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Sample records for preventing foodborne listeriosis

  1. Achieving continuous improvement in reductions in foodborne listeriosis: A risk-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone

    2005-01-01

    is the use of a risk-based approach to identify strategies that will have the greatest impact on reducing foodborne listeriosis. A continuum of risk for listeriosis is observed in the human population, ranging from exquisitely sensitive groups, who are highly immunocompromised and at very high risk......) preventing growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers in foods; and (3) science-based education messages targeted to susceptible populations and their caregivers. Of these strategies, the Expert Panel concluded that preventing growth of L. monocytogenes to high numbers would have the greatest impact......, and hazard analysis critical control point programs to minimize environmental L. monocytogenes contamination and to prevent cross-contamination in processing plants and at retail; (2) an intensive environmental sampling program in plants processing high-risk foods and an effective corrective action plan...

  2. Campylobacteriosis, Salmonellosis, Yersiniosis, and Listeriosis as Zoonotic Foodborne Pathogens: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Chlebicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans, posing a great threat to the health and life of people all over the world. According to WHO estimations, 600 million cases of diseases caused by contaminated food were noted in 2010, including almost 350 million caused by pathogenic bacteria. Campylobacter, Salmonella, as well as Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria monocytogenes may dwell in livestock (poultry, cattle, and swine but are also found in wild animals, pets, fish, and rodents. Animals, often being asymptomatic carriers of pathogens, excrete them with faeces, thus delivering them to the environment. Therefore, pathogens may invade new individuals, as well as reside on vegetables and fruits. Pathogenic bacteria also penetrate food production areas and may remain there in the form of a biofilm covering the surfaces of machines and equipment. A common occurrence of microbes in food products, as well as their improper or careless processing, leads to common poisonings. Symptoms of foodborne infections may be mild, sometimes flu-like, but they also may be accompanied by severe complications, some even fatal. The aim of the paper is to summarize and provide information on campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, yersiniosis, and listeriosis and the aetiological factors of those diseases, along with the general characteristics of pathogens, virulence factors, and reservoirs.

  3. An approach towards public health and foodborne human listeriosis--the Austrian Listeria monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asperger, H; Wagner, M; Brandl, E

    2001-01-01

    The Institute for Milk Hygiene, Milk Technology and Food Science has launched a Listeria monitoring for Austrian cheese factories in 1988 which is nowadays a valuable tool to control the safety of cheese production. It is a means to qualify the proper hygienic conditions in the participating cheese plants. Proper hygiene protects cheese plants from getting contaminated by L. monocytogenes. The preventive elimination of foodborne pathogens facilitates a thriving economical development of the domestic cheese industry as contamination by L. monocytogenes may lead to a stop of delivery, product recall and other costly measures. This report comprehensively describes the principle of the monitoring including a description of the microbiological and molecular tools. It summarizes data on the detection frequency of Listeria contamination with respect to the different matrices under investigation. Furthermore an overview is given on the course of 17 contamination periods in 10 cheese plants and the outcome of the decontamination endeavours is described. Apart from epidemiological investigations, this report summarizes data regarding molecular species confirmation in the genus Listeria as the species assignment was comparatively examined by both conventional microbiology and molecular tools. Genotyping by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis was applied in three plants which were confronted with a long term contamination period. The data presented in this paper rely on results which were collected through a decade of investigation (1990-2000).

  4. Observational study to assess pregnant women’s knowledge and behaviour to prevent toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Spelten, E.R.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hutton, E.K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes, but can be prevented by simple precautions of pregnant women. Literature suggests that pregnant women are not always adequately informed by their care provider about preventable infectious

  5. Listeria (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Listeria (Listeriosis) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Compartir Get answers to commonly asked questions about Listeria Listeria information en español Learn how CDC’s Listeria ...

  6. Food safety: emerging trends in foodborne illness surveillance and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe-Sellers, Beverly J; Beattie, Samuel E

    2004-11-01

    Between 250 and 350 million Americans are estimated to suffer acute gastroenteritis annually, with 25% to 30% thought to be caused by foodborne illnesses. Most vulnerable to foodborne diseases are elderly people, pregnant women, immune-compromised people, and children. While bacterial causes such as Salmonella are widely recognized and monitored as foodborne infections, other important bacterial causes such as Clostridium perfringens , Bacillus cereus , and Staphylococcus aureus are less well known. While the majority of cases of foodborne diseases are of unknown cause, bacteria and viruses are the most likely causative agents. Caliciviridae (Norwalk-like) virus cases are more difficult to identify, but represent the most common cause of known and probably unknown cases. Fresh produce has to be added to the traditional list of foods requiring careful selection and handling to prevent foodborne disease. To assess the disease burden in the United States, morbidity and mortality surveillance activities are done by several networks and systems with collaboration among federal agencies and health departments. Not all important causes are being equally monitored. Critical behaviors by food processors, food retailers, foodservice personnel, and consumers can reduce the risk of foodborne illness episodes. Dietetics professionals can more readily monitor new developments and update knowledge and practice through online resources.

  7. Listeriosis in Mexico: Clinical and epidemiological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Castañeda-Ruelas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne disease due to its clinical forms, high mortality rate, and the economic impact in both clinical and food production industries. In Mexico, the lack of epidemiological surveillance systems leads to the need of accurate data on the incidence of listeriosis and its association with food-borne disease. In this paper, we present data about the presence of this bacterium in food, reports related to clinical cases of listeriosis, and information of diseases in which L. monocytogenes may be involved. However, in most of these cases the etiology was not established. Given this, there´s a need to inform and warn the appropriate entities, to define strategies for the mandatory search of L. monocytogenes through the whole food production chain and clinical suspects, for the epidemiological importance and control of listeriosis in Mexico.

  8. Neonatal Listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Chen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Western developed countries, Listeria monocytogenes is not an uncommon pathogen in neonates. However, neonatal listeriosis has rarely been reported in Taiwan. We describe two cases collected from a single medical institute between 1990 and 2005. Case 1 was a male premature baby weighing 1558 g with a gestational age of 31 weeks whose mother had fever with chills 3 days prior to delivery. Generalized maculopapular rash was found after delivery and subtle seizure developed. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture collected on the 1st day yielded L. monocytogenes. In addition, he had ventriculitis complicated with hydrocephalus. Neurologic development was normal over 1 year of follow-up after ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation. Case 2 was a 28-weeks' gestation male premature baby weighing 1180 g. Endotracheal intubation and ventilator support were provided after delivery due to respiratory distress. Blood culture yielded L. monocyto-genes. Cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis but the culture was negative. Brain ultrasonography showed ventriculitis. Sudden deterioration with cyanosis and bradycardia developed on the 8th day and he died on the same day. Neonatal listeriosis is uncommon in Taiwan, but has significant mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of perinatal infection relies on high index of suspicion in perinatal health care professionals. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2:161-164

  9. Epidemiology of human listeriosis and seafoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocourt, J; Jacquet, C; Reilly, A

    2000-12-20

    While rarely diagnosed prior to 1960, more than 10,000 cases of listeriosis were recorded in the medical literature between 1960 and 1982, and thousands more have been reported annually world-wide [Rocourt J., 1991. Human listeriosis, 1989. WHO/HPP/FOS/91.3, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Rocourt, J., Brosch, R., 1992. Human listeriosis, 1990. WHO/HPP/FOS/92.3, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Rocourt, J., Jacquet, Ch., Bille, J., 1997. Human listeriosis, 1991/1992. WHO/FNU/FOS/97.1, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland]. This widespread increase in reporting is most likely due to demographic trends and changes in food production, processing and storage, especially the extended cold food chain and the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to grow at low temperatures: L. monocytogenes is a bacterium responsible for opportunistic infections, preferentially affecting individuals whose immune system is perturbed, including pregnant women, newborns, people over 65 years, immunocompromised patients, such as cancer victims, transplant recipients, people on hemodialysis and AIDS patients. Thus, the increasing lifespan and medical progress allowing immunodeficient individuals to survive, partially explains the increasing incidence of listeriosis. Moreover, L. monocytogenes is ubiquitous and can grow at temperatures as low as 0 degrees C. At this temperature growth is very slow. The expansion of the agro-food industry, the widespread use of systems of cold storage and changes in consumers demands have led to a large increase in the pool of Listeria that can cause foodborne infections.

  10. Listeriosis and Toxoplasmosis in Pregnancy: Essentials for Healthcare Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Nicole Franzen; Tillett, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Listeriosis and toxoplasmosis are foodborne illnesses that can have long-term consequences when contracted during pregnancy. Listeriosis is implicated in stillbirth, preterm labor, newborn sepsis, and meningitis, among other complications. Toxoplasmosis is associated with blindness, cognitive delays, seizures, and hearing loss, among other significant disabilities. Healthcare providers who understand the fundamentals of Listeria and Toxoplasma infection will have the tools to identify symptoms and high-risk behaviors, educate women to make safer decisions, and provide anticipatory guidance if a pregnant woman would become infected with either of these foodborne illnesses.

  11. Potential of fermented papaya beverage in the prevention of foodborne illness incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh, S.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is recognized as an emerging infectious disease. The incidence of foodborne infections is common and the majority cases are undiagnosed or unreported. Apart from some diarrhea or minor gastrointestinal problem, some foodborne pathogenic microbes may cause death, particularly to those people with weakened immune system. In this study, we have developed a new fermented papaya beverage using symbiotic culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria under controlled biofermentation process. An in-vitro assessment of fermented papaya beverage against few foodborne pathogenic microorganism was conducted to determine its minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99. Three types of foodborne pathogen: Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 53648, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (isolated from infectious chicken were selected. From minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99 assay, both fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages have shown 100% killing rate against three selected foodborne pathogenic microbes. Inversely, non-fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages indicated no inhibition at all. In fact, further dilution of fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages demonstrated different degree of MBC>99 and brix value, but the pH value remained less than 3.5. These findings indicated the combination of soluble solid compounds presents in both fermented papaya beverage and product acidity play an important role in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The preliminary promising results of this work have shown that the great potential of fermented papaya beverages as a preventive measure to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness.

  12. Prevention of Listeriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections in the 1990s were primarily linked to deli meats and hot dogs. Now, Listeria outbreaks are ... hands after handling hot dogs, lunch meats, and deli meats. Safely store products in the refrigerator: Hot ...

  13. Foodborne disease and the preventive role of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, D.

    1992-01-01

    In view on the enormous health and economic consequences of foodborne diseases, irradiation decontamination and disinfestation of pathogen-containing foods must be considered one of the most significant recent contributions to public health made by food science and technology. Food irradiation has an important part to play with in the promotion of food safety and in the reduction of food losses. The unwarranted rejection of the process, often based on a lack of understanding of what food irradiation entails, may hamper its use in most countries that could benefit most

  14. Substantial increase in listeriosis, Denmark 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Ethelberg, S; Smith, B

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, 97 cases of listeriosis were reported in Denmark (1.8 per 100,000), a significant rise over the previous year. The increase was seen both in cases of bacteraemia and meningitis and affected mainly people aged 70 years and older. A foodborne outbreak of eight cases was identified by pulsed......-field gel electrophoresis typing. No explanation has so far been found for the marked increase in incidence. An increasing trend has been observed since 2003 and possible explanations are discussed....

  15. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcott, Lynn; Naus, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Soft ripened cheese (SRC) caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC), Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant's water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant's open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence. PMID:25918702

  16. Listeriosis Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada, Caused by Soft Ripened Cheese Contaminated from Environmental Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine McIntyre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft ripened cheese (SRC caused over 130 foodborne illnesses in British Columbia (BC, Canada, during two separate listeriosis outbreaks. Multiple agencies investigated the events that lead to cheese contamination with Listeria monocytogenes (L.m., an environmentally ubiquitous foodborne pathogen. In both outbreaks pasteurized milk and the pasteurization process were ruled out as sources of contamination. In outbreak A, environmental transmission of L.m. likely occurred from farm animals to personnel to culture solutions used during cheese production. In outbreak B, birds were identified as likely contaminating the dairy plant’s water supply and cheese during the curd-washing step. Issues noted during outbreak A included the risks of operating a dairy plant in a farm environment, potential for transfer of L.m. from the farm environment to the plant via shared toilet facilities, failure to clean and sanitize culture spray bottles, and cross-contamination during cheese aging. L.m. contamination in outbreak B was traced to wild swallows defecating in the plant’s open cistern water reservoir and a multibarrier failure in the water disinfection system. These outbreaks led to enhanced inspection and surveillance of cheese plants, test and release programs for all SRC manufactured in BC, improvements in plant design and prevention programs, and reduced listeriosis incidence.

  17. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria infection Overview Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly ...

  18. Multistate outbreak of Listeriosis linked to turkey deli meat and subsequent changes in US regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Newbern, E Claire; Griffin, Patricia M; Graves, Lewis M; Hoekstra, R Michael; Baker, Nicole L; Hunter, Susan B; Holt, Kristin G; Ramsey, Fred; Head, Marcus; Levine, Priscilla; Johnson, Geraldine; Schoonmaker-Bopp, Dianna; Reddy, Vasudha; Kornstein, Laura; Gerwel, Michal; Nsubuga, Johnson; Edwards, Leslie; Stonecipher, Shelley; Hurd, Sharon; Austin, Deri; Jefferson, Michelle A; Young, Suzanne D; Hise, Kelley; Chernak, Esther D; Sobel, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Listeriosis, a life-threatening foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes, affects approximately 2500 Americans annually. Between July and October 2002, an uncommon strain of L. monocytogenes caused an outbreak of listeriosis in 9 states. We conducted case finding, a case-control study, and traceback and microbiological investigations to determine the extent and source of the outbreak and to propose control measures. Case patients were infected with the outbreak strain of L. monocytogenes between July and November 2002 in 9 states, and control patients were infected with different L. monocytogenes strains. Outcome measures included food exposure associated with outbreak strain infection and source of the implicated food. Fifty-four case patients were identified; 8 died, and 3 pregnant women had fetal deaths. The case-control study included 38 case patients and 53 control patients. Case patients consumed turkey deli meat much more frequently than did control patients (P = .008, by Wilcoxon rank-sum test). In the 4 weeks before illness, 55% of case patients had eaten deli turkey breast more than 1-2 times, compared with 28% of control patients (odds ratio, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-17.1). Investigation of turkey deli meat eaten by case patients led to several turkey processing plants. The outbreak strain was found in the environment of 1 processing plant and in turkey products from a second. Together, the processing plants recalled > 30 million pounds of products. Following the outbreak, the US Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service issued new regulations outlining a L. monocytogenes control and testing program for ready-to-eat meat and poultry processing plants. Turkey deli meat was the source of a large multistate outbreak of listeriosis. Investigation of this outbreak helped guide policy changes designed to prevent future L. monocytogenes contamination of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products.

  19. The global burden of listeriosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. de Noordhout (Charline Maertens); B. Devleesschauwer (Brecht); F.J. Angulo (Frederick); G. Verbeke (Geert); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); M. Kirk (Martyn); A.H. Havelaar (Arie); N. Speybroeck (Niko)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Listeriosis, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is an important foodborne disease that can be difficult to control and commonly results in severe clinical outcomes. We aimed to provide the first estimates of global numbers of illnesses, deaths, and disability-adjusted

  20. Burden of salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and listeriosis : a time series analysis, Belgium, 2012 to 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Havelaar, Arie H; Bertrand, Sophie; Vandenberg, Olivier; Quoilin, Sophie; Brandt, Patrick T; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-01-01

    Salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and listeriosis are food-borne diseases. We estimated and forecasted the number of cases of these three diseases in Belgium from 2012 to 2020, and calculated the corresponding number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The salmonellosis time series was fitted

  1. The listeriosis triangle: Pathogen, host and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abram Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen well known for its adaptability to diverse environment and host niches and its high fatality rate among infected immunocompromised populations. Infection in the immunocompetent host occurs but risk factors for the disease primarily points to abnormalities in cell-mediated and innate immunity as major predispositions to listeriosis. After ingestion of contaminated food, this pathogen is able to cross the intestinal, blood-brain and placental barrier and leads to gastroenteritis, meningitis and maternofetal infections which may result in abortion and spontaneous stillbirth. Despite the extensive use of this bacterium in the study of cell-mediated immunity and intracellular growth, our understanding of the host, pathogen and environmental factors that impact the pathogenesis of listeriosis is still incomplete. This review will summarize current knowledge, including our own efforts, about pathogen, host and environmental factors that influence, and contribute to the pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes infection.

  2. The listeriosis triangle: Pathogen, host and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abram Maja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen well known for its adaptability to diverse environment and host niches and its high fatality rate among infected immunocompromised populations. Infection in the immunocompetent host occurs but risk factors for the disease primarily points to abnormalities in cell-mediated and innate immunity as major predispositions to listeriosis. After ingestion of contaminated food, this pathogen is able to cross the intestinal, blood-brain and placental barrier and leads to gastroenteritis, meningitis and maternofetal infections which may result in abortion and spontaneous stillbirth. Despite the extensive use of this bacterium in the study of cell-mediated immunity and intracellular growth, our understanding of the host, pathogen and environmental factors that impact the pathogenesis of listeriosis is still incomplete. This review will summarize current knowledge, including our own efforts, about pathogen, host and environmental factors that influence, and contribute to the pathogenesis of Listeria monocytogenes infection.

  3. Implementation of Nationwide Real-time Whole-genome Sequencing to Enhance Listeriosis Outbreak Detection and Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Brendan R.; Tarr, Cheryl; Strain, Errol; Jackson, Kelly A.; Conrad, Amanda; Carleton, Heather; Katz, Lee S.; Stroika, Steven; Gould, L. Hannah; Mody, Rajal K.; Silk, Benjamin J.; Beal, Jennifer; Chen, Yi; Timme, Ruth; Doyle, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Implementation of whole-genome sequencing (WGS)–based surveillance for Listeria monocytogenes in 2013 greatly improved detection and investigation of listeriosis outbreaks in the United States. Lessons from this intervention can guide WGS-based surveillance for other foodborne pathogens.

  4. Burden of salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and listeriosis: a time series analysis, Belgium, 2012 to 2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Haagsma, Juanita A; Havelaar, Arie H; Bertrand, Sophie; Vandenberg, Olivier; Quoilin, Sophie; Brandt, Patrick T; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-09-21

    Salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and listeriosis are food-borne diseases. We estimated and forecasted the number of cases of these three diseases in Belgium from 2012 to 2020, and calculated the corresponding number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The salmonellosis time series was fitted with a Bai and Perron two-breakpoint model, while a dynamic linear model was used for campylobacteriosis and a Poisson autoregressive model for listeriosis. The average monthly number of cases of salmonellosis was 264 (standard deviation (SD): 86) in 2012 and predicted to be 212 (SD: 87) in 2020; campylobacteriosis case numbers were 633 (SD: 81) and 1,081 (SD: 311); listeriosis case numbers were 5 (SD: 2) in 2012 and 6 (SD: 3) in 2014. After applying correction factors, the estimated DALYs for salmonellosis were 102 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 8-376) in 2012 and predicted to be 82 (95% UI: 6-310) in 2020; campylobacteriosis DALYs were 1,019 (95% UI: 137-3,181) and 1,736 (95% UI: 178-5,874); listeriosis DALYs were 208 (95% UI: 192-226) in 2012 and 252 (95% UI: 200-307) in 2014. New actions are needed to reduce the risk of food-borne infection with Campylobacter spp. because campylobacteriosis incidence may almost double through 2020. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  5. Whole-genome Sequencing Used to Investigate a Nationwide Outbreak of Listeriosis Caused by Ready-to-eat Delicatessen Meat, Denmark, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvistholm Jensen, Anne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Björkman, Jonas Torgny; Jensen, Tenna; Müller, Luise; Persson, Søren; Bjerager, Gitte; Perge, Annette; Krause, Tyra Grove; Kiil, Kristoffer; Sørensen, Gitte; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Mølbak, Kåre; Ethelberg, Steen

    2016-07-01

    Listeriosis is a serious foodborne infection. Outbreaks of listeriosis occur rarely, but have often proved difficult to solve. In June 2014, we detected and investigated a listeriosis outbreak in Denmark using patient interviews and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We performed WGS on Listeria monocytogenes isolates from patients and available isolates from ready-to-eat foods and compared them using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Case patients had L. monocytogenes with ≤3 SNPs (the outbreak strain) isolated in September 2013-December 2014. Through interviews, we established case patients' food and clinical histories. Food production facilities were inspected and sampled, and we performed trace-back/trace-forward of food delivery chains. In total, 41 cases were identified; 17 deaths occurred (41%). An isolate from a delicatessen meat (spiced meat roll) from company A was identical to the outbreak strain. Half of the patients were infected while hospitalized/institutionalized; institutions were supplied food by company A. The outbreak strain was repeatedly isolated from further samples taken within this company and within companies in its distribution chain. Products from company A were traced and recalled from >6000 food establishments, after which the outbreak ended. Ready-to-eat spiced meat roll from a single production facility caused this outbreak. The product, served sliced and cold, is popular among the elderly; serving it at hospitals probably contributed to the high case-fatality rate. WGS used for patient isolates and isolates from food control inspections, coupled with routine epidemiological follow-up, was instrumental in swiftly locating the source of infections, preventing further illnesses and deaths. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Listeriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacteria L monocytogenes is found in wild animals, domesticated animals, and in soil and water. These bacteria make many animals sick, leading to miscarriage and stillbirth in domestic animals. Vegetables, meats, ...

  8. Listeriosis in the far South of Brazil: neglected infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulcinea Blum-Menezes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is an under-diagnosed and under-reported infection; however, listeriosis is not a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil. We provide an overview of the rates of listeriosis in the United States of America (USA, Europe, Latin America, and Brazil during the past decade. We also report a case of miscarriage caused by listeriosis in which there was no suspicion of this infection. This overview and the case we report serve as reminders of the often-neglected threat of listeriosis and its potential to cause miscarriage while highlighting the necessity of recognizing listeriosis as a compulsorily notifiable disease in Brazil.

  9. Outbreaks of listeriosis associated with deli meats and cheese: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dele Raheem

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pollution of foods by undesirable microorganisms is a global food safety issue. One of such undesirable microorganism is the psychrotrophic, pathogenic specie of Listeria—Listeria monocytogenes that survives at low temperature. The source of contamination of this microbe into foods can be many including the food processing facilities due to improper sanitation procedures. The review of the literature on this important topic shows there are increasing concerns as regards contamination from Listeria in foods leading to many cases of listeriosis disease and food recalls. Ready-to-eat products, such as delicatessen (deli meats and soft cheeses have repeatedly been identified by foodborne disease control programs as sources of outbreaks and products that put humans at risk for listeriosis. Although, most listeriosis cases tend to be sporadic in occurrence, outbreaks do occur frequently. Due to the global phenomenon of outbreaks associated with Listeria in deli meats and cheese, it requires an urgent attention from national and international authorities through rigorous procedures for its identification, surveillance procedures that can bring more awareness to the general public. There is also a need for more reports on the cases of Listeria particularly in developing countries, the standardization of identification procedures, and an improvement on national control programs by adequate surveillance.

  10. Foodborne enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: from gut pathogenesis to new preventive strategies involving probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Charlène; Sivignon, Adeline; de Wiele, Tom Van; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of traveler's diarrhea and infant mortality in developing countries. Given the rise of antibiotic resistance worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of new preventive strategies. Among them, a promising approach is the use of probiotics. Although many studies, mostly performed under piglet digestive conditions, have shown the beneficial effects of probiotics on ETEC by interfering with their survival, virulence or adhesion to mucosa, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This review describes ETEC pathogenesis, its modulation by human gastrointestinal cues as well as novel preventive strategies with a particular emphasis on probiotics. The potential of in vitro models simulating human digestion in elucidating probiotic mode of action will be discussed.

  11. Implementation of Nationwide Real-time Whole-genome Sequencing to Enhance Listeriosis Outbreak Detection and Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brendan R; Tarr, Cheryl; Strain, Errol; Jackson, Kelly A; Conrad, Amanda; Carleton, Heather; Katz, Lee S; Stroika, Steven; Gould, L Hannah; Mody, Rajal K; Silk, Benjamin J; Beal, Jennifer; Chen, Yi; Timme, Ruth; Doyle, Matthew; Fields, Angela; Wise, Matthew; Tillman, Glenn; Defibaugh-Chavez, Stephanie; Kucerova, Zuzana; Sabol, Ashley; Roache, Katie; Trees, Eija; Simmons, Mustafa; Wasilenko, Jamie; Kubota, Kristy; Pouseele, Hannes; Klimke, William; Besser, John; Brown, Eric; Allard, Marc; Gerner-Smidt, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) causes severe foodborne illness (listeriosis). Previous molecular subtyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), were critical in detecting outbreaks that led to food safety improvements and declining incidence, but PFGE provides limited genetic resolution. A multiagency collaboration began performing real-time, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on all US Lm isolates from patients, food, and the environment in September 2013, posting sequencing data into a public repository. Compared with the year before the project began, WGS, combined with epidemiologic and product trace-back data, detected more listeriosis clusters and solved more outbreaks (2 outbreaks in pre-WGS year, 5 in WGS year 1, and 9 in year 2). Whole-genome multilocus sequence typing and single nucleotide polymorphism analyses provided equivalent phylogenetic relationships relevant to investigations; results were most useful when interpreted in context of epidemiological data. WGS has transformed listeriosis outbreak surveillance and is being implemented for other foodborne pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. An assessment of food safety information provision for UK chemotherapy patients to reduce the risk of foodborne infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E W; Redmond, E C

    2017-12-01

    relation to listeriosis prevention practices. Cumulatively, information was inconsistent, insufficient, and varied between resources. The study has identified the need for an effective, standardized food safety resource specifically targeting chemotherapy patients and family caregivers. Such intervention is essential to assist efforts in reducing the risks associated with foodborne infection among chemotherapy patients. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Severe invasive listeriosis--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, Andra; Teodor, D; Miftode, Egidia; Prisăcaru, D; Leca, Daniela; Petrovici, Cristina; Dorneanu, Olivia; Dorobăt, Carmen-Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    Listeriosis is a rare food borne infection which, in the invasive form, presents as bloodstream infection, central nervous system infection, materno-fetal infection, or focal infection. Certain immunosuppressive conditions have been identified as risk factors for severe invasive disease. The invasive forms of listeriosis are associated with a high case fatality rate. We present the case of a 62-year-old male with an unremarkable medical history admitted to the Iasi Infectious Diseases Hospital for fever. headache, ataxia, and diplopia. Physical examination revealed high temperature, confusion, relative bradycardia, and signs of meningeal irritation. Laboratory test showed leukocyt osis with neutrophilia. pathological CSF findings (high WBC count with predominance of neutrophils, low glucose and high protein levels), increased liver enzymes (ALAT, ASAT, AP, gammaGT), and important renal impairment (normal levels at presentation). No abnormalities at chest x-ray, cranial CT and abdominal ultrasound. CSF and blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes. Under antibiotics (ampicillin and ciprofloxacin), the course was marked by respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, coma, hypotension, tachycardia. and death 12 days after admission. The particularity of this case consists in the association of the two classical forms of invasive listeriosis, meningitis and bacteriemia, with a focal infection. acute hepatitis, and a course marked by multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and exitus in a previously apparently healthy individual.

  14. Analysis of epidemiological data of foodborne outbreak reported in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: The knowledge of bacterial agent of foodborne diseases and determination of antimicrobial resistance pattern are helpful to reduce the rate of foodborne outbreaks, the cost of treatment. The prevention control of outbreaks is also very important.

  15. Foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bintsis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens are causing a great number of diseases with significant effects on human health and economy. The characteristics of the most common pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Esherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococccus aureus, Vibrio spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, viruses (Hepatitis A and Noroviruses and parasites (Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis, together with some important outbreaks, are reviewed. Food safety management systems based on to classical hazard-based approach has been proved to be inefficient, and risk-based food safety approach is now suggested from leading researchers and organizations. In this context, a food safety management system should be designed in a way to estimate the risks to human health from food consumption and to identify, select and implement mitigation strategies in order to control and reduce these risks. In addition, the application of suitable food safety education programs for all involved people in the production and consumption of foods is suggested.

  16. Microevolution and persistence of Listeria monocytogenes in the environment and links to a foodborne outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Vítor; Maia, Carla; Barreira, Maria João; Silveira, Leonor; Silva, Catarina; Duarte, Sílvia; Vieira, Luís; Lito, Luís; Oleastro, Mónica; Gomes, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne human pathogen associated with a high mortality rate. Given the remarkable ability of this bacterium to persist in food processing facilities, ready-to-eat food products are common vehicles of L. monocytogenes. In the present study, we report the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate the diversity among L. monocytogenes isolates associated with a hospital outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Portugal. N/A

  17. [Neonatal listeriosis. Apropos of 53 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relier, J P; Amiel-Tison, C; Krauel, J; Helffer, L; Larroche, J C; Minkowski, A

    1977-01-01

    53 cases of neonatal listeriosis were seen during the last five years at the Intensive Care Unit for newborn infants (Pr Minkowski) and the Neonatal Center (P. Varangot) of the Port-Royal Maternity Hospital. The significant decline in mortality to 22 p. 100, when compared with previous years, was attributed to improvements in the diagnosis during the first hours of life and the contribution of artificial ventilation. The most frequent initial clinical sign was respiratory distress (58 p. 100) whereas meningitis was relatively rare (11 p. 100). Discoloration of the amniotic fluid and a fever in the mother at the time of delivery, were also important diagnostic clues. The macroscopic examination of the placenta and particularly placental smears containing listeria monocytogenes (15 of the specimens) as well as the hematological alterations, particularly an increase of the fibrinogen level above 3-4 g/1 during the first 48 hous of life (72 p. 100 of the cases) contributed to an early diagnosis.

  18. Neonatal listeriosis followed by nosocomial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dinic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal listeriosis is widely reported, but this is the first case reported in Serbia. A newborn developed respiratory distress syndrome 2 hours after delivery and was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Initial empirical therapy was inappropriate. Consequently, on the second day, the patient developed meningitis. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the tracheal aspirate, blood, periumbilical swab, and cerebrospinal fluid. After bacteriology results, the therapy was changed to ampicillin and meropenem. On day 11 of hospitalization, the patient developed nosocomial infection due to multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Since therapeutic options were limited, the patient was treated with ciprofloxacin. After 26 days of hospitalization the patient showed complete recovery and was discharged with no apparent sequelae. This case showed the importance of bacteriological examination in cases of infections caused by uncommon organisms. Pediatricians should be aware of the neonatal infection caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

  19. Use of proton pump inhibitors and the risk of listeriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Simonsen, Jacob; Ethelberg, Steen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may increase the risk for listeriosis. We aimed to investigate a potential association in cases of non-pregnancy associated listeriosis, using registry data. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study using...... Danish health registries. Case-patients (n=721) were defined as patients ≥45 years notified with listeriosis, July 1994 to December 2012. We selected 34,800 control-subjects by risk-set sampling. Controls were individually matched for age, sex, municipality and time. Person data on use of PPI and other...... conditional logistic regression, matched odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for CMI and confounders were estimated. RESULTS: The adjusted OR with current use of PPIs for development of listeriosis was 2.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.14-3.69). PPI usage up to 90 days before the index date remained statistically...

  20. A brief review of foodborne zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D; Shi, Z; Wei, J; Ma, Z

    2011-10-01

    Foodborne zoonoses have a major impact on public health in China. Its booming economy and rapid socioeconomic changes have affected food production, food supplies and food consumption habits, resulting in an increase in the number of outbreaks of foodborne zoonoses. Both emerging and re-emerging foodborne zoonoses have attracted increasing national and international attention in recent years. This paper briefly reviews the main foodborne zoonoses that have had a major impact on public health over the last 20 years in China. The major causative microorganisms, including foodborne bacteria, parasites and viruses, are discussed. The prevention and control of foodborne zoonoses are difficult challenges in China. The information provided here may aid the development of effective prevention and control strategies for foodborne zoonoses.

  1. Novel preharvest strategies involving the use of experimental chlorate preparations and nitro-based compounds to prevent colonization of food-producing animals by foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R C; Harvey, R B; Byrd, J A; Callaway, T R; Genovese, K J; Edrington, T S; Jung, Y S; McReynolds, J L; Nisbet, D J

    2005-04-01

    Foodborne diseases caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Campylobacter species are of public health and economic significance. Shedding of these pathogens during production and slaughter are risks for contamination of products for human consumption. Consequently, strategies are sought to prevent or reduce the carriage of these pathogens in food animals before slaughter. Experimental products containing chlorate salts have been proven efficacious in reducing concentrations of E. coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in the gut of cattle, sheep, swine, and poultry when administered as feed or water additives. Mechanistically, chlorate selectively targets bacteria expressing respiratory nitrate reductase activity, such as most members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, as this enzyme catalyzes the reduction of chlorate to lethal chlorite. Most beneficial gut bacteria lack respiratory nitrate reductase activity, and thus the technology appears compatible with many bacteria exhibiting competitive exclusion capabilities. More recently, select nitrocompounds have been investigated as potential feed additives, and although these nitrocompounds significantly reduce pathogens on their own, evidence indicates that they may most effectively be used to complement the bactericidal activity of chlorate. A particularly attractive aspect of the nitrocompound technology is that, as potent inhibitors of ruminal methanogenesis, they may allow producers the opportunity to recoup costs associated with their use. At present, neither chlorate nor the nitrocompounds have been approved as feed additives by the US Food and Drug Administration, and consequently they are not yet available for commercial use.

  2. Interventions to prevent and control food-borne diseases associated with a reduction in traveler's diarrhea in tourists to Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, David V M; Walters, Christine; Dockery-Brown, Cheryl; McNab, André; Ashley, Deanna E C

    2004-01-01

    In 1996 a study found that approximately one in four tourists to Jamaica were affected with traveler's diarrhea (TD) during their stay. That year the Ministry of Health initiated a program for the prevention and control of TD. The aim of this ongoing program was to reduce attack rates of TD from 25% to 12% over a 5-year period by improving the environmental health and food safety standards of hotels. Hotel-based surveillance procedures for TD were implemented in sentinel hotels in Negril and Montego Bay in 1996, Ocho Rios in 1997, and Kingston in 1999. A structured program provided training and technical assistance to nurses, food and beverage staff, and environmental sanitation personnel in the implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point principles for monitoring food safety standards. The impact of interventions on TD was assessed in a survey of tourists departing from the international airport in Montego Bay in 1997-1998 and from the international airport in Kingston in 1999-2000. The impact of the training and technical assistance program on food safety standards and practices was assessed in hotels in Ocho Rios as of 1998 and in Kingston from 1999. At the end of May 2002, TD incidence rates were 72% lower than in 1996, when the Ministry of Health initiated its program for the prevention and control of TD. Both hotel surveillance data and airport surveillance data suggest that the vast majority of travelers to Kingston and southern regions are not afflicted with TD during their stay. The training and technical assistance program improved compliance to food safety standards over time. Interventions to prevent and control TD in visitors to Jamaica are positively associated with a reduction in TD in the visitor population and improvements in food safety standards and practices in hotels.

  3. Foodborne Germs and Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What Causes Food Poisoning? Many different disease-causing germs can contaminate ... email address: Enter Email Address What’s this? Submit What's this? Submit Button ... of Foodborne Illness in the U.S. Food Safety is a CDC Winnable Battle Foodborne Illness ...

  4. Listeriosis Phytotherapy: A Review Study on the Effectiveness of Iranian Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-12-17

    Listeria monocytogenes can be found in many processed foods, raw milk, dairy products, meat and meat products such as sausages, beef and fish products, seafoods, eggs, fruits, and vegetables such as radish and cabbage. This article is a review study on the Iranian medicinal plants applied for treatment of listeriosis. Information of this review article was obtained by searching various key words such as Listeria monocytogenes, medicinal plants, plant extracts and essential oils among scientific articles published in databases of Google scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Thyme, German chamomile, great chamomile, yarrow, onion, oregano, nutmeg, sage, sagebrush, hyssop, rosemary, St John's wort, safflower, ajowan, cumin, peppermint, shallot, anise, and parsnip are known antilisteriosis medicinal plants. Bioactive phytochemicals, antioxidants and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, coumarin, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids are the main ingredients of antilisteriosis medicinal plants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Listeria monocytogenes en alimentos: ¿son todos los aislamientos igual de virulentos? Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: are all the isolates equally virulent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. López

    2006-12-01

    . monocytogenes strains. Despite this great step forward, there is not a single marker available to test the virulence of field isolates of this species. In the future, the combination of different molecular markers will probably allow the screening of food contamination by only the virulent clones of L. monocytogenes, thus improving the prevention of foodborne human listeriosis.

  6. Quantitative risk assessment for Listeria monocytogenes in selected categories of deli meats: impact of lactate and diacetate on listeriosis cases and deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Foodborne disease associated with consumption of ready-to-eat foods contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes represents a considerable pubic health concern. In a risk assessment published in 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service estimated that about 90% of human listeriosis cases in the United States are caused by consumption of contaminated deli meats. In this risk assessment, all deli meats were grouped into one of 23 categories of ready-to-eat foods, and only the postretail growth of L. monocytogenes was considered. To provide an improved risk assessment for L. monocytogenes in deli meats, we developed a revised risk assessment that (i) models risk for three subcategories of deli meats (i.e., ham, turkey, and roast beef) and (ii) models L. monocytogenes contamination and growth from production to consumption while considering subcategory-specific growth kinetics parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate). This model also was used to assess how reformulation of the chosen deli meat subcategories with L. monocytogenes growth inhibitors (i.e., lactate and diacetate) would impact the number of human listeriosis cases. Use of product-specific growth parameters demonstrated how certain deli meat categories differ in the relative risk of causing listeriosis; products that support more rapid growth and have reduced lag phases (e.g., turkey) represent a higher risk. Although reformulation of deli meats with growth inhibitors was estimated to reduce by about 2.5- to 7.8-fold the number of human listeriosis cases linked to a given deli meat subcategory and thus would reduce the overall risk of human listeriosis, even with reformulation deli meats would still cause a considerable number of human listeriosis cases. A combination of strategies is thus needed to provide continued reduction of these cases. Risk assessment models such as that described here will be critical for evaluation of different control

  7. [Cholestasis and listeriosis in the third trimester of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Montero, I; Segura Ortega, V; Martínez Jiménez, L; García Jiménez, A; Unzetabarrenetxea Barrenetxea, O; Pérez Rodríguez, A F

    2013-01-01

    Listeriosis is an infection produced by Listeria monocytogenes. It is infrequent and affects people at extreme ages, pregnant women, immunocompromised people and, occasionally, healthy people. Its incidence has increased in recent years and shows a certain tendency to seasonality, increasing in summer. It can appear sporadically or as outbreaks. In pregnant women the infection is most frequently produced in the third trimester and the symptoms are usually light. Nonetheless, the infection of the fetus is severe, and can produce miscarriages, fetal deaths, corioamnionitis and premature births with the newborn infected, manifested in the form of granulomatosis infantiseptica with abscesses and scattered granulomas or at a later stage , as meningitis or sepsis. Intrahepatic cholestasis is a reversible form of cholestasis, its cause is unknown, it is specific to pregnancy and is more frequent in multiparous women, in the third trimester and rarely before the 26th week. It disappears following childbirth and is the second cause of jaundice in pregnancy, after hepatitis. The diagnosis of cholestasis is basically clinical. It appears as palmoplantar pruritus but can also produce nausea, vomiting and abdominal discomfort localized in the right hypochondrium. Given that listeriosis and cholestasis can have a shared symptomology, the possibility of listeriosis must be borne in mind in order for early implementation of the mechanisms of diagnostic confirmation (cultivation of sterile fluids or tissues: blood, neonatal CSF, amniotic liquid or placenta) and specific treatment. We present a case of cholestasis and listeriosis in the third trimester with a good maternofetal result.

  8. EDITORIAL Listeriosis outbreak in South Africa: Are we winning the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outbreak has topped the charts as the largest outbreak in history. The first reported case of the current outbreak of listeriosis was in January. 2017. On 27 Feb 2018, the ... in the processed meat sections of food retailers and butcheries, should be ... antibiotics, primarily ampicillin and gentamicin, to which the organism is ...

  9. Epidemiological evidence of listeriosis in guinea pigs fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that infects livestock and humans. We report the first outbreak of invasive listeriosis caused by L. monocytogenes in a guinea pig breeding colony. Eighty to 100% mortality rate was recorded in the colony of 80 guinea pigs within four weeks outbreak. On epidemiologic investigation ...

  10. EDITORIAL Listeriosis outbreak in South Africa: Are we winning the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ready-to-eat meat and dairy product food chain? Listeriosis is a bacterial infection most commonly caused by. Listeria monocytogenes. It primarily causes infections of the central nervous system (meningitis, meningoencephalitis, brain abscess, cerebritis) and bacteremia in those who are immunocompromised, pregnant ...

  11. Disease burden of foodborne pathogens in the Netherlands, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, A.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Haagsma, J.A.; Mangen, M.J.J.; Kemmeren, J.M.; Verhoef, L.; Vijgen, S.M.; Wilson, M; Friesema, I.H.; Kortbeek, L.M.; van Duynhoven, Y.T.; van Pelt, W.

    2012-01-01

    To inform risk management decisions on control, prevention and surveillance of foodborne disease, the disease burden of foodborne pathogens is estimated using Disability Adjusted Life Years as a summary metric of public health. Fourteen pathogens that can be transmitted by food are included in the

  12. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  13. Water- and foodborne viruses: current developments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the major advances made in preventive health care and food technology, water and foodborne transmission of human enteric viruses is a well-recognised widespread public health problem.1-3. Factors such as changing lifestyles and demographics, faster and more frequent travel, decreasing water supplies and ...

  14. WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Cawthorne, Amy; Angulo, Fred

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe public health impact of foodborne diseases globally is unknown. The WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases was launched out of the need to fill this data gap. It is anticipated that this effort will enable policy makers and other stakeholders to set...... appropriate, evidence-informed priorities in the area of food safety. MethodsThe Initiative aims to provide estimates on the global burden of foodborne diseases by age, sex, and region; strengthen country capacity for conducting burden of foodborne disease assessments in parallel with food safety policy...... analyses; increase awareness and commitment among Member States for the implementation of food safety policy and standards; and encourage countries to use burden of foodborne disease estimates for cost-effectiveness analyses of prevention, intervention, and control measures. To estimate the global burden...

  15. Foodborne Norovirus Outbreaks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-17

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in noroviruses, discusses foodborne norovirus outbreaks.  Created: 9/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 9/17/2012.

  16. Large listeriosis outbreak linked to cheese made from pasteurized milk, Germany, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Judith; Dworak, Regine; Prager, Rita; Becker, Biserka; Brockmann, Stefan; Wicke, Amal; Wichmann-Schauer, Heidi; Hof, Herbert; Werber, Dirk; Stark, Klaus

    2010-12-01

    A commercial cheese (acid curd) made from pasteurized milk caused a large listeriosis outbreak in Germany from October 2006 through February 2007. The Listeria monocytogenes outbreak strain was identified in humans and in cheese samples from a patient's home and from the production plant. During the outbreak period, 189 patients were affected, which was 97% above the mean case number for the respective time period of the years 2002 to 2005. Of patients with available detailed information on cheese consumption (n=47), 70% reported to have consumed the incriminated cheese product. Recent European food safety alerts due to Listeria-contaminated cheeses more often concerned products made from pasteurized or heat-treated milk than from raw milk. The findings should be considered in prevention guidelines addressing vulnerable populations.

  17. Viruses of foodborne origin: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd EC

    2015-04-01

    , there is a high cost for prevention, control, and treatment of infections. Control measures are limited, but include proper clean-up and disinfection after vomiting or diarrhea, and prevention of food contact by infected individuals. As diagnostics improve, more foodborne illnesses relating to enteric viruses are expected to be identified, especially in developing countries where there are little data today. Keywords: foodborne, enteric viruses, shellfish, food workers, prevention, control, ready-to-eat food

  18. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Alvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189-201 and LLO91-99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1-22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1-22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91-99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1-22-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4(+) and CD8(+) epitopes.

  19. CELLULAR VACCINES IN LISTERIOSIS: ROLE OF THE LISTERIA ANTIGEN GAPDH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eCalderon-Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH, and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189–201 and LLO91–99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1–22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1–22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91–99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1–22-specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4+ and CD8+ epitopes.

  20. Cellular vaccines in listeriosis: role of the Listeria antigen GAPDH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-González, Ricardo; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Bronchalo-Vicente, Lucía; Lecea-Cuello, M. Jesús; Pareja, Eduardo; Bosch-Martínez, Alexandre; Fanarraga, Mónica L.; Yañez-Díaz, Sonsoles; Carrasco-Marín, Eugenio; Álvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The use of live Listeria-based vaccines carries serious difficulties when administrated to immunocompromised individuals. However, cellular carriers have the advantage of inducing multivalent innate immunity as well as cell-mediated immune responses, constituting novel and secure vaccine strategies in listeriosis. Here, we compare the protective efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and their safety. We examined the immune response of these vaccine vectors using two Listeria antigens, listeriolysin O (LLO) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and several epitopes such as the LLO peptides, LLO189−201 and LLO91−99 and the GAPDH peptide, GAPDH1−22. We discarded macrophages as safe vaccine vectors because they show anti-Listeria protection but also high cytotoxicity. DCs loaded with GAPDH1−22 peptide conferred higher protection and security against listeriosis than the widely explored LLO91−99 peptide. Anti-Listeria protection was related to the changes in DC maturation caused by these epitopes, with high production of interleukin-12 as well as significant levels of other Th1 cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, and with the induction of GAPDH1−22-specific CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses. This is believed to be the first study to explore the use of a novel GAPDH antigen as a potential DC-based vaccine candidate for listeriosis, whose efficiency appears to highlight the relevance of vaccine designs containing multiple CD4+ and CD8+ epitopes. PMID:24600592

  1. WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Cawthorne, Amy; Angulo, Fred

    2013-01-01

    appropriate, evidence-informed priorities in the area of food safety. MethodsThe Initiative aims to provide estimates on the global burden of foodborne diseases by age, sex, and region; strengthen country capacity for conducting burden of foodborne disease assessments in parallel with food safety policy...... analyses; increase awareness and commitment among Member States for the implementation of food safety policy and standards; and encourage countries to use burden of foodborne disease estimates for cost-effectiveness analyses of prevention, intervention, and control measures. To estimate the global burden...... (expressed in disability-adjusted life-years), the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) focused on the contamination of food with enteric and parasitic pathogens, chemicals, and toxins. FindingsStudy findings will provide the technical background and challenges of assessing the burden...

