WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventing excessive weight

  1. Interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muktabhant, Benja; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Ngamjarus, Chetta; Dowswell, Therese

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with multiple maternal and neonatal complications. However, interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy have not been adequately evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy and associated pregnancy complications. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (20 October 2011) and MEDLINE (1966 to 20 October 2011). Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials of interventions for preventing excessive weight gain during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis We assessed for inclusion all potential studies we identified as a result of the search strategy. At least two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We have presented results using risk ratio (RR) for categorical data and mean difference for continuous data. We analysed data using a fixed-effect model. Main results We included 28 studies involving 3976 women; 27 of these studies with 3964 women contributed data to the analyses. Interventions focused on a broad range of interventions. However, for most outcomes we could not combine data in a meta-analysis, and where we did pool data, no more than two or three studies could be combined for a particular intervention and outcome. Overall, results from this review were mainly not statistically significant, and where there did appear to be differences between intervention and control groups, results were not consistent. For women in general clinic populations one (behavioural counselling versus standard care) of three interventions examined was associated with a reduction in the rate of excessive weight gain (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.95); for women in high-risk groups no intervention appeared to reduce excess weight gain. There were

  2. Preventing Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Postpartum Weight Retention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, V

    2017-10-01

    regnancy and the postpartum period are unique opportunities to promote healthy lifestyle choices including a healthy diet and regular exercise. This is especially important for those who are overweight or obese. Women are weighed at their first antenatal visit and body mass index (BMI) calculated, but not all hospitals routinely weigh women throughout pregnancy. A qualitative Dublin study examined experiences of routine weighing during antenatal care. This study found that women expected to be weighed during pregnancy and postpartum. The benefits of this included providing reassurance and minimising postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, women were eager to receive more information about healthy lifestyle interventions and gestational weight gain (GWG) from healthcare professionals

  3. VETisnietVET : studies on the prevention of excessive weight gain among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe high prevalence of overweight and obesity is an important determinant of avoidable burden of disease in the Netherlands and worldwide. Preventing excessive weight gain among children and adolescents can contribute to reducing this burden. The present thesis adds to the knowledge on

  4. Excess weight gain prevention in adolescents: Three-year outcome following a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Brady, Sheila M; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew; Olsen, Cara H; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-03-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain in adults with obesity and binge-eating-disorder, and is especially effective among those with increased psychosocial problems. However, IPT was not superior to health education (HE) to prevent excess weight gain at 1-year follow-up in 113 adolescent girls at high-risk for excess weight gain because of loss-of-control eating and high body mass index (BMI; kg/m2; Tanofsky-Kraff et al., 2014). Participants from the original trial were recontacted 3 years later for assessment. At baseline, adolescent- and parent-reported social-adjustment problems and trait anxiety were evaluated. At baseline and follow-ups, BMIz and adiposity by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Nearly 60% were reassessed at 3 years, with no group differences in participation (ps ≥ .70). Consistent with 1 year, there was no main effect of group on change in BMIz/adiposity (ps ≥ .18). In exploratory analyses, baseline social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety moderated outcome (ps obesity-prone adolescent girls, IPT was not superior to HE in preventing excess weight gain at 3 years. Consistent with theory, exploratory analyses suggested that IPT was associated with improvements in BMIz over 3 years among youth with high social-adjustment problems or trait anxiety. Future studies should test the efficacy of IPT for obesity prevention among at-risk girls with social-adjustment problems and/or anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Excess Weight Gain Prevention in Adolescents: Three-year Outcome following a Randomized-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Brady, Sheila M.; Galescu, Ovidiu; Demidowich, Andrew; Olsen, Cara H.; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain in adults with obesity and binge-eating-disorder, and is especially effective among those with increased psychosocial problems. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) to prevent excess weight gain at 1-year follow-up in 113 adolescent girls at high-risk for excess weight gain because of loss-of-control (LOC)-eating and high BMI (kg/m2) (Tanofsky-Kraff et al., 2014). Method Participants from the original trial were re-contacted 3-years later for assessment. At baseline, adolescent- and parent-reported social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety were evaluated. At baseline and follow-ups, BMIz and adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Results Nearly 60% were re-assessed at 3-years, with no group differences in participation (ps≥.70). Consistent with 1-year, there was no main effect of group on change in BMIz/adiposity (ps≥.18). In exploratory analyses, baseline social-adjustment problems and trait-anxiety moderated outcome (psobesity-prone adolescent girls, IPT was not superior to HE in preventing excess weight gain at 3-years. Consistent with theory, exploratory analyses suggested that IPT was associated with improvements in BMIz over 3-years among youth with high social-adjustment problems or trait-anxiety. Future studies should test the efficacy of IPT for obesity prevention among at-risk girls with social-adjustment problems and/or anxiety. PMID:27808536

  6. Interpersonal psychotherapy for the prevention of excess weight gain and eating disorders: A brief case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Young, Jami F; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a brief case study of "Jane Doe," a 13-year-old, non-Hispanic White girl 2 participating in a clinical research trial of interpersonal psychotherapy-weight gain (IPT-WG). Girls at-risk for adult obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) were randomly assigned to take part in 12 weeks of preventative group treatment. Jane's IPT-WG group included five other early adolescent girls (mostly aged 12-13) at risk for adult obesity and BED. The case of Jane illustrates a successful example of IPT-WG for the prevention of excessive weight gain and for the prevention of BED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Aquatic Activities During Pregnancy Prevent Excessive Maternal Weight Gain and Preserve Birth Weight: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F; Perales, Maria; Refoyo, Ignacio; Barakat, Ruben

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of a supervised and regular program of aquatic activities throughout gestation on maternal weight gain and birth weight. A randomized clinical trial. Instituto de Obstetricia, Ginecología y Fertilidad Ghisoni (Buenos Aires, Argentina). One hundred eleven pregnant women were analyzed (31.6 ± 3.8 years). All women had uncomplicated and singleton pregnancies; 49 were allocated to the exercise group (EG) and 62 to the control group (CG). The intervention program consisted of 3 weekly sessions of aerobic and resistance aquatic activities from weeks 10 to 12 until weeks 38 to 39 of gestation. Maternal weight gain, birth weight, and other maternal and fetal outcomes were obtained by hospital records. Student unpaired t test and χ 2 test were used; P values ≤.05 indicated statistical significance. Cohen's d was used to determinate the effect size. There was a higher percentage of women with excessive maternal weight gain in the CG (45.2%; n = 28) than in the EG (24.5%; n = 12; odds ratio = 0.39; 95% confidence interval: 0.17-0.89; P = .02). Birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes showed no differences between groups. Three weekly sessions of water activities throughout pregnancy prevents excessive maternal weight gain and preserves birth weight. The clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT 02602106.

  8. Preventing excessive weight gain in adolescents: interpersonal psychotherapy for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z; Glasofer, Deborah R; Salaita, Christine G

    2007-06-01

    The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents and seems to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has shown efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood.

  9. Health coaching to prevent excessive gestational weight gain: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, Helen; McPhie, Skye; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Bruce, Lauren; Herring, Sharon; Gale, Janette; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Shih, Sophy; Teale, Glyn; Lachal, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of a health coaching (HC) intervention designed to prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), and promote positive psychosocial and motivational outcomes in comparison with an Education Alone (EA) group. Randomized-controlled trial. Two hundred and sixty-one women who were <18 weeks pregnant consented to take part. Those allocated to the HC group received a tailored HC intervention delivered by a Health Coach, whilst those in the EA group attended two education sessions. Women completed measures, including motivation, psychosocial variables, sleep quality, and knowledge, beliefs and expectations concerning GWG, at 15 weeks of gestation (Time 1) and 33 weeks of gestation (Time 2). Post-birth data were also collected at 2 months post-partum (Time 3). There was no intervention effect in relation to weight gained during pregnancy, rate of excessive GWG or birth outcomes. The only differences between HC and EA women were higher readiness (b = 0.29, 95% CIs = 0.03-0.55, p < .05) and the importance to achieve a healthy GWG (b = 0.27, 95% CIs = 0.02-0.52, p < .05), improved sleep quality (b = -0.22, 95% CIs = -0.44 to -0.03, p < .05), and increased knowledge for an appropriate amount of GWG that would be best for their baby's health (b = -1.75, 95% CI = -3.26 to -0.24, p < .05) reported by the HC at Time 2. Whilst the HC intervention was not successful in preventing excessive GWG, several implications for the design of future GWG interventions were identified, including the burden of the intervention commitment and the use of weight monitoring. What is already known on the subject? Designing interventions to address gestational weight gain (GWG) continues to be a challenge. To date, health behaviour change factors have not been the focus of GWG interventions. What does this study add? Our health coaching (HC) intervention did not reduce GWG more so than education alone (EA). There was an intervention effect

  10. European energy balance research to prevent excessive weight gain among youth (ENERGY) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stralen, Maartje M. van; Velde, Saskia J. te; Singh, Amika S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school...... environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer...... as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well...

  11. Feasibility of a controlled trial aiming to prevent excessive pregnancy-related weight gain in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiderpass Elisabete

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention may predispose women to long-term overweight and other health problems. Intervention studies aiming at preventing excessive pregnancy-related weight gain are needed. The feasibility of implementing such a study protocol in primary health care setting was evaluated in this pilot study. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in three intervention and three control maternity and child health clinics in primary health care in Finland. Altogether, 132 pregnant and 92 postpartum women and 23 public health nurses (PHN participated in the study. The intervention consisted of individual counselling on physical activity and diet at five routine visits to a PHN and of an option for supervised group exercise until 37 weeks' gestation or ten months postpartum. The control clinics continued their usual care. The components of the feasibility evaluation were 1 recruitment and participation, 2 completion of data collection, 3 realization of the intervention and 4 the public health nurses' experiences. Results 1 The recruitment rate was slower than expected and the recruitment period had to be prolonged from the initially planned three months to six months. The average participation rate of eligible women at study enrolment was 77% and the drop-out rate 15%. 2 In total, 99% of the data on weight, physical activity and diet and 96% of the blood samples were obtained. 3 In the intervention clinics, 98% of the counselling sessions were realized, their contents and average durations were as intended, 87% of participants regularly completed the weekly records for physical activity and diet, and the average participation percentage in the group exercise sessions was 45%. 4 The PHNs regarded the extra training as a major advantage and the high additional workload as a disadvantage of the study. Conclusion The study protocol was mostly feasible to implement, which

  12. A randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss in overweight and obese women: Health In Pregnancy and Postpartum (HIPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Addy, Cheryl L; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Burgis, Judith T; Wingard, Ellen; Dahl, Alicia A; Whitaker, Kara M; Schneider, Lara; Boutté, Alycia K

    2018-03-01

    Interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss have yielded modest results, particularly in overweight and obese women. To examine the impact of a theory-based lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain, postpartum weight loss, and related maternal and child outcomes and to examine race differences in these outcomes. A randomized controlled trial (target N=400; 200 intervention, 200 standard care; 200 African American, 200 white). Overweight and obese African American and white women ≤16weeks gestation are recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in South Carolina. Intervention participants receive two in-depth counseling sessions (early pregnancy and postpartum), telephone counseling, behavioral podcasts, and social media support that target weight self-monitoring and increasing physical activity and healthy dietary behavior practices, guided by Social Cognitive Theory. Standard care participants receive monthly mailings and a matched number of podcasts on non-weight related topics. All intervention activities last from ≤18weeks gestation to 6months after delivery. Gestational weight gain is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are meeting gestational weight gain guidelines (inadequate, adequate, excessive), weekly rate of gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, physical activity and dietary behaviors, health-related quality of life, and offspring adiposity. Participants are assessed at baseline (≤16weeks gestation), 32weeks gestation, and 6 and 12months postpartum, and offspring are assessed at 6 and 12months. HIPP is an innovative study that addresses significant gaps in the literature. Primary outcome results are expected in 2019. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Age and Race on Outcomes of a Program to Prevent Excess Weight Gain and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Natasha L.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Brady, Sheila; Reynolds, James C.; Young, Jami F.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Olsen, Cara H.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain and reduces loss-of-control (LOC)-eating in adults. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) for preventing excess weight gain and reducing LOC-eating over 1-year in adolescent girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders. Limited data suggest that older and non-White youth may be especially responsive to IPT. In secondary analyses, we examined if age or race moderated weight and LOC-eating outcomes. The 113 par...

  14. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a specialized health coaching intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention in women: the HIPP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skouteris Helen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a time of significant physiological and physical change for women. In particular, it is a time at which many women are at risk of gaining excessive weight. We describe the rationale and methods of the Health in Pregnancy and Post-birth (HIPP Study, a study which aims primarily to determine the effectiveness of a specialized health coaching (HC intervention during pregnancy, compared to education alone, in preventing excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention 12 months post birth. A secondary aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanisms by which our HC intervention impacts on weight management both during pregnancy and post birth. Methods/Design The randomized controlled trial will be conducted with 220 women who have a BMI > 18.5 (American IOM cut-off for normal weight, are 18 years of age or older, English speaking, no history of disordered eating or diabetes and are less than 18 weeks gestation at recruitment. Women will be randomly allocated to either a specialized HC intervention group or an Education Alone group. Our specialized HC intervention has two components: (1 one-on-one sessions with a Health Coach, and (2 two by two hour educational group sessions led by a Health Coach. Women in the Education Alone group will receive two by two hour educational group sessions with no HC components. Body Mass Index, waist circumference, and psychological factors including motivation, readiness to change, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and body dissatisfaction will be assessed at baseline (14-16 weeks gestation, and again at follow-up: 32 weeks gestation, 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months postpartum. Discussion Our study responds to the urgent need to design effective interventions in pregnancy to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and postpartum weight retention. Our pregnancy HC intervention is novel and innovative and has been designed to be easily adopted by health professionals

  15. Effectiveness of physical activity interventions on preventing gestational diabetes mellitus and excessive maternal weight gain: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria-Martínez, G; García-Hermoso, A; Poyatos-León, R; Álvarez-Bueno, C; Sánchez-López, M; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V

    2015-08-01

    It is commonly accepted that pregnancy-related physiological changes (circulatory, respiratory, and locomotor) negatively influence the daily physical activity of pregnant women. The aim of this study is to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for assessing the effectiveness of physical exercise interventions during pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus and excessive maternal weight gain. Keywords were used to conduct a computerised search in six databases: Cochrane Library Plus, Science Direct, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Healthy pregnant women who were sedentary or had low levels of physical activity were selected for RCTs that included an exercise programme. Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Of 4225 articles retrieved, 13 RCTs (2873 pregnant women) met the inclusion criteria. Pooled relative risk (RR) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) (depending on the outcome measure) were calculated using a random-effects model. Overall, physical exercise programmes during pregnancy decreased the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (RR = 0.69; P = 0.009), particularly when the exercise programme was performed throughout pregnancy (RR = 0.64; P = 0.038). Furthermore, decreases were also observed in maternal weight (WMD = -1.14 kg; 95% CI -1.50 to -0.78; P physical exercise programmes during pregnancy decrease the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus and diminish maternal weight gain, and seem to be safe for the mother and the neonate; however, further studies are needed to establish recommendations. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Targeted prevention of excess weight gain and eating disorders in high-risk adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Elliott, Camden; Brady, Sheila; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Bryant, Edny J; Osborn, Robyn; Berger, Sarah S; Olsen, Cara; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence and incidence of obesity and eating disorders in US adolescent girls are serious health problems. Because of the shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders, a targeted prevention of both conditions is a priority. Objective: We determined whether an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy prevention program is more efficacious for reducing excess weight gain and worsening disordered eating than health education in adolescent girls at high risk of obesity and eating disorders. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted between September 2008 and January 2013 in a university-based laboratory and a federal research hospital. The study included 113 adolescent (12–17-y-old) girls deemed at high risk of adult obesity and eating disorders because of a body mass index (BMI) between the 75th and 97th percentiles and reports of episodes of a loss of control over their eating. Girls were randomly assigned to participate in an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy or a health-education group program for 12 weekly 90-min group sessions. Follow-up assessments occurred immediately after group programs and at 6 and 12 mo. Results: Participation in both conditions was associated with decreases in expected BMI gain, age-adjusted BMI metrics, the percentage of fat by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the frequency of loss-of-control eating over 12 mo of follow-up (Ps psychotherapy was more efficacious than health education at reducing objective binge eating at the 12-mo follow-up (P eating is associated with lower age-adjusted BMI and percentage of adiposity as well as improved mood symptoms over 1 y. Interpersonal psychotherapy further reduced objective binge eating. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which physical and psychological improvements were observed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680979. PMID:25240070

  17. Targeted prevention of excess weight gain and eating disorders in high-risk adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Elliott, Camden; Brady, Sheila; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Bryant, Edny J; Osborn, Robyn; Berger, Sarah S; Olsen, Cara; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-10-01

    The high prevalence and incidence of obesity and eating disorders in US adolescent girls are serious health problems. Because of the shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders, a targeted prevention of both conditions is a priority. We determined whether an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy prevention program is more efficacious for reducing excess weight gain and worsening disordered eating than health education in adolescent girls at high risk of obesity and eating disorders. A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted between September 2008 and January 2013 in a university-based laboratory and a federal research hospital. The study included 113 adolescent (12-17-y-old) girls deemed at high risk of adult obesity and eating disorders because of a body mass index (BMI) between the 75th and 97th percentiles and reports of episodes of a loss of control over their eating. Girls were randomly assigned to participate in an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy or a health-education group program for 12 weekly 90-min group sessions. Follow-up assessments occurred immediately after group programs and at 6 and 12 mo. Participation in both conditions was associated with decreases in expected BMI gain, age-adjusted BMI metrics, the percentage of fat by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the frequency of loss-of-control eating over 12 mo of follow-up (Ps psychotherapy was more efficacious than health education at reducing objective binge eating at the 12-mo follow-up (P eating is associated with lower age-adjusted BMI and percentage of adiposity as well as improved mood symptoms over 1 y. Interpersonal psychotherapy further reduced objective binge eating. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which physical and psychological improvements were observed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00680979. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of a Technology-Based Approach for Preventing Excess Weight Gain during Pregnancy among Women with Overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Studt, Stacia K; Diewald, Lisa K; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C

    2017-01-01

    Overweight/obesity and excess weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Few interventions have been effective in limiting gestational weight gain among women with overweight or obesity. This pilot, randomized clinical trial compared treatment as usual (TAU) to a lifestyle modification program delivered via phone for the prevention of excess gestational weight gain in women who had overweight or obesity. Participants included 41 pregnant women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m 2 (mean age = 28.7 ± 5.8 years; mean pre-gravid BMI = 31.2 ± 6.2 kg/m 2 ; 54% black, 39% white). The intervention group ( n  = 20) received weekly telephone counseling sessions and used WiFi scales to monitor their weight from weeks 16 to 36 of pregnancy. We compared differences in weight and birth outcomes for the intervention vs. the TAU group ( n  = 21). The intervention and TAU groups did not differ with respect to: gestational weight gain (15.5 ± 5.3 vs. 13.3 ± 6.8 kg, respectively); proportion gaining above the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommended weight range (83 vs. 70%); and weight gain from pre-pregnancy weight to 6 weeks postpartum (4.8 ± 4.6 vs. 3.0 ± 5.5 kg). Other birth and health outcomes also did not differ. A telemedicine intervention designed to decrease logistical burden on participants was not more successful in reducing excessive weight gain during pregnancy as compared to TAU. Future studies should examine more intensive forms of remote treatment beginning earlier in pregnancy as well as interventions promoting a healthy weight prior to pregnancy.

