadic Alzheimer′s disease (AD, an age-related pathology characterized by cholinergic loss, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In fact, the pathway activated by NGF, a key neurotrophin for the metabolism of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN, is one of the first homeostatic systems affected in prodromal AD. NGF signaling dysfunctions have been thought for decades to occur in AD late stages, as a mere consequence of amyloid-driven disruption of the retrograde axonal transport of neurotrophins to BFCN. Nowadays, a wealth of knowledge is potentially opening a new scenario: NGF signaling impairment occurs at the onset of AD and correlates better than amyloid load with cognitive decline. The recent acceleration in the characterization of anatomical, functional and molecular profiles of early AD is aimed at maximizing the efficacy of existing treatments and setting novel therapies. Accordingly, the elucidation of the molecular events underlying APP metabolism regulation by the NGF pathway in the septo-hippocampal system is crucial for the identification of new target molecules to slow and eventually halt mild cognitive impairment (MCI and its progression toward AD.
Keay, Lisa; Dillon, Lisa; Clemson, Lindy; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; McCluskey, Peter; Ramulu, Pradeep; Jan, Stephen; Rogers, Kris; Martin, Jodi; Tinsley, Frances; Jakobsen, Kirsten Bonrud; Ivers, Rebecca Q
Older people with vision impairment have significant ongoing morbidity, including risk of falls, but are neglected in fall prevention programmes. PlaTFORM is a pragmatic evaluation of the Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise fall prevention programme for older people with vision impairment or blindness (v-LiFE). Implementation and scalability issues will also be investigated. PlaTFORM is a single-blinded, randomised trial designed to evaluate the v-LiFE programme compared with usual care. Primary outcomes are fall rate over 12 months, measured using prospective monthly fall calendars, and function and participation assessed by the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Late-Life FDI) Function component. The secondary outcome is rate of falls requiring medical care. Activity-normalised fall rate will be estimated using accelerometer-measured physical activity data. EuroQol 5-dimension 5-level questionnaire will measure quality of life and impact of falls. Health record linkage will estimate resource use associated with falls. v-LiFE cost-effectiveness will be determined compared with usual care. 500 participants (250 per group) can provide 90% power to detect a significant between-group difference in fall rates; 588 will be recruited to allow for drop-out. Falls per person-year and Late-Life FDI will be compared between groups. PlaTFORM will determine if falls can be prevented among older people with vision loss through a home-based exercise programme. v-LiFE embeds balance and strength training within everyday activities with the aim of preventing falls. The study will also determine whether the programme can be effectively delivered by personnel who provide Orientation and Mobility training for people with vision impairment. ACTRN12616001186448p. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Zagaar, Munder; Dao, An; Levine, Amber; Alhaider, Ibrahim; Alkadhi, Karim
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise on sleep deprivation (S-D)-induced impairment of hippocampal dependent long-term memory, late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signaling cascade in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) area. Animals were conditioned to run on treadmills for 4 weeks then deprived of sleep for 24 h using the columns-in-water method. We tested the effect of exercise and/or S-D on behavioral performance using a post-learning paradigm in the radial arm water maze (RAWM) and in vivo extracellular recording in the CA1 area. The levels of L-LTP-related molecules in the CA1 area were then assessed both before and after L-LTP induction. After 24 h of S-D, spatial long-term memory impairment in the RAWM and L-LTP suppression was prevented by 4 weeks of regular exercise. Regular exercise also restored the S-D-associated decreases in the basal levels of key signaling molecules such as: calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/ERK), phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (P-CREB) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in the CA1 area. After L-LTP induction, regular exercise also prevented the S-D-induced down regulation of BDNF and P-CREB protein levels. The results suggest that our exercise protocol may prevent 24-h S-D-induced impairments in long-term memory and LTP by preventing deleterious changes in the basal and post-stimulation levels of P-CREB and BDNF associated with S-D.
Abd Rashid, Norlinda; Hapidin, Hermizi; Abdullah, Hasmah; Ismail, Zalina; Long, Idris
REM sleep deprivation is associated with impairment in learning and memory, and nicotine treatment has been shown to attenuate this effect. Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of DREAM protein in learning and memory processes. This study investigates the association of DREAM protein in REM sleep-deprived rats hippocampus upon nicotine treatment. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to normal condition, REM sleep deprivation and control wide platform condition for 72 hr. During this procedure, saline or nicotine (1 mg/kg) was given subcutaneously twice a day. Then, Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to assess learning and memory performance of the rats. The rats were sacrificed and the brain was harvested for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. MWM test found that REM sleep deprivation significantly impaired learning and memory performance without defect in locomotor function associated with a significant increase in hippocampus DREAM protein expression in CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG regions and the mean relative level of DREAM protein compared to other experimental groups. Treatment with acute nicotine significantly prevented these effects and decreased expression of DREAM protein in all the hippocampus regions but only slightly reduce the mean relative level of DREAM protein. This study suggests that changes in DREAM protein expression in CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG regions of rat's hippocampus and mean relative level of DREAM protein may involve in the mechanism of nicotine treatment-prevented REM sleep deprivation-induced learning and memory impairment in rats.
Peach, Tamsin; Pollock, Kristian; van der Wardt, Veronika; das Nair, Roshan; Logan, Pip; Harwood, Rowan H
To explore the perceptions of older people with mild dementia and mild cognitive impairment, and their family carers, about falling, falls risk and the acceptability of falls prevention interventions. Qualitative study involving thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with patient and relative dyads. 20 patient/ relative dyads recruited from Memory Assessment Services and Falls Prevention Services in the United Kingdom. The findings are presented under four key themes: attitudes to falls, attitudes to falls prevention interventions, barriers and facilitators, and the role of relatives. Participants' attitudes to falls interventions were varied and sometimes conflicting. Some worried about falls, but many resisted identifying themselves as potential 'fallers', even despite having fallen, and rejected the idea of needing the help that structured interventions signify. Participants preferred to focus on coping in the present rather than anticipating, and preparing for, an uncertain future. Falls prevention interventions were acknowledged to be valuable in principle and if required in the future but often felt to be not necessary or appropriate at present. This study of how persons with cognitive impairment, and their relatives, view falls risk and prevention mirror findings relating to the wider population of older persons without dementia. Participants did not generally see falls prevention interventions as currently relevant to themselves. The challenge for clinicians is how to present interventions with understanding and respect for the older person's identity. They must identify and address goals that patients and relatives value. Simplistic or paternalistic approaches will likely fail. Individualised interventions which focus on maintaining independence and preserving quality of life are more likely to be acceptable by supporting a positive self-image for patients and their relatives.
Tarragon, Ernesto; Lopez, Dolores; Estrada, Cristina; Gonzalez-Cuello, Ana; Ros, Carmen Ma; Lamberty, Yves; Pifferi, Fabien; Cella, Massimo; Canovi, Mara; Guiso, Giovanna; Gobbi, Marco; Fernández-Villalba, Emiliano; Blin, Olivier; Bordet, Regis; Richardson, Jill C; Herrero, María Trinidad
Memory loss is one of the key features of cognitive impairment in either aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia. Pharmacological treatments for memory loss are today focused on addressing symptomatology. One of these approved compounds is memantine, a partial NMDA receptor antagonist that has proved its beneficial effects in cognition. The Octodon degus (O. degus) has been recently proposed as a potential model relevant for neurodegenerative diseases. However, there are no previous studies investigating the effect of pharmacological treatments for age-related cognitive impairment in this rodent. In this work we aimed to evaluate the effect of memantine on sleep deprivation (SD)-induced memory impairment in young and old O. degus. Young and old animals were trained in different behavioral paradigms validated for memory evaluation, and randomly assigned to a control (CTL, n=14) or an SD (n=14) condition, and treated with vehicle or memantine (10-mg/Kg i.p.) before the SD started. We demonstrate that SD impairs memory in both young and old animals, although the effect in the old group was significantly more severe (Pmemories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The
Full Text Available Abstract The functional role of oxidative stress in cancer pathogenesis has long been a hotly debated topic. A study published this month in BMC Cancer by Goh et al., directly addresses this issue by using a molecular genetic approach, via an established mouse animal model of human breast cancer. More specifically, alleviation of mitochondrial oxidative stress, via transgenic over-expression of catalase (an anti-oxidant enzyme targeted to mitochondria, was sufficient to lower tumor grade (from high-to-low and to dramatically reduce metastatic tumor burden by >12-fold. Here, we discuss these new findings and place them in the context of several other recent studies showing that oxidative stress directly contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. These results have important clinical and translational significance, as most current chemo-therapeutic agents and radiation therapy increase oxidative stress, and, therefore, could help drive tumor recurrence and metastasis. Similarly, chemo- and radiation-therapy both increase the risk for developing a secondary malignancy, such as leukemia and/or lymphoma. To effectively reduce mitochondrial oxidative stress, medical oncologists should now re-consider the use of powerful anti-oxidants as a key component of patient therapy and cancer prevention. Please see related research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2407/11/191
Julia Esser-von Bieren
Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from chronic helminth infections with no effective vaccines currently available. Antibodies and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM form crucial components of protective immunity against challenge infections with intestinal helminths. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies target these large multi-cellular parasites remain obscure. Alternative activation of macrophages during helminth infection has been linked to signaling through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα, but the potential effects of antibodies on macrophage differentiation have not been explored. We demonstrate that helminth-specific antibodies induce the rapid trapping of tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue necrosis following challenge infection with the natural murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp. Mice lacking antibodies (JH (-/- or activating Fc receptors (FcRγ(-/- harbored highly motile larvae, developed extensive tissue damage and accumulated less Arginase-1 expressing macrophages around the larvae. Moreover, Hp-specific antibodies induced FcRγ- and complement-dependent adherence of macrophages to larvae in vitro, resulting in complete larval immobilization. Antibodies together with helminth larvae reprogrammed macrophages to express wound-healing associated genes, including Arginase-1, and the Arginase-1 product L-ornithine directly impaired larval motility. Antibody-induced expression of Arginase-1 in vitro and in vivo occurred independently of IL-4Rα signaling. In summary, we present a novel IL-4Rα-independent mechanism of alternative macrophage activation that is antibody-dependent and which both mediates anti-helminth immunity and prevents tissue disruption caused by migrating larvae.
[Asbestos and the Industrial Safety and Health Law - in reference to the ordinance on prevention of hazards due to specified chemical substances and the ordinance on prevention of health impairment due to asbestos].
Takahashi, Ken; Ishii, Yoshimasa
Recently in Japan, mesothelioma and lung cancer caused by asbestos are increasing in number and in proportion among occupational cancers. It is thus obvious that asbestos will remain an important theme in the field of occupational health and safety. We hereby report on the relationship between asbestos and the Industrial Safety and Health Law, the Ordinance on Prevention of Hazards due to Specified Chemical Substances, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Health Impairment due to Asbestos, in reference to laws and regulations as well as official notifications issued by the Ministry. In particular, we will focus on the process by which our country totally prohibited the use of asbestos, countermeasures to prevent exposure of workers, historical changes regarding administrative concentration levels, and measures for the management of health of workers handling and dealing with asbestos.
Matthew S Thimgan
Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.
Excessive consumption of high fat/high cholesterol “Western” diets during postnatal life results in increased energy intake, development of obesity and systemic insulin resistance. However, how this diet impairs bone development and remodeling is not well understood, and no effective dietary interve...
Nava, N.; Popoli, M.; Musazzi, L.
Background: Limbic structures where glutamatergic transmission is considered to be prevalent such as amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, have shown a deep impairment in stress-related disorders . A number of studies have highlighted the cumulative effects of stress and its major media...
de Theije, Caroline G M; van den Elsen, Lieke W J; Willemsen, Linette E M; Milosevic, Vanja; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Broersen, Laus M; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D
Allergy is suggested to exacerbate impaired behaviour in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. We have previously shown that food allergy impaired social behaviour in mice. Dietary fatty acid composition may affect both the immune and nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) on food allergy-induced impaired social behaviour and associated deficits in prefrontal dopamine (DA) in mice. Mice were fed either control or n-3 LCPUFA-enriched diet before and during sensitization with whey. Social behaviour, acute allergic skin response and serum immunoglobulins were assessed. Monoamine levels were measured in brain and intestine and fatty acid content in brain. N-3 LCPUFA prevented impaired social behaviour of allergic mice. Moreover, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) incorporation into the brain and restored reduced levels of prefrontal DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid in allergic mice. In addition to these brain effects, n-3 LCPUFA supplementation reduced the allergic skin response and restored decreased intestinal levels of serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in allergic mice. N-3 LCPUFA may have beneficial effects on food allergy-induced deficits in social behaviour, either indirectly by reducing the allergic response and restoring intestinal 5-HT signalling, or directly by DHA incorporation into neuronal membranes, affecting the DA system. Therefore, it is of interest to further investigate the relevance of food allergy-enhanced impairments in social behaviour in humans and the potential benefits of dietary n-3 LCPUFA supplementation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Adverse environmental conditions such as hypobaric hypoxia (HH cause memory impairment by affecting cellular machinery leading to neurodegeneration. Providing enriched environment (EE is found to be beneficial for curing several neurodegenerative disorders. The protective role of EE in preventing HH induced neuronal death has been reported previously but the involved mechanism is still not clearly understood. The present study is an attempt to verify the impact of EE on spatial memory during HH and also to explore the possible role of neurotrophin in EE mediated neuroprotection. Signaling mechanism involved in neuroprotection was also explored. Male Sprague Dawley rats were simulated to HH condition in an Animal Decompression Chamber at an altitude of 25000 feet in standard and enriched cages for 7 days. Spatial memory was assessed through Morris Water Maze. Role of different neurotrophins was explored by gene silencing and inhibitors for their respective receptors. Further, using different blockers signaling pathway was also explored. Finding of the present study suggested that EE prevents HH mediated memory impairment and neurodegeneration. Also brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF plays a major role in EE mediated neuroprotection and it effectively prevented neurodegeneration by activating PI3K/AKT pathway resulting in GSK3β inactivation which further inhibits apoptosis. Moreover GSK3β phosphorylation and hence its inactivation upregulates CREB phosphorylation which may also accounts for activation of survival machinery in cells and provides neuroprotection. From these observations it can be postulated that EE has a therapeutic potential in amelioration of HH induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration. Hence it may be used as a non invasive and non pharmacological intervention against various neurological disorders.
Jain, Vishal; Baitharu, Iswar; Prasad, Dipti; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy
Adverse environmental conditions such as hypobaric hypoxia (HH) cause memory impairment by affecting cellular machinery leading to neurodegeneration. Providing enriched environment (EE) is found to be beneficial for curing several neurodegenerative disorders. The protective role of EE in preventing HH induced neuronal death has been reported previously but the involved mechanism is still not clearly understood. The present study is an attempt to verify the impact of EE on spatial memory during HH and also to explore the possible role of neurotrophin in EE mediated neuroprotection. Signaling mechanism involved in neuroprotection was also explored. Male Sprague Dawley rats were simulated to HH condition in an Animal Decompression Chamber at an altitude of 25000 feet in standard and enriched cages for 7 days. Spatial memory was assessed through Morris Water Maze. Role of different neurotrophins was explored by gene silencing and inhibitors for their respective receptors. Further, using different blockers signaling pathway was also explored. Finding of the present study suggested that EE prevents HH mediated memory impairment and neurodegeneration. Also brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a major role in EE mediated neuroprotection and it effectively prevented neurodegeneration by activating PI3K/AKT pathway resulting in GSK3β inactivation which further inhibits apoptosis. Moreover GSK3β phosphorylation and hence its inactivation upregulates CREB phosphorylation which may also accounts for activation of survival machinery in cells and provides neuroprotection. From these observations it can be postulated that EE has a therapeutic potential in amelioration of HH induced memory impairment and neurodegeneration. Hence it may be used as a non invasive and non pharmacological intervention against various neurological disorders.
Zewen Kelvin Tuong
Full Text Available RORα is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR superfamily and analysis of the (global RORα-deficient mouse model revealed this NR has a role in glycemic control and fat deposition. Therefore, we generated an adipose-specific RORα ‘gain of function’ mouse model under the control of the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 promoter to elucidate the function of RORα in adipose tissue. The Tg-FABP4-RORα4 mice demonstrated a shift in fat distribution to non-adipose tissues when challenged with a high fat diet (HFD. Specifically, we observed a subcutaneous lipodystrophy, accompanied by hepatomegaly (fatty liver/mild portal fibrosis and splenomegaly; in a background of decreased weight gain and total body fat after HFD. Moreover, we observed significantly higher fasting blood glucose and impaired clearance of glucose in Tg-FABP4-RORα4 mice. Genome wide expression and qPCR profiling analysis identified: (i subcutaneous adipose specific decreases in the expression of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, lipid droplet expansion and glycemic control, and (ii the fibrosis pathway as the most significant pathway [including dysregulation of the collagen/extracellular matrix (ECM pathways] in subcutaneous adipose and liver. The pathology presented in the Tg-FABP4-RORα4 mice is reminiscent of human metabolic disease (associated with aberrant ECM expression highlighting the therapeutic potential of this NR.
O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K
Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.
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Children with severe impairment of the central nervous system (CNS) experience gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms at a high rate and severity, including retching, vomiting, GI tract pain, and feeding intolerance. Commonly recognized sources of symptoms include constipation and gastroesophageal reflux disease. There is growing awareness of sources due to the impaired nervous system, including visceral hyperalgesia due to sensitization of sensory neurons in the enteric nervous system and central neuropathic pain due to alterations in the thalamus. Challenging the management of these symptoms is the lack of tests to confirm alterations in the nervous system as a cause of symptom generation, requiring empirical trials directed at such sources. It is also common to have multiple reasons for the observed symptoms, further challenging management. Recurrent emesis and GI tract pain can often be improved, though in some not completely eliminated. In some, this can progress to intractable feeding intolerance. This comprehensive review provides an evidence-based approach to care, a framework for recurrent symptoms, and language strategies when symptoms remain intractable to available interventions. This summary is intended to balance optimal management with a sensitive palliative care approach to persistent GI symptoms in children with severe impairment of the CNS.
Sofalvi, Szabolcs; Schueler, Harold E; Lavins, Eric S; Kaspar, Claire K; Brooker, Ian T; Mazzola, Carrie D; Dolinak, David; Gilson, Thomas P; Perch, Steve
In July of 2016, carfentanil (CF) emerged in Northeast Ohio resulting in over 25 deaths within a 30-day period. A total of 125 deaths have occurred in Summit County and Cuyahoga County has reported 40 deaths, relating to the presence of CF either alone, or in combinations with heroin and fentanyl. Prior to this surge in CF cases, positive fentanyl enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening results were increasing in number. Many were negative for fentanyl confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fentanyl analogs such as CF, acetyl fentanyl (AF), 2-furanyl fentanyl (2-Fu-F) and 3-methylfentanyl (3-MF) may be present in these cases. Some fentanyl analogs like CF and 3-MF do not cross-react with the Immunalysis ELISA fentanyl assay. With the emergence of potent synthetic fentanyl analogs, questions arose as to how to interpret their very low concentrations or absence in the blood in relation to cause of death. Driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) blood specimens had also tested positive for CF by reference laboratories. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to identify and quantify fentanyl, norfentanyl (NF) and four analogs: AF, 2-Fu-F, 3-MF and CF. The method has been utilized to quantify these fentanyl analogs in blood and vitreous humor in authentic antemortem and postmortem cases. Calibration curves were established between 0.10-4.0 ng/mL (NF, AF, 3-MF, 2-Fu-F and CF) and 1.0-40 ng/mL for fentanyl. In total, 98 postmortem cases analyzed produced the following blood concentration ranges: CF (0.11-0.88 ng/mL), 3-MF (0.15-1.7 ng/mL), 2-Fu-F (0.15-0.30 ng/mL), AF (0.14-0.16 ng/mL), fentanyl (1.1-15 ng/mL) and NF (0.10-3.7 ng/mL). Only CF, fentanyl and NF were detected in a statistically significant subset DUID population of 26 cases producing concentration ranges between 0.11 and 0.47 ng/mL, 1.0 and 9.8 ng/mL, and 0.11 and 3.5 ng/mL, respectively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press
Czeisler, Charles A; Wickwire, Emerson M; Barger, Laura K; Dement, William C; Gamble, Karen; Hartenbaum, Natalie; Ohayon, Maurice M; Pelayo, Rafael; Phillips, Barbara; Strohl, Kingman; Tefft, Brian; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Malhotra, Raman; Whiton, Kaitlyn; Hirshkowitz, Max
This article presents the consensus findings of the National Sleep Foundation Drowsy Driving Consensus Working Group, which was an expert panel assembled to establish a consensus statement regarding sleep-related driving impairment. The National Sleep Foundation assembled a expert panel comprised of experts from the sleep community and experts appointed by stakeholder organizations. A systematic literature review identified 346 studies that were abstracted and provided to the panelists for review. A modified Delphi RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method with 2 rounds of voting was used to reach consensus. A final consensus was reached that sleep deprivation renders motorists unfit to drive a motor vehicle. After reviewing growing evidence of impairment and increased crash risk among drivers who obtained less than optimal sleep duration in the preceding 24 hours, the panelists recognized the need for public policy guidance as to when it is certainly unsafe to drive. Toward this end, the panelists agreed upon the following expert consensus statement: "Drivers who have slept for two hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are not fit to operate a motor vehicle." Panelists further agreed that most healthy drivers would likely be impaired with only 3 to 5 hours of sleep during the prior 24 hours. There is consensus among experts that healthy individuals who have slept for 2 hours or less in the preceding 24 hours are too impaired to safely operate a motor vehicle. Prevention of drowsy driving will require sustained and collaborative effort from multiple stakeholders. Implications and limitations of the consensus recommendations are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lindström, Jaana; Peltonen, Markku; Solomon, Alina; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Antikainen, Riitta; Hänninen, Tuomo; Jula, Antti; Mangialasche, Francesca; Paajanen, Teemu; Pajala, Satu; Rauramaa, Rainer; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Kivipelto, Miia
Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) study population. Potential study participants (age 60-77 years, the dementia risk score ≥ 6) were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496), 48% (n = 2654) attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1). The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD) age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7) years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0) points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2) mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0) mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9) mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.
Han, Huili; Dai, Chunfang; Dong, Zhifang
A growing body of evidence has shown that chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a widely prescribed medication for treatment of depression, can affect synaptic plasticity in the adult central nervous system. However, it is not well understood whether acute fluoxetine influences synaptic plasticity, especially on hippocampal CA1 long-term depression (LTD), and if so, whether it subsequently impacts hippocampal-dependent spatial memory. Here, we reported that LTD facilitated by elevated-platform stress in hippocampal slices was completely prevented by fluoxetine administration (10 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before stress. The LTD was not, however, significantly inhibited by fluoxetine administration immediately after stress. Similarly, fluoxetine incubation (10 μM) during electrophysiological recordings also displayed no influence on the stress-facilitated LTD. In addition, behavioral results showed that a single fluoxetine treatment 30 min before but not after acute stress fully reversed the impairment of spatial memory retrieval in the Morris water maze paradigm. Taken together, these results suggest that acute fluoxetine treatment only before, but not after stress, can prevent hippocampal CA1 LTD and spatial memory retrieval impairment caused by behavioral stress in adult animals. PMID:26218751
Full Text Available Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER study population. Potential study participants (age 60–77 years, the dementia risk score ≥6 were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496, 48% (n = 2654 attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1. The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0 points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2 mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0 mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9 mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Moy, Gregory A.; McNay, Ewan C.