  2. Current pathogenic Escherichia coli foodborne outbreak cases and therapy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shih-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hung; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Jia-You

    2017-08-01

    Food contamination by pathogenic microorganisms has been a serious public health problem and a cause of huge economic losses worldwide. Foodborne pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) contamination, such as that with E. coli O157 and O104, is very common, even in developed countries. Bacterial contamination may occur during any of the steps in the farm-to-table continuum from environmental, animal, or human sources and cause foodborne illness. To understand the causes of the foodborne outbreaks by E. coli and food-contamination prevention measures, we collected and investigated the past 10 years' worldwide reports of foodborne E. coli contamination cases. In the first half of this review article, we introduce the infection and symptoms of five major foodborne diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli/enterohemorrhagic E. coli (STEC/EHEC), Shigella/enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). In the second half of this review article, we introduce the foodborne outbreak cases caused by E. coli in natural foods and food products. Finally, we discuss current developments that can be applied to control and prevent bacterial food contamination.

  3. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks--United States, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    Foodborne agents cause an estimated 48 million illnesses annually in the United States, including 9.4 million illnesses from known pathogens. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks submitted from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. During 2008, the most recent year for which data are finalized, 1,034 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported, which resulted in 23,152 cases of illness, 1,276 hospitalizations, and 22 deaths. Among the 479 outbreaks with a laboratory-confirmed single etiologic agent reported, norovirus was the most common, accounting for 49% of outbreaks and 46% of illnesses. Salmonella was the second most common, accounting for 23% of outbreaks and 31% of illnesses. Among the 218 outbreaks attributed to a food vehicle with ingredients from only one of 17 defined food commodities, the top commodities to which outbreaks were attributed were poultry (15%), beef (14%), and finfish (14%), whereas the top commodities to which outbreak-related illnesses were attributed were fruits and nuts (24%), vine-stalk vegetables (23%), and beef (13%). Outbreak surveillance provides insights into the agents that cause foodborne illness, types of implicated foods, and settings where transmission occurs. Public health, regulatory, and food industry professionals can use this information to target prevention efforts against pathogens and foods that cause the most foodborne disease outbreaks.

  4. Ether lipid vesicle-based antigens impart protection against experimental listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansari MA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mairaj Ahmed Ansari,1 Swaleha Zubair,2 Saba Tufail,1 Ejaj Ahmad,1 Mohsin Raza Khan,1 Zainuddin Quadri,1 Mohammad Owais,11Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, 2Women's College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, IndiaBackground: Incidence of food-borne infections from Listeria monocytogenes, a parasite that has adapted intracellular residence to avoid antibody onslaught, has increased dramatically in the past few years. The apparent lack of an effective vaccine that is capable of evoking the desired cytotoxic T cell response to obliterate this intracellular pathogen has encouraged the investigation of alternate prophylactic strategies. It should also be noted that Archaebacteria (Archae lipid-based adjuvants enhance the efficacy of subunit vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant properties of archaeosomes (liposomes prepared from total polar lipids of archaebacteria, Halobacterium salinarum combined with immunogenic culture supernatant antigens of L. monocytogenes have been exploited in designing a vaccine candidate against experimental listeriosis in murine model.Methods: Archaeosome-entrapped secretory protein antigens (SAgs of L. monocytogenes were evaluated for their immunological responses and tendency to deplete bacterial burden in BALB/c mice challenged with sublethal listerial infection. Various immunological studies involving cytokine profiling, lymphocyte proliferation assay, detection of various surface markers (by flowcytometric analysis, and antibody isotypes (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for establishing the vaccine potential of archaeosome-entrapped secretory proteins.Results: Immunization schedule involving archaeosome-encapsulated SAgs resulted in upregulation of Th1 cytokine production along with boosted memory in BALB/c mice. It also showed protective effect by reducing listerial burden in various vital organs (liver and spleen of the infected mice. However, the soluble form of the antigens (SAgs

  5. Subtyping of Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from retail ready-to-eat foods, processing plants and listeriosis patients in Sweden 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, S Thisted; Ivarsson, S; Lopez-Valladares, G; Sidstedt, M; Lindqvist, R

    2013-08-16

    Identification and prioritisation of food safety interventions requires an understanding of the relationship between food, pathogens and cases. Such understanding can be gained through different approaches, e.g. microbial subtyping to attribute cases of foodborne disease to food vehicles or other sources of illness. In this study, Listeria monocytogenes isolates (n=166) from (i) three categories of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, (ii) food processing plant environments, and (iii) human listeriosis cases, all sampled during 2010 in Sweden, were subtyped. In addition, 121 isolates from human listeriosis cases, collected 2005-2009, were subtyped. Subtyping consisted of both serotyping (conventional method and PCR) and genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serotype 1/2a dominated in all three groups of isolates (range 73-96%). Eighteen percent of the human isolates (2010) belonged to serotype 4b, but only 1.4% of the food isolates. The food isolates differentiated into 19 pulsotypes (ID=0.843), the human isolates collected 2010 into 31 pulsotypes (ID=0.950) and the processing plant isolates into 22 pulsotypes (ID=0.991). Six of the pulsotypes were shared between the food and human isolates. These pulsotypes comprised 42% of the human isolates and 59% of the food isolates. For some processing plants, there was suggested persistence of one or more specific L. monocytogenes strains, as indicated by repetitive isolation of the same pulsotype from food. This study indicated the presence of L. monocytogenes in the processing plant environment as a likely source of contamination of gravad and cold-smoked fish, and this food category as an important source of human exposure to the pathogen. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration of foodborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    into focus with the 1990s outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy that was linked to the human outbreak of Creutzfeldt Jakob's Disease. Serology is still an important tool in preventing foodborne pathogens to enter the human food supply through meat and milk from animals. One of the primary uses...

  7. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  8. Rapid Methods for the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens: Principles, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law eJodi Woan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  9. Applied Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides a timely and thorough snapshot into the emerging and fast evolving area of applied genomics of foodborne pathogens. Driven by the drastic advance of whole genome shot gun sequencing (WGS) technologies, genomics applications are becoming increasingly valuable and even essential...... in studying, surveying and controlling foodborne microbial pathogens. The vast opportunities brought by this trend are often at odds with the lack of bioinformatics know-how among food safety and public health professionals, since such expertise is not part of a typical food microbiology curriculum and skill...

  10. Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States -- Burden of Foodborne Illness: Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... specifically in focusing efforts on the top known pathogens and identifying the additional causes of foodborne illness and death. CDC provides estimates for two major groups of foodborne illnesses Known foodborne pathogens — 31 pathogens known to cause foodborne illness. Many ...

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Historical Listeria monocytogenes from Human Listeriosis, 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report here the draft genome sequences of two Listeria monocytogenes strains from some of the earliest reported cases of human listeriosis in North America. The strains were isolated in 1933 from patients in Massachusetts and Connecticut, USA, and belong to the widely disseminated hypervirulent c...

  12. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

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    Full Text Available ... and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español ... parties. But eating outdoors in warm weather presents a food safety challenge. Bacteria in food multiply faster ...

  1. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

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    Full Text Available ... at least 20 seconds, especially after using the bathroom and before cooking or eating. If you’re in an outdoor setting with no bathroom, use a water jug, some soap, and paper ...

  2. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

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    Full Text Available ... outdoors in warm weather presents a food safety challenge. Bacteria in food multiply faster at temperatures between ... Last Updated: 12/13/2017 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see ...

  3. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

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    Full Text Available ... be wrapped well and placed in an insulated container. If bringing hot take-out food such as ... placed directly on ice or in a shallow container set in a deep pan filled with ice. ...

  4. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

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    Full Text Available ... from becoming ill,” says Marjorie Davidson, Ph.D., education team leader in FDA’s Center for Food Safety ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  5. Barbecue Basics: Tips to Prevent Foodborne Illness

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    Full Text Available ... disposable towelettes for cleaning your hands. Keep raw food separate from cooked food. Don’t use a plate that previously held ... soapy water. Keep utensils and surfaces clean. Marinate food in the refrigerator, not out on the counter. ...

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    Full Text Available ... surfaces clean. Marinate food in the refrigerator, not out on the counter. And if you want to ... going on, but food should not be left out of the cooler or off the grill for ...

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    Full Text Available ... t use a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood for anything else unless the plate ... pack a food thermometer to check that your meat and poultry reach a safe internal temperature. When re-heating ...

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  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Ciara; Duffy, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Wide-spread antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens is now a serious public health issue and multi-antibiotic resistance has been reported in many foodborne pathogens including Salmonella and E. coli. A study to determine antibiotic resistance profiles of a range of Salmonella and Verocytotoxigenic E.coli (VTEC) isolated from Irish foods revealed significant levels of antibiotic resistance in the strains. S. typhimurium DT104 were multiantibiotic resistant with 97% resistant to 7 anti...

  15. Everyday and Exotic Foodborne Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn B Lee

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada?s trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.

  16. Biomarker Tools to Design Clinical Vaccines Determined from a Study of Annual Listeriosis Incidence in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Teran-Navarro, Hector; Marimon, José María; González-Rico, Claudia; Calvo-Montes, Jorge; Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Alkorta-Gurrutxaga, Miriam; Fariñas, M. C.; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Perez-Trallero, Emilio; Alvarez-Dominguez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Two regions of northern Spain, Gipuzkoa, and Cantabria present high annual incidence of listeriosis (1.86 and 1.71 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively). We report that the high annual incidences are a consequence of infection with highly virulent Listeria monocytogenes isolates linked to fatal outcomes in elderly patients with cancer. In addition, listeriosis patients with cancer present low IL-17A/IL-6 ratios and significantly reduced levels of anti-GAPDH1–22 antibodies, identified as two novel biomarkers of poor prognosis. Analysis of these biomarkers may aid in reducing the incidence of listeriosis. Moreover, GAPDH1–22-activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells of listeriosis patients with cancer seem useful tools to prepare clinical vaccines as they produce mainly Th1 cytokines. PMID:27965668

  17. Reporting of Foodborne Illness by U.S. Consumers and Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mandernach

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During 2009–2010, a total of 1,527 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC (2013. However, in a 2011 CDC report, Scallan et al. estimated about 48 million people contract a foodborne illness annually in the United States. Public health officials are concerned with this under-reporting; thus, the purpose of this study was to identify why consumers and healthcare professionals don’t report foodborne illness. Focus groups were conducted with 35 consumers who reported a previous experience with foodborne illness and with 16 healthcare professionals. Also, interviews with other healthcare professionals with responsibility of diagnosing foodborne illness were conducted. Not knowing who to contact, being too ill, being unsure of the cause, and believing reporting would not be beneficial were all identified by consumers as reasons for not reporting foodborne illness. Healthcare professionals that participated in the focus groups indicated the amount of time between patients’ consumption of food and seeking treatment and lack of knowledge were barriers to diagnosing foodborne illness. Issues related to stool samples such as knowledge, access and cost were noted by both groups. Results suggest that barriers identified could be overcome with targeted education and improved access and information about the reporting process.

  18. Reporting of Foodborne Illness by U.S. Consumers and Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Susan; Rajagopal, Lakshman; Strohbehn, Catherine; Stokes, Nathan; Meyer, Janell; Mandernach, Steven

    2013-01-01

    During 2009–2010, a total of 1,527 foodborne disease outbreaks were reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2013). However, in a 2011 CDC report, Scallan et al. estimated about 48 million people contract a foodborne illness annually in the United States. Public health officials are concerned with this under-reporting; thus, the purpose of this study was to identify why consumers and healthcare professionals don’t report foodborne illness. Focus groups were conducted with 35 consumers who reported a previous experience with foodborne illness and with 16 healthcare professionals. Also, interviews with other healthcare professionals with responsibility of diagnosing foodborne illness were conducted. Not knowing who to contact, being too ill, being unsure of the cause, and believing reporting would not be beneficial were all identified by consumers as reasons for not reporting foodborne illness. Healthcare professionals that participated in the focus groups indicated the amount of time between patients’ consumption of food and seeking treatment and lack of knowledge were barriers to diagnosing foodborne illness. Issues related to stool samples such as knowledge, access and cost were noted by both groups. Results suggest that barriers identified could be overcome with targeted education and improved access and information about the reporting process. PMID:23965924

  19. Cost of Hospitalization for Foodborne Diarrhea: A Case Study from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van Minh; Tran, Tuan Anh; Ha, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Viet Hung

    2015-11-01

    Vietnam is undergoing a rapid social and economic developments resulting in speedy urbanization, changes in methods for animal production, food marketing systems, and food consumption habits. These changes will have major impacts on human exposures to food poisoning. The present case study aimed to estimate hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhea cases in selected health facilities in Vietnam. This is a facility-based cost-of-illness study conducted in seven health facilities in Northern Vietnam. All suspect cases of foodborne diarrhea, as diagnosed by doctors, who admitted to the studied health facilities during June-August, 2013 were selected. Costs associated with hospitalization for foodborne diseases were estimated from societal perspective using retrospective approach. We included direct and indirect costs of hospitalization of foodborne diarrhea cases. During the study period, 87 foodborne diarrhea cases were included. On average, the costs per treatment episode and per hospitalization day for foodborne diarrhea case were US$ 106.9 and US$ 33.6 respectively. Indirect cost (costs of times to patient, their relatives due to the patient's illness) made up the largest share (51.3%). Direct medical costs accounted for 33.8%; direct non-medical costs (patient and their relatives) represented 14.9%. Cost levels and compositions varied by level of health facilities. More attentions should be paid on prevention, control of foodborne diarrhea cases in Vietnam. Ensuring safety of food depends on efforts of everyone involved in food chain continuum, from production, processing, and transport to consumption.

  20. Estimating the burden of foodborne disease, South Korea, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Soon Ho; Kim, Soon Han; Park, Ki Hwan; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2015-03-01

    Estimating the actual occurrence of foodborne illness is challenging because only a small proportion of foodborne illnesses are confirmed and reported. Many studies have attempted to accurately estimate the overall number of cases of foodborne illness, but none have attempted to estimate the burden of foodborne disease in South Korea. This study used data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA), a public health surveillance system in South Korea, to calculate the number of cases and hospitalizations due to 18 specific pathogens and unspecified agents commonly transmitted through contaminated food between 2008 and 2012 in South Korea while accounting for uncertainty in the estimate. The estimated annual occurrences of foodborne illness were 336,138 (90% credible interval [CrI]: 258,379-430,740), with inpatient stays (hospitalizations), outpatient visits (foodborne disease infections), and patients' experiences (without visiting physicians) accounting for 2.3% (n=7809 [90% CrI: 7016-8616]), 14.4% (n=48,267 [90% CrI: 45,883-50,695]) and 83.3% (n=280,062 [90% CrI: 201,795-374,091]), respectively. Escherichia coli, including enterohemorrhagic E. coli, caused most illnesses, followed by nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, hepatitis A virus, and norovirus. These results will be useful to food safety policymakers for the prevention and control of foodborne pathogens in South Korea.

  1. Molecular Typing and Epidemiology of Human Listeriosis Cases, Denmark, 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Björkman, Jonas T; Ethelberg, Steen; Kiil, Kristoffer; Kemp, Michael; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-04-01

    Denmark has a high incidence of invasive listeriosis (0.9 cases/100,000 population in 2012). We analyzed patient data, clinical outcome, and trends in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Denmark during 2002-2012. We performed 2-enzyme PFGE and serotyping on 559 isolates and MLST on 92 isolates and identified some correlation between molecular type and clinical outcome and patient characteristics. We found 178 different PFGE types, but isolates from 122 cases belonged to just 2 closely related PFGE types, clonal complex 8 and sequence type 8. These 2 types were the main cause of a peak in incidence of invasive listeriosis during 2005-2009, possibly representing an outbreak or the presence of a highly prevalent clone. However, current typing methods could not fully confirm these possibilities, highlighting the need for more refined discriminatory typing methods to identify outbreaks within frequently occurring L. monocytogenes PFGE types.

  2. Atypical cerebral listeriosis associated with Listeria innocua in a beef bull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina; Dalmasso, Alessandra; Grattarola, Carla; Casalone, Cristina; Del Piero, Fabio; Bottero, Maria Teresa; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2013-02-01

    Natural infections of cattle associated with Listeria innocua have not been reported. This report describes the first case of cerebral listeriosis in a bull due to Listeria innocua. The animal presented neurological signs characterized by weakness, incoordination and recumbency. Histopathologic evaluation of brain tissue revealed multifocal microabscesses, perivascular lymphocytic cuffing, vasculitis, oedema and haemorrhages. All lesions extended from the medulla oblongata to the basal nuclei/parietal cortex area. Indirect immunohistochemistry labelled for Listeria sp. in the brain tissue, but not for Listeria monocytogenes, neurotropic Flaviviruses, BVDV, bovine Herpesvirus 1, Chlamydophila spp. and Histophilus somni. PCR was negative for ovine herpesvirus. L. innocua was isolated from brainstem and identified by biochemical tests (Camp and beta-hemolysis negative). Subsequently, the species was confirmed by a duplex PCR and minisequencing assays. L. innocua should be histologically considered as a differential diagnosis of thrombotic meningoencephalitis, malignant catarrhal fever and cerebral listeriosis due to L. monocytogenes in cattle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Typing and Epidemiology of Human Listeriosis Cases, Denmark, 2002-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kvistholm; Björkman, Jonas T; Ethelberg, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Denmark has a high incidence of invasive listeriosis (0.9 cases/100,000 population in 2012). We analyzed patient data, clinical outcome, and trends in pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated in Denmark during 2002......-2012. We performed 2-enzyme PFGE and serotyping on 559 isolates and MLST on 92 isolates and identified some correlation between molecular type and clinical outcome and patient characteristics. We found 178 different PFGE types, but isolates from 122 cases belonged to just 2 closely related PFGE types......, clonal complex 8 and sequence type 8. These 2 types were the main cause of a peak in incidence of invasive listeriosis during 2005-2009, possibly representing an outbreak or the presence of a highly prevalent clone. However, current typing methods could not fully confirm these possibilities, highlighting...

  4. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis Using JSpecies Tool Establishes Clonal Relationships between Listeria monocytogenes Strains from Epidemiologically Unrelated Listeriosis Outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel S Burall

    Full Text Available In an effort to build a comprehensive genomic approach to food safety challenges, the FDA has implemented a whole genome sequencing effort, GenomeTrakr, which involves the sequencing and analysis of genomes of foodborne pathogens. As a part of this effort, we routinely sequence whole genomes of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm isolates associated with human listeriosis outbreaks, as well as those isolated through other sources. To rapidly establish genetic relatedness of these genomes, we evaluated tetranucleotide frequency analysis via the JSpecies program to provide a cursory analysis of strain relatedness. The JSpecies tetranucleotide (tetra analysis plots standardized (z-score tetramer word frequencies of two strains against each other and uses linear regression analysis to determine similarity (r2. This tool was able to validate the close relationships between outbreak related strains from four different outbreaks. Included in this study was the analysis of Lm strains isolated during the recent caramel apple outbreak and stone fruit incident in 2014. We identified that many of the isolates from these two outbreaks shared a common 4b variant (4bV serotype, also designated as IVb-v1, using a qPCR protocol developed in our laboratory. The 4bV serotype is characterized by the presence of a 6.3 Kb DNA segment normally found in serotype 1/2a, 3a, 1/2c and 3c strains but not in serotype 4b or 1/2b strains. We decided to compare these strains at a genomic level using the JSpecies Tetra tool. Specifically, we compared several 4bV and 4b isolates and identified a high level of similarity between the stone fruit and apple 4bV strains, but not the 4b strains co-identified in the caramel apple outbreak or other 4b or 4bV strains in our collection. This finding was further substantiated by a SNP-based analysis. Additionally, we were able to identify close relatedness between isolates from clinical cases from 1993-1994 and a single case from 2011 as well as

  5. [Fatal neonatal listeriosis after maternal infection acquired with ingestion of fresh home-made cheese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, F; Massone, M L; Cingolani, M; Morando, A; Somenzi, M; Barretta, M A; Savioli, C

    1994-09-01

    The authors report on a newborn admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Gaslini Institute for serious respiratory insufficiency who died on the third day of life because of a sepsis due to Listeria monocytogenes. The authors focus on the patient's history and clinical picture and on the histological evaluation of the lesions observed. The importance of infection in pregnancy and the possible severe consequences of listeriosis on the foetus are underlined, stressing the need for early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  6. Inadequate management of pregnancy-associated listeriosis: lessons from four case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, C; Goffinet, F; Azria, E; Leclercq, A; Lecuit, M

    2014-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes infection during pregnancy can lead to dramatic fetal or neonatal outcomes. No clinical trial has evaluated treatment options, and retrospective studies of cases are therefore important to define optimal regimens. We report four cases of materno-neonatal listeriosis illustrating inadequate antimicrobial therapy management and discuss recommended treatment options. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  7. Listeriosis outbreak caused by Latin-style fresh cheese, Bizkaia, Spain, August 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, V; Escudero, Jm; Rodriguez, Jl; Muniozguren, N; Uribarri, J; Saez, D; Vazquez, J

    2012-10-18

    Two cases of laboratory-confirmed listeriosis were detected in Bizkaia, Spain, at the end of August. The epidemiological investigation indicated that these two cases were associated with the consumption of Latin-style fresh cheese made from pasteurised milk in Portugal. Different batches of the same cheese were analysed and confirmed as contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. The product was withdrawn from the market and the population was advised not to consume this kind of cheese.

  8. Foodborne disease in Australia: incidence, notifications and outbreaks. Annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, OzFoodNet continued to enhance surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia. The OzFoodNet network expanded to cover all Australian states and territories in 2002. The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health together with OzFoodNet concluded a national survey of gastroenteritis, which found that there were 17.2 (95% C.I. 14.5-19.9) million cases of gastroenteritis each year in Australia. The credible range of gastroenteritis that may be due to food each year is between 4.0-6.9 million cases with a mid-point of 5.4 million. During 2002, there were 23,434 notifications of eight bacterial diseases that may have been foodborne, which was a 7.7 per cent increase over the mean of the previous four years. There were 14,716 cases of campylobacteriosis, 7,917 cases of salmonellosis, 505 cases of shigellosis, 99 cases of yersiniosis, 64 cases of typhoid, 62 cases of listeriosis, 58 cases of shiga toxin producing E. coli and 13 cases of haemolytic uraemic syndrome. OzFoodNet sites reported 92 foodborne disease outbreaks affecting 1,819 persons, of whom 5.6 per cent (103/1,819) were hospitalised and two people died. There was a wide range of foods implicated in these outbreaks and the most common agent was Salmonella Typhimurium. Sites reported two outbreaks with potential for international spread involving contaminated tahini from Egypt resulting in an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infection and an outbreak of suspected norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. In addition, there were three outbreaks associated with animal petting zoos or poultry hatching programs and 318 outbreaks of suspected person-to-person transmission. Sites conducted 100 investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified, including three multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. OzFoodNet identified important risk factors for foodborne disease infection, including: Salmonella infections due to chicken and

  9. Impact of restaurant hygiene grade cards on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Paul A; Leslie, Phillip; Run, Grace; Jin, Ginger Zhe; Reporter, Roshan; Aguirre, Arturo; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2005-03-01

    Although health departments routinely inspect restaurants to assess compliance with established hygienic standards, few data are available on the effectiveness of these efforts in preventing foodborne disease. The study reported here assessed the impact on foodborne-disease hospitalizations in Los Angeles County of a restaurant hygiene grading system that utilized publicly posted grade cards. The grading systm was introduced in January 1998. Hospital discharge data on foodborne-disease hospitalizations were analyzed for Los Angeles County and, as a control, for the rest of California during the period 1993-2000. Ordinary least-squares regression analysis was done to measure the effect of the grading progam on these hospitalizations. After baseline temporal and geographic trends were adjusted for, the restaurant hygiene grading program was associated with a 13.1 percent decrease (p restaurant hygiene grading with public posting of results is an effective intervention for reducing the burden of foodborne disease.

  10. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Chi-wai Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14% episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets.

  11. Foodborne disease investigation across Australia: annual report of the OzFoodNet network, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, OzFoodNet conducted enhanced surveillance of foodborne diseases across Australia, which covered all states and territories. During 2003, there were 23,250 notifications of eight potentially foodborne diseases, of which 67 per cent and 30 per cent were due to Campylobacter and Salmonella infections respectively. The most common Salmonella serotype was Typhimurium, as in previous years. Most S. Enteritidis were acquired overseas, except for Queensland where 52 per cent of infections were acquired locally. Locally acquired S. Enteritidis infections in Australia were predominantly due to phage type 26. The most common serotype of Shiga toxin producing E. coli was O157, although for 49 per cent of notified infections serotype was unknown due to the use of polymerase chain reaction based screening tests. There were 12 materno-foetal listeriosis infections in 2003, which was an increase compared to recent years. During 2003, there were 444 outbreaks of gastroenteritis and foodborne disease recorded. Ninety-nine of these were of foodborne origin affecting 1,686 persons, hospitalising 105 and causing six deaths. A wide range of agents and foods caused these outbreaks, with Salmonella Typhimurium being the most common pathogen. Outbreaks associated with fish and seafood dishes, poultry meat, and Asian style and imported foods were common. Four outbreaks with international implications were reported: an outbreak of Salmonella in Montevideo involving contaminated tahini from the Middle East and three outbreaks of norovirus infection associated with imported Japanese oysters. Outbreak data indicated a need to monitor food safety in aged care settings, restaurants and catering. Eighty-nine investigations into clusters of gastrointestinal illness where a source could not be identified were conducted, including multi-state outbreaks of salmonellosis. One multistate investigation of antibiotic resistant Salmonella Paratyphi b Java identified 18 cases who had recent

  12. Contributing factors in restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, FoodNet sites, 2006 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Rosenblum, Ida; Nicholas, David; Phan, Quyen; Jones, Timothy F

    2013-11-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens.

  13. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in Correctional Institutions-United States, 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, Mariel A; Luna-Gierke, Ruth E; Griffin, Patricia M; Vieira, Antonio R

    2017-07-01

    To present the first update on the epidemiology of US foodborne correctional institution outbreaks in 20 years. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to describe correctional institution outbreaks from 1998 to 2014 and compare them with other foodborne outbreaks. Two hundred foodborne outbreaks in correctional institutions were reported, resulting in 20 625 illnesses, 204 hospitalizations, and 5 deaths. Median number of outbreak-associated illnesses per 100 000 population per year was 45 (range = 11-141) compared with 7 (range = 4-10) for other outbreaks. These outbreaks accounted for 6% (20 625 of 358 330) of outbreak-associated foodborne illnesses. Thirty-seven states reported at least 1 outbreak in a correctional institution. Clostridium perfringens (28%; 36 of 128) was the most frequently reported single etiology. The most frequently reported contributing factor was food remaining at room temperature (37%; 28 of 76). Incarcerated persons suffer a disproportionate number of outbreak-associated foodborne illnesses. Better food safety oversight and regulation in correctional food services could decrease outbreaks. Public Health Implications. Public health officials, correctional officials, and food suppliers can work together for food safety. Clearer jurisdiction over regulation of correctional food services is needed.

  14. Some Factors Trigger Increasing Foodborne Diseases Cases of Livestock Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anni Kusumaningsih

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is an essential need for various human body activities. Consequently, food must be guaranteed to be free from biological, chemical, and physical contaminants and other hazardous substances that can obstruct health. The presence of various hazardous contaminants in food may result in the appearance of foodborne diseases, i.e. human diseases spread through contaminated food and drinks. Biological contaminants in food can be bacteria, viruses, parasites, moulds, or fungi. The most dangerous biological contaminants that may cause an epidemic disease in human are pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter spp., Vibrio cholerae, Enterobacter sakazakii, Shigella, etc. Researchers believe that there are several factors that can be the trigger that increase of foodborne diseases cases such as community demography by increasing the individual groups that are more susceptible to pathogenic foodborne infections, human behaviour related to the changes in the community life style and consumption, the advances in industrial and technological sectors through the increase of large scale food industries concentrated in one location, the global trade or travel, and increasing bacterial resistances against antimicrobials as the result of the increasing the uses of antimicrobials for disease prevention and cure in animals and humans.

  15. Increase in Multistate Foodborne Disease Outbreaks-United States, 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Von D; Bennett, Sarah D; Mungai, Elisabeth; Gieraltowski, Laura; Hise, Kelley; Gould, L Hannah

    2015-11-01

    Changes in food production and distribution have increased opportunities for foods contaminated early in the supply chain to be distributed widely, increasing the possibility of multistate outbreaks. In recent decades, surveillance systems for foodborne disease have been improved, allowing officials to more effectively identify related cases and to trace and identify an outbreak's source. We reviewed multistate foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System during 1973-2010. We calculated the percentage of multistate foodborne disease outbreaks relative to all foodborne disease outbreaks and described characteristics of multistate outbreaks, including the etiologic agents and implicated foods. Multistate outbreaks accounted for 234 (0.8%) of 27,755 foodborne disease outbreaks, 24,003 (3%) of 700,600 outbreak-associated illnesses, 2839 (10%) of 29,756 outbreak-associated hospitalizations, and 99 (16%) of 628 outbreak-associated deaths. The median annual number of multistate outbreaks increased from 2.5 during 1973-1980 to 13.5 during 2001-2010; the number of multistate outbreak-associated illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths also increased. Most multistate outbreaks were caused by Salmonella (47%) and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (26%). Foods most commonly implicated were beef (22%), fruits (13%), and leafy vegetables (13%). The number of identified and reported multistate foodborne disease outbreaks has increased. Improvements in detection, investigation, and reporting of foodborne disease outbreaks help explain the increasing number of reported multistate outbreaks and the increasing percentage of outbreaks that were multistate. Knowing the etiologic agents and foods responsible for multistate outbreaks can help to identify sources of food contamination so that the safety of the food supply can be improved.

  16. Foodborne illnesses in Brazil: control measures for 2014 FIFA World Cup travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Ana Carolina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar

    2014-03-13

    Foodborne diseases are typically caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with micro-organisms or their toxins, resulting in gastrointestinal disorders and in some severe cases hospitalization and death. In Brazil, foodborne illnesses are caused mainly by Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The most important contributing factors for outbreaks are exposure of foods to unsuitable temperatures, inadequate food preparation and contamination of raw material or water used to prepare food. Recently, aiming to prevent foodborne illnesses during the 2014 FIFA World Cup, Brazil has developed a risk-based evaluation tool able to assess and grade Brazilian food services in cities that will host football matches. This tool has been used by the Brazilian sanitary surveillance officers during the inspection of facilities where food services. This is considered an innovative preventative sanitary action because it was created based on scientific information, statistical calculation and on risks of foodborne diseases occurrence. In this mini-review we summarize general data, control measures and how travellers can prevent foodborne illness in Brazil during the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

  17. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Foodborne illnesses are a major health burden in the United States. Most of these illnesses are preventable, and analysis of outbreaks helps identify control measures. Although most cases are sporadic, investigation of the portion that occur as part of recognized outbreaks can provide insights into the pathogens, food vehicles, and food-handling practices associated with foodborne infections. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) from all states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FBDSS). This report summarizes epidemiologic data on FBDOs reported during 2006 (the most recent year for which data have been analyzed). A total of 1,270 FBDOs were reported, resulting in 27,634 cases and 11 deaths. Among the 624 FBDOs with a confirmed etiology, norovirus was the most common cause, accounting for 54% of outbreaks and 11,879 cases, followed by Salmonella (18% of outbreaks and 3,252 cases). Among the 11 reported deaths, 10 were attributed to bacterial etiologies (six Escherichia coli O157:H7, two Listeria monocytogenes, one Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, and one Clostridium botulinum), and one was attributed to a chemical (mushroom toxin). Among outbreaks caused by a single food vehicle, the most common food commodities to which outbreak-related cases were attributed were poultry (21%), leafy vegetables (17%), and fruits/nuts (16%). Public health professionals can use this information to 1) target control strategies for specific pathogens in particular foods along the farm-to-table continuum and 2) support good food-handling practices among restaurant workers and the public.

  18. Listeriosis in p47(phox-/-) and TRp55-/- mice: protection despite absence of ROI and susceptibility despite presence of RNI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, R; Luz, A; Schulze, H; Neubauer, H; Fütterer, A; Holland, S M; Wagner, H; Pfeffer, K

    1997-09-01

    The significance of host defense mechanisms in primary listeriosis in vivo is incompletely understood. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor receptor p55-/- (TRp55-/-) mice are susceptible to Listeria monocytogenes infection in the presence of leukocyte recruitment, inflammatory cytokine production (including IFNgamma), nitric oxide synthesis, and oxidative burst formation. Mice deficient for oxidative burst (p47[phox-/-] mice) are relatively resistant to listeriosis. Despite activation of these antibacterial effector systems, TRp55-/- phagocytes in vivo are incapable of confining and eradicating L. monocytogenes inside phagolysosomes. Bone marrow chimeras reveal that for eradication of L. monocytogenes, TRp55 is crucially required only on cells from hematopoietic origin. Unexpectedly, prior to death, exocrine pancreatic cells undergo apoptosis in TRp55-/- mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that in vivo, TRp55 initiates a protective, listericidal mechanism in phagocytes that differs from nitric oxide production and oxidative burst formation and that uncontrolled listeriosis results in necrotizing pancreatitis in TRp55-/- mice.

  19. Investigation of increased listeriosis revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination in Finland in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakari, U-M; Rantala, L; Pihlajasaari, A; Toikkanen, S; Johansson, T; Hellsten, C; Raulo, S M; Kuusi, M; Siitonen, A; Rimhanen-Finne, R

    2014-11-01

    In 2010, a marked increase in listeriosis incidence was observed in Finland. Listeria monocytogenes PFGE profile 96 was responsible for one-fifth of the reported cases and a cluster of PFGE profile 62 was also detected. Investigations revealed two fishery production plants with persistent Listeria contamination. It appears likely that the plants were at least partly responsible for the increase of listeriosis. Epidemiological investigation revealed that 57% (31/54) of cases with underlying immunosuppressive condition or medication reported eating gravad or cold-smoked fish. Two public notices were issued by THL and Evira informing which groups were most at risk from the effects of listeriosis and should therefore be cautious in consuming certain products. Systematic sampling of foods and adequate epidemiological investigation methods are required to identify the sources of Listeria infections. Continuous control measures at fishery production plants producing risk products are essential.

  20. A foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Vestergaard, L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis are uncommon. In Denmark human cases are generally infrequently diagnosed. In 2005 an outbreak of diarrhoea affected company employees near Copenhagen. In all 99 employees were reported ill; 13 were positive for Cryptosporidium hominis infection. Two...

  1. Selection tool for foodborne norovirus outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Linda P B; Kroneman, Annelies; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Boshuizen, Hendriek; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Detection of pathogens in the food chain is limited mainly to bacteria, and the globalization of the food industry enables international viral foodborne outbreaks to occur. Outbreaks from 2002 through 2006 recorded in a European norovirus surveillance database were investigated for virologic and epidemiologic indicators of food relatedness. The resulting validated multivariate logistic regression model comparing foodborne (n = 224) and person-to-person (n = 654) outbreaks was used to create a practical web-based tool that can be limited to epidemiologic parameters for nongenotyping countries. Non-genogroup-II.4 outbreaks, higher numbers of cases, and outbreaks in restaurants or households characterized (sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.86) foodborne outbreaks and reduced the percentage of outbreaks requiring source-tracing to 31%. The selection tool enabled prospectively focused follow-up. Use of this tool is likely to improve data quality and strain typing in current surveillance systems, which is necessary for identification of potential international foodborne outbreaks.

  2. Difficulties in Diagnosing Food-Borne Botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Forss

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a muscle-paralyzing disease caused by neurotoxins (types A–G produced by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. Symptoms of food-borne botulism most commonly appear 12–36 h after eating contaminated food, but the earliest neurological symptoms may in some cases start abruptly. Here, we report the cases of two patients with food-borne botulism who were admitted to the neurological emergency room as candidates for intravenous thrombolysis for acute stroke.

  3. Epidemiology of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks, United States, 1998-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, K M; Nisler, A L; Hall, A J; Brown, L G; Gould, L H

    2017-02-01

    Although contamination of food can occur at any point from farm to table, restaurant food workers are a common source of foodborne illness. We describe the characteristics of restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks and explore the role of food workers by analysing outbreaks associated with restaurants from 1998 to 2013 reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. We identified 9788 restaurant-associated outbreaks. The median annual number of outbreaks was 620 (interquartile range 618-629). In 3072 outbreaks with a single confirmed aetiology reported, norovirus caused the largest number of outbreaks (1425, 46%). Of outbreaks with a single food reported and a confirmed aetiology, fish (254 outbreaks, 34%) was most commonly implicated, and these outbreaks were commonly caused by scombroid toxin (219 outbreaks, 86% of fish outbreaks). Most outbreaks (79%) occurred at sit-down establishments. The most commonly reported contributing factors were those related to food handling and preparation practices in the restaurant (2955 outbreaks, 61%). Food workers contributed to 2415 (25%) outbreaks. Knowledge of the foods, aetiologies, and contributing factors that result in foodborne disease restaurant outbreaks can help guide efforts to prevent foodborne illness.

  4. Genomic and phenotypic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes clonal complexes associated with human listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergholz, Teresa M; Shah, Manoj K; Burall, Laurel S; Rakic-Martinez, Mira; Datta, Atin R

    2018-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen of significant concern in many ready to eat foods due to its ability to survive and multiply even under significant environmental stresses. Listeriosis in humans is a concern, especially to high-risk populations such as those who are immunocompromised or pregnant, due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality. Whole genome sequencing has become a routine part of assessing L. monocytogenes isolated from patients, and the frequency of different genetic subtypes associated with listeriosis is now being reported. The recent abundance of genome sequences for L. monocytogenes has provided a wealth of information regarding the variation in core and accessory genomic elements. Newly described accessory genomic regions have been linked to greater virulence capabilities as well as greater resistance to environmental stressors such as sanitizers commonly used in food processing facilities. This review will provide a summary of our current understanding of stress response and virulence phenotypes of L. monocytogenes, within the context of the genetic diversity of the pathogen.

  5. [Seroprevalance of brucellosis, listeriosis and toxoplasmosis in cattle in Adana province of Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yağcı Yücel, Sükran; Yaman, Mehmet; Kurt, Cemal; Babür, Cahit; Celebi, Bekir; Kılıç, Selçuk; Ozen, Doğukan

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the seroprevalance of diseases which are zoonotic and responsible from abortion such as toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and brucellosis in Holstein crossbred cattle of different age and sex in Adana province, between 2008 April-September. For this purpose, blood serum samples were collected from 132 cattle and analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii, Listeria monocytogenes and Brucella abortus antibodies. T. gondii, L. monocytogenes and Brucella abortus antibodies were determined by the standard Sabin- Feldman Dye Test (SFDT), Osebold method and Microtube Agglutination Test (MAT) respectively, from the blood serum samples. 132 serum tested 56.06% samples of T. gondii, 40.9% and 3.03% of L. monocytogenes and defined the B.abortus antibodies were found to be seropositive terms. There were no statistically significant difference between seropositive T. gondii, L. monocytogenes and B.abortus antibodies among age groups (p>0.05). In this study, for the first time in cattle in the region of Adana serological methods revealed the presence L. monocytogenes, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis were higher than brucellosis seropositivity. Moreover, the prevalence of these diseases in the same animal at the highest rate was determined for T. gondii and L. monocytogenes.

  6. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Walsh, Kelly A; Vieira, Antonio R; Herman, Karen; Williams, Ian T; Hall, Aron J; Cole, Dana

    2013-06-28

    to assess changes in the food commodities associated most frequently with outbreaks that might occur following improvements in food safety or changes in consumption patterns or food preparation practices. Prevention of foodborne disease depends on targeted interventions at appropriate points from food production to food preparation. Efforts to reduce foodborne illness should focus on the pathogens and food commodities causing the most outbreaks and outbreak-associated illnesses, including beef, poultry, fish, and produce.

  7. Genetic determinants for cadmium and arsenic resistance among Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis, heavy metal resistance was primarily encountered in certain clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa). All arsenic-resistant isolates harbored the arsenic resistance cassette previously identified in pLI100; ECIa harbored additional arsenic resi...

  8. The response of foodborne pathogens to osmotic and desiccation stresses in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Catherine M.; Gianotti, Andrea; Gruzdev, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    In combination with other strategies, hyperosmolarity and desiccation are frequently used by the food processing industry as a means to prevent bacterial proliferation, and particularly that of foodborne pathogens, in food products. However, it is increasingly observed that bacteria, including...... and identifies gaps in knowledge which need to be addressed to ensure the safety of low water activity and desiccated food products....

  9. Epidemiology and treatment of the commonest form of listeriosis: meningitis and bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliano, Pasquale; Arslan, Ferhat; Ascione, Tiziana

    2017-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacillus and facultative intracellular bacterium whose transmission occurs mainly through the consumption of contaminated food. Listeriosis has an incidence estimated at around three-six cases per million per year and the most common forms of the infection are neurolisteriosis, bacteraemia, and maternal-neonatal infection. Those affected by listeriosis are at the extremes age of the life or report specific risk factors, such as malignancies, causing a defect of cellular immunity. Patients with L. monocytogenes meningitis present with signs and symptoms similar to those reported in the general population with community-acquired bacterial meningitis, but can experience a longer prodromal phase. Instead, patients with bacteraemia present generally with a febrile illness without focal symptoms, or with influenza-like symptoms and diarrhoea. These aspecific findings make the diagnosis difficult in the population of patients at the highest risk such as cirrhotics or those receiving chemotherapy. Mortality rate is estimated around 20% with a significant increase among those reporting a delay in diagnosis and treatment and in those with severe comorbidity. A number of antibiotics have been demonstrated to be active against L. monocytogenes, but penicillin, amoxicillin, and ampicillin are those used with the highest frequency and suggested by current guidelines and expert opinions. These antibiotics bind to PBP-3 with high affinity and are stored in the cytosol when taken up by cells. Although amoxicillin appears to have a better activity than ampicillin on the basis of in vitro studies, ampicillin is currently the drug of choice for the treatment of listeriosis. Cotrimoxazole could be administered as an alternative treatment; its use is associated with a favourable outcome probably due to the favourable penetration with brain. Quinolones have an excellent tissue and cell penetration and are rapidly bactericidal, but their clinical

  10. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as expos......Background Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods...... as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. Methods and findings We used Cooke’s Classical Model...

  11. Two episodes of listeriosis in pregnancy and newborns: investigation, problems and considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Marozzi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, 3 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from one mother and her newborn and a second infant arrived at the Institute for Experimental Veterinary Medicine of Latium and Tuscany. At the same time the Local Health Unit Rome B sampled at retail a smoked salmon that was suspected to be involved in the transmission of the disease. The sample was tested for the presence of L. monocytogenes (UNI EN ISO 11290: 2005 part 1 and 2. Laboratory investigations have shown that all 3 strains isolated from patients belonged to serotype 4b of two different clusters (cluster B for the isolates from mother and child and cluster A to that obtained from another baby, so no epidemiological link was demonstrated in the human cases. The tests conducted on smoked salmon have shown the presence of L. monocytogenes serotype 1/2a. Therefore, no correlation has been demonstrated between the reported cases of listeriosis and the food analyzed.

  12. Estimated Cost to a Restaurant of a Foodborne Illness Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Sarah M; Asti, Lindsey; Nyathi, Sindiso; Spiker, Marie L; Lee, Bruce Y

    2018-01-01

    Although outbreaks of restaurant-associated foodborne illness occur periodically and make the news, a restaurant may not be aware of the cost of an outbreak. We estimated this cost under varying circumstances. We developed a computational simulation model; scenarios varied outbreak size (5 to 250 people affected), pathogen (n = 15), type of dining establishment (fast food, fast casual, casual dining, and fine dining), lost revenue (ie, meals lost per illness), cost of lawsuits and legal fees, fines, and insurance premium increases. We estimated that the cost of a single foodborne illness outbreak ranged from $3968 to $1.9 million for a fast-food restaurant, $6330 to $2.1 million for a fast-casual restaurant, $8030 to $2.2 million for a casual-dining restaurant, and $8273 to $2.6 million for a fine-dining restaurant, varying from a 5-person outbreak, with no lost revenue, lawsuits, legal fees, or fines, to a 250-person outbreak, with high lost revenue (100 meals lost per illness), and a high amount of lawsuits and legal fees ($1 656 569) and fines ($100 000). This cost amounts to 10% to 5790% of a restaurant's annual marketing costs and 0.3% to 101% of annual profits and revenue. The biggest cost drivers were lawsuits and legal fees, outbreak size, and lost revenue. Pathogen type affected the cost by a maximum of $337 000, the difference between a Bacillus cereus outbreak (least costly) and a listeria outbreak (most costly). The cost of a single foodborne illness outbreak to a restaurant can be substantial and outweigh the typical costs of prevention and control measures. Our study can help decision makers determine investment and motivate research for infection-control measures in restaurant settings.

  13. Early identification systems for emerging foodborne hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marvin, H.J.P.; Kleter, G.A.; Pradini, A.; Dekkers, S.; Bolton, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a non-exhausting overview of early warning systems for emerging foodborne hazards that are operating in the various places in the world. Special attention is given to endpoint-focussed early warning systems (i.e. ECDC, ISIS and GPHIN) and hazard-focussed early warning systems

  14. Rapid methods: the detection of foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, R.R.; Hazeleger, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Although bacteria are the first type of microorganisms that come to mind when discussing microbial food safety, they are by no means the only pathogenic foodborne microorganisms. Mycotoxin producing moulds, human enteric viruses, protozoan parasites and marine biotoxins are also of importance.