  19. Impact of Age and Race on Outcomes of a Program to Prevent Excess Weight Gain and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Natasha L; Shomaker, Lauren B; Brady, Sheila; Reynolds, James C; Young, Jami F; Wilfley, Denise E; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Olsen, Cara H; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2017-08-28

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) prevents weight gain and reduces loss-of-control (LOC)-eating in adults. However, IPT was not superior to health-education (HE) for preventing excess weight gain and reducing LOC-eating over 1-year in adolescent girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders. Limited data suggest that older and non-White youth may be especially responsive to IPT. In secondary analyses, we examined if age or race moderated weight and LOC-eating outcomes. The 113 participants (12-17 years; 56.6% White) from the original trial were re-contacted 3 years later for assessment. At baseline and follow-up visits through 3 years, we assessed BMI, adiposity by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and LOC-eating presence. In linear mixed models, baseline age moderated 3-year BMI outcome; older girls in IPT had the lowest 3-year BMI gain compared to younger girls in IPT and all girls in HE, p = 0.04. A similar pattern was observed for adiposity. Race moderated 3-year LOC-eating; non-White girls in IPT were most likely to abstain from LOC-eating at 3 years compared to all other girls, p = 0.04. This hypothesis-generating analysis suggests future studies should determine if IPT is especially efficacious at reducing LOC-eating in older, non-White adolescents.

  20. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥ 2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (n = 130). BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes). Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline) were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted. The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14), and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17) (overall effects). The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32) and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88) than the control group (overall effects). The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥ 1 hour/week during the whole intervention period. The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of 'excessive' non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week) who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI-SDS and skin folds than the intervention group

  1. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Simons

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight.We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥ 2 hours/week non-active video game time adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140 (receiving active video games and encouragement to play or a waiting-list control group (n = 130. BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score, waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes. Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted.The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14, and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17 (overall effects. The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32 and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88 than the control group (overall effects. The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥ 1 hour/week during the whole intervention period.The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of 'excessive' non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI-SDS and skin folds than the intervention

  2. Targeting Binge Eating for the Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain: Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents at High-Risk for Adult Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Salaita, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents, and appears to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examined whether LOC eating can be decreased by interventions in children or adolescents without full-syndrome eating disorders, or whether programs reducing LOC eating prevent inappropriate weight gain attributable to LOC eating. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a form of therapy that was designed to treat depression and has been adapted for the treatment of eating disorders, has demonstrated efficacy in reducing binge eating episodes and inducing weight stabilization among adults diagnosed with binge eating disorder. In this paper, we propose a theoretical model of excessive weight gain in adolescents at high-risk for adult obesity who engage in LOC eating and associated overeating patterns. A rationale is provided for interpersonal psychotherapy as an intervention to slow the trajectory of weight gain in at-risk youth, with the aim of preventing or ameliorating obesity in adulthood. PMID:17557971

  3. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  4. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-03-24

    Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12-16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents' measured BMI-SDS (SDS=adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents' self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in adolescents. Dutch Trial register NTR3228.

  5. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: Rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Chinapaw, M.J.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Boer, M.R. de; Seidell, J.C.; Brug, J.; Vet, E. de

    2014-01-01

    Background: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games -i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  6. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Bovenkamp, van de M.; Boer, de M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; Brug, J.; Vet, de E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  7. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents : rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; Chinapaw, Mai J M; van de Bovenkamp, Maaike; de Boer, Michiel R; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games--i.e. active games--may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active

  8. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. Methods We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (n = 130). BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes). Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline) were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted. Results The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14), and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17) (overall effects). The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32) and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88) than the control group (overall effects). The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥1 hour/week during the whole intervention period. Conclusions The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of ‘excessive’ non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week) who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI

  9. Breast-feeding duration for the prevention of excess body weight of mother-child pairs concurrently: a 2-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Czarnobay, Sandra Ana; Ekwaru, John Paul; Loehr, Sarah A; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    To examine the association between breast-feeding duration and the risk of excess body weight (children >85th percentile, mothers BMI≥25·0 kg/m2) concurrently in mother-child pairs two years after delivery. Prospective cohort study in Joinville, Brazil. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the independent relationship between breast-feeding duration and risk of excess body weight. Brazilian public maternity hospital. Three hundred and five mother-child pairs. At 2-year follow-up, 23·6 % of mother-child pairs had excess body weight. Children breast-fed for body weight than children breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·4; 95 % CI 1·1, 5·1). Breast-feeding for body weight compared with those who breast-fed for ≥6 months (OR=2·9; 95 % CI 1·1, 8·1). There was a progressive increase in the likelihood of mother-child pairs having excess body weight as breast-feeding duration decreased. In addition to breast-feeding duration, other independent determinants of excess body weight were pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain and number of pregnancies in mothers, and birth weight in children. Breast-feeding for a longer duration has a parallel protective effect on the risk of excess body weight in mother-child pairs two years after birth. Since members of the same family could be influenced by the same risk factors, continued promotion and support of breast-feeding may help to attenuate the rising prevalence of overweight in mother-child pairs.

  10. Feasibility and Potential Benefits of a Self-Monitoring Enhanced Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in Women Who Are Overweight or Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Yang, Ziyi; Haas, David M; Carpenter, Janet S

    To evaluate the feasibility and potential benefits of a self-monitoring enhanced lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive gestational weight gain in women who are overweight and obese. A one-group, prospective design involving 8 weeks of healthy eating and physical activity and self-monitoring of weight, nutrition, and walking. Recruitment and enrollment in prenatal clinics and self-monitoring at home. Women (N = 22) at 14 to 24 gestational weeks, with body mass indexes of 25 to 40 kg/m 2 , without medical and psychiatric diseases that affected cognition or walking. Participants self-monitored weight and nutrition intake for the first 4 weeks and weight, nutrition intake, and walking in the second 4 weeks. Feasibility data were collected weekly (attrition, self-monitoring adherence, program safety, participant feedback) or at the end of Week 8 (satisfaction ratings). Potential benefits included weight, nutrition, and physical activity, measured at baseline (T1), the end of Week 4 (T2), or the end of Week 8 (T3). Attrition rates were 27.3% by T2 and 40.9% by T3. Adherence to log return was 100%. No adverse effects were noted, but food craving was persistent, and stress levels were high. Program satisfaction was high. Trends for improved activity and reduced trans fat consumption were seen. Our findings indicate that the intervention is worthy of further development and testing with a randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Large proportions of overweight and obese children, as well as their parents, underestimate children's weight status across Europe. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Androutsos, Odysseas; Chinapaw, Mai; Moreno, Luis A; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Singh, Amika; Brug, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Children's weight and height were objectively measured. Parental anthropometric and sociodemographic data were self-reported. Children and their parents were asked to comment on children's weight status based on five-point Likert-type scales, ranging from 'I am much too thin' to 'I am much too fat' (children) and 'My child's weight is way too little' to 'My child's weight is way too much' (parents). These data were combined with children's actual weight status, in order to assess underestimation of children's weight status by children themselves and by their parents, respectively. Chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the aims of the current study. Eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. A school-based survey among 6113 children aged 10-12 years and their parents. In the total sample, 42·9 % of overweight/obese children and 27·6 % of parents of overweight/obese children underestimated their and their children's weight status, respectively. A higher likelihood for this underestimation of weight status by children and their parents was observed in Eastern and Southern compared with Central/Northern countries. Overweight or obese parents (OR=1·81; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·35 and OR=1·78, 95 % CI 1·22, 2·60), parents of boys (OR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·67) and children from overweight/obese (OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·29, 1·98 and OR=1·76; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·41) or unemployed parents (OR=1·53; 95 % CI 1·22, 1·92) were more likely to underestimate children's weight status. Children of overweight or obese parents, those from Eastern and Southern Europe, boys, younger children and

  12. Healthy living in pregnancy: a cluster-randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive gestational weight gain - rationale and design of the GeliS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Kathrin; Kunath, Julia; Rosenfeld, Eva; Kick, Luzia; Ulm, Kurt; Hauner, Hans

    2014-03-28

    Recent studies suggest that excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) leads to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes including weight retention in the mother and an increased risk of childhood obesity in the offspring.The aim of the GeliS study is to examine the effect of a lifestyle intervention programme during pregnancy to avoid excessive GWG and, hence, to reduce pregnancy and obstetric complications as well as the risk of maternal and offspring obesity. The GeliS study is a multicentre cluster-randomized controlled trial. A total number of 2500 pregnant women (singleton pregnancy) with a pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m2 and ≤ 40 kg/m2 will be recruited in practices of gynaecologists and midwives in ten Bavarian regions. The intervention comprises three structured and individualised counselling sessions on a healthy diet, regular physical activity as well as weight monitoring during pregnancy and one session after delivery, respectively. The counselling sessions are attached to routine pre- and postnatal visits using standardised materials and procedures. In the control regions, general recommendations for a healthy lifestyle are given. An oral glucose tolerance test is offered to all participants.The primary outcome is the proportion of participants with excessive GWG. Secondary outcomes include pregnancy and obstetric complications such as frequency of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and caesarean sections as well as weight retention in the mothers and BMI and other health variables in the offspring. A 5-year follow-up of both mothers and their infants is planned. The GeliS lifestyle intervention programme has been adapted to the existing routine health care system for pregnant women. If shown to be effective, it could be immediately implemented in routine care. The study protocol is registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol Registration System (NCT01958307).

  13. [Disability attributable to excess weight in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Ramiro, José Javier; Alvarez-Martín, Elena; Gil-Prieto, Ruth

    2014-08-19

    To estimate the disability attributable to higher than optimal body mass index in the Spanish population in 2006. Excess body weight prevalence data were obtained from the 2006 National Health Survey (NHS), while the prevalence of associated morbidities was extracted from the 2006 NHS and from a national hospital data base. Population attributable fractions were applied and disability attributable was expressed as years life with disability (YLD). In 2006, in the Spanish population aged 35-79 years, 791.650 YLD were lost due to higher than optimal body mass index (46.7% in males and 53.3% in females). Overweight (body mass index 25-29.9) accounted for 45.7% of total YLD. Males YLD were higher than females under 60. The 35-39 quinquennial group showed a difference for males of 16.6% while in the 74-79 group the difference was 23.8% for women. Osteoarthritis and chronic back pain accounted for 60% of YLD while hypertensive disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus were responsible of 37%. Excess body weight is a health risk related to the development of various diseases with an important associated disability burden and social and economical cost. YLD analysis is a useful monitor tool for disease control interventions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Adolescent suicidal behavior across the excess weight status spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Jenkins, Todd M; Ratcliff, Megan B

    2013-05-01

    Relative suicidal behavioral risks (ideation, attempts) for overweight, obese, and extremely obese adolescents (vs. healthy weight) and who did/did not accurately perceive themselves as overweight were examined in this study. A new variable (weight status/accuracy) was computed that combined actual weight status (based on BMI) with weight perception accuracy. To evaluate the effect of weight status/accuracy on each suicidal risk behavior, logistic regression was performed to calculate odds-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Potential model covariates included gender, age, race, survey year, and whether they had felt sad/hopeless. Weight perception accuracy increased as the degree of excess weight increased. Relative to healthy weight, being obese or extremely obese (but not overweight) was associated with significantly greater risk for adolescent engagement in suicidal ideation, but was unrelated to suicide attempts. Adolescents in all excess weight categories who were accurate in their weight perception were at significantly greater odds of suicidal ideation, whereas those who were inaccurate were of no greater odds of suicidal ideation than healthy weight youth who accurately perceived their weight. Findings regarding suicide attempts varied based on actual weight/weight perception accuracy and race/ethnicity. The present findings are both important and clinically relevant. While widely accepted that there are multiple pathways to suicide, our understanding of adolescent suicidal behavior risks and accordingly, prevention efforts, will be informed by comprehensive prospective studies that should also, from here forward, consider categorization of the entire weight spectrum (e.g., extreme obesity). Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Androutsos, Odysseas; Filippou, Christina; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vik, Froydis N; te Velde, Saskia J; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits. A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old children was conducted in eight European countries. Children's weight and height were measured and breakfast habits and family sociodemographic characteristics were self-reported by 5444 children and their parents. International Obesity Task Force cut-off points were used to categorize children as overweight/obese or normal weight. Mediation analyses were used to test the potential mediating effect of children's breakfast consumption on the associations between family sociodemographic characteristics and children's overweight/obesity. Schools in eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. Children aged 10-12 years and their parents (n 5444). Children's reported daily breakfast consumption varied from 56 % in Slovenia to 92 % in Spain on weekdays and from 79 % in Greece to 93 % in Norway on weekends. Children of native parents, with both parents employed and with at least one parent having more than 14 years of education were more likely to consume breakfast daily and less likely to be overweight/obese. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the association of parental nationality and parental educational status with children's overweight/obesity was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption. The study shows that the lower likelihood of being overweight/obese among 10-12-year-old children of native background and higher parental educational status was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption.

  16. The Hurt of Judgment in Excessive Weight Women: A Hermeneutic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, Neda; Hossein Abbasi, Nahid; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza

    2015-04-23

    Excess weight is one of the increasing problems of the present society and one of the threatening health conditions around the world. Despite many efforts for prevention and treatment or even surgery, the process of excess weight is not decreased in the world. While most of the studies conducted on excess weight concentrated on the issues why people get excess weight or how the prevention and treatment of excess weight must be performed, there is lake of knowledge about what excessive weight people really experience in their daily life. Understanding the lived experience of excess weight in women is linked with their health and society's health while it indirectly develops the nursing knowledge to improve the quality and access to holistic health care in excessive weight women. The aim of study was to describe with a deeper understanding, the lived experience of excess weight in women. Using a hermeneutic phenomenological approach and a van-manen analysis methods, in depth semi- structured interviews were conducted with twelve women who had lived experience of excess weight. The hurt of Judgment was the main theme that emerged in the process of data analysis. This theme was derived from three sub-themes including social judgment, being different and being seen. These findings can prove helpful in promoting the nursing knowledge concerning a holistic approach in communicating to excessive weight people.

  17. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    OpenAIRE

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associat...

  18. [Excess weight and abdominal obesity in Galician children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge

    2017-12-06

    The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Maternal excess weight and nutritional status of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Paula Costa da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing prevalence and early occurrence of excess weight in childhood suggests an association with the habits and nutritional status of the parents, as preschool aged children are still strongly influenced by the home environment. Objective: This study sought to evaluate the association between excess weight in parents and the nutritional status of preschool aged children. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study, the nutritional status of 224 children aged two-six from seven private schools in São Paulo city was classified into two categories: a low or appropriate body mass index (BMI group called ‘normal weight’ and an overweight or obese group, called ‘excess weight’ according to the World Health Organization. The independent variables were: maternal and paternal nutritional status, sex of the child, family income, maternal education, duration of breastfeeding, age of mother and father and weight and length of the child at birth. A multiple generalised linear regression examined the relation between the independent variables and child excess weight. Results: Mothers with excess weight presented a prevalence ratio of 1.3 (CI90%: 1.08 to 1.59 of children with excess weight compared to normal weight mothers, but not for fathers. Breastfeeding duration of over 12 months was a protective factor against excess weight of the child, 0.71 (CI90%: 0.51 to 0.99. Conclusion: The interpretation of the results, even considering the possible limitations, demonstrates that there is an association between excess weight of preschool age children and maternal excess weight, but not with father’s excess weight.

  20. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Control rod excess withdrawal prevention device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Yoshihito.

    1992-01-01

    Excess withdrawal of a control rod of a BWR type reactor is prevented. That is, the device comprises (1) a speed detector for detecting the driving speed of a control rod, (2) a judging circuit for outputting an abnormal signal if the driving speed is greater than a predetermined level and (3) a direction control valve compulsory closing circuit for controlling the driving direction of inserting and withdrawing a control rod based on an abnormal signal. With such a constitution, when the with drawing speed of a control rod is greater than a predetermined level, it is detected by the speed detector and the judging circuit. Then, all of the direction control valve are closed by way of the direction control valve compulsory closing circuit. As a result, the operation of the control rod is stopped compulsorily and the withdrawing speed of the control rod can be lowered to a speed corresponding to that upon gravitational withdrawal. Accordingly, excess withdrawal can be prevented. (I.S)

  2. Weight gain during pregnancy :the characteristics of women who experience excess weight gain /1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Carol Carlson

    1990-01-01

    Weight gain during pregnancy, relationships among body image, body weight standards, and attitudes toward weight gain were investigated. Weight gain recommendations, based on preconceptional weight status (PCWS) reflected current practices in prenatal care at Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, VA, and provided a basis on which to categorize weight gain as inadequate, appropriate, and excess. Women who experienced excess weight gain (EWG) were compared to those who ex...

  3. Fetal Programming of Obesity: Maternal Obesity and Excessive Weight Gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Kabaran

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is an increasing health problem throughout the world. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain are among the factors that can cause childhood obesity. Both maternal obesity and excessive weight gain increase the risks of excessive fetal weight gain and high birth weight. Rapid weight gain during fetal period leads to changes in the newborn body composition. Specifically, the increase in body fat ratio in the early periods is associated with an increased risk of obesity in the later periods. It was reported that over-nutrition during fetal period could cause excessive food intake during postpartum period as a result of metabolic programming. By influencing the fetal metabolism and tissue development, maternal obesity and excessive weight gain change the amounts of nutrients and metabolites that pass to the fetus, thus causing excessive fetal weight gain which in turn increases the risk of obesity. Fetal over-nutrition and excessive weight gain cause permanent metabolic and physiologic changes in developing organs. While mechanisms that affect these organs are not fully understood, it is thought that the changes may occur as a result of the changes in fetal energy metabolism, appetite control, neuroendocrine functions, adipose tissue mass, epigenetic mechanisms and gene expression. In this review article, the effects of maternal body weight and weight gain on fetal development, newborn birth weight and risk of obesity were evaluated, and additionally potential mechanisms that can explain the effects of fetal over-nutrition on the risk of obesity were investigated [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(5.000: 427-434

  4. Targeting Binge Eating for the Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain: Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescents at High-Risk for Adult Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Wilfley, Denise E.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Salaita, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    The most prevalent disordered eating pattern described in overweight youth is loss of control (LOC) eating, during which individuals experience an inability to control the type or amount of food they consume. LOC eating is associated cross-sectionally with greater adiposity in children and adolescents, and appears to predispose youth to gain weight or body fat above that expected during normal growth, thus likely contributing to obesity in susceptible individuals. No prior studies have examin...