Obesity, high-fat diets, and subsequent type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with cognitive impairment. Moreover, T2DM increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and leads to abnormal elevation of brain beta-amyloid levels, one of the hallmarks of AD. The psychoactive alkaloid caffeine has been shown to have therapeutic potential in AD but the central impact of caffeine has not been well-studied in the context of a high-fat diet. Here we investigated the impact of caffeine administration...
Braking of the motion of a fluid-actuated drive is provided by a buffer arrangement which is normally sealed to prevent vaporization of the fluid in a buffer cylinder and which isolates the drive piston rings from braking pressures
Linn, J G; Neff, J A; Theriot, R; Harris, J L; Interrante, J; Graham, M E
This study tested an intervention to reduce sexual risk behaviors in a high risk impaired population: homeless African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic men with mental illness. In a comparison group clinical trial, men were assigned to an experimental cognitive-behavioral or a control intervention and followed up over 16 months. Men were recruited from a psychiatric program in two shelters for homeless men in Nashville, Tennessee. An ethnically mixed cohort of subjects (54% African-American, 42% Caucasian and 4% Hispanic) were included in the study. Most had a chronic psychiatric disorder and a co-morbid substance abuse disorder. The 257 participants who were sexually active (130 experimental, 127 control) prior to the trial were the main target of the intervention. An experimental intervention (SexG), adapted from Susser and Associates (51), comprised 6 group sessions. The control intervention was a 6-session HIV educational program. Sexual risk behavior was the primary outcome. The experimental and control groups were compared with respect to the mean score on a sexual risk index. Complete follow-up data were obtained on 257 men (100%) for the initial six-month follow-up. These individuals have been followed for the remainder of the 16-month follow-up. This intervention, (SexG), successfully reduced sexual risk behaviors of homeless mentally ill African-American, Caucasian and Hispanic men. Similar approaches may be effective in other impaired high-risk populations.
Allam, Farida; Dao, An T; Chugh, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Patki, Gaurav; Mowrey, Christopher; Asghar, Mohammad; Alkadhi, Karim A; Salim, Samina
We examined whether or not grape powder treatment ameliorates oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. Oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats was produced by using L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Four groups of rats were used: 1) control (C; injected with vehicle and provided with tap water), 2) grape powder-treated (GP; injected with vehicle and provided for 3 wk with 15 g/L grape powder dissolved in tap water), 3) BSO-treated [injected with BSO (300 mg/kg body weight), i.p. for 7 d and provided with tap water], and 4) BSO plus grape powder-treated (GP+BSO; injected with BSO and provided with grape powder-treated tap water). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P blood pressure was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P high blood pressure in GP+BSO rats. Furthermore, brain extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) was activated (P oxidative stress-induced anxiety, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats.
Zhang, Yanan; Li, Dongliang; Li, Haiou; Hou, Dailiang; Hou, Jingdong
Isoflurane, a commonly used inhalation anesthetic, may induce neurocognitive deficits, especially in elderly patients after surgery. Recent study demonstrated that isoflurane caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent neuronal apoptosis in the brain, contributing to cognitive deficits. Taurine, a major intracellular free amino acid, has been shown to inhibit ER stress and neuronal apoptosis in several neurological disorders. Here, we examined whether taurine can prevent isoflurane-induced ER stress and cognitive impairment in aged rats. Thirty minutes prior to a 4-h 1.3 % isoflurane exposure, aged rats were treated with vehicle or taurine at low, middle and high doses. Aged rats without any treatment served as control. The brains were harvested 6 h after isoflurane exposure for molecular measurements, and behavioral study was performed 2 weeks later. Compared with control, isoflurane increased expression of hippocampal ER stress biomarkers including glucose-regulated protein 78, phosphorylated (P-) inositol-requiring enzyme 1, P-eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α (EIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF-4), cleaved ATF-6 and C/EBP homologous protein, along with activation of apoptosis pathways as indicated by decreased B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2)/BCL2-associated X protein, increased expressions of cytochrome-c and cleaved caspase-3. Taurine pretreatment dose-dependently inhibited isoflurane-induced increase in expression of ER stress biomarkers except for P-EIF2α and ATF-4, and reversed isoflurane-induced changes in apoptosis-related proteins. Moreover, isoflurane caused spatial working memory deficits in aged rats, which were prevented by taurine pretreatment. The results indicate that taurine pretreatment prevents anesthetic isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment by inhibiting ER stress-mediated activation of apoptosis pathways in the hippocampus in aged rats.
Fleckenstein, Johannes; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried
Objectives of the study were to compare the effects of a single bout of preventive or regenerative foam rolling (FR) on exercise-induced neuromuscular exhaustion. Single-centre randomised-controlled study was designed. Forty-five healthy adults (22 female; 25±2 yrs) were allocated to three groups: 1) FR of the lower limb muscles prior to induction of fatigue, 2) FR after induction of fatigue, 3) no-treatment control. Neuromuscular exhaustion was provoked using a standardized and validated functional agility short-term fatigue protocol. Main outcome measure was the maximal isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF). Secondary outcomes included pain and reactive strength (RSI). Preventive (-16%) and regenerative FR (-12%) resulted in a decreased loss in MIVF compared to control (-21%; p 0.8, p < 0.1). Differences over time (p < 0.001) between groups regarding pain and RSI did not turn out to be clinically meaningful. A single bout of foam rolling reduces neuromuscular exhaustion with reference to maximal force production. Regenerative rather than preventive foam rolling seems sufficient to prevent further fatigue.
Johannes Fleckenstein, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
Full Text Available Objectives of the study were to compare the effects of a single bout of preventive or regenerative foam rolling (FR on exercise-induced neuromuscular exhaustion. Single-centre randomised-controlled study was designed. Forty-five healthy adults (22 female; 25±2 yrs were allocated to three groups: 1 FR of the lower limb muscles prior to induction of fatigue, 2 FR after induction of fatigue, 3 no-treatment control. Neuromuscular exhaustion was provoked using a standardized and validated functional agility short-term fatigue protocol. Main outcome measure was the maximal isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF. Secondary outcomes included pain and reactive strength (RSI. Preventive (-16% and regenerative FR (-12% resulted in a decreased loss in MIVF compared to control (-21%; p 0.8, p < 0.1. Differences over time (p < 0.001 between groups regarding pain and RSI did not turn out to be clinically meaningful. A single bout of foam rolling reduces neuromuscular exhaustion with reference to maximal force production. Regenerative rather than preventive foam rolling seems sufficient to prevent further fatigue.
Fernanda S Rodrigues
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on theses markers. METHODS: Rat pups were injected with GA (5 umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life, and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period. LPS (2 mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5 or vehicle (saline 0.9% was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. RESULTS: GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could
... at least 8 hours. 8-9 Develop good sleeping habits such as sticking to a sleep schedule. If ... K, Howard ME. Cognitive components of simulated driving performance: sleep loss effects and predictors. Accid Anal Prev. 2012; ...
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Jayalakshmi, K; Singh, S B; Kalpana, B; Sairam, M; Muthuraju, S; Ilavazhagan, G
Exposure to high altitude (HA), especially extreme altitude, is associated with impairment of cognitive functions including memory and increased oxidative stress. However, the underlying mechanisms involved are not well understood. It is hypothesized that HA induced oxidative stress may be one of the factors underlying hypoxia induced memory impairment. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) on spatial working and reference memory functions, oxidative stress markers in rats and effect of supplementation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). The rats were divided into four groups. Group I served as normoxic (n=6), Group II served as hypoxic (n=6), Group III as hypoxia group treated with NAC (n=6) and Group IV served as normoxic group treated with NAC (n=6). Group II & III were exposed to HH for 3 days equivalent to 6100 m and received oral NAC supplementation (750 mg/kg) daily. Rats from all the groups were trained in Morris Water Maze (MWM) task for 8 consecutive days. Spatial working and reference memory were tested immediately after the termination of HH and then the rats were sacrificed for estimation of oxidative stress markers in hippocampus. Rats displayed significant deficits in spatial working memory, and increased oxidative stress along with decrease in antioxidant status on hypoxic exposure. Supplementation with NAC in hypoxia-exposed group improved spatial memory performance, and decreased oxidative stress. These findings indicate that hypoxic exposure is associated with increased oxidative stress, which may have caused memory deficit in rats exposed to simulated HA.
Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Simões, Lutiana R; Elias, Samuel G; Tashiro, Michael H; Dominguini, Diogo; Comim, Clarissa M; Vilela, Márcia Carvalho; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio; Quevedo, João
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of forms of bacterial meningitis that have a high mortality rate and cause long-term neurologic sequelae. We evaluated the effects of an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor on proinflammatory mediators and memory in Wistar rats subjected to pneumococcal meningitis. The animals were divided into 4 groups: sham, sham treated with IDO inhibitor, meningitis, and meningitis treated with IDO inhibitor. During the first experiment, the animals were killed 24 hours later, and the hippocampus was isolated for the analysis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC-1) levels. The survival rate was 56.296% in the meningitis group and 29.616% in the meningitis group with IDO inhibitor. In the control group, we found a mean of 14.29 white blood cells/mL cerebrospinal fluid, whereas the mean was 80.00 white blood cells/mL cerebrospinal fluid in the sham IDO inhibitor group, 1167.00 white blood cells/mL cerebrospinal fluid in the meningitis group, and 286.70 white blood cells/mL cerebrospinal fluid in the meningitis IDO inhibitor group. In the meningitis group with IDO inhibitor, the levels of TNF-α and CINC-1 were reduced. In the second experiment, animals were subjected to a behavioral task and cytokine analysis 10 days after meningitis induction. In the meningitis group, there was an impairment of aversive memory. However, in the meningitis group that received adjuvant treatment with the IDO inhibitor, animals demonstrated preservation of aversive memory. These findings showed dual effects of the IDO inhibitor on a pneumococcal meningitis animal model because the inhibitor impaired survival but also produced beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory activity and neuroprotection against the latter behavioral deficits. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia
To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.
McDowell, Kaleb; Paul, Victor; Alban, Jillyn
.... In particular, drive-by-wire technology coupled with non-standard driving control devices have the potential to lead to improved driving performance, reduced Soldier training time, crash prevention...
Noorbakhshnia, Maryam; Karimi-Zandi, Leila
There is a growing body of evidence that neuroinflammation can impair memory. It has been indicated that Portulaca oleracea Linn. (POL), possess anti-inflammatory activity and might improve memory disruption caused by inflammation. In this study the effect of pre-treatment with the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL on memory retrieval investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Male Wistar rats (200-220g) received either a control diet or a diet containing of POL (400mg/kg, p.o.) for 14days. Then, they received injections of either saline or LPS (1mg/kg, i.p.). In all the experimental groups, 4h following the last injection, passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory test was performed. The retention test was done 24h after the training and then the animals were sacrificed. Hippocampal TNF-α levels measured using ELISA as one criteria of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. The results indicated that LPS significantly impaired PAL and memory and increased TNF-α levels in hippocampus tissue. Pre-treatment with POL improved memory in control rats and prevented memory and TNF-α deterioration in LPS treated rats. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL may improve memory deficits in LPS treated rats, possibly via inhibition of TNF-α and anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giribabu, Nelli; Kumar, Kilari Eswar; Rekha, Somesula Swapna; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib
We hypothesized that C. borivilianum root, known to improve male reproductive performance, prevents impairment in characteristics, morphology and elevation of oxidative stress in sperm of diabetics. We therefore investigated the effect of aqueous root extract of C. borivilianum on these parameters in diabetic rat model. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) were administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and sperm were collected. Sperm count and percentages of forward motility, viability, hypoosmotic swelling (HOS) tail-coiled and abnormal sperm were evaluated. Sperm lipid peroxidation product (LPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), activity levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT and glutathione peroxidase-GPx), epididymal sperm density, serum fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c levels were measured. The expression of sperm caspase-3 was assessed. Meanwhile, in-vitro free radical scavenging activity of C. borivilianum root extract was determined and the root extract was analyzed for the presence of bioactive compounds by FTIR spectroscopy. C. borivilianum root aqueous extract prevents the decrease in sperm count, percentages of forward motility, viability, HOS and the increase in abnormal sperm percentage and caspase-3 level in diabetic rats. Sperm LPO, H2O2 and NO levels, FBG and HbA1c were lower while TAC, SOD, CAT, GPx and epididymal sperm density were higher in diabetic rats receiving C. borivilianum root extract treatment. C. borivilianum root exhibited strong in-vitro free radical scavenging activity which may be due to the phenolic compound. C. borivilianum root extract prevents impairment in sperm characteristics and morphology via preventing elevation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and free radicals levels of
Betts, T; Markman, D; Debenham, S; Mortiboy, D; McKevitt, T
A double blind placebo controlled experiment was conducted measuring the effects of the centrally active antihistamine triprolidine and the peripherally acting antihistamine terfenadine on actual driving performance in a group of experienced women drivers. Triprolidine greatly impaired driving behaviour, whereas terfenadine did not. Triprolidine also impaired subjective and objective measures of mood and arousal, and despite an awareness that their driving was impaired while they were taking ...
Zager, Adriano; Brandão, Wesley Nogueira; Margatho, Rafael Oliveira; Peron, Jean Pierre; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Palermo-Neto, João
The wake-promoting drug Modafinil has been used for many years for treatment of Narcolepsy and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, due to a dopamine-related psychostimulant action. Recent studies have indicated that Modafinil prevents neuroinflammation in animal models. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Modafinil pretreatment in the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness and depressive-like behaviors. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with Vehicle or Modafinil (90mg/Kg) and, 30min later, received a single saline or LPS (2mg/Kg) administration, and were submitted to the open field and elevated plus maze test 2h later. After 24h, mice were subjected to tail suspension test, followed by either flow cytometry with whole brain for CD11b + CD45 + cells or qPCR in brain areas for cytokine gene expression. Modafinil treatment prevented the LPS-induced motor impairment, anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, as well as the increase in brain CD11b + CD45 high cells induced by LPS. Our results indicate that Modafinil pretreatment also decreased the IL-1β gene upregulation caused by LPS in brain areas, which is possibly correlated with the preventive behavioral effects. The pharmacological blockage of the dopaminergic D1R by the drug SCH-23390 counteracted the effect of Modafinil on locomotion and anxiety-like behavior, but not on depressive-like behavior and brain immune cells. The dopaminergic D1 receptor signaling is essential to the Modafinil effects on LPS-induced alterations in locomotion and anxiety, but not on depression and brain macrophages. This evidence suggests that Modafinil treatment might be useful to prevent inflammation-related behavioral alterations, possibly due to a neuroimmune mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Tak-Hong; Leung, Ting-Fan; Wong, Gary; Ho, Marco; Duque, Jaime Rosa; Li, Philip Hei; Lau, Chak-Sing; Lam, Wai-Fan; Wu, Adrian; Chan, Eric; Lai, Christopher; Lau, Yu-Lung
There is a high and rising prevalence of many allergic diseases in the Asia Pacific, including Hong Kong, which is unmatched by a commensurate provision of clinical allergy services. In the last 3 years, the allergy profile in Hong Kong has increased due to greater public engagement and more frequent educational activities, scientific outputs and publication of local guidelines on allergy prevention, diagnosis and treatment. Two new drug allergy clinics have been established in public hospitals, and for the first time in 20 years, Hong Kong has its first trainee in adult allergy. The current ratio of allergists per head of population has improved slightly from 1:1.46 (in 2014) to 1:1.17 million, but it is still low compared to many countries. The Hong Kong community is well supported by allergy-related professional societies and patient organisations. While the recent developments indicated some progress, Hong Kong remains inadequately equipped to take advantage of the new discoveries that may prevent allergic diseases and improve public health. There are also 5-fold more paediatric allergists than adult allergists per head of population. If this unbalance remains uncorrected, continuing care for allergic children as they grow into adulthood will be an increasing problem. This review provides recommendations to improve allergy service provision and training, including the creation of Centres of Excellence in allergy to drive the growth of this specialty.
Nevile, Maurice Richard
. pp.155 ((http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/publications/2010/pdf/rsgr_2010001.pdf)) Nevile, M., Haddington, P., Heinemann, T., Rauniomaa, M. (Eds.) Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Redshaw, S. (2008....... Interaction with objects reflects the car’s role beyond mere transport as a site of personal, social, and work life (Featherstone et al. 2005; Redshaw 2008). Studies of interaction examine this role as it is actually enacted, understood, and accomplished, in situ through participants’ practices (e.g. Laurier...... of in-car distractions, and how they impact driving activities (Nevile & Haddington 2010). Data are video recordings of ordinary journeys, capturing drivers and passengers in real-world real-time driving situations (27 hours, 90 journeys). For driving and road safety, research and experience has...
opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...... of living in the area. The paper discusses potentials and pitfalls of designing community-driven science gaming environments and how results from previous studies can form the project Community Drive....
Custodio, Jose B.A.; Cardoso, Carla M.P.; Santos, Maria S.; Almeida, Leonor M.; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Fernandes, Maria A.S.
Cisplatin (CisPt) is the most important platinum anticancer drug widely used in the treatment of head, neck, ovarian and testicular cancers. However, the mechanisms by which CisPt induces cytotoxicity, namely hepatotoxicity, are not completely understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of CisPt on rat liver mitochondrial functions (Ca 2+ -induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), mitochondrial bioenergetics, and mitochondrial oxidative stress) to better understand the mechanism underlying its hepatotoxicity. The effect of thiol group protecting agents and some antioxidants against CisPt-induced mitochondrial damage was also investigated. Treatment of rat liver mitochondria with CisPt (20 nmol/mg protein) induced Ca 2+ -dependent mitochondrial swelling, depolarization of membrane potential (ΔΨ), Ca 2+ release, and NAD(P)H fluorescence intensity decay. These effects were prevented by cyclosporine A (CyA), a potent and specific inhibitor of the MPT. In the concentration range of up to 40 nmol/mg protein, CisPt slightly inhibited state 3 and stimulated state 2 and state 4 respiration rates using succinate as respiratory substrate. The respiratory indexes, respiratory control ratio (RCR) and ADP/O ratios, the ΔΨ, and the ADP phosphorylation rate were also depressed. CisPt induced mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to protons (proton leak) but did not induce significant changes on mitochondrial H 2 O 2 generation. All the effects induced by CisPt on rat liver mitochondria were prevented by thiol group protecting agents namely, glutathione (GSH), dithiothreitol (DTT), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and cysteine (CYS), whereas superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate (ASC) were without effect. In conclusion, the anticancer drug CisPt: (1) increases the sensitivity of mitochondria to Ca 2+ -induced MPT; (2) interferes with mitochondrial bioenergetics by increasing mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization to
Swartz, Richard H.; Cayley, Megan L.; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Murray, Brian J.; Cohen, Ashley; Thorpe, Kevin E.; Sicard, Michelle N.; Lien, Karen; Sahlas, Demetrios J.; Herrmann, Nathan
Background Post-stroke Depression, Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and Cognitive impairment (“DOC”) are associated with greater mortality, worse recovery and poorer quality of life. Best practice recommendations endorse routine screening for each condition; yet, all are under-assessed, diagnosed and treated. We seek to determine the feasibility and validity of an integrated tool (“DOC” screen) to identify stroke clinic patients at high-risk of depression, OSA, and cognitive impairment. Methods All consecutive new referrals to a regional Stroke Prevention Clinic who were English-speaking and non-aphasic were eligible to be screened. Time for screen completion was logged. DOC screen results were compared to the neuropsychological battery and polysomnogram assessments using a modified receiver operator characteristic and area under the curve analysis. Data is reported to conform to STARD guidelines. Findings 1503 people were screened over 2 years. 89% of eligible patients completed the screen in 5 minutes or less (mean 4.2 minutes), less than half the time it takes to complete the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). 437 people consented to detailed testing. Of those, 421 completed the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression within 3 months of screening, 387 completed detailed neuropsychological testing within 3 months, and 88 had overnight polysomnograms. Screening scores combined with demographic variables (age, sex, education, body mass index), had excellent validity compared to gold standard diagnoses: DOC-Mood AUC 0.90; DOC-Apnea AUC 0.80; DOC-Cog AUC 0.81. DOC screen scores can reliably categorize patients in to low-, intermediate- or high-risk groups for further action and can do so with comparable accuracy to more time-consuming screens. Conclusions Systematic screening of depression, obstructive sleep apnea, and cognitive impairment in 5 minutes or less is feasible and valid in a high volume stroke clinic using the DOC screen. The DOC screen may
Oulhaj, Abderrahim; Jernerén, Fredrik; Refsum, Helga; Smith, A David; de Jager, Celeste A
A randomized trial (VITACOG) in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) found that B vitamin treatment to lower homocysteine slowed the rate of cognitive and clinical decline. We have used data from this trial to see whether baseline omega-3 fatty acid status interacts with the effects of B vitamin treatment. 266 participants with MCI aged ≥70 years were randomized to B vitamins (folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12) or placebo for 2 years. Baseline cognitive test performance, clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale, and plasma concentrations of total homocysteine, total docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (omega-3 fatty acids) were measured. Final scores for verbal delayed recall, global cognition, and CDR sum-of-boxes were better in the B vitamin-treated group according to increasing baseline concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, whereas scores in the placebo group were similar across these concentrations. Among those with good omega-3 status, 33% of those on B vitamin treatment had global CDR scores >0 compared with 59% among those on placebo. For all three outcome measures, higher concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid alone significantly enhanced the cognitive effects of B vitamins, while eicosapentaenoic acid appeared less effective. When omega-3 fatty acid concentrations are low, B vitamin treatment has no effect on cognitive decline in MCI, but when omega-3 levels are in the upper normal range, B vitamins interact to slow cognitive decline. A clinical trial of B vitamins combined with omega-3 fatty acids is needed to see whether it is possible to slow the conversion from MCI to AD.
McClean, Paula L; Jalewa, Jaishree; Hölscher, Christian
Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we have shown that the diabetes drug liraglutide is protective in middle aged and in old APP/PS1 mice. Here, we show that liraglutide has prophylactic properties. When injecting liraglutide once-daily ip. in two months old mice for 8 months, the main hallmarks of AD were much reduced. Memory formation in object recognition and Morris water maze were normalised and synapse loss and the loss of synaptic plasticity was prevented. In addition, amyloid plaque load, including dense core congophilic plaques, was much reduced. Chronic inflammation (activated microglia) was also reduced in the cortex, and neurogenesis was enhanced in the dentate gyrus. The results demonstrate that liraglutide may protect from progressive neurodegeneration that develops in AD. The drug is currently in clinical trials in patients with AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ganguly, Kumkum [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Armstead, William M [U PENNSYLVANIA; Kiessling, J W [U PENNSYLVANIA; Chen, Xiao - Han [U PENNSYLVANIA; Smith, Douglas H [U PENNSYLVANA; Higazi, Abd Ar [U PENNSYLVANIA; Cines, Douglas B [U PENNSYLVANIA; Bdeir, Khalil [U PENNSYLVANIA; Zaitsev, Sergei [U PENNSYLVANIA; Muzykantov, Vladimir R [U PENNSYLVANIA
Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.