  15. Impacts of globalization on foodborne parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010 an estimated 3% of the world’s population lived outside their country of origin. Among immigrants, tourists, and business travellers worldwide several foodborne parasites are frequently found including Ascaris, Trichiuris, hookworms, Enterobius, Fasciola, Hymenolepis, and several protozoa. T...

  16. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States: A Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Yackley, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks (FBDOs) is important for informing investigation, control, and prevention methods. We examined annual summary FBDO data in the United States from 1938 to 2015, to help understand the epidemiology of outbreaks over time. Due to changes in reporting procedures, before 1998, the mean number of annual outbreaks was 378, and after that, it was 1062. A mean of 42% had a known etiology during 1961-1998; since then the etiology has been identified in ∼65%, with a marked increase in the number of norovirus outbreaks. From 1967 to 1997, a mean of 41% of FBDOs occurred in restaurant settings, increasing to 60% in 1998-2015. Concurrently, the proportion of outbreaks occurring at a home decreased from 25% to 8%. The mean size of outbreaks has decreased over time, and the number of multistate outbreaks has increased. Many social, economic, environmental, technological, and regulatory changes have dramatically affected the epidemiology of foodborne disease over time.

  17. Contributing Factors in Restaurant-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, FoodNet Sites, 2006 and 2007†

    Science.gov (United States)

    GOULD, L. HANNAH; ROSENBLUM, IDA; NICHOLAS, DAVID; PHAN, QUYEN; JONES, TIMOTHY F.

    2015-01-01

    An estimated 48 million cases of foodborne illness occur each year in the United States, resulting in approximately 128,000 hospitalizations and 3,000 deaths. Over half of all foodborne disease outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are associated with eating in restaurants or delicatessens. We reviewed data from restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks to better understand the factors that contribute to these outbreaks. Data on restaurant-associated foodborne disease outbreaks reported by sites participating in the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) were analyzed to characterize contributing factors reported in foodborne disease outbreaks and the levels of evidence used to identify these factors. Of 457 foodborne disease outbreaks reported in 2006 and 2007 by FoodNet sites, 300 (66%) were restaurant associated, and of these 295 (98%) had at least one reported contributing factor. One to nine (with a median of two) contributing factors were reported per outbreak. Of the 257 outbreaks with a single etiology reported, contributing factors associated with food worker health and hygiene were reported for 165 outbreaks (64%), factors associated with food preparation practices within the establishment were reported for 88 outbreaks (34%), and factors associated with contamination introduced before reaching the restaurant were reported for 56 outbreaks (22%). The pronounced role of food workers in propagating outbreaks makes it clear that more work is needed to address prevention at the local level. Food workers should be instructed not to prepare food while ill to prevent the risk of transmitting pathogens. PMID:24215683

  18. Multi-Province Listeriosis Outbreak Linked to Contaminated Deli Meat Consumed Primarily in Institutional Settings, Canada, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Andrea; Farber, Jeffrey M; Nadon, Céline; Sharma, Davendra; Whitfield, Yvonne; Gaulin, Colette; Galanis, Eleni; Bekal, Sadjia; Flint, James; Tschetter, Lorelee; Pagotto, Franco; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Fred; Badiani, Tina; MacDonald, Diane; Ellis, Andrea; May-Hadford, Jennifer; McCormick, Rachel; Savelli, Carmen; Middleton, Dean; Allen, Vanessa; Tremblay, Francois-William; MacDougall, Laura; Hoang, Linda; Shyng, Sion; Everett, Doug; Chui, Linda; Louie, Marie; Bangura, Helen; Levett, Paul N; Wilkinson, Krista; Wylie, John; Reid, Janet; Major, Brian; Engel, Dave; Douey, Donna; Huszczynski, George; Di Lecci, Joe; Strazds, Judy; Rousseau, Josée; Ma, Kenneth; Isaac, Leah; Sierpinska, Urszula

    2015-08-01

    A multi-province outbreak of listeriosis occurred in Canada from June to November 2008. Fifty-seven persons were infected with 1 of 3 similar outbreak strains defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and 24 (42%) individuals died. Forty-one (72%) of 57 individuals were residents of long-term care facilities or hospital inpatients during their exposure period. Descriptive epidemiology, product traceback, and detection of the outbreak strains of Listeria monocytogenes in food samples and the plant environment confirmed delicatessen meat manufactured by one establishment and purchased primarily by institutions was the source of the outbreak. The food safety investigation identified a plant environment conducive to the introduction and proliferation of L. monocytogenes and persistently contaminated with Listeria spp. This outbreak demonstrated the need for improved listeriosis surveillance, strict control of L. monocytogenes in establishments producing ready-to-eat foods, and advice to vulnerable populations and institutions serving these populations regarding which high-risk foods to avoid.

  19. Prevalence and Level of Listeria monocytogenes in Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y I; Burall, Laurel S; Macarisin, Dumitru; Pouillot, Régis; Strain, Errol; DE Jesus, Antonio J; Laasri, Anna; Wang, Hua; Ali, Laila; Tatavarthy, Aparna; Zhang, Guodong; Hu, Lijun; Day, James; Kang, Jihun; Sahu, Surasri; Srinivasan, Devayani; Klontz, Karl; Parish, Mickey; Evans, Peter S; Brown, Eric W; Hammack, Thomas S; Zink, Donald L; Datta, Atin R

    2016-11-01

    A most-probable-number (MPN) method was used to enumerate Listeria monocytogenes in 2,320 commercial ice cream scoops manufactured on a production line that was implicated in a 2015 listeriosis outbreak in the United States. The analyzed samples were collected from seven lots produced in November 2014, December 2014, January 2015, and March 2015. L. monocytogenes was detected in 99% (2,307 of 2,320) of the tested samples (lower limit of detection, 0.03 MPN/g), 92% of which were contaminated at ice cream products linked to a listeriosis outbreak provided a unique data set for further understanding the risk associated with L. monocytogenes contamination for highly susceptible populations.

  20. Incidencia de listeriosis invasiva en la Comunidad Valenciana durante el período 2008-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla Martínez Macias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Listeria monocytogenes es una causa infrecuente de enfermedad, aunque en ciertos grupos (neonatos, ancianos, gestantes e inmunodeprimidos, puede ser causa de meningoencefalitis y bacteriemia. El objetivo del trabajo fue conocer la incidencia de listeriosis invasivas en la Comunidad Valenciana durante el periodo 2008-2010. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de las listeriosis invasivas detectadas en el periodo 2008-2010. Se consideró "caso" cuando se aisló Listeria a partir de una localización anatómica potencialmente estéril. Como fuente de información se utilizaron los datos procedentes de la Red de Vigilancia Microbiológica Valenciana (RedMIVA. Resultados: Durante el período estudiado se detectaron 98 casos de listeriosis invasivas .Las tasas de incidencia fueron: 0,73 casos/100.000 habitantes en 2008, 0,70 casos/100.000 habitantes en 2009 y 0,58 casos/100.000 habitantes en 2010. El 58% se dieron en varones. El grupo etario con mayor número de casos fue el de 60-80 años (63%. En 57 (58% casos la infección se presentó en forma de bacteriemia y en 30 (31% afectó al sistema nervioso central. En el resto de los casos 11 (11% las infecciones se diagnosticaron en otros órganos. En 90 cepas (92% de los casos pudo realizarse antibiograma y todas fueron sensibles a ampicilina. Conclusiones: La tasa media de listeriosis invasiva en la Comunidad Valenciana en el periodo 2008 a 2010 ha sido de 0,67 casos/100.000 habitantes. No se han detectado agrupaciones temporales o geográficas de casos durante este periodo de tiempo.

  1. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte; Porsbo, Lone Jannok; Boysen, Louise

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2014 in 32 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and four non-MS). Campylobacteriosis was the most commonly re......, molluscs and products thereof’. The report further summarises trends and sources along the food chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile virus and tularaemia....

  2. EFSA and ECDC (European Food Safety Authority and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2015. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helwigh, Birgitte

    This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2013 in 32 European countries (28 Member States and four non-Member States). Campylobacter iosis was the most comm...... chain of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma , rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), West Nile Virus and tularaemia....

  3. An Outbreak of Human Listeriosis in England between 2010 and 2012 Associated with the Consumption of Pork Pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofisayo-Okuyelu, A; Arunachalam, N; Dallman, T; Grant, K A; Aird, H; McLauchlin, J; Painset, A; Amar, C

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in England affecting 14 people between 2010 and 2012 and linked to the consumption of pork pies was investigated. All 14 individuals were older than 55 years, 12 were men, and 10 reported the presence of an underlying condition. All were resident in or had visited either of two English regions and were infected with the same strain of Listeria monocytogenes. In interviews with 12 patients, 9 reported eating pork pies, and individuals that consumed pork pies were significantly more likely to be infected with an outbreak strain than were individuals with sporadic cases of listeriosis infections in England from 2010 to 2012. Pork pies were purchased from seven retailers in South Yorkshire or the East Midlands, and the outbreak strain was recovered from pork pies supplied by only the producer in South Yorkshire. The outbreak strain was also recovered from samples of finished product and from environmental samples collected from the manufacturer. The likely source of contamination was environmental sites within the manufacturing environment, and the contamination was associated with the process of adding gelatin to the pies after cooking. Inadequate temperature control and poor hygienic practices at one of the retailers were also identified as possible contributory factors allowing growth of the pathogen. Following improvements in manufacturing practices and implementation of additional control measures at the retailers' premises, L. monocytogenes was not recovered from subsequent food and environmental samples, and the outbreak strain was not detected in further individuals with listeriosis in England.

  4. Emerging Foodborne and Agriculture-Related Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H

    2016-08-01

    Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Transmission pathways by which foodborne viruses may enter human populations and evolutionary mechanisms by which viruses can become virulent are discussed in this chapter. A majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as domestic animals and livestock. Viruses that are known foodborne threats include hepatitis E virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, enteroviruses, adenovirus, and astroviruses, among others. Viruses may potentially evolve and emerge as a result of modern agricultural practices which can concentrate livestock and bring them into contact with wild animals. Examples of viruses that have emerged in this manner are influenza, coronaviruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome, and the Nipah virus. The role of bats, bush meat, rodents, pigs, cattle, and poultry as reservoirs from which infectious pathogenic viruses emerge are discussed.

  5. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) and ECDC (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control), 2014. The European Union Summary Report on Trends and Sources of Zoonoses, Zoonotic Agents and Food-borne Outbreaks in 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Helle; Helwigh, Birgitte; Sørensen, Anna Irene Vedel

    to prevent zoonoses from occurring, it is important to identify which animals and foodstuffs are the main sources of infection. For this purpose information aimed at protecting human health is collected and analysed from all European Union Member States. In 2012, 27 Member States submitted information......,bacterial toxins, viruses and Campylobacter. The most important food sources of the outbreaks were eggs and egg products, followed by mixed food and fish and fish products. Overall, 16 waterborne outbreaks were reported in 2012, caused by calicivirus,verocytotoxigenic E. coli, Cryptosporidium parvum and rotavirus....

  6. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, John A; Hoekstra, Robert M; Ayers, Tracy; Tauxe, Robert V; Braden, Christopher R; Angulo, Frederick J; Griffin, Patricia M

    2013-03-01

    Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities that uses data from outbreaks associated with both simple and complex foods. Using data from outbreak-associated illnesses for 1998-2008, we estimated annual US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to each of 17 food commodities. We attributed 46% of illnesses to produce and found that more deaths were attributed to poultry than to any other commodity. To the extent that these estimates reflect the commodities causing all foodborne illness, they indicate that efforts are particularly needed to prevent contamination of produce and poultry. Methods to incorporate data from other sources are needed to improve attribution estimates for some commodities and agents.

  7. Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Robert M.; Ayers, Tracy; Tauxe, Robert V.; Braden, Christopher R.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities that uses data from outbreaks associated with both simple and complex foods. Using data from outbreak-associated illnesses for 1998–2008, we estimated annual US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to each of 17 food commodities. We attributed 46% of illnesses to produce and found that more deaths were attributed to poultry than to any other commodity. To the extent that these estimates reflect the commodities causing all foodborne illness, they indicate that efforts are particularly needed to prevent contamination of produce and poultry. Methods to incorporate data from other sources are needed to improve attribution estimates for some commodities and agents. PMID:23622497

  8. Visual Analytics of Surveillance Data on Foodborne Vibriosis, United States, 1973-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N. Sims

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illnesses caused by microbial and chemical contaminants in food are a substantial health burden worldwide. In 2007, human vibriosis (non-cholera Vibrio infections became a notifiable disease in the United States. In addition, Vibrio species are among the 31 major known pathogens transmitted through food in the United States. Diverse surveillance systems for foodborne pathogens also track outbreaks, illnesses, hospitalization and deaths due to non-cholera vibrios. Considering the recognition of vibriosis as a notifiable disease in the United States and the availability of diverse surveillance systems, there is a need for the development of easily deployed visualization and analysis approaches that can combine diverse data sources in an interactive manner. Current efforts to address this need are still limited. Visual analytics is an iterative process conducted via visual interfaces that involves collecting information, data preprocessing, knowledge representation, interaction, and decision making. We have utilized public domain outbreak and surveillance data sources covering 1973 to 2010, as well as visual analytics software to demonstrate integrated and interactive visualizations of data on foodborne outbreaks and surveillance of Vibrio species. Through the data visualization, we were able to identify unique patterns and/or novel relationships within and across datasets regarding (i causative agent; (ii foodborne outbreaks and illness per state; (iii location of infection; (iv vehicle (food of infection; (v anatomical site of isolation of Vibrio species; (vi patients and complications of vibriosis; (vii incidence of laboratory-confirmed vibriosis and V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks. The additional use of emerging visual analytics approaches for interaction with data on vibriosis, including non-foodborne related disease, can guide disease control and prevention as well as ongoing outbreak investigations.

  9. Immunological biosensing of foodborne pathogenic bacteria using electrochemical and light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) detection platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that contaminated foods account for 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Of these cases,9.4 million have been attributed to 31 major foodborne pathogens. Microbial culture-bas...

  10. [Foodborne disease outbreaks surveillance in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, Andrea; Díaz, Janepsy; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Vaquero, Alejandra; García, Maritza

    2012-10-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are one of the main health problems globally, having an extensive impact on human welfare. The World Health Organization considers them as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and responsible for high levels of loss of productivity in developed countries. To describe the epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks according to data contained in an automated surveillance system. Descriptive observational study of notified outbreaks from the surveillance system, between 2005 and 2010 in Chile. The information was based on etiology, temporal and spatial distribution, and epidemiologic description of outbreaks during this period. There were 5,689 notified outbreaks. Most of them occurred during 2006 (1,106 outbreaks, rate 6.7 per 100,000 inhabitants) and 2008 (1,316 outbreaks, rate 7.9 per 100, 000 inhabitants) with an increase during summer. Fifty four percent occurred in the Metropolitan region. The group aged 15 to 44 years old, was the most affected one. Sixty four percent of the outbreaks had the food involved registered, of which fish and fishery products reached 42%. An 81% of the outbreaks did not have a precise etiologic diagnosis. Of all patients involved, 97% were outpatients, 3,2% were hospitalized patients, and 0,1% died. Only 49% of the outbreaks had information about the lack of food safety, with a 34,1% related to food handling procedures. Through the information on the epidemiology of foodborne diseases obtained by the Chilean surveillance system, appropriate control measures could be taken.

  11. New U.S. Foodborne Illness Estimate

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-13

    This podcast discusses CDC's report on new estimates of illnesses due to eating contaminated food in the United States. Dr. Elaine Scallan, assistant professor at the University of Colorado and former lead of the CDCs FoodNet surveillance system, shares the details from the first new comprehensive estimates of foodborne illness in the U.S. since 1999.  Created: 12/13/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 12/15/2010.

  12. Genomic Characterization Helps Dissecting an Outbreak of Listeriosis in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandatore, Francesco; Corbella, Marta; Andreoli, Giuseppina; Scaltriti, Erika; Aguzzi, Massimo; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Mariani, Bianca; Morganti, Marina; Bandi, Claudio; Fabbi, Massimo; Marone, Piero; Pongolini, Stefano; Sassera, Davide

    2017-07-06

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a bacterium widely distributed in nature and able to contaminate food processing environments, including those of dairy products. Lm is a primary public health issue, due to the very low infectious dose and the ability to produce severe outcomes, in particular in elderly, newborns, pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. In the period between April and July 2015, an increased number of cases of listeriosis was observed in the area of Pavia, Northern Italy. An epidemiological investigation identified a cheesemaking small organic farm as the possible origin of the outbreak. In this work we present the results of the retrospective epidemiological study that we performed using molecular biology and genomic epidemiology methods. The strains sampled from patients and those from the target farm's cheese were analyzed using PFGE and whole genome sequencing (WGS) based methods. The performed WGS based analyses included: a) in-silico MLST typing; b) SNPs calling and genetic distance evaluation; c) determination of the resistance and virulence genes profiles; d) SNPs based phylogenetic reconstruction. Three of the patient strains and all the cheese strains resulted to belong to the same phylogenetic cluster, in Sequence Type 29. A further accurate SNPs analysis revealed that two of the three patient strains and all the cheese strains were highly similar (0.8 SNPs of average distance) and exhibited a higer distance from the third patient isolate (9.4 SNPs of average distance). Despite the global agreement among the results of the PFGE and WGS epidemiological studies, the latter approach agree with epidemiological data in indicating that one the patient strains could have originated from a different source. This result highlights that WGS methods can allow to better.

  13. Comprehensive study of the intestinal stage of listeriosis in a rat ligated ileal loop system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Sarnacki, S; Monnet, J P; Berche, P; Gaillard, J L

    1998-02-01

    The intestinal stage of listeriosis was studied in a rat ligated ileal loop system. Listeria monocytogenes translocated to deep organs with similar efficiencies after inoculation of loops with or without Peyer's patches. Bacterial seeding of deep organs was demonstrated as early as 15 min after inoculation. It was dose dependent and nonspecific, as the delta inlAB, the delta hly, and the delta actA L. monocytogenes mutants and the nonpathogenic species, Listeria innocua, translocated similarly to wild-type L. monocytogenes strains. The levels of uptake of listeriae by Peyer's patches and villous intestine were similar and low, 50 to 250 CFU per cm2 of tissue. No listeria cells crossing the epithelial sheet of Peyer's patches and villous intestine were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The lack of significant interaction of listeriae and the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The follicular tissue of Peyer's patches was a preferential site of Listeria replication. With all doses tested, the rate of bacterial growth was 10 to 20 times higher in Peyer's patches than in villous intestine. At early stages of Peyer's patch infection, listeriae were observed inside mononuclear cells of the dome area. Listeriae then disseminated throughout the follicular tissue except for the germinal center. The virulence determinants hly and, to a lesser extent, actA, but not inlAB, were required for the completion of this process. This study suggests that Peyer's patches are preferential sites for replication rather than for entry of L. monocytogenes, due to the presence of highly permissive mononuclear cells whose nature remains to be defined.

  14. A case of Guillain — Barre syndrome associated with ixodes tick borreliosis and listeriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Domashenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Guillain — Barre syndrome (GBS is an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, with the autoimmune character of the peripheral nervous system disorder. More than 2/3 of the patients indicate a previous infection caused by Campylobacter jejuni (35 %, Cytomegalovirus (15 %, Epstein — Barr virus (10 %, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5 %. Acute inflammatory polyneuropathy with listeriosis, which is based on an autoimmune response to infection, is rare; it has an extremely severe course with brain stem structures damage. An immunocompetent patient aged 20 admitted. The disease debuted with a body temperature raised to 38.5 °C, progressive weakness in the legs which reached the umbilical region within 2 days. To the third day of the disease muscular weakness in the hands and pelvic disorders were added in the form of flatal incontinence. On the 4th day of the disease the patient was hospitalized to the neurological (rehanimation unit. At admission, the consciousness was clear. The examination showed eye slits D = S, pupils D = S, weakness of ocular convergence on both sides, weakness of abduction in all directions, nasolabial asymmetry, medial tongue. The pharyngeal reflex was preserved, the soft palate was movable. Hand tendon reflexes were alive, D = S. Knee jerk and Achilles reflexes were absent on both sides. Muscular strength was reduced to the level of pronounced lower paraparesis in the limbs, and down to 4 points in the hands. Conductive hypoesthesia was revealed from the Th10 level. Meningeal signs were negative. Neurological symptoms increased quickly within 5 days: there was a pronounced upper paraparesis, ophthalmoplegic and bulbar syndromes, respiratory muscle paralysis. A tracheotomy was performed, followed by a transfer to APV. HIV EIA test as of 09.11.2016 showed negative result. SCT revealed no signs of volumetric and focal brain lesions. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis as of 07.11.2016 showed that CSF is clear and transparent

  15. Pregnancy Vaccination with Gold Glyco-Nanoparticles Carrying Listeria monocytogenes Peptides Protects against Listeriosis and Brain- and Cutaneous-Associated Morbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calderón-Gonzalez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is a fatal infection for fetuses and newborns with two clinical main morbidities in the neonatal period, meningitis and diffused cutaneous lesions. In this study, we vaccinated pregnant females with two gold glyconanoparticles (GNP loaded with two peptides, listeriolysin peptide 91–99 (LLO91–99 or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1–22 peptide (GAPDH1–22. Neonates born to vaccinated mothers were free of bacteria and healthy, while non-vaccinated mice presented clear brain affections and cutaneous diminishment of melanocytes. Therefore, these nanoparticle vaccines are effective measures to offer pregnant mothers at high risk of listeriosis interesting therapies that cross the placenta.

  16. Foodborne disease prevention and broiler chickens with reduced Campylobacter infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Nordentoft, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Studies have suggested that flies play a linking role in the epidemiology of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens and that fly screens can reduce the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. We examined the year-round and long-term effects of fly screens in 10 broiler chicken houses (99 flocks...... broiler chicken flocks....

  17. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  18. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon V. R.; Harvey, Roger B.; Hume, Michael E.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Anderson, Robin C.; Nisbet, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions. PMID:24287853

  19. An Outbreak of Foodborne Botulism in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona R Loutfy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulism is a rare paralytic illness resulting from a potent neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Botulism in Canada is predominately due to C botulinum type E and affects mainly the First Nations and Inuit populations. The most recent outbreak of botulism in Ontario was in Ottawa in 1991 and was caused by C botulinum type A. We report an outbreak of foodborne type B botulism in Ontario, which implicated home-canned tomatoes. The outbreak was characterized by mild symptoms in two cases and moderately severe illness in one case. The investigation shows the importance of considering the diagnosis of botulism in patients presenting with cranial nerve and autonomic dysfunction, especially when combined with gastrointestinal complaints; it also highlights the importance of proper home canning technique.

  20. Impacts of globalisation on foodborne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lucy J; Sprong, Hein; Ortega, Ynes R; van der Giessen, Joke W B; Fayer, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Globalisation is a manmade phenomenon encompassing the spread and movement of everything, animate and inanimate, material and intangible, around the planet. The intentions of globalisation may be worthy--but may also have unintended consequences. Pathogens may also be spread, enabling their establishment in new niches and exposing new human and animal populations to infection. The plethora of foodborne parasites that could be distributed by globalisation has only recently been acknowledged and will provide challenges for clinicians, veterinarians, diagnosticians, and everyone concerned with food safety. Globalisation may also provide the resources to overcome some of these challenges. It will facilitate sharing of methods and approaches, and establishment of systems and databases that enable control of parasites entering the global food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Toxoplasmosis as a food-borne infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurković-Đaković, O.

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite that infects all mammals, including one third of the world population. Long known to cause disease in the developing foetus and in immunosuppressed individuals, a body of data that has emerged in the past decades suggests its role in human pathology may be even more important. The WHO and FAO have recently established toxoplasmosis as a foodborne infection of global concern, with a disease burden the greatest of all parasitic infections. Transmission of toxoplasmosis occurs by ingesting tissue cysts from undercooked meat and meat products, and oocysts from the environment with contaminated fresh produce or water. This review provides an update on the current understanding of toxoplasmosis, focusing on the risk of infection from food of animal origin, with particular reference to the risk in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe.

  2. [Listeria monocytogenes outbreaks: a review of the routes that favor bacterial presence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M Laura; Paiva, Analía; Tornese, Mariela; Chianelli, Sabrina; Troncoso, Alcides

    2008-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that causes serious invasive illness, mainly in certain well-defined high-risk groups, including immunocompromised patients, pregnant women and neonates. L. monocytogenes primarily causes abortion, septicaemia or infections of the central nervous systems. Listeriosis outbreaks have mostly been linked to consumption of raw milk or cheese made of unpasteurized milk. Previous outbreaks of listeriosis have been linked to a variety of foods especially processed meats (such as hot dogs, deli meats, and páté). The public health importance of listeriosis is not always recognized, particularly since listeriosis is a relatively rare disease compared with other common foodborne illnesses such as salmonellosis or botulism. However, because of its high case fatality rate, listeriosis ranks among the most frequent causes of death due to foodborne illness: second after salmonellosis. Changes in the manner food is produced, distributed and stored have created the potential for widespread outbreaks involving many countries. The pasteurization of raw milk, which destroys L. monocytogenes, does not eliminate later risk of L. monocytogenes contamination in dairy products. Extensive work has been ongoing in many countries during the last decade to prevent outbreaks and decrease the incidence of listeriosis. A marked reduction has occurred in its incidence in some of these countries during the 1990s, suggesting a relationship between preventive measures and reduction on human cases listeriosis.

  3. Food-borne zoonoses, the EU zoonosis legislation and the prospects for food safety and consumer protection during primary animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Frans J M; Vågsholm, Ivar; Korkeala, Hannu

    2008-01-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted naturally between animals and humans. The control of food-borne zoonoses within the European Union is a prerequisite for assuring a functional internal market and consequently represents an important item on the political agenda. Unfortunately, until recently, gaining a clear view of the current incidence of food-borne zoonoses and the prevalence of its causative agents has been frustrated by the absence of reliable monitoring and reporting systems. Similarly, it has become clear that, Europe wide, one has witnessed only limited success with regard to the control of important food-borne agents such as Salmonella spp. The European Union has adopted legislation to remedy this situation and to control food-borne zoonoses in primary production. This contribution discusses the incentives for introducing EU Directive 2003/99/EC and EU Regulation No. 2160/2003, summarises their essentials and discusses major ramifications of both pieces of legislation for the prevention of food-borne zoonoses. It is concluded that there is reason for cautious optimism concerning human salmonellosis, while for other food-borne zoonoses there should be a call for action.

  4. Nanotechnology in food safety and quality assessment: potentiality of nanoparticles in diagnosis of foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primec Maša

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A rapid microbial detection in different biological and environmental material is a key of preventing several foodborne diseases. By implementing nanotechnology into food safety sector, a great step towards successful, reliable and sensible detection methods of foodborne pathogens has been achieved. Therefore, the aim of this review was to illustrate some of the principal functions of nanotechnology-based techniques, used for microbial detection in the last few years. Regarding consumer’s health, the review also discusses the question of safety, concerning human exposure to nanomaterials (NMs. Due to their different composition-unique properties, such as greater penetrability, reactivity and high surface to volume ratio, NMs have been coupled to several biomolecules and integrated in special system devices, resulting in improvement of sensitivity in transmitting biological signal informations in a shorter time. Among all the NMs, gold, magnetic and fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs have been widely used, also in microbial diagnosis. Despite the success of linking nanotechnology to detection of foodborne pathogens, the exposure to various NMs could also be a matter of potential risk to human health, although conclusions still need to be definitely proven.

  5. Quantitative risk assessment of listeriosis-associated deaths due to Listeria monocytogenes contamination of deli meats originating from manufacture and retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths attributable to Listeria monocytogenes contamination in ham and turkey formulated without and with growth inhibitors (GIs). Two contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) prepackaged deli meats with contamination originating solely from manufacture at a frequency of 0.4% (based on reported data) and (ii) retail-sliced deli meats with contamination originating solely from retail at a frequency of 2.3% (based on reported data). Using a manufacture-to-consumption risk assessment with product-specific growth kinetic parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate), reformulation with GIs was estimated to reduce human listeriosis deaths linked to ham and turkey by 2.8- and 9-fold, respectively, when contamination originated at manufacture and by 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, for products contaminated at retail. Contamination originating at retail was estimated to account for 76 and 63% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated without GIs and for 83 and 84% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated with GIs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that storage temperature was the most important factor affecting the estimation of per annum relative risk. Scenario analyses suggested that reducing storage temperature in home refrigerators to consistently below 7 degrees C would greatly reduce the risk of human listeriosis deaths, whereas reducing storage time appeared to be less effective. Overall, our data indicate a critical need for further development and implementation of effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination at the retail level.

  6. Antibiotic resistance trends and mechanisms in the foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhi; Fang, Liangxing; Xu, Changyun; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-11-23

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen and is commonly present in food producing animals. This pathogenic organism is highly adaptable and has become increasingly resistant to various antibiotics. Recently, both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization have designated antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter as a serious threat to public health. For the past decade, multiple mechanisms conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics have been described in Campylobacter, and new resistance mechanisms constantly emerge in the pathogen. Some of the recent examples include the erm(B) gene conferring macrolide resistance, the cfr(C) genes mediating resistance to florfenicol and other antimicrobials, and a functionally enhanced variant of the multidrug resistance efflux pump, CmeABC. The continued emergence of new resistance mechanisms illustrates the extraordinary adaptability of Campylobacter to antibiotic selection pressure and demonstrate the need for innovative strategies to control antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter. In this review, we will briefly summarize the trends of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter and discuss the mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics used for animal production and important for clinical therapy in humans. A special emphasis will be given to the newly discovered antibiotic resistance.

  7. In vitro effects of pomegranate juice and pomegranate polyphenols on foodborne viral surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; Sangster, Mark Y; D'Souza, Doris H

    2010-12-01

    Pomegranate juice (PJ) has gained popularity because of its associated antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its effects against epidemiologically significant foodborne viruses have not been investigated. In the absence of culturable human noroviruses, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), murine norovirus (MNV-1), and MS2 (ssRNA) bacteriophage were used as foodborne viral surrogates. The aim of this research was to study the effects of PJ and pomegranate polyphenols (PP) on foodborne viral infectivity. Viruses at high (∼ 7 log(10) PFU/mL) or low (∼ 5 log(10) PFU/mL) titers were mixed with equal volumes of PJ, 8, 16, and 32 mg/mL of PP, or water (control) and incubated for 1 h at room temperature. Viral infectivity after treatments was evaluated using standardized plaque assays. PJ decreased the titer of FCV-F9, MNV-1, and MS2 by 2.56, 1.32, and 0.32 log(10) PFU/mL, respectively, for low titers and 1.20, 0.06, and 0.63 log(10) PFU/mL, respectively, for high titers. Interestingly, FCV-F9 was undetectable after exposure to the three tested PP solutions using both low and high titers. MNV-1 at low initial titers was reduced by 1.30, 2.11, and 3.61 log(10) PFU/mL and at high initial titers by 1.56, 1.48, and 1.54 log(10) PFU/mL with 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL of PP treatment, respectively. MS2 at low initial titers was reduced by 0.41, 0.45, and 0.93 log(10) PFU/mL and at high initial titers by 0.32, 0.41, and 0.72 log(10) PFU/mL after 4, 8, and 16 mg/mL of PP treatment, respectively. PJ and PP resulted in titer reductions of foodborne virus surrogates after 1 h exposure, showing promise for use in hurdle technologies and/or for therapeutic or preventive use. To suggest the use of PJ and PP as natural remedies for foodborne viral illness prevention, their mechanism of action against viral infectivity needs to be further investigated.

  8. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  9. Food Safety and Foodborne Disease in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Scott

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a growing recognition of the involvement of the home in several public health and hygiene issues. Perhaps the best understood of these issues is the role of the home in the transmission and acquisition of foodborne disease. The incidence of foodborne disease is increasing globally. Although foodborne disease data collection systems often miss the mass of home-based outbreaks of sporadic infection, it is now accepted that many cases of foodborne illness occur as a result of improper food handling and preparation by consumers in their own kitchens. Some of the most compelling evidence has come from the international data on Salmonella species and Campylobacter species infections.

  10. Foodborne outbreaks in Canada linked to produce: 2001 through 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, G K; MacDonald, D; Landry, L; Farber, J M

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables have been increasing in occurrence worldwide. Canada has one of the highest per capita consumption rates of fresh fruits and vegetables in the world. In this article, we review the foodborne disease outbreaks linked to produce consumption in Canada from 2001 through 2009. The 27 produce-related outbreaks included an estimated 1,549 cases of illness. Bacterial infection outbreaks represented 66% of the total. Among these, Salmonella was the most frequent agent (50% of outbreaks) followed by Escherichia coli (33%) and Shigella (17%). Cyclospora cayetanensis was the only parasite detected and was associated with seven outbreaks. Among the foodborne viruses, only hepatitis A was implicated in two outbreaks. The food vehicles most commonly implicated in outbreaks were leafy greens and herbs (26% of outbreaks), followed by seed sprouts (11%). Contamination sources and issues related to the future control of fresh produce-related foodborne disease outbreaks also are discussed.

  11. Emergence of salsa and guacamole as frequent vehicles of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States, 1973-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Magdalena E; Mody, Rajal K; Mahon, Barbara E; Doyle, Michael P; Herman, Karen M; Tauxe, Robert V

    2013-04-01

    Fresh salsa and guacamole often contain diced raw produce, are often made in large batches, and are often poorly refrigerated, which may make them prone to contamination that can cause foodborne illness. The safety of salsa and guacamole is increasingly important as these foods gain popularity. Since 1973, local, state, and territorial health departments have voluntarily reported foodborne disease outbreaks to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) using a standard reporting form. FDOSS used paper-based reporting for 1973-1997 and switched to electronic reporting for 1998-2008. We reviewed all reports of outbreaks during 1973-2008 in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a vehicle. We found 136 outbreaks in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a possible vehicle, which resulted in 5,658 illnesses. Of these 136 salsa- or guacamole-associated (SGA) outbreaks additional possible food vehicles were reported for 33 (24%) outbreaks. There were no SGA outbreaks reported before 1984. Among reported outbreaks, most were caused by norovirus (24%), nontyphoidal Salmonella (19%), and Shigella (7%). Eighty-four percent of outbreaks were caused by foods prepared in restaurants or delis; of these, 19% reported ill foodworkers, and 29% reported improper storage as possible contributing factors. Among all foodborne disease outbreaks with a reported food vehicle during 1984-1997, 26 (0.9%) of 2,966 outbreaks were SGA, and during 1998-2008, 110 (1.4%) of 7,738 outbreaks were SGA. The number of reported foodborne disease outbreaks attributable to salsa or guacamole increased in the United States from 1984 to 2008, especially in later years, and especially in restaurants. Fresh salsa and guacamole require careful preparation and storage. Focused prevention strategies should reduce the risk of illness and ensure that these foods are enjoyed safely.

  12. Estimating the burden of foodborne diseases in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yuko; Gilmour, Stuart; Ota, Erika; Momose, Yoshika; Onishi, Toshiro; Bilano, Ver Luanni Feliciano; Kasuga, Fumiko; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the burden posed by foodborne diseases in Japan using methods developed by the World Health Organization’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Methods Expert consultation and statistics on food poisoning during 2011 were used to identify three common causes of foodborne disease in Japan: Campylobacter and Salmonella species and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We conducted systematic reviews of English and Japanese literature on the complications caused by these pathogens, by searching Embase, the Japan medical society abstract database and Medline. We estimated the annual incidence of acute gastroenteritis from reported surveillance data, based on estimated probabilities that an affected person would visit a physician and have gastroenteritis confirmed. We then calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2011, using the incidence estimates along with disability weights derived from published studies. Findings In 2011, foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter species, Salmonella species and EHEC led to an estimated loss of 6099, 3145 and 463 DALYs in Japan, respectively. These estimated burdens are based on the pyramid reconstruction method; are largely due to morbidity rather than mortality; and are much higher than those indicated by routine surveillance data. Conclusion Routine surveillance data may indicate foodborne disease burdens that are much lower than the true values. Most of the burden posed by foodborne disease in Japan comes from secondary complications. The tools developed by FERG appear useful in estimating disease burdens and setting priorities in the field of food safety. PMID:26478611

  13. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  14. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked products and its comparison with isolates from listeriosis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Luo, Lijuan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Deng, Jianping; Wang, Yan; Miao, Yimao; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Xi; Liu, Xiang; Sun, Songsong; Xiao, Bo; Li, Qun; Ye, Changyun

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked products in Zigong City, China. The overall occurrence of the L. monocytogenes in the ready-to-eat (RTE) shops and mutton restaurants surveyed was 16.2% (141/873). An occurrence of 13.5% was observed in RTE pork, 6.5% in RTE vegetables, and more than 24.0% in either cooked mutton or cooked haggis. Serotype 1/2b (45.4%), 1/2a (33.3%), and 1/2c (14.2%) were the predominant types. By comparing the clonal complexes (CCs) based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the L. monocytogenes from cooked foods in Zigong City and 33 listeriosis cases from different districts of China, CC87, CC9, CC8, and CC3 were showed to be prevalent in cooked products and CC87 and CC3 were the first two frequent types in the 33 clinic-source strains. All CC87 stains harbored the newly reported Listeria pathogenicity island 4 (LIPI-4) gene fragment ptsA, and all CC3 strains possessed the Listeria pathogenicity island 3 (LIPI-3) gene fragment llsX. These may increase the occurrence of the strains belonging to CC87 and CC3 in listeriosis cases in China and also underline the risk of infection owing to the consumption of the cooked products from Zigong. ST619 (serotype 1/2b) harbored both llsX and ptsA, indicating a potential hypervirulent sequence type in Zigong.

  15. Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates recovered from selected ready-to-eat foods and listeriosis patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, Stefanie Evans; Call, Jeff E; Wallace, F Morgan; Scott, Virginia N; Chen, Yuhuan; Luchansky, John B

    2005-12-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and serotyping were performed for 544 isolates of Listeria monocytogenes, including 502 isolates recovered from contaminated samples from 31,705 retail ready-to-eat (RTE) food products and 42 isolates recovered from human cases of listeriosis. The isolates were from Maryland (294 isolates) and California (250 isolates) and were collected in 2000 and 2001. The isolates were placed into 16 AscI pulsogroups (level of relatedness within each group, > or =66%), 139 AscI pulsotypes (levels of relatedness, > or =25% to 100%), and eight serotypes (serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, 1/2c, 3a, 3b, 4b, 4c, and 4d). The most frequently found pulsotypes belonged to either pulsogroup A (150 food isolates plus 4 clinical isolates) or pulsogroup B (104 food isolates plus 5 clinical isolates). The majority of the 502 food isolates were either serotype 1/2a (298 isolates) or serotype 1/2b (133 isolates), whereas the majority of the 42 clinical isolates were either serotype 1/2a (19 isolates) or serotype 4b (15 isolates). Additionally, 13 clinical isolates displayed pulsotypes also found in food isolates, whereas the remaining 29 clinical isolates displayed 24 unique pulsotypes. These data indicate that most (86%) of the L. monocytogenes subtypes found in the RTE foods sampled belonged to only two serotypes and that 90% of the isolates displayed 73 pulsotypes, with 107 isolates displaying pulsotype 1. These data should help define the distribution and relatedness of isolates found in RTE foods in comparison with isolates that cause listeriosis.

  16. Synergy among thymol, eugenol, berberine, cinnamaldehyde and streptomycin against planktonic and biofilm-associated food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Niu, H; Zhang, W; Mu, H; Sun, C; Duan, J

    2015-05-01

    Essential oils have been found to exert antibacterial, antifungal, spasmolytic, and antiplasmodial activity and therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of four main essential oils' components (thymol (Thy), eugenol (Eug), berberine (Ber), and cinnamaldehyde (Cin)) were evaluated against two food-borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium, either alone or in combination with streptomycin. Checkerboard assay demonstrated that Thy and Cin elicited a synergistic effect with streptomycin against L. monocytogenes, while a synergy existed between Cin or Eug and streptomycin against Salm. Typhimurium. Further experiments showed that this synergy was sufficient to eradicate biofilms formed by these two bacteria. Thus, our data highlighted that the combinations of specific components from essential oils and streptomycin were useful for the treatment of food-borne pathogens, which might help prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance through improving antibiotic effectiveness. This study has shown the synergistic effect of four components of essential oil (thymol, eugenol, berberine and cinnamaldehyde) combined with streptomycin on planktonic and biofilm-associated food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium. These findings indicate that combination of specific components of essential oils with streptomycin may provide alternative methods to overcome the problem of food-borne bacteria both in suspension and in biofilm. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Is it possible to reduce foodborne Campylobacter infections in humans through vaccination of animals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Vaccination has been used successfully over the years to eradicate many serious diseases, but what about human foodborne pathogens, such as Campylobacter? Most human cases of Campylobacter infection are associated with consumption of poultry products. Vaccination of poultry to prevent early...... colonization or to reduce the Campylobacter colonization level may be a viable intervention strategy in the future; however, no commercial Campylobacter vaccine is currently available. This case considers the rationale for such a strategy, the forms it could take and the challenges it would involve....

  18. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  19. Drivers of uncertainty in estimates of foodborne gastroenteritis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn; Ford, Laura; Kirk, Martyn D

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of the incidence of foodborne illness are increasingly used at national and international levels to quantify the burden of disease and advocate for improvements in food safety. The calculation of such estimates involves multiple datasets and several disease multipliers, applied to dozens of pathogens. Unsurprisingly, this process often produces wide interval estimates. Using a model of foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia, we calculate the contribution of both data and multipliers to the width of the interval. We then compare pathogen-specific estimates of the proportion of gastroenteritis that is foodborne from national-level studies conducted in Canada, Greece, France, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Overall, we estimate that 74% (range 63-92%) of the interval width for foodborne gastroenteritis in Australia is a result of uncertainty in the proportion of gastroenteritis that is due to contaminated food. Across national studies, we find considerable variability in point estimates and the width of interval estimates for the foodborne proportion for relatively common pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and norovirus. While some uncertainty in estimates of gastroenteritis incidence is inevitable, an understanding of the drivers of this uncertainty can help to focus further research. In particular, this work highlights the value of studies quantifying the routes of transmission for common pathogens.

  20. A clade of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant strains linked to recent listeriosis outbreaks associated with produce from a defined geographic region in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Burall, Laurel S.; Grim, Christopher J.; Datta, Atin R.

    2017-01-01

    Four listeriosis incidences/outbreaks, spanning 19 months, have been linked to Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant (4bV) strains. Three of these incidents can be linked to a defined geographical region, while the fourth is likely to be linked. In this study, whole genome sequencing (WGS) of strains from these incidents was used for genomic comparisons using two approached. The first was JSpecies tetramer, which analyzed tetranucleotide frequency to assess relatedness. The second, the C...

  1. Foodborne urinary tract infections (FUTIs: a new paradigm for antimicrobial-resistant foodborne illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora eNordstrom

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Disproportionately affecting women, UTIs exact a substantial public burden each year in terms of direct medical expenses, decreased quality of life, and lost productivity. Increasing antimicrobial resistance among strains of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli challenges successful treatment of UTIs. Community-acquired UTIs were long considered sporadic infections, typically caused by the patients’ native gastrointestinal microbiota; however, the recent recognition of UTI outbreaks with probable foodborne origins has shifted our understanding of UTI epidemiology. Along with this paradigm shift come new opportunities to disrupt the infection process and possibly quell increasing resistance, including the elimination of nontherapeutic antimicrobial use in food-animal production.

  2. Survival of foodborne pathogens on inshell walnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessington, Tyann; Theofel, Christopher G; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Harris, Linda J

    2013-09-16

    reductions of 2.6 and 2.1 log CFU/nut were observed for water- and chlorine-treated walnuts, respectively, after storage for 2 weeks at ambient conditions. Bacterial foodborne pathogens are capable of long-term survival on the surface of inshell walnuts even when initial levels are low. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Resilient information networks for coordination of foodborne disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Liaquat; Hassan, Muhammad Rabiul; Wigand, Rolf T

    2015-04-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are increasingly being seen as a greater concern by public health authorities. It has also become a global research agenda to identify improved pathways to coordinating outbreak detection. Furthermore, a significant need exists for timely coordination of the detection of potential foodborne disease outbreaks to reduce the number of infected individuals and the overall impact on public health security. This study aimed to offer an effective approach for coordinating foodborne disease outbreaks. First, we identify current coordination processes, complexities, and challenges. We then explore social media surveillance strategies, usage, and the power of these strategies to influence decision-making. Finally, based on informal (social media) and formal (organizational) surveillance approaches, we propose a hybrid information network model for improving the coordination of outbreak detection.

  4. Bacterial food-borne pathogens in Indian food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Food technology and food processing techniques have made tremendous advances in preservation of food and ensuring safety of food by killing food-borne pathogens. In addition to old techniques such as pasteurization, canning, dehydration, fermentation and salting, a number of new techniques such as radiation processing, high pressure technology and pulsed electric field technology are being applied for preservation of food and to ensure food safety. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts have been developed to take care of food safety from farm to table. Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) is being applied for mass scale production of food to make food free from pathogens. Despite these advances, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. About two thirds of all the outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, food-borne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2 million people annually, including many children. Food safety is a major concern not only for developing countries but also for the developed countries. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in pathogens, changing life style, globalization of the food supply etc. are responsible for the continuous persistence of food-borne diseases. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter, are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed; however, there is increased risk of foodborne diseases with these products. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio and Aeromonasf

  5. Methodological Framework for World Health Organization Estimates of the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Haagsma, Juanita A; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-01-01

    The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This paper describes the methodological framework developed by FERG's Computational Task Force to transform...