  5. Effectiveness of a randomized school-based intervention involving families and teachers to prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Cunha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention involving the families and teachers that aimed to promote healthy eating habits in adolescents; the ultimate aim of the intervention was to reduce the increase in body mass index (BMI of the students.Paired cluster randomized school-based trial conducted with a sample of fifth graders.Twenty classes were randomly assigned into either an intervention group or a control group.From a total of 574 eligible students, 559 students participated in the study (intervention: 10 classes with 277 participants; control: 10 classes with 282 participants. The mean age of students was 11 years.Students attended 9 nutritional education sessions during the 2010 academic year. Parents/guardians and teachers received information on the same subjects.Changes in BMI and percentage of body fat.Intention-to-treat analysis showed that changes in BMI were not significantly different between the 2 groups (β = 0.003; p = 0.75. There was a major reduction in the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and cookies in the intervention group; students in this group also consumed more fruits.Encouraging the adoption of healthy eating habits promoted important changes in the adolescent diet, but this did not lead to a reduction in BMI gain. Strategies based exclusively on the quality of diet may not reduce weight gain among adolescents.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01046474.

  6. Cardiometabolic risk markers of normal weight and excess body weight in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroeni, Silmara Salete de Barros Silva; Mastroeni, Marco Fabio; Gonçalves, Muryel de Carvalho; Debortoli, Guilherme; da Silva, Nilza Nunes; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Adamovski, Maristela; Veugelers, Paul J; Rondó, Patrícia Helen de Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Excess body weight leads to a variety of metabolic changes and increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in adulthood. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of risk markers for CVD among Brazilian adolescents of normal weight and with excess body weight. The markers included blood pressure, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, tumor necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, fasting insulin and glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides. We calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression and adjusted for potential confounders such as age, sex, physical activity, and socioeconomic background. Compared with normal weight subjects, overweight/obese adolescents were more likely to have higher systolic blood pressure (OR = 3.49, p insulin (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), HOMA-IR (OR = 8.03, p < 0.001), leptin (OR = 5.55, p < 0.001), and LDL-c (OR = 5.50, p < 0.001) and lower serum HDL-c concentrations (OR = 2.76, p = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, the estimates did not change substantially, except for leptin for which the risk associated with overweight increased to 11.09 (95% CI: 4.05-30.35). In conclusion, excess body weight in adolescents exhibits strong associations with several markers that are established as causes of CVD in adults. This observation stresses the importance of primary prevention and of maintaining a healthy body weight throughout adolescence to reduce the global burden of CVD.

  7. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall, 87% of type 2 diabetes, 68% of hypertensive disease, 61 % of endometrial cancer, 45% of ischaemic stroke, 38% of ischaemic heart disease, 31 % of kidney cancer, 24% of osteoarthritis, 17% of colon cancer, and 13% of postmenopausal breast cancer were attributable to a BMI ≥ 21 kg/m2. Excess body weight is ...

  8. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Eating for a Healthy Weight Planning Meals Cutting Calories Eat More, Weigh Less? Rethink Your Drink ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity About Us Nutrition Physical ...

  9. [Association between hours of television watched, physical activity, sleep and excess weight among young adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moyá, María; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; García de la Hera, Manuela; Giménez-Monzo, Daniel; González-Palacios, Sandra; Valera-Gran, Desirée; Sempere-Orts, María; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between excess weight or body mass index (BMI) and the time spent watching television, self-reported physical activity and sleep duration in a young adult population. We analyzed cross-sectional baseline data of 1,135 participants (17-35 years old) from the project Dieta, salud y antropometría en población universitaria (Diet, Health and Anthrompmetric Variables in Univeristy Students). Information about time spent watching television, sleep duration, self-reported physical activity and self-reported height and weight was provided by a baseline questionnaire. BMI was calculated as kg/m(2) and excess of weight was defined as ≥25. We used multiple logistic regression to explore the association between excess weight (no/yes) and independent variables, and multiple linear regression for BMI. The prevalence of excess weight was 13.7% (11.2% were overweight and 2.5% were obese). A significant positive association was found between excess weight and a greater amount of time spent watching television. Participants who reported watching television >2h a day had a higher risk of excess weight than those who watched television ≤1h a day (OR=2.13; 95%CI: 1.37-3.36; p-trend: 0.002). A lower level of physical activity was associated with an increased risk of excess weight, although the association was statistically significant only in multiple linear regression (p=0.037). No association was observed with sleep duration. A greater number of hours spent watching television and lower physical activity were significantly associated with a higher BMI in young adults. Both factors are potentially modifiable with preventive strategies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manios, Y.; Moschonis, G.; Androutsos, O.; Filippou, C.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Vik, F.N.; te Velde, S.J.; Jan, N.; Dossegger, A.; Bere, E.; Molnar, D.; Moreno, L.A.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits. Design A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old

  11. Cancers attributable to excess body weight in Canada in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Zakaria

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess body weight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25.00 kg/m2 is an established risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, but its relationship to cancer is lesser-known. This study used population attributable fractions (PAFs to estimate the cancer burden attributable to excess body weight in Canadian adults (aged 25+ years in 2010. Methods: We estimated PAFs using relative risk (RR estimates from the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, BMI-based estimates of overweight (25.00 kg/m2–29.99 kg/m2 and obesity (30.00+ kg/m2 from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey, and cancer case counts from the Canadian Cancer Registry. PAFs were based on BMI corrected for the bias in self-reported height and weight. Results: In Canada in 2010, an estimated 9645 cancer cases were attributable to excess body weight, representing 5.7% of all cancer cases (males 4.9%, females 6.5%. When limiting the analysis to types of cancer associated with high BMI, the PAF increased to 14.9% (males 17.5%, females 13.3%. Types of cancer with the highest PAFs were esophageal adenocarcinoma (42.2%, kidney (25.4%, gastric cardia (20.7%, liver (20.5%, colon (20.5% and gallbladder (20.2% for males, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (36.1%, uterus (35.2%, gallbladder (23.7% and kidney (23.0% for females. Types of cancer with the greatest number of attributable cases were colon (1445, kidney (780 and advanced prostate (515 for males, and uterus (1825, postmenopausal breast (1765 and colon (675 for females. Irrespective of sex or type of cancer, PAFs were highest in the Prairies (except Alberta and the Atlantic region and lowest in British Columbia and Quebec. Conclusion: The cancer burden attributable to excess body weight is substantial and will continue to rise in the near future because of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada.

  12. Women's Perceived Reasons for Their Excessive Postpartum Weight Retention: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Christenson

    Full Text Available Obesity in Sweden has doubled to 14% over the last 20 years. New strategies for treatment and prevention are needed. Excessive gestational weight gain has been found to contribute substantially to obesity, and there is a consistent association between postpartum weight retention and obesity later in life. We aimed to explore what factors women perceive as reasons for having substantial postpartum weight retention, to identify areas for new and improved interventions.Qualitative interview study (semi-structured using an emergent design. Fifteen women, with a postpartum weight retention ≥ 10 kg, were interviewed by a trained cognitive therapist. Eight women had pre-pregnancy BMI below 30 kg/m2. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data analysed using inductive manifest content analysis. Salient text passages were extracted, shortened, coded and clustered into categories.Participants reported no knowledge of current gestational weight gain recommendations or of risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes with excessive weight gain or postpartum weight retention. Excessive eating emerged as a common strategy to provide relief of psychological, emotional and physical discomfort, such as depression and morning sickness. Women perceived medical staff as being unconcerned about weight, and postpartum weight loss support was scarce or absent. Some women reported eating more due to a belief that breastfeeding would automatically lead to weight loss.There is a need to raise awareness about risks with unhealthy gestational weight development and postpartum weight retention in women of childbearing age. The common strategy to cope with psychological, emotional or physical discomfort by eating is an important factor to target with intervention. The postpartum year is a neglected period where additional follow-up on weight and weight loss support is strongly indicated.

  13. Residing in economically distressed rural Appalachia is independently associated with excess body weight in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Demetrius A; Lennie, Terry A; Mudd-Martin, Gia T; Moser, Debra K

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is greater among adults living in rural compared to urban areas of the USA. Greater obesity risk among rural adults persists after adjusting for obesity-related behaviors and sociodemographic factors. With the rural-urban obesity disparity greatest among younger adults, it is important to examine the complexity of factors that may increase the risk for excess body weight in this population so that effective preventive interventions can be implemented. College students residing in economically deprived rural areas such as rural Appalachia may be particularly at risk for excess body weight from exposure to both rural and college obesogenic environments. The purpose of this study was to determine if living in economically distressed rural Appalachia is independently associated with excess body weight among college students. College students aged 18-25 years who were lifetime residents of either rural Eastern Appalachian Kentucky (n=55) or urban Central Kentucky (n=54) participated in this cross-sectional study. Students completed questionnaires on sociodemographics, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors including smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity. Height and weight were obtained during a brief health examination to calculate body-mass index (BMI). Excess body weight was defined as being overweight or obese with a BMI of 25 kg/m2 or greater. Binary logistic regression was used to determine if living in economically distressed rural Appalachia was independently associated with excess body weight. The prevalence of excess body weight was higher in the rural Appalachian group than the urban group (50% vs 24%, p0.001). Depressive symptom scores and smoking prevalence were also greater in the rural Appalachian group. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable intake and vigorous physical activity between the groups. Residing in economically distressed rural Appalachia was associated with more than a six

  14. The association of breakfast skipping and television viewing at breakfast with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries; the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Vik, Frøydis N; Brug, Johannes; Manios, Yannis; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Jan, Natasa; Maes, Lea; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Bere, Elling

    2014-04-01

    The main objective was to assess the relationship of breakfast skipping, television (TV) viewing at breakfast and breakfast without TV with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries. A cross-sectional survey assessed breakfast eating and TV viewing at breakfast by three frequency questions and parents were categorized into: (i) breakfast skippers; (ii) breakfast with TV (TV watchers at breakfast); and (iii) breakfast without TV (breakfast eaters who do not watch TV during breakfast). Self-reported weight and height were used to categorize weight status as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted with weight status as the dependent variable and breakfast habits as predictors, adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education. The survey was conducted in 2010 in 199 primary schools across eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study. Parents (n 6512) of 10-12-year-olds responded to the questionnaire. In the total study sample, with breakfast without TV as the reference group and adjusting for sex, ethnicity and level of education, the OR of being respectively overweight or obese (compared with normal weight) was 1.2 (95% CI 1.0, 1.4) or 1.8 (95% CI 1.5, 2.3) for breakfast skippers. The OR of being respectively underweight or obese was 0.5 (95% CI 0.2, 0.9) or 1.4 (95% CI 1.1, 1.8) for breakfast with TV. Breakfast skippers were significantly more likely to be overweight and obese, and those eating breakfast while watching TV were significantly more likely to be obese and less likely to be underweight.

  15. Risk Factors for Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in a Healthy, Nulliparous Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Restall

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes and contributes to obesity in women. Our aim was to identify early pregnancy factors associated with excessive GWG, in a contemporary nulliparous cohort. Methods. Participants in the SCOPE study were classified into GWG categories (“not excessive” versus “excessive” based on pregravid body mass index (BMI using 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM guidelines. Maternal characteristics and pregnancy risk factors at 14–16 weeks were compared between categories and multivariable analysis controlled for confounding factors. Results. Of 1950 women, 17% gained weight within the recommended range, 74% had excessive and 9% inadequate GWG. Women with excessive GWG were more likely to be overweight (adjOR 2.9 (95% CI 2.2–3.8 or obese (adjOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.8–3.5 before pregnancy compared to women with a normal BMI. Other factors independently associated with excessive GWG included recruitment in Ireland, younger maternal age, increasing maternal birthweight, cessation of smoking by 14–16 weeks, increased nightly sleep duration, high seafood diet, recent immigrant, limiting behaviour, and decreasing exercise by 14–16 weeks. Fertility treatment was protective. Conclusions. Identification of potentially modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG provides opportunities for intervention studies to improve pregnancy outcome and prevent maternal obesity.

  16. Multiple lifestyle risk behaviours and excess weight among adolescents in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continente, Xavier; Pérez, Anna; Espelt, Albert; Ariza, Carles; López, María José

    We aimed to analyse the prevalence of having multiple lifestyle risk behaviours (LRB) and the potential relationship between excess weight (including overweight and obesity) and cumulative multiple LRB among adolescents in Barcelona, Spain. A cross-sectional study was performed among a representative sample of 3,114 secondary school students in Barcelona. Height and weight were objectively measured and excess weight was defined in accordance with World Health Organization criteria. Information on screen time, breakfast, physical activity and sleep duration was obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. More than 80% of the students had at least two LRBs. In compulsory schooling, the adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of excess weight increased with a higher number of reported LRBs (four LRBs: aPR=1.56; 95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.05). These results highlight the importance of a multiple-behaviour approach in preventive programmes aimed at reducing adolescent obesity. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of factors associated with excess weight in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Renata Paulino; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido; de Mello, Luane Marques

    2016-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren aged 10 to 16 years and its association with dietary and behavioral factors. Cross-sectional study that evaluated 505 adolescents using a structured questionnaire and anthropometric data. The data was analyzed through the T Test for independent samples and Mann-Whitney Test to compare means and medians, respectively, and Chi 2 Test for proportions. Prevalence Ratio (RP) and the 95% confidence interval was used to estimate the degree of association between variables. The logistic regression was employed to adjust the estimates to confounding factors. The significance level of 5% was considered for all analysis. Excess weight was observed in 30.9% of the schoolchildren: 18.2% of overweight and 12.7% of obesity. There was no association between weight alterations and dietary/behavioral habits in the bivariate and multivariate analyses. However, associations were observed in relation to gender. Daily consumption of sweets [PR=0.75 (0.64-0.88)] and soft drinks [PR=0.82 (0.70-0.97)] was less frequent among boys; having lunch daily was slightly more often reported by boys [OR=1.11 (1.02-1.22)]. Physical activity practice of (≥3 times/week) was more often mentioned by boys and the association measures disclosed two-fold more physical activity in this group [PR=2.04 (1.56-2.67)] when compared to girls. Approximately 30% of boys and 40% of girls stated they did not perform activities requiring energy expenditure during free periods, with boys being 32% less idle than girls [PR=0.68 (0.60-0.76)]. A high prevalence of both overweight and obesity was observed, as well as unhealthy habits in the study population, regardless of the presence of weight alterations. Health promotion strategies in schools should be encouraged, in order to promote healthy habits and behaviors among all students. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Subsequent Maternal Obesity at Age 40: A Hypothetical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Barbara; Coyle, Jeremy; Cohen, Alison K; Headen, Irene; Hubbard, Alan; Ritchie, Lorrene; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-09-01

    To model the hypothetical impact of preventing excessive gestational weight gain on midlife obesity and compare the estimated reduction with the US Healthy People 2020 goal of a 10% reduction of obesity prevalence in adults. We analyzed 3917 women with 1 to 3 pregnancies in the prospective US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, from 1979 to 2012. We compared the estimated obesity prevalence between 2 scenarios: gestational weight gain as reported and under the scenario of a hypothetical intervention that all women with excessive gestational weight gain instead gained as recommended by the Institute of Medicine (2009). A hypothetical intervention was associated with a significantly reduced estimated prevalence of obesity for first (3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 5.6) and second (3.0 percentage points; 95% CI = 0.7, 5.2) births, and twice as high in Black as in White mothers, but not significant in Hispanics. The population attributable fraction was 10.7% (95% CI = 3.3%, 18.1%) in first and 9.3% (95% CI = 2.2%, 16.5%) in second births. Development of effective weight-management interventions for childbearing women could lead to meaningful reductions in long-term obesity.

  19. Removal of excess skin after massive weight loss: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore Giordano Department of Plastic and General Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Abstract: The advent of bariatric surgery has led to a subspecialty in plastic surgery for skin and fat contouring which remain after massive weight loss. The author discusses the preoperative assessment, surgical treatment plan, postoperative management, possible complications, and benefits of postbariatric surgery. Preoperative planning includes medical history and patient assessment. Surgical procedures for brachioplasty, upper back lift, breast reshaping, abdominoplasty, panniculectomy, lower back lift, and thigh lift are discussed. Indications, postoperative complications, and benefits are also discussed. The best candidates for postbariatric plastic surgery are those who have achieved weight loss stability with a BMI of 32 or less and who have adequate nutrition in order to heal the surgical excisions. Abdominal and truncal deformity are the most common presenting complaints in massive weight loss patients, and the procedure of choice to address this region is a body lift. Postoperative care focuses on patient safety, prioritizing in deep venous thrombosis (DVT prophylaxis and seroma prevention. Postbariatric body contouring aims to correct the deformity due to the excess of skin after massive weight loss and to restore a sense of normalcy. Keywords: morbid obesity, bariatric surgery, weight loss, massive weight loss, body contouring, panniculectomy

  20. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Excessive body weight is associated with additional loss of quality of life in children with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.; van der Ent, C.K.; Rovers, M.M.; Kimpen, J.L.L.; Essen-Zandvliet, L.E.M.; de Meer, G.