Full Text Available Neurogenesis continues throughout the lifetime in the hippocampus, while the rate declines with brain aging. It has been hypothesized that reduced neurogenesis may contribute to age-related cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rg1 is an active ingredient of Panax ginseng in traditional Chinese medicine, which exerts anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. This study explores the neuroprotective effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the hippocampus of the D-gal (D-galactose induced aging rat model. Sub-acute aging was induced in male SD rats by subcutaneous injection of D-gal (120 mg/kg·d for 42 days, and the rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally or normal saline for 28 days after 14 days of D-gal injection. In another group, normal male SD rats were treated with ginsenoside Rg1 alone (20 mg/kg·d, intraperitoneally for 28 days. It showed that administration of ginsenoside Rg1 significantly attenuated all the D-gal-induced changes in the hippocampus, including cognitive capacity, senescence-related markers and hippocampal neurogenesis, compared with the D-gal-treated rats. Further investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 protected NSCs/NPCs (neural stem cells/progenitor cells shown by increased level of SOX-2 expression; reduced astrocytes activation shown by decrease level of Aeg-1 expression; increased the hippocampal cell proliferation; enhanced the activity of the antioxidant enzymes GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase and SOD (Superoxide Dismutase; decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, which are the proinflammatory cytokines; increased the telomere lengths and telomerase activity; and down-regulated the mRNA expression of cellular senescence associated genes p53, p21Cip1/Waf1 and p19Arf in the hippocampus of aged rats. Our data provides evidence that ginsenoside Rg1 can improve cognitive ability, protect NSCs/NPCs and promote neurogenesis by enhancing the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in the
Devigne, Louise; Babel, Marie; Nouviale, Florian; Narayanan, Vishnu K; Pasteau, Francois; Gallien, Philippe
Driving a power wheelchair is a difficult and complex visual-cognitive task. As a result, some people with visual and/or cognitive disabilities cannot access the benefits of a power wheelchair because their impairments prevent them from driving safely. In order to improve their access to mobility, we have previously designed a semi-autonomous assistive wheelchair system which progressively corrects the trajectory as the user manually drives the wheelchair and smoothly avoids obstacles. Developing and testing such systems for wheelchair driving assistance requires a significant amount of material resources and clinician time. With Virtual Reality technology, prototypes can be developed and tested in a risk-free and highly flexible Virtual Environment before equipping and testing a physical prototype. Additionally, users can "virtually" test and train more easily during the development process. In this paper, we introduce a power wheelchair driving simulator allowing the user to navigate with a standard wheelchair in an immersive 3D Virtual Environment. The simulation framework is designed to be flexible so that we can use different control inputs. In order to validate the framework, we first performed tests on the simulator with able-bodied participants during which the user's Quality of Experience (QoE) was assessed through a set of questionnaires. Results show that the simulator is a promising tool for future works as it generates a good sense of presence and requires rather low cognitive effort from users.
Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) Enhanced Cognitive Function and Prevented Cognitive Impairment by Increasing VGLUT2 Immunodensity in Prefrontal Cortex of Sub-Chronic Phencyclidine Rat Model of Schizophrenia.
Piyabhan, Pritsana; Wetchateng, Thanitsara
Glutamatergic hypofunction is affected in schizophrenia. The decrement ofpresynaptic glutamatergic marker remarkably vesicular glutamate transporter type 1 (VGLUT1) indicates the deficit ofglutamatergic and cognitive function in schizophrenic brain. However there have been afew studies in VGLUT2. Brahmi, a traditional herbal medicine, might be a new frontier of cognitive deficit treatment and prevention in schizophrenia by changing cerebral VGLUT2 density. To study cognitive enhancement- and neuroprotective-effects of Brahmi on novel object recognition task and cerebral VGLUT2 immunodensity in sub-chronic phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia. Cognitive enhancement effect study; rats were assigned to three groups; Group-1: Control, Group-2: PCP administration and Group-3: PCP + Brahmi. Neuroprotective effect study; rats were assigned to three groups; Group-1: Control, Group-2: PCP administration and Group-3: Brahmi + PCP Discrimination ratio (DR) representing cognitive ability was obtained from novel object recognition task. VGLUT2 immunodensity was measured in prefrontal cortex, striatum, cornu ammonis fields 1 (CA1) and 2/3 (CA2/3) of hippocampus using immunohistochemistry. DR was significantly reduced in PCP group compared with control. This occurred alongside VGLUT2 reduction in prefrontal cortex, but not in striatum, CA1 or CA2/3. Both PCP + Brahmi and Brahmi + PCP groups showed an increased DR score up to normal, which occurred alongside a significantly increased VGLUT2 immunodensity in the prefrontal cortex, compared with PCP group. The decrement of VGLUT2 density in prefrontal cortex resulted in cognitive deficit in rats receiving PCP. Interestingly, receiving Brahmi after PCP administration can restore this cognitive deficit by increasing VGLUT2 density in prefrontal cortex. This investigation is defined as Brahmi's cognitive enhancement effect. Additionally, receiving Brahmi before PCP administration can also prevent cognitive impairment by
Zagaar, Munder A; Dao, An T; Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Alkadhi, Karim A
The dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 regions of the hippocampus are intimately related physically and functionally, yet they react differently to insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of regular treadmill exercise on late phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signaling cascade in the DG region of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats ran on treadmills for 4 weeks then were acutely sleep deprived for 24 h using the modified multiple platform method. After sleep deprivation, the rats were anesthetized and L-LTP was induced in the DG region. Extracellular field potentials from the DG were recorded in vivo, and levels of L-LTP-related signaling proteins were assessed both before and after L-LTP expression using immunoblot analysis. Sleep deprivation reduced the basal levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (P-CREB) as well as other upstream modulators including calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the DG of the hippocampus. Regular exercise prevented impairment of the basal levels of P-CREB and total CREB as well as those of CaMKIV in sleep-deprived animals. Furthermore, regular exercise prevented sleep deprivation-induced inhibition of L-LTP and post-L-LTP downregulation of P-CREB and BDNF levels in the DG. The current findings show that our exercise regimen prevents sleep deprivation-induced deficits in L-LTP as well as the basal and poststimulation levels of key signaling molecules.
Visser, J T J; Lammers, K; Hoogendijk, A; Boer, M W; Brugman, S; Beijer-Liefers, S; Zandvoort, A; Harmsen, H; Welling, G; Stellaard, F; Bos, N A; Fasano, A; Rozing, J
Impaired intestinal barrier function is observed in type 1 diabetes patients and animal models of the disease. Exposure to diabetogenic antigens from the intestinal milieu due to a compromised intestinal barrier is considered essential for induction of the autoimmune process leading to type 1 diabetes. Since a hydrolysed casein (HC) diet prevents autoimmune diabetes onset in diabetes-prone (DP)-BioBreeding (BB) rats, we studied the role of the HC diet on intestinal barrier function and, therefore, prevention of autoimmune diabetes onset in this animal model. DP-BB rats were fed the HC diet from weaning onwards and monitored for autoimmune diabetes development. Intestinal permeability was assessed in vivo by lactulose-mannitol test and ex vivo by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Levels of serum zonulin, a physiological tight junction modulator, were measured by ELISA. Ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, Cldn1, Cldn2 and Ocln (which encode the tight junction-related proteins myosin IXb, claudin-1, claudin-2 and occludin) and Il-10, Tgf-ß (also known as Il10 and Tgfb, respectively, which encode regulatory cytokines) was analysed by quantitative PCR. The HC diet reduced autoimmune diabetes by 50% in DP-BB rats. In DP-BB rats, prediabetic gut permeability negatively correlated with the moment of autoimmune diabetes onset. The improved intestinal barrier function that was induced by HC diet in DP-BB rats was visualised by decreasing lactulose:mannitol ratio, decreasing serum zonulin levels and increasing ileal TEER. The HC diet modified ileal mRNA expression of Myo9b, and Cldn1 and Cldn2, but left Ocln expression unaltered. Improved intestinal barrier function might be an important intermediate in the prevention of autoimmune diabetes by the HC diet in DP-BB rats. Effects on tight junctions, ileal cytokines and zonulin production might be important mechanisms for this effect.
Saab, Bechara J; Maclean, Ashley J B; Kanisek, Marijana; Zurek, Agnieszka A; Martin, Loren J; Roder, John C; Orser, Beverley A
Memory blockade is an essential component of the anesthetic state. However, postanesthesia memory deficits represent an undesirable and poorly understood adverse effect. Inhibitory α5 subunit-containing γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptors (α5GABAA) are known to play a critical role in memory processes and are highly sensitive to positive modulation by anesthetics. We postulated that inhibiting the activity of α5GABAA receptors during isoflurane anesthesia would prevent memory deficits in the early postanesthesia period. Mice were pretreated with L-655,708, an α5GABAA receptor-selective inverse agonist, or vehicle. They were then exposed to isoflurane for 1 h (1.3%, or 1 minimum alveolar concentration, or air-oxygen control). Then, either 1 or 24 h later, mice were conditioned in fear-associated contextual and cued learning paradigms. In addition, the effect of L-655,708 on the immobilizing dose of isoflurane was studied. Motor coordination, sedation, anxiety, and the concentration of isoflurane in the brain at 5 min, 1 h, and 24 h after isoflurane were also examined. Motor and sensory function recovered within minutes after termination of isoflurane administration. In contrast, a robust deficit in contextual fear memory persisted for at least 24 h. The α5GABAA receptor inverse agonist, L-655,708, completely prevented memory deficits without changing the immobilizing dose of isoflurane. Trace concentrations of isoflurane were measured in the brain 24 h after treatment. Memory deficits occurred long after the sedative, analgesic, and anxiolytic effects of isoflurane subsided. L-655,708 prevented memory deficit, suggesting that an isoflurane interaction at α5GABAA receptors contributes to memory impairment during the early postanesthesia period.
Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; La Grow, Steven J; Kerse, Ngaire M; Sanderson, Gordon F; Jacobs, Robert J; Sharp, Dianne M; Hale, Leigh A
Objectives To assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a home safety programme and a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in older people with low vision. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Dunedin and Auckland, New Zealand. Participants 391 women and men aged ≥75 with visual acuity of 6/24 or worse who were living in the community; 92% (361 of 391) completed one year of follow-up. Interventions Participants received a home safety assessment and modification programme delivered by an occupational therapist (n = 100), an exercise programme prescribed at home by a physiotherapist plus vitamin D supplementation (n = 97), both interventions (n = 98), or social visits (n = 96). Main outcome measures Numbers of falls and injuries resulting from falls, costs of implementing the home safety programme. Results Fewer falls occurred in the group randomised to the home safety programme but not in the exercise programme (incidence rate ratios 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.83) and 1.15 (0.82 to 1.61), respectively). However, within the exercise programme, stricter adherence was associated with fewer falls (P = 0.001). A conservative analysis showed neither intervention was effective in reducing injuries from falls. Delivering the home safety programme cost $NZ650 (£234, 344 euros, $US432) (at 2004 prices) per fall prevented. Conclusion The home safety programme reduced falls and was more cost effective than an exercise programme in this group of elderly people with poor vision. The Otago exercise programme with vitamin D supplementation was not effective in reducing falls or injuries in this group, possibly due to low levels of adherence. Trial registration number ISRCTN15342873. PMID:16183652
Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; La Grow, Steven J; Kerse, Ngaire M; Sanderson, Gordon F; Jacobs, Robert J; Sharp, Dianne M; Hale, Leigh A
To assess the efficacy and cost effectiveness of a home safety programme and a home exercise programme to reduce falls and injuries in older people with low vision. Randomised controlled trial. Dunedin and Auckland, New Zealand. 391 women and men aged > or =75 with visual acuity of 6/24 or worse who were living in the community; 92% (361 of 391) completed one year of follow-up. Participants received a home safety assessment and modification programme delivered by an occupational therapist (n = 100), an exercise programme prescribed at home by a physiotherapist plus vitamin D supplementation (n = 97), both interventions (n = 98), or social visits (n = 96). Numbers of falls and injuries resulting from falls, costs of implementing the home safety programme. Fewer falls occurred in the group randomised to the home safety programme but not in the exercise programme (incidence rate ratios 0.59 (95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.83) and 1.15 (0.82 to 1.61), respectively). However, within the exercise programme, stricter adherence was associated with fewer falls (P = 0.001). A conservative analysis showed neither intervention was effective in reducing injuries from falls. Delivering the home safety programme cost NZ650 dollars (234 pounds sterling, 344 euros, US432 dollars) (at 2004 prices) per fall prevented. The home safety programme reduced falls and was more cost effective than an exercise programme in this group of elderly people with poor vision. The Otago exercise programme with vitamin D supplementation was not effective in reducing falls or injuries in this group, possibly due to low levels of adherence. Trial registration number ISRCTN15342873.
Brouwer, WH; Withaar, FK
This paper deals with the issue of fitness to drive in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Guidelines for assessment are proposed and three types of studies are reviewed: studies about impairments of attention and information processing, studies of driving competence, and driver
Nuseir, Khawla Q; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alhusban, Ahmed; Bawaane, Areej; Al-Azzani, Mohammed; Khabour, Omar F
Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood. Pain was induced in rat pups via needle pricks of the paws. Sucrose solution and/or naltrexone were administered before the pricks. All treatments started on day one of birth and continued for two weeks. At the end of 8weeks, behavioral studies were conducted to test spatial learning and memory using radial arm water maze (RAWM), and pain threshold via foot-withdrawal response to a hot plate. The hippocampus was dissected; levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endorphins were assessed using ELISA. Acute repetitive neonatal pain increased pain sensitivity later in life, while naltrexone with sucrose decreased pain sensitivity. Naltrexone and/or sucrose prevented neonatal pain induced impairment of long-term memory, while neonatal pain decreased levels of BDNF in the hippocampus; this decrease was averted by sucrose and naltrexone. Sucrose with naltrexone significantly increased β-endorphin levels in noxiously stimulated rats. In conclusion, naltrexone and sucrose can reverse increased pain sensitivity and impaired long-term memory induced by acute repetitive neonatal pain probably by normalizing BDNF expression and increasing β-endorphin levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maung, Ricky; Hoefer, Melanie M; Sanchez, Ana B; Sejbuk, Natalia E; Medders, Kathryn E; Desai, Maya K; Catalan, Irene C; Dowling, Cari C; de Rozieres, Cyrus M; Garden, Gwenn A; Russo, Rossella; Roberts, Amanda J; Williams, Roy; Kaul, Marcus
The innate immune system has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-1-associated dementia. In this study, we show that genetic ablation of CCR5 prevents microglial activation and neuronal damage in a transgenic model of HIV-associated brain injury induced by a CXCR4-using viral envelope gp120. The CCR5 knockout (KO) also rescues spatial learning and memory in gp120-transgenic mice. However, the CCR5KO does not abrogate astrocytosis, indicating it can occur independently from neuronal injury and behavioral impairment. To characterize further the neuroprotective effect of CCR5 deficiency we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis of brains from HIVgp120tg mice expressing or lacking CCR5 and nontransgenic controls. A comparison with a human brain microarray study reveals that brains of HIVgp120tg mice and HIV patients with neurocognitive impairment share numerous differentially regulated genes. Furthermore, brains of CCR5 wild-type and CCR5KO gp120tg mice express markers of an innate immune response. One of the most significantly upregulated factors is the acute phase protein lipocalin-2 (LCN2). Using cerebrocortical cell cultures, we find that LCN2 is neurotoxic in a CCR5-dependent fashion, whereas inhibition of CCR5 alone is not sufficient to abrogate neurotoxicity of a CXCR4-using gp120. However, the combination of pharmacologic CCR5 blockade and LCN2 protects neurons from toxicity of a CXCR4-using gp120, thus recapitulating the finding in CCR5-deficient gp120tg mouse brain. Our study provides evidence for an indirect pathologic role of CCR5 and a novel protective effect of LCN2 in combination with inhibition of CCR5 in HIV-associated brain injury. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
A Resource Guide for Signs of Sexual Assault. A Supplement to: Preventing Sexual Abuse of Persons with Disabilities: A Curriculum for Hearing Impaired, Physically Disabled, Blind and Mentally Retarded Students.
Part of a curriculum unit on preventing sexual abuse of persons with disabilities, the manual is intended to help instructors present the material to hearing impaired students. Illustrations of sign language are presented for such terms as sexual contact, sexual assault, incest, same sex assault (man/woman), rape (acquaintance/marital), exposer,…
Sposito, Andrei C; Lemos, Pedro A; Santos, Raul D; Hueb, Whady; Vinagre, Carmen G C; Quintella, Edgard; Carneiro, Otavio; Chapman, M John; Ramires, Jose A F; Maranhão, Raul C
We sought to verify whether the intravascular metabolism of chylomicron-like emulsion may predict the clinical evolution of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing secondary prevention therapy of CAD. Case-control studies have suggested an association between impaired intravascular catabolism of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and CAD. However, evidence is lacking with respect to the potential clinical relevance of this metabolic disorder in CAD patients. During a period of 4.5 +/- 0.9 years, we followed up 63 stable CAD patients (mean age 60 +/- 10 years) undergoing secondary prevention therapy (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dl) in whom kinetic studies of the in vivo catabolism of chylomicron-like emulsions were performed. At enrollment into the study, fasting patients were injected intravenously with a chylomicron-like emulsion labeled with radioactive triglyceride (3H-TG) and cholesteryl esters (14C-CE) to evaluate the efficacy of intravascular TG lipolysis. At baseline, CAD patients displayed a diminished fractional clearance rate (FCR) for 3H-TG (-26%; p = 0.027), for 14C-CE (-37%; p = 0.015), and for delipidation index (DI) (-26%; p = 0.02) as compared with 35 control subjects. During follow-up of secondary prevention therapy, 33% of CAD patients (n = 21) presented with clinically refractory angina and aggravated coronary angiographic severity. The FCR for 3H-TG (-44%; p = 0.005) and DI (-41%; p = 0.006) in those patients with refractory angina was significantly lower than that observed in those with stable evolution. Moreover, in a Cox multivariate regression analysis, the presence of a DI less than the median value was an independent predictor of an unfavorable clinical evolution (adjusted hazard ratio 3.32; 95% confidence interval 1.21 to 9.14; p = 0.020). The current study establishes that delayed intravascular TG lipolysis is a strong and independent predictor of evolution to severe angina among patients undergoing
Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Rong, Jian
are found to impair drivers' physical characteristics. However, their impacts on the parameters SBP, HR, eyesight, and TDSA are different. A driver's physical characteristics will be impaired more seriously when he continues driving while drowsy, compared to driving under normal situation. These findings contribute to the current research on identifying drivers' driving state and quantifying the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on driving ability and driving behavior.
Rafati, Ali; Nourzei, Nasrin; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali
Tartrazine is a food color that may adversely affect the nervous system. Vitamin E is a neuro-protective agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tartrazine and vitamin E on the performance of rats in memory and learning tests as well as the structure of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). The rats were first divided into seven groups which received the followings for a period of seven weeks: distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), a low dose (50mg/kg/day) and a high dose (50mg/kg/day) of tartrazine with and without vitamin E. Behavioral tests were conducted and the brain was extracted for stereological methods The high dose of tartrazine decreased the exploration time of novel objects (Ptartrazine led into an increase in working and reference memory errors in acquisition and retention phases (eight-arm radial maze) compared to distilled water group (Ptartrazine induced a reduction in the volume of mPFC (∼13%) and its subdivision. Not only that, but the number of neurons and glial cells (∼14%) as well as the mushroom and thin spines per dendrite length declined. The length of dendrites per neuron also reduced in comparison to the distilled water group (Ptartrazine prevented the above-mentioned changes. An acceptable daily dose of tartrazine could induce impairment in spatial memory and dendrite structure. Moreover, a high dose of tartrazine may defect the visual memory, mPFC structure, the spatial memory and also cause dendrite changes. Vitamin E could prevent the behavioral and structural changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Durán-Carabali, L E; Arcego, D M; Odorcyk, F K; Reichert, L; Cordeiro, J L; Sanches, E F; Freitas, L D; Dalmaz, C; Pagnussat, A; Netto, C A
Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental strategy to attenuate the negative effects of different neurological conditions including neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of prenatal and early postnatal EE in animals submitted to neonatal HIE model at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or standard conditions (SC) during pregnancy and lactation periods. Pups of both sexes were assigned to one of four experimental groups, considering the early environmental conditions and the injury: SC-Sham, SC-HIE, EE-sham, and EE-HIE. The offspring were euthanized at two different time points: 48 h after HIE for biochemical analyses or at PND 67 for histological analyses. Behavioral tests were performed at PND 7, 14, 21, and 60. Offspring from EE mothers had better performance in neurodevelopmental and spatial memory tests when compared to the SC groups. HIE animals showed a reduction of IGF-1 and VEGF in the parietal cortex, but no differences in BDNF and TrkB levels were found. EE-HIE animals showed reduction in cell death, lower astrocyte reactivity, and an increase in AKTp levels in the hippocampus and parietal cortex. In addition, the EE was also able to prevent the hippocampus tissue loss. Altogether, present findings point to the protective potential of the prenatal and early postnatal EE in attenuating molecular and histological damage, as well as the neurodevelopmental impairments and the cognitive deficit, caused by HIE insult at PND 3.
Pressman, Mark R
Sleep driving is most often classified as a variant of sleepwalking, but should be distinguished from impaired driving due to misuse or abuse of sedative/hypnotic drugs. Z-drugs; zolpidem and zopiclone in particular, have been associated with the majority of reported cases of impaired driving. Numerous studies have found z-drugs in driving under influence (DUI) related police stops, arrests and accidents. Impaired drivers are reported to have 1) blood levels of z-drugs that exceed therapeutic ranges 2) failed to take the medication at the correct time or remain in bed for sufficient time and/or 3) combined z-drugs with other central nervous system (CNS) depressants and/or alcohol. Consistent with CNS depression, z-drug-impaired drivers may demonstrate cognitive function at low levels with drivers still able to understand and respond to questions while sleepwalkers are completely unable to understand or interact with police. Z-drug-impaired drivers are often severely physically impaired, unable to stand up or maintain balance while sleepwalkers are able to stand and walk unaided. Sleep driving and impaired driving due to z-drugs may overlap. Sleep driving and drug-impaired driving are statistically rare events, but due to the billions of doses prescribed each year may still result in numerous DUI related arrests and accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BROOKHUIS, K; DEWAARD, D; MULDER, Lambertus J.M.
The measurement of impairing effects on driving performance by such external factors as alcohol, medicinal drugs, or mobile telephoning, etc., is extended with a new test. Most existing methods of measuring impairing effects in the actual driving environment have the drawback that, irrespective of
Soler, V; Sourdet, S; Balardy, L; Abellan van Kan, G; Brechemier, D; Rougé-Bugat, M E; Tavassoli, N; Cassagne, M; Malecaze, F; Nourhashémi, F; Vellas, B
To evaluate visual performance and factors associated with abnormal vision in patients screened for frailty at the Geriatric Frailty Clinic (GFC) for Assessment of Frailty and Prevention of Disability at Toulouse University Hospital. Retrospective, observational cross-sectional, single-centre study. Institutional practice. Patients were screened for frailty during a single-day hospital stay between October 2011 and October 2014 (n = 1648). Collected medical records included sociodemographic data (including living environment and educational level), anthropometric data, and clinical data. The general evaluation included the patient's functional status using the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) scale, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognition testing, and the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) for physical performance. We also examined Body Mass Index (BMI), the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening (HHIE-S) tool. The ophthalmologic evaluation included assessing visual acuity using the Snellen decimal chart for distant vision, and the Parinaud chart for near vision. Patients were divided into groups based on normal distant/near vision (NDV and NNV groups) and abnormal distant/near vision (ADV and ANV groups). Abnormal distant or near vision was defined as visual acuity inferior to 20/40 or superior to a Parinaud score of 2, in at least one eye. Associations with frailty-associated factors were evaluated in both groups. The mean age of the population was 82.6 ± 6.2 years. The gender distribution was 1,061 females (64.4%) and 587 males (35.6%). According to the Fried criteria, 619 patients (41.1%) were pre-frail and 771 (51.1%) were frail. Distant and near vision data were available for 1425 and 1426 patients, respectively. Distant vision was abnormal for 437 patients (30.7%). Near vision was abnormal for 199 patients (14%). Multiple
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model. METHODS: The antioxidant capacity of fructans was measured in an in vitro system that simulates cooking and digestion processes. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa, obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer, were sealed between two chambers, with the mucosal side facing upwards with Krebs solution with or without purified LPS from a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4 and inulin (Frutafit IQ, and the submucosal side facing downwards into Krebs solution. The solutions on the submucosal side were collected following mucosal exposure to Krebs in the absence (N-undernatant or presence of LPS (LPS-undernatant or LPS+inulin (LPS+INU-undernatant. Undernatants were tested for their antioxidant activity and the effects on SMCs contractility. Inulin protective effects on mucosa and submucosa layers were assessed measuring the protein oxidation level in the experimental conditions analyzed. RESULTS: Antioxidant activity of inulin, which was significantly higher compared to simple sugars, remained unaltered despite cooking and digestion processes. Inulin protected the mucosal and submucosal layers against protein oxidation. Following exposure to LPS-undernatant, a significant decrease in maximal acetylcholine (Ach-induced contraction was observed when compared to the contraction induced in cells incubated with the N-undernatant (4±1% vs 25±5% respectively, P<0.005 and this effect was completely prevented by pre-incubation of LPS with Inulin (35±5%. CONCLUSIONS: Inulin protects
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Visual Impairment KidsHealth / For Teens / Visual Impairment What's in ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...