  6. Rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorfar, J

    2011-11-01

    As food safety management further develops, microbiological testing will continue to play an important role in assessing whether Food Safety Objectives are achieved. However, traditional microbiological culture-based methods are limited, particularly in their ability to provide timely data. The present review discusses the reasons for the increasing interest in rapid methods, current developments in the field, the research needs, and the future trends. The advent of biotechnology has introduced new technologies that led to the emergence of rapid diagnostic methods and altered food testing practices. Rapid methods are comprised of many different detection technologies, including specialized enzyme substrates, antibodies and DNA, ranging from simple differential plating media to the use of sophisticated instruments. The use of non-invasive sampling techniques for live animals especially came into focus with the 1990s outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy that was linked to the human outbreak of Creutzfeldt Jakob's Disease. Serology is still an important tool in preventing foodborne pathogens to enter the human food supply through meat and milk from animals. One of the primary uses of rapid methods is for fast screening of large number of samples, where most of them are expected to be test-negative, leading to faster product release for sale. This has been the main strength of rapid methods such as real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Enrichment PCR, where a primary culture broth is tested in PCR, is the most common approach in rapid testing. Recent reports show that it is possible both to enrich a sample and enumerate by pathogen-specific real-time PCR, if the enrichment time is short. This can be especially useful in situations where food producers ask for the level of pathogen in a contaminated product. Another key issue is automation, where the key drivers are miniaturization and multiple testing, which mean that not only one instrument is flexible

  7. Microfluidic devices for sample preparation and rapid detection of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Krishna; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Dave, Vivek Priy; Ngo, Tien Anh; Chidambara, Vinayaka Aaydha; Than, Linh Quyen; Bang, Dang Duong; Wolff, Anders

    2018-03-10

    Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is imperative for preventing the outbreak of foodborne diseases, known as serious threats to human health. Conventional bacterial culturing methods for foodborne pathogen detection are time consuming, laborious, and with poor pathogen diagnosis competences. This has prompted researchers to call the current status of detection approaches into question and leverage new technologies for superior pathogen sensing outcomes. Novel strategies mainly rely on incorporating all the steps from sample preparation to detection in miniaturized devices for online monitoring of pathogens with high accuracy and sensitivity in a time-saving and cost effective manner. Lab on chip is a blooming area in diagnosis, which exploits different mechanical and biological techniques to detect very low concentrations of pathogens in food samples. This is achieved through streamlining the sample handling and concentrating procedures, which will subsequently reduce human errors and enhance the accuracy of the sensing methods. Integration of sample preparation techniques into these devices can effectively minimize the impact of complex food matrix on pathogen diagnosis and improve the limit of detections. Integration of pathogen capturing bio-receptors on microfluidic devices is a crucial step, which can facilitate recognition abilities in harsh chemical and physical conditions, offering a great commercial benefit to the food-manufacturing sector. This article reviews recent advances in current state-of-the-art of sample preparation and concentration from food matrices with focus on bacterial capturing methods and sensing technologies, along with their advantages and limitations when integrated into microfluidic devices for online rapid detection of pathogens in foods and food production line. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Organic Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, R Reid; Zakhour, Christine M; Gould, L Hannah

    2016-11-01

    Consumer demand for organically produced foods is increasing in the United States as well as globally. Consumer perception often credits organic foods as being safer than conventionally produced foods, although organic standards do not directly address safety issues such as microbial or chemical hazards. We reviewed outbreaks reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System where the implicated food was reported to be organic. Information collected for each outbreak included the year, state, number of illnesses, pathogen, and implicated food. We identified 18 outbreaks caused by organic foods from 1992 to 2014, resulting in 779 illnesses, 258 hospitalizations, and 3 deaths; 56% of outbreaks occurred from 2010 to 2014. Nine outbreaks occurred in a single state, and nine outbreaks were multistate. Salmonella sp. (44% of outbreaks) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (33%) were the most commonly occurring pathogens. Eight of the outbreaks were attributed to produce items, four to unpasteurized dairy products, two to eggs, two to nut and seed products, and two to multi-ingredient foods. Fifteen (83%) outbreaks were associated with foods that were definitely or likely U.S. Department of Agriculture certified. More foodborne outbreaks associated with organic foods in the United States have been reported in recent years, in parallel with increases in organic food production and consumption. We are unable to assess risk of outbreaks due to organic foods compared with conventional foods because foodborne outbreak surveillance does not systematically collect food production method. Food safety requires focused attention by consumers, regardless of whether foods are produced organically or conventionally. Consumers should be aware of the risk of milk and produce consumed raw, including organic.

  9. FOODBORNE VIRUSES AND FOOD HANDLERS TRAINING: A SPECIFIC PROJECT FOR OFFICIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tentenni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the results of an official control project forwarded on the evaluation of prevention of foodborne viruses diseases. The authors describe the real diffusion of noroviruses and sapoviruses including their general features. The Official control carried out is focused on the valuation of specific prevention measures put in place by food business operators in order to avoid fecal-oral contaminations. Assessment on procedures on GMP, GHP and HACCP were followed by a specific valuation of food handlers training based on a questionnaire .The results show that in small and less developed food industries there is a lack in considering fecal-oral route contaminations and an important need of correct training aimed principally at improving knowledge of Good Hygienic Practices and contamination of food.

  10. Strengthening foodborne diseases surveillance in the WHO African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) cover events of international importance including contaminated food and outbreaks of foodborne disease. The IHR (2005) and other international as well as regional agreements require Member States to strengthen surveillance systems including surveillance for ...

  11. Strengthening foodborne disease surveillance in the WHO African

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMS

    2012-06-04

    Jun 4, 2012 ... surveillance is the preferred system for foodborne disease surveillance since it allows early detection of ... food safety systems remain fragmented resulting in duplication of efforts and inefficient use of ... estimate burden of disease and the size of the problem; monitor trends and determine whether the ...

  12. Comparing Sporadic and Outbreak-associated Foodborne Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-04

    Dr. Eric Ebel, a veterinarian and risk analyst with USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service, discusses his article on sporadic and outbreak-associated cases of foodborne illness.  Created: 11/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/4/2016.

  13. Occurrence Of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens In Smoked Fish At ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty five (65) smoked fish samples (30 catfish and 35 Tilapia) were obtained form three retail market locations in Jos South, Nigeria, and screened for foodborne bacterial pathogens. Potential human pathogens were isolated from all the samples studied through culture, growth characteristics, morphological, physiological ...

  14. Hyperspectral microscopy to identify foodborne bacteria with optimum lighting source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral microscopy is an emerging technology for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Since scattering spectral signatures from hyperspectral microscopic images (HMI) vary with lighting sources, it is important to select optimal lights. The objective of this study is to compare t...

  15. Surface adhesins and exopolymers of selected foodborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaglic, Zoran; Desvaux, Mickaël; Weiss, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    of bacterial surface structures are involved in this process and these promote bacterial adhesion in a more or less specific manner. In this review, we will focus on those surface adhesins and exopolymers in selected foodborne pathogens that are involved mainly in primary adhesion. Their role in biofilm...

  16. AOTF hyperspectral microscope imaging for foodborne bacteria detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food safety is an important public health issue worldwide. Researchers have developed many different methods for detecting foodborne pathogens; however, most technologies currently being used have limitations, in terms of speed, sensitivity and selectivity, for practical use in the food industry. Ac...

  17. DNA microarray technique for detecting food-borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing GAO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the application of DNA microarray technique for screening and identifying multiple food-borne pathogens. Methods The oligonucleotide probes were designed by Clustal X and Oligo 6.0 at the conserved regions of specific genes of multiple food-borne pathogens, and then were validated by bioinformatic analyses. The 5' end of each probe was modified by amino-group and 10 Poly-T, and the optimized probes were synthesized and spotted on aldehyde-coated slides. The bacteria DNA template incubated with Klenow enzyme was amplified by arbitrarily primed PCR, and PCR products incorporated into Aminoallyl-dUTP were coupled with fluorescent dye. After hybridization of the purified PCR products with DNA microarray, the hybridization image and fluorescence intensity analysis was acquired by ScanArray and GenePix Pro 5.1 software. A series of detection conditions such as arbitrarily primed PCR and microarray hybridization were optimized. The specificity of this approach was evaluated by 16 different bacteria DNA, and the sensitivity and reproducibility were verified by 4 food-borne pathogens DNA. The samples of multiple bacteria DNA and simulated water samples of Shigella dysenteriae were detected. Results Nine different food-borne bacteria were successfully discriminated under the same condition. The sensitivity of genomic DNA was 102 -103pg/ μl, and the coefficient of variation (CV of the reproducibility of assay was less than 15%. The corresponding specific hybridization maps of the multiple bacteria DNA samples were obtained, and the detection limit of simulated water sample of Shigella dysenteriae was 3.54×105cfu/ml. Conclusions The DNA microarray detection system based on arbitrarily primed PCR can be employed for effective detection of multiple food-borne pathogens, and this assay may offer a new method for high-throughput platform for detecting bacteria.

  18. [Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the epidemiology of foodborne outbreaks in Poland in 2010. The evaluation of the epidemiological situation was based on data from outbreak investigation forms, reported by Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIPH-NIH. In 2010 a notable increase in the number of cases reported with a bacterial infection was observed. This increase however did not exceeded the median number of cases reported in 2004-2008. In 2010 392 foodborne infections and food poisoning involving 6994 cases (outbreaks involving 4 person or more) and 145 foodborne outbreaks (where 2-3 persons became ill were reported. S. Enteritidis was the most frequently etiological agent in outbreaks associated with bacterial infection (32.9% of outbreaks 22.4% cases). Viruses caused 26% of outbreaks affected 30% of cases. In 38.3% outbreaks the etiological agent could not be established. The main vehicle of foodborne outbreaks were meals prepared from (> 3) raw meats (4.6% of outbreaks, 10.9% cases) and meals prepared using milk and eggs (9.9% of outbreaks 5.7% cases). The most frequent places of contamination included farms who produced goods for human consumption (11.5% of outbreaks, 5.0% of cases). Private residences (113 outbreaks with 745 cases) and hospitals were the most common place where food poisoning outbreaks occurred. In 2010 there were 6 outbreaks where more than 100 people were affected in these settings. Like in previous years, in 2010 the etiological agents, vehicle and sources of infection were not identified in most foodborne outbreaks. In order to decrease the number of outbreaks with undetermined etiological agent, the spectrum of routine laboratory tests of samples taken in outbreaks should be broaden.

  19. Combined influence of multiple climatic factors on the incidence of bacterial foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Su; Park, Ki Hwan; Bahk, Gyung Jin

    2018-01-01

    Information regarding the relationship between the incidence of foodborne diseases (FBD) and climatic factors is useful in designing preventive strategies for FBD based on anticipated future climate change. To better predict the effect of climate change on foodborne pathogens, the present study investigated the combined influence of multiple climatic factors on bacterial FBD incidence in South Korea. During 2011-2015, the relationships between 8 climatic factors and the incidences of 13 bacterial FBD, were determined based on inpatient stays, on a monthly basis using the Pearson correlation analyses, multicollinearity tests, principal component analysis (PCA), and the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) modeling. Of the 8 climatic variables, the combination of temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, insolation, and cloudiness was significantly associated with salmonellosis (Pclimatic factors. These findings indicate that the relationships between multiple climatic factors and bacterial FBD incidence can be valuable for the development of prediction models for future patterns of diseases in response to changes in climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of molecular typing of foodborne pathogens in European reference laboratories from 2012 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjørring, Susanne; Niskanen, Taina; Torpdahl, Mia; Björkman, Jonas T; Nielsen, Eva Møller

    2016-12-15

    In 2012, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) initiated external quality assessment (EQA) schemes for molecular typing including the National Public Health Reference Laboratories in Europe. The overall aim for these EQA schemes was to enhance the European surveillance of food-borne pathogens by evaluating and improving the quality and comparability of molecular typing. The EQAs were organised by Statens Serum Institut (SSI) and included Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. Inter-laboratory comparable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) images were obtained from 10 of 17 of the participating laboratories for Listeria, 15 of 25 for Salmonella, but only nine of 20 for VTEC. Most problems were related to PFGE running conditions and/or incorrect use of image acquisition. Analysis of the gels was done in good accordance with the provided guidelines. Furthermore, we assessed the multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) scheme for S. Typhimurium. Of 15 laboratories, nine submitted correct results for all analysed strains, and four had difficulties with one strain only. In conclusion, both PFGE and MLVA are prone to variation in quality, and there is therefore a continuous need for standardisation and validation of laboratory performance for molecular typing methods of food-borne pathogens in the human public health sector. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  1. Campylobacter spp. as emerging food-borne pathogen - incidence, detection and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Smole Možina

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter. coli are the leading cause of bacterial food-borne enteric infection with still increasing incidence in the most developed countries. Consuming and/or handling poultry meat is the most consistent risk factor, linked to the high prevalence of campylobacters in retail poultry meat. Recent data about the incidence of human campylobacteriosis and prevalence of C.jejuni and C. coli in poultry meat are presented. Important aspects of Campylobacter transmission along the food chain are discussed – physiological specificities possibly enabling adaptation and survival in the food production environment as well as the emerging resistance to antimicrobial agents used in veterinary and human medicine. Recent advances in detection and identification methods of Campylobacter spp. are mentioned as a basis for preventive strategies to bring these food-borne pat hogens under control. Recent risk assessments show that mitigation strategies could be applied at different points from food-animals production to the finalconsumptionoffoods.Educating the consumers is important,sincecritical control point remains the hygiene in the final food preparation.

  2. Epidemiology of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks Caused by Clostridium perfringens, United States, 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Julian E.; Gould, L. Hannah; Mahon, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is estimated to be the second most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing one million illnesses each year. Local, state, and territorial health departments voluntarily report C. perfringens outbreaks to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Our analysis included outbreaks confirmed by laboratory evidence during 1998–2010. A food item was implicated if C. perfringens was isolated from food or based on epidemiologic evidence. Implicated foods were classified into one of 17 standard food commodities when possible. From 1998 to 2010, 289 confirmed outbreaks of C. perfringens illness were reported with 15,208 illnesses, 83 hospitalizations, and eight deaths. The number of outbreaks reported each year ranged from 16 to 31 with no apparent trend over time. The annual number of outbreak-associated illnesses ranged from 359 to 2,173, and the median outbreak size was 24 illnesses. Outbreaks occurred year round, with the largest number in November and December. Restaurants (43%) were the most common setting of food preparation. Other settings included catering facility (19%), private home (16%), prison or jail (11%), and other (10%). Among the 144 (50%) outbreaks attributed to a single food commodity, beef was the most common commodity (66 outbreaks, 46%), followed by poultry (43 outbreaks, 30%), and pork (23 outbreaks, 16%). Meat and poultry outbreaks accounted for 92% of outbreaks with an identified single food commodity. Outbreaks caused by C. perfringens occur regularly, are often large, and can cause substantial morbidity yet are preventable if contamination of raw meat and poultry products is prevented at the farm or slaughterhouse or, after contamination, if these products are properly handled and prepared, particularly in restaurants and catering facilities. PMID:23379281

  3. Epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens, United States, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Julian E; Gould, L Hannah; Mahon, Barbara E

    2013-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens is estimated to be the second most common bacterial cause of foodborne illness in the United States, causing one million illnesses each year. Local, state, and territorial health departments voluntarily report C. perfringens outbreaks to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Our analysis included outbreaks confirmed by laboratory evidence during 1998-2010. A food item was implicated if C. perfringens was isolated from food or based on epidemiologic evidence. Implicated foods were classified into one of 17 standard food commodities when possible. From 1998 to 2010, 289 confirmed outbreaks of C. perfringens illness were reported with 15,208 illnesses, 83 hospitalizations, and eight deaths. The number of outbreaks reported each year ranged from 16 to 31 with no apparent trend over time. The annual number of outbreak-associated illnesses ranged from 359 to 2,173, and the median outbreak size was 24 illnesses. Outbreaks occurred year round, with the largest number in November and December. Restaurants (43%) were the most common setting of food preparation. Other settings included catering facility (19%), private home (16%), prison or jail (11%), and other (10%). Among the 144 (50%) outbreaks attributed to a single food commodity, beef was the most common commodity (66 outbreaks, 46%), followed by poultry (43 outbreaks, 30%), and pork (23 outbreaks, 16%). Meat and poultry outbreaks accounted for 92% of outbreaks with an identified single food commodity. Outbreaks caused by C. perfringens occur regularly, are often large, and can cause substantial morbidity yet are preventable if contamination of raw meat and poultry products is prevented at the farm or slaughterhouse or, after contamination, if these products are properly handled and prepared, particularly in restaurants and catering facilities.

  4. Genome sequencing of Listeria monocytogenes "Quargel" listeriosis outbreak strains reveals two different strains with distinct in vitro virulence potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rychli

    Full Text Available A large listeriosis outbreak occurred in Austria, Germany and the Czech Republic in 2009 and 2010. The outbreak was traced back to a traditional Austrian curd cheese called "Quargel" which was contaminated with two distinct serovar 1/2a Listeria monocytogenes strains (QOC1 and QOC2. In this study we sequenced and analysed the genomes of both outbreak strains in order to investigate the extent of genetic diversity between the two strains belonging to MLST sequence types 398 (QOC2 and 403 (QOC1. Both genomes are highly similar, but also display distinct properties: The QOC1 genome is approximately 74 kbp larger than the QOC2 genome. In addition, the strains harbour 93 (QOC1 and 45 (QOC2 genes encoding strain-specific proteins. A 21 kbp region showing highest similarity to plasmid pLMIV encoding three putative internalins is integrated in the QOC1 genome. In contrast to QOC1, strain QOC2 harbours a vip homologue, which encodes a LPXTG surface protein involved in cell invasion. In accordance, in vitro virulence assays revealed distinct differences in invasion efficiency and intracellular proliferation within different cell types. The higher virulence potential of QOC1 in non-phagocytic cells may be explained by the presence of additional internalins in the pLMIV-like region, whereas the higher invasion capability of QOC2 into phagocytic cells may be due to the presence of a vip homologue. In addition, both strains show differences in stress-related gene content. Strain QOC1 encodes a so-called stress survival islet 1, whereas strain QOC2 harbours a homologue of the uncharacterized LMOf2365_0481 gene. Consistently, QOC1 shows higher resistance to acidic, alkaline and gastric stress. In conclusion, our results show that strain QOC1 and QOC2 are distinct and did not recently evolve from a common ancestor.

  5. Comparative diagnostic efficacy of recombinant LLO and PI-PLC-based ELISAs for detection of listeriosis in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Rahul D; Malik, Satya Veer Singh; Jayarao, Bhushan; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Savage, Emily; Vergis, Jess; Kurkure, Nitin V; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Rawool, Deepak B

    2017-06-01

    The present study for the first time evaluates the serodiagnostic efficacy of two recombinant antigens namely, listeriolysin O (rLLO) and phosphatidyl-inositol phospholipase C (rPI-PLC). Indirect ELISA with the above recombinant antigens was used on samples collected from bovines (n=106), goats (n=138) and pigs (n=92) having either a history of abortion, emaciation and/or apparently healthy animals. Isolation of Listeria was attempted from the blood samples using USDA-FSIS method. On screening of test sera by rLLO-based ELISA, antibodies against anti-listeriolysin O (ALLO) were observed in goats (22.46%), bovines (15.10%) and pigs (16.31%). As advocated, after adsorption of positive serum samples with streptolysin O (SLO), the seropositivity for ALLO was marginally reduced (p>0.05) in goats (21.73%) and bovines (10.38%), whereas, in pigs the reduction (5.43%) was significant (panimals that were culturally-positive for L. monocytogenes, 15 showed ALLO positivity in unadsorbed as well as SLO-adsorbed sera by rLLO-based ELISA, however, rPI-PLC-based ELISA could detect seropositivity in only 5 animals. Moreover, rPI-PLC-based ELISA also showed seropositivity in those animals (7/30) that were culturally positive for other Listeria spp. In conclusion, rLLO can serve as a better antigen than rPI-PLC in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of listeriosis in animals; however, prior adsorption of test sera with SLO is required to avoid false positive results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in temperature abused milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Yi eChen; Emma eAllard; Anna eWooten; Minji eHur; Ishani eSheth; Anna eLassri; Thomas S Hammack; Dumitru eMacarisin

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Mil...

  7. Identifying and controlling emerging foodborne pathogens: research needs.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    Systems for managing the risks associated with foodborne pathogens are based on detailed knowledge of the microorganisms and the foods with which they are associated--known hazards. An emerging pathogen, however, is an unknown hazard; therefore, to control it, key data must be acquired to convert the pathogen from an unknown to a known hazard. The types of information required are similar despite the identity of the new agent. The key to rapid control is rapid mobilization of research capabil...

  8. A modified molecular beacons-based multiplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of eight foodborne pathogens in a single reaction and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qinghua; Lyu, Dongyue; Shi, Xiaolu; Jiang, Yixiang; Lin, Yiman; Li, Yinghui; Qiu, Yaqun; He, Lianhua; Zhang, Ran; Li, Qingge

    2014-03-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks are often caused by one of the major pathogens. Early identification of the causal pathogen is crucial for disease control and prevention. We describe a real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) assay that can identify, in a single reaction, up to eight common foodborne bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Shigella spp. This multiplex rtPCR assay takes advantage of modified molecular beacons and the multicolor combinational probe coding strategy to discriminate each pathogen and the homo-tag assisted non-dimer (HAND) system to prevent dimer formation. The detection limits of the assay ranged from 1.3×10(3) colony-forming units (CFU)/g stool (L. monocytogenes) to 1.6×10(4) CFU/g stool (Shigella spp.). The target genes were 100% specific as assessed on 986 reference strains covering 41 species since no cross-reactions were observed. The assay was applied to the detection of foodborne pathogens in 11,167 clinical samples and the results were compared with culture methods for further validation. The sensitivity and specificity of the rtPCR were 100% and 99%, respectively. When performed in a 96-well rtPCR system, more than 90 samples could be analyzed within 3 h. Given the high accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and short turn-around time, the established assay could be used for the rapid and reliable identification of the causative pathogens responsible for a certain foodborne disease outbreak and rapid screening of these major foodborne pathogens in laboratory-based surveillance of outpatient clinical samples or even food samples.

  9. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn D Kirk

    2015-12-01

    and invasive infections due to non-typhoidal S. enterica infections resulted in the highest burden, causing 4.07 million (95% UI 2.49-6.27 million DALYs. Regionally, DALYs per 100,000 population were highest in the African region followed by the South East Asian region. Considerable burden of foodborne disease is borne by children less than five years of age. Major limitations of our study include data gaps, particularly in middle- and high-mortality countries, and uncertainty around the proportion of diseases that were foodborne.Foodborne diseases result in a large disease burden, particularly in children. Although it is known that diarrheal diseases are a major burden in children, we have demonstrated for the first time the importance of contaminated food as a cause. There is a need to focus food safety interventions on preventing foodborne diseases, particularly in low- and middle-income settings.

  10. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Martyn D; Pires, Sara M; Black, Robert E; Caipo, Marisa; Crump, John A; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Döpfer, Dörte; Fazil, Aamir; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Hald, Tine; Hall, Aron J; Keddy, Karen H; Lake, Robin J; Lanata, Claudio F; Torgerson, Paul R; Havelaar, Arie H; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-12-01

    invasive infections due to non-typhoidal S. enterica infections resulted in the highest burden, causing 4.07 million (95% UI 2.49-6.27 million) DALYs. Regionally, DALYs per 100,000 population were highest in the African region followed by the South East Asian region. Considerable burden of foodborne disease is borne by children less than five years of age. Major limitations of our study include data gaps, particularly in middle- and high-mortality countries, and uncertainty around the proportion of diseases that were foodborne. Foodborne diseases result in a large disease burden, particularly in children. Although it is known that diarrheal diseases are a major burden in children, we have demonstrated for the first time the importance of contaminated food as a cause. There is a need to focus food safety interventions on preventing foodborne diseases, particularly in low- and middle-income settings.

  11. Recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes in temperature abused milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi eChen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 hours. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.15 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h. The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case-study.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Invasive Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes in a Spanish Hospital over a Nine-Year Study Period, 2006–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ariza-Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the pathogenicity, invasiveness, and genetic relatedness of 17 clinical Listeria monocytogenes stains isolated over a period of nine years (2006–2014. All isolates were phenotypically characterised and growth patterns were determined. The antimicrobial susceptibility of L. monocytogenes isolates was determined in E-tests. Invasion assays were performed with epithelial HeLa cells. Finally, L. monocytogenes isolates were subtyped by PFGE and MLST. All isolates had similar phenotypic characteristics (β-haemolysis and lecithinase activity, and three types of growth curve were observed. Bacterial recovery rates after invasion assays ranged from 0.09% to 7.26% (1.62 ± 0.46. MLST identified 11 sequence types (STs, and 14 PFGE profiles were obtained, indicating a high degree of genetic diversity. Genetic studies unequivocally revealed the occurrence of one outbreak of listeriosis in humans that had not previously been reported. This outbreak occurred in October 2009 and affected three patients from neighbouring towns. In conclusion, the molecular epidemiological analysis clearly revealed a cluster (three human cases, all ST1 of not previously reported listeriosis cases in northwestern Spain. Our findings indicate that molecular subtyping, in combination with epidemiological case analysis, is essential and should be implemented in routine diagnosis, to improve the tracing of the sources of outbreaks.

  13. Growth of L. monocytogenes strain F2365 on ready-to-eat turkey meat does not enhance gastrointestinal listeriosis in intragastrically inoculated A/J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Luke D.; Faith, Nancy G.; Czuprynski, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    There have been significant outbreaks of listeriosis associated with consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) turkey meat products. In this study, we investigated whether growth on RTE deli turkey meat sends environmental signals to listerial cells that makes them more virulent in the gastrointestinal tract of mice. L. Listeria monocytogenes strain F2365 grew from a starting inoculum of 103 CFU/mL to final numbers of 108–109 CFU/mL (within 12 days at 10 °C) when inoculated onto sliced processed, or whole muscle, turkey breast, or into emulsified whole turkey breast. We did not observe any difference in the numbers of CFU recovered from the spleens and livers of A/J mice inoculated intragastrically with L. monocytogenes grown on sliced turkey meat, in emulsified turkey meat, or in brain heart infusion broth. These results suggest that growth on RTE sliced deli turkey, or in RTE emulsified deli turkey, does not enhance the ability of L. monocytogenes F2365 to cause gastrointestinal listeriosis in intragastrically challenged A/J mice. PMID:18559288

  14. Recovery and Growth Potential of Listeria monocytogenes in Temperature Abused Milkshakes Prepared from Naturally Contaminated Ice Cream Linked to a Listeriosis Outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Allard, Emma; Wooten, Anna; Hur, Minji; Sheth, Ishani; Laasri, Anna; Hammack, Thomas S; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The recovery and growth potential of Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in three flavors of milkshakes (vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate) that were prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the U.S. in 2015, and were subsequently held at room temperature for 14 h. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes was 9.05 h; the average generation time was 1.67 h; and the average population level increase per sample at 14 h was 1.14 log CFU/g. Milkshake flavors did not significantly affect these parameters. The average lag phase duration of L. monocytogenes in milkshakes with initial contamination levels ≤ 3 CFU/g (9.50 h) was significantly longer (P 3 CFU/g (8.60 h). The results highlight the value of using samples that are contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes for recovery and growth evaluations. The behavior of L. monocytogenes populations in milkshakes prepared from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to the listeriosis outbreak should be taken into account when performing risk based analysis using this outbreak as a case study.

  15. Echinostomiasis: a common but forgotten food-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T K; Fried, B

    1998-04-01

    Human echinostomiasis, endemic to southeast Asia and the Far East, is a food-borne, intestinal, zoonotic parasitosis attributed to at least 16 species of digenean trematodes transmitted by snails. Two separate life cycles of echinostomes, human and sylvatic, efficiently operate in endemic areas. Clinical symptoms of echinostomiasis include abdominal pain, violent watery diarrhea, and anorexia. The disease occurs focally and transmission is linked to fresh or brackish water habitats. Infections are associated with common sociocultural practices of eating raw or insufficiently cooked mollusks, fish, crustaceans, and amphibians, promiscuous defecation, and the use of night soil (human excrement collected from latrines) for fertilization of fish ponds. The prevalence of infection ranges from 44% in the Philippines to 5% in mainland China, and from 50% in northern Thailand to 9% in Korea. Although the patterns of other food-borne trematodiases have changed in Asia following changes in habits, cultural practices, health education, industrialization, and environmental alteration, human echinostomiasis remains a health problem. The disease is most prevalent in remote rural places among low-wage earners and in women of child bearing age. Echinostomiasis is aggravated by socioeconomic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of supervised food inspection, poor or insufficient sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Furthermore, World Health Organization control programs implemented for other food-borne helminthiases and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for echinostomiasis because these parasites display extremely broad specificity for the second intermediate host and are capable of completing the life cycle without involvement of the human host.

  16. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrek, Joanna; Baumann-Popczyk, Anna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2012. The evaluation was based on analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in foodborne outbreaks, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2012. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and CSI). In Poland in 2012 there was observed decrease in the number of infections intoxications both of bacterial and viral origin. It was recorded only one case of trichinellosis. There were reported 491 outbreaks of foodborne poisonings or infections included 5 774 people, among them 718 children 1-14 years old. Out of them 1 364 people were hospitalized. Unlike last year, the predominant etiological agent in those outbreaks were zoonotic Salmonella serotypes which caused 38.1% outbreaks and 26.7% outbreak cases. The viruses have caused 27.1% of outbreaks and 36.2% of cases. In 23.8% of outbreaks etiological agent has not been established. Most often the settings of an outbreak was a private household - 236 outbreaks and a hospital (84 outbreaks). As in previous years, the most common vehicle of infection were foods prepared with milk and eggs -11.8% of outbreaks and egg dishes - 9.0%. In 57.6% of oubreaks vehicle of infection has not been established. Among outbreaks reported in 2012, there were 4 which involved more than 100 people. In 163 outbreaks of food items had been tested and in 33% of them the results were positive. The increasing negative results of bacteriological examinations of food items, suggested necessity to start testing food contamination with viruses.

  17. Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens: Towards Diagnostic Metagenomics of Fecal Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Christine; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage...... for data analysis are being developed, and several studies applying diagnostic metagenomics to human clinical samples have been published, detecting, and sometimes, typing bacterial infections. It is possible to obtain a draft genome of the pathogen and to develop methods that can theoretically be applied...... in fecal samples from animals and humans....

  18. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexin Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR, sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide (EMA and propidium monoazide (PMA to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR, scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound

  19. Advances and Challenges in Viability Detection of Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Dexin; Chen, Zi; Jiang, Yuan; Xue, Feng; Li, Baoguang

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks are a serious public health and food safety concern worldwide. There is a great demand for rapid, sensitive, specific, and accurate methods to detect microbial pathogens in foods. Conventional methods based on cultivation of pathogens have been the gold standard protocols; however, they take up to a week to complete. Molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, microarray technologies have been widely used in detection of foodborne pathogens. Among molecular assays, PCR technology [conventional and real-time PCR (qPCR)] is most commonly used in the foodborne pathogen detection because of its high sensitivity and specificity. However, a major drawback of PCR is its inability to differentiate the DNA from dead and viable cells, and this is a critical factor for the food industry, regulatory agencies and the consumer. To remedy this shortcoming, researchers have used biological dyes such as ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide (PMA) to pretreat samples before DNA extraction to intercalate the DNA of dead cells in food samples, and then proceed with regular DNA preparation and qPCR. By combining PMA treatment with qPCR (PMA-qPCR), scientists have applied this technology to detect viable cells of various bacterial pathogens in foods. The incorporation of PMA into PCR-based assays for viability detection of pathogens in foods has increased significantly in the last decade. On the other hand, some downsides with this approach have been noted, particularly to achieve complete suppression of signal of DNA from the dead cells present in some particular food matrix. Nowadays, there is a tendency of more and more researchers adapting this approach for viability detection; and a few commercial kits based on PMA are available in the market. As time goes on, more scientists apply this approach to a broader range of pathogen detections, this viability approach (PMA or other chemicals such as platinum compound) may eventually

  20. Understanding the behavior of foodborne pathogens in the food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Mataragas, Marios; Jespersen, Lene

    2011-01-01

    as the commonly employed preservation/storage techniques throughout the food chain, have on the virulence of pathogens. Quantitative PCR and microarrays are, nowadays, powerful tools used for such determinations. The application of these approaches for the determination of the gene expression in situ, is a new......In recent years and with the significant advancements in instrumentation for molecular biology methods, the focus of food microbiologists, dealing with pathogenic microorganisms in foods, is shifting. Scientists specifically aim at elucidating the effect that the food composition, as well...... field of research for food microbiologists and provides new information regarding virulence potential of foodborne pathogens....

  1. Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana eSilva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide, causing mild to severe symptoms including serious infections of the extremities and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry, where the intestine is colonized resulting in healthy animals as carriers. This review aims to elucidate and discuss the i genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; ii detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; iii campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors and iv colonization of poultry and control strategies.

  2. A Platform for Crowdsourced Foodborne Illness Surveillance: Description of Users and Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Patrick; Nsoesie, Elaine Okanyene

    2017-07-05

    Underreporting of foodborne illness makes foodborne disease burden estimation, timely outbreak detection, and evaluation of policies toward improving food safety challenging. The objective of this study was to present and evaluate Iwaspoisoned.com, an openly accessible Internet-based crowdsourcing platform that was launched in 2009 for the surveillance of foodborne illness. The goal of this system is to collect data that can be used to augment traditional approaches to foodborne disease surveillance. Individuals affected by a foodborne illness can use this system to report their symptoms and the suspected location (eg, restaurant, hotel, hospital) of infection. We present descriptive statistics of users and businesses and highlight three instances where reports of foodborne illness were submitted before the outbreaks were officially confirmed by the local departments of health. More than 49,000 reports of suspected foodborne illness have been submitted on Iwaspoisoned.com since its inception by individuals from 89 countries and every state in the United States. Approximately 95.51% (42,139/44,119) of complaints implicated restaurants as the source of illness. Furthermore, an estimated 67.55% (3118/4616) of users who responded to a demographic survey were between the ages of 18 and 34, and 60.14% (2776/4616) of the respondents were female. The platform is also currently used by health departments in 90% (45/50) of states in the US to supplement existing programs on foodborne illness reporting. Crowdsourced disease surveillance through systems such as Iwaspoisoned.com uses the influence and familiarity of social media to create an infrastructure for easy reporting and surveillance of suspected foodborne illness events. If combined with traditional surveillance approaches, these systems have the potential to lessen the problem of foodborne illness underreporting and aid in early detection and monitoring of foodborne disease outbreaks. ©Patrick Quade, Elaine Okanyene

  3. Listeria Infection (Listeriosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most commonly contracted by eating improperly processed deli meats and unpasteurized milk products. Healthy people rarely ... unpasteurized milk or poorly heated hot dogs or deli meats. If you experience a high fever, severe ...

  4. Listeriosis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food, such as hot dogs, cold cuts and deli meat. Take care to not get the juice of deli meats and hot dogs on other foods/surfaces and wash your hands after handling deli meats and hot dogs. Do not eat refrigerated ...

  5. CIGUATERA POISONING: PACIFIC DISEASE, FOODBORNE POISONING FROM FISH IN WARM SEAS AND OCEANS. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezha Zlateva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The review is provoked because of lack of awareness of the medical practitioners in Bulgaria concerning of the ethnology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms and treatment of the ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP. This can be a source of prolonged diagnostic delays, as some cases reporting in another country in Europe, for example Germany, Spain and UK. Varna is the sea town with many sailor crews returning from tropical and subtropical regions, or CFP can affect people who travel to the Pacific and Caribbean or ate exotic fish from supermarket. The information of this fish food-borne poisoning is part of student’s education in discipline “Marine medicine” in Medical University, Varna. Materials and methods: To present better information from different authors and last scientific data, we made review of published materials of 58 issues to construct definition, history, etiology, pathogenesis (toxins and mechanisms of action, clinical symptoms, treatment and prevention of the Ciguatera or ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide spread food-born poisoning. Results: Ciguatera poisoning is ichtyosarcotoxicosis, a wide-spread foodborne poisoning in people after consumption of flesh of different kinds of fishes in which toxins produced by poisonous microorganisms (Dinoflagellates have accumulated. The poisoning develops by accumulating toxins higher up the food chain starting with toxin producing dinoflagellates (species: Gambierdiscus toxicus, Prorocentrum concavum, Pr. lima, Ostreoposis lenticularis, Ostr. Siamensis and others, continuing with the poisoned algae (species: Portieria, Halymenia, Turbinaria, Sargassum, and after that involving small crustacea and small fishes to greater fishes (vector fishes, genus Herbivores and Carnivores, in which the toxins have been stored in amount, great enough to cause foodborne poisoning in humans. This poisoning is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, but because of its delayed toxic effects, lasting

  6. Developments in Micro- and Nanotechnology for Foodborne Pathogen Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Krista; Misra, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Swomitra

    2018-01-01

    In response to the potential hazards associated with the globalization of the food industry, research has been focused on the development of new sensing techniques to provide the means of contamination detection at any stage in the food supply chain. The demand for on-site detection is growing as pre-emptive sensing of pathogens could eliminate foodborne-related outbreaks and associated healthcare costs. Reduction in food waste is also a driver for point-of-use (POU) sensing, from both an economic and environmental standpoint. The following review discusses the latest advancements in platforms that have the greatest potential for inexpensive, real-time detection, and identification of foodborne pathogens. Specific focus has been placed on the development techniques, which utilize micro- and nanoscale technology. Sample preparation-free techniques are also discussed, as the growing demand to enable POU sensing at any stage in the food supply chain will be a major driver toward the advancements of these nondestructive methods.

  7. Resveratrol—Potential Antibacterial Agent against Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dexter S. L. Ma

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial foodborne pathogens are a significant health burden and the recent emergence of pathogenic resistant strains due to the excessive use of antibiotics makes it more difficult to effectively treat infections as a result of contaminated food. Awareness of this impending health crisis has spurred the search for alternative antimicrobials with natural plant antimicrobials being among the more promising candidates as these substances have good acceptability and likely low toxicity levels as they have long been used in traditional medicines. Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene is a naturally occurring stilbenoid which has been gaining considerable attention in medical field due to its diverse biological activities - it has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, anticancer, and antiaging properties. Given that resveratrol is phytoalexin, with increased synthesis in response to infection by phytopathogens, there has been interest in exploring its antimicrobial activity. This review aims to provide an overview of the published data on the antibacterial activity of resveratrol against foodborne pathogens, its mechanisms of action as well as its possible applications in food packing and processing; in addition we also summarize the current data on its potential synergism with known antibacterials and future research and applications.

  8. Resveratrol—Potential Antibacterial Agent against Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dexter S. L.; Tan, Loh Teng-Hern; Chan, Kok-Gan; Yap, Wei Hsum; Pusparajah, Priyia; Chuah, Lay-Hong; Ming, Long Chiau; Khan, Tahir Mehmood; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial foodborne pathogens are a significant health burden and the recent emergence of pathogenic resistant strains due to the excessive use of antibiotics makes it more difficult to effectively treat infections as a result of contaminated food. Awareness of this impending health crisis has spurred the search for alternative antimicrobials with natural plant antimicrobials being among the more promising candidates as these substances have good acceptability and likely low toxicity levels as they have long been used in traditional medicines. Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring stilbenoid which has been gaining considerable attention in medical field due to its diverse biological activities - it has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, cardioprotective, anti-diabetic, anticancer, and antiaging properties. Given that resveratrol is phytoalexin, with increased synthesis in response to infection by phytopathogens, there has been interest in exploring its antimicrobial activity. This review aims to provide an overview of the published data on the antibacterial activity of resveratrol against foodborne pathogens, its mechanisms of action as well as its possible applications in food packing and processing; in addition we also summarize the current data on its potential synergism with known antibacterials and future research and applications. PMID:29515440

  9. [Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of hemolysis in foodborne Staphylococcus aureus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peinan; Lü, Guoping; Xu, Baohong

    2012-11-01

    To establish a multiplex PCR method for detecting genes of (alpha-hemolysin (hla), beta-hemolysin (hlb), hemolysin and 16S rDNA, and to learn the distribution of three hemolysin genes and the characteristics of hemolytic phenotype in 148 foodborne Staphylococcus aureus strains, and to classify the strains with cluster analysis. The multiplex PCR method was established and used to detect the genes of alpha-hemolysin, beta-hemolysin, hemolysin and 16S rDNA. The blood agar method was used to detect the characteristics of hemolytic phenotype. The experiment data was analyed with SPSS16.0. 131 strains were positive for hla gene (88.51%), 90 hlb gene (60.81%), 28 hemolysin gene (18.92%). 131 strains had the characteristics of hemolysis (88.51%), while the hemolysis were negative in 17 strains (11.49%). With the clustering factors of the hemolysin genotype and hemolytic phenotype, 148 strains were classified into 12 types from type A to type L with 100% similarity. Among them, type A contained 58 strains (39.19%), type B 37 (25.00%), type C 18 (12.16%). This multiplex PCR method is fast, convenient and specific, and could be used for high-throughput screening of hemolysin genes in S. aureus. Most of the foodborne Staphylococcus aureus strains carrying the hla gene mainly belong to type A and type B.

  10. Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens: Towards Diagnostic Metagenomics of Fecal Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Christine Andersen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic metagenomics is a rapidly evolving laboratory tool for culture-independent tracing of foodborne pathogens. The method has the potential to become a generic platform for detection of most pathogens and many sample types. Today, however, it is still at an early and experimental stage. Studies show that metagenomic methods, from sample storage and DNA extraction to library preparation and shotgun sequencing, have a great influence on data output. To construct protocols that extract the complete metagenome but with minimal bias is an ongoing challenge. Many different software strategies for data analysis are being developed, and several studies applying diagnostic metagenomics to human clinical samples have been published, detecting, and sometimes, typing bacterial infections. It is possible to obtain a draft genome of the pathogen and to develop methods that can theoretically be applied in real-time. Finally, diagnostic metagenomics can theoretically be better geared than conventional methods to detect co-infections. The present review focuses on the current state of test development, as well as practical implementation of diagnostic metagenomics to trace foodborne bacterial infections in fecal samples from animals and humans.

  11. Metagenomic Approach to Identifying Foodborne Pathogens on Chinese Cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeho; Hong, Sanghyun; Kim, You-Tae; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kim, Hyeun Bum; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2018-02-28

    Foodborne illness represents a major threat to public health and is frequently attributed to pathogenic microorganisms on fresh produce. Recurrent outbreaks often come from vegetables that are grown close to or within the ground. Therefore, the first step to understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is to identify and describe microbial communities. We investigated the phyllospheres on Chinese cabbage ( Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis , N = 54). 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing targeting the V5-V6 region of 16S rRNA genes was conducted by employing the Illumina MiSeq system. Sequence quality was assessed, and phylogenetic assessments were performed using the RDP classifier implemented in QIIME with a bootstrap cutoff of 80%. Principal coordinate analysis was performed using a weighted Fast UniFrac matrix. The average number of sequence reads generated per sample was 34,584. At the phylum level, bacterial communities were composed primarily of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant genera on Chinese cabbages were Chryseobacterium, Aurantimonadaceae_g, Sphingomonas , and Pseudomonas . Diverse potential pathogens, such as Pantoea, Erwinia, Klebsiella, Yersinia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Salmonella , and Clostridium were also detected from the samples. Although further epidemiological studies will be required to determine whether the detected potential pathogens are associated with foodborne illness, our results imply that a metagenomic approach can be used to detect pathogenic bacteria on fresh vegetables.

  12. National survey of foodborne viruses in Australian oysters at production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Valeria; Hodgson, Kate; McLeod, Catherine; Tan, Jessica; Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison

    2018-02-01

    Internationally human enteric viruses, such as norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are frequently associated with shellfish related foodborne disease outbreaks, and it has been suggested that acceptable NoV limits based on end-point testing be established for this high risk food group. Currently, shellfish safety is generally managed through the use of indicators of faecal contamination. Between July 2014 and August 2015, a national prevalence survey for NoV and HAV was done in Australian oysters suitable for harvest. Two sampling rounds were undertaken to determine baseline levels of these viruses. Commercial Australian growing areas, represented by 33 oyster production regions in New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland, were included in the survey. A total of 149 and 148 samples were collected during round one and two of sampling, respectively, and tested for NoV and HAV by quantitative RT-PCR. NoV and HAV were not detected in oysters collected in either sampling round, indicating an estimated prevalence for these viruses in Australian oysters of viruses in Australian oysters was consistent with epidemiological evidence, with no oyster-related foodborne viral illness reported during the survey period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption.

  14. Priority setting of foodborne pathogens: disease burden and costs of selected enteric pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemmeren JM; Mangen MJJ; Duynhoven YTHP van; Havelaar AH; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis causes the highest disease burden among seven evaluated foodborne pathogens. This is the preliminary conclusion of a major study of the disease burden and related costs of foodborne pathogens. The other micro-organisms that were studied are Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp.,

  15. Foodborne pathogens and their risk exposure factors associated with farm vegetables in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ssemanda, James Noah; Reij, Martine W.; Middendorp, van Gerrieke; Bouw, El; Plaats, van der Rozemarijn; Franz, Eelco; Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Bagabe, Mark Cyubahiro; Zwietering, Marcel H.; Joosten, Han

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we tested farm vegetables and agricultural water for the presence of foodborne pathogens, and evaluated farming practices of vegetable farms in Rwanda. Farm vegetable samples were found to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens at considerably high rate (overall 15/99 = 15%).

  16. Foodborne disease outbreak in a resource-limited setting: a tale of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Foodborne diseases (FBD) have emerged as a major public health problem worldwide. Though the global burden of FBD is currently unknown, foodborne diarrhoeal diseases kill 1.9 million children globally every year. On 25th September 2014, health authorities in Eastern Region of Ghana were alerted of a ...

  17. Effect of marinating chicken meat with lemon, green tea, and turmeric against foodborne bacterial pathogenss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...