    Background: Asthma and excessive body weight frequently coexist, whereas the exact relationship between the 2 diseases is unknown. Objective: To study whether asthma combined with excessive body weight has a greater effect on quality of life in children than the separate effects of asthma or

  2. Correlates of absolute and excessive weight gain during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althuizen, Ellen; van Poppel, Mireille Nm; Seidell, Jacob C; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Factors associated with weight gain during pregnancy that may be linked to maternal overweight and obesity were examined. METHODS: In this observational study, 144 women reported on demographics, (prepregnancy) body weight, and lifestyles in self-reported questionnaires at 30 weeks

  3. Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status predicts excessive gestational weight gain: findings from a US cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive gestational weight gain promotes poor maternal and child health outcomes. Weight misperception is associated with weight gain in non-pregnant women, but no data exist during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status with excessive gestational weight gain. Methods At study enrollment, participants in Project Viva reported weight, height, and perceived body weight status by questionnaire. Our study sample comprised 1537 women who had either normal or overweight/obese pre-pregnancy BMI. We created 2 categories of pre-pregnancy body weight status misperception: normal weight women who identified themselves as overweight ('overassessors' and overweight/obese women who identified themselves as average or underweight ('underassessors'. Women who correctly perceived their body weight status were classified as either normal weight or overweight/obese accurate assessors. We performed multivariable logistic regression to determine the odds of excessive gestational weight gain according to 1990 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Results Of the 1029 women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 898 (87% accurately perceived and 131 (13% overassessed their weight status. 508 women were overweight/obese, of whom 438 (86% accurately perceived and 70 (14% underassessed their pre-pregnancy weight status. By the end of pregnancy, 823 women (54% gained excessively. Compared with normal weight accurate assessors, the adjusted odds of excessive gestational weight gain was 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3, 3.0 in normal weight overassessors, 2.9 (95% CI: 2.2, 3.9 in overweight/obese accurate assessors, and 7.6 (95% CI: 3.4, 17.0 in overweight/obese underassessors. Conclusion Misperceived pre-pregnancy body weight status was associated with excessive gestational weight gain among both normal weight and overweight/obese women, with the greatest likelihood of excessive

  4. Relationship Between Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Neonatal Adiposity in Women With Mild Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Sean C; Landon, Mark B; Mele, Lisa; Reddy, Uma M; Casey, Brian M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Rouse, Dwight J; Thorp, John M; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Saade, George; Caritis, Steve N; Sorokin, Yoram; Grobman, William A

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the relationships among excessive gestational weight gain, neonatal adiposity, and adverse obstetric outcomes in women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with mild gestational diabetes mellitus. Based on self-reported prepregnancy body weight, gestational weight gain was categorized as excessive if it was greater than 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Maternal outcomes and neonatal anthropomorphic characteristics were compared between women with excessive weight gain and those without excessive weight gain. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to adjust for confounding factors. We studied 841 women who participated in the main trial and had prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and delivery information available (n=431 treatment group, n=410 no treatment). After adjustment for factors including treatment and prepregnancy BMI, excessive weight gain remained associated with large for gestational age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.81-4.93), birth weight greater than 4,000 g (adjusted OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.54-4.40), preeclampsia (adjusted OR 2.96, 95% CI 1.35-7.03), and cesarean delivery for labor arrest (adjusted OR 2.37, 95% CI 1.30-4.44). In addition, excessive weight gain was independently associated with increased total neonatal fat (Pweight (Pweight gain was independently associated with both greater birth weight and adiposity.

  5. Association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Bruna Merten; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Holanda, Lidiana de Souza; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; Cabral, Poliana Coelho

    2018-04-01

    Restricted sodium intake has been recommended for more than 1 century for the treatment of hypertension. However, restriction seems to increase blood cholesterol. In women with excess weight, blood cholesterol may increase even more because of insulin resistance and the high lipolytic activity of adipose tissue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with and without excess weight.This was a cross-sectional study with hypertensive and nondiabetic women aged 20 to 59 years, recruited at the primary healthcare units of Maceio, Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m. Sodium intake was estimated by the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. Blood cholesterol was the primary outcome investigated by this study, and its relationship with sodium intake and other variables was assessed by Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression using a significance level of 5%.This study included 165 hypertensive women. Of these, 135 (81.8%) were with excess weight. The mean sodium intake was 3.7 g (±1.9) and 3.4 g (±2.4) in hypertensive women with and without excess weight, respectively. The multiple normal linear regression models fitted to the "blood cholesterol" in the 2 groups reveal that for the group of hypertensive women without excess weight only 1 independent variable "age" is statistically significant to explain the variability of the blood cholesterol levels. However, for the group of hypertensive women with excess weight, 2 independent variables, age and sodium intake, can statistically explain variations of the blood cholesterol levels.Blood cholesterol is statistically inversely related to sodium intake for hypertensive women with excess weight, but it is not statistically related to sodium intake for hypertensive women without excess weight.

  6. Effect of Television on Obesity and Excess of Weight and Consequences of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rosiek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This work identifies numerous diseases which are a direct consequence of obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of physical exercise among Poles. It discusses the negative effect of television and food commercials contributing to an increase in obesity, not only among adults but also among children. This is an overview forming grounds for further studies into ways of preventing the development of diseases due to obesity, both in Poland and in the world.

  7. Effect of Television on Obesity and Excess of Weight and Consequences of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiek, Anna; Maciejewska, Natalia Frąckowiak; Leksowski, Krzysztof; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Łukasz

    2015-08-12

    The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This work identifies numerous diseases which are a direct consequence of obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of physical exercise among Poles. It discusses the negative effect of television and food commercials contributing to an increase in obesity, not only among adults but also among children. This is an overview forming grounds for further studies into ways of preventing the development of diseases due to obesity, both in Poland and in the world.

  8. Effect of Television on Obesity and Excess of Weight and Consequences of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiek, Anna; Frąckowiak Maciejewska, Natalia; Leksowski, Krzysztof; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This work identifies numerous diseases which are a direct consequence of obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of physical exercise among Poles. It discusses the negative effect of television and food commercials contributing to an increase in obesity, not only among adults but also among children. This is an overview forming grounds for further studies into ways of preventing the development of diseases due to obesity, both in Poland and in the world. PMID:26274965

  9. Family- and school-based correlates of energy balance-related behaviours in 10-12-year-old children: a systematic review within the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloigne, M.; Van Lippevelde, W.; Maes, L.; Brug, J.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify family- and school-based correlates of specific energy balance-related behaviours (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, breakfast consumption, soft drink consumption) among 10-12-year-olds, using the EnRG framework (Environmental Research framework for weight Gain

  10. Psychosocial risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Eliza; McPhie, Skye; Skouteris, Helen; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Hill, Briony

    2015-12-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have adverse health outcomes for mother and infant throughout pregnancy. However, few studies have identified the psychosocial factors that contribute to women gaining excessive weight during pregnancy. To review the existing literature that explores the impact of psychosocial risk factors (psychological distress, body image dissatisfaction, social support, self-efficacy and self-esteem) on excessive gestational weight gain. A systematic review of peer-reviewed English articles using Academic Search Complete, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE Complete, PsycINFO, Informit, Web of Science, and Scopus was conducted. Quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial factors of excessive GWG, published between 2000 and 2014 were included. Studies investigating mothers with a low risk of mental health issues and normally-developing foetuses were eligible for inclusion. From the total of 474 articles located, 12 articles were identified as relevant and were subsequently reviewed in full. Significant associations were found between depression, body image dissatisfaction, and social support with excessive gestational weight gain. No significant relationships were reported between anxiety, stress, self-efficacy, or self-esteem and excessive gestational weight gain. The relationship between psychosocial factors and weight gain in pregnancy is complex; however depression, body dissatisfaction and social support appear to have a direct relationship with excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to identify how screening for, and responding to, psychosocial risk factors for excessive gestational weight gain can be successfully incorporated into current antenatal care. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of Excessive Weight Gain in Insulin Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cichosz, Simon Lebech; Lundby-Christensen, Louise; Johansen, Mette D

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to identify predictors of weight gain in insulin treated patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 412 individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were, in addition to metformin or placebo, randomized into 18-month treatment groups with three different insulin analogue......AIMS: Weight gain is an ongoing challenge when initiating insulin therapy in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, if prediction of insulin associated weight gain was possible on an individualized level, targeted initiatives could be implemented to reduce weight gain. The objective...... treatment regimens. Participants with excessive weight gain were defined as the group with weight gain in the 4(th) quartile. We developed a pattern classification method to predict individuals prone to excessive weight gain. RESULTS: The median weight gain among all patients (n = 412) was 2.4 (95...

  12. Excess body weight in children may increase the length of hospital stay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Bechere Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of excess body weight in the pediatric ward of University Hospital and to test both the association between initial nutritional diagnosis and the length of stay and the in-hospital variation in nutritional status. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study based on information entered in clinical records from University Hospital. The data were collected from a convenience sample of 91 cases among children aged one to 10 years admitted to the hospital in 2009. The data that characterize the sample are presented in a descriptive manner. Additionally, we performed a multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for age and gender. RESULTS: Nutritional classification at baseline showed that 87.8% of the children had a normal weight and that 8.9% had excess weight. The linear regression models showed that the average weight loss z-score of the children with excess weight compared with the group with normal weight was −0.48 (p = 0.018 and that their length of stay was 2.37 days longer on average compared with that of the normal-weight group (p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: The length of stay and loss of weight at the hospital may be greater among children with excess weight than among children with normal weight.

  13. Challenges of Data Dissemination Efforts Within a Community-Based Participatory Project About Persistent Racial Disparities in Excess Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bernice R; Wendel, Josefine; Banks, Chandra; Goodridge, Ardeene; Harding, Richard; Harris, Robin; Hacker, Karen; Chomitz, Virginia R

    2015-01-01

    Despite universal environmental and policy-focused initiatives that resulted in declines in obesity among children in Cambridge, Massachusetts, disparities persist among racial/ethnic groups. In response, a community coalition formed the Healthy Eating and Living Project (HELP), to investigate and disseminate findings regarding disparities in excess weight among Cambridge Black youth (ages 6-14), with the aim of facilitating reciprocal learning and community mobilization to ultimately increase community engagement and inform prevention efforts. This paper details the theoretical framework, methods, and results of disseminating HELP findings to various sectors of the Cambridge Black/African American (Black) community. First, using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the HELP coalition analyzed existing data and conducted qualitative studies with Cambridge Black families to better understand the sociocultural and familial determinants of excess weight. We then developed presentation and print materials and used different dissemination approaches. We solicited feedback to inform the dissemination process and mobilization of obesity prevention efforts. We disseminated information through six community groups (parents, students, pastors, men's health group, community leaders, and a health coalition), email lists, and websites. Reciprocal learning among and between HELP and community members yielded data presentation challenges, as well as prevention effort ideas and barriers. Dissemination of local health data should be considered both as a strategy to increase community engagement and as an intervention to promote collective efficacy and community change. Careful attention should be dedicated to the language used when communicating racial disparities in excess weight to various community groups.

  14. Diabetes burden in Brazil: fraction attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Luísa Sorio; Campos, Monica Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its percentage attributable to overweight and obesity in Brazil. METHODS The burden of diabetes mellitus was described in terms of disability-adjusted life years, which is the sum of two components: years of life lost and years lived with disability. To calculate the fraction of diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, we used the prevalence of these risk factors according to sex and age groups (> 20 years) obtained from the 2008 Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (Social Dimensions of Inequality Survey) and the relative risks derived from the international literature. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus accounted for 5.4% of Brazilian disability-adjusted life years in 2008, with the largest fraction attributed to the morbidity component (years lived with disability). Women exhibited higher values for disability-adjusted life years. In Brazil, 49.2%, 58.3%, and 70.6% of diabetes mellitus in women was attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, respectively. Among men, these percentages were 40.5%, 45.4%, and 60.3%, respectively. Differences were observed with respect to Brazilian regions and age groups. CONCLUSIONS A large fraction of diabetes mellitus was attributable to preventable individual risk factors and, in about six years, the contribution of these factors significant increased, particularly among men. Policies aimed at promoting healthy lifestyle habits, such as a balanced diet and physical activity, can have a significant impact on reducing the burden of diabetes mellitus in Brazil. PMID:26018787

  15. Diabetes burden in Brazil: fraction attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Luísa Sorio; Campos, Monica Rodrigues; Oliveira, Andreia Ferreira de; Schramm, Joyce Mendes de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its percentage attributable to overweight and obesity in Brazil. METHODS The burden of diabetes mellitus was described in terms of disability-adjusted life years, which is the sum of two components: years of life lost and years lived with disability. To calculate the fraction of diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, we used the prevalence of these risk factors according to sex and age groups (> 20 years) obtained from the 2008 Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (Social Dimensions of Inequality Survey) and the relative risks derived from the international literature. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus accounted for 5.4% of Brazilian disability-adjusted life years in 2008, with the largest fraction attributed to the morbidity component (years lived with disability). Women exhibited higher values for disability-adjusted life years. In Brazil, 49.2%, 58.3%, and 70.6% of diabetes mellitus in women was attributable to overweight, obesity, and excess weight, respectively. Among men, these percentages were 40.5%, 45.4%, and 60.3%, respectively. Differences were observed with respect to Brazilian regions and age groups. CONCLUSIONS A large fraction of diabetes mellitus was attributable to preventable individual risk factors and, in about six years, the contribution of these factors significant increased, particularly among men. Policies aimed at promoting healthy lifestyle habits, such as a balanced diet and physical activity, can have a significant impact on reducing the burden of diabetes mellitus in Brazil.

  16. Excess weight confers an increased risk of premature death and shorter life expectancy; a bibliographic survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease considered a global epidemic by the World Health Organization (WHO. The body mass index (BMI is used internationally for diagnosis and classification, a BMI> 30kg/m2 is a diagnosis of obesity and it correlates positively with the relative risk of general and cardiovascular mortality. Objectives: The main objective of this work is to make known the impact of this disease through a systematic review of the most recent publications. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing alarmingly worldwide, affecting more than 50% of the adult population in the European Union and tripling the number of obese over the last twenty years. Due to this large increase, obesity has become a major threat for the whole world, being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and causal factor of other cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipemias, thus increasing morbidity and mortality of these people. It also has association with alterations to other levels such as OSAS, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis, increased risk of complications during gestation, association with osteoarthrosis and cancer, among others. Conclusions: Excess weight confers an increased risk of premature death and shorter life expectancy so, a multidisciplinary approach focused on weight loss is first needed. Prevention is the key to its control.

  17. Mothers’ conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Paula Costa da Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze maternal conceptions about excess weight in infancy and the nutritional status of their preschool-aged children. METHODS: A mixed, exploratory study was performed using semi-structured interviews. Two study groups were defined: a group of 16 mothers of children with excess weight and a group of 15 mothers of eutrophic children. The interviews were submitted to content analysis using CHIC software (Classification Hiérarchique Implicative et Cohésitive¯. RESULTS: The mothers of children with excess weight tended to conceive thin children as malnourished, while those of normal weight children emphasized the influence of family and genetics as determinants of a child’s nutritional status. Although there was a certain consensus among the mothers that an unhealthy diet contributes to the risk of a child developing excess weight, the concept of genetics as a determinant of a child’s nutritional status was also present in the dialogue from the mothers of both groups. This result indicates a lack of clarity regarding the influence of eating behavior and family lifestyle on weight gain and the formation of a child’s eating habits. Both groups indicated that the mother has a decisive role in the eating habits of her child; however, the mothers of children with excess weight did not seem to take ownership of this concept when addressing the care of their own children. CONCLUSION: Differences in conceptions, including taking ownership of care, may contribute to the development of excess weight in preschool-aged children.

  18. Association between maternal depressive symptoms with child malnutrition or child excess weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Feres Moreira Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to verify associations between maternal depressive symptoms with child malnutrition or child excess weight. Methods: prospective study with data from the BRISA prenatal cohort in São Luís, Brazil, obtained from the 22nd to the 25th week of gestation (in 2009 and 2010 and, later, when children were aged 12 to 32 months (in 2010 and 2012. Maternal depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. For the excess weight evaluation, BMI z-score for age > +2 was used. For measuring child malnutrition, height z-score for age < -2 was used. The confounding factors were identified using a directed acyclic graph in DAGitty software. Results: we did not find associations between maternal depressive symptoms with child malnutrition or child excess weight. The prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms was 27.6% during gestation and 19.8% in the second or third year of the child's life. The malnutrition rate was 6% and the excess weight rate was 10.9%. Conclusions: no associations between maternal depressive symptoms in prenatal or in the second or third year of the child's life and child malnutrition or excess weight were detected.

  19. Brain structural correlates of reward sensitivity and impulsivity in adolescents with normal and excess weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moreno-López

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Neuroscience evidence suggests that adolescent obesity is linked to brain dysfunctions associated with enhanced reward and somatosensory processing and reduced impulse control during food processing. Comparatively less is known about the role of more stable brain structural measures and their link to personality traits and neuropsychological factors on the presentation of adolescent obesity. Here we aimed to investigate regional brain anatomy in adolescents with excess weight vs. lean controls. We also aimed to contrast the associations between brain structure and personality and cognitive measures in both groups. METHODS: Fifty-two adolescents (16 with normal weight and 36 with excess weight were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging and completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, the UPPS-P scale, and the Stroop task. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used to assess possible between-group differences in regional gray matter (GM and to measure the putative differences in the way reward and punishment sensitivity, impulsivity and inhibitory control relate to regional GM volumes, which were analyzed using both region of interest (ROI and whole brain analyses. The ROIs included areas involved in reward/somatosensory processing (striatum, somatosensory cortices and motivation/impulse control (hippocampus, prefrontal cortex. RESULTS: Excess weight adolescents showed increased GM volume in the right hippocampus. Voxel-wise volumes of the second somatosensory cortex (SII were correlated with reward sensitivity and positive urgency in lean controls, but this association was missed in excess weight adolescents. Moreover, Stroop performance correlated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes in controls but not in excess weight adolescents. CONCLUSION: Adolescents with excess weight have structural abnormalities in brain regions associated with somatosensory processing and motivation.

  20. Kefir prevented excess fat accumulation in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Kang, Hye Won; Lim, Won-Chul; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Lee, In-Young; Cho, Hong-Yon

    2017-05-01

    Excessive body fat accumulation can result in obesity, which is a serious health concern. Kefir, a probiotic, has recently shown possible health benefits in fighting obesity. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of 0.1 and 0.2% kefir powder on fat accumulation in adipose and liver tissues of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Kefir reduced body weight and epididymal fat pad weight and decreased adipocyte diameters in HFD-induced obese mice. This was supported by decreased expression of genes related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis as well as reduced proinflammatory marker levels in epididymal fat. Along with reduced hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations and serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activities, genes related to lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation were downregulated and upregulated, respectively, in liver tissue. Kefir also decreased serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Overall, kefir has the potential to prevent obesity.