Full Text Available As a leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension is also an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Midlife hypertension doubles the risk of dementia later in life and accelerates the progression of dementia, but the correlation between late-life blood pressure and cognitive impairment is still unclear. Beside blood pressure, the effect of pulse pressure, blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm of blood pressure on cognition is currently attracting more and more attention. Hypertension induces alterations in cerebrovascular structure and functions, which lead to brain lesions including cerebral atrophy, stroke, lacunar infarcts, diffuse white matter damage, microinfarct and microhemorrhage, resuling in cognitive impairment. Hypertension also impairs the metabolism and transfer of amyloid-β protein (Aβ, thus accelerates cognitive impairment. Individualized therapy, focusing on characteristics of hypertensive patients, may be a good choice for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.004
... Pain Prevention Recovery Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications ... mind-altering ingredient, in the blood. But the role that marijuana plays in crashes is ... age, gender, race, and presence of alcohol. 9 More research ...
Verster, J.C.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.; Garssen, J.
Background: Since all antihistamines are capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, they may also cause sedation which may impair daily activities such as driving a car. The purpose of this review was to examine the effects of antihistamines on driving ability. Method: A literature search revealed
Hesselink, Arlette E; Bilo, Henk J G; Jonkers, Ruud; Martens, Marloes; de Weerdt, Inge; Rutten, Guy E H
Effective diabetes prevention strategies that can be implemented in daily practice, without huge amounts of money and a lot of personnel are needed. The Dutch Diabetes Federation developed a protocol for coaching people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG; according to WHO criteria: 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l) to a sustainable healthy lifestyle change: 'the road map towards diabetes prevention' (abbreviated: Road Map: RM). This protocol is applied within a primary health care setting by a general practitioner and a practice nurse. The feasibility and (cost-) effectiveness of care provided according to the RM protocol will be evaluated. A cluster randomised clinical trial is performed, with randomisation at the level of the general practices. Both opportunistic screening and active case finding took place among clients with high risk factors for diabetes. After IFG is diagnosed, motivated people in the intervention practices receive 3-4 consultations by the practice nurse within one year. During these consultations they are coached to increase the level of physical activity and healthy dietary habits. If necessary, participants are referred to a dietician, physiotherapist, lifestyle programs and/or local sports activities. The control group receives care as usual. The primary outcome measure in this study is change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Secondary outcome measures are waist circumference, physical activity, total and saturated fat intake, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and behaviour determinants like risk perception, perceived knowledge and motivation. Based on a sample size calculation 120 people in each group are needed. Measurements are performed at baseline, and after one (post-intervention) and two years follow up. Anthropometrics and biochemical parameters are assessed in the practices and physical activity, food intake and their determinants by a validated questionnaire. The cost-effectiveness is estimated
Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Kaussner, Yvonne; Jagiellowicz-Kaufmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Sonja; Krüger, Hans-Peter
Abstract Comparing drug-induced driving impairments with the effects of benchmark blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) is an approved approach to determine the clinical relevance of findings for traffic safety. The present study aimed to collect alcohol calibration data to validate findings of clinical trials that were derived from a representative test course in a dynamic driving simulator. The driving performance of 24 healthy volunteers under placebo and with 0.05% and 0.08% BACs was measured in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Trained investigators assessed the subjects’ driving performance and registered their driving errors. Various driving parameters that were recorded during the simulation were also analyzed. Generally, the participants performed worse on the test course (P the investigators’ assessment) under the influence of alcohol. Consistent with the relevant literature, lane-keeping performance parameters were sensitive to the investigated BACs. There were significant differences between the alcohol and placebo conditions in most of the parameters analyzed. However, the total number of errors was the only parameter discriminating significantly between all three BAC conditions. In conclusion, data show that the present experimental setup is suitable for future psychopharmacological research. Thereby, for each drug to be investigated, we recommend to assess a profile of various parameters that address different levels of driving. On the basis of this performance profile, the total number of driving errors is recommended as the primary endpoint. However, this overall endpoint should be completed by a specifically sensitive parameter that is chosen depending on the effect known to be induced by the tested drug. PMID:25689289
Cordes, Christina; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Oliver M.; Brookhuis, Karel A.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J.M.
Objective: To investigate practical fitness to drive mobility scooters, comparing visually impaired participants with healthy controls. Design: Between-subjects design. Subjects: Forty-six visually impaired (13 with very low visual acuity, 10 with low visual acuity, 11 with peripheral field defects,
Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.
Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)
Full Text Available Objectives: The dangers of driving while under the influence of alcohol/drugs (DWI have been well established. Many countries have successfully reduced the incidence of DWI through effective law enforcement. We aim to explore the links between how law enforcement is perceived in cultures with different socioeconomic indicators. Our hypothesis is that social norms around definitions of what constitutes “right” vs. “deviant” behavior related to DWI directly contribute to the mode and success of law enforcement. Methods: Road safety professionals from six countries with different levels of DWI rates and enforcement strategies were interviewed regarding the expected local response to a case vignette. Sociodemographic, mortality, and economic indicators for each of these countries were extracted from different sources. Results: The professionals interviewed described a continuum ranging from unequivocal enforcement and punishment (Australia and Norway to inconsistent enforcement and punishment with the presence of many legal loopholes (Mexico and Brazil. For the six countries, no apparent correlation was identified purely between alcohol consumption and road traffic mortality. However, there seems to be a correlation between the time period of initial DWI legislation and current gross national income, perceptions of local safety, satisfaction with the local environment, and trust in the national government. Higher levels of these scores are seen in nations in which DWI laws were implemented prior to the 1960s. Conclusion: Better performing countries seem to have achieved a level of societal agreement that DWI is deviant, generating social stigma against DWI that allows legislation to be enforced. Lessons learned from these countries could help developing countries reduce morbidity and mortality associated with DWI.
Pechansky, Flavio; Chandran, Aruna; Sousa, Tanara
The dangers of driving while under the influence of alcohol/drugs (DWI) have been well established. Many countries have successfully reduced the incidence of DWI through effective law enforcement. We aim to explore the links between how law enforcement is perceived in cultures with different socioeconomic indicators. Our hypothesis is that social norms around definitions of what constitutes "right" vs. "deviant" behavior related to DWI directly contribute to the mode and success of law enforcement. Road safety professionals from six countries with different levels of DWI rates and enforcement strategies were interviewed regarding the expected local response to a case vignette. Sociodemographic, mortality, and economic indicators for each of these countries were extracted from different sources. The professionals interviewed described a continuum ranging from unequivocal enforcement and punishment (Australia and Norway) to inconsistent enforcement and punishment with the presence of many legal loopholes (Mexico and Brazil). For the six countries, no apparent correlation was identified purely between alcohol consumption and road traffic mortality. However, there seems to be a correlation between the time period of initial DWI legislation and current gross national income, perceptions of local safety, satisfaction with the local environment, and trust in the national government. Higher levels of these scores are seen in nations in which DWI laws were implemented prior to the 1960s. Better performing countries seem to have achieved a level of societal agreement that DWI is deviant, generating social stigma against DWI that allows legislation to be enforced. Lessons learned from these countries could help developing countries reduce morbidity and mortality associated with DWI.
Lingering immune dysregulation of inflammatory dermatoses, particularly psoriasis, probably drives metabolic syndrome culminating in cardiovascular damage and needs preventive public health guidelines as well as comprehensive management
Yugal Kishor Sharma
Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome, a constellation of interrelated risk factors of metabolic origin namely, abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, confers greater risk of cardiovascular disease on its patients than the sum of the individual components. It is increasingly being associated with inflammatory dermatoses, especially psoriasis. Determination of the diagnostic criteria of this syndrome is conditioned by the changing views regarding its pathogenesis. Approximately, a quarter of the world′s population harbors this syndrome, whose reported prevalence in India (5-30% has escalated with an increase in urbanization and socioeconomic status. Due to, up to 3 times, the risk of cardiovascular mortality and up to 24 times risk of diabetes mellitus, the epidemiological significance of metabolic syndrome ideally necessitates formulation of preventive guidelines by public health authorities. Chronic inflammation, involving several cytokines and adipokines, forms the bridge between this syndrome and psoriasis and underlies the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, the primary lesion of coronary artery disease, in whose pathogenesis oxidative stress and genetic factors also play a role. Up to 4-fold increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality is reported globally in psoriatics. Increasing index of suspicion of this syndrome by the dermatologists, prevention of cardiovascular damage by lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation and redressal of the inherent depression in these patients is as imperative in management as is the specific therapy of the skin lesions of this systemic, rather than "just a skin," disease as well as the lipid-lowering, antihypertensive and antidiabetic agents.
DuPont, Robert L; Voas, Robert B; Walsh, J Michael; Shea, Corinne; Talpins, Stephen K; Neil, Mark M
Triggered by the new federal commitment announced by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONCDP) to encourage states to enact drugged driving per se laws, this article reviews the reasons to establish such laws and the issues that may arise when trying to enforce them. A review of the state of drunk driving per se laws and their implications for drugged driving is presented, with a review of impaired driving enforcement procedures and drug testing technology. Currently, enforcement of drugged driving laws is an adjunct to the enforcement of laws regarding alcohol impairment. Drivers are apprehended when showing signs of alcohol intoxication and only in the relatively few cases where the blood alcohol concentration of the arrested driver does not account for the observed behavior is the possibility of drug impairment pursued. In most states, the term impaired driving covers both alcohol and drug impairment; thus, driver conviction records may not distinguish between the two different sources of impairment. As a result, enforcement statistics do not reflect the prevalence of drugged driving. Based on the analysis presented, this article recommends a number of steps that can be taken to evaluate current drugged driving enforcement procedures and to move toward the enactment of drug per se laws.
Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... MAKE A COMMITTMENT TO SAFETY Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...
Cheek, Susannah Mary; Murry, Jason Steven; Truitt, Michael Seth; Dunn, Ernest Lewis
According to the US National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2010, 10,228 people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. Daily, intoxicated drivers are seen in trauma centers across the country. At our trauma center, we sought to determine the number of drivers who had a documented elevation in their blood alcohol content (BAC) and compare this with county police records to evaluate how many charges for driving while intoxicated (DWI) were issued. A retrospective chart review was performed for trauma admissions during a 3-year period. Patients with a BAC of less than 0.08 g/dL were excluded. Only documented drivers were included. This group of intoxicated drivers was then compared against public records from the Dallas County for any record of a charge of DWI. During a 3-year period, from 2009 to 2011, 118 drivers had a confirmed BAC above the legal limit of 0.08 g/dL. Average BAC level was 0.218 g/dL. Injuries varied widely between patients with an average Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 11. Extremity fractures were seen in 27%, facial fractures were seen in 16%, and intracranial hemorrhage was seen in 7%. Forty-eight percent of the patients were admitted to the intensive care unit initially, with an average length of intensive care unit stay of 1.5 days (range, 0-25 days). Only 18% of our patients (21) received a charge of DWI. Four patients were charge with related offenses. A motor vehicle accident may be protective against the legal ramifications of drinking and driving. Less than 20% of patients who were driving under the influence incurred any legal repercussion. Deterrents that prevent law enforcement from being able to obtain evidence needed for prosecution should be eliminated. Health care providers and law enforcement agencies should work as a team to help mitigate the incidence of drunk driving and its burden on society. Epidemiologic study, level III.
González-Román, Loreto; Bagur-Calafat, Caritat; Urrútia-Cuchí, Gerard; Garrido-Pedrosa, Jèssica
This systematic review aims to report the effectiveness of interventions based on exercise and/or physical environment for reducing falls in cognitively impaired older adults living in long-term care facilities. In July 2014, a literature search was conducted using main databases and specialised sources. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of fall prevention interventions, which used exercise or physical environment among elderly people with cognitive impairment living in long-term care facilities, were selected. Two independent reviewers checked the eligibility of the studies, and evaluated their methodological quality. If it was adequate, data were gathered. Fourteen studies with 3,539 participants using exercise and/or physical environment by a single or combined approach were included. The data gathered from studies that used both interventions showed a significant reduction in fall rate. Further research is needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of those interventions for preventing falls in the elderly with cognitive impairment living in long-term care establishments. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.
This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…
Barhwal, K; Hota, S K; Jain, V; Prasad, D; Singh, S B; Ilavazhagan, G
Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia, a condition involving decreased availability of oxygen is known to be associated with oxidative stress, neurodegeneration and memory impairment. The multifactorial response of the brain and the complex signaling pathways involved therewith limits the therapeutic efficacy of several antioxidants in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia-induced memory impairment. The present study was therefore aimed at investigating the potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR), a known antioxidant that has been reported to augment neurotrophin-mediated survival mechanisms, in ameliorating hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration and memory impairment. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor involved in the cellular defense mechanism against oxidative stress related to brain injury and neurological disorders. The study was designed to understand the mechanisms involving Nrf2 stabilization following exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The results displayed reference memory impairment in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (7620 m) for 14 consecutive days which however improved on administration of ALCAR during hypoxic exposure. The study also revealed Nrf2 regulated augmented antioxidant response on administration of ALCAR which was through a novel tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) receptor-mediated mechanism. A decrease in free radical generation, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation was also observed along with a concomitant increase in thioredoxin and reduced glutathione levels on administration of ALCAR during exposure to hypobaric hypoxia. The present study therefore reveals the therapeutic potential of ALCAR under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia and elucidates a novel mechanism of action of the drug.
Visser, J. T. J.; Lammers, K.; Hoogendijk, A.; Boer, M. W.; Brugman, S.; Beijer-Liefers, S.; Zandvoort, A.; Harmsen, H.; Welling, G.; Stellaard, F.; Bos, N. A.; Fasano, A.; Rozing, J.
Aims/hypothesis Impaired intestinal barrier function is observed in type I diabetes patients and animal models of the disease. Exposure to diabetogenic antigens from the intestinal milieu due to a compromised intestinal barrier is considered essential for induction of the autoimmune process leading
Beneficial Effects of Anti-Interleukin-6 Antibodies on Impaired Gastrointestinal Motility, Inflammation and Increased Colonic Permeability in a Murine Model of Sepsis Are Most Pronounced When Administered in a Preventive Setup.
Full Text Available During sepsis, gastrointestinal ileus, mucosal barrier dysfunction and bacterial translocation are accepted to be important triggers that can maintain or exacerbate the septic state. In the caecal ligation and puncture animal model of sepsis, we demonstrated that systemic and colonic interleukin-6 levels are significantly increased coinciding with an impaired colonic barrier function. We therefore aimed to study the effect of therapeutic or curative administration of anti-IL6 antibodies on overall GI motility, colonic permeability and translocation of intestinal bacteria in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in the mouse caecal ligation and puncture model.OF-1 mice were randomized to either the preventive or curative protocol, in which they received 1 mg/kg of antibodies to interleukin-6, or its IgG isotype control solution. They subsequently underwent either the caecal ligation and puncture procedure, or sham-surgery. GI motility was assessed 48 h following the procedure, as well as colonic permeability, serum and colon cytokines, colonic tight junction proteins at the mRNA level; cultures of blood and mesenteric lymph nodes were performed.Preventive administration of anti-interleukin-6 antibodies successfully counteracted the gastrointestinal motility disturbances and impaired colonic barrier function that could be observed in vehicle-treated septic animals. Serum and colonic levels of proinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower when animals were preventively treated with anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. A repetitive injection 24 h later resulted in the most pronounced effects. Curative treatment significantly lowered systemic and colonic inflammation markers while the effects on transit and permeability were unfortunately no longer significant.Caecal ligation and puncture resulted in septic ileus with an increased colonic permeability. Antibodies to interleukin-6 were able to ameliorate gastro-intestinal motility, suppress inflammation and
Konrad, Charles E.; Benson, Ralph A.
A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor.
Konrad, C.E.; Benson, R.A.
A drive train for an electric vehicle includes a traction battery, a power drive circuit, a main contactor for connecting and disconnecting the traction battery and the power drive circuit, a voltage detector across contacts of the main contactor, and a controller for controlling the main contactor to prevent movement of its contacts to the closed position when the voltage across the contacts exceeds a predetermined threshold, to thereby protect the contacts of the contactor. The power drive circuit includes an electric traction motor and a DC-to-AC inverter with a capacitive input filter. The controller also inhibits the power drive circuit from driving the motor and thereby discharging the input capacitor if the contacts are inadvertently opened during motoring. A precharging contactor is controlled to charge the input filter capacitor prior to closing the main contactor to further protect the contacts of the main contactor. 3 figures.
Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen
Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; P0.05). Assessment of driving in an advanced driving simulator for approximately 15min revealed
This 60 second PSA is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If youâre drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent. Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/4/2011.
This podcast is based on the October, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Drinking and driving is still a serious problem. Crashes involving alcohol-impaired drivers kill nearly 11,000 people each year. If youâre drinking, designate a non-drinking driver before you start, call a cab, or get a ride home. Also, always wear your seat belt. Seat belts reduce the risk of serious injuries and death in a crash by 50 percent. Created: 10/4/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/4/2011.
Classen, Sherrilene; Brooks, Johnell
Simulation technology provides safe, objective, and repeatable performance measures pertaining to operational (e.g., avoiding a collision) or tactical (e.g., lane maintenance) driver behaviors. Many occupational therapy researchers and others are using driving simulators to test a variety of applications across diverse populations. A growing body of literature provides support for associations between simulated driving and actual on-road driving. One limitation of simulator technology is the occurrence of simulator sickness, but management strategies exist to curtail or mitigate its onset. Based on the literature review and a consensus process, five consensus statements are presented to support the use of driving simulation technology among occupational therapy practitioners. The evidence suggests that by using driving simulators occupational therapy practitioners may detect underlying impairments in driving performance, identify driving errors in at-risk drivers; differentiate between driving performance of impaired and healthy controls groups; show driving errors with absolute and relative validity compared to on-road studies; and mitigate the onset of simulator sickness. Much progress has been made among occupational therapy researchers and practitioners in the use of driving simulation technology; however, empirical support is needed to further justify the use of driving simulators in clinical practice settings as a valid, reliable, clinical useful, and cost effective tool for driving assessment and intervention.
Visual perception is an important source of information when driving a car. Visual impairments of drivers will therefore have an effect on performing the driving task. However, the effects on the crash rate are limited. The reason is, among other things, that people with visual impairments often
Wong, Kristin; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua
Marijuana has become the most commonly detected non-alcohol substance among drivers in the United States and Europe. Use of marijuana has been shown to impair driving performance and increase crash risk. Due to the lack of standardization in assessing marijuana-induced impairment and limitations of zero tolerance legislation, more jurisdictions are adopting per se laws by specifying a legal limit of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) at or above which drivers are prosecuted for driving under the i...
Beck, Kenneth H; Fell, James C; Yan, Alice F
To examine the beliefs, behaviors, and knowledge of drivers concerning drunk driving and to compare those with greater or lesser perceptions of risk of being caught driving while impaired. A random-digit-dial telephone survey was conducted of 850 licensed drivers throughout Maryland who reported their driving behaviors, crash history, beliefs about various alcohol countermeasures, and their knowledge of state alcohol laws. Most drivers (72%) did not feel that it was very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they drove after having too much to drink (low-risk perceivers). High-risk perceivers (28%) felt that it was very likely that they would be stopped and most (70%) felt that it was very likely that they would be arrested and convicted. Less than half (45%) of the low-risk perceivers felt that they would be arrested and convicted if they drove impaired. High-risk perceivers were significantly more likely to be non-white, less likely to drive 10 mph above the speed limit, but were more likely have five or more tickets in their lifetime and believed that sobriety checkpoints are effective. They were also more aware of laws regarding mandatory use of ignition interlocks for repeat driving under the influence (DUI) offenders and the zero tolerance law for under-21-year-old drivers. There is a need to elevate the perceived risk of being caught when driving while alcohol impaired. Despite several years of prevention programs, a substantial portion of Maryland drivers do not feel it very likely that they would be stopped by the police if they were to drive after drinking too much. Drivers who perceive these risks are more accepting of enforcement and treatment countermeasures and are more likely to report safer driving behaviors.
Otto, Kathleen; Mamatoglu, Nihal
Using social exchange theory as a conceptual framework, we investigated the relationship between interactional justice and the outcomes organizational loyalty (affective commitment, turnover intentions), perceived job performance (self-rated performance, personal accomplishment), and mental impairment (cognitive irritation, emotional exhaustion) in an online survey of 218 employees working in the field of computer technology. Specifically, we predicted that interactional justice would heighten the quality of social exchange relationships and therefore expected perceived social support (POS) and bullying to mediate the proposed relationships. We tested our hypotheses applying a latent structural equation model. Our findings revealed that POS mediated the relationship between interactional justice and organizational loyalty, whereas bullying mediated the relationship between interactional justice and mental impairment. Practical implications are discussed concerning how to foster interactional justice and POS and how to weaken bullying behavior.
Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott
Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of...
Richard, E.; Jongstra, S.; Soininen, H.; Brayne, C.; Moll van Charante, E.P.; Meiller, Y.; Groep, B. van der; Beishuizen, C.R.; Mangialasche, F.; Barbera, M.; Ngandu, T.; Coley, N.; Guillemont, J.; Savy, S.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Peters, R.J.; Gool, W.A. van; Kivipelto, M.; Andrieu, S.
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease and dementia share a number of risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity. The rise of eHealth has led to increasing opportunities for large-scale delivery of prevention programmes encouraging
Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai
The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Drunk Driving Warning System (DDWS) is a vehicle-mounted device for testing driver impairment and activating alarms. The driver must pass a steering competency test (the Critical Tracking Task or CTT) in order to drive the car in a normal manner....