  18. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar, Arie H; Kirk, Martyn D; Torgerson, Paul R; Gibb, Herman J; Hald, Tine; Lake, Robin J; Praet, Nicolas; Bellinger, David C; de Silva, Nilanthi R; Gargouri, Neyla; Speybroeck, Niko; Cawthorne, Amy; Mathers, Colin; Stein, Claudia; Angulo, Frederick J; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne

  19. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions.We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates.We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world

  20. Attribution of global foodborne disease to specific foods: Findings from a World Health Organization structured expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Aspinall, Willy; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie; Angulo, Frederick; Gibb, Herman; Kirk, Martyn; Lake, Robin; Speybroeck, Niko; Torgerson, Paul; Hald, Tine

    2017-01-01

    Recently the World Health Organization, Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) estimated that 31 foodborne diseases (FBDs) resulted in over 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths worldwide in 2010. Knowing the relative role importance of different foods as exposure routes for key hazards is critical to preventing illness. This study reports the findings of a structured expert elicitation providing globally comparable food source attribution estimates for 11 major FBDs in each of 14 world subregions. We used Cooke's Classical Model to elicit and aggregate judgments of 73 international experts. Judgments were elicited from each expert individually and aggregated using both equal and performance weights. Performance weighted results are reported as they increased the informativeness of estimates, while retaining accuracy. We report measures of central tendency and uncertainty bounds on food source attribution estimate. For some pathogens we see relatively consistent food source attribution estimates across subregions of the world; for others there is substantial regional variation. For example, for non-typhoidal salmonellosis, pork was of minor importance compared to eggs and poultry meat in the American and African subregions, whereas in the European and Western Pacific subregions the importance of these three food sources were quite similar. Our regional results broadly agree with estimates from earlier European and North American food source attribution research. As in prior food source attribution research, we find relatively wide uncertainty bounds around our median estimates. We present the first worldwide estimates of the proportion of specific foodborne diseases attributable to specific food exposure routes. While we find substantial uncertainty around central tendency estimates, we believe these estimates provide the best currently available basis on which to link FBDs and specific foods in many parts of the world, providing guidance

  1. Comprehensive and Rapid Real-Time PCR Analysis of 21 Foodborne Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Fukushima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of four duplex SYBR Green I PCR (SG-PCR assay combined with DNA extraction using QIAamp DNA Stool Mini kit was evaluated for the detection of foodborne bacteria from 21 foodborne outbreaks. The causative pathogens were detected in almost all cases in 2 hours or less. The first run was for the detection of 8 main foodborne pathogens in 5 stool specimens within 2 hours and the second run was for the detection of other unusual suspect pathogens within a further 45 minutes. After 2 to 4 days, the causative agents were isolated and identified. The results proved that for comprehensive and rapid molecular diagnosis in foodborne outbreaks, Duplex SG-PCR assay is not only very useful, but is also economically viable for one-step differentiation of causative pathogens in fecal specimens obtained from symptomatic patients. This then allows for effective diagnosis and management of foodborne outbreaks.

  2. A system for detection and identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria based on a “Combinatory qPCR” technology

    OpenAIRE

    Piednoir, Elodie

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne outbreaks are important issues worldwide. Two of the most important foodborne pathogens are Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The reference methods to detect foodborne bacteria are international standard operating procedures, ISO methods, which are recognized in the whole world. These methods are mostly culture-based methods that are time consuming (several days) and labor intensive. In order to identify faster the source of foodborne outbreaks, to better manage food-relat...

  3. Whole genome sequencing as a tool to investigate a cluster of seven cases of listeriosis in Austria and Germany, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Allerberger, F; Huhulescu, S; Pietzka, A; Amar, C; Kleta, S; Prager, R; Preußel, K; Aichinger, E; Mellmann, A; Raoult, D

    2014-01-01

    A cluster of seven human cases of listeriosis occurred in Austria and in Germany between April 2011 and July 2013. The Listeria monocytogenes serovar (SV) 1/2b isolates shared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) patterns indistinguishable from those from five food producers. The seven human isolates, a control strain with a different PFGE/fAFLP profile and ten food isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS) in a blinded fashion. A gene-by-gene comparison (multilocus sequence typing (MLST)+) was performed, and the resulting whole genome allelic profiles were compared using SeqSphere+ software version 1.0. On analysis of 2298 genes, the four human outbreak isolates from 2012 to 2013 had different alleles at ≤6 genes, i.e. differed by ≤6 genes from each other; the dendrogram placed these isolates in between five Austrian unaged soft cheese isolates from producer A (≤19-gene difference from the human cluster) and two Austrian ready-to-eat meat isolates from producer B (≤8-gene difference from the human cluster). Both food products appeared on grocery bills prospectively collected by these outbreak cases after hospital discharge. Epidemiological results on food consumption and MLST+ clearly separated the three cases in 2011 from the four 2012–2013 outbreak cases (≥48 different genes). We showed that WGS is capable of discriminating L. monocytogenes SV1/2b clones not distinguishable by PFGE and fAFLP. The listeriosis outbreak described clearly underlines the potential of sequence-based typing methods to offer enhanced resolution and comparability of typing systems for public health applications. PMID:24698214

  4. Whole genome sequencing as a tool to investigate a cluster of seven cases of listeriosis in Austria and Germany, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Allerberger, F; Huhulescu, S; Pietzka, A; Amar, C; Kleta, S; Prager, R; Preußel, K; Aichinger, E; Mellmann, A

    2014-05-01

    A cluster of seven human cases of listeriosis occurred in Austria and in Germany between April 2011 and July 2013. The Listeria monocytogenes serovar (SV) 1/2b isolates shared pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) patterns indistinguishable from those from five food producers. The seven human isolates, a control strain with a different PFGE/fAFLP profile and ten food isolates were subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS) in a blinded fashion. A gene-by-gene comparison (multilocus sequence typing (MLST)+) was performed, and the resulting whole genome allelic profiles were compared using SeqSphere(+) software version 1.0. On analysis of 2298 genes, the four human outbreak isolates from 2012 to 2013 had different alleles at ≤6 genes, i.e. differed by ≤6 genes from each other; the dendrogram placed these isolates in between five Austrian unaged soft cheese isolates from producer A (≤19-gene difference from the human cluster) and two Austrian ready-to-eat meat isolates from producer B (≤8-gene difference from the human cluster). Both food products appeared on grocery bills prospectively collected by these outbreak cases after hospital discharge. Epidemiological results on food consumption and MLST+ clearly separated the three cases in 2011 from the four 2012-2013 outbreak cases (≥48 different genes). We showed that WGS is capable of discriminating L. monocytogenes SV1/2b clones not distinguishable by PFGE and fAFLP. The listeriosis outbreak described clearly underlines the potential of sequence-based typing methods to offer enhanced resolution and comparability of typing systems for public health applications. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Kynetic resazurin assay (KRA) for bacterial quantification of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Fast detection of bacterial concentrations is important for the food industry and for healthcare. Early detection of infections and appropriate treatment is essential since, the delay of treatments for bacterial infections tends to be associated with higher mortality rates. In the food industry and in healthcare, standard procedures require the count of colony-forming units in order to quantify bacterial concentrations, however, this method is time consuming and reports require three days to be completed. An alternative is metabolic-colorimetric assays which provide time efficient in vitro bacterial concentrations. A colorimetric assay based on Resazurin was developed as a time kinetic assay (KRA) suitable for bacterial concentration measurements. An optimization was performed by finding excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescent acquisition. A comparison of two non-related bacteria, foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, was performed in 96 well plates. A metabolic and clonogenic dependence was established for fluorescent kinetic signals.

  6. Hepatitis E - a “new” foodborne disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirbiš, A.; Raspor Lainšček, P.

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis E (HE) is a zoonosis caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). The disease that used to be problematic only in developing regions with inadequate water supplies and poor sanitary conditions is now considered one of the foodborne diseases in industrialized countries as well. According to current knowledge, the main reservoir of the virus is linked to domestic swine and wild boar. Consumption of raw or undercooked pork meat and liver is considered as a risk factor for HE human infection, together with some other sources of infection like blood transfusion or organ transplantation. Although the number of cases has been rising in the last decade, HEV is still a generally unknown virus among the general public. Consumers need to be warned and educated about HEV and its potential sources of contamination within the food supply chain.

  7. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tünde Pusztahelyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR. With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant.

  8. A review on detection methods used for foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens have been a cause of a large number of diseases worldwide and more so in developing countries. This has a major economic impact. It is important to contain them, and to do so, early detection is very crucial. Detection and diagnostics relied on culture-based methods to begin with and have developed in the recent past parallel to the developments towards immunological methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and molecular biology-based methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The aim has always been to find a rapid, sensitive, specific and cost-effective method. Ranging from culturing of microbes to the futuristic biosensor technology, the methods have had this common goal. This review summarizes the recent trends and brings together methods that have been developed over the years.

  9. A review of foodborne bacterial and parasitic zoonoses in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrique-Mas, Juan J; Bryant, J E

    2013-12-01

    Vietnam has experienced unprecedented economic and social development in recent years, and the livestock sector is undergoing significant transformations. Although food animal production is still dominated by small-scale 'backyard' enterprises with mixed crop-livestock or livestock-aquatic systems, there is a trend towards more intensive and vertically integrated operations. Changes in animal production, processing and distribution networks for meat and animal products, and the shift from wet markets to supermarkets will undoubtedly impact food safety risks in Vietnam in unforeseen and complex ways. Here, we review the available published literature on bacterial and parasitic foodborne zoonoses (FBZ) in Vietnam. We report on clinical disease burden and pathogen prevalence in animal reservoirs for a number of important FBZ, and outline opportunities for future research.

  10. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  11. Update on antibiotic resistance in foodborne Lactobacillus and Lactococcus species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eDevirgiliis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacilli represent a major Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB component within the complex microbiota of fermented foods obtained from meat, dairy and vegetable sources. Lactococci, on the other hand, are typical of milk and fermented dairy products, which in turn represent the vast majority of fermented products. As is the case for all species originating from the environment, foodborne lactobacilli and lactococci consist of natural, uncharacterized strains, whose biodiversity depends on geographical origin, seasonality, animal feeding/plant growth conditions. Although a few species of opportunistic pathogens have been described in lactobacilli and lactococci, they are mostly non-pathogenic, Gram-positive bacteria displaying probiotic features. Since antibiotic resistant (AR strains do not constitute an immediate threat to human health, scientific interest for detailed studies on AR genes in these species has been greatly hindered. However, increasing evidence points at a crucial role for foodborne LAB as reservoir of potentially transmissible AR genes, underlining the need for further, more detailed studies aimed at identifying possible strategies to avoid AR spread to pathogens through fermented food consumption. The availability of a growing number of sequenced bacterial genomes has been very helpful in identifying the presence/distribution of mobile elements associated with AR genes, but open questions and knowledge gaps still need to be filled, underlining the need for systematic and datasharing approaches to implement both surveillance and mechanistic studies on transferability of AR genes. In the present review we report an update of the recent literature on AR in lactobacilli and lactococci following the 2006 EU-wide ban of the use of antibiotics as feed additives in animal farming, and we discuss the limits of the present knowledge in evaluating possible risks for human health.

  12. Foodborne infections and intoxications in Poland in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polański, Piotr; Ostrek, Joanna; Sadkowska-Todys, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the epidemiological situation of food poisonings and infections in Poland in 2013. The evaluation was based on the analysis of information from reports of epidemiological investigations in outbreaks of food poisonings and infections, submitted by the sanitary-epidemiological stations to the Department of Epidemiology, NIZP-PZH annual bulletins (Czarkowski MP et al. "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland", 2006-2013. Warsaw, NIPH-NIH and GIS). In 2013 a further decrease in the number of infections and intoxications with bacterial etiology and an increase in the infections of viral etiology was observed. Furthermore 2013 is another year with low number of cases of trichinellosis (9 cases in total). In 2013 a total number of 491 foodborne infections and intoxications outbreaks were reported in which there were 29,179 persons exposed and 5,664 (including 2 193 children up to 14 years of age) persons ill. Hospitalization was required for 1,445 persons. The most frequent etiological agent in those outbreaks was Salmonella spp.--which was responsible for 36,3% of outbreaks and 21,5% of cases. Viruses were responsible for 29,7 of outbreaks and 45,7 cases, in 19,3% of outbreaks no etiological agent was established. Like in 2012 the most frequent vehicle were dishes made from eggs and milk combined with eggs (9,4% of outbreaks). In 65% of outbreaks reported no vehicle could be found. Moreover in 2013 a total number of 3 outbreaks in which more than 100 cases were reported. The increase in the number of foodborne outbreaks of viral etiology shows the need of adjustment some aspects of epidemiological investigations especially such features as: laboratory conformation of etiological agent of ill persons as well as persons involved in the food processing and meals preparing and the aspect of food samples testing.

  13. Survival of selected foodborne pathogens on dry cured pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Partera, Ángela M; Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Jurado-Martos, Francisco; Astorga, Rafael J; Huerta, Belén; Luque, Inmaculada; Tarradas, Carmen; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime

    2017-10-03

    The safety of ready-to-eat products such as cured pork loins must be guaranteed by the food industry. In the present study, the efficacy of the dry curing process of pork loins obtained from free-range pigs in the reduction of three of the most important foodborne pathogens is analysed. A total of 28 pork loin segments, with an average weight of 0.57±0.12kg, were divided into four groups with three being inoculated by immersion with 7logCFU/ml of either Salmonella Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli or Listeria innocua and the last one inoculated by immersion with sterile medium (control group). The loin segments were treated with a seasoning mixture of curing agents and spices, packed in a synthetic sausage casing and cured for 64days. Microbiological analysis, pH and water activity (a w ) were assessed at four stages. The values of pH and a w decreased with curing time as expected. S. Typhimurium and C. coli dropped significantly (3.28 and 2.14 log units, respectively), but limited reduction of L. innocua (0.84 log unit) was observed along the curing process. In our study, three factors were considered critical: the initial concentration of the bacteria, the progressive reduction of pH and the reduction of a w values. Our results encourage performing periodic analysis at different stages of the manufacturing of dry cured pork loins to ensure the absence of the three evaluated foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Epidemiological situation of foodborne diseases in Santiago, Chile in 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Valeria; Solari, Verónica; Alvarez, Isabel M; Arellano, Carolina; Vidal, Roberto; Carreño, Mónica; Mamani, Nora; Fuentes, David; O'Ryan, Miguel; Muñoz, Víctor

    2002-05-01

    Foodborne diseases are becoming an important cause of morbidity in Chile. In the Metropolitan Region of Chile, the Environmental Health Service started a surveillance program for foodborne diseases in 1994. In 2000, this program was complemented with an etiologic study of individuals involved in outbreaks. To report the incidence of foodborne outbreaks in the Metropolitan Region of Chile and its causative agents. One hundred ninety outbreaks of foodborne diseases were reported in 1999 and 260 in 2000. The Southern Metropolitan health service had the higher incidence rates (7.5 in 1999 and 8.2 in 2000). The mean attack rates were 25% in both periods, affecting 1248 individuals in 1999 and 1774 in 2000. In 18% of outbreaks, a pathogen was identified; the most frequent agents were Salmonella Spp, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella. In 15% of subjects, the cause was histamine or chemical agents. In the rest of the cases, the cause was not identified. The foods with higher risk of causing foodborne diseases were hot prepared dishes, home made goat cheese and meats. The incidence rates of foodborne disease in Metropolitan Area of Chile are high and maybe underestimate, only in a low rate of outbreaks was possible to have samples for etiologic studies. For a better understanding of this problem, timely notification of foodborne diseases must be encouraged and educational campaigns about the proper manipulation of food items must be implemented.

  15. Foodborne (1973-2013) and Waterborne (1971-2013) Disease Outbreaks - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey-Mattia, Daniel; Roberts, Virginia A; Vieira, Antonio; Fullerton, Kathleen E

    2016-10-14

    CDC collects data on foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks reported by all U.S. states and territories through the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) (http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/fdoss/surveillance/index.html) and the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/surveillance), respectively. These two systems are the primary source of national data describing the number of reported outbreaks; outbreak-associated illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; etiologic agents; water source or implicated foods; settings of exposure; and other factors associated with recognized foodborne and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States.

  16. Antagonistic activity of dairy lactobacilli against gram-foodborne pathogens - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.18776

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Geria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from artisanal raw milk cheese, presumptively identified and tested against one dairy Escherichia coli strain. Six lactobacilli, exhibiting antagonistic activity, were identified at the species level and their action was evaluated against four strains of Gram-foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O26, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. 1023, and Salmonella Typhimurium and the control strain Escherichia coli ATCC 45922. The antagonistic activity was determined by spot method and the inhibition zones were measured by Autodesk AutoCAD 2007. Three strains, all Lactobacillus paracasei, were active against all the pathogens; the other strains, all Lactobacillus plantarum, showed antagonistic activity against some pathogens. This study highlights the intense and different antagonistic activity induced by lactobacilli against various foodborne pathogens thus demonstrating that using selected lactic acid bacteria strains as adjunct cultures could be an effective strategy to prevent the development of foodborne pathogens in artisanal raw milk cheeses, and thus improving their safety.

  17. Enrichment dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes and the associated microbiome from naturally contaminated ice cream linked to a listeriosis outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottesen, Andrea; Ramachandran, Padmini; Reed, Elizabeth; White, James R; Hasan, Nur; Subramanian, Poorani; Ryan, Gina; Jarvis, Karen; Grim, Christopher; Daquiqan, Ninalynn; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc; Colwell, Rita; Brown, Eric; Chen, Yi

    2016-11-16

    Microbiota that co-enrich during efforts to recover pathogens from foodborne outbreaks interfere with efficient detection and recovery. Here, dynamics of co-enriching microbiota during recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from naturally contaminated ice cream samples linked to an outbreak are described for three different initial enrichment formulations used by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Enrichment cultures were analyzed using DNA extraction and sequencing from samples taken every 4 h throughout 48 h of enrichment. Resphera Insight and CosmosID analysis tools were employed for high-resolution profiling of 16S rRNA amplicons and whole genome shotgun data, respectively. During enrichment, other bacterial taxa were identified, including Anoxybacillus, Geobacillus, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Streptococcus spp. Surprisingly, incidence of L. monocytogenes was proportionally greater at hour 0 than when tested 4, 8, and 12 h later with all three enrichment schemes. The corresponding increase in Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus spp.indicated these taxa co-enriched in competition with L. monocytogenes during early enrichment hours. L. monocytogenes became dominant after 24 h in all three enrichments. DNA sequences obtained from shotgun metagenomic data of Listeria monocytogenes at 48 h were assembled to produce a consensus draft genome which appeared to have a similar tracking utility to pure culture isolates of L. monocytogenes. All three methods performed equally well for enrichment of Listeria monocytogenes. The observation of potential competitive exclusion of L. mono by Anoxybacillus and Geobacillus in early enrichment hours provided novel information that may be used to further optimize enrichment formulations. Application of Resphera Insight for high-resolution analysis of 16S amplicon sequences accurately identified L. monocytogenes

  18. The association between foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitisation -- EuroPrevall study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, Jacqueline J.; Wong, Gary W. K.; Potts, James; Ogorodova, Ludmila M.; Fedorova, Olga S.; Mahesh, P. A.; Sakellariou, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.; Knulst, André C.; Versteeg, Serge A.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Kummeling, Ischa; Burney, Peter; van Ree, Ronald; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2014-01-01

    An inverse association between markers of exposure to foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitization has been reported. However, the findings of epidemiological studies have not been consistent. This study investigated the relationship between antibodies to hepatitis A, Toxoplasma

  19. The association between foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitisation - EuroPrevall study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, J.J.; Wong, G.W.K.; Potts, J.; Ogorodova, L.M.; Fedorova, O.S.; Mahesh, P.A.; Sakellariou, A.; Papadopoulos, N.G.; Knulst, A.C.; Versteeg, S.A.; Kroes, A.C.M.; Vossen, A.C.T.M.; Campos Ponce, M.; Kummeling, I.; Burney, P.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An inverse association between markers of exposure to foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitization has been reported. However, the findings of epidemiological studies have not been consistent. This study investigated the relationship between antibodies to hepatitis A,

  20. Detection and characterization of foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms naturally occurring during food processing are important in developing intervention and verification strategies. In the poultry industry, contamination of poultry meat with foodborne pathogens (especially, Salmonella and Campylobacter) ...

  1. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (∼7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (∼5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Trisodium phosphate for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2011-06-01

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are recognized as the major cause of acute nonbacterial foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in both developed and developing countries. They are resistant to most chemical inactivation processes, and can survive in the environment for long periods. The aim of this research was to apply trisodium phosphate (TSP) on spiked produce (lettuce and peppers) for the reduction of foodborne NoV surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), and murine norovirus (MNV-1). Washed and dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm²) and Jalapeno peppers (25-30 g/pepper) were spiked with FCV-F9 and MNV-1 at titers of ∼7 log₁₀ plaque forming unit (PFU)/mL or ∼5 log₁₀ PFU/mL and dried aseptically in a biosafety hood for 5 min. Samples were treated with 2% TSP, 5% TSP, 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite, or water for 15 or 30 sec. Treatments were immediately neutralized with cell culture media containing 10% fetal bovine serum, and viruses were recovered and evaluated using standardized plaque assays. No significant differences between the two contact times on viral reduction was observed (p > 0.05). All three chemicals reduced FCV-F9 titers at ∼5 log₁₀ PFU/mL to undetectable levels, but MNV-1 at ∼5 log₁₀ PFU/mL was decreased by ∼2-3 log₁₀ PFU/mL with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite and 2% TSP, and to undetectable levels by 5% TSP. FCV-F9 at ∼7 log₁₀ PFU/mL was reduced by >5 log₁₀ PFU/mL with 2% TSP, in comparison to 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite that showed ≤ 1.4 log₁₀ PFU/mL reduction. MNV-1 at ∼7 log₁₀ PFU/mL was decreased by ∼2-3.4 log₁₀ PFU/mL with 2% TSP; and by PFU/mL with 200 mg/L sodium hypochlorite. FCV-F9 and MNV-1 at ∼7 log₁₀ PFU/mL were reduced to undetectable levels by 5% TSP. Treatments by 5% TSP for 30 sec did not result in any statistically significant color changes of the tested produce. TSP at 5% appears suitable as an alternative treatment to chlorine washes for NoV reduction on produce

  3. [Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of foodborne parasitic diseases among middle school students in Xuzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhou; Ya-Peng, Liu; Li, Li

    2017-12-26

    To investigate the status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of foodborne parasitic diseases among middle school students in Xuzhou City, so as to provide a reference to the health education. A total of four middle schools were selected and their students were investigated with the basic information questionnaire and questions of foodborne parasitic diseases. The awareness rates of parasitic diseases, hazards and transmission were 56.50%, 66.33% and 70.50% respectively. The awareness rates of transmission of the diseases in the senior high school students and urban students were higher than those in the junior middle school students and rural students ( χ 2 = 8.684, 8.470, both P eating raw food were higher among the female students than those among the male students ( χ 2 = 7.675, 15.230, both P eating raw food was higher among the senior high school students than that among the junior middle school students ( χ 2 = 49.276, P eat food that might be infected with foodborne parasites, and the proportion of girls was higher than that of the boys ( χ 2 = 11.690, P eating food that might be infected with foodborne parasites, and 81% of the students would plan to get rid of bad habits. The cognition of foodborne parasitic diseases is poor among the middle school students in Xuzhou City. The health education work on foodborne parasitic diseases should be strengthened.

  4. Climate Change, Foodborne Pathogens and Illness in Higher-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, I R; Barker, G C

    2018-02-14

    We present a review of the likely consequences of climate change for foodborne pathogens and associated human illness in higher-income countries. The relationships between climate and food are complex and hence the impacts of climate change uncertain. This makes it difficult to know which foodborne pathogens will be most affected, what the specific effects will be, and on what timescales changes might occur. Hence, a focus upon current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne pathogens is essential. We highlight a number of developments that may enhance preparedness for climate change. These include the following: Adoption of novel surveillance methods, such as syndromic methods, to speed up detection and increase the fidelity of intervention in foodborne outbreaks Genotype-based approaches to surveillance of food pathogens to enhance spatiotemporal resolution in tracing and tracking of illness Ever increasing integration of plant, animal and human surveillance systems, One Health, to maximise potential for identifying threats Increased commitment to cross-border (global) information initiatives (including big data) Improved clarity regarding the governance of complex societal issues such as the conflict between food safety and food waste Strong user-centric (social) communications strategies to engage diverse stakeholder groups The impact of climate change upon foodborne pathogens and associated illness is uncertain. This emphasises the need to enhance current capacity and adaptation potential against foodborne illness. A range of developments are explored in this paper to enhance preparedness.

  5. Reflections on a career in public health: evolving foodborne pathogens, environmental health, and food safety programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Frank L

    2002-12-01

    Events affecting environmental health and food safety policy, programs and organization and emerging or identified foodborne diseases are reviewed by decade. The review starts with the impact of the 1940s war years on environmental sanitation, as it was called, and disease control. It continues with the intensifying disease surveillance and improvements in sanitation of the 1950s and the improvements in foodborne-disease surveillance and the reorganization of environmental programs of the 1960s. Many previously unknown foodborne pathogens were identified, and more changes in environmental policy came about in the 1970s. Evaluation of foodborne-disease control measures were initiated. In the 1980s, evaluation of major foodborne-disease problems came to the forefront. In the 1990s, the media and consumer groups became aware of foodborne-disease problems and concerned with the environment. The first decade of the 21st century will be faced with continuing dilemmas posed by emerging diseases and will need to provide solutions through the balancing of science, education, and politics.

  6. Epidemiology of bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne gastroenteritis outbreaks in Australia, 2001 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Fiona J; Polkinghorne, Benjamin G; Fearnley, Emily J

    2016-12-24

    Bacterial toxin-mediated foodborne outbreaks, such as those caused by Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, are an important and preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Due to the short incubation period and duration of illness, these outbreaks are often under-reported. This is the first study to describe the epidemiology of bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks in Australia. Using data collected between 2001 and 2013, we identify high risk groups and risk factors to inform prevention measures. Descriptive analyses of confirmed bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks between 2001 and 2013 were undertaken using data extracted from the OzFoodNet Outbreak Register, a database of all outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease investigated by public health authorities in Australia. A total of 107 laboratory confirmed bacterial toxin-mediated outbreaks were reported between 2001 and 2013, affecting 2,219 people, including 47 hospitalisations and 13 deaths. Twelve deaths occurred in residents of aged care facilities. Clostridium perfringens was the most commonly reported aetiological agent (81 outbreaks, 76%). The most commonly reported food preparation settings were commercial food preparation services (51 outbreaks, 48%) and aged care facilities (42 outbreaks, 39%). Bacterial toxin outbreaks were rarely associated with food preparation in the home (2 outbreaks, 2%). In all outbreaks, the primary factor contributing to the outbreak was inadequate temperature control of the food. Public health efforts aimed at improving storage and handling practices for pre-cooked and re-heated foods, especially in commercial food preparation services and aged care facilities, could help to reduce the magnitude of bacterial toxin outbreaks.

  7. Effect of Activated Plastic Films on Inactivation of Foodborne Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Soriano Cuadrado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, low density polyethylene films were activated by co-extrusion with zinc oxide, zinc acetate or potassium sorbate. Films were also surface-activated with tyrosol singly or in combination with lactic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Activated films were tested on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The combinations showing greatest inhibition zones and broadest inhibitory spectrum were the films activated with tyrosol plus p-hydroxybenzoic acid. A small delay in growth of Listeria innocua was observed on seabream packed in ZnO-activated films during refrigerated storage for 7 days. When films activated with 2.5% tyrosol or with 1.5% tyrosol plus 0.5 p-hydroxybenzoic acid were used for vacuum packaging of smoked salmon and smoked tuna challenged with cocktails of S. enterica and L. monocytogenes strains, the combination of tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid improved inactivation of both pathogens during chill storage compared to films singly activated with tyrosol. The best results were obtained in smoked salmon, since no viable pathogens were detected after 7 days of chill storage for the activated film. Results from the study highlight the potential of plastic films surface-activated with tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the control of foodborne pathogens in smoked seafood.

  8. Food-borne tonsillopharyngitis outbreak in a hospital cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, B M; Erol, N; Emek, M; Ozturk, B; Saylak, O M; Cetin, K; Sakarya, S

    2012-02-01

    A food-borne tonsillopharyngitis outbreak was reported between 9th and 13th of February, 2008, in Söke State Hospital, Aydın, Turkey. This descriptive cohort study was carried out immediately after the outbreak. In order to determine the probable origin, a questionnaire involving demographical features, clinical features, and possible risk factors was distributed to 403 persons. The participants of the questionnaire (n = 403) were divided into two groups: the study group (n = 252); those with any two of the following three complaints; sore throat, fever, and dizziness, and the control group (n = 151); those without these complaints. This investigation revealed that 252 people were affected by this outbreak. Group A β-hemolytic streptococci were isolated from the throat cultures of 63 affected individuals (25%) and an employee working in the patisserie that made desserts served for lunch. Since the number of people who ate the milky dessert was statistically higher compared to the non-eaters, the milky dessert was thought to be the origin of the outbreak. We suggest that throat infections among employees working in food production may cause outbreaks of upper respiratory tract infections.

  9. A clade of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant strains linked to recent listeriosis outbreaks associated with produce from a defined geographic region in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel S Burall

    Full Text Available Four listeriosis incidences/outbreaks, spanning 19 months, have been linked to Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant (4bV strains. Three of these incidents can be linked to a defined geographical region, while the fourth is likely to be linked. In this study, whole genome sequencing (WGS of strains from these incidents was used for genomic comparisons using two approached. The first was JSpecies tetramer, which analyzed tetranucleotide frequency to assess relatedness. The second, the CFSAN SNP Pipeline, was used to perform WGS SNP analyses against three different reference genomes to evaluate relatedness by SNP distances. In each case, unrelated strains were included as controls. The analyses showed that strains from these incidents form a highly related clade with SNP differences of ≤101 within the clade and >9000 against other strains. Multi-Virulence-Locus Sequence Typing, a third standardized approach for evaluation relatedness, was used to assess the genetic drift in six conserved, known virulence loci and showed a different clustering pattern indicating possible differences in selection pressure experienced by these genes. These data suggest a high degree of relatedness among these 4bV strains linked to a defined geographic region and also highlight the possibility of alterations related to adaptation and virulence.

  10. A clade of Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant strains linked to recent listeriosis outbreaks associated with produce from a defined geographic region in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burall, Laurel S; Grim, Christopher J; Datta, Atin R

    2017-01-01

    Four listeriosis incidences/outbreaks, spanning 19 months, have been linked to Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b variant (4bV) strains. Three of these incidents can be linked to a defined geographical region, while the fourth is likely to be linked. In this study, whole genome sequencing (WGS) of strains from these incidents was used for genomic comparisons using two approached. The first was JSpecies tetramer, which analyzed tetranucleotide frequency to assess relatedness. The second, the CFSAN SNP Pipeline, was used to perform WGS SNP analyses against three different reference genomes to evaluate relatedness by SNP distances. In each case, unrelated strains were included as controls. The analyses showed that strains from these incidents form a highly related clade with SNP differences of ≤101 within the clade and >9000 against other strains. Multi-Virulence-Locus Sequence Typing, a third standardized approach for evaluation relatedness, was used to assess the genetic drift in six conserved, known virulence loci and showed a different clustering pattern indicating possible differences in selection pressure experienced by these genes. These data suggest a high degree of relatedness among these 4bV strains linked to a defined geographic region and also highlight the possibility of alterations related to adaptation and virulence.

  11. Essential oils from herbs against foodborne pathogens in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella Silva; Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Bérgamo Alves, Fernanda Cristina; Albano, Mariana; Mores Rall, Vera Lucia; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat and its products, especially sausage, have increased in recent years. However, this product is susceptible to microbial contamination during manufacturing, which compromises its shelf life. The flavoring and preservative activities of essential oils (EO) have been recognized and the application of these antimicrobial agents as natural active compounds in food preservation has shown promise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare EO on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis strains in artificially inoculated samples of fresh chicken sausage. First, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO in vitro was determined. The sausage was prepared and kept at ± 4°C; then, the inoculation of individual bacteria was carried out. EO were added at 0.3%, 1.0% and 1.5%v/w. After 0, 5, and 24 hours, the most probable number method (MPN) was performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to view the damage caused by these EO on bacterial morphology and/or structure. Only the 1.5% concentration was effective in reducing L. monocytogenes. 0.3% of O. vulgare EO was able to reduce the MPN/g of Salmonella Enteritidis (2 log) after 5 hours trials. O. basilicum EO showed no effect on Salmonella after 5 hours, but decreased by 2 log after 24 hours. O. vulgare EO at 1% gave a greater reduction of S. Enteritidis at 5 hours, increasing or maintaining this effect after 24 hours. The results confirmed the potential benefits of use EO in control of foodborne pathogens.

  12. Raising the Level of Analysis of Food-Borne Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, James A.; Hubbard, Alan; Scott, James; Cevallos, William; Bates, Sarah J.; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Consuming contaminated food is a well-documented individual-level risk factor for diarrheal disease. The sharing of food also influences the distribution of diarrheal disease risk through a community and region. Understanding this social process at a population level is therefore an important dimension of risk not captured by standard individual-level analyses. We examined social networks related to food-sharing in rural villages at 2 scales: within a village, examining whether connections within these networks clustered or were uniformly spread; and among villages, looking at whether food-sharing networks differed according to the village’s remoteness from a population center. Methods We surveyed 2129 individuals aged 13 years and older in 2003–2004, within a representative (block-randomized) sample of 21 rural villages in Esmeraldas province, northern coastal Ecuador. We calculated degree (number of social contacts) for a social network defined by sharing food. Results Networks of households sharing food differ according to remoteness from a metropolitan center. On average, residents living in “far villages” had 2 more social contacts than those in “close villages,” and 12 more years of residence in their village. Estimates of transmissibility (a measure of outbreak potential) based on network structure varied as much as 2-fold across these villages. Conclusions Food-sharing practices link particular households in rural villages and have implications for the spread of food-borne pathogens. The food-sharing networks in remote rural villages are heterogeneous and clustered, consistent with contemporary theories about disease transmitters. Network-based measures may offer tools for predicting patterns of disease outbreaks, as well as guidance for interventions. PMID:18379421

  13. Total phenolic and flavonoid content and antibacterial activity of Punica granatum L. var. pleniflora flowers (Golnar) against bacterial strains causing foodborne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, Arash; Asgarpanah, Jinous; Sadaghiyani, Parisa Nosrati; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2015-10-15

    Flowers of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) var. pleniflora, known as "Golnar" in Iranian traditional medicine have been used for the prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. In this study, antibacterial activities of ethanol extract of Golnar and its fractions were scientifically evaluated against bacteria causing foodborne diseases including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysantriae, and Salmonella typhi. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its fractions were also determined. The antibacterial effect of the ethanol extract and its fractions were primarily evaluated by agar well diffusion and their MIC and MBC were determined by broth macro dilution method. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and its fractions were measured based on gallic acid and rutin equivalents (GAE and RE), respectively. After evaluation of total phenolic and flavonoid content the chloroform fraction showed the lowest phenolic and flavonoid contents (3.8 mg GAE/g and 1.1 mg RE/g respectively) and the methanol fraction showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (18.1 mg GEA/g and 3.3 mg RE/g respectively). The total phenolic and flavonoid content was positively associated with the antibacterial activities of the fractions with chloroform extract exhibiting lowest antibacterial activity against E. coli (MIC 25 mg/ml) and the methanol fraction exhibiting the highest antibacterial effect against S. aureus (MIC 0.19 mg/ml). Golnar extract showed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria causing food poisoning. Therefore, the extract can be used for prevention or treatment of foodborne diseases or as preservative in the food industry. The methanol fraction with the highest phenolic and flavonoid content showed the highest antibacterial effect. This indicates that the phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the extract can be responsible for the

  14. Development of a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for rapid and simultaneous identification of common foodborne pathogens in soft cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Cremonesi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. Therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. We wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR involving eight individual TaqMan™ reactions to detect simultaneously, without selective enrichment, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verocytotoxin-producing E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in cheese. ddPCR (a third-generation PCR provides absolute quantification of target DNAs without requirement of a standard curve, which simplifies experimentation and data comparability. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the developed ddPCR system were assessed using purified DNA from 50 reference pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from international or Italian collections and analyzing soft cheese samples artificially contaminated with serial dilutions (from 4×106 to 4×101 CFU/g of pure cultures from the American Type Culture Collection.Finally, the performance of our ddPCR system was compared by parallel testing with quantitative PCR: it gave higher sensitivity (102 CFU/g for the Listeria spp. assay without the necessity of a standard curve.In conclusion, this is the first ddPCR system developed for simultaneous detection of common foodborne pathogens in cheese using a single set of amplification conditions. As such, it could become a useful strategy for high-throughput screening of microorganisms to evaluate the quality and safety of food products.

  15. Development of a Droplet Digital Polymerase Chain Reaction for Rapid and Simultaneous Identification of Common Foodborne Pathogens in Soft Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Paola; Cortimiglia, Claudia; Picozzi, Claudia; Minozzi, Giulietta; Malvisi, Michela; Luini, Mario; Castiglioni, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products can harbor various microorganisms (e.g., Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes , verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli ) arising from animal reservoirs, and which can become important sources of foodborne illness. Therefore, early detection of food pathogens is crucial to prevent diseases. We wished to develop an accurate quantitative protocol based on a droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) involving eight individual TaqMan™ reactions to detect simultaneously, without selective enrichment, Listeria spp., L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., verocytotoxin-producing E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in cheese. ddPCR (a "third-generation PCR") provides absolute quantification of target DNAs without requirement of a standard curve, which simplifies experimentation and data comparability. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity of the developed ddPCR system were assessed using purified DNA from 50 reference pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from international or Italian collections and analyzing soft cheese samples artificially contaminated with serial dilutions (from 4 × 10 6 to 4 × 10 1 CFU/g) of pure cultures from the American Type Culture Collection. Finally, the performance of our ddPCR system was compared by parallel testing with quantitative PCR: it gave higher sensitivity (10 2 CFU/g for the Listeria spp. assay) without the necessity of a standard curve. In conclusion, this is the first ddPCR system developed for simultaneous detection of common foodborne pathogens in cheese using a single set of amplification conditions. As such, it could become a useful strategy for high-throughput screening of microorganisms to evaluate the quality and safety of food products.

  16. The most important parasites in Serbia involving the foodborne route of transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, J. M.; Prodanov-Radulović, J. Z.; Vasilev, S. D.

    2017-09-01

    Food can be an important route for transmission of parasites to humans. Compared to other foodborne pathogens in Serbia, foodborne (or potentially foodborne) parasites do not get the attention they undoubtedly deserve. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the most important parasitic pathogens that can be transmitted by food, and that cause disease in humans: Echinococcus, Trichinella, Taenia solium and Toxoplasma gondii. For each of these pathogens, the severity of human diseases they cause, incidence, mortality and case fatality rate among humans in Serbia as well as their prevalence in animal species in Serbia are described. Some of the described foodborne parasites can induce severe disease symptoms in humans associated with high case fatality rates, while others can cause massive outbreaks. All of the aforementioned parasites occur throughout Serbia and cause both severe public health problems and substantial economic losses in livestock production. In conclusion, the control measures of foodborne parasites certainly need to include education of farmers and improvement of veterinary sanitary measures in animal farming and animal waste control.

  17. Understanding the Relationships Between Inspection Results and Risk of Foodborne Illness in Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Petrona; Hedberg, Craig W

    2016-10-01

    Restaurants are important settings for foodborne disease outbreaks and consumers are increasingly using restaurant inspection results to guide decisions about where to eat. Although public posting of inspection results may lead to improved sanitary practices in the restaurant, the relationship between inspection results and risk of foodborne illness appears to be pathogen specific. To further examine the relationship between inspection results and the risk of foodborne disease outbreaks, we evaluated results of routine inspections conducted in multiple restaurants in a chain (Chain A) that was associated with a large Salmonella outbreak in Illinois. Inspection results were collected from 106 Chain A establishments in eight counties. Forty-six outbreak-associated cases were linked to 23 of these Chain A restaurants. There were no significant differences between the outbreak and nonoutbreak restaurants for overall demerit points or for the number of demerit points attributed to hand washing or cross-contamination. Our analyses strongly suggest that the outbreak resulted from consumption of a contaminated fresh produce item without further amplification within individual restaurants. Inspections at these facilities would be unlikely to detect or predict the foodborne illness outbreak because there are no Food Code items in place to stop the introduction of contaminated food from an otherwise approved commercial food source. The results of our study suggest that the agent and food item pairing and route of transmission must be taken into consideration to improve our understanding of the relationship between inspection results and the risk of foodborne illness in restaurants.

  18. Approaches to the Surveillance of Foodborne Disease: A Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Laura; Miller, Megge; Cawthorne, Amy; Fearnley, Emily; Kirk, Martyn

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne disease surveillance aims to reduce the burden of illness due to contaminated food. There are several different types of surveillance systems, including event-based surveillance, indicator-based surveillance, and integrated food chain surveillance. These approaches are not mutually exclusive, have overlapping data sources, require distinct capacities and resources, and can be considered a hierarchy, with each level being more complex and resulting in a greater ability to detect and control foodborne disease. Event-based surveillance is generally the least resource-intensive system and makes use of informal data sources. Indicator-based surveillance is seen as traditional notifiable disease surveillance and consists of routinely collected data. Integrated food chain surveillance is viewed as the optimal practice for conducting continuous risk analysis for foodborne diseases, but also requires significant ongoing resources and greater multisectoral collaboration compared to the other systems. Each country must determine the most appropriate structure for their surveillance system for foodborne diseases based on their available resources. This review explores the evidence on the principles, minimum capabilities, and minimum requirements of each type of surveillance and discusses examples from a range of countries. This review forms the evidence base for the Strengthening the Surveillance and Response for Foodborne Diseases: A Practical Manual.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant and antifungal properties of the traditional plants against foodborne fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifzadeh, A; Javan, A Jebeli; Shokri, H; Abbaszadeh, S; Keykhosravy, K

    2016-03-01

    To determine the antioxidant and antifungal activities of the essential oils from five aromatic herbs, including Thymus vulgaris, Chamaemelum nobile, Ziziphora clinopodioides, Zingiber officinale and Cuminum cyminum, against different Aspergillus and Penicillium species. The oils were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The susceptibility test for the oils was carried out in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) using microdilution method. The values of the essential oils in DPPH assay were as follows: T. vulgaris (450.11±5.23 μg/mL), Ch. nobile (602.73±4.8 μg/mL), Ziz. clinopodioides (1238.82±9.3 μg/mL), Cu. cyminum (1255.52±8.92 μg/mL) and Zin. officinale (5595.06±8.24 μg/mL). Our findings also indicated a strong activity against tested fungi for the oil of T. vulgaris (1250 μg/mL), followed by Cu. cyminum (1416 μg/mL), Zin. officinale (1833 μg/mL), Ziz. clinopodioides (2166 μg/mL) and Ch. nobile (3750 μg/mL). This study confirmed the excellent antifungal and antioxidant properties of the essential oils, especially T. vulgaris, against foodborne pathogenic fungi. Owing to their strong protective features, these oils could be used in ethno-medicine as preventers of lipid peroxidation and cellular damage, and in food industries as preservers of foodstuffs against spoilage fungi. Also, they could be the candidates to develop new antibiotics and disinfectants to control infective agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens by kimchi prepared with bacteriocin-producing starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ji Yoon; Chang, Hae Choon

    2011-01-01

    Kimchi (starter kimchi) was prepared with Leuconostoc citreum GJ7, a bacteriocin producer, with the objective of preventing growth and/or survival of foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhi, and Staphylococcus aureus. Numbers of the pathogens inoculated to 5.41 to 5.63 log CFU/mL into the filtrate of freshly made starter kimchi remained stable for the first 12 h of incubation at 10 °C. Reductions of 2.69, 2.88, and 3.42 log CFU/mL were observed 48 h after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhi, and S. aureus, respectively. Use of the bacteriocin-producing starter culture for kimchi fermentation significantly reduced the numbers of pathogens in the filtrate. Reductions of 3.85, 4.45, and 5.19 log CFU/mL were observed 48 h after inoculation for E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhi, and S. aureus, respectively. Presumably, the antimicrobial activity came from the ingredients of kimchi such as sulfur-containing compounds, low pH (approximately pH 4.5) produced by the conversion of sugars into organic acids and the bacteriocins potentially produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), such as kimchicin GJ7. Together, these data suggest that addition of a starter culture capable of producing bacteriocins could serve as a strategy to protect the fermented product from delivering pathogens upon consumption and that the kimchi filtrate itself may be used as a food preservative. Practical Application: The adaptation of the starter fermentation into kimchi induced a faster die off of the pathogens as compared to natural fermentation. The in situ bateriocin-production by Leuc. citreum GJ7 in kimchi would act with antimicrobial kimchi ingredients in a synergistic manner to protect the fermented product from delivering pathogens upon consumption.

  1. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Myga-Nowak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses – bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic

  2. Fish-Associated Foodborne Disease Outbreaks: United States, 1998-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kelly A; Nakao, Jolene H; Taylor, Ethel V; Eggers, Carrie; Gould, Lydia Hannah

    2017-09-01

    Each year in the United States, ∼260,000 people get sick from contaminated fish. Fish is also the most commonly implicated food category in outbreaks. We reviewed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System for outbreaks resulting from consumption of fish during the period 1998-2015. We found 857 outbreaks associated with fish, resulting in 4815 illnesses, 359 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths. The median number of illnesses per outbreak was three (range: 2-425). The annual number of fish-associated outbreaks declined from an average of 62 per year during the period 1998-2006 to 34 per year during the period 2007-2015. Hawaii (221 outbreaks [26%]) and Florida (203 [24%]) reported the most outbreaks. Among 637 outbreaks (74%) with a confirmed etiology, scombrotoxin (349 [55%]) and ciguatoxin (227 [36%]) were by far most common. Most outbreak-associated illnesses were caused by scombrotoxin (1299 [34%]), Salmonella (978 [26%]), and ciguatoxin (894 [23%]). Most hospitalizations were caused by Salmonella (97 [31%]) and ciguatoxin (96 [31%]). Norovirus (105 average illnesses; range: [6-380]) and Salmonella (54 [3-425]) caused the largest outbreaks. Fish types implicated most often were tuna (37%), mahi-mahi (10%), and grouper (9%). The etiology-fish pairs responsible for the most outbreaks were scombrotoxin and tuna (223 outbreaks), scombrotoxin and mahi-mahi (64), and ciguatoxin and grouper (54). The pairs responsible for the most illnesses were scombrotoxin and tuna (720 illnesses) and Salmonella and tuna (660). Of the 840 outbreaks (98%) with a single location of food preparation, 52% were associated with fish prepared in a restaurant and 33% with fish prepared in a private home. Upstream control measures targeted to the most common etiologies and controls during processing and preparation could further reduce outbreaks caused by fish.