  1. A conceptual model of psychosocial risk and protective factors for excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Briony; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Milgrom, Jeannette; Kent, Bridie; Herring, Sharon J; Hartley-Clark, Linda; Gale, Janette

    2013-02-01

    nearly half of all women exceed the guideline recommended pregnancy weight gain for their Body Mass Index (BMI) category. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is correlated positively with postpartum weight retention and is a predictor of long-term, higher BMI in mothers and their children. Psychosocial factors are generally not targeted in GWG behaviour change interventions, however, multifactorial, conceptual models that include these factors, may be useful in determining the pathways that contribute to excessive GWG. We propose a conceptual model, underpinned by health behaviour change theory, which outlines the psychosocial determinants of GWG, including the role of motivation and self-efficacy towards healthy behaviours. This model is based on a review of the existing literature in this area. there is increasing evidence to show that psychosocial factors, such as increased depressive symptoms, anxiety, lower self-esteem and body image dissatisfaction, are associated with excessive GWG. What is less known is how these factors might lead to excessive GWG. Our conceptual model proposes a pathway of factors that affect GWG, and may be useful for understanding the mechanisms by which interventions impact on weight management during pregnancy. This involves tracking the relationships among maternal psychosocial factors, including body image concerns, motivation to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours, confidence in adopting healthy lifestyle behaviours for the purposes of weight management, and actual behaviour changes. health-care providers may improve weight gain outcomes in pregnancy if they assess and address psychosocial factors in pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyurethane foam pica in a patient with excessive interdialytic weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyasere, Osasuyi; Allington, Ying; Cafferkey, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Maintaining fluid balance in haemodialysis patients is important because of the adverse effects of excessive interdialytic weight gain. This often requires fluid restriction that patients often struggle with. We report a case of a 31-year-old female diabetic patient on haemodialysis with repeated excessive interdialytic weight gains despite fluid restriction and dry weight adjustment. It was subsequently discovered that she devised an unusual, albeit unsuccessful, strategy of eating the polyurethane foam from her dialysis chair while increasing her fluid intake hoping that it would absorb excess water in the gut! This under-diagnosed phenomenon known as pica has been reported in renal patients with substances such as ice, clay and baking soda. PMID:22767521

  3. Prospective Relationships between Health Cognitions and Excess Gestational Weight Gain in a Cohort of Healthy and Overweight Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jersey, Susan J; Mallan, Kimberley M; Callaway, Leonie K; Daniels, Lynne A; Nicholson, Jan M

    2017-08-01

    Excess gestational weight gain (GWG) contributes to long-term obesity in mothers and children. To guide the tailoring of interventions to prevent excess GWG, a better understanding is needed of the lifestyle-related health cognitions that influence women's attempts to manage GWG. To examine the relationship between health cognitions and excess GWG for women who enter pregnancy at a healthy weight (body mass index overweight (body mass index ≥25). It was hypothesized that health cognitions with a positive (negative) influence on health behavior would be associated with lower (higher) likelihood of excess GWG and that specific associations would differ between weight status groups. This prospective, observational study commenced when participants were health cognitions. Height was measured at 16 weeks and weight at 36 weeks using standard procedures. A consecutive sample of pregnant women (n=715) were recruited from an Australian metropolitan hospital between August 2010 and January 2011. All women health behaviors. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between health cognitions and excess GWG stratified for prepregnancy weight status. For healthy-weight women, higher weight locus of control scores were protective against excess GWG (odds ratio 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.8), whereas higher perceived risk scores (personal risk and risk arising from prepregnancy weight) (odds ratio 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) were associated with excess GWG. For overweight women higher negative outcome expectation scores were associated with an increased risk of excess GWG (odds ratio 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.0). Lifestyle-related health cognitions are associated with excess GWG and differed by prepregnancy weight status, suggesting the need to tailor behavior change interventions accordingly. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bilateral Common Peroneal Nerve Entrapment After Excessive Weight Loss: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Michael; Ben Zvi, Lior; Bernfeld, Benjamin

    2018-03-02

    We report a case of excessive weight loss causing bilateral common peroneal nerve entrapment in a 60-year-old patient. The bilateral peroneal involvement suggested a systemic cause. Excessive weight loss during a relatively short period can cause changes in the tissues surrounding the common peroneal nerve and lead to its entrapment in the peroneal tunnel. Our patient underwent successful surgical decompression with significant improvement. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Physical, clinical, and psychosocial parameters of adolescents with different degrees of excess weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Vanessa Drieli Seron; da Silva, Danilo Fernandes; Bianchini, Josiane Aparecida Alves; Lopera, Carlos Andres; Moreira, Amanda Caroline Teles; Locateli, João Carlos; Nardo Júnior, Nelson

    2014-12-01

    To compare body composition, hemodynamic parameters, health-related physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of adolescents with anthropometric diagnosis of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity. 220 adolescents with excess body weight were enrolled. They were beginners in a intervention program that included patients based on age, availability, presence of excess body weight, place of residence, and agreement to participate in the study. This study collected anthropometric and hemodynamic variables, health-related physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of the adolescents. To compare the three groups according to nutritional status, parametric and non-parametric tests were applied. Significance level was set at p0.05). Body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and systolic blood pressure increased as degree of excess weight increased (p<0.05). Dyastolic blood pressure of the severe obesity group was higher than the other groups (p<0.05). There was an association between the degree of excess weight and the prevalence of altered blood pressure (overweight: 12.1%; obesity: 28.1%; severe obesity: 45.5%; p<0.001). The results were similar when genders were analyzed separately. Results suggest that overweight adolescents presented similar results compared to obese and severely obese adolescents in most of the parameters analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents living in an underdeveloped city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ingrid Sofia Vieira de; Costa, Clara Andrezza Crisóstomo Bezerra; Santos, João Victor Laurindo Dos; Santos, Aldenir Feitosa Dos; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of ultra-processed foods may be associated with the development of chronic diseases, both in adults and in children/adolescents. This consumption is growing worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, its magnitude in small, poor cities from the countryside is not well characterized, especially in adolescents. This study aimed to assess the consumption of minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods by adolescents from a poor Brazilian city and to determine if it was associated with excess weight, high waist circumference and high blood pressure. Cross-sectional study, conducted at a public federal school that offers technical education together with high school, located in the city of Murici. Adolescents of both sexes and aged between 14-19 years old were included. Anthropometric characteristics (weight, height, waist circumference), blood pressure, and dietary intake data were assessed. Associations were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusted by sex and age. At total, 249 adolescents were included, being 55.8% girls, with a mean age of 16 years-old. The consumption of minimally processed foods was inversely associated with excess weight (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio: 0.61, 95% Confidence Interval: [0.39-0.96], P = 0.03). Although the consumption of ultra-processed foods was not associated with excess weight, high blood pressure and high waist circumference, 46.2% of the sample reported eating these products more than weekly. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents. Investments in nutritional education aiming the prevention of chronic diseases associated with the consumption of these foods are necessary.

  7. Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents living in an underdeveloped city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Sofia Vieira de Melo

    Full Text Available The consumption of ultra-processed foods may be associated with the development of chronic diseases, both in adults and in children/adolescents. This consumption is growing worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. Nevertheless, its magnitude in small, poor cities from the countryside is not well characterized, especially in adolescents. This study aimed to assess the consumption of minimally processed, processed and ultra-processed foods by adolescents from a poor Brazilian city and to determine if it was associated with excess weight, high waist circumference and high blood pressure.Cross-sectional study, conducted at a public federal school that offers technical education together with high school, located in the city of Murici. Adolescents of both sexes and aged between 14-19 years old were included. Anthropometric characteristics (weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, and dietary intake data were assessed. Associations were calculated using Poisson regression models, adjusted by sex and age.At total, 249 adolescents were included, being 55.8% girls, with a mean age of 16 years-old. The consumption of minimally processed foods was inversely associated with excess weight (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio: 0.61, 95% Confidence Interval: [0.39-0.96], P = 0.03. Although the consumption of ultra-processed foods was not associated with excess weight, high blood pressure and high waist circumference, 46.2% of the sample reported eating these products more than weekly.Consumption of minimally processed food is inversely associated with excess weight in adolescents. Investments in nutritional education aiming the prevention of chronic diseases associated with the consumption of these foods are necessary.

  8. [EATING HABITS, EXCESS WEIGHT AND WEIGHT SELF-PERCEPTION AT SCHOOL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Camacho, Juan Diego; Rodríguez Lazo, Maria; Bolaños Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz Prieto, Inmaculata; Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    in the last years the rates of overweight and obesity in adolescents have been increasing simultaneously with a progressive abandon of the Mediterranean dietary patterns. In addition many adolescents misperceive their weight. to analyse the prevalence of overweight/ obesity, to assess the self-perception of weight and to explore the eating habits in a child and adolescent sample. The relationship among these variables and the influence on the psychosocial wellbeing are also analysed. a total of 87 secondary school students participated in this project. Weight and height were obtained, the self-perceived weight was assessed and a series of questionnaires were applied in order to explore the participants´ wellbeing. 28.73% of the sample had overweight and 9.19% obesity, 27.48% of the students misperceived their weight and only a quarter of the sample had a proper Mediterranean dietary pattern. The frequency of weight control was related positively with a higher weight perception. many participants underestimated their weight and a possible association between overweight/obesity and skipping breakfast was observed. A progressive increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents is confirmed and the need to implement nutrition education programs after analyzing the eating habits is proposed. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of the 50-g glucose challenge test to predict excess delivery weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beksac, M Sinan; Tanacan, Atakan; Hakli, Duygu A; Ozyuncu, Ozgur

    2018-04-10

    To identify a cut-off value for the 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) that predicts excess delivery weight. A retrospective study was conducted among pregnant women who undertook a 50-g GCT at Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2016. Patients with singleton pregnancies who delivered live neonates after 28 weeks of pregnancy were included. Patients were classified according to their 50-g GCT values into group 1 (9.990 mmol/L),. Classification and regression tree data mining was performed to identify the 50-g GCT cut-off value corresponding to a substantial increase in delivery weight. Median delivery weight were 3100 g in group 1 (n=352), 3200 g in group 2 (n=165), 3720 g in group 3 (n=47), and 3865 g in group 4 (n=20). Gravidity, 50-g GCT value, and pregnancy duration at delivery explained 30.6% of the observed variance in delivery weight. The cut-off required for maternal blood glucose level to predict excessive delivery weight was 8.741 mmol/L. The 50-g GCT can be used to identify women at risk of delivering offspring with excessive delivery weight. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal and cord blood fatty acid patterns with excessive gestational weight gain and neonatal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaiyong; Ye, Kui; Han, Yanping; Sheng, Jie; Jin, Zhongxiu; Bo, Qinli; Hu, Chunqiu; Hu, Chuanlai; Li, Li

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the association of maternal excessive gestational weight gain with saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in maternal and cord serum. We included 77 pairs of women and their newborns and classified them into three groups as follows: mothers with normal gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group I (30 pairs), mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their babies with normal birth weight in group II (30 pairs), and mothers with excessive gestational weight gain and their macrosomic babies in group III (17 pairs). Serum fatty acid concentrations were determined through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. No remarkable difference in maternal dietary intake was observed among the three groups. C16:0, C18:0, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group III mothers than in group I mothers. Compared with group I neonates, total saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower but total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were significantly higher in group II neonates (ppattern.

  11. Physical, clinical, and psychosocial parameters of adolescents with different degrees of excess weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Drieli Seron Antonini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare body composition, hemodynamic parameters, health-related physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of adolescents with anthropometric diagnosis of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity.METHODS: 220 adolescents with excess body weight were enrolled. They were beginners in a intervention program that included patients based on age, availability, presence of excess body weight, place of residence, and agreement to participate in the study. This study collected anthropometric and hemodynamic variables, health-related physical fitness, and health-related quality of life of the adolescents. To compare the three groups according to nutritional status, parametric and non-parametric tests were applied. Significance level was set at p0.05. Body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and systolic blood pressure increased as degree of excess weightincreased (p<0.05. Dyastolic blood pressure of the severe obesity group was higher than the other groups (p<0.05. There was an association between the degree of excess weight and the prevalence of altered blood pressure (overweight: 12.1%; obesity: 28.1%; severe obesity: 45.5%; p<0.001. The results were similar when genders were analyzed separately.CONCLUSION: Results suggest that overweight adolescents presented similar results compared to obese and severely obese adolescents in most of the parameters analyzed.

  12. Discrimination and Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Black and Latina Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321

  13. Social stress increases cortisol and hampers attention in adolescents with excess weight.

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    Antonio Verdejo-Garcia

    Full Text Available To experimentally examine if adolescents with excess weight are more sensitive to social stress and hence more sensitive to harmful effects of stress in cognition.We conducted an experimental study in 84 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old classified in two groups based on age adjusted Body Mass Index percentile: Normal weight (n=42 and Excess weight (n=42. Both groups were exposed to social stress as induced by the virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Task--participants were requested to give a public speech about positive and negative aspects of their personalities in front of a virtual audience. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels and performance in cognitive tests before and after the social stressor. Cognitive tests included the CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing Test (measuring attention response latency and discriminability and the Iowa Gambling Task (measuring decision-making.Adolescents with excess weight compared to healthy weight controls displayed increased cortisol response and less improvement of attentional performance after the social stressor. Decision-making performance decreased after the social stressor in both groups.Adolescents who are overweight or obese have increased sensitivity to social stress, which detrimentally impacts attentional skills.

  14. Maternal breastfeeding, early introduction of non-breast milk, and excess weight in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Viviane Gabriela; da Silva, Janaína Paula Costa; Ferreira, Patrícia Calesco; Bertoli, Ciro João; Leone, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    Investigate associations between excess weight in preschool children, breastfeeding duration and age of non-breast milk introduction. Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 817 preschool children, aged 2 to 4 years, attending municipal day care centers in the city of Taubaté. The weight and height of children were measured in the day care centers in 2009, 2010 and 2011. The body mass index z-score (BMIz) was calculated and children were classified as risk of overweight (BMIz≥1 tolinear regression. The prevalence of risk of overweight was 18.9% and of excess weight (overweight or obesity) was 9.3%. The median duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction of non-breast milk was 6 months. The child's BMIz showed direct correlation with birth weight (r=0.154; pintroduction (r=-0.112; p=0.002). There was no correlation between the child's BMIz with birth length, duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's age. The earlier the introduction of non-breast milk, the higher the correlation with excess weight at preschool age. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  15. Prevalence and distribution of inactivity and weight excess in Spanish scholar children

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    Arturo Rodríguez-Hernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aims to study the distribution of leisure time physical activity pattern and weight status of Spanish schoolchildren. The sample corresponds to 6,803 school-aged children (3,491 boys and 3,312 girls, who took part in the Spanish National Health Survey 2006, being representative of the Spanish scholar population. It has assessed their pattern of physical activity and weight status through international body mass index cut offs. The relationship between the variables studied has been established through a multinomial logistic regression analysis. Physical inactivity is more prevalent in children that exceed a healthy weight, and there are regional differences in the distribution of a sedentary lifestyle and weight excess, as well as in different age groups and sex. Globally, 49.7% of Spanish schoolchildren have an unhealthy leisure time physical activity pattern, and 28.9% of them exceed the recommended weight for their age.

  16. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood Excess Weight in Spain From 2006 to 2012. Determinants and Parental Misperception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-González, María D; Sanz-Barbero, Belén; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel

    2017-08-01

    Due to the high prevalence of childhood obesity in Spain, we analyzed changes in its prevalence from 2006 to 2007 and from 2011 to 2012, as well as diet, sleep, and sedentary habits in 5- to 14-year-olds and parental misperceptions about their children's excess weight. The sample was from the Spanish National Health Surveys for 2006 to 2007 (n=5590) and for 2011 to 2012 (n=3601). Data were collected by trained personnel through telephone interviews with parents/guardians. Weight and height were self-reported and the International Obesity Task Force cutpoints were used to define overweight and obesity. The prevalence of childhood excess weight was 30.1% from 2006 to 2007 and 29.7% from 2011 to 2012, while that of childhood obesity was 9.6% and 9%, respectively. Parental misperception of childhood excess weight increased from 60.8% to 71.4% (P<.001). Daily consumption of vegetables increased by 7.8%, while that of soft drinks and snacks decreased. This decrease was greatest in children from families with a low socioeconomic status, who also decreased their consumption of sweets and fast food. Adherence to sleep recommendations decreased by 5%, but adherence to recommended sedentary time did not change. High childhood overweight and obesity rates remained stable in Spain from 2006 to 2007 and from 2011 to 2012, but there was an increase in parental misperception of childhood excess weight. Despite reduced consumption of soft drinks and snacks, there was low adherence to dietary recommendations, hours of sleep, and sedentary habits. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Anelise Damiani [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5{sup th} and 8{sup th} grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5{sup th} to the 8{sup th} grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition.

  19. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary; Silva, Anelise Damiani; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5 th and 8 th grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5 th to the 8 th grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition

  20. Reasons and features of occurrence of excess body weight at students taking into account gender differences

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    Olga Iushkovska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the definition of reasons and features of occurrence of excess body weight at students taking into account the gender differences, which are connected with irrational lifestyle, violation of food behavior, insufficient physical activity. Material & Methods: students of 1–4 courses of Odessa national medical university, 26 girls and 22 boys, with the excess body weight and obesity aged from 18 to 24 years for the research were selected. Results: reliable differences in adipopexis type, percent of visceral and subcutaneous fat, and also indexes “waist-hip” at the respondents, connected with the article, are found. Conclusions: modification of lifestyle, wrong food behavior, selection of physical activity, has to be carried out taking into account the type of adipopexis and sex of students.

  1. Association between excess weight and beverage portion size consumed in Brazil

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    Ilana Nogueira Bezerra

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the beverage portion size consumed and to evaluate their association with excess weight in Brazil. METHODS We used data from the National Dietary Survey, which included individuals with two days of food record aged over 20 years (n = 24,527 individuals. The beverages were categorized into six groups: soft drink, 100% fruit juice, fruit drink, alcoholic beverage, milk, and coffee or tea. We estimated the average portion consumed for each group and we evaluated, using linear regression, the association between portion size per group and the variables of age, sex, income, and nutritional status. We tested the association between portion size and excess weight using Poisson regression, adjusted for age, sex, income, and total energy intake. RESULTS The most frequently consumed beverages in Brazil were coffee and tea, followed by 100% fruit juices, soft drinks, and milk. Alcoholic beverages presented the highest average in the portion size consumed, followed by soft drinks, 100% fruit juice, fruit drink, and milk. Portion size showed positive association with excess weight only in the soft drink (PR = 1.19, 95%CI 1.10–1.27 and alcoholic beverage groups (PR = 1.20, 95%CI, 1.11–1.29, regardless of age, sex, income, and total energy intake. CONCLUSIONS Alcoholic beverages and soft drinks presented the highest averages in portion size and positive association with excess weight. Public health interventions should address the issue of portion sizes offered to consumers by discouraging the consumption of large portions, especially sweetened and low nutritional beverages.

  2. Excess weight in regular aviation pilots associated with work and sleep characteristics

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    Magna Lúcia de Souza Palmeira

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: It was concluded that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among the commercial airline pilots was high and represents a public health problem in this population. Excess weight was associated with time working night-shifts, difficulty relaxing after work, inadequate sleep on days off, having other chronic diseases, and physical inactivity. In this context, nutritional status can be regarded as the result of dynamic and complex interactions promoted by occupational, sleep and health factors.

  3. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and risk of macrosomia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chaoqing; Hu, Chengwen; He, Xiujie; Zhu, Meng; Qin, Fengyun; Liu, Yue; Hu, Chuanlai

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the relation between excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia. We performed a meta-analysis by searching PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for English-language literature from inception to 1 October 2014. Studies assessing the relationship between excessive gestational weight gain and macrosomia were included. Characteristics including study design, country, sample size, definition of macrosomia, adjusted odds ratios, CIs and adjustment factors were extracted independently by two reviewers. Summary odds ratios were calculated by using a random-effects model meta-analysis. 15 relevant articles were eligible for the meta-analysis. Incorporated by random-effect model before the heterogeneity tests, the value of OR was 2.35 (95 % CI: 1.95, 2.85). Stratified analysis showed no differences regarding different study design, definition of macrosomia and location of study. There was no indication of a publication bias either from the result of Egger's test (P = 0.572) or Begg's test (P = 0.572). Our meta-analysis indicated that excessive gestational weight gain might increase the risk of macrosomia.