Patki, Gaurav; Allam, Farida H; Atrooz, Fatin; Dao, An T; Solanki, Naimesh; Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad; Jafri, Faizan; Bohat, Ritu; Alkadhi, Karim A; Salim, Samina
Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water) treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role of grape powder
Full Text Available Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role
Patki, Gaurav; Allam, Farida H.; Atrooz, Fatin; Dao, An T.; Solanki, Naimesh; Chugh, Gaurav; Asghar, Mohammad; Jafri, Faizan; Bohat, Ritu; Alkadhi, Karim A.; Salim, Samina
Diminished estrogen influence at menopause is reported to be associated with cognitive decline, heightened anxiety and hypertension. While estrogen therapy is often prescribed to overcome these behavioral and physiological deficits, antioxidants which have been shown beneficial are gaining nutritional intervention and popularity. Therefore, in the present study, utilizing the antioxidant properties of grapes, we have examined effect of 3 weeks of grape powder (GP; 15 g/L dissolved in tap water) treatment on anxiety-like behavior, learning-memory impairment and high blood pressure in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Four groups of female Wistar rats were used; sham control, sham-GP treated, OVX and OVX+GP treated. We observed a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in OVX rats as compared to sham-controls. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased anxiety-like behavior and caused learning and memory impairment in rats as compared to sham-controls. Interestingly, providing grape powder treated water to OVX rats restored both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, decreased anxiety-like behavior and improved memory function. Moreover, OVX rats exhibited an impaired long term potentiation which was restored with grape powder treatment. Furthermore, ovariectomy increased oxidative stress in the brain, serum and urine, selectively decreasing antioxidant enzyme, glyoxalase-1 protein expression in the hippocampus but not in the cortex and amygdala of OVX rats, while grape powder treatment reversed these effects. Other antioxidant enzyme levels, including manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Cu/Zn SOD remained unchanged. We suggest that grape powder by regulating oxidative stress mechanisms exerts its protective effect on blood pressure, learning-memory and anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first to examine behavioral, biochemical, physiological and electrophysiological outcome of estrogen depletion in rats and to test protective role of grape powder
Farag, Aïda M.; Hull, Ruth N.; Clements, Will H.; Glomb, Steve; Larson, Diane L.; Stahl, Ralph G.; Stauber, Jenny
A workshop on Restoration of Impaired Ecosystems was held in Jackson, Wyoming, in June 2014. Experts from Australia, Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, and the United States in ecotoxicology, restoration, and related fields from both the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the Society for Ecological Restoration convened to advance the practice of restoring ecosystems that have been contaminated or impaired from industrial activities. The overall goal of this workshop was to provide a forum for ecotoxicologists and restoration ecologists to define the best scientific practices to achieve ecological restoration while addressing contaminant concerns. To meet this goal, participants addressed 5 areas: 1) links between ecological risk assessment and ecological restoration, 2) restoration goals, 3) restoration design, 4) monitoring for restoration effectiveness and 5) recognizing opportunities and challenges. Definitions are provided to establish a common language across the varied disciplines. The current practice for addressing restoration of impaired ecosystems tends to be done sequentially to remediate contaminants, then to restore ecological structure and function. A better approach would anticipate or plan for restoration throughout the process. By bringing goals to the forefront, we may avoid intrusive remediation activities that close off options for the desired restoration. Participants realized that perceived limitations in the site assessment process hinder consideration of restoration goals; contaminant presence will influence restoration goal choices; social, economic, and cultural concerns can factor into goal setting; restoration options and design should be considered early during site assessment and management; restoration of both structure and function is encouraged; creative solutions can overcome limitations; a regional focus is imperative; monitoring must occur throughout the restoration process; and reciprocal transfer of
Shimano, Kunio; Nakamura, Akira; Mizuguchi, Koji; Sakai, Kazuhito; Mitsui, Hisayasu.
The present invention concerns upper-built-in type control rod drives of a BWR type reactor. Namely, high temperature linear motor driving type control rod drives are disposed in an upper space of the reactor pressure vessel, which generates electromagnetic power. In usual driving of control rods, driving shafts connected with control rods by a high temperature linear motor driving system comprising a driving shaft having an iron core inserted therein and electromagnetic coils is vertically moved to insert/withdraw the control rods to and from the reactor core. Upon occurrence of reactor scram, electric power source is interrupted, and the control rods are rapidly inserted to the reactor core. According to the present invention, since the control rod drives are disposed in the space above the reactor pressure vessel, pipelines or equipments passing through the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel can be saved. As a result, operation for maintenance and inspection is facilitated. (I.S.)
The dementia prevention consists of three steps, primary prevention of dementia is to prevent from normal and mild cognitive impairment to dementia, secondary prevention is early detection and early treatment of dementia, and tertiary prevention is three stages of progress prevention of dementia. Primary prevention of dementia had been considered impossible until recently, but potential scientific evidence has been shown recently. The fact that 4.62 million people are person with dementia and 400 million people are person with mild cognitive impairment are considered to be urgent problem and we must intend to perform dementia prevention from primary to tertiary prevention thoroughly. We perform dementia screening using touch panel type computer and we recommend person with mild cognitive impairment to join dementia prevention classroom. Therefore, we can prevent progression from mild cognitive impairment to dementia (primary prevention). Early diagnosis and introduction to the specialized medical institution are needed if you find early stage of dementia and treat early (secondary prevention). To prevent progression by the appropriate drug treatment and care for dementia is required (tertiary prevention).
Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)
A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.
Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.
Seo, Ji Yeon; Lim, Soon Sung; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jong-Sang
Given the evidence for detoxifying/antioxidant enzyme-inducing activities by alantolactone (AL) and isoalantolactone (IAL), the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AL and IAL on Aβ 25-35 -induced cell death in mouse cortical neuron cells and to determine their effects on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Our data demonstrated that both compounds effectively attenuated the cytotoxicity of Aβ 25-35 (10 μM) in neuronal cells derived from the mouse cerebral cortex. It was also found that the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, including superoxide anion induced by Aβ 25-35 , was inhibited. Moreover, the administration of the sesquiterpenes reversed scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments as assessed by Morris water, Y-maze, and the passive avoidance tests, and the compounds decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, AL and IAL did not improve scopolamine-induced cognitive deficit in Nrf2 -/- mice, suggesting that memory improvement by sesquiterpenes was mediated not only by the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway but also by their inhibitory activity against AChE. In conclusion, our results showed that AL and IAL had neuroprotective effects and reversed cognitive impairments induced by scopolamine in a mouse model. Therefore, AL and IAL deserve further study as potential therapeutic agents for reactive oxygen species-related neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Allam, Farida; Dao, An T.; Chugh, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Patki, Gaurav; Mowrey, Christopher; Asghar, Mohammad; Alkadhi, Karim A.; Salim, Samina
We examined whether or not grape powder treatment ameliorates oxidative stress–induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. Oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats was produced by using l-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Four groups of rats were used: 1) control (C; injected with vehicle and provided with tap water), 2) grape powder–treated (GP; injected with vehicle and provided for 3 wk with 15 g/L grape powder dissolved in tap water), 3) BSO-treated [injected with BSO (300 mg/kg body weight), i.p. for 7 d and provided with tap water], and 4) BSO plus grape powder–treated (GP+BSO; injected with BSO and provided with grape powder–treated tap water). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P blood pressure was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P high blood pressure in GP+BSO rats. Furthermore, brain extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) was activated (P oxidative stress–induced anxiety, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. PMID:23596160
Yanko, Matthew R; Spalek, Thomas M
The principal objective of the present work was to examine the effects of mind state (mind-wandering vs. on-task) on driving performance in a high-fidelity driving simulator. Mind-wandering is thought to interfere with goal-directed thought. It is likely, then, that when driving, mind-wandering might lead to impairments in critical aspects of driving performance. In two experiments, we assess the extent to which mind-wandering interferes with responsiveness to sudden events, mean velocity, and headway distance. Using a car-following procedure in a high-fidelity driving simulator, participants were probed at random times to indicate whether they were on-task at that moment or mind-wandering. The dependent measures were analyzed based on the participant's response to the probe. Compared to when on-task, when mind-wandering participants showed longer response times to sudden events, drove at a higher velocity, and maintained a shorter headway distance. Collectively, these findings indicate that mind-wandering affects a broad range of driving responses and may therefore lead to higher crash risk. The results suggest that situations that are likely associated with mind-wandering (e.g., route familiarity) can impair driving performance.
-like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...
Hartman, A.; Winkel, M.L. te; Beek, van R.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Hop, W.C.; Heuvel-Eibrink, van den MM; Pieters, R.
once a week. CONCLUSIONS: The exercise program was not more beneficial than standard care in preventing reduction in BMD, motor performance and passive ankle dorsiflexion than standard care, most likely due to unsatisfactory compliance. Increased BMI and body fat in the intervention group normalized
Richard, Edo; Jongstra, Susan; Soininen, Hilkka; Brayne, Carol; Moll van Charante, Eric P.; Meiller, Yannick; van der Groep, Bram; Beishuizen, Cathrien R. L.; Mangialasche, Francesca; Barbera, Mariagnese; Ngandu, Tiia; Coley, Nicola; Guillemont, Juliette; Savy, Stéphanie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Peters, Ron J. G.; van Gool, Willem A.; Kivipelto, Miia; Andrieu, Sandrine
Cardiovascular disease and dementia share a number of risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity. The rise of eHealth has led to increasing opportunities for large-scale delivery of prevention programmes encouraging self-management.
Durbin, Dennis R; McGehee, Daniel V; Fisher, Donald; McCartt, Anne
Novice teen drivers have long been known to have an increased risk of crashing, as well as increased tendencies toward unsafe and risky driving behaviors. Teens are unique as drivers for several reasons, many of which have implications specifically in the area of distracted driving. This paper reviews several of these features, including the widespread prevalence of mobile device use by teens, their lack of driving experience, the influence of peer passengers as a source of distraction, the role of parents in influencing teens’ attitudes and behaviors relevant to distracted driving and the impact of laws designed to prevent mobile device use by teen drivers. Recommendations for future research include understanding how engagement in a variety of secondary tasks by teen drivers affects their driving performance or crash risk; understanding the respective roles of parents, peers and technology in influencing teen driver behavior; and evaluating the impact of public policy on mitigating teen crash risk related to driver distraction. PMID:24776228
Bondallaz, Percy; Favrat, Bernard; Chtioui, Haïthem; Fornari, Eleonora; Maeder, Philippe; Giroud, Christian
Traffic policies show growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis, since cannabinoids are one of the most frequently encountered psychoactive substances in the blood of drivers who are drug-impaired and/or involved in accidents, and in the context of a legalization of medical marijuana and of recreational use. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effects of cannabis on safe driving remain poorly understood. In order to better understand its acute and long-term effects on psychomotor functions involved in the short term ability and long-term fitness to drive, experimental research has been conducted based on laboratory, simulator or on-road studies, as well as on structural and functional brain imaging. Results presented in this review show a cannabis-induced impairment of actual driving performance by increasing lane weaving and mean distance headway to the preceding vehicle. Acute and long-term dose-dependent impairments of specific cognitive functions and psychomotor abilities were also noted, extending beyond a few weeks after the cessation of use. Some discrepancies found between these studies could be explained by factors such as history of cannabis use, routes of administration, dose ranges, or study designs (e.g. treatment blinding). Moreover, use of both alcohol and cannabis has been shown to lead to greater odds of making an error than use of either alcohol or cannabis alone. Although the correlation between blood or oral fluid concentrations and psychoactive effects of THC needs a better understanding, blood sampling has been shown to be the most effective way to evaluate the level of impairment of drivers under the influence of cannabis. The blood tests have also shown to be useful to highlight a chronic use of cannabis that suggests an addiction and therefore a long-term unfitness to drive. Besides blood, hair and repeated urine analyses are useful to confirm abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights
This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN
Nearly one-third of fatalities in car crashes are caused by alcohol-impaired driving. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses the dangers of alcohol-impaired driving. Created: 8/6/2015 by MMWR. Date Released: 8/6/2015.
This study reviewed each State statute regarding drug-impaired driving as of December 2008. There : is a high degree of variability across the States in the ways they approach drug-impaired driving. : Current laws in many States contain provisions ma...
Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Locato, Vittoria; Cocca, Silvia; Cimini, Sara; Palma, Rossella; Alloni, Rossana; De Gara, Laura; Cicala, Michele
Background Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI) function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC) impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model. Methods The antioxidant capacity of fructans was measured in an in vitro system that simulates cooking and digestion processes. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa, obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer, were sealed between two chambers, with the mucosal side facing upwards with Krebs solution with or without purified LPS from a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4) and inulin (Frutafit IQ), and the submucosal side facing downwards into Krebs solution. The solutions on the submucosal side were collected following mucosal exposure to Krebs in the absence (N-undernatant) or presence of LPS (LPS-undernatant) or LPS+inulin (LPS+INU-undernatant). Undernatants were tested for their antioxidant activity and the effects on SMCs contractility. Inulin protective effects on mucosa and submucosa layers were assessed measuring the protein oxidation level in the experimental conditions analyzed. Results Antioxidant activity of inulin, which was significantly higher compared to simple sugars, remained unaltered despite cooking and digestion processes. Inulin protected the mucosal and submucosal layers against protein oxidation. Following exposure to LPS-undernatant, a significant decrease in maximal acetylcholine (Ach)-induced contraction was observed when compared to the contraction induced in cells incubated with the N-undernatant (4±1% vs 25±5% respectively, PInulin (35±5%). Conclusions Inulin protects the human colon mucosa from LPS-induced damage and this effect appears to be related to the
Racette, Lyne; Casson, Evanne J
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between visual field loss and driving performance as determined by on-road driving assessments. We reviewed the files of 1350 patients enrolled in a rehabilitation program at the Bloorview MacMillan Rehabilitation Centre, Toronto, Canada. We identified 131 patients with visual field loss who had undergone an on-road driving assessment. These patients had a primary diagnosis of visual impairment or a primary diagnosis of cerebral vascular accident (CVA) with a secondary diagnosis of visual impairment. None of these patients had documentation of neglect, substantial motor or cognitive deficits. We report the data obtained from 13 hemianopics, 7 quadrantanopics, 25 patients with monocular vision, 10 patients with moderate peripheral losses (worse impact on driving performance than quadrantanopia with a marginally significant result (chi2 = 3.33, p = 0.068). Overall, the location of the visual loss was not significantly related to driving fitness (chi2 = 1.05, p = 0.30). However, localized defects in the left hemifield (chi2 = 9.561, p = 0.002) and diffuse visual loss in the right hemifield (chi2 = 10.395, p = 0.001) seemed to be associated with driving impairments. A large proportion of monocular drivers were safe drivers and the location of their deficit had no significant impact. Although the extent of visual field defects appears to be related to driving performance as determined by an on-road driving assessment, large individual differences were observed. This highlights the need for individualized on-road assessments for patients with visual field defects.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and impaired proinsulin conversion as newly identified predictors of the long-term non-response to a lifestyle intervention for diabetes prevention: results from the TULIP study.
Schmid, Vera; Wagner, Robert; Sailer, Corinna; Fritsche, Louise; Kantartzis, Konstantinos; Peter, Andreas; Heni, Martin; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas
Lifestyle intervention is effective to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, a considerable long-term non-response occurs to a standard lifestyle intervention. We investigated which risk phenotypes at baseline and their changes during the lifestyle intervention predict long-term glycaemic non-response to the intervention. Of 300 participants at high risk for type 2 diabetes who participated in a 24 month lifestyle intervention with diet modification and increased physical activity, 190 participants could be re-examined after 8.7 ± 1.6 years. All individuals underwent a five-point 75 g OGTT and measurements of body fat compartments and liver fat content with MRI and spectroscopy at baseline, 9 and 24 months during the lifestyle intervention, and at long-term follow-up. Fasting proinsulin to insulin conversion (PI/I ratio) and insulin sensitivity and secretion were calculated from the OGTT. Non-response to lifestyle intervention was defined as no decrease in glycaemia, i.e. no decrease in AUC for glucose at 0-120 min during OGTT (AUCglucose 0-120 min ). Before the lifestyle intervention, 56% of participants had normal glucose regulation and 44% individuals had impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. At long-term follow-up, 11% had developed diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, BMI and change in BMI during the lifestyle intervention revealed that baseline insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, as well as change in insulin sensitivity during the lifestyle intervention, predicted long-term glycaemic control after 9 years. In addition, increased hepatic lipid content as well as impaired fasting proinsulin conversion at baseline were newly detected phenotypes that independently predicted long-term glycaemic control. Increased hepatic lipid content and impaired proinsulin conversion are new predictors, independent of change in body weight, for non-response to lifestyle intervention in addition to the
Blakemore, Ralph W.
A wind turbine capable of driving multiple electric generators having a ring or shroud structure for reducing blade root bending moments, hub loads, blade fastener loads and pitch bearing loads. The shroud may further incorporate a ring gear for driving an electric generator. In one embodiment, the electric generator may be cantilevered from the nacelle such that the gear on the generator drive shaft is contacted by the ring gear of the shroud. The shroud also provides protection for the gearing and aids in preventing gear lubricant contamination.
Consciousness is essential to normal human life. In epileptic seizures consciousness is often transiently lost making it impossible for the individual to experience or respond. This has huge consequences for safety, productivity, emotional health and quality of life. To prevent impaired consciousness in epilepsy it is necessary to understand the mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction during seizures. Normally the “consciousness system”—a specialized set of cortical-subcortical structures—maintains alertness, attention and awareness. Recent advances in neuroimaging, electrophysiology and prospective behavioral testing have shed new light on how epileptic seizures disrupt the consciousness system. Diverse seizure types including absence, generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures converge on the same set of anatomical structures through different mechanisms to disrupt consciousness. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to improved treatment strategies to prevent impaired consciousness and improve quality of life in people with epilepsy. PMID:22898735
Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Alkadhi, Karim A
The CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) are physically and functionally closely related areas of the hippocampus, but they differ in various respects, including their reactions to different insults. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of chronic caffeine treatment on late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and its signalling cascade in the DG area of the hippocampus of rapid eye movement sleep-deprived rats. Rats were chronically treated with caffeine (300 mg/L drinking water) for 4 weeks, after which they were sleep-deprived for 24 h. L-LTP was induced in in anaesthetized rats, and extracellular field potentials from the DG area were recorded in vivo. The levels of L-LTP-related signalling proteins were assessed by western blot analysis. Sleep deprivation markedly reduced L-LTP magnitude, and basal levels of total cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB), and calcium/calmodulin kinase IV (CaMKIV). Chronic caffeine treatment prevented the reductions in the basal levels of P-CREB, total CREB and CaMKIV in sleep-deprived rats. Furthermore, caffeine prevented post-L-LTP sleep deprivation-induced downregulation of P-CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the DG. The current findings show that caffeine treatment prevents acute sleep deprivation-induced deficits in brain function. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.
A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)
Beck, Kenneth H; Ali, Bina; Daughters, Stacey B
The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship between distress tolerance and risky and aggressive driving. Distress tolerance, defined as an individual's capability to experience and endure negative emotional states, was hypothesized to be related negatively to aggressive driving and risky driving. An anonymous, web-based survey of 769 college students was conducted at a large East Coast university. After controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, year in school, grade point average, and driving frequency, distress tolerance was significantly inversely related to reported risky driving and aggressive driving. College drivers who have a diminished capacity to endure frustration without experiencing negative emotional states (i.e., low distress tolerance) tend to drive aggressively and in a risky manner. Traditional deterrence-based approaches to highway safety may benefit from inclusion of a wider array of prevention strategies that focus on emotion regulation while driving.
Teshima, Nobuko; Shimo, Miho; Miyazawa, Kae; Konegawa, Sachi; Matsumoto, Aki; Onishi, Yuki; Sasaki, Ryoma; Suzuki, Toshinari; Yano, Yutaka; Matsumoto, Kazutaka; Yamada, Tomomi; Gabazza, Esteban Cesar; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro
In Japan, the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing for several reasons, including increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). However, whether SSBs cause T2DM by excess of energy production resulting in obesity remains unclear. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of SSB intake on the development of T2DM in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Ninety-three subjects (30 males and 63 females) with IGT aged 40-69 y and residing in the Mihama district (southern Mie Prefecture, Japan) were included in the study. The mean observational period was 3.6 y. All subjects underwent the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and completed a lifestyle questionnaire survey related to SSB intake. OGTT results and SSB intake were evaluated before and after the observational period. In addition, the correlation between SSB intake and development of T2DM was investigated. Of the 93 subjects, 20 (21.5%) developed T2DM (T2DM group) and demonstrated a significantly high SSB intake compared with the group that did not develop the disease (non-T2DM group). The odds ratio for the incidence of T2DM based on SSB intake was 3.26 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-9.06). The body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R) values was significantly higher in the T2DM group than in the non-T2DM group, while the insulinogenic indices were significantly lower in the former than in the latter group. The sum of insulin secretion levels during OGTT was not significantly different between groups. SSB intake correlated with the predisposition for developing T2DM, possibly by influencing body weight, insulin resistance, and the ability of the pancreatic beta cells to effectively compensate for the insulin resistance.
Maurer, Verena; Murphy, Conor; Schmuckermair, Claudia; Muigg, Patrick; Neumann, Inga D.; Whittle, Nigel
Background: Despite its success in treating specific anxiety disorders, the effect of exposure therapy is limited by problems with tolerability, treatment resistance, and fear relapse after initial response. The identification of novel drug targets facilitating fear extinction in clinically relevant animal models may guide improved treatment strategies for these disorders in terms of efficacy, acceleration of fear extinction, and return of fear. Methods: The extinction-facilitating potential of neuropeptide S, D-cycloserine, and a benzodiazepine was investigated in extinction-impaired high anxiety HAB rats and 129S1/SvImJ mice using a classical cued fear conditioning paradigm followed by extinction training and several extinction test sessions to study fear relapse. Results: Administration of D-cycloserine improved fear extinction in extinction-limited, but not in extinction-deficient, rodents compared with controls. Preextinction neuropeptide S caused attenuated fear responses in extinction-deficient 129S1/SvImJ mice at extinction training onset and further reduced freezing during this session. While the positive effects of either D-cycloserine or neuropeptide S were not persistent in 129S1/SvImJ mice after 10 days, the combination of preextinction neuropeptide S with postextinction D-cycloserine rendered the extinction memory persistent and context independent up to 5 weeks after extinction training. This dual pharmacological adjunct to extinction learning also protected against fear reinstatement in 129S1/SvImJ mice. Conclusions: By using the potentially nonsedative anxiolytic neuropeptide S and the cognitive enhancer D-cycloserine to facilitate deficient fear extinction, we provide here the first evidence of a purported efficacy of a dual over a single drug approach. This approach may render exposure sessions less aversive and more efficacious for patients, leading to enhanced protection from fear relapse in the long term. PMID:26625894
Leite Silmara AO
Full Text Available Abstract Aims In a population at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2DM, we assessed early physical and metabolic markers that predict progression from normal to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT and T2DM. Methods A total of 388 individuals (22% male, age 46 + 11 years at risk for T2DM were randomized to Standard (n = 182 or Intervention (n = 206 care and evaluated at baseline and 5 annual follow-up visits, including blood pressure, BMI, A1C, lipids, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, VO2max, fasting glucose, insulin and C-peptide. The Standard group received results of annual lab tests and quarterly newsletters, while the Intervention group received quarterly newsletters and detailed discussions of lab results, routine self-directed activities, semi-annual group meetings and monthly telephone calls for ongoing support. Results Overall, 359 (93% returned for at least one follow-up visit and 272 (70% completed the final 5-year assessment. Return rates, changes in measures and incidence of IGT/T2DM were similar between groups. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max was the most prevalent baseline abnormality. A1C and BMI were significant predictors of IGT/T2DM after controlling for other factors. The risk of IGT/T2DM within 5 years was 17.16 (95% CL: 6.169, 47.736 times greater for those with baseline A1C>=5.8% as compared to those Conclusion Baseline A1C>=5.8% was a significant predictor of IGT/T2DM within 5 years in a population at high risk for T2DM. A1C is routinely performed among patients with diabetes, however these data and other evidence suggest that it may also be a useful tool for risk assessment and screening.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...