  3. Bacteriophages to combat foodborne infections caused by food contamination by bacteria of the Campylobacter genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myga-Nowak, Magdalena; Godela, Agnieszka; Głąb, Tomasz; Lewańska, Monika; Boratyński, Janusz

    2016-09-26

    It is estimated that each year more than 2 million people suffer from diarrheal diseases, resulting from the consumption of contaminated meat. Foodborne infections are most frequently caused by small Gram-negative rods Campylobacter. The hosts of these bacteria are mainly birds wherein they are part of the normal intestinal flora. During the commercial slaughter, there is a likelihood of contamination of carcasses by the bacteria found in the intestinal content. In Europe, up to 90% of poultry flocks can be a reservoir of the pathogen. According to the European Food Safety Authority report from 2015, the number of reported and confirmed cases of human campylobacteriosis exceeds 200 thousands per year, and such trend remains at constant level for several years. The occurrence of growing antibiotic resistance in bacteria forces the limitation of antibiotic use in the animal production. Therefore, the European Union allows only using stringent preventive and hygienic treatment on farms. Achieving Campylobacter free chickens using these methods is possible, but difficult to implement and expensive. Utilization of bacterial viruses - bacteriophages, can be a path to provide the hygienic conditions of poultry production and food processing. Formulations applied in the food protection should contain strictly lytic bacteriophages, be non-pyrogenic and retain long lasting biological activity. Currently, on the market there are available commercial bacteriophage preparations for agricultural use, but neither includes phages against Campylobacter. However, papers on the application of bacteriophages against Campylobacter in chickens and poultry products were published in the last few years. In accordance with the estimates, 2-logarithm reduction of Campylobacter in poultry carcases will contribute to the 30-fold reduction in the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans. Research on bacteriophages against Campylobacter have cognitive and economic importance. The paper

  4. Using Candida oleophila as a biocontriol agens to prevent foodborne Escherichia coli O157 EHEC infections

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yujian; Wei, An; Li, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC O157) is a serious pathogen causing haemorrhagic colitis. In this study, inactivation kinetics of inoculated EHEC O157 and response of EHEC O157 in apple wounds by different concentrations of C. oleophila was investigated. The results presented in this study indicated that EHEC O157 could survive and grow in wounded ?Fuji? apples and extensively proliferate. Water as a decontaminant was ineffective in reducing EHEC O157 in wounded apples. C. oleophila could be a...

  5. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Stacy M; Iwamoto, Martha; Huang, Jennifer Y; Griffin, Patricia M; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Lance, Susan; Tauxe, Robert; Henao, Olga L

    2014-04-18

    Foodborne disease continues to be an important problem in the United States. Most illnesses are preventable. To evaluate progress toward prevention, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites, covering approximately 15% of the U.S. population. This report summarizes preliminary 2013 data and describes trends since 2006. In 2013, a total of 19,056 infections, 4,200 hospitalizations, and 80 deaths were reported. For most infections, incidence was well above national Healthy People 2020 incidence targets and highest among children aged <5 years. Compared with 2010-2012, the estimated incidence of infection in 2013 was lower for Salmonella, higher for Vibrio, and unchanged overall.† Since 2006-2008, the overall incidence has not changed significantly. More needs to be done. Reducing these infections requires actions targeted to sources and pathogens, such as continued use of Salmonella poultry performance standards and actions mandated by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). FoodNet provides federal and state public health and regulatory agencies as well as the food industry with important information needed to determine if regulations, guidelines, and safety practices applied across the farm-to-table continuum are working.

  6. Preliminary incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food - Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Stacy M; Griffin, Patricia M; Tauxe, Robert; Marder, Ellyn P; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly; Henao, Olga L

    2015-05-15

    Foodborne illnesses represent a substantial, yet largely preventable, health burden in the United States. In 10 U.S. geographic areas, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food. This report summarizes preliminary 2014 data and describes changes in incidence compared with 2006-2008 and 2011-2013. In 2014, FoodNet reported 19,542 infections, 4,445 hospitalizations, and 71 deaths. The incidence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium infections declined in 2014 compared with 2006-2008, and the incidence of infection with Campylobacter, Vibrio, and Salmonella serotypes Infantis and Javiana was higher. Compared with 2011-2013, the incidence of STEC O157 and Salmonella Typhimurium infections was lower, and the incidence of STEC non-O157 and Salmonella serotype Infantis infections was higher in 2014. Despite ongoing food safety efforts, the incidence of many infections remains high, indicating that further prevention measures are needed to make food safer and achieve national health objectives.

  7. Assessing the genome level diversity of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated ice cream and environmental samples linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chen

    Full Text Available A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST sequence type (ST 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5. WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5

  8. Assessing the genome level diversity of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated ice cream and environmental samples linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Luo, Yan; Curry, Phillip; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Doyle, Matthew; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S; Allard, Marc W; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol A

    2017-01-01

    A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type (ST) 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5). WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5 isolates from

  9. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a wide variety of ready-to-eat foods and their relationship to clinical strains from listeriosis outbreaks in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, David; Bodero, Marcia; Riveros, Guillermina; Lapierre, Lisette; Gaggero, Aldo; Vidal, Roberto M.; Vidal, Maricel

    2015-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen transmitted through food that can cause severe infections in high-risk groups such as pregnant women, elderly, young children and immunocompromised individuals. It is a ubiquitous bacterium that can survive in harsh conditions, such as dry environments, at low temperatures, in brine conditions and at low pH values. It also has the capacity to form biofilms, which makes it particularly successful even in colonizing surfaces within food processing plants. This study analyzed the presence of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food (RTE) such as sausage, cheese, fresh salads, and other types of raw food. 850 samples of refrigerated and packaged food collected in 2008 and 2009 were analyzed. It was found that 25% of these samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes strains. Serotyping and virulence genes detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) identified that strains belonging to serotype 4b, and containing one or more genes encoded by pathogenicity island (LIPI-1), were significantly associated with specific food types. Furthermore, using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), it was possible to associate isolates from cheese with strains from clinical cases of listeriosis outbreaks that occurred during the same time period within the same geographic regions. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between isolates from frozen seafood and from clinical strains obtained from sporadic cases of listeriosis. In agreement with reports described in other countries, our results shown that Chilean strains of L. monocytogenes from food products include the most virulent serotypes, encoding for the main virulence genes of the LIPI-1, and were clonally related to clinical isolates from sporadic cases and outbreaks of listeriosis. In conclusion, we show that Chilean isolates of L. monocytogenes from RTE and raw food products can cause disease in humans, representing a public health risk that justifies permanent surveillance. PMID

  10. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a wide variety of ready-to-eat foods and their relationship to clinical strains from listeriosis outbreaks in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eMontero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen transmitted through food that can cause severe infections in high-risk groups such as pregnant women, elderly, young children and immunocompromised individuals. It is a ubiquitous bacterium that can survive in harsh conditions, such as dry environments, at low temperatures, in brine conditions and at low pH values. It also has the capacity to form biofilms, which makes it particularly successful even in colonizing surfaces within food processing plants. This study analyzed the presence of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food (RTE such as sausage, cheese, fresh salads and other types of raw food. 850 samples of refrigerated and packaged food collected in 2008 and 2009 were analyzed. It was found that 25% of these samples were contaminated with L. monocytogenes strains. Serotyping and virulence genes detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR identified that strains belonging to serotype 4b, and containing one or more genes encoded by LIPI-1, were significantly associated with specific food types. Furthermore, using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, it was possible to associate isolates from cheese with strains from clinical cases of listeriosis outbreaks that occurred during the same time period within the same geographic regions. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between isolates from frozen seafood and from clinical strains obtained from sporadic cases of listeriosis. In agreement with reports described in other countries, our results shown that Chilean strains of L. monocytogenes from food products include the most virulent serotypes, encoding for the main virulence genes of the LIPI-1 pathogenicity island, and were clonally related to clinical isolates from sporadic cases and outbreaks of listeriosis. In conclusion, we show that Chilean isolates of L. monocytogenes from RTE and raw food products can cause disease in humans, representing a public health risk that justifies permanent

  11. Detection of foodborne pathogens by qPCR: A practical approach for food industry applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Chapela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological analysis of food is an integrated part of microbial safety management in the food chain. Monitoring and controlling foodborne pathogens are traditionally carried out by conventional microbiological methods based on culture-dependent approaches in control laboratories and private companies. However, polymerase chain reaction (PCR has revolutionized microbiological analysis allowing detection of pathogenic microorganisms in food, without the necessity of classical isolation and identification. However, at present, PCR and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR are essential analytical tools for researchers working in the field of foodborne pathogens. This manuscript reviews recently described qPCR methods applied for foodborne bacteria detection, serving as economical, safe, and reliable alternatives for application in the food industry and control laboratories. Multiplex qPCR, which allows the simultaneous detection of more than one pathogen in one single reaction, saving considerable effort, time, and money, is emphasized in the article.

  12. Reporting of Outbreaks of Foodborne Illness under the International Health Regulations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-27

    During the past 20 years, the global food trade has increased and, with it, the potential for the spread of foodborne illnesses caused by imported foods. The World Health Organization in 2007 implemented new International Health Regulations which help guide reporting of foodborne outbreaks. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Scott McNabb discusses a study in the September 2008 issue of the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases which analyzed foodborne outbreaks in Australia in the early part of this decade and assessed how many would have been reported under the current health regulations.  Created: 8/27/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  13. Novel strategies to enhance lateral flow immunoassay sensitivity for detecting foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Shan; Lai, Weihua; Xiong, Yonghua; Wei, Hua; Xu, Hengyi

    2015-01-28

    Food contaminated by foodborne pathogens causes diseases, affects individuals, and even kills those affected individuals. As such, rapid and sensitive detection methods should be developed to screen pathogens in food. One current detection method is lateral flow immunoassay, an efficient technique because of several advantages, including rapidity, simplicity, stability, portability, and sensitivity. This review presents the format and principle of lateral flow immunoassay strip and the development of conventional lateral flow immunoassay for detecting foodborne pathogens. Furthermore, novel strategies that can be applied to enhance the sensitivity of lateral flow immunoassay to detect foodborne pathogens are presented; these strategies include innovating new label application, designing new formats of lateral flow immunoassay, combining with other methods, and developing signal amplification systems. With these advancements, detection sensitivity and detection time can be greatly improved.

  14. Asian Implications of Aflatoxin and Dioxin Foodborne Chemical Exposures Based on World Health Organization Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Gibb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All people need food. Unsafe foods; however, may cause diseases ranging from diarrhea to cancer. Chemicals in food are a worldwide health concern. In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO organized a consultation on the global burden of foodborne diseases. Work to estimate this burden began in 2007 and was carried out by the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, which included a Chemical and Toxins Disease Task Force. The results of 8 years of work were released in December 2015.

  15. Genomic Epidemiology: Whole-Genome-Sequencing–Powered Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Xiangyu; den Bakker, Henk C.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so......-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that have made whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of foodborne bacterial pathogens a realistic and superior alternative to traditional subtyping methods. Routine, real-time, and widespread application of WGS in food safety and public health is on the horizon...

  16. Characterization of a foodborne outbreak caused by Salmonella Enteritidis in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Maria Regina Pires; Cabello, Pedro Hernan; Albuquerque-Junior, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti; Jain, Sona; Candido, Alexandre Luna

    2015-01-01

    In December 2001, an outbreak of foodborne gastroenteritis infected 114 of 161 people who ate at a restaurant in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. The epidemiological and microbiological aspects of the outbreak were characterized. Potato salad made with homemade mayonnaise and stored at unsuitable temperatures was associated with increased risk of foodborne infection. Salmonella Enteritidis was isolated from the diarrheal stools of the hospitalized patients, and genotyping of the fecal samples generated identical randomly amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profiles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first and the only record of a gastrointestinal outbreak in Sergipe.

  17. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five....... Equal weights combinations were also calculated. The main conclusions on expert performance are: (1) SEJ does provide a science-based method for attribution of the global burden of foodborne diseases; (2) equal weighting of experts per panel increased statistical accuracy to acceptable levels...

  18. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor

    2016-01-01

    it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps...

  19. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  20. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  1. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newell, D.G.; Koopmans, M.; Verhoef, L.; Duizer, E.; Aidara-Kane, A.; Sprong, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/222364815; Opsteegh, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31149305X; Langelaar, M.; Threfall, J.; Scheutz, F.; van der Giessen, J.; Kruse, H.

    2010-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease,

  2. Sensitive genotyping of foodborne-associated human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus using an array-based platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    The viral pathogens, human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are significant contributors of foodborne associated outbreaks. To develop a typing tool for foodborne viruses, a focused, low-density DNA microarray was developed in conjunction with a rapid and high-throughput fluorescent meth...

  3. Global Monitoring of Salmonella Serovar Distribution from the World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network Country Data Bank: Results of Quality Assured Laboratories from 2001 to 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Vieira, Antonio; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    most frequently identified serovars of Salmonella isolated from humans from 2001 to 2007 in laboratories from 37 countries that participated in World Health Organization Global Foodborne Infections Network and demonstrated serotyping proficiency in the Global Foodborne Infections Network External...

  4. 'I don't think I ever had food poisoning'. A practice-based approach to understanding foodborne disease that originates in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Wendy J; Meah, Angela; Dickinson, Angela M; Short, Frances

    2015-02-01

    Food stored, prepared, cooked and eaten at home contributes to foodborne disease which, globally, presents a significant public health burden. The aim of the study reported here was to investigate, analyse and interpret domestic kitchen practices in order to provide fresh insight about how the domestic setting might influence food safety. Using current theories of practice meant the research, which drew on qualitative and ethnographic methods, could investigate people and material things in the domestic kitchen setting whilst taking account of people's actions, values, experiences and beliefs. Data from 20 UK households revealed the extent to which kitchens are used for a range of non-food related activities and the ways that foodwork extends beyond the boundaries of the kitchen. The youngest children, the oldest adults and the family pets all had agency in the kitchen, which has implications for preventing foodborne disease. What was observed, filmed and photographed was not a single practice but a series of entangled encounters and actions embedded and repeated, often inconsistently, by the individuals involved. Households derived logics and principles about foodwork that represented rules of thumb about 'how things are done' that included using the senses and experiential knowledge when judging whether food is safe to eat. Overall, food safety was subsumed within the practice of 'being' a household and living everyday life in the kitchen. Current theories of practice are an effective way of understanding foodborne disease and offer a novel approach to exploring food safety in the home. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Mild processing applied to the inactivation of the main foodborne bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose; Koubaa, Mohamed; do Prado-Silva, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    such as high pressure processing, ultrasounds, pulsed electric fields, UV-light, and atmospheric cold plasma may serve, in some conditions, as useful alternatives to commercial sterilization and pasteurization aiming to destroy foodborne pathogens. Each of these mild technologies has a specific mode...

  6. Multiplex surface plasmon resonance imaging platform for label-free detection of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonellae are among the leading causes of foodborne outbreaks in the United States, and more rapid and efficient detection methods are needed. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an emerging optical technique, which allows for rapid and label-free screening of multiple targets simultaneous...

  7. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for label-free detection of foodborne pathogens and toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    More rapid and efficient detection methods for foodborne pathogenic bacteria and toxins are needed to address the long assay time and limitations in multiplex capacity. Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) is an emerging optical technique, which allows for rapid and label-free screening of multi...

  8. Label-free screening of foodborne Salmonella using surface plasmon resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 15 pathogens cause approximately 95% of the foodborne infections, it is desirable to develop rapid and simultaneous screening methods for these major pathogens. In this study, we developed an immunoassay for Salmonella based on surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). The sensor surface modif...

  9. Risk-based estimate of effect of foodborne diseases on public health, Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gkogka, E.; Reij, M.W.; Havelaar, A.H.; Zwietering, M.H.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The public health effects of illness caused by foodborne pathogens in Greece during 1996–2006 was quantified by using publicly available surveillance data, hospital statistics, and literature. Results were expressed as the incidence of different disease outcomes and as disability-adjusted life years

  10. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  11. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10 -5 for home consumption and 1.74 × 10 -5 for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  12. Identifying the source of food-borne disease outbreaks: An application of Bayesian variable selection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, Rianne; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Teunis, Peter Fm; Höhle, Michael; van de Kassteele, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Early identification of contaminated food products is crucial in reducing health burdens of food-borne disease outbreaks. Analytic case-control studies are primarily used in this identification stage by comparing exposures in cases and controls using logistic regression. Standard epidemiological

  13. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks--United States, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    Known pathogens cause an estimated 9.4 million foodborne illnesses annually in the United States. CDC collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks submitted by all states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico through CDC's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System. Data reported for each outbreak include the number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; the etiologic agent; the implicated food vehicle; and other factors involved in food preparation and consumption. During 2009-2010, a total of 1,527 foodborne disease outbreaks (675 in 2009 and 852 in 2010) were reported, resulting in 29,444 cases of illness, 1,184 hospitalizations, and 23 deaths. Among the 790 outbreaks with a single laboratory-confirmed etiologic agent, norovirus was the most commonly reported, accounting for 42% of outbreaks. Salmonella was second, accounting for 30% of outbreaks. Among the 299 outbreaks attributed to a food composed of ingredients from one of 17 predefined, mutually exclusive food commodities, those most often implicated were beef (13%), dairy (12%), fish (12%), and poultry (11%). The commodities in the 299 outbreaks associated with the most illnesses were eggs (27% of illnesses), beef (11%), and poultry (10%). Public health, regulatory, and food industry professionals can use this information when creating targeted control strategies along the farm-to-table continuum for specific agents, specific foods, and specific pairs of agents and foods. This information also supports efforts to promote safe food-handling practices among food workers and the public.

  14. Improvement of methods for the detection of Gram-negative foodborne pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margot, H.F.T.

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In most cases, these diseases are caused by contaminated food products, but transmission can also subsequently occur via person to person contact. The ability to detect the pathogens is an important aspect in the

  15. Genetic discrimination of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage Bacillus spp. based on three housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño-Antelo, S; Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Ezzat-Alnakip, M; Quintela-Baluja, M; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus genus includes foodborne pathogenic and spoilage-associated species, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Bacillus is also a heterogeneous genus that includes closely related species that are difficult to discriminate among, especially when well-conserved genes such as 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA are considered. The main goal of the present work was to study the usefulness of three housekeeping genes, the TU elongation factor (tuf), the DNA gyrase β subunit (gyrB) and the RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) genes, for use in differentiating among the most important foodborne Bacillus spp. sequences from 20 foodborne isolated Bacillus strains, and sequences belonging to different Bacillus spp. retrieved from the GenBank were analysed. In general terms, gyrB, rpoB and tuf gene regions for the strains considered in this study exhibited interspecific similarities of 57.8%, 67.23% and 77.66% respectively. Novel tufGPF and tufGPR universal primers targeted to the tuf gene were designed and proved to be useful for the amplification of all Bacillus spp considered. In conclusion, the tuf gene can be considered to be a good target for the differential characterisation of foodborne Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from other closely related species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic review of foodborne burden of disease studies: Quality assessment of data and methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); S. Polinder (Suzanne); C. Stein (Claudia); A.H. Havelaar (Arie)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBurden of disease (BoD) studies aim to identify the public health impact of different health problems and risk factors. To assess BoD, detailed knowledge is needed on epidemiology, disability and mortality in the population under study. This is particularly challenging for foodborne

  17. Classification of gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optical method with hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) has potential for identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria from microcolonies rapidly with a cell level. A HMI system that provides both spatial and spectral information could be an effective tool for analyzing spectral characteristic...

  18. Hyperspectral microscope imaging methods to classify gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    An acousto-optic tunable filter-based hyperspectral microscope imaging method has potential for identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria from microcolony rapidly with a single cell level. We have successfully developed the method to acquire quality hyperspectral microscopic images from variou...

  19. Using Role-Play to Enhance Foodborne Illness Crisis Management Capacity in the Produce Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreske, Audrey; Ducharme, Diane; Gunter, Chris; Phister, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks have measurable public health effects and often lead to negative produce industry impacts. Reducing loss following a crisis event requires a management plan, although many fresh produce industry members don't have one. Evidence-based workshops using a role-play simulated outbreak were delivered to impact crisis…

  20. Application of oligonucleotide array technology for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria of foodborne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bang-Xing; Jiang, Li-Fang; Hu, Yu-Shan; Fang, Dan-Yun; Guo, Hui-Yu

    2004-09-01

    A rapid and accurate method for detection for common pathogenic bacteria in foodborne infections was established by using oligonucleotide array technology. Nylon membrane was used as the array support. A mutation region of the 23S rRNA gene was selected as the discrimination target from 14 species (genera) of bacteria causing foodborne infections and two unrelated bacterial species. A pair of universal primers was designed for PCR amplification of the 23S rRNA gene. Twenty-one species (genera)-specific oligonucleotide detection probes were synthesized and spotted onto the nylon membranes. The 23S rRNA gene amplification products of 14 species of pathogenic bacteria were hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. Hybridization results were analyzed with digoxigenin-linked enzyme reaction. Results indicated that nine species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum) showed high sensitivity and specificity for the oligonucleotide array. Two other species (Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica) gave weak cross-reaction with E. coli, but the reaction did not affect their detection. After redesigning the probes, positive hybridization results were obtained with Staphylococcus aureus, but not with Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus pyogenes. The oligonucleotide array can also be applied to samples collected in clinical settings of foodborne infections. The superiority of oligonucleotide array over other tests lies on its rapidity, accuracy and efficiency in the diagnosis, treatment and control of foodborne infections.

  1. Biocontrol and Rapid Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages and Endolysins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jaewoo; Kim, You-Tae; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been suggested as natural food preservatives as well as rapid detection materials for food-borne pathogens in various foods. Since Listeria monocytogenes-targeting phage cocktail (ListShield) was approved for applications in foods, numerous phages have been screened and experimentally characterized for phage applications in foods. A single phage and phage cocktail treatments to various foods contaminated with food-borne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Vibrio spp. revealed that they have great potential to control various food-borne pathogens and may be alternative for conventional food preservatives. In addition, phage-derived endolysins with high host specificity and host lysis activities may be preferred to food applications rather than phages. For rapid detection of food-borne pathogens, cell-wall binding domains (CBDs) from endolysins have been suggested due to their high host-specific binding. Fluorescence-tagged CBDs have been successfully evaluated and suggested to be alternative materials of expensive antibodies for various detection applications. Most recently, reporter phage systems have been developed and tested to confirm their usability and accuracy for specific detection. These systems revealed some advantages like rapid detection of only viable pathogenic cells without interference by food components in a very short reaction time, suggesting that these systems may be suitable for monitoring of pathogens in foods. Consequently, phage is the next-generation biocontrol agent as well as rapid detection tool to confirm and even identify the food-borne pathogens present in various foods. PMID:27092128

  2. Biocontrol and Rapid Detection of Food-borne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages and Endolysins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewoo eBai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been suggested as natural food preservatives as well as rapid detection materials for food-borne pathogens in various foods. Since Listeria monocytogenes-targeting phage cocktail (ListShield was approved for applications in foods, numerous phages have been screened and experimentally characterized for phage applications in foods. A single phage and phage cocktail treatments to various foods contaminated with food-borne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Vibrio spp. revealed that they have great potential to control various food-borne pathogens and may be alternative for conventional food preservatives. In addition, phage-derived endolysins with high host specificity and host lysis activities may be preferred to food applications rather than phages. For rapid detection of food-borne pathogens, cell-wall binding domains (CBDs from endolysins have been suggested due to their high host-specific binding. Fluorescence-tagged CBDs have been successfully evaluated and suggested to be alternative materials of expensive antibodies for various detection applications. Most recently, reporter phage systems have been developed and tested to confirm their usability and accuracy for specific detection. These systems revealed some advantages like rapid detection of only viable pathogenic cells without interference by food components in a very short reaction time, suggesting that these systems may be suitable for monitoring of pathogens in foods. Consequently, phage is the next-generation biocontrol agent as well as rapid detection tool to confirm and even identify the food-borne pathogens present in various foods.

  3. Next generation sequencing-based multigene panel for high throughput detection of food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Chiara; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Ossiprandi, Maria Cristina; Turroni, Francesca; Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Mangifesta, Marta; Alessandri, Giulia; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Contamination of food by chemicals or pathogenic bacteria may cause particular illnesses that are linked to food consumption, commonly referred to as foodborne diseases. Bacteria are present in/on various foods products, such as fruits, vegetables and ready-to-eat products. Bacteria that cause foodborne diseases are known as foodborne pathogens (FBPs). Accurate detection methods that are able to reveal the presence of FBPs in food matrices are in constant demand, in order to ensure safe foods with a minimal risk of causing foodborne diseases. Here, a multiplex PCR-based Illumina sequencing method for FBP detection in food matrices was developed. Starting from 25 bacterial targets and 49 selected PCR primer pairs, a primer collection called foodborne pathogen - panel (FPP) consisting of 12 oligonucleotide pairs was developed. The FPP allows a more rapid and reliable identification of FBPs compared to classical cultivation methods. Furthermore, FPP permits sensitive and specific FBP detection in about two days from food sample acquisition to bioinformatics-based identification. The FPP is able to simultaneously identify eight different bacterial pathogens, i.e. Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica, in a given food matrix at a threshold contamination level of 10 1 cell/g. Moreover, this novel detection method may represent an alternative and/or a complementary approach to PCR-based techniques, which are routinely used for FBP detection, and could be implemented in (parts of) the food chain as a quality check. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Arcobacter: an emerging food-borne zoonotic pathogen, its public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control - a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramees, Thadiyam Puram; Dhama, Kuldeep; Karthik, Kumaragurubaran; Rathore, Ramswaroop Singh; Kumar, Ashok; Saminathan, Mani; Tiwari, Ruchi; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Arcobacter has emerged as an important food-borne zoonotic pathogen, causing sometimes serious infections in humans and animals. Newer species of Arcobacter are being incessantly emerging (presently 25 species have been identified) with novel information on the evolutionary mechanisms and genetic diversity among different Arcobacter species. These have been reported from chickens, domestic animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, horses, dogs), reptiles (lizards, snakes and chelonians), meat (poultry, pork, goat, lamb, beef, rabbit), vegetables and from humans in different countries. Arcobacters are implicated as causative agents of diarrhea, mastitis and abortion in animals, while causing bacteremia, endocarditis, peritonitis, gastroenteritis and diarrhea in humans. Three species including A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii are predominantly associated with clinical conditions. Arcobacters are primarily transmitted through contaminated food and water sources. Identification of Arcobacter by biochemical tests is difficult and isolation remains the gold standard method. Current diagnostic advances have provided various molecular methods for efficient detection and differentiation of the Arcobacters at genus and species level. To overcome the emerging antibiotic resistance problem there is an essential need to explore the potential of novel and alternative therapies. Strengthening of the diagnostic aspects is also suggested as in most cases Arcobacters goes unnoticed and hence the exact epidemiological status remains uncertain. This review updates the current knowledge and many aspects of this important food-borne pathogen, namely etiology, evolution and emergence, genetic diversity, epidemiology, the disease in animals and humans, public health concerns, and advances in its diagnosis, prevention and control.

  5. Are staff management practices and inspection risk ratings associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in the catering industry in England and Wales?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah L; Parry, Sharon M; O'Brien, Sarah J; Palmer, Stephen R

    2008-03-01

    Despite structured enforcement of food hygiene requirements known to prevent foodborne disease outbreaks, catering businesses continue to be the most common setting for outbreaks in the United Kingdom. In a matched case control study of catering businesses, 148 businesses associated with outbreaks were compared with 148 control businesses. Hazard analysis critical control point systems and/or formal food hygiene training qualifications were not protective. Food hygiene inspection scores were not useful in predicting which catering businesses were associated with outbreaks. Businesses associated with outbreaks were more likely to be larger small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) or to serve Chinese cuisine and less likely to have the owner or manager working in the kitchen, but when size of the SME was taken into account these two differences were no longer significant. In larger businesses, case businesses were more likely to be hotels and were more commonly associated with viral foodborne outbreaks, but there was no explanation within the data for this association.

  6. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  7. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products.

  8. Hypoacylated LPS from Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni Induces Moderate TLR4-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Murine Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill V. Korneev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 initiates immune response against Gram-negative bacteria upon specific recognition of lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, the major component of their cell wall. Some natural differences between LPS variants in their ability to interact with TLR4 may lead to either insufficient activation that may not prevent bacterial growth, or excessive activation which may lead to septic shock. In this study we evaluated the biological activity of LPS isolated from pathogenic strain of Campylobacter jejuni, the most widespread bacterial cause of foodborne diarrhea in humans. With the help of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we showed that LPS from a C. jejuni strain O2A consists of both hexaacyl and tetraacyl forms. Since such hypoacylation can result in a reduced immune response in humans, we assessed the activity of LPS from C. jejuni in mouse macrophages by measuring its capacity to activate TLR4-mediated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, as well as NFκB-dependent reporter gene transcription. Our data support the hypothesis that LPS acylation correlates with its bioactivity.

  9. Hypoacylated LPS from Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni Induces Moderate TLR4-Mediated Inflammatory Response in Murine Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneev, Kirill V; Kondakova, Anna N; Sviriaeva, Ekaterina N; Mitkin, Nikita A; Palmigiano, Angelo; Kruglov, Andrey A; Telegin, Georgy B; Drutskaya, Marina S; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Knirel, Yuriy A; Kuprash, Dmitry V

    2018-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) initiates immune response against Gram-negative bacteria upon specific recognition of lipid A moiety of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of their cell wall. Some natural differences between LPS variants in their ability to interact with TLR4 may lead to either insufficient activation that may not prevent bacterial growth, or excessive activation which may lead to septic shock. In this study we evaluated the biological activity of LPS isolated from pathogenic strain of Campylobacter jejuni , the most widespread bacterial cause of foodborne diarrhea in humans. With the help of hydrophobic chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry we showed that LPS from a C. jejuni strain O2A consists of both hexaacyl and tetraacyl forms. Since such hypoacylation can result in a reduced immune response in humans, we assessed the activity of LPS from C. jejuni in mouse macrophages by measuring its capacity to activate TLR4-mediated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, as well as NFκB-dependent reporter gene transcription. Our data support the hypothesis that LPS acylation correlates with its bioactivity.

  10. Disease: H00332 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00332 Listeriosis Listeriosis is a severe foodborne infection with high case fata...LE ... Listeria monocytogenes: food-borne pathogen and hygiene indicator. ... JOURN...u H, Schlundt J ... TITLE ... Quantitative risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods: th

  11. Antimicrobial activity of olive oil, vinegar, and various beverages against foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    The survival of foodborne pathogens in aqueous extracts of olive oil, virgin olive oil, vinegar, and several beverages was evaluated. Vinegar and aqueous extracts of virgin olive oil showed the strongest bactericidal activity against all strains tested. Red and white wines also killed most strains after 5 min of contact, black and green tea extracts showed weak antimicrobial activity under these conditions, and no effect was observed for the remaining beverages (fruit juices, Coca-Cola, dairy products, coffee, and beer). The phenolic compound content of the aqueous olive oil and virgin olive oil extracts could explain their antibacterial activity, which was also confirmed in mayonnaises and salads used as food models. Virgin olive oil in mayonnaises and salads reduced the counts of inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes by approximately 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, olive oil could be a hurdle component in certain processed foods and exert a protective effect against foodborne pathogens when contaminated foods are ingested.

  12. An outbreak of food-borne gastroenteritis due to sapovirus among junior high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuku, Shuzo; Kumazaki, Makoto; Kitamura, Katsuhiko; Tochikubo, Osamu; Noguchi, Yuzo

    2008-11-01

    The human sapovirus (SaV) causes acute gastroenteritis mainly in infants and young children. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with SaV occurred among junior high school students in Yokohama, Japan, during and after a study trip. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid gene derived from the students exhibited 98% homology to a SaV genogroup IV strain, Hu/Angelholm/SW278/2004/SE, which was isolated from an adult with gastroenteritis in Solna, Sweden. An identical nucleotide sequence was detected from a food handler at the hotel restaurant, suggesting that the causative agent of the outbreak was transmitted from the food handler. This is the first description of a food-borne outbreak associated with the SaV genogroup IV strain in Japan.

  13. Sushi delights and parasites: the risk of fishborne and foodborne parasitic zoonoses in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawa, Yukifumi; Hatz, Christoph; Blum, Johannes

    2005-11-01

    Because of the worldwide popularization of Japanese cuisine, the traditional Japanese fish dishes sushi and sashimi that are served in Japanese restaurants and sushi bars have been suspected of causing fishborne parasitic zoonoses, especially anisakiasis. In addition, an array of freshwater and brackish-water fish and wild animal meats, which are important sources of infection with zoonotic parasites, are served as sushi and sashimi in rural areas of Japan. Such fishborne and foodborne parasitic zoonoses are also endemic in many Asian countries that have related traditional cooking styles. Despite the recent increase in the number of travelers to areas where these zoonoses are endemic, travelers and even infectious disease specialists are unaware of the risk of infection associated with eating exotic ethnic dishes. The aim of this review is to provide practical background information regarding representative fishborne and foodborne parasitic zoonoses endemic in Asian countries.

  14. Methods for the Control of Foodborne Pathogens in Low-Moisture Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Maldonado, Alma Fernanda; Lee, Alvin; Farber, Jeffrey M

    2018-03-25

    Low-moisture foods (LMFs) have been defined as those food products with a water activity (a w ) less than 0.85 and are generally considered less susceptible to microbial spoilage and the growth of foodborne pathogens. However, in recent years, outbreaks linked to LMFs have increased, with Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Cronobacter sakazakii, Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Staphylococcus aureus being the principal pathogens involved. Because of the new concerns raised as a result of recent outbreaks, new approaches need to be developed to control foodborne pathogens in LMFs. This review summarizes the recent research on novel inactivation methods suitable for use on LMFs. Among the methods discussed are the nonthermal inactivation methods as well as other novel methods such as radio-frequency and microwave heating. Additional research is needed to evaluate older technologies and develop new technologies, either alone or in combination, to understand the mechanisms of inactivation.

  15. [The challenge of controlling foodborne diseases: bacteriophages as a new biotechnological tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Denisse; Galarce, Nicolás; Borie, Consuelo

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne diseases are an increasing public health issue, in which bacterial pathogens have a transcendental role. To face this situation, the food industry has implemented several control strategies, using in the last decade some biotechnological tools, such as direct application of bacteriophages on food, to effectively control bacterial pathogens. Their bactericidal and safe properties to humans and animals have been widely described in the literature, being nowadays some bacteriophage-based products commercially available. Despite this, there are so many factors that can interfere in their biocontrol effectiveness on food, therefore is essential to consider these factors before their application. Thus, the optimal bacterial reduction will be achieved, which would produce a safer food. This review discusses some factors to consider in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens, including historical background, taxonomy and biological description of bacteriophages, and also advantages, disadvantages, and considerations of food applications.

  16. Salt induces biosynthesis of hemolytically active compounds in the xerotolerant food-borne fungus Wallemia sebi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botić, Tanja; Kunčič, Marjetka K; Sepčić, Kristina; Knez, Zeljko; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Wallemia sebi is a xerotolerant, ubiquitous, food-borne, mycotoxigenic fungus. An ethanol extract of its mycelium demonstrated a strong hemolytic activity, which was further enhanced at high salt concentrations in the growth medium. Characterization of the extract using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a mixture of sterols and unsaturated fatty acids, indicating the latter as responsible for the hemolytic activity. The lytic activity of the extract is here studied using red blood cells and artificial small lipid vesicles with various lipid compositions. This shows concentration-dependent hemolysis and preferential activity toward lipid membranes with greater fluidity. The W. sebi lytic activity on mammalian erythrocytes shows its potential involvement in the formation of lesions in subcutaneous infections, in farmer's lung disease, and in consumption of food and feed that are contaminated with food-borne W. sebi. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immobilization with Metal Hydroxides as a Means To Concentrate Food-Borne Bacteria for Detection by Cultural and Molecular Methods†

    OpenAIRE

    Lucore, Lisa A.; Cullison, Mark A.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2000-01-01

    The application of nucleic acid amplification methods to the detection of food-borne pathogens could be facilitated by concentrating the organisms from the food matrix before detection. This study evaluated the utility of metal hydroxide immobilization for the concentration of bacterial cells from dairy foods prior to detection by cultural and molecular methods. Using reconstituted nonfat dry milk (NFDM) as a model, two food-borne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica sero...

  18. Interaction between Food-borne Pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes) and a Common Soil Flagellate (Cercomonas sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Thanh Xuan; Wolff, Anders; Madsen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Free-living protozoa may harbor, protect, and disperse bacteria, including those ingested and passed in viable form in feces. The flagellates are very important predators on bacteria in soil, but their role in the survival of food-borne pathogens associated with fruits and vegetables is not well....... The results of this study suggest that Cercomonas sp. and perhaps other soil flagellates may play a role for the survival of food-borne pathogens on plant surfaces and in soil....

  19. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a Vertebrate Model Host To Study Colonization, Pathogenesis, and Transmission of Foodborne Escherichia coli O157

    OpenAIRE

    Stones, Daniel H.; Fehr, Alexander G. J.; Thompson, Laurel; Rocha, Jacqueline; Perez-Soto, Nicolas; Madhavan, Vipin T. P.; Voelz, Kerstin; Krachler, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Foodborne infections with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a major cause of diarrheal illness in humans and can lead to severe complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Cattle and other ruminants are the main reservoir of EHEC, which enters the food chain through contaminated meat, dairy, or vegetables. Here, we describe the establishment of a vertebrate model for foodborne EHEC infection, using larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a host and the protozoan prey Param...

  20. Detection and Identification of Common Food-Borne Viruses with a Tiling Microarray

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Haifeng; Mammel, Mark; Kulka, Mike; Patel, Isha; Jackson, Scott; Goswami, Biswendu B.

    2011-01-01

    Microarray hybridization based identification of viral genotypes is increasingly assuming importance due to outbreaks of multiple pathogenic viruses affecting humans causing wide-spread morbidity and mortality. Surprisingly, microarray based identification of food-borne viruses, one of the largest groups of pathogenic viruses, causing more than 1.5 billion infections world-wide every year, has lagged behind. Cell-culture techniques are either unavailable or time consuming for routine applicat...

  1. Food-borne disease outbreaks due to bacteria in Taiwan, 1986 to 1995.

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, T M; Wang, T K; Lee, C L; Chien, S W; Horng, C B

    1997-01-01

    Between 1986 and 1995, 852 outbreaks of food-borne disease involving 26,173 cases and 20 deaths were reported in Taiwan. About 80% of the outbreaks occurred in the warmer months, i.e., between April and October. Of the 852 reported outbreaks, 555 (65%) were caused by bacterial pathogens. The three most common bacteria involved were Vibrio parahaemolyticus (35%, 197 of 555 outbreaks), Staphylococcus aureus (30%, 169 of 555 outbreaks), and Bacillus cereus (18%, 104 of 555 outbreaks).

  2. Estimates of the Burden of Foodborne Illness in Canada for 30 Specified Pathogens and Unspecified Agents, Circa 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan; Flockhart, Logan; Pintar, Katarina; Pollari, Frank; Fazil, Aamir; Nesbitt, Andrea; Marshall, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Estimates of foodborne illness are important for setting food safety priorities and making public health policies. The objective of this analysis is to estimate domestically acquired, foodborne illness in Canada, while identifying data gaps and areas for further research. Estimates of illness due to 30 pathogens and unspecified agents were based on data from the 2000–2010 time period from Canadian surveillance systems, relevant international literature, and the Canadian census population for 2006. The modeling approach required accounting for under-reporting and underdiagnosis and to estimate the proportion of illness domestically acquired and through foodborne transmission. To account for uncertainty, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to generate a mean estimate and 90% credible interval. It is estimated that each year there are 1.6 million (1.2–2.0 million) and 2.4 million (1.8–3.0 million) episodes of domestically acquired foodborne illness related to 30 known pathogens and unspecified agents, respectively, for a total estimate of 4.0 million (3.1–5.0 million) episodes of domestically acquired foodborne illness in Canada. Norovirus, Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter spp., and nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. are the leading pathogens and account for approximately 90% of the pathogen-specific total. Approximately one in eight Canadians experience an episode of domestically acquired foodborne illness each year in Canada. These estimates cannot be compared with prior crude estimates in Canada to assess illness trends as different methodologies were used. PMID:23659355

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, A. C.; GRASS, J. E.; RICHARDSON, L. C.; NISLER, A. L.; BICKNESE, A. S.; GOULD, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P outbreaks from land animals and 8% (3/40) of outbreaks from plant products (P outbreaks attributed to foods from land animals than outbreaks from foods from plants or aquatic animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on isolates from foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections. PMID:27919296

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne disease outbreaks: United States, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A C; Grass, J E; Richardson, L C; Nisler, A L; Bicknese, A S; Gould, L H

    2017-03-01

    Although most non-typhoidal Salmonella illnesses are self-limiting, antimicrobial treatment is critical for invasive infections. To describe resistance in Salmonella that caused foodborne outbreaks in the United States, we linked outbreaks submitted to the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System to isolate susceptibility data in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Resistant outbreaks were defined as those linked to one or more isolates with resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug. Multidrug resistant (MDR) outbreaks had at least one isolate resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. Twenty-one per cent (37/176) of linked outbreaks were resistant. In outbreaks attributed to a single food group, 73% (16/22) of resistant outbreaks and 46% (31/68) of non-resistant outbreaks were attributed to foods from land animals (P outbreaks from land animals and 8% (3/40) of outbreaks from plant products (P outbreaks attributed to foods from land animals than outbreaks from foods from plants or aquatic animals. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on isolates from foodborne Salmonella outbreaks can help determine which foods are associated with resistant infections.

  5. Advanced molecular diagnostic techniques for detection of food-borne pathogens: Current applications and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesha, S; Manukumar, H M

    2018-01-02

    The elimination of disease-causing microbes from the food supply is a primary goal and this review deals with the overall techniques available for detection of food-borne pathogens. Now-a-days conventional methods are replaced by advanced methods like Biosensors, Nucleic Acid-based Tests (NAT), and different PCR-based techniques used in molecular biology to identify specific pathogens. Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., and pathogens are detected in contaminated food items that cause always diseases in human in any one or the other way. Identification of food-borne pathogens in a short period of time is still a challenge to the scientific field in general and food technology in particular. The low level of food contamination by major pathogens requires specific sensitive detection platforms and the present area of hot research looking forward to new nanomolecular techniques for nanomaterials, make them suitable for the development of assays with high sensitivity, response time, and portability. With the sound of these, we attempt to highlight a comprehensive overview about food-borne pathogen detection by rapid, sensitive, accurate, and cost affordable in situ analytical methods from conventional methods to recent molecular approaches for advanced food and microbiology research.

  6. Seeds of the Wild Progenitor of Maize Possess Bacteria That Antagonize Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Hanan R; Griffiths, Mansel W; Raizada, Manish N

    2017-04-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that inhabit plant tissues without causing disease. Some endophytes help their hosts to combat pathogens. Here we explored the hypothesis that the plant-derived foods consumed by humans and other animals host endophytes that also antagonize foodborne pathogens or food-rotting agents. Our laboratory previously cultured a library of bacterial endophytes from different members of the maize/corn family (Zea) including wild relatives. Here, 190 of these endophytes were screened for their ability to antagonize four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, and Salmonella enterica Newport) and a food spoiling agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) using dual culture assays. Two Paenibacillus polymyxa endophytes (strains 3C6 and 3G11) were found to inhibit the growth of all five deleterious strains on agar. Using conserved polymerase chain reaction primers and sequencing, both beneficial endophytes were found to encode polymyxin genes, suggesting a potential antibacterial mechanism of action. Polymyxin production by both strains was confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Strains 3C6 and 3G11 originated, respectively, from the seeds of the wild Central American maize species Zea diploperennis, and the wild ancestor of modern maize, Zea mays ssp parviglumis (Parviglumis). As the latter is the direct ancestor of modern maize, we discuss the role its endophyte(s) may have played in promoting crop domestication by suppressing foodborne pathogens and/or food-spoilage agents.

  7. Bioprotection of Golden Delicious apples and Iceberg lettuce against foodborne bacterial pathogens by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, Rosalia; Bañeras, Lluís; Badosa, Esther; Montesinos, Emilio

    2008-03-31

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fresh vegetables and fruit and its ability to inhibit the growth of foodborne human pathogens (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) was tested using the agar spot assay. Eighteen isolates showed a strong antagonistic capacity and were further characterised and identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and API 50CH. Most of them pertained to Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum, and a few corresponded to Weissella spp. and Lactococcus lactis. Growth and efficacy of control of foodborne pathogen test bacteria by selected strains were tested in wounded Golden Delicious apples and Iceberg lettuce leaf cuts. The strains grew on the substrates and did not cause negative effects on the general aspect of tissues of apple or lettuce. Treatment of apple wounds and lettuce cuts with the antagonistic strains reduced the cell count of S. typhimurium and E .coli by 1 to 2 log cfu/wound or g, whereas the growth of L. monocytogenes was completely inhibited. Results support the potential use of lactic acid bacteria as bioprotective agents against foodborne human pathogens in ready-to-eat fresh fruit and vegetable products.