  4. Gynecologic-obstetric changes after loss of massive excess weight following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitel, M; Stone, E; Kassam, H A; Wilk, E J; Sutherland, D J

    1988-04-01

    A clinical study was undertaken to assess gynecologic-obstetric changes in morbidly obese women who lost greater than or equal to 50% of their excess weight with bariatric surgery. The 138 females (109 of reproductive age), age 35 +/- 9 SD yr, weighed 124 +/- 23 kg before surgery and 79 +/- 13 kg after weight loss had stabilized. Menstrual irregularities were present in 40.4% of premenopausal patients preoperatively; after massive weight loss, cycles were abnormal in 4.6% (p less than 0.001). Infertility problems were present preoperatively in 29.3% Of these, nine tried to conceive after weight loss and were successful. During past pregnancies, medical complications were frequent (hypertension 26.7%, pre-eclampsia 12.8%, diabetes 7.0%, and deep vein thrombosis 7.0%). After weight-loss stabilization, these obstetric complications did not occur. Incidence of urinary stress incontinence decreased from 61.2% to 11.6% (p less than 0.001). Gynecologic-obstetric changes tended to normalize after loss of massive body weight.

  5. Excess Fibrin Deposits Decrease Fetal Weight of Pregnant Mice Infected by Plasmodium berghei

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    Desy Andari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is commonly attributed to malaria in pregnancy, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this poor birth outcome are incompletely understood. A universally described histopathological feature of placental malaria is excessive deposition of fibrin, the end-product of the coagulation cascade. This study was conducted to compare fibrin deposit in pregnant mice that infected by Plasmodium berghei (treatment group to the normal pregnant mice (control group and its association with fetal weight. This research is in vivo experimental laboratory study that used 18 pregnant Balb/c mice which divided to the control the group (8 mice and treatment group (9 mice infected by P.berghei. Placentas were staining with Haematoxylin-Eosin (HE for fibrin deposits examination whereas fetal weight was performed with Mettler analytical balance AE 50. Fetal weight of the treatment group was lower than those of the control group (t test, p=0,002. Fibrin deposits were increased in the treatment group (t test, p=0,005 and influenced weight of fetuses (Spearman r= -0,586, p= 0,014. Weights of fetuses are interfered by fibrin deposits during malaria infection.

  6. Population attributable risk for diabetes associated with excess weight in Tehranian adults: a population-based cohort study

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    Azizi Fereidoun

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little evidence exists regarding the magnitude of contribution of excess weight to diabetes in the Middle East countries. This study aimed at quantification of the impact of overweight and obesity on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM at a population level in Tehran, Iran. Methods Using data of a population-based short-term cohort study in Iran, which began in 1997 with 3.6-year follow-up, we calculated the adjusted odds ratios (OR and population attributable risks (PAR of developing T2DM, i.e. the proportion of diabetes that could have been avoided had overweight and/or obesity not been present in the population. Results Of the 4728 subjects studied, aged ≥ 20 years, during the 3.6-year follow-up period, 3.8% (n = 182 developed T2DM. This proportion was 1.4%, 3.6%, and 7.8% for the normal, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively. When compared to normal BMI, the adjusted ORs for incident diabetes were 1.76 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.07 to 2.89] for overweight and 3.54 (95% CI 2.16 to 5.79 for obesity. The PARs adjusted for family history of diabetes, age, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure was 23.3% for overweight and 37.1% for obesity. These figures were 7.8% and 26.6% for men and 35.3% and 48.3% for women, respectively. Conclusion Incident T2DM is mainly attributable to excess weight, significantly more so in Tehranian women than men. Nonetheless, the contribution of excess weight in developing T2DM was lower in our short-term study than that reported in long-term periods. This probably reflects the significant role of other risk factors of T2DM in a short-term follow-up. Hence, prevention of excess weight probably should be considered as a major strategy for reducing incidence of T2DM; the contribution of other risk factors in developing T2DM in short-term period deserve to be studied and be taken into account.

  7. Association between maternal depressive symptoms with child malnutrition or child excess weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Thais Feres Moreira; Maciel, Warles Melo; Alencar, Monyk Neves de; Cruz, Joana Athayde da Silva; Carvalho, Carolina Abreu de; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to verify associations between maternal depressive symptoms with child malnutrition or child excess weight. Methods: prospective study with data from the BRISA prenatal cohort in São Luís, Brazil, obtained from the 22nd to the 25th week of gestation (in 2009 and 2010) and, later, when children were aged 12 to 32 months (in 2010 and 2012). Maternal depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Edinburgh Po...

  8. Analysis of pregnancy and childbirth course in pregnant women with excessive weight

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    Duka Yu.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Under supervision there were 233 pregnant women with excessive weight aged 18-43 years. Patients were under observation and gave birth on the basis of obstetric units of municipal establishment "Dnepropetrovsk regional perinatal center with in-patient unit of" Dnepropetrovsk regional council". When performing research 2 groups were formed: 120 (51,5% pregnant women with miscarriage threat against excessive weight being at in-patient treatment since early terms of pregnancy. They underwent in-depth study. 113 (48,5% pregnant women with obesity with gestation course estimated retrospectively at the time of delivery. As a result of the obtained data in women of prospective group treatment algorithm was developed. This algorithm represented a complex treatment including antiagregant and anticoagulant therapy, co-factor vitamin therapy. Despite a more mature age of women of prospective group, adverse anamnesis by missarriage, high frequency of miscarriage in its first half, low placentation level, this complex allowed to improve course of the second half of pregnancy and to reduce number of gestational complications and perinatal losses.

  9. Excess weight loss in first-born breastfed newborns relates to maternal intrapartum fluid balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantry, Caroline J; Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Peerson, Janet M; Cohen, Roberta J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to describe weight loss in a multiethnic population of first-born, predominantly breastfed, term infants and to identify potentially modifiable risk factors for excess weight loss (EWL). Data on prenatal breastfeeding intentions, demographic characteristics, labor and delivery interventions and outcomes, breastfeeding behaviors, formula and pacifier use, onset of lactogenesis, and nipple type and pain were collected prospectively. Logistic regression analyses identified independent predictors of EWL (≥10% of birth weight) by using a preplanned theoretical model. EWL occurred for 18% of infants who received no or minimal (≤60 mL total since birth) formula (n = 229), including 19% of exclusively breastfed infants (n = 134) and 16% of infants who received minimal formula (n = 95). In bivariate analyses, EWL was associated (P lactogenesis (>72 hours), fewer infant stools, and infant birth weight. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only 2 variables predicted EWL significantly, namely, intrapartum fluid balance (adjusted relative risk for EWL of 3.18 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-13.29] and 2.80 [95% CI: 1.17-11.68] with net intrapartum fluid balance of >200 and 100-200 mL/hour, respectively, compared with lactogenesis (adjusted relative risk: 3.35 [95% CI: 1.74-8.10]). EWL was more common in this population than reported previously and was independently related to intrapartum fluid balance. This suggests that intrapartum fluid administration can cause fetal volume expansion and greater fluid loss after birth, although other mechanisms are possible.

  10. The association of breakfast skipping and television viewing at breakfast with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries; the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bjornara, H.B.; Vik, F.N.; Brug, J.; Manios, Y.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Jan, N.; Maes, L.; Moreno, L.A.; Dossegger, A.; Bere, E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The main objective was to assess the relationship of breakfast skipping, television (TV) viewing at breakfast and breakfast without TV with weight status among parents of 10-12-year-olds in eight European countries. Design: A cross-sectional survey assessed breakfast eating and TV viewing

  11. Dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity in a cohort of young Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Kac, Gilberto; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Goldani, Marcelo; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity among young adults (23-25 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2061 participants of a birth cohort from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, started in 1978-1979. Twenty-seven subjects with caloric intake outside ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2034 individuals. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity as waist circumference (WC > 80 cm for women; >90 cm for men) and waist/hip ratio (WHR > 0.85 for women; >0.90 for men). Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Four dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis: healthy, traditional Brazilian, bar and energy dense. In the adjusted analysis, the bar pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excess weight (PR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.23-1.73) and abdominal obesity based on WHR (PR 2.19; 95 % CI 1.59-3.01). The energy-dense pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.73; 95 % CI 0.61-0.88). Men with greater adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern showed a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51-0.82), but no association was found for women. There was no association between the healthy pattern and excess weight/abdominal obesity. In this sample, the bar pattern was associated with higher prevalences of excess weight and abdominal obesity, while the energy-dense (for both genders) and traditional Brazilian (only for men) patterns were associated with lower prevalences of excess weight.

  12. Childhood and adolescent obesity: how many extra calories are responsible for excess of weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Helen Rose C; Bobbio, Tatiana Godoy; Antonio, Maria Ângela R G M; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2013-06-01

    To review the main articles on energy imbalance and obesity in order to quantify the daily energy surplus associated with weight gain in children and adolescents. Articles published in the last ten years, indexed in electronic databases Medline (Pubmed) and SciELO-Br. In the Medline database, the descriptor "energy gap" was used and describes the energy values ​​associated with changes in body weight in individuals or populations. In SciELO-Br database, the descriptors "obesity", "energy metabolism", "energy balance", and "energy imbalance" were used, once it was not possible to find national articles discussing the energy gap. In the pediatric population, four studies were performed and indicate that children and adolescents are gradually gaining weight due to a small, but persistent, daily positive energy balance of 70 to 160kcal above the total energy suitable for growth. The results suggest that small changes in daily eating behavior as well as physical activity would be enough to prevent future weight gain in this population. gradual weight gain can be explained by small daily average of positive energy balance, from 70 to 160kcal above the total energy suitable for growth. The incentive to small changes in eating behavior and physical activities that promotes daily reduction of 160kcal can be an accessible practice in order to block weight gain in this population.

  13. Associations of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy with subcutaneous fat mass in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jharap, Varsha V; Santos, Susana; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Gaillard, Romy

    2017-05-01

    Not much is known about the associations of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain with body fat in infancy. To examine the associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with infant subcutaneous fat. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 845 mothers and their infants, we obtained maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and measured maternal weight during pregnancy. At 1.5, 6 and 24months, we estimated infant total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat). Maternal body mass index was positively associated with higher infant body mass index from 6months onwards. Maternal body mass index was not associated with infant subcutaneous fat measures at 1.5 or 6months. A 1-standard deviation scores (SDS) higher maternal body mass index was associated with a 0.09 (95% Confidence Interval 0.01, 0.17) SDS higher infant total subcutaneous fat at 24months, but not with central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio. No associations were present for maternal total or period-specific gestational weight gain with infant fat. Maternal body mass index was positively associated with infant body mass index and total subcutaneous fat in late infancy. Maternal total and period-specific gestational weight gain were not associated with infant body fat mass measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Wilma B; Silva-Jaramillo, Katherine M; Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Belmont, Philippe; Waters, William F

    2014-12-01

    Ecuador's current nutrition policies have not taken adequate notice of the double burden of malnutrition and continue to focus on stunting and to a lesser extent on overweight, without addressing the simultaneous presence of undernutrition, micronutrient deficiencies, and overweight or obesity (OW/OB). The aim of this article was to describe the prevalence and distribution of undernutrition (stunting, anemia, and zinc deficiency), overweight, and obesity in Ecuador to explore the evolving double burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels and to discuss whether current public health policies are addressing the double burden. Data from the 2012 Ecuadorian National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-ECU) was used to estimate the dual burden of malnutrition at the national, household, and individual levels in children <5 y old, school-aged children, and women of reproductive age. In 13.1% of households, mothers with excess body weight coexist with a stunted child <5 y old. Moreover, among households with overweight or obese mothers, 12.6% have an anemic child and 14% have a zinc-deficient child. At the individual levels, the coexistence of OW/OB and stunting, anemia, or zinc deficiency was found in 2.8%, 0.7%, and 8.4% of school-aged children, respectively. In addition, 8.9% and 32.6% of women aged 12-49 y have excess body weight and anemia or zinc deficiency, respectively. This article shows the coexistence of high rates of undernutrition and OW/OB at the individual, household, and national levels in Ecuador. Although integrated approaches to address the emerging double burden are required, public health policies to date have not responded adequately. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Evaluation of the predictive capacity of vertical segmental tetrapolar bioimpedance for excess weight detection in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Felipe Silva; Leandro, Danielle Aparecida Barbosa; Silva, Fabiana Almeida da; Netto, Michele Pereira; Oliveira, Renata Maria Souza; Cândido, Ana Paula Carlos

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the predictive capacity of the vertical segmental tetrapolar bioimpedance apparatus in the detection of excess weight in adolescents, using tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance as a reference. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 411 students aged between 10 and 14 years, of both genders, enrolled in public and private schools, selected by a simple and stratified random sampling process according to the gender, age, and proportion in each institution. The sample was evaluated by the anthropometric method and underwent a body composition analysis using vertical bipolar, horizontal tetrapolar, and vertical segmental tetrapolar assessment. The ROC curve was constructed based on calculations of sensitivity and specificity for each point of the different possible measurements of body fat. The statistical analysis used Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and McNemar's chi-squared test. Subsequently, the variables were interpreted using SPSS software, version 17.0. Of the total sample, 53.7% were girls and 46.3%, boys. Of the total, 20% and 12.5% had overweight and obesity, respectively. The body segment measurement charts showed high values of sensitivity and specificity and high areas under the ROC curve, ranging from 0.83 to 0.95 for girls and 0.92 to 0.98 for boys, suggesting a slightly higher performance for the male gender. Body fat percentage was the most efficient criterion to detect overweight, while the trunk segmental fat was the least accurate indicator. The apparatus demonstrated good performance to predict excess weight. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional variations in the economic burden attributable to excess weight, physical inactivity and tobacco smoking across British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Krueger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence rates of excess weight, tobacco smoking and physical inactivity vary substantially by geographical region within British Columbia (B.C.. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential reduction in economic burden in B.C. if all regions in the province achieved prevalence rates of these three risk factors equivalent to those of the region with the lowest rates. Methods: We used a previously developed approach based on population-attributable fractions to estimate the economic burden associated with the various risk factors. Sexspecific relative risk and age/sex-specific prevalence data was used in the modelling. Results: The annual economic burden attributable to the three risk factors in B.C. was about $5.6 billion in 2013, with a higher proportion of this total attributable to excess weight ($2.6 billion than to tobacco smoking ($2.0 billion. While B.C. has lower prevalence rates of the risk factors than any other Canadian province, there is significant variation within the province. If each region in the province were to achieve the best prevalence rates for the three risk factors, then $1.4 billion (24% of the $5.6 billion in economic burden could be avoided annually. Conclusion: There are notable disparities in the prevalence of each risk factor across health regions within B.C., which were mirrored in each region’s attributable economic burden. A variety of social, environmental and economic factors likely drive some of this geographical variation and these underlying factors should be considered when developing prevention programs.

  17. Parents' perceptions of reasons for excess weight loss in obese children: a peer researcher approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona; Cooney, Geraldine; Woolhouse, Valerie; Davies, Angie; Dickens, Fiona; Marno, Penny

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the process of conducting participatory research by training peer researchers to conduct interviews and analyse data collected with parents of overweight children. The methodology was chosen as a means of (a) encouraging participation among a hard-to-engage group (i.e., parents of overweight children), and (b) generating novel insights and challenging academic/health professional assumptions through the involvement of parents in the interpretation of findings. Four parents (all female) were recruited as peer researchers and trained in research processes, ethics, and interview skills over three half-day workshops. The intended interviewees were parents of children identified as obese through the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) at the start of primary school (age 4-5) but who had lost their excess weight by age 10-11; little is currently known about how this excess weight loss is achieved. Interviews were conducted by peer researchers, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically by both peer- and university-based investigators. The peer researchers felt confident to conduct interviews after three training sessions. Recruitment of interviewees was challenging, resulting in only four volunteers (all mothers) over a 5-month period; thus peer researchers were only able to conduct one interview each. All interviews were considered good quality in comparison to those conducted by Masters-level research assistants. The process of co-analysis resulted in a change in emphasis from that initially generated by the university research team; the role of health professionals in weight management was de-emphasised, and the importance of 'not singling out' overweight children accentuated. Given the limited number of interviews, the results of the study are only provisional but resulted in three themes: Whole Family Action, Support (and lack of support), and Protecting Childhood. Training peer researchers to conduct and analyse interviews was

  18. Maternal fat, but not lean, mass is increased among overweight/obese women with excess gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Erica K; Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Presley, Larraine; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie; Catalano, Patrick M

    2016-06-01

    Weight gain in pregnancy is an essential physiologic adaptation that supports growth and development of a fetus and is distributed among lean mass that includes total body water and fat mass gains. Although gestational weight gain provides a source of energy for the mother and fetus, excess gestational weight gain may underlie reported associations between parity and future metabolic disorders and is linked to postpartum weight retention and insulin resistance. Although weight gain often is proposed as a modifiable variable to mitigate adverse maternal and offspring health outcomes, our knowledge of specific maternal body composition changes with weight gain and the potential metabolic consequences is limited. Furthermore, although gestational weight gain alters maternal body composition, the impact of excess weight gain on fat and lean mass is not well-studied. Understanding the accrual of fat and lean body mass may improve our understanding of the role of excessive gestational weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. The purpose of our study was to quantify the relationship between gestational weight gain and maternal fat and lean body mass accrual and to compare fat and lean body mass accrual according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational Weight Gain in Pregnancy adherence. We hypothesized that exceeding current weight gain guidelines would be associated with greater fat, compared with lean body, mass accrual. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of 49 overweight/obese women; all 49 are included in this secondary analysis. Maternal weight and body composition were collected in early (13 0/6 to 16 6/7 weeks gestation) and late (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation) pregnancy with the use of air densitometry. Correlations were drawn between gestational weight gain and change in fat and lean body mass. We compared change in fat and lean body mass by adherence to the 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines for Gestational

  19. Beliefs about causes of weight gain, effective weight gain prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management in the Australian population

    OpenAIRE

    Dryer, Rachel; Ware, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight preve...

  20. Variation of Binge Eating One Year after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Its Relationship with Excess Weight Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Billodre Luiz

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for obesity classes II and III. However, some patients do not get the desired results or initially lose and then regain the lost weight. Identifying these individuals early on and treating them adequately remains a challenge. As binge eating directly affects food intake, the study of this symptom and its relation to bariatric surgery and its results is increasing, because it appears to have an influence on the results of surgery.This study aimed to see how binge eating changes, measured with the Binge Eating Scale, interferes in the % excess weight loss one year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.We conducted a cross-sectional study with 149 patients older than 18 years who were evaluated one year after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The variation in the intensity of binge eating was measured with the pre- and postoperative Binge Eating Scale scores.The variation of one unit in the Binge Eating Scale implied an inverse variation of 0.41% of % excess weight loss (p<0.05. The correlation coefficient between the variation of binge eating and the % excess weight loss was -0.186 (p = 0.033. The correlation coefficient between the binge eating symptoms one year after surgery and the % excess weight loss was -0.353 (p<0.001.There was a correlation between the variation of binge eating one year after gastric bypass and the % excess weight loss. The correlation between binge eating and the % excess weight loss was greater after the surgery than it was at the preoperative stage. This study provides new, valuable information on the intensity and variation of binge eating symptoms one year after gastric bypass, which, to the best of our knowledge, have not been studied in depth earlier.