Campêlo, Clarissa L C; Santos, José R; Silva, Anatildes F; Dierschnabel, Aline L; Pontes, André; Cavalcante, Jeferson S; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Silva, Regina H
Previous studies showed that the repeated administration with a low dose of reserpine (RES) induces a gradual appearance of motor signs and cognitive deficits compatible with parkinsonism in rodents. Environmental stimulation has neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative damage, including acutely induced parkinsonism. We investigated the effects of exposure to an enriched environment (EE) on motor, cognitive and neuronal (levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, TH and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) deficits induced by a progressive model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice. Male mice were repeatedly treated with vehicle or 0.1mg/kg of RES (s.c) and kept under two housing conditions: standard environment (SE) and EE. In animals kept in SE, the treatment with RES induced deficits in motor function (catalepsy test, open field and oral movements), in novel object recognition (NOR) and plus-maze discriminative avoidance tasks. The environmental stimulation facilitated the recovery of motor deficits assessed by the catalepsy test after the end of treatment. Additionally, exposure to EE prevented the memory deficit in the NOR task. Treatment with RES induced a reduction in the number of TH positive cells in SNpc and VTA, which recovered 30days after the end of treatment. Finally, RES reduced the levels of BDNF in the striatum and the exposure to the EE prevented this effect. These results suggest that plastic brain changes induced by EE promote beneficial effects on the progression of neuronal impairment related to PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kimberly D. Mueller
Full Text Available Changes to everyday spoken language (“connected language” are evident in persons with AD dementia, yet little is known about when these changes are first detectable on the continuum of cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to determine if participants with very early, subclinical memory declines were also showing declines in connected language. We analyzed connected language samples obtained from a simple picture description task at two time points in 264 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP. In parallel, participants were classified as either “Cognitively Healthy” or “Early Mild Cognitive Impairment” based on longitudinal neuropsychological test performance. Linear mixed effects models were used to analyze language parameters that were extracted from the connected language samples using automated feature extraction. Participants with eMCI status declined faster in features of speech fluency and semantic content than those who were cognitively stable. Measures of lexical diversity and grammatical complexity were not associated with eMCI status in this group. These findings provide novel insights about the relationship between cognitive decline and everyday language, using a quick, inexpensive, and performance-based method.
Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette
How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...
Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W
Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.
Treu, C.A. Jr.
A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.
Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...
Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.
This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and
Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.
This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and
Barkley, Russell A; Anderson, Deborah L; Kruesi, Markus
There is a high risk of vehicular crashes, traffic citations, and poorer driving performance in adults with ADHD. This pilot study examines the value of a new nonstimulant (atomoxetine) for improving the driving performance of adults with ADHD. Atomoxetine (1.2 mg/kg daily for 3 weeks) and a placebo are studied on 18 adults with ADHD (M age = 37 years) using ratings of ADHD symptoms, impairment, and safe driving behavior; a virtual reality driving simulator; and ratings of simulator performance. Atomoxetine improves self-ratings of ADHD symptoms, impairments, safe driving behavior, and simulator driving performance. No effects of atomoxetine are evident on others' ratings of driving behavior or on the simulator. Practice effects on the simulator may have obscured those drug effects. The authors find a mixed pattern of results such that atomoxetine warrants further study for its effects on driving in this high-risk population.
Ferreira, Diana H; Boland, Jason W; Phillips, Jane L; Lam, Lawrence; Currow, David C
Driving cessation is associated with poor health-related outcomes. People with chronic diseases are often prescribed long-term opioid agonists that have the potential to impair driving. Studies evaluating the impact of opioids on driving-related psychomotor skills report contradictory results likely due to heterogeneous designs, assessment tools and study populations. A better understanding of the effects of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on driving can help to inform the balance between individual's independence and community safety. To identify the literature assessing the impact of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on driving-related psychomotor skills for people with chronic pain or chronic breathlessness. Systematic review reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis statement; PROSPERO Registration CRD42017055909. Six electronic databases and grey literature were systematically searched up to January, 2017. Inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) empirical studies reporting data on driving simulation, on-the-road driving tasks or driving outcomes; (2) people with chronic pain or chronic breathlessness; and (3) taking regular therapeutic opioid agonists. Critical appraisal used the National Institutes of Health's quality assessment tools. From 3809 records screened, three studies matched the inclusion criteria. All reported data on people with chronic non-malignant pain. No significant impact of regular therapeutic opioid agonists on people's driving-related psychomotor skills was reported. One study reported more intense pain significantly worsened driving performance. This systematic review does not identify impaired simulated driving performance when people take regular therapeutic opioid agonists for symptom control, although more prospective studies are needed.
Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)
Richard, Edo; Jongstra, Susan; Soininen, Hilkka; Brayne, Carol; Moll van Charante, Eric P; Meiller, Yannick; van der Groep, Bram; Beishuizen, Cathrien R L; Mangialasche, Francesca; Barbera, Mariagnese; Ngandu, Tiia; Coley, Nicola; Guillemont, Juliette; Savy, Stéphanie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Peters, Ron J G; van Gool, Willem A; Kivipelto, Miia; Andrieu, Sandrine
Cardiovascular disease and dementia share a number of risk factors including hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, obesity, diabetes and physical inactivity. The rise of eHealth has led to increasing opportunities for large-scale delivery of prevention programmes encouraging self-management. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a multidomain intervention to optimise self-management of cardiovascular risk factors in older individuals, delivered through an coach-supported interactive internet platform, can improve the cardiovascular risk profile and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline. HATICE is a multinational, multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label blinded end point (PROBE) trial with 18 months intervention. Recruitment of 2600 older people (≥65 years) at increased risk of cardiovascular disease will take place in the Netherlands, Finland and France. Participants randomised to the intervention condition will have access to an interactive internet platform, stimulating self-management of vascular risk factors, with remote support by a coach. Participants in the control group will have access to a static internet platform with basic health information.The primary outcome is a composite score based on the average z-score of the difference between baseline and 18 months follow-up values of systolic blood pressure, low-density-lipoprotein and body mass index. Main secondary outcomes include the effect on the individual components of the primary outcome, the effect on lifestyle-related risk factors, incident cardiovascular disease, mortality, cognitive functioning, mood and cost-effectiveness. The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Ouest et Outre Mer in France and the Northern Savo Hospital District Research Ethics Committee in Finland.We expect that data from this study will result in a manuscript
This report summarizes the outcomes, to date, of the work undertaken to examine : the effects of low level alcohol impairment, especially for older drivers, based on : on-road driving studies. Some of the questions the project initially sought answer...
Yang, Li; Morland, Thomas B; Schmits, Kristen; Rawson, Elizabeth; Narasimhan, Poojitha; Motelow, Joshua E; Purcaro, Michael J; Peng, Kathy; Raouf, Saned; Desalvo, Matthew N; Oh, Taemin; Wilkerson, Jerome; Bod, Jessica; Srinivasan, Aditya; Kurashvili, Pimen; Anaya, Joseph; Manza, Peter; Danielson, Nathan; Ransom, Christopher B; Huh, Linda; Elrich, Susan; Padin-Rosado, Jose; Naidu, Yamini; Detyniecki, Kamil; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Astur, Robert; Xiao, Bo; Duckrow, Robert B; Blumenfeld, Hal
Patients with epilepsy are at risk of traffic accidents when they have seizures while driving. However, driving is an essential part of normal daily life in many communities, and depriving patients of driving privileges can have profound consequences for their economic and social well-being. In the current study, we collected ictal performance data from a driving simulator and two other video games in patients undergoing continuous video/EEG monitoring. We captured 22 seizures in 13 patients and found that driving impairment during seizures differed in terms of both magnitude and character, depending on the seizure type. Our study documents the feasibility of a prospective study of driving and other behaviors during seizures through the use of computer-based tasks. This methodology may be applied to further describe differential driving impairment in specific types of seizures and to gain data on anatomical networks disrupted in seizures that impair consciousness and driving safety. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua
Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.
Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.
A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs
Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.
The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for
The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...
BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.
This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.
Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.
Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.
Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E
This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Sakaguchi, Seiichiro; Jotaki, Eriko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Nagao, Akihiro; Nakamura, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoki; Itoh, Satoshi
Current drive in high density tokamak plasma is investigated, with special attention given to mode conversion and proximity conditions that characterize the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the case of current drive by lower hybrid waves. A simple model is used to evaluate the current drive efficiency, and its dependence on various parameters associated with equipment is investigated to provide information required in designing experimental equipment. A strong troidal magnetic field is necessary to produce high density plasma, and incident electromagnetic waves should have a high frequency to prevent the mode conversion, suggesting that a high frequency and a strong troidal field are essential to permit desirable propagation of incident electromagnetic waves. The evaluation of the current drive efficiency shows that the proximity conditions and the power spectrum of the lower hybrid waves entering the plasma are of importance. The average refraction factor in the direction of the troidal field should be larger than but close to that determined from the proximity conditions in order to increase the drive efficiency. As the intensity of the troidal field increases, the refraction factor determined from the proximity conditions decreases, leading to an increase in the drive efficiency. (N.K.)
Conclusion: In a comparison of children of the same ages, hearing-impaired children have significantly more eye problems; therefore, a possible relation between deafness and eye problems must exist. Paying attention to eye health assessment in hearing-impaired children may help prevent adding eye problems to hearing difficulties.
Full Text Available Background. Cognitive deterioration may impair COPD patient’s ability to perform tasks like driving vehicles. We investigated: (a whether subclinical neuropsychological deficits occur in stable COPD patients with mild hypoxemia (PaO2 > 55 mmHg, and (b whether these deficits affect their driving performance. Methods. We recruited 35 stable COPD patients and 10 normal subjects matched for age, IQ, and level of education. All subjects underwent an attention/alertness battery of tests for assessing driving performance based on the Vienna Test System. Pulmonary function tests, arterial blood gases, and dyspnea severity were also recorded. Results. COPD patients performed significantly worse than normal subjects on tests suitable for evaluating driving ability. Therefore, many (22/35 COPD patients were classified as having inadequate driving ability (failure at least in one of the tests, whereas most (8/10 healthy individuals were classified as safe drivers (P=0.029. PaO2 and FEV1 were correlated with almost all neuropsychological tests. Conclusions. COPD patients should be warned of the potential danger and risk they face when they drive any kind of vehicle, even when they do not exhibit overt symptoms related to driving inability. This is due to the fact that stable COPD patients may manifest impaired information processing operations.
Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul
Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)
Gogate Parikshit; Rishikeshi Nikhil; Mehata Reshma; Ranade Satish; Kharat Jitesh; Deshpande Madan
Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed vis...
Vera, Jesús; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Jiménez, Raimundo; Morales, José M; Catena, Andrés; Cardenas, David; Di Stasi, Leandro L
Driving is a task mainly reliant on the visual system. Most of the time, while driving, our eyes are constantly focusing and refocusing between the road and the dashboard or near and far traffic. Thus, prolonged driving time should produce visual fatigue. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on two ocular parameters: the accommodative response (AR) and the intraocular pressure (IOP). A pre/post-test design has been used to assess the impact of driving time on both indices. Twelve participants (out of 17 recruited) completed the study (5 women, 24.42±2.84years old). The participants were healthy and active drivers with no visual impairment or pathology. They drove for 2h in a virtual driving environment. We assessed AR and IOP before and after the driving session, and also collected subjective measures of arousal and fatigue. We found that IOP and AR decreased (i.e., the accommodative lag increased) after the driving session (p=0.03 and p<0.001, respectively). Moreover, the nearest distances tested (20cm, 25cm, and 33cm) induced the highest decreases in AR (corrected p-values<0.05). Consistent with these findings, the subjective levels of arousal decreased and levels of fatigue increased after the driving session (all p-values<0.001). These results represent an innovative step towards an objective, valid, and reliable assessment of fatigue-impaired driving based on visual fatigue signs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tomatsu, Tsutomu; Miura, Teruo.
A water supply device for supplying clean water, a recycling pump and a filter disposed between the water supply device and a water vessel by way of recycling pipelines are disposed to a water vessel containing storing water for immerging and storing control rod drives for BWR type reactors upon periodical inspection, etc. Clean water is supplied from the water supply device into the control rod drives immerged in the storing water to remove radioactive cruds, etc. deposited at the surface thereof and water is supplied through the recycling pipelines to the filter to remove solid impurities contained therein and the clean water is returned to the water supply device. Since the clean water is always recycled to the inside of the control rod drives, chemical corrosion and electrical corrosion of nitride parts are prevented and radioactive cruds are processed in separated waste processing systems, the atmospheric radiation doses in the operation chamber is reduced. (S.K.)
Jelaska, Damir T
Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book. Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric
Li, Xiaoxuan; Lyu, Peiyuan; Ren, Yanyan; An, Jin; Dong, Yanhong
Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To date, a significant number of studies have focused on the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. To investigate the relationships between specific arterial stiffness parameters and cognitive impairment, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment and determine how to interfere with arterial stiffness to prevent cognitive impairment, we searched PUBMED for studies regarding the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment that were published from 2000 to 2017. We used the following key words in our search: "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment" and "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment mechanism". Studies involving human subjects older than 30years were included in the review, while irrelevant studies (i.e., studies involving subjects with comorbid kidney disease, diabetes and cardiac disease) were excluded from the review. We determined that arterial stiffness severity was positively correlated with cognitive impairment. Of the markers used to assess arterial stiffness, a higher PWV, CAVI, AI, IMT and index-β and a lower ABI and FMD were related to cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between PP and cognitive impairment remained controversial. The potential mechanisms linking arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment may be associated with arterial pulsatility, as greater arterial pulsatility
Smiley, A.; Ziedman, K.; Moskowitz, H.
The effects of secobarbital, diazepam, alcohol, and marihuana on car-driver transfer functions obtained using a driving simulator were studied. The first three substances, all CNS depressants, reduced gain, crossover frequency, and coherence which resulted in poorer tracking performance. Marihuana also impaired tracking performance but the only effect on the transfer function parameters was to reduce coherence.
Mos-Oppersma, Eline; Doorduin, Jonne; van der Hoeven, J.G.; Veltink, Peter; Heunks, Leo M.A.
Background Acute hypoventilation results in CO2 retention and respiratory acidosis. Bicarbonate retention aims to restore pH level. However, after institution of mechanical ventilation metabolic alkalosis may develop, which could impair respiratory drive. Aim To investigate whether increased plasma
Proliferation and ovarian hormone signaling are impaired in normal breast tissues from women with BRCA1 mutations: benefit of a progesterone receptor modulator treatment as a breast cancer preventive strategy in women with inherited BRCA1 mutations
Communal, Laudine; Courtin, Aurélie; Mourra, Najat; Lahlou, Najiba; Le Guillou, Morwenna; de Jotemps, Muriel Perrault; Chauvet, Marie-Pierre; Chaouat, Marc; Pujol, Pascal; Feunteun, Jean; Delaloge, Suzette; Forgez, Patricia; Gompel, Anne
Women with inherited BRCA1 mutations have an elevated risk (40-80%) for developing breast and ovarian cancers. Reproductive history has been reported to alter this risk, suggesting a relationship between ovarian hormone signaling and BRCA1-related tumor development. BRCA1 interactions with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) signaling were previously described in human breast cancer cell lines and mouse models. However, few studies have examined the effect of ovarian hormone regulation in normal human breast tissues bearing a heterozygous BRCA1 mutation. This study compares the proliferation level (Ki67) and the expression of ER, PR, and of the PR target gene, fatty acid synthase (FASN), in histologically normal breast tissues from women with BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1+/mut, n=23) or without BRCA1 mutations (BRCA1+/+, n=28). BRCA1+/mut tissues showed an increased proliferation and impaired hormone receptor expression with a marked loss of the PR isoform, PR-B. Responses to estradiol and progesterone treatments in BRCA1+/mut and BRCA1+/+ breast tissues were studied in a mouse xenograft model, and showed that PR and FASN expression were deregulated in BRCA1+/mut breast tissues. Progesterone added to estradiol treatment increased the proliferation in a subset of BRCA1+/mut breast tissues. The PR inhibitor, ulipristal acetate (UPA), was able to reverse this aberrant progesterone-induced proliferation. This study suggests that a subset of women with BRCA1 mutations could be candidates for a UPA treatment as a preventive breast cancer strategy. PMID:27246982
Hiran B. Ekanayake
Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.
Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier
We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...
In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…
Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…
Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).
Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).
Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.
Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)
The device of the present invention can reliably prevent a possible erroneous withdrawal of control rod driving mechanism when the pressure of a coolant line is increased by isolation operation of hydraulic control units upon periodical inspection for a BWR type reactor. That is, a coolant line is connected to the downstream of a hydraulic supply device. The coolant line is connected to a hydraulic control unit. A coolant hydraulic detection device and a pressure setting device are disposed to the coolant line. A closing signal line and a returning signal line are disposed, which connect the hydraulic supply device and a flow rate control valve for the hydraulic setting device. In the device of the present invention, even if pressure of supplied coolants is elevated due to isolation of hydraulic control units, the elevation of the hydraulic pressure can be prevented. Accordingly, reliability upon periodical reactor inspection can be improved. Further, the facility is simplified and the installation to an existent facility is easy. (I.S.)
He, Jibo; Choi, William; McCarley, Jason S; Chaparro, Barbara S; Wang, Chun
Texting while driving is risky but common. This study evaluated how texting using a Head-Mounted Display, Google Glass, impacts driving performance. Experienced drivers performed a classic car-following task while using three different interfaces to text: fully manual interaction with a head-down smartphone, vocal interaction with a smartphone, and vocal interaction with Google Glass. Fully manual interaction produced worse driving performance than either of the other interaction methods, leading to more lane excursions and variable vehicle control, and higher workload. Compared to texting vocally with a smartphone, texting using Google Glass produced fewer lane excursions, more braking responses, and lower workload. All forms of texting impaired driving performance compared to undistracted driving. These results imply that the use of Google Glass for texting impairs driving, but its Head-Mounted Display configuration and speech recognition technology may be safer than texting using a smartphone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet
The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.
... Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...
... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...
... Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Vision Impairment by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Vision Impairment ...
Driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs leads to deaths and serious injuries on Europe’s roads. Both illicit and licit drugs can disrupt the psychological state of the driver and impair their driving performance. Using multiple drugs simultaneously, or in conjunction with alcohol,
Geller, E. Scott
While there is little research specifically dealing with college students and drunk driving, there is ample evidence of frequent, heavy drinking by students. A series of projects was undertaken to explore college students' drinking behavior and attitudes related to alcohol-impaired driving. These projects included: (1) analysis of behavioral…
The Drunk Driving Warning System (DDWS) is a vehicle-mounted device for testing driver impairment and activating alarms. The driver must pass a steering competency test in order to drive the car in a normal manner. The emergency flasher system operat...
The prevalence and relative risk of drink and drug driving in the Netherlands: a case-control study in the Tilburg police district : research in the framework of the European research programme IMMORTAL (Impaired Motorists, Methods of Roadside Testing and Assessment for Licensing).
Mathijssen, M.P.M. & Houwing, S.
Drink and drug driving can have an impact on the driving performance and accident risk. This epidemiological study, which forms part of the European project IMMORTAL, investigates the prevalence of eight defined drug groups, including alcohol, among drivers in the Tilburg police district. To examine
A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)
Giakoumis, Evangelos G
This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.
Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.
Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.
Kevin C Davis
Full Text Available A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI.Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865 served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1 any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2 driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model.Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P < 0.01 and lower past-month odds of driving 5 or more times within 1 hour of using marijuana (OR = 0.26, P < 0.01. Increased knowledge of marijuana DUI laws was also associated
Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine
Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...
Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.
Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...
Oliver, Raymond; Toomey, Anne
Design Drives Materials Innovation‘ outlines the potential of a D:STEM (Design, Science, Technology, Engineering amd Mathematics) approach to combining traditionally different fields through design-led, needs driven and technology anchored future products using electro/photo/bio-active polymers in physical formats defined in ‚dots, lines, surfaces and structures‘.It also identifies Ambient Assisted Living as a key driver for future applications.
Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.
Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances
To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in-car driving test. The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pfeatures in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in-car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on-road driving assessment.
Sato, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Mizuno, Katsuhiro.
Purpose: To enable fine positioning by using an induction motor of a simple structure as a driving source and thereby improve the reliability of control rod drives. Constitution: A step actuator is directly coupled with an induction motor, in which the induction motor is connected by way of a pulse driving control circuit to an AC power source, while the step actuator is connected to a DC power source. When a thyristor is turned ON, the motor outputs a positive torque and rotates and starts to rotate in the forward direction. When the other thyristor is turned ON, the motor is applied with braking by a reverse excitation in a manner equivalent to the change for the exciting phase sequence. When the speed is lowered to a predetermined value, braking is actuated by the torque of the step actuator and the motor stops at a zero position or balanced position. In this way, braking is actuated from the decelerating step to the stopping with no abrasion and a highly accurate positioning is possible due to the characteristics of the step actuator. (Horiuchi, T.)
Pavlović Dragan M.
Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment (MCI is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.
Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Qu, Weina
To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...
This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...
Kohrman, Daniel B
Safety issues posed by driving with diabetes are primarily related to severe hypoglycemia, yet some public authorities rely on categorical restrictions on drivers with diabetes. This approach is misguided. Regulation of all drivers with diabetes, or all drivers using insulin, ignores the diversity of people with diabetes and fails to focus on the subpopulation posing the greatest risk. Advances in diabetes care technology and understanding of safety consequences of diabetes have expanded techniques available to limit risks of driving with diabetes. New means of insulin administration and blood glucose monitoring offer greater ease of anticipating and preventing hypoglycemia, and thus, limit driving risk for persons with diabetes. So too do less sophisticated steps taken by people with diabetes and the health care professionals they consult. These include adoption and endorsement of safety-sensitive behaviors, such as testing before a drive and periodic testing on longer trips. Overall, and in most individual cases, driving risks for persons with diabetes are less than those routinely tolerated by our society. Examples include freedom to drive in dangerous conditions and lax regulation of drivers in age and medical cohorts with elevated overall rates of driving mishaps. Data linking specific diabetes symptoms or features with driving risk are quite uncertain. Hence, there is much to recommend: a focus on technological advances, human precautions, and identifying individuals with diabetes with a specific history of driving difficulty. By contrast, available evidence does not support unfocused regulation of all or most drivers with diabetes. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.
Davis, Kevin C; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott
A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety perceptions than
Davis, Kevin C.; Allen, Jane; Duke, Jennifer; Nonnemaker, James; Bradfield, Brian; Farrelly, Matthew C.; Shafer, Paul; Novak, Scott
Aims A potential unintended consequence of legalizing recreational marijuana is increased marijuana-related driving impairment. Some states where recreational marijuana is legal have begun implementing interventions to mitigate driving under the influence (DUI) of marijuana, including media campaigns to increase knowledge about DUI laws. However, little is known about the associations between knowledge of DUI laws and marijuana DUI behavior. In this study, we provide new data from a survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington to examine associations between marijuana drugged driving and two potential behavioral precursors of marijuana DUI. We also explore other factors that may influence marijuana DUI. Methods Data are from an online survey of marijuana users in Colorado and Washington. Respondents who reported any marijuana use in the past 30 days (n = 865) served as the analytic sample. We examined prevalence of two behavioral outcomes: (1) any driving of a motor vehicle while high in the past year and (2) driving a motor vehicle within 1 hour of using marijuana 5 or more times in the past month. Additional outcomes measuring willingness to drive while high were also assessed. Logistic regressions were used to estimate each outcome as a function of two multi-item scales measuring knowledge of the legal consequences of driving high and perceptions that driving while high is not safe. Additional covariates for potential confounders were included in each model. Results Prevalence of past-year driving while under the influence of marijuana was 43.6% among respondents. The prevalence of driving within 1 hour of using marijuana at least 5 times in the past month was 23.9%. Increased perception that driving high is unsafe was associated with lower odds of past-year marijuana DUI (OR = 0.31, P marijuana (OR = 0.26, P marijuana DUI laws was also associated with lower odds of each of these outcomes (OR = 0.63, P marijuana DUI were greater in magnitude for safety
Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.