  8. Use of irradiation to control infectivity of food-borne parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases are common throughout the world, pose significant health problems and cause economic losses in terms of agricultural commodities and human productivity. The diseases usually occur through consumption of raw or partially cooked foods with are infected by various parasites (e.g. tapeworms, roundworms, flukes, parasitic protozoa, etc.). The problem is significant in developing countries where the population has the habit of consuming raw food of animal origin. Available data, with the exception of data on Trichinella spiralis, a parasitic nematode, were insufficient for the use of irradiation technology to control food-borne parasites. Therefore, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation to Control Infectivity of Food-Borne Parasites was implemented by the FAO/IAEA in 1986. The results of the work carried out over five years (1986-1991) by twelve researchers participating in the programme, have established conclusively the potential for application of food irradiation in the control of liver flukes, tapeworms, roundworms, trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, etc. This report includes the conclusions and recommendations of the participants concerning the results obtained and need for further research. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. The Study of Campylobacter Frequency in Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Food-borne diseases are the widespread problems worldwide. Campylobacter species are the most important pathogens causing gastroenteritis which is generally transmitted through the food with animal origin. The aim of this study was to identify the Campylobacter spp. in diarrheal outbreaks in food-borne diseases at country level. Methods:This cross-sectional study carried out in spring and summer, 2015. In total, 305 swabs from diarrheal stool samples of 102 food-borne outbreaks were collected in various provinces of Iran. All samples were examined for the presence and growth of Campylobacter spp. The descriptive analysis, chi-square test and SPSS v.21 software were used for the analysis of results. Results:From the total of 102 foodborne outbreaks, Zanjan Province with 24 outbreaks (24.5% and Yazd Province with 70 samples of diarrhea (23% included the most reported cases. Out of 305 tested samples, 119 (39% were from food, 35 (11.5% from water and 151 (41.5% from unknown sources (p <0.001.  Two outbreaks in Yazd Province including three stool samples contained Campylobacter coli. Typical symptoms included diarrhea (30.9%, abdominal cramps (68.5%, fever (31.8%, headache (42.3%, diarrhea (5.2%, nausea (62.3% and vomiting (64.9%. Conclusion:Results from this study showed that C. coli was responsible for diarrhea rather than C. jejuni.

  10. Regulation of oxidative stress resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chul eKim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis. Due to the increasing rates of human campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is considered as a serious public health concern worldwide. C. jejuni is a microaerophilic, fastidious bacterium. C. jejuni must overcome a wide range of stress conditions during foodborne transmission to humans, such as food preservation and processing conditions, and even in infection of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Particularly, this microaerophilic foodborne pathogen must survive in the atmospheric conditions prior to the initiation of infection. C. jejuni possesses unique regulatory mechanisms for oxidative stress resistance. Lacking OxyR and SoxRS that are highly conserved in other Gram-negative foodborne pathogens, C. jejuni modulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance mainly via the PerR and CosR regulators. Based on recent findings of ours and others, in this review, we described how C. jejuni regulates the expression of oxidative stress defense.

  11. Development of a magnetic nanoparticles microarray for simultaneous and simple detection of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Liu, Hongna; Deng, Yan; Lin, Lin; He, Nongyue

    2013-07-01

    Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health problem affecting both developed and developing countries, microbiologically contaminated food and water are the major causes of diarrhoeal diseases. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microarrays are rapid and sensitive enough to detect very small quantities of microorganisms, however, the requirement for expensive equipments limits their application. In the present paper, we describe a method based on multiplex PCR and magnetic nanoparticles labelling for simultaneous detection of four major foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholera and Campylobacter jejuni. The process utilizes an oligonucleotide array onto which 5' biotinylated single strand PCR products were hybridized and visualized with streptavidin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SA-MNPs), the signal from which could be detected by the naked eye, microscope or CCD camera. By employing SA-MNPs as visible labels, the microarray unambiguously distinguished all 4 pathogens with detection sensitivity up to 316 CFU/mL. Due to its high sensitivity, specificity and simple detection procedure, the magnetic bead assay provides a powerful tool for the detection and identification of foodborne pathogens in a modestly equipped laboratory.

  12. Foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A, November 2007-January 2008, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Fretz, R; Buchner, G; König, C; Perner, H; Sollak, R; Tratter, A; Hell, M; Maass, M; Strasser, M; Allerberger, F

    2009-04-01

    An outbreak of hepatitis A affecting 21 residents of an Austrian city occurred from the end of November 2007 until mid-January 2008. A case series investigation suggested the consumption of food purchased from supermarket X as the common link. A food handler employed in the delicatessen department of that supermarket had been serologically diagnosed with hepatitis A on 28th November 2007. During the infectious period of approximately 3 weeks, he worked on 11 days. Interviews with the other cluster cases revealed that the hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected food handler did not practice appropriate hand hygiene. The investigation revealed no other possible source of infection. We hypothesize that the food of the delicatessen department contaminated by the HAV-infected food handler during his infectious period was the source of the outbreak. The district public health authority recommended the reinforcement of hygiene precautions, i.e., access to viricidal hand disinfectant and the use of disposable gloves and single-use paper towels, in the involved supermarket. The federal ministry of health recommended HAV vaccination for all food handlers in food production and gastronomy companies; this recommendation was included in the Austrian national vaccination plan 2008, even though the vaccination of food handlers is costly and its cost-effectiveness is not proven. Appropriate and regular hand hygiene, particularly after toilet visits, is the most effective measure for preventing HAV transmission.

  13. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens and Molds in Turkish Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Ozturkogu-Budak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the occurrence of food pathogens like Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia, Clostridium, Bacillus and Staphylococcus analyses were performed on 301 food samples from 8 different food categories such as dry legumes, milk products, meat products, fish, frozen foods, deserts, nuts and vegetables and fruits. Yeast and mold analyses were also performed on 364 food products from 9 main food categories such as dry legumes, milk products, meat products, seasonings, deserts, nuts, bee products, bakery products and dried fruits produced in Turkey. S. aureus and Salmonella were the most prevalent (1.33% of the six isolated pathogens. The species Cl. perfringens, L. monocytogenes and B. cereus were detected with the ratios of 1.00%, 0.66% and 0.66%, respectively. Total yeast and molds occurrence were 1.65% and 9.06%, respectively. Pathogens were detected in cream cheese, spinach, strawberry and cod fish most prevalently, whereas dried fig, chilli pepper, hazelnut and bakery products were determined as foods prone to the growth of molds. The results of this study suggest that faecal contamination of water needs to be prevented, and the production and storage conditions of food materials should be improved. These findings have implications for the use of these surveillance data in developing evidence-based food policy.

  14. Behavior of 11 Foodborne Bacteria on Whole and Cut Mangoes var. Ataulfo and Kent and Antibacterial Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Extracts and Chemical Sanitizers Directly onto Mangoes Contaminated with Foodborne Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Luna-Rojo, Anais M; Cadena-Ramírez, Arturo; Torres-Vitela, Refugio; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Téllez-Jurado, Alejandro; Villagómez-Ibarra, José R; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2018-04-05

    The behavior of foodborne bacteria on whole and cut mangoes and the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts and chemical sanitizers against foodborne bacteria on contaminated mangoes were investigated. Mangoes var. Ataulfo and Kent were used in the study. Mangoes were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Montevideo, Escherichia coli strains (O157:H7, non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative). The antibacterial effect of five roselle calyx extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid against foodborne bacteria were evaluated on contaminated mangoes. The dry extracts obtained with ethanol, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine solvent residues. Separately, contaminated whole mangoes were immersed in five hibiscus extracts and in sanitizers for 5 min. All foodborne bacteria attached to mangoes. After 20 days at 25 ± 2°C, all foodborne bacterial strains on whole Ataulfo mangoes had decreased by approximately 2.5 log, and on Kent mangoes by approximately 2 log; at 3 ± 2°C, they had decreased to approximately 1.9 and 1.5 log, respectively, on Ataulfo and Kent. All foodborne bacterial strains grew on cut mangoes at 25 ± 2°C; however, at 3 ± 2°C, bacterial growth was inhibited. Residual solvents were not detected in any of the dry extracts by nuclear magnetic resonance. Acetonic, ethanolic, and methanolic roselle calyx extracts caused a greater reduction in concentration (2 to 2.6 log CFU/g) of all foodborne bacteria on contaminated whole mangoes than the sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid. Dry roselle calyx extracts may be a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of mangoes.

  15. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Torgerson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first estimates of the global and regional human disease burden of 10 helminth diseases and toxoplasmosis that may be attributed to contaminated food.Data were abstracted from 16 systematic reviews or similar studies published between 2010 and 2015; from 5 disease data bases accessed in 2015; and from 79 reports, 73 of which have been published since 2000, 4 published between 1995 and 2000 and 2 published in 1986 and 1981. These included reports from national surveillance systems, journal articles, and national estimates of foodborne diseases. These data were used to estimate the number of infections, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs, by age and region for 2010. These parasitic diseases, resulted in 48.4 million cases (95% Uncertainty intervals [UI] of 43.4-79.0 million and 59,724 (95% UI 48,017-83,616 deaths annually resulting in 8.78 million (95% UI 7.62-12.51 million DALYs. We estimated that 48% (95% UI 38%-56% of cases of these parasitic diseases were foodborne, resulting in 76% (95% UI 65%-81% of the DALYs attributable to these diseases. Overall, foodborne parasitic disease, excluding enteric protozoa, caused an estimated 23.2 million (95% UI 18.2-38.1 million cases and 45,927 (95% UI 34,763-59,933 deaths annually resulting in an estimated 6.64 million (95% UI 5.61-8.41 million DALYs. Foodborne Ascaris infection (12.3 million cases, 95% UI 8.29-22.0 million and foodborne toxoplasmosis (10.3 million cases, 95% UI 7.40-14.9 million were the most common foodborne parasitic diseases. Human cysticercosis with 2.78 million DALYs (95% UI 2.14-3.61 million, foodborne trematodosis with 2.02 million DALYs (95% UI 1.65-2.48 million and foodborne

  16. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Willingham, Arve Lee; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Fèvre, Eric M; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Fürst, Thomas; Budke, Christine M; Carabin, Hélène; Kirk, Martyn D; Angulo, Frederick J; Havelaar, Arie; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first estimates of the global and regional human disease burden of 10 helminth diseases and toxoplasmosis that may be attributed to contaminated food. Data were abstracted from 16 systematic reviews or similar studies published between 2010 and 2015; from 5 disease data bases accessed in 2015; and from 79 reports, 73 of which have been published since 2000, 4 published between 1995 and 2000 and 2 published in 1986 and 1981. These included reports from national surveillance systems, journal articles, and national estimates of foodborne diseases. These data were used to estimate the number of infections, sequelae, deaths, and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), by age and region for 2010. These parasitic diseases, resulted in 48.4 million cases (95% Uncertainty intervals [UI] of 43.4-79.0 million) and 59,724 (95% UI 48,017-83,616) deaths annually resulting in 8.78 million (95% UI 7.62-12.51 million) DALYs. We estimated that 48% (95% UI 38%-56%) of cases of these parasitic diseases were foodborne, resulting in 76% (95% UI 65%-81%) of the DALYs attributable to these diseases. Overall, foodborne parasitic disease, excluding enteric protozoa, caused an estimated 23.2 million (95% UI 18.2-38.1 million) cases and 45,927 (95% UI 34,763-59,933) deaths annually resulting in an estimated 6.64 million (95% UI 5.61-8.41 million) DALYs. Foodborne Ascaris infection (12.3 million cases, 95% UI 8.29-22.0 million) and foodborne toxoplasmosis (10.3 million cases, 95% UI 7.40-14.9 million) were the most common foodborne parasitic diseases. Human cysticercosis with 2.78 million DALYs (95% UI 2.14-3.61 million), foodborne trematodosis with 2.02 million DALYs (95% UI 1.65-2.48 million) and foodborne toxoplasmosis

  17. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and other foodborne parasites in fox, cat and dog faeces collected in kitchen gardens in a highly endemic area for alveolar echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulle Marie-Lazarine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013. Less than 25% of the sampled kitchen gardens contained more than 75% of the collected faeces. Of the 219 faeces that could be attributed to an emitter, cat accounted for 58%, fox for 32% and dog for 10%. Echinococcus multilocularis was detected in 35%, 11% and 7% of fox, dog and cat faeces, respectively, and Toxocara spp. in 33%, 12% and 5.5% of cat, fox and dog faeces, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 2/125 cat faeces and 2/21 dog faeces. The 34 faeces that tested positive for E. multilocularis were found in only 19 out of the 94 sampled kitchen gardens, and the 40 faeces that tested positive for Toxocara spp. were found in 28 of them. Consequently, some kitchen gardens appeared particularly at risk of human exposure to foodborne parasites, including E. multilocularis responsible for alveolar echinococcosis (AE, which is a serious zoonosis. In endemic areas, kitchen garden owners should be informed about the zoonotic risk linked to carnivore faeces deposits and encouraged to set up preventive measures.

  18. Expert elicitation as a means to attribute 28 enteric pathogens to foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, and person-to-person transmission routes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ainslie J; Thomas, M Kate; Pintar, Katarina D M

    2015-04-01

    Enteric illness contributes to a significant burden of illness in Canada and globally. Understanding its sources is a critical step in identifying and preventing health risks. Expert elicitation is a powerful tool, used previously, to obtain information about enteric illness source attribution where information is difficult or expensive to obtain. Thirty-one experts estimated transmission of 28 pathogens via major transmission routes (foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, person-to-person, and other) at the point of consumption. The elicitation consisted of a (snowball) recruitment phase; administration of a pre-survey to collect background information, an introductory webinar, an elicitation survey, a 1-day discussion, survey readministration, and a feedback exercise, and surveys were administered online. Experts were prompted to quantify changes in contamination at the point of entry into the kitchen versus point of consumption. Estimates were combined via triangular probability distributions, and medians and 90% credible-interval estimates were produced. Transmission was attributed primarily to food for Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp., all three Vibrio spp. categories explored, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Multisource pathogens (e.g., transmitted commonly through both water and food) such as Campylobacter spp., four Escherichia coli categories, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were also estimated as mostly foodborne. Water was the primary pathway for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., and person-to-person transmission dominated for six enteric viruses and Shigella spp. Consideration of the point of attribution highlighted the importance of food handling and cross-contamination in the transmission pathway. This study provides source attribution estimates of enteric illness for Canada, considering all possible transmission routes. Further research is necessary to improve our

  19. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and other foodborne parasites in fox, cat and dog faeces collected in kitchen gardens in a highly endemic area for alveolar echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Bastien, Matthieu; Richard, Yolan; Josse-Dupuis, Émilie; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Knapp, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013. Less than 25% of the sampled kitchen gardens contained more than 75% of the collected faeces. Of the 219 faeces that could be attributed to an emitter, cat accounted for 58%, fox for 32% and dog for 10%. Echinococcus multilocularis was detected in 35%, 11% and 7% of fox, dog and cat faeces, respectively, and Toxocara spp. in 33%, 12% and 5.5% of cat, fox and dog faeces, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 2/125 cat faeces and 2/21 dog faeces. The 34 faeces that tested positive for E. multilocularis were found in only 19 out of the 94 sampled kitchen gardens, and the 40 faeces that tested positive for Toxocara spp. were found in 28 of them. Consequently, some kitchen gardens appeared particularly at risk of human exposure to foodborne parasites, including E. multilocularis responsible for alveolar echinococcosis (AE), which is a serious zoonosis. In endemic areas, kitchen garden owners should be informed about the zoonotic risk linked to carnivore faeces deposits and encouraged to set up preventive measures. PMID:28748783

  20. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis and other foodborne parasites in fox, cat and dog faeces collected in kitchen gardens in a highly endemic area for alveolar echinococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulle, Marie-Lazarine; Bastien, Matthieu; Richard, Yolan; Josse-Dupuis, Émilie; Aubert, Dominique; Villena, Isabelle; Knapp, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013. Less than 25% of the sampled kitchen gardens contained more than 75% of the collected faeces. Of the 219 faeces that could be attributed to an emitter, cat accounted for 58%, fox for 32% and dog for 10%. Echinococcus multilocularis was detected in 35%, 11% and 7% of fox, dog and cat faeces, respectively, and Toxocara spp. in 33%, 12% and 5.5% of cat, fox and dog faeces, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 2/125 cat faeces and 2/21 dog faeces. The 34 faeces that tested positive for E. multilocularis were found in only 19 out of the 94 sampled kitchen gardens, and the 40 faeces that tested positive for Toxocara spp. were found in 28 of them. Consequently, some kitchen gardens appeared particularly at risk of human exposure to foodborne parasites, including E. multilocularis responsible for alveolar echinococcosis (AE), which is a serious zoonosis. In endemic areas, kitchen garden owners should be informed about the zoonotic risk linked to carnivore faeces deposits and encouraged to set up preventive measures. © M.-L. Poulle et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  1. Inactivation of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms using ultraviolet-A light in combination with ferulic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, A; Watanabe, T; Matsuki, H

    2017-02-01

    The low energy of UV-A (315-400 nm) is insufficient for disinfection. To improve UV-A disinfection technology, we evaluated the effect of ferulic acid (FA) addition on disinfection by UV-A light-emitting diode (LED) (350-385 nm) against various food spoilers and pathogens (seven bacteria and four fungi species). Photoantimicrobial assays were performed at FA concentrations below the MIC. The MIC of the isomerized FA, consisting of 93% cis-form and 7% trans-form, was very similar to that of the commercially available FA (trans-form). Irradiation with UV-A (1·0 J cm -2 ) in the presence of 100 mg l -1 FA resulted in enhanced reducing of all of the tested bacterial strains. A combination of UV-A (10 J cm -2 ) and 1000 mg l -1 FA resulted in enhanced reducing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and one of the tested filamentous fungi. These results demonstrated that the combination of a short-term application of UV-A and FA at a low concentration yielded synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial activity, especially against bacteria. Microbial contamination is one of the most serious problems for foods, fruit and sugar thick juices. UV light is suitable for the nonthermal decontamination of food products by inactivating the contaminating micro-organisms. However, UV-A exposure is insufficient for disinfection. This study demonstrates that the combination of UV-A LED light (350-385 nm), which is not hazardous to human eyes and skin, and ferulic acid (FA), a known phytochemical and food additive, provides synergistic antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms. Therefore, FA addition to UV-A light treatment may be useful for improvement of UV-A disinfection technology to prevent food deterioration. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Emergence of a plasmid-borne multidrug resistance gene cfr(C) in foodborne pathogen Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yizhi; Dai, Lei; Sahin, Orhan; Wu, Zuowei; Liu, Mingyuan; Zhang, Qijing

    2017-06-01

    To identify and characterize a novel cfr variant that recently emerged and confers multidrug resistance in Campylobacter , a major foodborne pathogen. WGS was initially used to identify the cfr (C) gene in Campylobacter isolates and its function was further verified by cloning into an antibiotic-susceptible Campylobacter jejuni strain. Distribution of cfr (C) in various Campylobacter isolates was determined by PCR analysis. Genotyping of cfr (C)-positive strains was done by PFGE and MLST. The cfr (C) gene is predicted to encode a protein that shares 55.1% and 54.9% identity with Cfr and Cfr(B), respectively. cfr (C) was located on a conjugative plasmid of ∼48 kb. Cloning of cfr (C) into C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and conjugative transfer of the cfr (C)-containing plasmid confirmed its role in conferring resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, pleuromutilins and oxazolidinones, and resulted in an 8-256-fold increase in their MICs in both C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli . The cfr (C) gene was detected in multiple C. coli (34 of 344; 10%) isolates derived from different cattle farms in different states, and molecular typing of the cfr (C)-positive C. coli isolates revealed its spread mainly via clonal expansion. These results identify cfr (C) as a new multidrug resistance mechanism in Campylobacter and suggest the potential transmission of this mechanism via the foodborne route, warranting enhanced efforts to monitor its spread in Campylobacter and other foodborne pathogens. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysén, Maria; Thorhagen, Margareta; Brytting, Maria; Hjertqvist, Marika; Andersson, Yvonne; Hedlund, Kjell-Olof

    2009-08-01

    A total of 101 food-borne and waterborne outbreaks that were caused by norovirus and that resulted in more than 4,100 cases of illness were reported to the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control from January 2002 to December 2006. Sequence and epidemiological data for isolates from 73 outbreaks were analyzed. In contrast to health care-related outbreaks, no clear seasonality could be observed. Sequence analysis showed a high degree of genetic variation among the noroviruses detected. Genogroup II (GII) viruses were detected in 70% of the outbreaks, and of those strains, strains of GII.4 were the most prevalent and were detected in 25% of all outbreaks. The GII.4 variants detected in global outbreaks in health care settings during 2002, 2004, and 2006 were also found in the food-borne outbreaks. GI strains totally dominated as the cause of water-related (drinking and recreational water) outbreaks and were found in 12 of 13 outbreaks. In 14 outbreaks, there were discrepancies among the polymerase and capsid genotype results. In four outbreaks, the polymerase of the recombinant GII.b virus occurred together with the GII.1 or GII.3 capsids, while the GII.7 polymerase occurred together with the GII.6 and GII.7 capsids. Mixed infections were observed in six outbreaks; four of these were due to contaminated water, and two were due to imported frozen berries. Contaminated food and water serve as important reservoirs for noroviruses. The high degree of genetic diversity found among norovirus strains causing food-borne and waterborne infections stresses the importance of the use of broad reaction detection methods when such outbreaks are investigated.

  4. Exploring the relationship between food access and foodborne illness by using spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, Bruce; Watson, Susannah; Mackay, Kevin; Isaacs, Sandy

    2013-09-01

    There is some evidence that neighborhood deprivation increases residents' risk of foodborne illnesses. Because urban areas with the least available access to adequate amounts of nutritious or affordable food options (or "food deserts") also tend to be the most deprived areas within a city, it is hypothesized that food access and foodborne illness risk are linked. However, the complexity of tracking numbers and sources of gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses often leads researchers to speculate about reasons for disproportionate rates of pathogen outbreaks among demographic groups. This study explores the suitability of existing data to examine associations between food deserts and the spatial distribution of GI illnesses in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A spatial analysis by using GIS software methodology was used to identify and map food retail outlets and accessibility, as well as GI illness outbreaks and sales of antidiarrhea, antinausea, and rehydration products (used as a proxy for GI cases) within the city, based on available data. Statistical analysis of the maps shows no statistical relationship between location, access to food outlets, and rates of GI illness. The analysis points to shortfalls and gaps in the existing data, which leaves us unable to draw conclusions either supporting or refuting our hypothesis. This article includes recommendations to improve the current system of illness reporting and to continue to refine the definition and process of mapping food access issues. A more comprehensive set of data would enable municipalities to more easily identify groups most at risk, depending on exposures and the type of pathogen, and reduce the occurrence of foodborne disease.

  5. Comparative Resistance of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens to Non-thermal Technologies for Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Guillermo; Mañas, Pilar; Condón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), and UV-light (UV) is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni) would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could also be

  6. COMPARATIVE RESISTANCE OF BACTERIAL FOODBORNE PATHOGENS TO NON-THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo eCebrián

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS, pulsed electric fields (PEF, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP and UV-light (UV is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could

  7. Foodborne botulism associated with home-preserved turnip tops in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Anniballi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, foodborne botulism is a rare disease mainly due to home-preserved food. In the case reported here, clinical diagnosis was performed on the basis of clinical signs and referred consumption of home-preserved turnip tops in oil. Definitive diagnosis was performed by detection of botulinum toxin in sera and neuro-toxigenic organisms in stools and leftover food. This case report highlights the need of a high medical awareness, prompt clinical diagnosis, and synergic collaboration among the health authorities for a correct management of botulism as well as disease containment.

  8. Multi-Toxic Endpoints of the Foodborne Mycotoxins in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhendong; Xue, Kathy S.; Sun, Xiulan; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1), T-2 toxin (T-2), and zearalenone (ZEA) are the major foodborne mycotoxins of public health concerns. In the present study, the multiple toxic endpoints of these naturally-occurring mycotoxins were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans model for their lethality, toxic effects on growth and reproduction, as well as influence on lifespan. We found that the lethality endpoint was more sensitive for T-2 toxicity with the EC50 at 1.38 mg...

  9. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie H Havelaar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD, the World Health Organization (WHO established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG, which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disease burden due to 31 foodborne hazards. We find that the global burden of FBD is comparable to those of the major infectious diseases, HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The most frequent causes of foodborne illness were diarrheal disease agents, particularly norovirus and Campylobacter spp. Diarrheal disease agents, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, were also responsible for the majority of deaths due to FBD. Other major causes of FBD deaths were Salmonella Typhi, Taenia solium and hepatitis A virus. The global burden of FBD caused by the 31 hazards in 2010 was 33 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs; children under five years old bore 40% of this burden. The 14 subregions, defined on the basis of child and adult mortality, had considerably different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than overestimates; further studies are needed to address the data gaps and limitations of the study. Nevertheless, all stakeholders can contribute to improvements in food

  10. An overview of food safety and bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food production animals in the Caribbean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria Manuela Mendes; de Almeida, Andre M; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2016-08-01

    Foodborne diseases (FBDs) in the Caribbean have a high economic burden. Public health and tourism concerns rise along with the increasing number of cases and outbreaks registered over the last 20 years. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Campylobacter spp. are the main bacteria associated with these incidents. In spite of undertaking limited surveillance on FBD in the region, records related to bacterial foodborne zoonoses in food-producing animals and their associated epidemiologic significance are poorly documented, giving rise to concerns about the importance of the livestock, food animal product sectors, and consumption patterns. In this review, we report the available published literature over the last 20 years on selected bacterial foodborne zoonoses in the Caribbean region and also address other food safety-related aspects (e.g., FBD food attribution, importance, surveillance), mainly aiming at recognizing data gaps and identifying possible research approaches in the animal health sector.

  11. High-throughput genome sequencing of two Listeria monocytogenes clinical isolates during a large foodborne outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trout-Yakel Keri M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large, multi-province outbreak of listeriosis associated with ready-to-eat meat products contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a occurred in Canada in 2008. Subtyping of outbreak-associated isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE revealed two similar but distinct AscI PFGE patterns. High-throughput pyrosequencing of two L. monocytogenes isolates was used to rapidly provide the genome sequence of the primary outbreak strain and to investigate the extent of genetic diversity associated with a change of a single restriction enzyme fragment during PFGE. Results The chromosomes were collinear, but differences included 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and three indels, including a 33 kbp prophage that accounted for the observed difference in AscI PFGE patterns. The distribution of these traits was assessed within further clinical, environmental and food isolates associated with the outbreak, and this comparison indicated that three distinct, but highly related strains may have been involved in this nationwide outbreak. Notably, these two isolates were found to harbor a 50 kbp putative mobile genomic island encoding translocation and efflux functions that has not been observed in other Listeria genomes. Conclusions High-throughput genome sequencing provided a more detailed real-time assessment of genetic traits characteristic of the outbreak strains than could be achieved with routine subtyping methods. This study confirms that the latest generation of DNA sequencing technologies can be applied during high priority public health events, and laboratories need to prepare for this inevitability and assess how to properly analyze and interpret whole genome sequences in the context of molecular epidemiology.

  12. Foodborne Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... paralysis, severe dehydration, and HUS. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition The following steps may help relieve the symptoms ... be washed under running water just before eating, cutting, or cooking. A produce brush can be used ...

  13. Epidemiology and control prospects of foodborne parasitic zoonoses in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, E

    2008-06-01

    In the 27 Member States of the European Union, zoonotic parasites transmitted by food are circulating with different prevalence according to the country, the environmental conditions, the human behaviour, and the socio-economic level. Foodborne parasites can be divided in two main groups according to the way of transmission to humans. These foodborne parasites reach the human beings through the consumption of raw infected food such as muscle tissues of different animal species (Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis hominis, Sarcocystis suishominis, Diphyllobotrium latum, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Opisthorchis felineus, Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova spp., Trichinella spp.), or vegetables (Fasciola hepatica), and contaminated food and water resources (Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., T. gondii, Echinococcus granulosus sensu latu, Echinococcus multilocularis, T. solium, Taenia multiceps). As a general role, the control strategies should be based on the education of the consumers, farmers and shepherds, the improvement of farming conditions, the improvement or the development of more sensitive methods to detect these parasites in slaughtered animals and in foodstuff, a control of sewage sludge on pastures and of drinking water resources, and the reduction of contacts between livestock and wild animals which frequently represent the most important reservoir of these pathogens.

  14. Strain-Specific Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance from an Environmental Plasmid to Foodborne Pathogens

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    Eva Van Meervenne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics are rapidly emerging, entailing important consequences for human health. This study investigated if the broad-host-range multiresistance plasmid pB10, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, harbouring amoxicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline resistance genes, was transferable to the foodborne pathogens Salmonella spp. or E. coli O157:H7 and how this transfer alters the phenotype of the recipients. The transfer ratio was determined by both plating and flow cytometry. Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined for both recipients and transconjugants using the disk diffusion method. For 14 of the 15 recipient strains, transconjugants were detected. Based on plating, transfer ratios were between 6.8×10−9 and 3.0×10−2 while using flow cytometry, transfer ratios were between <1.0×10−5 and 1.9×10−2. With a few exceptions, the transconjugants showed phenotypically increased resistance, indicating that most of the transferred resistance genes were expressed. In summary, we showed that an environmental plasmid can be transferred into foodborne pathogenic bacteria at high transfer ratios. However, the transfer ratio seemed to be recipient strain dependent. Moreover, the newly acquired resistance genes could turn antibiotic susceptible strains into resistant ones, paving the way to compromise human health.

  15. Antibacterial Properties of Essential Oil of Heracleum persicum (Golpar and Foodborne Pathogens

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    Nabi shariatifar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a serious health threat to human society. Antibiotics and preservatives are also the most common modalities to increase the shelf life of foods. Objectives: Antibacterial activity of essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Golpar fruit against some of the main foodborne bacteria was determined. Materials and Methods: Antibacterial activity of essential oil was evaluated against the bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, and Yersinia enterocolitica using disc diffusion method. Broth micro-dilution method was used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. The data was expressed as mean and standard deviation and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA in SPSS software (P < 0.05. Results: Comparing with S. typhi strains (inhibition zone = 18 ± 0.46 mm, essential oil was found to be more effective against V. cholera strains (inhibition zone = 34 ± 0.2 mm. The MIC value (% of the essential oil against V. cholera and S. typhi were 8 and 32 respectively. Essential oil of H. persicum (Golpar showed a good antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens. Conclusion: The results revealed that the essential oil of H. persicum can be used in food preservation systems to inhibit the growth of V. cholera strains and improve food quality and safety.

  16. Food-borne disease and climate change in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Iain R

    2017-12-05

    This review examined the likely impact of climate change upon food-borne disease in the UK using Campylobacter and Salmonella as example organisms. Campylobacter is an important food-borne disease and an increasing public health threat. There is a reasonable evidence base that the environment and weather play a role in its transmission to humans. However, uncertainty as to the precise mechanisms through which weather affects disease, make it difficult to assess the likely impact of climate change. There are strong positive associations between Salmonella cases and ambient temperature, and a clear understanding of the mechanisms behind this. However, because the incidence of Salmonella disease is declining in the UK, any climate change increases are likely to be small. For both Salmonella and Campylobacter the disease incidence is greatest in older adults and young children. There are many pathways through which climate change may affect food but only a few of these have been rigorously examined. This provides a high degree of uncertainty as to what the impacts of climate change will be. Food is highly controlled at the National and EU level. This provides the UK with resilience to climate change as well as potential to adapt to its consequences but it is unknown whether these are sufficient in the context of a changing climate.

  17. Isolation, amplification and characterization of foodborne pathogen disease bacteria gene for rapid kit test development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjayadi, M.; Santoso, I.; Kartika, I. R.; Kurniadewi, F.; Saamia, V.; Sofihan, W.; Nurkhasanah, D.

    2017-07-01

    There is a lot of public concern over food safety. Food-safety cases recently, including many food poisoning cases in both the developed and developing countries, considered to be the national security threats which involved police investigation. Quick and accurate detection methods are needed to handle the food poisoning cases with a big number of sufferers at the same time. Therefore, the research is aimed to develop a specific, sensitive, and rapid result molecular detection tool for foodborne pathogen bacteria. We, thus, propose genomic level approach with Polymerase Chain Reaction. The research has successfully produced a specific primer to perform amplification to fim-C S. typhi, E. coli, and pef Salmonella typhimurium genes. The electrophoresis result shows that amplification products are 95 base pairs, 121 base pairs, and 139 base pairs; and all three genes are in accordance with the size of the in silico to third genes bacteria. In conclusion, the research has been successfully designed a specific detection tool to three foodborne pathogen bacteria genes. Further stages test and the uses of Real-time PCR in the detection are still in the trial process for better detection method.

  18. Four foodborne disease outbreaks caused by a new type of enterotoxin-producing Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monma, Chie; Hatakeyama, Kaoru; Obata, Hiromi; Yokoyama, Keiko; Konishi, Noriko; Itoh, Takeshi; Kai, Akemi

    2015-03-01

    The epidemiological and bacteriological investigations on four foodborne outbreaks caused by a new type of enterotoxin-producing Clostridium perfringens are described. C. perfringens isolated from patients of these outbreaks did not produce any known enterotoxin and did not carry the C. perfringens enterotoxin gene. However, the culture filtrates of these isolates induced the accumulation of fluid in rabbit ileal loop tests. The molecular weight of the new enterotoxin may be between 50,000 and 100,000, although the known C. perfringens enterotoxin is ca. 35,000. This new enterotoxin was heat labile, and its biological activities were inactivated by heating for 5 min at 60°C. The new enterotoxin was sensitive to pH values higher than 11.0 and protease treatment but was resistant to trypsin treatment. These results suggest that the new enterotoxin may be a protein. Although C. perfringens enterotoxin induced morphological changes in Vero cells, the changes induced by the new enterotoxin differed from those by the known C. perfringens enterotoxin. The new enterotoxin also induced morphological changes in L929 cells, whereas the known C. perfringens enterotoxin did not, because L929 cells lacked an appropriate enterotoxin receptor. Although C. perfringens enterotoxin is recognized as the only diarrheagenic toxin responsible for C. perfringens foodborne outbreaks, the results of the present study indicate that C. perfringens isolated from these four outbreaks produced a new type of enterotoxin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Aerosolization as novel sanitizer delivery system to reduce food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S-W; Gray, P M; Dougherty, R H; Kang, D-H

    2005-01-01

    As a preliminary experiment on new sanitizer delivery tools, the efficacy of aerosolized sanitizer on food-borne pathogens was investigated in larger model chamber system. Peroxyacetic acid and hydrogen peroxide were aerosolized in a model system against artificially inoculated target micro-organisms on laboratory media. Cultures of four different food-borne pathogens were inoculated and affixed onto three different heights (bottom, wall and ceiling), and three different orientations (face-down, vertical and face-down) inside a commercial semi-trailer cabinet (14.6 x 2.6 x 2.8 m). Sanitizer was aerosolized into 2 microm droplet size fog and treated for 1 h at ambient temperature. Populations of Bacillus cereus, Listeria innocua, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella typhimurium were reduced by an average of 3.09, 7.69, 6.93 and 8.18 log units per plate respectively. Interestingly, L. innocua, Staph. aureus, and Salm. typhimurium showed statistically not different (P >/= 0.05) reduction patterns relative to height and orientation that were never expected in a spraying system. Aerosolized sanitizers diffuse like gaseous sanitizers. Aerosolization has great potential for use in commercial applications.

  20. Comprehensive Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation in the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating diverse cellular processes. Trichinella spiralis is a foodborne parasite with a considerable socio-economic impact. However, to date, little is known regarding the role of lysine acetylation in this parasitic nematode. In this study, we utilized a proteomic approach involving anti-acetyl lysine-based enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry to identify the global acetylated proteome and investigate lysine acetylation in T. spiralis. In total, 3872 lysine modification sites were identified in 1592 proteins that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with the results of previous studies, a large number of the acetylated proteins appear to be involved in metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 29 acetylated proteins were associated with phagocytosis, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in this process. Among the identified proteins, 15 putative acetylation motifs were detected. The presence of serine downstream of the lysine acetylation site was commonly observed in the regions surrounding the sites. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis revealed that various interactions are regulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of the acetylome of T. spiralis and provide an important resource for further explorations of the role of lysine acetylation in this foodborne pathogen.

  1. New Trends in Impedimetric Biosensors for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixian Wang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of a rapid, sensitive, specific method for the foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection is of great importance to ensure food safety and security. In recent years impedimetric biosensors which integrate biological recognition technology and impedance have gained widespread application in the field of bacteria detection. This paper presents an overview on the progress and application of impedimetric biosensors for detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria, particularly the new trends in the past few years, including the new specific bio-recognition elements such as bacteriophage and lectin, the use of nanomaterials and microfluidics techniques. The applications of these new materials or techniques have provided unprecedented opportunities for the development of high-performance impedance bacteria biosensors. The significant developments of impedimetric biosensors for bacteria detection in the last five years have been reviewed according to the classification of with or without specific bio-recognition element. In addition, some microfluidics systems, which were used in the construction of impedimetric biosensors to improve analytical performance, are introduced in this review.

  2. Multiplexed Detection of Foodborne Pathogens from Contaminated Lettuces Using a Handheld Multistep Lateral Flow Assay Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Joong Ho; Hong, Jisoo; Go, Hyeyun; Park, Juhwan; Kong, Minsuk; Ryu, Sangryeol; Kim, Kwang-Pyo; Roh, Eunjung; Park, Je-Kyun

    2018-01-10

    This paper presents a handheld device that is capable of simplifying multistep assays to perform sensitive detection of foodborne pathogens. The device is capable of multiplexed detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. The limit of detection for each bacterium was characterized, and then, the detection of bacteria from contaminated fresh lettuces was demonstrated for two representative foodborne pathogens. We employed a sample pretreatment protocol to recover and concentrate target bacteria from contaminated lettuces, which can detect 1.87 × 10 4 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 and 1.47 × 10 4 CFU of S. Typhimurium/1 g of lettuce without an enrichment process. Lastly, we demonstrated that the limit of detection can be reduced to 1 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 and 1 CFU of S. Typhimurium/1 g of lettuce by including a 6 h enrichment of contaminated lettuces in growth media before pretreatment.

  3. Foodborne gastroenteritis outbreak in an Austrian healthcare facility caused by asymptomatic, norovirus-excreting kitchen staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, D; Kuo, H-W; Hell, M; Kasper, S; Lederer, I; Mikula, C; Springer, B; Allerberger, F

    2011-03-01

    An outbreak of norovirus GGII.4 2006b affected an Austrian 600-bed healthcare facility from 15 to 27 March 2009. A total of 204 patients, residents and staff fitted the outbreak case definition; 17 (8.3%) were laboratory-confirmed. Foodborne origin was suspected in the 114 patient and resident cases with onset 15-18 March. A case-cohort study was performed to test the hypothesis that consumption of dishes offered on 14, 15 and 16 March (risk days) was associated with increased risk of infection. Data on food exposure of 62% (317/510) of the patient and resident cohort were available for a simultaneous retrospective cohort study. The case-cohort analysis revealed that consumption of sliced cold sausage offered on 15 March [odds ratio (OR): 3.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-14.1], a meat dish with salad (adjusted OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19-4.08) and a rolled spinach pancake (adjusted OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.27-3.71) on 16 March were independent risk factors. It is likely that one of the five asymptomatic excretors among the kitchen staff on duty on the risk days was the source of food contamination. The case-cohort study design was found to be a valid alternative to the retrospective cohort study design for the investigation of a suspected foodborne outbreak in a large cohort. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sources of calicivirus contamination in foodborne outbreaks, Denmark, 2005-2011 - the role of the asymptomatic food handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franck, Kristina T.; Lisby, Morten; Fonager, Jannik

    2015-01-01

    Background. Norovirus is the predominant cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. Virus contamination may occur during all steps of food processing from production to preparation and serving. The relative importance of these different routes of contamination is unknown. Methods. The purpose...... of this study was to estimate the proportions of outbreaks caused by asymptomatic and symptomatic food handlers. Reported foodborne norovirus and sapovirus outbreaks (n=191) occurring over a seven-year period were extracted, reviewed, and categorized according to the available evidence for source...

  5. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards : A Structured Expert Elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Cooke, Roger; Corrigan, Tim; Havelaar, Arie H; Gibb, Herman J; Torgerson, Paul R; Kirk, Martyn D; Angulo, Fred J; Lake, Robin J; Speybroeck, Niko; Hoffmann, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely by

  6. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Martyn D.; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Black, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. We synthesized data on the number of ...

  7. World Health Organization Estimates of the Relative Contributions of Food to the Burden of Disease Due to Selected Foodborne Hazards: A Structured Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Aspinall, Willy; Devleesschauwer, Brecht

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundThe Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG) was established in 2007 by the World Health Organization (WHO) to estimate the global burden of foodborne diseases (FBDs). This estimation is complicated because most of the hazards causing FBD are not transmitted solely...

  8. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 22 Foodborne Bacterial, Protozoal, and Viral Diseases, 2010 : A Data Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirk, Martyn D; Pires, Sara M; Black, Robert E; Caipo, Marisa; Crump, John A; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Döpfer, Dörte; Fazil, Aamir; Fischer-Walker, Christa L; Hald, Tine; Hall, Aron J; Keddy, Karen H; Lake, Robin J; Lanata, Claudio F; Torgerson, Paul R; Havelaar, Arie H; Angulo, Frederick J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foodborne diseases are important worldwide, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, we present the first global and regional estimates of the disease burden of the most important foodborne bacterial, protozoal, and viral diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We

  9. Public knowledge and Preventive Behavior During a Large-Scale Salmonella Outbreak: Results from an Online Survey in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velsen, Lex Stefan; Beaujean, Desirée; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; van Steenbergen, Jim; Timen, aura

    2014-01-01

    Background Food-borne Salmonella infections are a worldwide concern. During a large-scale outbreak, it is important that the public follows preventive advice. To increase compliance, insight in how the public gathers its knowledge and which factors determine whether or not an individual complies

  10. Assessment of the risk of foodborne transmission and burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra; Collineau, Lucie; Stephan, Roger; Müller, Andrea; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2017-02-02

    The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1.3% (CI 0.3%; 4.4%). This result was used as input in the risk assessment model, together with data from other published studies. The annual burden of hepatitis E was estimated in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), using data about hepatitis E cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 at two major hospitals located in the canton Ticino. Only the risk of foodborne hepatitis E from products containing pork liver was evaluated, as those containing only pork meat could not be evaluated because of lack of data on HEV load in pork. Assuming that successful oral infection occurs in 1% of servings contaminated with high HEV loads (>10 5 genome copies), and that acute illness develops in 5% of susceptible consumers, the most likely annual number of foodborne hepatitis E cases in Switzerland was estimated to be 1481 (95% CI 552; 4488) if all products containing pork liver were considered. If only high-risk products, such as plain pork liver and liver sausages (e.g. Saucisse au Foie), were considered, the annual number of cases was estimated to be 176 (95% CI 64; 498). We were unable to calculate the total burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland due to lack of data. Yet, for the canton Ticino, it was shown that a significant increase had occurred from 50 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. This change could partly be due to an increased reporting and higher awareness among medical

  11. A Comparative Analysis of the Lyve-SET Phylogenomics Pipeline for Genomic Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lee S; Griswold, Taylor; Williams-Newkirk, Amanda J; Wagner, Darlene; Petkau, Aaron; Sieffert, Cameron; Van Domselaar, Gary; Deng, Xiangyu; Carleton, Heather A

    2017-01-01

    Modern epidemiology of foodborne bacterial pathogens in industrialized countries relies increasingly on whole genome sequencing (WGS) techniques. As opposed to profiling techniques such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, WGS requires a variety of computational methods. Since 2013, United States agencies responsible for food safety including the CDC, FDA, and USDA, have been performing whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on all Listeria monocytogenes found in clinical, food, and environmental samples. Each year, more genomes of other foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni , and Salmonella enterica are being sequenced. Comparing thousands of genomes across an entire species requires a fast method with coarse resolution; however, capturing the fine details of highly related isolates requires a computationally heavy and sophisticated algorithm. Most L. monocytogenes investigations employing WGS depend on being able to identify an outbreak clade whose inter-genomic distances are less than an empirically determined threshold. When the difference between a few single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can help distinguish between genomes that are likely outbreak-associated and those that are less likely to be associated, we require a fine-resolution method. To achieve this level of resolution, we have developed Lyve-SET, a high-quality SNP pipeline. We evaluated Lyve-SET by retrospectively investigating 12 outbreak data sets along with four other SNP pipelines that have been used in outbreak investigation or similar scenarios. To compare these pipelines, several distance and phylogeny-based comparison methods were applied, which collectively showed that multiple pipelines were able to identify most outbreak clusters and strains. Currently in the US PulseNet system, whole genome multi-locus sequence typing (wgMLST) is the preferred primary method for foodborne WGS cluster detection and outbreak investigation due to its ability to name standardized

  12. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a controversial food-borne pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergelidis, D; Angelidis, A S

    2017-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of severe healthcare-associated (HA) infections. Although during the last decade the incidence of HA invasive infections has dropped, the incidence of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections has risen among the general population. Moreover, CA-MRSA, livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) and HA-MRSA (HA-MRSA) can be found in foods intended for human consumption. Several studies from different geographical areas have reported the presence of enterotoxin genes in several MRSA food isolates. Molecular typing studies have revealed genetic relatedness of these enterotoxigenic isolates with isolates incriminated in human infections. The contamination sources for foods, especially animal-origin foods, may be livestock as well as humans involved in animal husbandry and food-processing. Under favourable environmental conditions for growth and enterotoxin production, enterotoxigenic S. aureus isolates present in foods can cause staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), irrespective of the contamination origin. Owing to the typically moderate clinical manifestations of SFP, the S. aureus strains responsible for SFP (cases or outbreaks) are frequently either not identified or not further characterized. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing is rarely performed, because administration of antimicrobial therapy is not required in the vast majority of cases. Staphylococcal food poisoning is the result of consumption of foods with preformed enterotoxins. Hence, similar to methicillin-sensitive enterotoxigenic S. aureus, enterotoxigenic MRSA can also act as food-borne pathogens upon favourable conditions for growth and enterotoxin production. The severity of the intoxication is not related to the antimicrobial resistance profile of the causative S. aureus strain and therefore MRSA food-borne outbreaks are not expected to be more severe. This review evaluates the potential of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus

  13. Microbial diversity and prevalence of foodborne pathogens in cheap and junk foods consumed by primary schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Kim, S A; Kang, Y S; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2013-07-01

    Aerobic plate counts (APC), coliforms, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens were tested in 1008 cheap and junk foods, including candies, dried cakes, chewing gum, chocolate, dried and seasoned seafood, ice cream, and sugary foods. APCs were positive for 342 samples (33·9%), and the majority of the counts were 2-3 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) (average: 1·10 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Most samples (97·3%) contained no coliforms (average: 0·07 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Bacillus cereus was detected in 68 samples (average: 0·14 log CFU g(-1) or ml(-1) ). Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in 6 and 1 samples, respectively, whereas other foodborne pathogens were not isolated. The highest bacterial counts were associated with dried and seasoned seafood products and dried cakes, suggesting that appropriate regulations of these food types should be considered. Cheap and junk foods were produced mainly in developing countries, but there were no significant differences in the bacterial counts among different countries of origin. The presence of foodborne pathogens may pose a risk for children. These results suggest that there is cause for deeper concern about the safety of these foods and that effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. Food safety is especially important for children, but only limited information is available about the microbiological quality of cheap and junk foods that are consumed frequently by primary schoolchildren (e.g. dried cakes, candies and chocolates). The present study investigated the microbial quality of cheap and junk foods, and our results indicate that these foods are a potential health risk for children, therefore, deeper concern about the safety of these foods and effective countermeasures should be established to improve their microbiological safety. The present study may contribute to the development of an appropriate child food

  14. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010 : A Data Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Praet, Nicolas; Speybroeck, Niko; Willingham, Arve Lee; Kasuga, Fumiko; Rokni, Mohammad B; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Fèvre, Eric M; Sripa, Banchob; Gargouri, Neyla; Fürst, Thomas; Budke, Christine M; Carabin, Hélène; Kirk, Martyn D; Angulo, Frederick J; Havelaar, Arie; de Silva, Nilanthi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Foodborne diseases are globally important, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality. Parasitic diseases often result in high burdens of disease in low and middle income countries and are frequently transmitted to humans via contaminated food. This study presents the first

  15. Ralstonia insidiosa serves as bridges in biofilm formation by foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in fresh produce processing facilities might play a role in foodborne outbreaks by providing protective microniches for pathogenic bacteria. Our previous study showed that a strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from a fresh produce processing plant could enhan...