  1. Chemicals and excess materials disposition during deactivation as a means of pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents several innovative and common sense approaches to pollution prevention that have been employed during facility deactivation at the Hanford Site in South Central Washington. It also presents several pollution prevention principles applicable to other projects. Innovative pollution prevention ideas employed at the Hanford site during facility deactivation included: (1) Recycling more than 185,000 gallons of radioactively contaminated nitric acid by sending it to an operating nuclear fuels reprocessing facility in England; (2) Recycling millions of pounds of chemicals and excess materials to other industries for reuse; (3) Evaporating flush water at a low rate and discharging it into the facility exhaust air stream to avoid discharging thousands of gallons of liquid to the soil column; and (4) Decontaminating and disposing of thousands of gallons of radioactively contaminated organic solvent waste to a RCRA licensed, power-producing, commercial incinerator. Common sense pollution prevention ideas that were employed include recycling office furniture, recycling paper from office files, and redeploying tools and miscellaneous process equipment. Additional pollution prevention occurred as the facility liquid and gaseous discharge streams were deactivated. From the facilities deactivation experiences at Hanford and the ensuing efforts to disposition excess chemicals and materials, several key pollution prevention principles should be considered at other projects and facilities, especially during the operational periods of the facility's mission. These principles include: Institute pollution prevention as a fundamental requirement early in the planning stage of a project or during the operational phase of a facility's mission; Promote recognition and implementation of pollution prevention initiatives; Instill pollution prevention as a value in all participants in the project or facility work scope; Minimize the amount of chemical products and materials

  2. Does Usage of an eHealth Intervention Reduce the Risk of Excessive Gestational Weight Gain? Secondary Analysis From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawderman, Myla S; Demment, Margaret; Olson, Christine Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) contributes to the development of obesity in mother and child. Internet-based interventions have the potential for delivering innovative and interactive options for prevention of excessive GWG to large numbers of people. Objective The objective of this study was to create a novel measure of Internet-based intervention usage patterns and examine whether usage of an Internet-based intervention is associated with reduced risk of excessive GWG. Methods The website featured blogs, local resources, articles, frequently asked questions (FAQs), and events that were available to women in both the intervention and control arm. Weekly reminders to use the website and to highlight new content were emailed to participants in both arms. Only intervention arm participants had access to the weight gain tracker and diet and physical activity goal-setting tools. A total of 1335 (898 intervention and 437 control) relatively diverse and healthy pregnant women were randomly assigned to the intervention arm or control arm. Usage patterns were examined for both intervention and control arm participants using latent class analysis. Regression analyses were used to estimate the association between usage patterns and three GWG outcomes: excessive total GWG, excessive GWG rate, and GWG. Results Five usage patterns best characterized the usage of the intervention by intervention arm participants. Three usage patterns best characterized control arm participants’ usage. Control arm usage patterns were not associated with excessive GWG, whereas intervention arm usage patterns were associated with excessive GWG. Conclusions The control and intervention arm usage pattern characterization is a unique methodological contribution to process evaluations for self-directed Internet-based interventions. In the intervention arm some usage patterns were associated with GWG outcomes. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov; Clinical Trials Number: NCT01331564

  3. Comparison of those who succeed in losing significant excessive weight after bariatric surgery and those who fail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Brad; Nguyen, Alex; Scarbourough, Terry; Yu, Sherman; Wilson, Erik

    2009-10-01

    Gastric bypass and adjustable gastric banding currently are the most commonly performed weight loss surgeries. The results are encouraging for most patients, but some patients have a better experience than others. This report aims to define differences between those who succeeded and those that failed to lose significant excessive weight after bariatric surgery. The authors retrospectively reviewed their database over the past 4 years. They studied 484 bariatric patients who had 1 year of follow-up evaluation. Success was defined as more than 50% excess weight loss (EWL) and failure as less than 30% EWL. Student's t-tests were performed between the groups of bypass patients, band patients, men, women, whites, and minorities. An overall success rate of 58% and a failure rate of 15% were observed. The successful group was significantly younger. The starting body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower for the successful band patients. The starting excess weight was significantly less in both the successful band and bypass groups, as was the starting weight. The successful whites were significantly younger, and the starting BMI was significantly lower in the successful minority group. The unsuccessful bypass patients and whites were significantly taller than the successful group. Gender was not a significant variable in success or failure regardless of procedure. Without consideration for the procedure performed, the patients who successfully lost weight were younger. The unsuccessful band patients had a higher starting BMI, whereas the successful band and bypass patients had lower average starting and excess weights. The successful bypass patients were significantly shorter. Among whites, the successful patients were significantly younger and shorter. The successful minorities had a lower starting BMI. These variables give further insight into the complexity of successful excess weight loss.

  4. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  5. Excess gestational weight gain: an exploration of midwives’ views and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willcox Jane C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess gestational weight gain (GWG can affect the immediate and long term health outcomes of mother and infant. Understanding health providers’ views, attitudes and practices around GWG is crucial to assist in the development of practical, time efficient and cost effective ways of supporting health providers to promote healthy GWGs. This study aimed to explore midwives’ views, attitudes and approaches to the assessment, management and promotion of healthy GWG and to investigate their views on optimal interventions. Methods Midwives working in antenatal care were recruited from one rural and one urban Australian maternity hospital employing purposive sampling strategies to assess a range of practice areas. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 15 experienced midwives using an interview guide and all interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Results Midwives interviewed exhibited a range of views, attitudes and practices related to GWG. Three dominant themes emerged. Overall GWG was given low priority for midwives working in the antenatal care service in both hospitals. In addition, the midwives were deeply concerned for the physical and psychological health of pregnant women and worried about perceived negative impacts of discussion about weight and related interventions with women. Finally, the midwives saw themselves as central in providing lifestyle behaviour education to pregnant women and identified opportunities for support to promote healthy GWG. Conclusions The findings indicate that planning and implementation of healthy GWG interventions are likely to be challenging because the factors impacting on midwives’ engagement in the GWG arena are varied and complex. This study provides insights for guideline and intervention development for the promotion of healthy GWG.

  6. Associations Among Excess Weight Status and Tobacco, Alcohol, and Illicit Drug Use in a Large National Sample of Early Adolescent Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Becnel, Jennifer; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Peugh, James; Wu, Yelena P

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent substance use and overweight/obesity each are public health priorities, with unique prevalences based on race/ethnicity. Whether these biobehavioral risks are linked in today's youth is unknown, leaving critical gaps in prevention science. Utilizing a national epidemiological sample of 10th grade students (N = 19,678; M age = 16.09 years; 69.5 % White, 14.5 % Black, 16.0 % Hispanic; 2008-2009 Monitoring the Future), we examined adolescent substance use behaviors (current use, grade of first use, polysubstance use) for adolescents of overweight (OV), obese (OB), or severely obese (SO) status compared to adolescents of healthy weight (HW) for each race/ethnicity group. We also examined how engagement in smoking behaviors (current, early grade at first use) was linked to other substance use behaviors for youth of varying degrees of excess weight. Relative to HW youth, White youth of excess weight, particularly SO, had higher odds of early (adolescent health risk behaviors co-occur uniquely for White youth, in particular those who are SO and by early adolescence. Understanding the downstream public health consequences and how risk pathways of excess weight, tobacco, and other substance use may uniquely unfold for each race/ethnicity group is imperative.

  7. Maternal obesity and excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy: effects on outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Rocky; Hilvers, Pamela; Lupo, Philip J; Bronicki, Ronald; McKenzie, Dean; Checchia, Paul A

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes. Obesity is also associated with a chronic inflammatory state and metabolic derangements that affect the newborn. The additional use of cardiopulmonary bypass during the neonatal period could impact the systemic inflammatory response in the immediate postoperative period that manifests as cardiac depression and multi-organ dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the association of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy with the immediate postoperative morbidity of neonatal patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. A retrospective review of neonates who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass within the first 30 days of life at our institution between 2011 and 2013 was conducted. Postoperative variables investigated included the duration of length of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the ICU, peak vasoactive inotrope scores, and peak lactate level. Maternal obesity was defined as 1st trimester body mass index ⩾30 kg/m2. Excessive weight gain was defined as ⩾12 kg gained during pregnancy. In order to determine the association between maternal obesity or excessive weight gain and postoperative variables, we used multiple linear regression, adjusting for birth weight and risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score. Records from 58 mother-baby dyads were examined. After controlling for birth weight and risk adjustment for congenital heart surgery score, there were no significant associations between maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy versus all postoperative outcomes measured. Despite the known negative impact of maternal obesity on perinatal outcomes, we were unable to find associations between maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy versus postoperative outcomes.

  8. Diet, Weight Loss, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.; Ryan, Donna H.; Harsha, David W.

    2003-08-01

    Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with a patient should be based on this risk-benefit assessment. The body mass is the basic measurement for this assessment, and should be part of the "vital signs" when a patient is first evaluated by the medical staff. When the body mass index (BMI) is below 25 kg/m(2), there is little risk from the body weight, but because obesity is a "stigmatized" condition, many patients, particularly women, desire to lose weight even within the normal range. For this purpose, a high-quality diet like the Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) diet at a reduced-calorie intake would be our recommendation. When the BMI is above 25 kg/m(2), patients deserve dietary advice, but in addition to a reduced-calorie DASH-like diet, this is a place to consider using "portion-control" strategies, such as the nutrition labels that manufacturers provide on canned and frozen foods to guide patients in reducing calorie intake. In overweight individuals at high risk (ie, those with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, or the metabolic syndrome), the use of orlistat or sibutramine along with diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, and portion control should be considered. When the BMI is above 35 kg/m(2), bariatric surgery should also be discussed as an option for the "at-risk" individual. Evidence reviewed here shows that modest weight losses of 5% to 10% can reduce the risk of conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes and can maintain lower blood pressure over extended periods. All of the approaches described above can produce weight losses of this magnitude.

  9. Management of Excessive Weight Loss Following Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Clinical Algorithm and Surgical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akusoba, Ikemefuna; Birriel, T Javier; El Chaar, Maher

    2016-01-01

    There are no clinical guidelines or published studies addressing excessive weight loss and protein calorie malnutrition following a standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) to guide nutritional management and treatment strategies. This study demonstrates the presentation, clinical algorithm, surgical technique, and outcomes of patients afflicted and successfully treated with excessive weight loss following a standard RYGB. Three patients were successfully reversed to normal anatomy after evaluation, management, and treatment by multidisciplinary team. Lowest BMI (kg/m(2)) was 18.9, 17.9, and 14.2, respectively. Twelve-month post-operative BMI (kg/m(2)) was 28.9, 22.8, and 26.1, respectively. Lowest weight (lbs) was 117, 128, and 79, respectively. Twelve-month post-operative weight (lbs) was 179, 161, and 145, respectively. Pre-reversal gastrostomy tube was inserted into the remnant stomach to demonstrate weight gain and improve nutritional status prior to reversal to original anatomy. We propose a practical clinical algorithm for the work-up and management of patients with excessive weight loss and protein calorie malnutrition after standard RYGB including reversal to normal anatomy.

  10. Food consumption frequency and excess body weight in adolescents in the context of financial crisis in Barcelona (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arechavala

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of adolescents following food recommendations is low, and gender differences were found in terms of food consumption frequency, even in the context of financial crisis. There is a need to promote programmes and policies to reduce inequalities related to eating habits and excess body weight in adolescents.

  11. Randomized controlled clinical trial of behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement to reduce excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Brannen, Anna; McHugh, Angelica; Hagobian, Todd A; Schaffner, Andrew; Jelalian, Elissa; Hart, Chantelle N; Scholl, Theresa O; Munoz-Christian, Karen; Yin, Elaine; Phipps, Maureen G; Keadle, Sarah; Abrams, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Behavioral lifestyle interventions during pregnancy can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) in women with normal weight; however, effective interventions to reduce GWG in ethnically diverse women with obesity are lacking. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to test whether a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement reduces GWG rate in Hispanic and non-Hispanic women with overweight or obesity relative to enhanced usual care. Participants (n = 257) were recruited in San Luis Obispo, California, and Providence, Rhode Island, between November 2012 and May 2016. Participants were pregnant (mean ± SD: 13.6 ± 1.8 wk of gestation) with overweight or obesity and had a mean age of 30.3 y; 41.6% of participants were Hispanic. Women were randomly assigned within site and by ethnicity to enhanced usual care (n = 128) or to a behavioral lifestyle intervention with partial meal replacement (n = 129). The primary outcome was GWG per week of observation. Secondary outcomes were proportions exceeding Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for total GWG, changes in weight-control behaviors and cardiovascular disease risk factors, and incidence of pregnancy complications. Study retention was 99.6% (256 of 257). The intervention compared with usual care resulted in less mean ± SD weekly GWG (0.33 ± 0.25 compared with 0.39 ± 0.23 kg/wk; P = 0.02) and total GWG (9.4 ± 6.9 compared with 11.2 ± 7.0 kg; P = 0.03) and reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines for total GWG (41.1% compared with 53.9%; P = 0.03). No significant group × time × demographic subgroup (ethnicity, BMI, age, parity, and income) interactions were observed. Among intervention participants, greater meal replacement intake was related to reduced GWG rate (β = -0.07; 95% CI:-0.12, -0.03; P = 0.002). The intervention compared with usual care increased weight-control strategies (P meal replacement significantly reduced GWG in Hispanic

  12. Preventive and therapeutic application of molecular hydrogen in situations with excessive production of free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezák, J; Kura, B; Frimmel, K; Zálešák, M; Ravingerová, T; Viczenczová, C; Okruhlicová, Ľ; Tribulová, N

    2016-09-19

    Excessive production of oxygen free radicals has been regarded as a causative common denominator of many pathological processes in the animal kingdom. Hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals represent the major cause of the destruction of biomolecules either by a direct reaction or by triggering a chain reaction of free radicals. Scavenging of free radicals may act preventively or therapeutically. A number of substances that preferentially react with free radicals can serve as scavengers, thus increasing the internal capacity/activity of endogenous antioxidants and protecting cells and tissues against oxidative damage. Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) reacts with strong oxidants, such as hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals, in the cells, that enables utilization of its potential for preventive and therapeutic applications. H(2) rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells without affecting metabolic redox reactions and signaling reactive species. H(2) reduces oxidative stress also by regulating gene expression, and functions as an anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic agent. There is a growing body of evidence based on the results of animal experiments and clinical observations that H(2) may represent an effective antioxidant for the prevention of oxidative stress-related diseases. Application of molecular hydrogen in situations with excessive production of free radicals, in particular, hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals is relatively simple and effective, therefore, it deserves special attention.

  13. Food consumption frequency and excess body weight in adolescents in the context of financial crisis in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechavala, Teresa; Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; Bartoll, Xavier; Sànchez-Martínez, Francesca; López, María José

    To describe food consumption frequency in adolescents in the context of the financial crisis in 2012, and to analyse potential fluctuations in excess body weight between 2008 and 2012. A cross-sectional study of eating habits and excess body weight was conducted in adolescents aged 13 to 19 years old from public, subsidised and private secondary schools in Barcelona, Spain. The FRESC lifestyle risk factors survey was used, and food frequency consumption, food recommendations and body mass index were analysed according to gender, year of education and socioeconomic status. Girls ate vegetables and fruits more frequently than boys, while the prevalence of junk food consumption was higher in boys. The prevalence of compliance with food recommendations was lower than 50% for all foods, and gender and socioeconomic differences were found for eggs, red meat and soft drinks. Regarding excess body weight, boys had a higher prevalence than girls in the 2 years analysed. Furthermore, a reduction in excess body weight was observed among girls in secondary education in the highest socioeconomic groups (28.7% [95% CI: 24.8-32.6%] in 2008 to 20.5% [95% CI: 17.1-23.8%] in 2012). The prevalence of adolescents following food recommendations is low, and gender differences were found in terms of food consumption frequency, even in the context of financial crisis. There is a need to promote programmes and policies to reduce inequalities related to eating habits and excess body weight in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  15. Comparison of percentage excess weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowicz, Maciej; Lech, Paweł; Orłowski, Michał; Siczewski, Wiaczesław; Pawlak, Maciej; Świetlik, Dariusz; Witzling, Mieczysław; Michalik, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) are acceptable options for primary bariatric procedures in patients with body mass index (BMI) 35–55 kg/m2. Aim The aim of this study is to compare the effects of these two bariatric procedures 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery. Material and methods Two hundred and two patients were included 72 LSG and 130 LAGB patients. The average age was 38.8 ±11.9 and 39.4 ±10.4 years in LSG and LAGB groups, with initial BMI of 44.1 kg/m2 and 45.2 kg/m2, p = NS. Results The mean percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) at 6 months for LSG vs. LAGB was 36.3% vs. 30.1% (p = 0.01) and at 12 months was 43.8% vs. 34.6% (p = 0.005). The greatest difference in the mean %EWL at 12 months was observed in patients with initial BMI of 40–49.9 kg/m2 in favor of LSG (47.5% vs. 35.6%; p = 0.01). Two years after surgery there was no advantage of LSG and in the subgroup of patients with BMI 50–55 kg/m2 there was a trend in favor of LAGB (57.2% vs. 30%; p = 0.07). The multiple regression model of independent variables (age, gender, initial BMI and the presence of comorbidities) proved insignificant in prediction of the best outcome in means of %EWL for either operative modality. None of these factors in the logistic regression model could determine the type of surgery that should be used in particular patients. Conclusions During the first 2 years after surgery, the best results were obtained in women with lower BMI undergoing LSG surgery. The LSG provides greater %EWL after a shorter period of time though the difference decreases in time. PMID:25337157

  16. Nutritional management of breastfeeding infants for the prevention of common nutrient deficiencies and excesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Soo Moon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is the best source of nutrition for every infant, and exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months is usually optimal in the common clinical situation. However, inappropriate complementary feeding could lead to a nutrient-deficient status, such as iron deficiency anemia, vitamin D deficiency, and growth faltering. The recent epidemic outbreak of obesity in Korean children emphasizes the need for us to control children’s daily sedentary life style and their intakes of high caloric foods in order to prevent obesity. Recent assessment of breastfeeding in Korea has shown that the rate is between 63% and 89%; thus, up-to-dated evidence-based nutritional management of breastfeeding infants to prevent common nutrient deficiencies or excesses should be taught to all clinicians and health care providers.