This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means
Etherton-Beer, Christopher D
Vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular disease are common causes of dementia. Shared risk factors for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, as well as frequent coexistence of these pathologies in cognitively impaired older people, suggests convergence of the aetiology, prevention and management of the commonest dementias affecting older people. In light of this understanding, the cognitive impairment associated with cerebrovascular disease is an increasingly important and recognised area of the medicine of older people. Although the incidence of cerebrovascular events is declining in many populations, the overall burden associated with brain vascular disease will continue to increase associated with population ageing. A spectrum of cognitive disorders related to cerebrovascular disease is now recognised. Cerebrovascular disease in older people is associated with specific clinical and imaging findings. Although prevention remains the cornerstone of management, the diagnosis of brain vascular disease is important because of the potential to improve clinical outcomes through clear diagnosis, enhanced control of risk factors, lifestyle interventions and secondary prevention. Specific pharmacological intervention may also be indicated for some patients with cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease. However the evidence base to guide intervention remains relatively sparse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In the second of the series of articles about alcohol, CERN is highlighting the dangers of drinking and driving. Have you ever driven after drinking alcohol? If you did, then you were more likely to be involved in an accident that could kill or injure yourself or other people. Why risk it? Any alcohol can impair driving ability. The risk of being in an accident rises significantly after alcohol is consumed: at the French legal limit of 0.5 grams of alcohol per litre of blood, a driver is twice as likely to have an accident as someone who has had no alcohol. At the Swiss legal limit of 0.8 g/l, a driver is five times more likely to be involved in an accident. Many EU countries share the French limit. Penalties for breaking the law vary depending on the severity of the offence, but they include disqualification, fines and imprisonment. Drink Drive Limits and Penalties in the European Union Country Limit g/l Prison Sentence (maximum) Austria 0,5 up to 3 months / 3 years (if fatal) Belgiu...
Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.
The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.
An experiment is presented in which subjects were tested on both one-choice and two-choice driving tasks and on non-driving versions of them. Diffusion models for one- and two-choice tasks were successful in extracting model-based measures from the response time and accuracy data. These include measures of the quality of the information from the stimuli that drove the decision process (drift rate in the model), the time taken up by processes outside the decision process and, for the two-choice model, the speed/accuracy decision criteria that subjects set. Drift rates were only marginally different between the driving and non-driving tasks, indicating that nearly the same information was used in the two kinds of tasks. The tasks differed in the time taken up by other processes, reflecting the difference between them in response processing demands. Drift rates were significantly correlated across the two two-choice tasks showing that subjects that performed well on one task also performed well on the other task. Nondecision times were correlated across the two driving tasks, showing common abilities on motor processes across the two tasks. These results show the feasibility of using diffusion modeling to examine decision making in driving and so provide for a theoretical examination of factors that might impair driving, such as extreme aging, distraction, sleep deprivation, and so on.
Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A
In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.
An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account. The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best energy efficiency assessment, in particular for dynamic nodes. An inventory and a characterization of these various components is proposed as part of this book's examination and explanation
Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in
Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o
Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.
Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed......, and a high voltage attenuation interface for an audio analyzer is presented. THD below 0:1% is reported....
Background Older adults are the most prevalent wheelchair users in Canada. Yet, cognitive impairments may prevent an older adult from being allowed to use a powered wheelchair due to safety and usability concerns. To address this issue, an add-on Intelligent Wheelchair System (IWS) was developed to help older adults with cognitive impairments drive a powered wheelchair safely and effectively. When attached to a powered wheelchair, the IWS adds a vision-based anti-collision feature that prevents the wheelchair from hitting obstacles and a navigation assistance feature that plays audio prompts to help users manoeuvre around obstacles. Methods A two stage evaluation was conducted to test the efficacy of the IWS. Stage One: Environment of Use – the IWS’s anti-collision and navigation features were evaluated against objects found in a long-term care facility. Six different collision scenarios (wall, walker, cane, no object, moving and stationary person) and three different navigation scenarios (object on left, object on right, and no object) were performed. Signal detection theory was used to categorize the response of the system in each scenario. Stage Two: User Trials – single-subject research design was used to evaluate the impact of the IWS on older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants were asked to drive a powered wheelchair through a structured obstacle course in two phases: 1) with the IWS and 2) without the IWS. Measurements of safety and usability were taken and compared between the two phases. Visual analysis and phase averages were used to analyze the single-subject data. Results Stage One: The IWS performed correctly for all environmental anti-collision and navigation scenarios. Stage Two: Two participants completed the trials. The IWS was able to limit the number of collisions that occurred with a powered wheelchair and lower the perceived workload for driving a powered wheelchair. However, the objective performance (time to complete course
Dementia, closely linked to environmental predisposing factors such as diet, is a public health problem of increasing magnitude: currently there are more than 35 million patients with Alzheimer´s disease, and is expected to exceed 135 million by 2050. If we can delay the development of dementia 5 years will reduce its prevalence by 50%. Patients with dementia modify their diet, and it has been reported in them deficits, among others, of folic acid, vitamin B12, B6, C, E, A, D, K, beta carotene and omega 3 fatty acids, that must be resolved with proper diet and with extra contributions if needed in some cases. But to reduce, or at least delay, the prevalence of dementia we advocate prevention through proper diet from the beginning of life, an idea that is reinforced given that cardiovascular risk factors are related directly to the development of dementia. A lot of literature are available that, although with limits, allows us to make nutritional recommendations for preventing cognitive impairment. Better results are achieved when complete diets have been studied and considered over specific nutrients separately. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet has great interest in this disease, since it ensures a high intake of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, cereals, fish and olive oil, and moderate intake of meat, dairy products and alcohol. We will focus more on this article in this type of diet.
In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...
Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)
Full Text Available High-convergence polar-drive experiments are being conducted on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commum. 133, 495 (1997] using triple-picket laser pulses. The goal of OMEGA experiments is to validate modeling of oblique laser deposition, heat conduction in the presence of nonradial thermal gradients in the corona, and implosion energetics in the presence of laser–plasma interactions such as crossed-beam energy transfer. Simulated shock velocities near the equator, where the beams are obliquely incident, are within 5% of experimentally inferred values in warm plastic shells, well within the required accuracy for ignition. High, near-one-dimensional areal density is obtained in warm-plastic-shell implosions. Simulated backlit images of the compressing core are in good agreement with measured images. Outstanding questions that will be addressed in the future relate to the role of cross-beam transfer in polar drive irradiation and increasing the energy coupled into the target by decreasing beam obliquity.
Full Text Available Doubters of Freud’s theory of drives frequently mentioned that his approach is outdated and therefore cannot be useful for solving current problems in patients with mental disorders. At present, many scientists believe that affects rather than drives are of utmost importance for the emotional life and the theoretical framework of affective neuroscience, developed by Panksepp, strongly underpinned this view. Panksepp evaluated seven so-called command systems and the SEEKING system is therein of central importance. Panksepp used Pankseppian drives as inputs for the SEEKING system but noted the missing explanation of drive-specific generation of SEEKING activities in his description. Drive specificity requires dual action of the drive: the activation of a drive-specific brain area and the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Noticeably, as Freud claimed drive specificity too, it was here analyzed whether a Freudian drive can evoke the generation of drive-specific SEEKING activities. Special importance was addressed to the imperative motor factor in Freud’s drive theory because Panksepp’s formulations focused on neural pathways without specifying underlying neurotransmitter/endocrine factors impelling motor activity. As Panksepp claimed sleep as a Pankseppian drive, we firstly had to classified sleep as a Freudian drive by using three evaluated criteria for a Freudian drive. After that it was possible to identify the imperative motor factors of hunger, thirst, sex, and sleep. Most importantly, all of these imperative motor factors can both activate a drive-specific brain area and release dopamine from dopaminergic neurons, i.e., they can achieve the so-called drive specificity. Surprisingly, an impaired Freudian drive can alter via endocrinological pathways the concentration of the imperative motor factor of a second Freudian drive, obviously in some independence to the level of the metabolic deficit, thereby offering the possibility to
Sansone, Randy A; Leung, Justin S; Wiederman, Michael W
Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage using various psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving. Using a cross-sectional approach in a consecutive sample of 331 respondents (68% female), we surveyed participants about the number of past driving citations, not necessarily convictions, and 21 aggressive behaviors using the Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. The number of driving citations demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the number of aggressive behaviors in the 21-item Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. There were no differences between men and women. As for specific aggressive behaviors, the number of driving citations was statistically significantly related to punching a wall when angry, causing and getting into a bar fight, getting into fistfights (not in a bar), causing someone to have an accident, and intentionally running someone off the road. The number of driving citations, an indication of problematic driving, appears to be related to generally aggressive behavior. Findings indicate that if aggression plays a role in problematic driving, it is likely not limited to the road.
Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.
Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899
Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Klauer, Sheila G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S; Lee, Suzanne E; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Pradhan, Anuj K; Dingus, Thomas A
This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (global positioning system, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Overall teenage crash and near-crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Huang, Dayan; Kapur, Atul K; Ling, Patrick; Purssell, Roy; Henneberry, Ryan J; Champagne, Chantelle R; Lee, Victoria K; Francescutti, Louis H
Distracted driving caused by cellphone use is a significant source of needless injuries. These injuries place unnecessary financial burden, emotional stress and health care resource misuse on society. This paper states the Canadian Association of Emergency Physician's (CAEP's) position on cellphone use while driving. In recent years, numerous studies were conducted on the danger of cellphone use while driving. Research has shown that cellphone use while driving negatively impacts cognitive functions, visual fields, reaction time and overall driving performances. Some studies found that cellphone use is as dangerous as driving under the influence of alcohol. Moreover, vehicle crash rates were shown to be significantly higher when drivers used cellphones. Countermeasures have been implemented in recent years. Over 50 countries worldwide have laws limiting the use of cellphones while driving. Six Canadian provinces, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Saskatchewan, currently have legislation prohibiting cellphone use. Other provinces are considering implementing similar bans. As emergency physicians, we must advocate for injury prevention. Cell phone related road traumas are avoidable. CAEP supports all measures to ban cellphone use while driving.
Del Rio-Bermudez, Carlos; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Catena, Andrés; Buela-Casal, Gualberto; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi
Among the factors associated with driving safety, sleep-related variables constitute a leading cause of road accidents. Circadian fluctuations of driver's somnolence has been previously linked to road safety. However, the role of chronotype in this relationship has been poorly investigated. Thus, the aim of the present work was to address whether driving performance is influenced by circadian patterns, in turn modulated by the driver's chronotype and the time of day (i.e. synchrony effect). We assessed 47 healthy young adults with specific chronotypes in several simulated driving sessions, both in the morning and in the evening. We collected driving performance data, along with self-reported levels of activation prior to each driving session and other sleep-related variables. Participants drove less safely when testing times took place outside their optimal time of day, as determined by their chronotype and confirmed by self-reported levels of activation. These differences were more pronounced in the morning, when morning types shown a better driving performance. Our results suggest that chronotype plays an important role as a modulator of the relationship between the time of day and driving safety. Therefore, it is necessary to acknowledge this variable in theoretical models of driving behavior, and for the improvement of occupational accidents prevention programs.
Vettorazzi, Eik; Oehlwein, Christian; Rikkers, Fred; Poetter-Nerger, Monika; Gulberti, Alessandro; Gerloff, Christian; Moll, Christian K.; Hamel, Wolfgang
Objective. To determine the influence of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on daily routine driving behavior in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Methods. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was done in 121 DBS-PD patients. The influences of patient characteristics and DBS on current driving and driving at time of surgery and the predictive value of the preoperative levodopa-test on postoperative driving were evaluated. Results. 50% of 110 driving-license holders currently drove. 63.0% rated themselves as safe drivers, 39.4% reported improvement, and 10.9% noted deterioration in driving after DBS surgery. Inactive drivers had quit driving mainly due to disease burden (90.9%). Active drivers were younger, more often males, and less impaired according to H&Y and MMSE, had surgery more recently, and reported more often overall benefit from DBS. H&Y “on” and UPDRS III “off” scores at time of surgery were lower in pre- and postoperative active than in inactive drivers. Tremor and akinesia were less frequent reasons to quit driving after than before DBS surgery. Postoperatively, 22.7% (10/44) of patients restarted and 10.6% (7/66) of patients discontinued driving, independently of H&Y stage. The preoperative levodopa-test was not predictive for the postoperative driving outcome. Conclusion. 50% of PD patients with DBS drive. DBS surgery changes daily routine driving behavior. PMID:26640738
Lauridsen, Karen M.
in the best way possible; and that the differences in their knowledge systems is acknowledged and used as an asset in these international programmes. With these factors in place, on the other hand, programmes with international faculty and diverse student audiences in which this diversity is exploited...... as students as well as the lecturers themselves represent a diverse range of first languages, cultures and knowledge systems; at the same time, the teaching and learning must reach at least the same high quality standards as in more traditional mono-lingual and mono-cultural settings. For a lecturer...... in an appropriate way, may have a considerable added value that positively impacts on the knowledge, skills and competences developed by their graduates. However, lecturers often feel at a loss because they are not sure how to do this and teaching becomes like driving in unknown territory without a GPS. Based...
Purpose: To remove movable portion and improve the reliability by the direct control to coil. Constitution: Coils are disposed vertically at a predetermined interval to the outside of a control rod drive guide tube and each of the coils is adapted to be directly controlled. The coils are arranged at such an interval that a plunger laps over the vertically adjacent coils. In the case of moving the plunger upwardly, a coil just above the coil that attract the plunger is energized while the coil attracting the plunger so far is denergized. Then, the plunger is pulled up to an aimed position by repeating the procedures. In the case of moving the plunger downwardly, the procedures are conducted in the manner opposite to the above. (Kawakami, Y.)
Study Protocol: The Norfolk Diabetes Prevention Study [NDPS]: a 46 month multi - centre, randomised, controlled parallel group trial of a lifestyle intervention [with or without additional support from lay lifestyle mentors with Type 2 diabetes] to prevent transition to Type 2 diabetes in high risk groups with non - diabetic hyperglycaemia, or impaired fasting glucose.
Pascale, Melanie; Murray, Nikki; Bachmann, Max; Barton, Garry; Clark, Allan; Howe, Amanda; Greaves, Colin; Sampson, Mike
This 7 year NIHR programme [2011-2018] tests the primary hypothesis that the NDPS diet and physical activity intervention will reduce the risk of transition to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in groups at high risk of Type 2 diabetes. The NDPS programme recognizes the need to reduce intervention costs through group delivery and the use of lay mentors with T2DM, the realities of normal primary care, and the complexity of the current glycaemic categorisation of T2DM risk. NDPS identifies people at highest risk of T2DM on the databases of 135 general practices in the East of England for further screening with ab fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c]. Those with an elevated fasting plasma glucose [impaired fasting glucose or IFG] with or without an elevated HbA1c [non -diabetic hyperglycaemia; NDH] are randomised into three treatment arms: a control arm receiving no trial intervention, an arm receiving an intensive bespoke group-based diet and physical activity intervention, and an arm receiving the same intervention with enhanced support from people with T2DM trained as diabetes prevention mentors [DPM]. The primary end point is cumulative transition rates to T2DM between the two intervention groups, and between each intervention group and the control group at 46 months. Participants with screen detected T2DM are randomized into an equivalent prospective controlled trial with the same intervention and control arms with glycaemic control [HbA1c] at 46 months as the primary end point. Participants with NDH and a normal fasting plasma glucose are randomised into an equivalent prospective controlled intervention trial with follow up for 40 months. The intervention comprises six education sessions for the first 12 weeks and then up to 15 maintenance sessions until intervention end, all delivered in groups, with additional support from a DPM in one treatment arm. The NDPS programme reports in 2018 and will provide trial outcome data for a group delivered
Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan
Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.
João G. Ribeiro
Full Text Available Introduction: How important is the emotional life of persons who manifest psychotic symptoms? Aims: The aim of this paper is to review evidence on a causal role for emotions in psychotic processes. Methods: Selective review of literature on affective symptoms in psychoses, on emotions in the production of psychotic symptoms and on dopaminergic models of psychosis. Results: Affective symptoms are relevant across psychoses. Persons with schizophrenia have high levels of emotional reactivity and the intensification of negative affects not only is associated with but also precedes the intensification of psychotic symptoms, which is evidence that negative emotions drive the course of psychotic symptoms. Negative self‑representations are central in psychotic processes and can be the link between negative emotions and psychosis. Evidence favours the notion that persecutory delusions are consistent with negative affects and self‑representations, while grandiose delusions are consistent with a defensive amplification of positive affects and self‑representations. Shame has been proposed as the core emotional experience of psychosis, one in which the self becomes vulnerable to the external world, which is consistent with persecutory experiences. Assaults on the self, under the form of hostility in the family environment and society, are strong predictors of relapse and development of schizophrenia. Assaults on the self which induce social defeat are also strong stimulants of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways, whose hyperactivity is associated with acute psychotic episodes and the experience of “aberrant salience”, put forward as a dopaminergic model of psychosis. Conclusions: The “defeat of the self” emerges as a central link that binds the experience of negative emotions to the expression of psychotic symptoms and its psychological and neurobiological correlates. The hypothesis gains support that the emotions related to that defeat control
Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel
The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...
Full Text Available Background: Age-related cognitive decline is often associated with unsafe driving behavior. We hypothesized that 10 active training sessions in a driving simulator increase cognitive and on-road driving performance. In addition, driving simulator training should outperform cognitive training.Methods: Ninety-one healthy active drivers (62 – 87 years were randomly assigned to either (1 a driving simulator training group, (2 an attention training group (vigilance and selective attention, or (3 a control group. The main outcome variables were on-road driving and cognitive performance. Seventy-seven participants (85% completed the training and were included in the analyses. Training gains were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis with planned comparisons.Results: The driving simulator training group showed an improvement in on-road driving performance compared to the attention training group. In addition, both training groups increased cognitive performance compared to the control group. Conclusion: Driving simulator training offers the potential to enhance driving skills in older drivers. Compared to the attention training, the simulator training seems to be a more powerful program for increasing older drivers’ safety on the road.
Hamann, Cara J; Ramirez, Marizen; Yang, Jingzhen; Chande, Vidya; Peek-Asa, Corinne
To examine pre-licensure agreement on driving expectations and predictors of teen driving expectations among parent-teen dyads. Cross-sectional survey of 163 parent-teen dyads. Descriptive statistics, weighted Kappa coefficients, and linear regression were used to examine expectations about post-licensure teen driving. Teens reported high pre-licensure unsupervised driving (N = 79, 48.5%) and regular access to a car (N = 130, 81.8%). Parents and teens had low agreement on teen driving expectations (eg, after dark, κw = 0.23). Each time teens currently drove to/from school, their expectation of driving in risky conditions post-licensure increased (β = 0.21, p = .02). Pre-licensure improvement of parent-teen agreement on driving expectations are needed to have the greatest impact on preventing teens from driving in high risk conditions.
Singh, Yash Veer
A new trend in the variable speed drives (VSDs) is to develop fully integrated systems, which lead to low-cost products with shorter design cycles. Motor Integrated design of VSDs will reduce cable length to connect drive with machine windings and installation time for end user. The electric drives...... so it can fit inside the motor housing. Weight and volume of a filter inductor has to come down drastically to make it a suitable power converter for motor integrated variable speed drives. Introduction of active power electronic switches can ensure very high performance and small size...
Various current drive mechanisms may be grouped into four classes: (1) injection of energetic particle beams; (2) launching of rf waves; (3) hybrid schemes, which are combinations of various rf schemes (rf plus beams, rf and/or beam plus ohmic heating, etc.); and (4) other schemes, some of which are specific to reactor plasma conditions requiring the presence of alpha particle or intense synchrotron radiation. Particle injection schemes include current drive by neutral beams and relativistic electron beams. The rf schemes include current drive by the lower hybrid (LH) waves, the electron waves, the waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies, etc. Only a few of these approaches, however, have been tested experimentally, with the broadest data base available for LH waves. Included in this report are (1) efficiency criteria for current drive, (2) current drive by neutral beam injection, (3) LH current drive, (4) electron cyclotron current drive, (5) current drive by ion cyclotron waves - minority species heating, and (6) current drive by other schemes (such as hybrids and low frequency waves)
Berthelon, Catherine; Gineyt, Guy
Alcohol is the most frequently detected substance in fatal automobile crashes, but its precise mode of action is not always clear. The present study was designed to establish the influence of blood alcohol concentration as a function of the complexity of the scenarios. Road scenarios implying automatic or controlled driving performances were manipulated in order to identify which behavioral parameters were deteriorated. A single blind counterbalanced experiment was conducted on a driving simulator. Sixteen experienced drivers (25.3 ± 2.9 years old, 8 men and 8 women) were tested with 0, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.8 g/l of alcohol. Driving scenarios varied: road tracking, car following, and an urban scenario including events inspired by real accidents. Statistical analyses were performed on driving parameters as a function of alcohol level. Automated driving parameters such as standard deviation of lateral position measured with the road tracking and car following scenarios were impaired by alcohol, notably with the highest dose. More controlled parameters such as response time to braking and number of crashes when confronted with specific events (urban scenario) were less affected by the alcohol level. Performance decrement was greater with driving scenarios involving automated processes than with scenarios involving controlled processes.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It can involve ...
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Overview Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the expected cognitive decline of normal aging and the more-serious decline of dementia. It ...
Jae Hoon Moon
Full Text Available Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed.
Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis
Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...
Full Text Available The driving pattern has an important influence on the parameter optimization of the energy management strategy (EMS for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. A new algorithm using simulated annealing particle swarm optimization (SA-PSO is proposed for parameter optimization of both the power system and control strategy of HEVs based on multiple driving cycles in order to realize the minimum fuel consumption without impairing the dynamic performance. Furthermore, taking the unknown of the actual driving cycle into consideration, an optimization method of the dynamic EMS based on driving pattern recognition is proposed in this paper. The simulation verifications for the optimized EMS based on multiple driving cycles and driving pattern recognition are carried out using Matlab/Simulink platform. The results show that compared with the original EMS, the former strategy reduces the fuel consumption by 4.36% and the latter one reduces the fuel consumption by 11.68%. A road test on the prototype vehicle is conducted and the effectiveness of the proposed EMS is validated by the test data.
Serra, Anne-Laure; von Gunten, Armin; Mosimann, Urs; Favrat, Bernard
Fitness to drive in elderly drivers is most commonly discussed with a focus on cognitive impairment. Therefore, this article is focussing on mental illness and the use of psychotropic drugs in elderly drivers, which can both interfere with fitness to drive. Based on a detailed literature review and on clinical judgement, we propose signposts and "red flags" to judge the individual risks. Health professionals dealing with elderly patients should in particular be aware of the dangers related to cumulative risks and need to inform the patients appropriately. For medico-legal reasons the information provided to patients must be written down in the medical record. Individual counselling is important as fitness to drive is a complex topic.