  16. Data analysis of the inactivation of foodborne microorganisms under high hydrostatic pressure to establish global kinetic parameters and influencing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santillana Farakos, S.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The inactivation rate of foodborne microorganisms under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is influenced by factors such as substrate, species, strain, temperature, pH, and stage of growth of the cell. In this study, 445 DP-values from previously published data were analyzed, including those from

  17. Effects of climate change on the persistence and dispersal of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the outdoor environment: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellberg, Rosalee S; Chu, Eric

    2016-08-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Over the coming century, warming trends such as increased duration and frequency of heat waves and hot extremes are expected in some areas, as well as increased intensity of some storm systems. Climate-induced trends will impact the persistence and dispersal of foodborne pathogens in myriad ways, especially for environmentally ubiquitous and/or zoonotic microorganisms. Animal hosts of foodborne pathogens are also expected to be impacted by climate change through the introduction of increased physiological stress and, in some cases, altered geographic ranges and seasonality. This review article examines the effects of climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, drought and wind, on the environmental dispersal and persistence of bacterial foodborne pathogens, namely, Bacillus cereus, Brucella, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica. These relationships are then used to predict how future climatic changes will impact the activity of these microorganisms in the outdoor environment and associated food safety issues. The development of predictive models that quantify these complex relationships will also be discussed, as well as the potential impacts of climate change on transmission of foodborne disease from animal hosts.

  18. Evaluation of library preparation methods for Illumina next generation sequencing of small amounts of DNA from foodborne parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Fernanda S; Wei-Pridgeon, Yuping; Arrowood, Michael J; Moss, Delynn; da Silva, Alexandre J; Talundzic, Eldin; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    Illumina library preparation methods for ultra-low input amounts were compared using genomic DNA from two foodborne parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Cyclospora cayetanensis) as examples. The Ovation Ultralow method resulted in libraries with the highest concentration and produced quality sequencing data, even when the input DNA was in the picogram range. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Learning about Foodborne Pathogens: Evaluation of Student Perceptions of Group Project Work in a Food Microbiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of students in an active learning group work exercise in an introductory food microbiology course involving the study of foodborne pathogens. Small groups were required to access, analyze, and present information regarding a single food poisoning bacterium. The presentations contained features and…

  20. PulseNet International: Vision for the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for global food-borne disease surveillance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadon, Celine; Van Walle, Ivo; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Campos, Josefina; Chinen, Isabel; Concepcion-Acevedo, Jeniffer; Gilpin, Brent; Smith, Anthony M; Man Kam, Kai; Perez, Enrique; Trees, Eija; Kubota, Kristy; Takkinen, Johanna; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Carleton, Heather

    2017-01-01

    PulseNet International is a global network dedicated to laboratory-based surveillance for food-borne diseases. The network comprises the national and regional laboratory networks of Africa, Asia Pacific, Canada, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, the Middle East, and the United States. The

  1. Investigation of environmental drivers of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne bacterial pathogens in antibiotic-free, all natural, pastured poultry flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Question: In the absence of antibiotic use within pastured poultry production, what are potential environmental variables that drive the antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of bacterial foodborne pathogens isolated from these flocks? Purpose: The objective of this study is to examine environmental f...

  2. A foodborne outbreak of enterotoxigenic E. coli and Salmonella Anatum infection after a high-school dinner in Denmark 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakalniskiene, J.; Falkenhorst, G.; Lisby, M.

    2009-01-01

    In industrialized countries enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is mainly diagnosed as a cause of travellers' diarrhoea, but it is also known to cause foodborne outbreaks. We report an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by ETEC serotypes O92:H- and O153:H2 as well as Salmonella Anatum...

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis CN026 Exhibiting Antagonistic Activity against Gram-Negative Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannan, Catherine; Gillis, Annika; Caulier, Simon; Mahillon, Jacques

    2018-01-25

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis strain CN026, a member of the B. subtilis group, which is known for its many industrial applications. The genome contains 3,995,812 bp and displays six gene clusters potentially involved in strain CN026's activity against Gram-negative foodborne pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Nannan et al.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus velezensis CN026 Exhibiting Antagonistic Activity against Gram-Negative Foodborne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Nannan, Catherine; Gillis, Annika; Caulier, Simon; Mahillon, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus velezensis strain CN026, a member of the B. subtilis group, which is known for its many industrial applications. The genome contains 3,995,812 bp and displays six gene clusters potentially involved in strain CN026’s activity against Gram-negative foodborne pathogens.

  5. Validation of a PCR-based method for detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters in a multicenter collaborative trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Cook, N.; D'Agostino, M.

    2004-01-01

    A PCR-based method for rapid detection of food-borne thermotolerant campylobacters was evaluated through a collaborative trial with 12 laboratories testing spiked carcass rinse samples. The method showed an interlaboratory diagnostic sensitivity of 96.7% and a diagnostic specificity of 100...

  6. An outbreak of foodborne illness among attendees of a wedding reception in Wisconsin likely caused by Arcobacter butzleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Victoria; Archer, John R; Cebelinski, Elizabeth; Leano, Fe; Besser, John M; Klos, Rachel F; Medus, Carlota; Smith, Kirk E; Fitzgerald, Collette; Davis, Jeffrey P

    2013-03-01

    Arcobacter species, primarily Arcobacter butzleri, are widely distributed among animals, infrequently isolated from humans, and previously not associated with outbreaks of foodborne illness. We report results of an investigation of a foodborne outbreak that occurred among attendees of a wedding reception in Wisconsin, United States, and was likely caused by A. butzleri. We conducted a case-control study among reception attendees and a laboratory investigation to determine the extent, source, and cause of the outbreak. A clinical case was defined as diarrhea in an attendee with illness onset ≤7 days following the wedding reception. The case-control study included 47 of 51 case patients and 43 non-ill attendees. Results demonstrated that consuming broasted chicken was the only factor significantly associated with illness (odds ratio 10.51; 95% confidence interval 1.28, 476.4). Five patients provided stool specimens. Comprehensive culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing did not detect common bacterial or viral pathogens. Subsequent testing with PCRs targeting 16S/23S rDNA of the three most clinically relevant Arcobacter spp. and the rpoB/C gene of A. butzleri provided products confirmed as A. butzleri (four patients) and A. cryaerophilus (one patient) by sequence analysis. The results of this investigation suggest that A. butzleri should be considered an agent that can cause outbreaks of foodborne illness. Rigorous investigation of outbreaks of undetermined etiology is valuable for incrementally increasing our understanding of emerging agents causing foodborne illnesses.

  7. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  8. ESSENTIAL OILS OF CYMBOPOGON SP. IN THE CONTROL OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Florisvaldo BRUGNERA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the agar well diffusion technique was used to determine the antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon nardus (citronella and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass essential oils, which were applied at different concentrations. The bacterial species used were the foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both essential oils presented antibacterial activity in most concentrations tested. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs founded were: 7.81μL/mL (S. aureus and 3.90μL/mL (E. coli and P. aeruginosa, for C. nardus essential oil; and 3.90μL/mL (S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, for C. citratus essential oil. The essential oils used were shown as promising natural antibacterials for pathogenic bacteria control in the food industry.

  9. Potential of social media as a tool to combat foodborne illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin; Raymond, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2014-07-01

    The use of social media platforms, such as Facebook and Twitter, has been increasing substantially in recent years and has affected the way that people access information online. Social media rely on high levels of interaction and user-generated context shared through established and evolving social networks. Health information providers must know how to successfully participate through social media in order to meet the needs of these online audiences. This article reviews the current research on the use of social media for public health communication and suggests potential frameworks for developing social media strategies. The extension to food safety risk communication is explored, considering the potential of social media as a tool to combat foodborne illness.

  10. Hypersaline waters - a potential source of foodborne toxigenic aspergilli and penicillia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butinar, Lorena; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies of hypersaline environments have revealed the dominant presence of melanized yeast-like fungi and related Cladosporium spp. In this study, we focused on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and their teleomorphic forms. From oligotrophic and eutrophic hypersaline waters around ......, marine salt used for consumption can be a potential source of food-borne fungi and their byproducts. For example, ochratoxin-A-producing species Penicillium nordicum was recovered from brine, salt and salted meat products....... herbariorum, as they were quite evenly distributed among the sampled sites, and Aspergillus candidus, which was abundant, but more locally distributed. These species and their byproducts can accumulate downstream following evaporation of brine, and they can become entrapped in the salt crystals. Consequently...

  11. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries – a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    , Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently reported organisms in those studies. Although the data were highly heterogeneous, a striking feature is high prevalence of the major pathogens in RTE foods, almost as high as in raw foods. E. coli averaged at 37.6% in raw foods and 31...... for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78...... the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015. One hundred and sixteen publications that dealt with food microbiology were reviewed...

  12. World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Kirk, Martyn D.; Torgerson, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established...... different burdens of FBD, with the greatest falling on the subregions in Africa, followed by the subregions in South-East Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean D subregion. Some hazards, such as non-typhoidal S. enterica, were important causes of FBD in all regions of the world, whereas others, such as certain...... parasitic helminths, were highly localised. Thus, the burden of FBD is borne particularly by children under five years old-although they represent only 9% of the global population-and people living in low-income regions of the world. These estimates are conservative, i.e., underestimates rather than...

  13. The interaction between human antimicrobial use and the risk of foodborne zoonotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koningstein, Maike

    animals and the consequent dissemination of antimicrobial drug resistance have been well described in literature. Much less investigated is the association between human antimicrobial drug use and the adverse consequences it may have on human infections. This thesis addresses the relation between...... on Labour Market Research provided data on socio-demographics of cases and controls; and the Civil Registry System was used to derive the CPR numbers, date of birth, and residential area of cases and controls. A total of 22,609 Salmonella cases that were laboratory confirmed between 1997 - 2005, were......Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are the most common causes of foodborne bacterial infections worldwide. Both bacterial species have many modes for transmission in the food chain through which humans can be infected. The widespread use of antimicrobial drugs for food...

  14. PREVALENCE OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS IN RURAL PIGS AND IN DERIVED COLD PORK MEATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cereser

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The “rural” breeding of one or two pigs and their domestic slaughtering is a significant reality in the Veneto Region, as a consequence of an ancient tradition still surviving in the countryside. The present paper evaluates the hygienic conditions during slaughtering and processing, and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens both in live animals and in derived food, mainly sausages, salami and cold pork meats. The research underlines that, in main cases, the products derived from rural pigs are safe, if HACCP principles and good hygienic practices during slaughtering and processing are used. The presence of Listeria spp. in some products is probably derived from cross contaminations, not appropriate hygienic conditions, uncorrected salt percentage in the recipe, seasoning conditions: time, temperature, humidity...

  15. Antibacterial Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa Extracts and Chemical Sanitizers Directly on Green Leaves Contaminated with Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Torres-Vitela, Ma Refugio; Villarruel-López, Angélica; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Gordillo-Martínez, Alberto J; Godínez-Oviedo, Angélica; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2018-02-01

    Leafy greens have been associated with foodborne disease outbreaks in different countries. To decrease microbial contamination of leafy greens, chemical agents are commonly used; however, a number of studies have shown these agents to have limited antimicrobial effect against pathogenic bacteria on vegetables. The objective of this study was to compare the antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and colloidal silver against foodborne bacteria on leafy greens. Thirteen foodborne bacteria were used in the study: Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella serotypes Typhimurium Typhi, and Montevideo, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, five E. coli pathotypes (Shiga toxin-producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative), and Vibrio cholerae O1. Each foodborne bacterium was separately inoculated on romaine lettuce, spinach, and coriander leaves. Separately, contaminated leafy greens were immersed in four hibiscus extracts and in sanitizers for 5 min. Next, green leaves were washed with sterile tap water. Separately, each green leaf was placed in a bag that contained 0.1% sterile peptone water and was rubbed for 2 min. Counts were done by plate count using appropriate dilutions (in sterile peptone water) of the bacterial suspensions spread on Trypticase soy agar plates and incubated at 35 ± 2°C for 48 h. Statistically significant differences ( P greens. Roselle calyx extracts caused a significantly greater reduction ( P < 0.05) in concentration of all foodborne bacteria on contaminated romaine lettuce, spinach, and coriander than did the sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid. Dry roselle calyx extracts may potentially be a useful addition to disinfection procedures for romaine lettuce, spinach, and coriander.

  16. Acanthamoeba polyphaga, a potential environmental vector for the transmission of food-borne and opportunistic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacarso, Immacolata; de Niederhäusern, Simona; Messi, Patrizia; Guerrieri, Elisa; Iseppi, Ramona; Sabia, Carla; Bondi, Moreno

    2012-06-01

    The endosymbiotic relationship could represent for many bacteria an important condition favouring their spread in the environment and in foods. For this purpose we studied the behaviour of some food-borne and opportunistic pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterocolitica) when internalized in Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Our results confirm the capability of the bacteria tested to grow within amoebal hosts. We can observe two types of interactions of the bacteria internalized in A. polyphaga. The first type, showed by Y. enterocolitica and A. hydrophila, was characterized by an early replication, probably followed by the killing and digestion of the bacteria. The second type, showed by E. faecalis and S. aureus was characterized by the persistence and grow inside the host without lysis. Lastly, when amoebae were co-cultured with L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis, an eclipse phase followed by an active intracellular growth was observed, suggesting a third type of predator-prey trend. The extracellular count in presence of A. polyphaga, as a result of an intracellular multiplication and subsequent release, was characterized by an increase of E. faecalis, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and S. Enteritidis, and by a low or absent cell count for Y. enterocolitica and A. hydrophila. Our study suggests that the investigated food-borne and opportunistic pathogens are, in most cases, able to interact with A. polyphaga, to intracellularly replicate and, lastly, to be potentially spread in the environment, underlining the possible role of this protozoan in food contamination. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Determination of histamine in milkfish stick implicated in food-borne poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chen; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Wu, Chien-Hui; Hsu, Hui-Mei; Chen, Hwi-Chang; Huang, Tzou-Chi; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos), using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25%) had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373-1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains), Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain), Morganella morganii (2 strains), Serratia marcescens (1 strain), Hafnia alvei (1 strain), and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain), by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Determination of histamine in milkfish stick implicated in food-borne poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chen Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An incident of food-borne poisoning causing illness in 37 victims due to ingestion of fried fish sticks occurred in September 2014, in Tainan city, southern Taiwan. Leftovers of the victims' fried fish sticks and 16 other raw fish stick samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine and histamine-forming bacteria. Two suspected fried fish samples contained 86.6 mg/100 g and 235.0 mg/100 g histamine; levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fried fish samples, this food-borne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Moreover, the fish species of suspected samples was identified as milkfish (Chanos chanos, using polymerase chain reaction direct sequence analysis. In addition, four of the 16 commercial raw milkfish stick samples (25% had histamine levels greater than the US Food & Drug Administration guideline of 5.0 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Ten histamine-producing bacterial strains, capable of producing 373–1261 ppm of histamine in trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine, were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (4 strains, Enterobacter cloacae (1 strain, Morganella morganii (2 strains, Serratia marcescens (1 strain, Hafnia alvei (1 strain, and Raoultella orithinolytica (1 strain, by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  19. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.; Hoffmann, S.; Hald, T.

    2016-01-01

    For many societally important science-based decisions, data are inadequate, unreliable or non-existent, and expert advice is sought. In such cases, procedures for eliciting structured expert judgments (SEJ) are increasingly used. This raises questions regarding validity and reproducibility. This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert’s statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values. Equal weights combinations were also calculated. The main conclusions on expert performance are: (1) SEJ does provide a science-based method for attribution of the global burden of foodborne diseases; (2) equal weighting of experts per panel increased statistical accuracy to acceptable levels, but at the cost of informativeness; (3) performance-based weighting increased informativeness, while retaining accuracy; (4) due to study constraints individual experts’ accuracies were generally lower than in other SEJ studies, and (5) there was a negative correlation between experts' informativeness and statistical accuracy which attenuated as accuracy improved, revealing that the least accurate experts drive the negative correlation. It is shown, however, that performance-based weighting has the ability to yield statistically accurate and informative combinations of experts' judgments, thereby offsetting this contrary influence. The present findings suggest that application of SEJ on a large scale is feasible, and motivate the development of enhanced training and tools for remote

  20. Prevalence of major foodborne pathogens in food confiscated from air passenger luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Strauß, Anja; Szakmary-Brändle, Kati; Stessl, Beatrix; Schlager, Sabine; Wagner, Martin

    2015-09-16

    The EU has issued several directives and regulations pertaining to the importation of animals and products of animal origin (POAO) and veterinary controls on importation. Unfortunately, little information is available concerning associated risks and no attempts have been made to collect baseline data on the actual prevalence of zoonotic agents in POAO carried by travellers. To meet these challenges the EU recently introduced and financed a research project "PROMISE". Its main objectives were to assess the risks involved when foodborne pathogens are introduced to the EU via uncontrolled imports. With special permission of the Austrian health authorities, spot-checks were made of the luggage of 61,355 passengers from 240 flights from non-EU countries arriving at the Vienna International Airport (VIE airport). Over a period of eight months (August 2012 through March 2013) 1473 POAO items were confiscated. A total of 600 samples were suitable for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., verotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes prevalence analysis. Foodborne pathogens could be detected in 5% (30/600) of all samples. The highest prevalence was attributed to L. monocytogenes, at 2.5%, followed by VTEC and Salmonella spp. at 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively. Campylobacter spp. was not present in any of the 600 samples. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of L. monocytogenes revealed that current sequence types (ST) corresponded to the worldwide most present clonal complexes 1, 2, 3, 5, 9, and 121. Generally, L. monocytogenes ST9 was the predominant allelic profile, which was mainly isolated from Turkish meat products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimized dispersion of ZnO nanoparticles and antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Espitia, Paula Judith; Ferreira Soares, Nilda de Fatima, E-mail: nfsoares1@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil); Teofilo, Reinaldo F. [Federal University of Vicosa, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Vitor, Debora M.; Reis Coimbra, Jane Selia dos; Andrade, Nelio Jose de [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil); Sousa, Frederico B. de; Sinisterra, Ruben D. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Medeiros, Eber Antonio Alves [Department of Food Technology, Federal University of Vicosa (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Single primary nanoparticles of zinc oxide (nanoZnO) tend to form particle collectives, resulting in loss of antimicrobial activity. This work studied the effects of probe sonication conditions: power, time, and the presence of a dispersing agent (Na{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}), on the size of nanoZnO particles. NanoZnO dispersion was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and characterized by the zeta potential (ZP) technique. NanoZnO antimicrobial activity was investigated at different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 % w/w) against four foodborne pathogens and four spoilage microorganisms. The presence of the dispersing agent had a significant effect on the size of dispersed nanoZnO. Minimum size after sonication was 238 nm. An optimal dispersion condition was achieved at 200 W for 45 min of sonication in the presence of the dispersing agent. ZP analysis indicated that the ZnO nanoparticle surface charge was altered by the addition of the dispersing agent and changes in pH. At tested concentrations and optimal dispersion, nanoZnO had no antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Listeria monocytogenes. However, it did have antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Based on the exhibited antimicrobial activity of optimized nanoZnO against some foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms, nanoZnO is a promising antimicrobial for food preservation with potential application for incorporation in polymers intended as food-contact surfaces.

  2. Salmonellosis outbreak due to chicken contact leading to a foodborne outbreak associated with infected delicatessen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedican, Erin; Miller, Ben; Ziemer, Brian; LeMaster, Pam; Jawahir, Selina; Leano, Fe; Smith, Kirk

    2010-08-01

    Salmonella is the most common bacterial cause of foodborne outbreaks in the United States. Starting in June 2007, investigation of a cluster of Salmonella Montevideo cases with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns resulted in the identification of an outbreak associated with contact with chickens purchased from a single hatchery. Nine Minnesota cases from May through August 2007 were part of this outbreak. Cases with the outbreak PFGE pattern of Salmonella Montevideo continued to occur in Minnesota after August, but none of these cases reported chicken contact. The majority of these cases resided in the same town in rural Minnesota. Routine interviews revealed that all cases from these counties purchased groceries from the same local grocery store, with two specifically reporting consuming items from the grocery store delicatessen in the week before illness. As a result, an investigation into the delicatessen was initiated. Illness histories and stool samples were collected from all delicatessen employees, and food and environmental samples were collected. None of the employees reported experiencing recent gastrointestinal symptoms, but the outbreak PFGE subtype of Salmonella Montevideo was identified from stool from two food workers. Food and environmental samples collected tested negative for Salmonella. One of the positive employees reported having chickens at home, but the animals did not test positive for Salmonella. The positive food workers were excluded from work until they had two consecutive negative stool cultures for Salmonella. There was no evidence of ongoing transmission thereafter. This was an outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections that began as an animal-contact-associated outbreak which subsequently resulted in a foodborne outbreak associated with infected food workers. These outbreaks illustrate the complex epidemiology of salmonellosis.

  3. Preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A; Dietz, V J; Wilson, M; Navin, T R; Jones, J L

    2000-03-31

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Acute infections in pregnant women can be transmitted to the fetus and cause severe illness (e.g., mental retardation, blindness, and epilepsy). An estimated 400-4,000 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis occur each year in the United States. Of the 750 deaths attributed to toxoplasmosis each year, 375 (50%) are believed to be caused by eating contaminated meat, making toxoplasmosis the third leading cause of foodborne deaths in this country. Toxoplasma can be transmitted to humans by three principal routes: a) ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked infected meat; b) ingestion of oocysts, an environmentally resistant form of the organism that cats pass in their feces, with exposure of humans occurring through exposure to cat litter or soil (e.g., from gardening or unwashed fruits or vegetables); and c) a newly infected pregnant woman passing the infection to her unborn fetus. RECOMMENDATIONSFOR PREVENTION: Toxoplasma infection can be prevented in large part by a) cooking meat to a safe temperature (i.e., one sufficient to kill Toxoplasma); b) peeling or thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables before eating; c) cleaning cooking surfaces and utensils afterthey have contacted raw meat, poultry, seafood, or unwashed fruits or vegetables; d) pregnant women avoiding changing cat litter or, if no one else is available to change the cat litter, using gloves, then washing hands thoroughly; and e) not feeding raw or undercooked meat to cats and keeping cats inside to prevent acquisition of Toxoplasma by eating infected prey. Priorities for research were discussed at a national workshop sponsored by CDC in September 1998 and include a) improving estimates of the burden of toxoplasmosis, b) improving diagnostic tests to determine when a person becomes infected with Toxoplasma, and c) determining the applicability of national screening programs. Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be

  4. Impact of Cell-free Supernatant of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Putrescine and Other Polyamine Formation by Foodborne Pathogens in Ornithine Decarboxylase Broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozogul, Fatih; Tabanelli, Giulia; Toy, Nurten; Gardini, Fausto

    2015-06-24

    Conversion of ornithine to putrescine by Salmonella Paratyphi A, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli was investigated in ornithine decarboxylase broth (ODB) using cell-free supernatants (CFSs) obtained from Leuconostoc mesenterodies subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus. Two groups of cell-free supernatants (25 or 50%) and control (only ODB) were prepared to investigate putrescine (PUT) and other polyamine formation by foodborne pathogens (FBPs). Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed among the species for each amine. All of the CFSs reduced the formation of PUT by ≥65%. The production of cadaverine (CAD) was scarcely affected by the presence of CFSs, with the exception of the samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes. The variation in polyamine was found with respect to the control samples. Spermidine (SPD) was produced in lower amount in many samples, especially in Gram-negative FBPs, whereas spermine (SPN) increased drastically in the major part of the samples concerning the control. Histamine (HIS) was characterized by a marked concentration decrease in all of the samples, and tyramine (TYR) was accumulated in very low concentrations in the controls. Therefore, the ability of bacteria to produce certain biogenic amines such as HIS, TYR, PUT, and CAD has been studied to assess their risk and prevent their formation in food products. The results obtained from this study concluded that the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains with non-decarboxylase activity are capable of avoiding or limiting biogenic amine formation by FBP.

  5. Rapid and Specific Methods to Differentiate Foodborne Pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, and the New Species Causing Spotty Liver Disease in Chickens, Campylobacter hepaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thi Thu Hao; Anwar, Arif; Scott, Peter C; Moore, Robert J

    2018-01-22

    Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli play a major role in bacteria-related foodborne illness in humans. Recently, a newly identified species, Campylobacter hepaticus, was shown to be the causative agent of spotty liver disease in chickens. The pathogenic potential of C. hepaticus in humans is unknown. This new species contains genes usually used to detect C. jejuni and C. coli in DNA-based detection methods, such as the hippuricase (hipO) gene and the glyA (serine hydroxymethyltransferase) gene, with a high degree of similarity. Therefore, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers used to detect these species need to be evaluated carefully to prevent misidentification of these important Campylobacter species. A multiplex PCR was developed and optimized to simultaneously and specifically identify the presence of C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. hepaticus in chicken samples containing high-complexity microbiota. The assay represents a new diagnostic tool for investigating the epidemiology of Campylobacter colonization in poultry and environmental samples. It may also be applicable to the investigation of Campylobacter contamination in food and in outbreaks of campylobacteriosis.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes in milk and cheese: studies of prevalence, behaviour and growth modelling during cheesemaking and shelf life

    OpenAIRE

    Dalzini, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Among food-borne pathogens, L. monocytogenes represents one of the most serious food safety concerns. In particular, dairy products are often a source of this infection. During 2007 and 2009 in Italy there was an increase of notifications of listeriosis with the most cases reported in the Centre-North of Italy. This is probably attributable both to a real increase of listeriosis in Italy and to surveillance implementation. However, statistically significant increasing trends in listeriosis no...

  7. [The Advances in the Contamination and Detection of Foodborne Pathogen Noroviruses in Fresh Produce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed the researches proceeding on the contamination and detection of the foodborne pathogen noroviruses (NoVs) in fresh produce, which involved the NoVs contaminations in fresh produce, the special attachment of NoVs in fresh produce, the NoVs outbreaks associated with fresh produce and the NoVs detection in fresh produce. There had been an increase in reported infectious disease risks associated with the consumptions of fresh produce for recent 30 years. Because the NoVs, as a primary cause of viral gastroenteritis thoughout the world, were highly contagious, had a low infectious dose, and were persistent in the environment. And also the methods for NoVs detection in food had significantly developed over the last 15 years. Currently NoVs were the most common pathogen accounting for 40% of outbreaks associated with fresh produce (i. e., fruits and vegetables). Data from outbreaks investigations verified fresh produce as the high risk food products for NoVs. The fresh produce were typically eaten raw with no thermal processing, can be contaminated at any step during production and processing from faecally polluted water and fertilizers, the poor hygiene practices by food handlers and the cross-contamination. The attachment of NoVs to the fresh produce was due to the physio-chemical factors of virus protein coat, the special attachment to different fresh produce, and the possibility for internalization of NoVs. It might provide answers to why those high risk foods were more frequently implicated (i. e., lettuce and raspberries). According to the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with fresh produce from EU countries and the USA, the outbreaks in EU countries were mainly associated with NoVs contaminated raspberries and lettuce, while in USA which were associated with NoVs contaminated lettuce. Unfortunately, there were no NoVs detection methods for fresh produce or the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with

  8. A European network for food-borne parasites (Euro-FBP: meeting report on ‘Analytical methods for food-borne parasites in human and veterinary diagnostics and in food matrices’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klotz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Food-borne parasites (FBPs are a neglected topic in food safety, partly due to a lack of awareness of their importance for public health, especially as symptoms tend not to develop immediately after exposure. In addition, methodological difficulties with both diagnosis in infected patients and detection in food matrices result in under-detection and therefore the potential for underestimation of their burden on our societies. This, in consequence, leads to lower prioritization for basic research, e.g. for development new and more advanced detection methods for different food matrices and diagnostic samples, and thus a vicious circle of neglect and lack of progress is propagated. The COST Action FA1408, A European Network for Foodborne Parasites (Euro-FBP aims to combat the impact of FBP on public health by facilitating the multidisciplinary cooperation and partnership between groups of researchers and between researchers and stakeholders. The COST Action TD1302, the European Network for cysticercosis/taeniosis, CYSTINET, has a specific focus on Taenia solium and T. saginata, two neglected FBPs, and aims to advance knowledge and understanding of these zoonotic disease complexes via collaborations in a multidisciplinary scientific network. This report summarizes the results of a meeting within the Euro-FBP consortium entitled ‘Analytical methods for food-borne parasites in human and veterinary diagnostics and in food matrices’ and of the joined Euro-FBP and CYSTINET meeting.

  9. Extending the Bacillus cereus group genomics to putative food-borne pathogens of different toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Goltsman, Eugene [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Auger, Sandrine [Genetique Microbienne; Galleron, Nathalie [Genetique Microbienne; Segurens, Beatrice [Center National Sequencage, F-91057 Evry, France; Simon, Jorg [Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; Dossat, Carole [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Broussolle, Veronique [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Brillard, Julien [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Guinebretiere, Marie-Helene [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Sanchis, Vincent [Genetique Microbienne; Nguen-the, Christophe [Securite et Qualite des Produits d' Origine Vegetale; Lereclus, Didier [Genetique Microbienne; Richardson, P M [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wincker, Patrick [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Weissenbach, Jean [Genoscope/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Unite Mixte de Recherche; Ehrlich, Dusko [Genetique Microbienne; Sorokin, Alexei [Genetique Microbienne

    2008-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group represents sporulating soil bacteria containing pathogenic strains which may cause diarrheic or emetic food poisoning outbreaks. Multiple locus sequence typing revealed a presence in natural samples of these bacteria of about 30 clonal complexes. Application of genomic methods to this group was however biased due to the major interest for representatives closely related to Bacillus anthracis. Albeit the most important food-borne pathogens were not yet defined, existing data indicate that they are scattered all over the phylogenetic tree. The preliminary analysis of the sequences of three genomes discussed in this paper narrows down the gaps in our knowledge of the B. cereus group. The strain NVH391-98 is a rare but particularly severe food-borne pathogen. Sequencing revealed that the strain should be a representative of a novel bacterial species, for which the name Bacillus cytotoxis or Bacillus cytotoxicus is proposed. This strain has a reduced genome size compared to other B. cereus group strains. Genome analysis revealed absence of sigma B factor and the presence of genes encoding diarrheic Nhe toxin, not detected earlier. The strain B. cereus F837/76 represents a clonal complex close to that of B. anthracis. Including F837/76, three such B. cereus strains had been sequenced. Alignment of genomes suggests that B. anthracis is their common ancestor. Since such strains often emerge from clinical cases, they merit a special attention. The third strain, KBAB4, is a typical facultative psychrophile generally found in soil. Phylogenic studies show that in nature it is the most active group in terms of gene exchange. Genomic sequence revealed high presence of extra-chromosomal genetic material (about 530 kb) that may account for this phenomenon. Genes coding Nhe-like toxin were found on a big plasmid in this strain. This may indicate a potential mechanism of toxicity spread from the psychrophile strain community. The results of this genomic

  10. Biopreservative methods to control the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Abadias, M; Colás-Medà, P; Usall, J; Viñas, I

    2015-12-02

    Fruits and vegetables can become contaminated by foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, and it has been demonstrated that current industrial sanitizing treatments do not eliminate the pathogens when present. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using the native microbiota present on fresh produce. The first objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota from whole and fresh-cut produce and to determine whether these bacteria were antagonistic toward foodborne pathogens. A total of 112 putative antagonist isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella enterica on lettuce disks. Five different genera reduced S. enterica growth more than 1-log unit at 20°C at the end of 3 days. When tested against L. monocytogenes 230/3, only Pseudomonas sp. strain M309 (M309) was able to reduce pathogen counts by more than 1-log unit. Therefore, M309 strain was selected to be tested on lettuce disks at 10°C against S. enterica, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. M309 strain was only able to reduce S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 populations. The second objective was to test different biopreservative methods including M309 strain, Pseudomonas graminis CPA-7 (CPA-7), bacteriophages (Listex P100 and Salmonelex) and nisin at conditions simulating commercial applications against Salmonella and L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut lettuce. The addition of the biopreservative agents did not result in a significant reduction of Salmonella population. However, CPA-7 strain together with nisin reduced L. monocytogenes numbers after 6 days of storage at 10°C. The cocktail of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes was not markedly inactivated by their respective bacteriophage solutions. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, but the combination with other technologies may be required to improve their application on fresh-cut lettuce

  11. Benchmark datasets for phylogenomic pipeline validation, applications for foodborne pathogen surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, Ruth E; Rand, Hugh; Shumway, Martin; Trees, Eija K; Simmons, Mustafa; Agarwala, Richa; Davis, Steven; Tillman, Glenn E; Defibaugh-Chavez, Stephanie; Carleton, Heather A; Klimke, William A; Katz, Lee S

    2017-01-01

    As next generation sequence technology has advanced, there have been parallel advances in genome-scale analysis programs for determining evolutionary relationships as proxies for epidemiological relationship in public health. Most new programs skip traditional steps of ortholog determination and multi-gene alignment, instead identifying variants across a set of genomes, then summarizing results in a matrix of single-nucleotide polymorphisms or alleles for standard phylogenetic analysis. However, public health authorities need to document the performance of these methods with appropriate and comprehensive datasets so they can be validated for specific purposes, e.g., outbreak surveillance. Here we propose a set of benchmark datasets to be used for comparison and validation of phylogenomic pipelines. We identified four well-documented foodborne pathogen events in which the epidemiology was concordant with routine phylogenomic analyses (reference-based SNP and wgMLST approaches). These are ideal benchmark datasets, as the trees, WGS data, and epidemiological data for each are all in agreement. We have placed these sequence data, sample metadata, and "known" phylogenetic trees in publicly-accessible databases and developed a standard descriptive spreadsheet format describing each dataset. To facilitate easy downloading of these benchmarks, we developed an automated script that uses the standard descriptive spreadsheet format. Our "outbreak" benchmark datasets represent the four major foodborne bacterial pathogens ( Listeria monocytogenes , Salmonella enterica , Escherichia coli , and Campylobacter jejuni ) and one simulated dataset where the "known tree" can be accurately called the "true tree". The downloading script and associated table files are available on GitHub: https://github.com/WGS-standards-and-analysis/datasets. These five benchmark datasets will help standardize comparison of current and future phylogenomic pipelines, and facilitate important cross

  12. Benchmark datasets for phylogenomic pipeline validation, applications for foodborne pathogen surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E. Timme

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background As next generation sequence technology has advanced, there have been parallel advances in genome-scale analysis programs for determining evolutionary relationships as proxies for epidemiological relationship in public health. Most new programs skip traditional steps of ortholog determination and multi-gene alignment, instead identifying variants across a set of genomes, then summarizing results in a matrix of single-nucleotide polymorphisms or alleles for standard phylogenetic analysis. However, public health authorities need to document the performance of these methods with appropriate and comprehensive datasets so they can be validated for specific purposes, e.g., outbreak surveillance. Here we propose a set of benchmark datasets to be used for comparison and validation of phylogenomic pipelines. Methods We identified four well-documented foodborne pathogen events in which the epidemiology was concordant with routine phylogenomic analyses (reference-based SNP and wgMLST approaches. These are ideal benchmark datasets, as the trees, WGS data, and epidemiological data for each are all in agreement. We have placed these sequence data, sample metadata, and “known” phylogenetic trees in publicly-accessible databases and developed a standard descriptive spreadsheet format describing each dataset. To facilitate easy downloading of these benchmarks, we developed an automated script that uses the standard descriptive spreadsheet format. Results Our “outbreak” benchmark datasets represent the four major foodborne bacterial pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni and one simulated dataset where the “known tree” can be accurately called the “true tree”. The downloading script and associated table files are available on GitHub: https://github.com/WGS-standards-and-analysis/datasets. Discussion These five benchmark datasets will help standardize comparison of current and

  13. Nano-particle enhanced impedimetric biosensor for detection of foodborne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G; Om, A S; Mun, J H

    2007-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been increased the need for rapid and sensitive methods for detection of these pathogens. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification involve prolonged multiple enrichment steps. Even though some immunological rapid assays are available, these assays still need enrichment steps result in delayed detection. Biosensors have shown great potential for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. They are capable of direct monitoring the antigen-antibody reactions in real time. Among the biosensors, impedimetric biosensors have been widely adapted as an analysis tool for the study of various biological binding reactions because of their high sensitivity and reagentless operation. In this study a nanoparticle-enhanced impedimetric biosensor for Salmonella enteritidis detection was developed which detected impedance changes caused by the attachment of the cells to the anti-Salmonella antibodies immobilized on interdigitated gold electrodes. Successive immobilization of neutravidin followed by anti-Salmonella antibodies was performed to the sensing area to create a biological detection surface. To enhance the impedance responses generated by antigen-antibody reactions, anti-Salmonella antibody conjugated nanoparticles were introduced on the sensing area. Using a portable impedance analyzer, the impedance across the interdigital electrodes was measured after the series of antigen-antibody bindings. Bacteria cells present in solution attached to capture antibodies and became tethered to the sensor surface. Attached bacteria cells changed the dielectric constant of the media between the electrodes thereby causing a change in measured impedance. Optimum input frequency was determined by analyzing frequency characteristics of the biosensor over ranges of applied frequencies from 10 Hz to 400 Hz. At 100 Hz of input frequency, the biosensor was most sensitive to the changes of the bacteria concentration and this frequency

  14. Prevalence of foodborne pathogens in food from selected African countries - A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudyal, Narayan; Anihouvi, Victor; Hounhouigan, Joseph; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Sekwati-Monang, Bonno; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom; Atter, Amy; Ackah, Nina Bernice; Mbugua, Samuel; Asagbra, Agnes; Abdelgadir, Warda; Nakavuma, Jesca; Jakobsen, Mogens; Fang, Weihuan

    2017-05-16

    Food safety information in the African region is insufficient and fragmented due to lack of surveillance, documentation and reporting, thereby resulting in inefficient utilization of resources, duplication of activities, and lack of synergy among the countries of the region. This paper reviews the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in seven African countries (Benin, Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda) from papers in regional or international journals published between January 2000 and December 2015. One hundred and sixteen publications that dealt with food microbiology were reviewed for general analysis, while 66 papers on contamination of pathogenic bacteria were used for meta-analysis of prevalence. The food items were split into two categories: raw foods and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods (including street food and beverages) for meta-analysis. Majority of the reviewed studies (67.2%, 78/116) dealt with food of animal origin: 38.8% for meat and eggs, 17.2% for dairy products and 11.2% for aquatic products. Only 8.6% examined foods of plant origin (fruits and vegetables). The remaining 24.1% was the composite RTE food and beverages. Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes were the most frequently reported organisms in those studies. Although the data were highly heterogeneous, a striking feature is high prevalence of the major pathogens in RTE foods, almost as high as in raw foods. E. coli averaged at 37.6% in raw foods and 31.6% in RTE foods. The corresponding prevalence for Salmonella was 19.9% vs 21.7%; S. aureus, 27.8% vs 25.1% and L. monocytogenes, 19.5% vs 6.7%. The average prevalence of foodborne pathogens in these countries was 34.2% (29.0-39.3%). Differences in food types as well as non-uniform protocols for sampling and identification might have contributed to high heterogeneity (I 2 >97%) although some high prevalence data could be factual with extensive varieties of raw and RTE foods

  15. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute...... that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited......Abstract A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends...

  16. Development of simple multiplex real-time PCR assays for foodborne pathogens detection and identification on LightCycler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avo Karus1

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most acute intestinal diseases are caused by food-borne pathogens. A fast and simple real-time PCR-based procedure for simultaneous detection of food contamination by any of the five food-borne pathogens: Campylobacter jejuni, Mycobacterium bovis, Enterobacter sakazaki, Shigella boydii, Clostridium perfrigens using multiplex EvaGreen real-time PCR for LightCycler was developed and evaluated. Real-time qPCR showed excellent sensitivity. Tm calling and Melting Curve Genotyping (MCG were used for analysis of PCR product melting curves. The Melting Curve Genotyping option showed good performance for discrimination of positive samples containing DNA of single pathogen or pathogen mixtures from negative samples.

  17. Toward an international standard for PCR-based detection of food-borne thermotolerant Campylobacters: Assay development and analytical validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Wolffs, P.; On, Stephen L.W.

    2003-01-01

    As part of a European research project (FOOD-PCR), we developed a standardized and robust PCR detection assay specific for the three most frequently reported food-borne pathogenic Campylobacter species, C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. lari. Fifteen published and unpublished PCR primers targeting the 16S...... carcass rinse, unlike both Taq DNA polymerase and DyNAzyme. Based on these results, Tth was selected as the most suitable enzyme for the assay. The standardized PCR test described shows potential for use in large-scale screening programs for food-borne Campylobacter species under the assay conditions....... The inclusivity and exclusivity were 100 and 97%, respectively. In an attempt to find a thermostable DNA polymerase more resistant than Taq to PCR inhibitors present in chicken samples, three DNA polymerases were evaluated. The DNA polymerase Tth was not inhibited at a concentration of 2% (vol/vol) chicken...

  18. Getting the Message Across: An Analysis of Foodborne Outbreak Communications Between Federal, State, and Local Health Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    bitstream/handle/1811/6156/OARDC_kmb.nhh.pdf?sequence=1. 65 Ostfield, “Diplomacy to Advance Food Defense,” 52. 14 to the tomato industry,66 and the...Serrano and Jalapeño peppers were the culprits, but also believe tomatoes may have also been a source of the bacteria. • Salmonella Typhimurium in...coordination in foodborne outbreak response operations. Currently, communication between federal, state, and local health agencies is a composite

  19. In vivo expression technology and signature-tagged mutagenesis screens for identifying mechanisms of survival of zoonotic foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Edward G

    2008-08-01

    High-throughput genetic screens provide great insights into the biochemistry and molecular biology of how bacteria sense, respond to, and propagate within their environments. Genomics era techniques such as microarrays and proteomics have great potential to increase our understanding of how foodborne pathogens grow and survive within animal and human hosts, in the environment and foods, and during thermal and nonthermal inactivation protocols. While these techniques are incredibly useful for studying gene expression in simplified in vitro conditions, it is much more challenging to pursue similar studies within more complex experimental models such as in vivo, within the food matrix, or within heterogeneous microbial populations. Techniques such as in vivo expression technology (IVET) and signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) provide alternatives for studying bacterial gene expression and growth requirements within these settings. These techniques are used extensively by the medical, veterinary, and plant research communities for identifying genes promoting the colonization and disease process, factors mediating commensalism between bacteria and their host, and genes that promote survival of environmental bacteria within natural settings. Research into the transmission and survival of foodborne pathogens from farm-to-fork would likely benefit from these techniques, however there are few reports describing their use for such purposes. This review will briefly cover the methods of IVET and STM, discuss how these techniques improved our understanding of the interactions between zoonotic foodborne pathogens and their animal hosts, and ask whether these techniques could be further exploited to better understand the survival of foodborne pathogens within the environment, within food matrices, and during inactivation protocols.

  20. Do leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat [RTE] salads carry a risk of foodborne pathogens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercanoglu Taban, Birce; Halkman, A Kadir

    2011-12-01

    Over the past 10 years, there is an increasing demand for leafy green vegetables and their ready-to-eat (RTE) salads since people changed their eating habits because of healthier lifestyle interest. Nevertheless fresh leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads are recognized as a source of food poisoning outbreaks in many parts of the world. However, this increased proportion of outbreaks cannot be completely explained by increased consumption and enhanced surveillance of them. Both in Europe and in the USA, recent foodborne illness outbreaks have revealed links between some pathogens and some leafy green vegetables such as mostly lettuces and spinaches and their RTE salads since fresh leafy green vegetables carry the potential risk of microbiological contamination due to the usage of untreated irrigation water, inappropriate organic fertilizers, wildlife or other sources that can occur anywhere from the farm to the fork such as failure during harvesting, handling, processing and packaging. Among a wide range of pathogens causing foodborne illnesses, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes are the most common pathogens that contaminate leafy green vegetables. Children, the elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised people are the most at risk for developing complications from foodborne illness as a result of eating contaminated leafy greens or their RTE salads. These outbreaks are mostly restaurant associated or they sometimes spread across several countries by international trade routes. This review summarizes current observations concerning the contaminated leafy green vegetables and their RTE salads as important vehicles for the transmission of some foodborne pathogens to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.