Purpose: To conduct reactor scram by an external signal and, also by a signal for the abnormal temperature from a temperature detector in the nuclear reactor. Constitution: Control rod driving mechanisms magnetically coupling the extension pipe with the elevating mechanism above the reactor core and the holding magnet, and retains a control rod to the lower portion of the extension pipe by way of a latch mechanism. The temperature detector is immersed in reactor coolants. If the temperature of the coolants rises abnormally, bimetal contacts of the temperature detector are opened to interrupt the current supply to the holding electromagnet. Then, the extension pipe released from the magnetic coupling is lowered and the control rod free from latch is rapidly dropped and inserted into the reactor core. Since this procedure is carried out for all of the control rods, the reactor scram can be attained. The feature of this invention resides in that the reactor scram can be attained also by the signal of the reactor core itself even if the signal system for the external signals should be failed. (Horiuchi, T.)
Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)
Etzioni, Shelly; Erev, Ido; Ishaq, Robert; Elias, Wafa; Shiftan, Yoram
In-vehicle data recorders (IVDR) have been found to facilitate safe driving and are highly valuable in accident analysis. Nevertheless, it is not easy to convince drivers to use them. Part of the difficulty is related to the "Big Brother" concern: installing IVDR impairs the drivers' privacy. The "Big Brother" concern can be mitigated by adding a turn-off switch to the IVDR. However, this addition comes at the expense of increasing speed variability between drivers, which is known to impair safety. The current experimental study examines the significance of this negative effect of a turn-off switch under two experimental settings representing different incentive structures: small and large fines for speeding. 199 students were asked to participate in a computerized speeding dilemma task, where they could control the speed of their "car" using "brake" and "speed" buttons, corresponding to automatic car foot pedals. The participants in two experimental conditions had IVDR installed in their "cars", and were told that they could turn it off at any time. Driving with active IVDR implied some probability of "fines" for speeding, and the two experimental groups differed with respect to the fine's magnitude, small or large. The results indicate that the option to use IVDR reduced speeding and speed variance. In addition, the results indicate that the reduction of speed variability was maximal in the small fine group. These results suggest that using IVDR with gentle fines and with a turn-off option maintains the positive effect of IVDR, addresses the "Big Brother" concern, and does not increase speed variance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sleepiness is known as one of the side effects of antihistamines, and impaired performance caused by these drugs has become problematic. Among the 13 second-generation antihistamines causing sleepiness to some extent, the package inserts of 8 drugs prohibit driving, 3 stress driving with care, and 2 give no driving-related warning. It was confirmed that the description did not necessarily reflect the results of the standard deviation of lateral position measurement study, which is considered the most effective study for evaluating the effects of drugs on automobile driving. Do these descriptions reflect actual patients' sleepiness? According to a questionnaire survey involving 2000 individuals taking second-generation antihistamines, 7.3% of respondents answered that they had always become sleepy after taking antihistamines (3.1-12.5% according to the type of antihistamine), 32.8% (27.8-45.8%) had become sleepy sometimes, 9.1% (3.1-15.8%) had previously become sleepy but not anymore, and 40.9% (27.1-49.1%) had never become sleepy. In addition, 10.3% (2.4-21.1%) reported intolerable sleepiness. Patients who had experience of receiving pharmaceutical education from pharmacists numbered 1296 (64.8%), and 80.2% of them had also received driving-related explanations, which included the prohibition of driving (32.8%), stressing the need to drive with care (54.7%), and the prohibition of medication before driving (12.0%). Concerning these explanations, the proportion who paid attention on a daily basis, paid slight attention, and paid no attention was 36.7, 31.2, and 32.1%, respectively. To provide effective and safe pharmacotherapy for the increasing number of patients taking antihistamines, pharmacists should ideally improve pharmaceutical education.
Ngoc, Luu Bich; Thieng, Nguyen Thi; Huong, Nguyen Lan
a comprehensive situational assessment that examined the problem of drinking and driving and identified some of the weaknesses in the current prevention system. Vietnam currently has 2 international projects on road safety and it is hoped that these together with support from the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) Global Actions program will provide opportunities for strengthening drinking and drive prevention initiatives by improving the road crash and injury database, building the capacity of the key organizations, strengthening the coordination mechanisms, and implementing and evaluating trial drink-drive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…
Full Text Available Background : Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim : To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design : Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods : Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen′s E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis : Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results : The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24% had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%, but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3% children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6% children. Conclusion : Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.
Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M
With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task. In addition to driving performance measures, non-driving task performance and the mean glance duration for the non-driving task were compared between the two levels of automated driving. Drivers using the automated systems responded worse than those manually driving in terms of reaction time, lane departure duration, and maximum steering wheel angle to an induced lane departure event. These results also found that non-driving tasks further impaired driver responses to a safety critical event in the automated system condition. In the automated driving condition, driver responses to the safety critical events were slower, especially when engaged in a non-driving task. Traditional driver performance variables may not necessarily effectively and accurately evaluate driver responses to events when supervising autonomous vehicle systems. Thus, it is important to develop and use appropriate variables to quantify drivers' performance under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Hoekema, Aarnoud; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Bakker, Marije; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.
Impaired simulated driving performance has been demonstrated in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS) patients. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) generally improves simulated driving performance, the effects of oral-appliance (OA) therapy are unknown. The aims of this
Brouwer, W.H. Johnson, A. & Twisk, D.A.M.
Official regulations with regard to medical fitness to drive ignore important scientific research findings. In particular, although it has been shown that there is a gray zone where fitness to drive is less dependent on the severity of specific impairments than on compensatory functions, skills and
Lacey, John H.; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Voas, Robert B.; Romano, Eduardo; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Torres, Pedro; Berning, Amy
This article describes the methodology used in the 2007 U.S. National Roadside Survey to estimate the prevalence of alcohol- and drug-impaired driving and alcohol- and drug-involved driving. This study involved randomly stopping drivers at 300 locations across the 48 continental U.S. states at sites selected through a stratified random sampling…
New legislation in the State of California requires that 2% of vehicles sold there from 1998 will be 'zero-emitting'. This provides a unique market opportunity for developers of electric vehicles but substantial improvements in the technology are probably required if it is to be successfully exploited. There are around a dozen types of battery that are potentially relevant to road vehicles but, at the present, lead/acid and sodium—sulphur come closest to combining acceptable performance, life and cost. To develop an efficient, lightweight electric motor system requires up-to-date techniques of magnetics design, and the latest power-electronic and microprocessor control methods. Brushless machines, coupled with solid-state inverters, offer the most economical solution for mass production, even though their development costs are higher than for direct-current commutator machines. Fitted to a small car, even the highest energy-density batteries will only provide around 200 km average range before recharging. Therefore, some form of supplementary on-board power generation will probably be needed to secure widespread acceptance by the driving public. Engine-driven generators of quite low power can achieve useful increases in urban range but will fail to qualify as 'zero-emitting'. On the other hand, if the same function could be economically performed by a small fuel-cell using hydrogen derived from a methanol reformer, then most of the flexibility provided by conventional vehicles would be retained. The market prospects for electric cars would then be greatly enhanced and their dependence on very advanced battery technology would be reduced.
Cameron, Elaine; French, David P
People driving the day after drinking are at risk of impaired performance and accidents due to continued intoxication or the effects of alcohol hangover. Drivers are poor at estimating their own blood alcohol concentration, and some drive despite believing they are over the legal limit. It is therefore important to identify other factors influencing perceived ability to drive 'the morning after'. This study tested how accurately participants estimated their legal driving status, and the contribution of beliefs and hangover symptoms to the prediction of perceived driving safety. This cross-sectional study involved 193 students completing a questionnaire and alcohol breath test the morning after heavy alcohol consumption. Indicators of subjective intoxication, severity of hangover symptoms, estimated legal status and perceived safety to drive were measured. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted. No participants thought they were under the English legal limit when they were not, and 47% thought they were over the limit when they were in fact legally permissible to drive. However, 20% of those believing they were over the limit nevertheless rated themselves as safe to drive. Hangover symptoms added 17% variance to the prediction of perceived safety to drive, over and above objective and subjective measures of intoxication. Perceived severity of hangover symptoms influence beliefs about driving ability: When judging safety to drive, people experiencing less severe symptoms believe they are less impaired. If this finding is robust, health promotion campaigns should aim to correct this misapprehension. [Cameron E, French D. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:442-446]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.
Groom, Madeleine J; van Loon, Editha; Daley, David; Chapman, Peter; Hollis, Chris
Little is known about the impact of cognitive impairments on driving in adults with ADHD. The present study compared the performance of adults with and without ADHD in a driving simulator on two different routes: an urban route which we hypothesised would exacerbate weak impulse control in ADHD and a motorway route, to challenge deficits in sustained attention. Adults with (n = 22, 16 males) and without (n = 21, 18 males) ADHD completed a simulated driving session while eye movement data were recorded simultaneously. Participants also completed the Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS). Measures of driving performance included average speed, proportion distance travelled over speed limit (speeding) and lane deviation. These variables and the eye movement measures (spread of fixations, mean fixation duration) were compared between groups and routes. Also, driving behaviours, including responses to programmed events, were categorised and the frequencies within categories were compared between groups. Finally, speech analysis was performed to compare emotional verbal expressions during driving between groups. ADHD participants reported significantly more Violations and Lapses on the DBQ than control participants and significantly more accidents. Average speed and speeding were also higher but did not interact with route type. ADHD participants showed poorer vehicle control, greater levels of frustration with other road users (including greater frequencies of negative comments) and a trend for less safe driving when changing lanes/overtaking on the motorway. These effects were predicted by hyperactive/impulsive CAARS scores. They were also more likely to cause a crash/near miss when an event occurred on the urban route. The results suggest that difficulty regulating and controlling impulsive behavior, reflected in speeding, frustration with other road users, less safety when changing lanes on the
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Full Text Available After memory impairment, one of the most common troubles of early Alzheimer's disease (AD is the impairment of executive functioning. However, it can have major consequences on daily life, notably on the driving activity. The present study focused on one important executive function involved in driving: mental flexibility; and considered how this impairment can affect driving. Ten patients with early AD were matched with 29 healthy older drivers. All participants were given an evaluation of mental flexibility through neuropsychological tests and an experimental test developed on a static driving simulator. The experiment was divided in two conditions; one without mental flexibility and another condition with a mental flexibility demand. AD patients showed impairments in the neuropsychological tests evaluating mental flexibility. These deficits are linked to the deficits they showed in the driving simulator flexibility tests. This study contributes to the understanding of mental flexibility mechanisms and on their role in driving activity. It also confirms that the driving simulator is a suitable tool to explore cognitive disorders and driving ability.
The main topics of this book include advanced control, cognitive data processing, high performance computing, functional safety, and comprehensive validation. These topics are seen as technological bricks to drive forward automated driving. The current state of the art of automated vehicle research, development and innovation is given. The book also addresses industry-driven roadmaps for major new technology advances as well as collaborative European initiatives supporting the evolvement of automated driving. Various examples highlight the state of development of automated driving as well as the way forward. The book will be of interest to academics and researchers within engineering, graduate students, automotive engineers at OEMs and suppliers, ICT and software engineers, managers, and other decision-makers.
Rosenblum, L. Penny; Corn, Anne L.
This article suggests ways that families of children with visual impairments can promote the travel skills of their children. Topics covered include ways to share information during travel, involving children in travel, involving children with nondrivers, helping adolescents who will not drive gain increased independence, and supporting young…
. Knowledge of CVI is important in planning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with childhood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago ...
-Briggs. Abstract. Background Hearing impairment or deafness is a major disabling condition worldwide. Etiology of the hearing loss range from congenital to acquired, and includes common and preventable childhood infections like otitis ...
Collet, C; Guillot, A; Petit, C
The first paper examined how the variables related to driving performance were impacted by the management of holding a phone conversation. However, the conditions under which this dual task is carried out are dependent upon a set of factors that may particularly influence the risk of crash. These conditions are defined by several independent variables, classified into five main categories: i) legislation; ii) phone type (hands-free or hand-held); iii) drivers' features regarding age, gender, personal individual profile and driving experience; iv) conversation content (casual or professional) and its context (held with passengers or with a cell (mobile) phone); v) driving conditions (actual or simulated driving, road type, traffic density and weather). These independent variables determine the general conditions. The way in which these factors are combined and interact one with another thus determines the risk that drivers undergo when a cell phone is used while driving. Finally, this review defined the general conditions of driving for which managing a phone conversation is likely to elicit a high risk of car crash or, conversely, may provide a situation of lower risk, with sufficient acceptance to ensure safety.
Recent estimates in Sub-Saharan Africa showed that 21.4 million people are visually impaired with 4.8 million of these blind. Approximately 80% of these are preventable or curable through the delivery of cost-effective eye care services. Aim: This study aims to determine the burden of visual impairment and blindness in Imo ...
ABSTRACT. Background: Hearing impairment or deafness is a major disabling condition worldwide. The etiology of hearing loss range from congenital to acquired, and includes common and preventable childhood infections like otitis media and meningoencephalitis. The morbidity and burden of hearing impairment on the ...
... 9000-AL64 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While... 13513, issued on October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving... to prevent the unsafe practice of text messaging by Federal contractors while driving in connection...
During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts
Full Text Available Warp drives are interesting configurations that, at least theoretically, provide a way to travel at superluminal speed. Unfortunately, several issues seem to forbid their realization. First, a huge amount of exotic matter is required to build them. Second, the presence of quantum fields propagating in superluminal warp-drive geometries makes them semiclassically unstable. Indeed, a Hawking-like high-temperature flux of particles is generated inside the warp-drive bubble, which causes an exponential growth of the energy density measured at the front wall of the bubble by freely falling observers. Moreover, superluminal warp drives remain unstable even if the Lorentz symmetry is broken by the introduction of regulating higher order terms in the Lagrangian of the quantum field. If the dispersion relation of the quantum field is subluminal, a black-hole laser phenomenon yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux. If it is superluminal, infrared effects cause a linear growth of this flux.
Drowsy driving is a serious problem that leads to : thousands of automobile crashes each year. This : report, sponsored by the National Center on : Sleep Disorders Research (NCSDR) of the National : Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the : National ...
Lettl, Jiří; Flígl, S.
-, č. 3 (2004), s. 77-80 ISSN 0204-3599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : matrix converter * hybrid drive * electric power splitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.
In Germany, patient information and expert testimony on driving ability requires knowledge of the corresponding legislation and the Guideline for expertises on driver aptitude. The testimony should clearly identify handicaps with regard to driving, give estimates on the future risks of a sudden loss of control, and also consider personal attitudes such as inadequate behavior, lack of insight etc. Physical handicaps often can be compensated for by restrains or restrictions such as vehicle modifications, daylight driving only etc.Both, information and testimony must give estimates on the risks of a sudden loss of control while driving by stroke recurrence or epileptic seizures. In accordance with the Risk-of-Harm-Formula of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society methods are being discussed, by which an estimate of harmful traffic accidents due to stroke recurrence can be calculated. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Donald A Redelmeier
Full Text Available In advance of a safety campaign on 17 March 2017, Donald Redelmeier and Allan Detsky call on physicians and clinical colleagues to reduce the chances that patients will drive drunk.
Dijksterhuis, Chris; Veldstra, Janet; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel
The International Council on Alcohol, Drugs, and Traffic Safety (ICADTS) classifies the impairing properties of medicinal drugs on driving performance into one of three categories; presumed safe (I), moderate adverse effects (II), and potentially dangerous (III). In the Netherlands for example, the
Togashi, Hidetoshi; Mase, Noriaki; Matsumura, Yuichi.
Purpose: To prevent the generation of local temperature rise depending on the reactor core position of the control rod drives and control the temperature to an averaged state in BWR type reactors. Method: Control rod drives having a large charging length of the housing in the pressure vessel involve such a factor that the temperature of the control rod drives is increased by the synergistic effect due to the radiation heat from the reactor core and to the unevenness of the cooling water flow rate, which renders an appropriate temperature control difficult for the reactor core position. A cooling water flow rate controlling device having a restriction mechanism is disposed on the cooling water feed path for each of the hydraulic control units of the control rod drives, so that flow rate to the control rod drives is increased at the center of the reactor core and decreased at the periphery thereof. As a result, average temperature state can be set, temperature increase due to cloggings can be prevented and the thermal effect can be eliminated to thereby improve the reliability. (Moriyama, K.)
Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas
The on-the-road driving test in normal traffic is used to examine the impact of drugs on driving performance. This paper compares the sensitivity of standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) and SD speed in detecting driving impairment. A literature search was conducted to identify studies applying the on-the-road driving test, examining the effects of anxiolytics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and hypnotics. The proportion of comparisons (treatment versus placebo) where a significant impairment was detected with SDLP and SD speed was compared. About 40% of 53 relevant papers did not report data on SD speed and/or SDLP. After placebo administration, the correlation between SDLP and SD speed was significant but did not explain much variance (r = 0.253, p = 0.0001). A significant correlation was found between ΔSDLP and ΔSD speed (treatment-placebo), explaining 48% of variance. When using SDLP as outcome measure, 67 significant treatment-placebo comparisons were found. Only 17 (25.4%) were significant when SD speed was used as outcome measure. Alternatively, for five treatment-placebo comparisons, a significant difference was found for SD speed but not for SDLP. Standard deviation of lateral position is a more sensitive outcome measure to detect driving impairment than speed variability.
Full Text Available This article examines David Lynch’s Mulholland Drive from Kristeva’s concept of intertextuality. To achieve this aim, this study provides a close reading of the selected film so as to trace and illustrate the polyphonic network of references, citations, quotations and intertexts of Mulholland Drive to the significant already-made films such as Sunset Boulevard, The Wizard of Oz, and Persona.
Engström, Johan; Markkula, Gustav; Victor, Trent; Merat, Natasha
The objective of this paper was to outline an explanatory framework for understanding effects of cognitive load on driving performance and to review the existing experimental literature in the light of this framework. Although there is general consensus that taking the eyes off the forward roadway significantly impairs most aspects of driving, the effects of primarily cognitively loading tasks on driving performance are not well understood. Based on existing models of driver attention, an explanatory framework was outlined. This framework can be summarized in terms of the cognitive control hypothesis: Cognitive load selectively impairs driving subtasks that rely on cognitive control but leaves automatic performance unaffected. An extensive literature review was conducted wherein existing results were reinterpreted based on the proposed framework. It was demonstrated that the general pattern of experimental results reported in the literature aligns well with the cognitive control hypothesis and that several apparent discrepancies between studies can be reconciled based on the proposed framework. More specifically, performance on nonpracticed or inherently variable tasks, relying on cognitive control, is consistently impaired by cognitive load, whereas the performance on automatized (well-practiced and consistently mapped) tasks is unaffected and sometimes even improved. Effects of cognitive load on driving are strongly selective and task dependent. The present results have important implications for the generalization of results obtained from experimental studies to real-world driving. The proposed framework can also serve to guide future research on the potential causal role of cognitive load in real-world crashes.
Prasad, R S; Hunter, J; Hanley, J
To study the influence of non-standard controls on return to driving after disability, including prevalence of accidents/retraining difficulties. Postal questionnaires sent within two years of assessment to 972 disabled drivers seen over a three-year period. Scottish Driving Assessment Service. All patients considered capable of driving after assessment during the study period. Five hundred and eighty-nine people (61 %) replied who were representative of the total population (mean age 55 years, range 19-87); 73% were male and 70% were disabled for up to two years. Overall 79% respondents had returned to driving (highest reported success with standard manual car (86%) and lowest using left foot to accelerate and brake (66%) (chi2 = 16.6, P = 0.005)). A significantly higher proportion of the 30 patients (6.5%) admitting to accidents and 25 (5.4%) to problems with retraining were using non-standard driving techniques, especially the use of hand controls. Disabled drivers returning to drive using non-familiar controls had lower success and a higher proportion of accidents and/or problems with retraining than people using conventional controls. If confirmed in larger studies this may have implications for policy-makers as well as specialist practitioners.
Beck, Kenneth H
The evidence concerning Maryland's anti-drunk driving program, Checkpoint Strikeforce, is reviewed. To date, there is no evidence to indicate that this campaign, which involves a number of sobriety checkpoints and media activities to promote these efforts, has had any impact on public perceptions, driver behaviors, or alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes and injuries. This conclusion is drawn after examining statistics for alcohol-related crashes, police citations for impaired driving, and public perceptions of alcohol-impaired driving risk. Comparisons are also made with other states in the mid-Atlantic region, where similar campaign activities have occurred. Reasons for this failure in Maryland include insufficient levels of enforcement (e.g., too few sobriety checkpoints and vehicle contacts occurred to raise public perceptions of risk pertaining to impaired driving) and inadequate publicity surrounding this campaign. Suggestions for overcoming these problems are offered.
Li, Kaigang; Ochoa, Elizabeth; Vaca, Federico E; Simons-Morton, Bruce
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and covariates among emerging adults of riding with an impaired peer or older adult driver (RWI) because of marijuana (MJ), alcohol (ALC), or illicit drugs (ID). Data were from Waves 4 (W4, N = 2,085) and 5 (W5, N = 2,116) of the NEXT Generation Health Study, collected in 2013-2014, 1 and 2 years after high school. W5 RWI was specified for substance-specific impaired peer and older adult (peer/older adult) drivers. Multinomial logistic regressions estimated W5 association of substance-specific RWI with W4 RWI, and W5 heavy episodic drinking, MJ use, and school/residence/work status. At W5, 33% of the participants reported RWI in the past year, including riding with ALC- (21%), MJ- (17%), and ID- (5%) impaired peer drivers and ALC- (2%), MJ- (4%), and ID- (0.7%) impaired older adult drivers. W4 RWI was associated with W5 RWI with impaired peer/older adult drivers for ALC- (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.28, 2.69) and MJ-RWI (AOR = 2.34, 3.56). W5 heavy episodic drinking was positively associated with W5 peer ALC-related RWI (AOR = 2.16) and peer/older adult MJ-related RWI (AOR = 2.38, 5.45). W5 MJ use was positively associated with W5 peer ALC-related RWI (AOR = 2.23), peer/older adult MJ-related (AOR = 10.89, 2.98), and peer/older adult ID-related (AOR = 9.34, 4.26) RWI. ID-related RWI was higher among those not attending 4-year college (AOR = 3.38), attending technology school (AOR = 16.23), living on their own (AOR = 6.85), or living on campus (AOR = 11.50). The high prevalence of RWI among emerging adults occurred mostly with ALC- or MJ-impaired peer drivers. The findings support the need for precisely tailored programs to prevent impaired driving according to substance use and age.
This new edition reflects the recent technological advancements in the MV drive industry, such as advanced multilevel converters and drive configurations. It includes three new chapters, Control of Synchronous Motor Drives, Transformerless MV Drives, and Matrix Converter Fed Drives. In addition, there are extensively revised chapters on Multilevel Voltage Source Inverters and Voltage Source Inverter-Fed Drives. This book includes a systematic analysis on a variety of high-power multilevel converters, illustrates important concepts with simulations and experiments, introduces various megawatt drives produced by world leading drive manufacturers, and addresses practical problems and their mitigations methods.
Gray, Laura J.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Williams, Sian
Background: The prevention of type 2 diabetes is a globally recognised health care priority, but there is a lack of rigorous research investigating optimal methods of translating diabetes prevention programmes, based on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, into routine primary care. The aim...... of the study is to establish whether a pragmatic structured education programme targeting lifestyle and behaviour change in conjunction with motivational maintenance via the telephone can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose regulation (a composite of impaired glucose...... of type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include changes in HbA1c, blood glucose levels, cardiovascular risk, the presence of the Metabolic Syndrome and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.Methods: The study consists of screening and intervention phases within 44 general practices coordinated from...