  17. A method for determining weights for excess relative risk and excess absolute risk when applied in the calculation of lifetime risk of cancer from radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department of Radiation Protection and Health, Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Manchester, The Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Schneider, Uwe [University of Zurich, Vetsuisse Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland); Radiotherapy Hirslanden AG, Aarau (Switzerland)

    2013-03-15

    Radiation-related risks of cancer can be transported from one population to another population at risk, for the purpose of calculating lifetime risks from radiation exposure. Transfer via excess relative risks (ERR) or excess absolute risks (EAR) or a mixture of both (i.e., from the life span study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bomb survivors) has been done in the past based on qualitative weighting. Consequently, the values of the weights applied and the method of application of the weights (i.e., as additive or geometric weighted means) have varied both between reports produced at different times by the same regulatory body and also between reports produced at similar times by different regulatory bodies. Since the gender and age patterns are often markedly different between EAR and ERR models, it is useful to have an evidence-based method for determining the relative goodness of fit of such models to the data. This paper identifies a method, using Akaike model weights, which could aid expert judgment and be applied to help to achieve consistency of approach and quantitative evidence-based results in future health risk assessments. The results of applying this method to recent LSS cancer incidence models are that the relative EAR weighting by cancer solid cancer site, on a scale of 0-1, is zero for breast and colon, 0.02 for all solid, 0.03 for lung, 0.08 for liver, 0.15 for thyroid, 0.18 for bladder and 0.93 for stomach. The EAR weighting for female breast cancer increases from 0 to 0.3, if a generally observed change in the trend between female age-specific breast cancer incidence rates and attained age, associated with menopause, is accounted for in the EAR model. Application of this method to preferred models from a study of multi-model inference from many models fitted to the LSS leukemia mortality data, results in an EAR weighting of 0. From these results it can be seen that lifetime risk transfer is most highly weighted by EAR only for stomach cancer. However

  18. Excess pregnancy weight gain leads to early indications of metabolic syndrome in a swine model of fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentson-Lantz, Emily J; Buhman, Kimberly K; Ajuwon, Kolapo; Donkin, Shawn S

    2014-03-01

    Few data exist on the impact of maternal weight gain on offspring despite evidence demonstrating that early-life environment precipitates risks for metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that excessive weight gain during pregnancy results in programming that predisposes offspring to obesity and metabolic syndrome. We further hypothesized that early postweaning nutrition alters the effects of maternal weight gain on indications of metabolic syndrome in offspring. Pregnant sows and their offspring were used for these experiments due to similarities with human digestive physiology, metabolism, and neonatal development. First parity sows fed a high-energy (maternal nutrition high energy [MatHE]) diet gained 12.4 kg (42%) more weight during pregnancy than sows fed a normal energy (maternal nutrition normal energy) diet. Birth weight and litter characteristics did not differ, but offspring MatHE gilts weighed more (P metabolic syndrome in offspring that are further promoted by a high-energy postweaning diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Asian Adolescents with Excess Weight are at Higher Risk for Insulin Resistance than Non-Asian Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadony, Ahmed; Yates, Kathy F; Sweat, Victoria; Yau, Po Lai; Mangone, Alex; Joseph, Adriana; Fierman, Arthur; Convit, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Asian American adolescents have higher metabolic risk from excess weight than non-Asians. Seven hundred thirty-three students, aged 14 to 19 years old, completed a school-based health screening. The 427 Asian and 306 non-Asian students were overall equivalent on age, sex, and family income. Height, weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, and blood pressure were measured. Fasting triglycerides, high- and low-density lipoproteins, glucose, and insulin levels were measured. Asian and non-Asians in lean or overweight/obesity groups were contrasted on the five factors that make up the metabolic syndrome. Asian adolescents carrying excess weight had significantly higher insulin resistance (IR), triglyceride levels, and waist-height ratios (W/H), despite a significantly lower overall BMI than corresponding non-Asians. Similarly, Asians had a stronger relationship between W/H and the degree of IR than non-Asian counterparts; 35% and 18% of the variances were explained (R 2  = 0.35, R 2  = 0.18) respectively, resulting in a significant W/H by racial group interaction (F change [1,236] = 11.56, P Asians have higher IR and triglyceride levels from excess weight than their non-Asian counterparts. One-size-fits-all public health policies targeting youth should be reconsidered and attention paid to Asian adolescents, including those with mild degrees of excess weight. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  20. Excess Folic Acid Increases Lipid Storage, Weight Gain, and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen B. Kelly

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid intake has increased to high levels in many countries, raising concerns about possible adverse effects, including disturbances to energy and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the effects of excess folic acid (EFA intake compared to adequate folic acid (AFA intake on metabolic health in a rodent model. We conducted these investigations in the setting of either a 15% energy low fat (LF diet or 60% energy high fat (HF diet. There was no difference in weight gain, fat mass, or glucose tolerance in EFA-fed rats compared to AFA-fed rats when they were fed a LF diet. However, rats fed EFA in combination with a HF diet had significantly greater weight gain and fat mass compared to rats fed AFA (p < 0.05. Gene expression analysis showed increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and some of its target genes in adipose tissue of high fat-excess folic acid (HF-EFA fed rats. Inflammation was increased in HF-EFA fed rats, associated with impaired glucose tolerance compared to high fat-adequate folic acid (HF-AFA fed rats (p < 0.05. In addition, folic acid induced PPARγ expression and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Our results suggest that excess folic acid may exacerbate weight gain, fat accumulation, and inflammation caused by consumption of a HF diet.

  1. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical. Results. Twenty participants (10 men completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1 there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2 the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P=0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

  2. Consumption of high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function in individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Lívia de Paula; Knibel, Marcela Paranhos; Torres, Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m(2). All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols) for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical). Results. Twenty participants (10 men) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1) there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2) the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P = 0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

  3. Sleep disruption and duration in late pregnancy is associated with excess gestational weight gain among overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Caryl L; Richoux, Sarah E; Beebe, Kathleen R; Lee, Kathryn A

    2017-06-01

    Poor sleep during pregnancy has been associated with poorer birth outcomes. High body mass index (BMI) is often associated with poor sleep, but little is known about the relationship between gestational weight gain and sleep in late pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships of both gestational weight gain and pre-pregnancy BMI to objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy. Pregnant women (n=128) were recruited from prenatal clinics and childbirth classes primarily serving low-income women. Their sleep (disruption and duration) was objectively assessed in their last month of pregnancy with 72 hours of wrist actigraphy monitoring. Their perceived sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Pre-pregnancy and late pregnancy height and weight were assessed by self-report and used to calculate BMI and gestational weight gain, which were then grouped into standardized categories. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was 6.8 ± 3.1 (range 2-16). Sixty percent had excess gestational weight gain and it was associated with poorer perceived sleep quality, but was unrelated to objective measures of sleep duration and disruption. Pre-pregnancy BMI was unrelated to all sleep parameters. However, analyses of the interaction of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain indicated that excess weight gain was associated with shorter sleep duration and more sleep disruption, but only among women who were overweight before pregnancy. Pregnancy is an opportunity to promote long-term women's health with a better understanding of the relationship between weight management and healthy sleep habits. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Treatment of pediatric Graves' disease is associated with excessive weight gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veenendaal, Nicole R.; Rivkees, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is available about changes in body weight and body mass index in children before, during, and after treatment for Graves' disease (GD). Our objective was to examine changes in body weight after treatment for GD in children as related to clinical features. The medical records of 43

  5. Relationships between type 2 diabetes remission after gastric bypass and different weight loss metrics: arguments against excess weight loss in metabolic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Laar, A W; de Brauw, L M; Meesters, E W

    2016-02-01

    Percentage excess weight loss (%EWL) outcome of bariatric surgery is distorted by deviations in baseline body mass index (BMI). It has been reported that this can lead to false conclusions, most likely because bariatric weight loss in fact is baseline-BMI independent. If the metabolic effect of bariatric surgery is baseline-BMI independent as well, could %EWL also lead to false conclusions on metabolic surgery? Bariatric Center of Excellence, general hospital, Netherlands. Retrospective analysis of 1-year outcome of all consecutive primary gastric bypass patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Metabolic outcome (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c], T2DM medication) was compared with bariatric outcome (weight loss) using 3 different metrics: %EWL, the most popular weight loss metric among bariatric surgeons; percentage (total) weight loss (%WL), most commonly used by nonsurgical professionals; and percentage alterable weight loss (%AWL), the only metric rendering weight loss outcome independent of baseline BMI. Metabolic success (HbA1c≤6.0%, T2DM remission) was compared with different definitions of bariatric success (≥50 %EWL, BMIsuccessful for patients withsuccess criterion are problematic in comparing bariatric and metabolic outcome of gastric bypass surgery. They should be abandoned. The %WL metric is the best and most commonly used alternative, whereas %AWL is ideal for selected logistics in bariatric research. Weight loss percentiles are best suited for defining bariatric success in metabolic surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating the feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme for naval service personnel with excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garip, Gulcan; Morton, Kate; Bridger, Robert; Yardley, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern that may influence the operational capacity of the UK Naval Service (NS). This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of trialling and implementing a modified web-based weight loss programme for overweight and obese NS personnel. The feasibility of a web-based weight loss programme with minimal face to face support was evaluated using a non-randomised design, based on the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, and Implementation (RE-AIM) dimensions of a framework designed for analysing implementation of interventions in practice. It was estimated that 6% ( n  = 58) of eligible NS personnel at recruitment sites were reached, based on personnel's expressions of interest to take part in the study. The potential efficacy of the intervention was evaluated by analysing participants' change in weight (kg) in the two groups. Forty-three participants were allocated to the intervention ( n  = 21) or control group ( n  = 22). Website usage was low, with 1.5 sessions accessed on average, over a 12-week follow-up. Changes in body weight over 12 weeks appeared to be observed for participants in the intervention group but not in the control group. The average weight loss observed in the intervention group (mean = -1.9 kg, SD = 2.1) appeared to reach significance, 95% CI [-2.8, -1.0], whereas no significant weight loss was apparent among control group participants (mean = -0.8 kg, SD = 3.8), 95% CI [-2.4, 0.8]. However, this feasibility study was not powered to test for within or group differences. Recruitment rates varied across five NS establishments invited to take part in the study, suggesting that the web-based weight loss programme was not adopted to the same extent across all bases. The online programme was not implemented as intended in terms of regular usage by participants and support provision by physical training instructors. The results suggest that the intervention may warrant further

  7. Sensitivity and Specificity of 50% Excess Weight Loss (50%EWL) and Twelve Other Bariatric Criteria for Weight Loss Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Laar, Arnold W; van Rijswijk, A S; Kakar, H; Bruin, S C

    2018-02-27

    Criteria for bariatric weight loss success are numerous. Most of them are arbitrary. None of them is evidence-based. Our objective was to determine their sensitivity and specificity. Thirteen common bariatric weight loss criteria were compared to a benchmark reflecting the gold standard in bariatric surgery. We used an elaborate baseline BMI-independent weight loss percentile chart, based on retrospective data after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB), performed between 2007 and 2017. Percentile curves p31.6 (patients' expectation), p25 (interquartile range), p15.9 (1 standard deviation (SD) below median), and p10.9 (surgeons' goal) were used as possible cutoff for success to determine true or false positive and negative results beyond 1 year. We operated 4497 primary LRYGB patients, with mean follow-up 22 (± 1 SD 19; range 0-109) months, 3031 patients with last result ≥ 1 year, 518 ≥ 5 years. For all four cutoff percentile curves for success, specificities were low (2-72%) for criteria  80% specificity and sensitivity for a cutoff above p15.9. For p15.9, they were both > 80% for criteria ≥ 10 BMI reduction and ≥ 50%EWL, both > 90% for ≥ 25%TWL and ≥ 35 percentage alterable weight loss (%AWL). All criteria had high sensitivities for all cutoff percentile curves (87-100%), except bariatric criteria for weight loss success were systematically validated. Most criteria recognized success very well (high sensitivities), but ≥ 15%TWL, ≥ 20%TWL, Bariatric weight loss success is best assessed by comparing results to percentile curve 1 SD below median (p15.9) in a bariatric baseline BMI-independent weight loss percentile chart. Criteria ≥ 35%AWL and ≥ 25%TWL came close to that curve, both with > 90% sensitivity and specificity. Among others, criterion ≥ 50%EBMIL did not.

  8. Lactancia materna y su relación con el exceso de peso corporal en adolescentes de secundaria básica Breastfeeding and its relation to corporal excess weight in secondary school adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eumelia Ondina Terrero

    2010-03-01

    16,6 % of those with excess weight had not exclusive breastfeeding. There was a significant association between breastfeeding length and the excess weight (odd ratio= 5,8. Conclusions: the non-presence or the short time of breastfeeding length are a potential signal of early atherosclerosis predicting the excess weight risk in future ages, allowing to direct proper strategies for its early prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Weight gain prevention in young adults: design of the study of novel approaches to weight gain prevention (SNAP) randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah; Espeland, Mark; Gorin, Amy; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Robichaud, Erica Ferguson; Erickson, Karen; Perdue, Letitia; Bahnson, Judy; Lewis, Cora E

    2013-01-01

    Background Weight gain during young adulthood is common and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Preventing this weight gain from occurring may be critical to improving long-term health. Few studies have focused on weight gain prevention, and these studies have had limited success. SNAP (Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young a...

  10. Excessive Time on Social Networking Sites and Disordered Eating Behaviors Among Undergraduate Students: Appearance and Weight Esteem as Mediating Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marisa; Maras, Danijela; Goldfield, Gary S

    2016-12-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) are a popular form of communication among undergraduate students. Body image concerns and disordered eating behaviors are also quite prevalent among this population. Maladaptive use of SNS has been associated with disordered eating behaviors; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study examined if body image concerns (e.g., appearance and weight esteem) mediate the relationship between excessive time spent on SNS and disordered eating behaviors (restrained and emotional eating). The sample included 383 (70.2 percent female) undergraduate students (mean age = 23.08 years, standard deviation = 3.09) who completed self-report questionnaires related to SNS engagement, body image, disordered eating behaviors, and demographics. Parallel multiple mediation and moderated mediation analyses revealed that lower weight and appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and restrained eating for males and females, whereas appearance esteem mediated the relationship between excessive time on SNS and emotional eating for females only. The study adds to the literature by highlighting mediational pathways and gender differences. Intervention research is needed to determine if teaching undergraduate students more adaptive ways of using SNS or reducing exposure to SNS reduces body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in this high-risk population.

  11. Associations between the use of social networking sites and unhealthy eating behaviours and excess body weight in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Hamilton, Hayley A

    2015-12-14

    Unhealthy eating behaviour and excess body weight have been related to sedentary behaviour, particularly screen time, in adolescents; however, little is known about their associations with the use of social networking sites (SNS). We investigated the associations between time spent using SNS and unhealthy eating behaviours (including breakfast skipping, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and energy drinks) and body weight in adolescents. Data on 9858 students (mean age: 15·2 (SD 1·9) years) in grades 7 through 12 were derived from the 2013 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey--a cross-sectional school-based survey of middle and high school students. The majority (81·5%) of students reported daily use of SNS and an additional 10·7% reported using them on an irregular basis. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the use of SNS was associated with increased odds of skipping breakfast (P trendnetworks on eating behaviours and risk of excess weight.

  12. Excess Body Weight during Childhood and Adolescence Is Associated with the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Yu, Jie; Liu, Ying-Li; Qi, Su-Fen; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Liu, Dian-Wu; Tian, Qing-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have reported the association between obesity and multiple sclerosis (MS). A literature search of the observational studies, published as original articles in English before December 2015, was performed using electronic databases. Five observational studies were included, of which 3 were case-control studies and 2 were cohort studies. The pooled relative risk (RR) for overweight and obesity during childhood and adolescence compared with normal weight (body mass index = 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) was 1.44 (95% CI 1.22-1.70) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.63-2.48), respectively. In subgroup analyses, we found that excess body weight during childhood and adolescence increased the risk of MS in the female group (overweight: pooled RR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.35-1.94; obesity: pooled RR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.77-2.85), but not in the male group (overweight: pooled RR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.91-1.55; obesity: pooled RR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.79-1.90). Excess body weight during childhood and adolescence was associated with an increased risk of MS; severe obesity demonstrated a stronger risk. A statistically significant association was found in the female group, but not in the male group. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Limiting Excess Weight Gain in Healthy Pregnant Women: Importance of Energy Intakes, Physical Activity, and Adherence to Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara R. Cohen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated if compliance with energy intakes, physical activity, and weight gain guidelines attenuate postpartum weight retention (PPWR in mothers attending prenatal classes. We investigated whether (a daily energy intakes within 300 kcal of estimated energy requirements (EERs, (b walking more than 5000 steps/day, (c targeting the recommended weight gain goals for prepregnancy BMI, and/or (d achieving weekly or total gestational weight gain (GWG recommendations minimized PPWR in 54 women attending prenatal classes in Montreal/Ottawa, Canada. Participants completed a validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ, 3 telephone-validated 24-hr dietary recalls, and wore a pedometer for one week. PPWR was measured 6 weeks after delivery. Results showed that 72% had healthy prepregnancy BMIs. However, 52% consumed >300 kcal/day in excess of their EER, 54% exceeded recommended GWG, and more overweight (93% than normal weight women (38% cited nonrecommended GWG targets. Following delivery, 33% were classified as overweight, and 17% were obese. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that women targeting “recommended weight gain advice” were 3 times more likely to meet total GWG recommendations (OR: 3.2, P<0.05; women who complied with weekly GWG goals minimized PPWR (OR: 4.2, P<0.02. In conclusion, appropriate GWG targets, lower energy intakes, and physical activity should be emphasized in prenatal education programs.

  14. Dietary protein-to-carbohydrate ratio and added sugar as determinants of excessive gestational weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between the protein:carbohydrate (P/C) ratio and added sugar intake in pregnancy and gestational weight gain (GWG). DESIGN: A prebirth cohort including 103 119 pregnancies enrolled between 1996 and 2003. SETTING: All women in Denmark were eligible to participate...

  15. Potential Mechanisms of Cancer Prevention by Weight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Wang, Weiqun

    Weight control via dietary caloric restriction and/or physical activity has been demonstrated in animal models for cancer prevention. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Body weight loss due to negative energy balance significantly reduces some metabolic growth factors and endocrinal hormones such as IGF-1, leptin, and adiponectin, but enhances glucocorticoids, that may be associated with anti-cancer mechanisms. In this review, we summarized the recent studies related to weight control and growth factors. The potential molecular targets focused on those growth factors- and hormones-dependent cellular signaling pathways are further discussed. It appears that multiple factors and multiple signaling cascades, especially for Ras-MAPK-proliferation and PI3K-Akt-anti-apoptosis, could be involved in response to weight change by dietary calorie restriction and/or exercise training. Considering prevalence of obesity or overweight that becomes apparent over the world, understanding the underlying mechanisms among weight control, endocrine change and cancer risk is critically important. Future studies using "-omics" technologies will be warrant for a broader and deeper mechanistic information regarding cancer prevention by weight control.

  16. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta's tomorrow project cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Poirier, Abbey E; Haig, Tiffany R; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2017-11-25

    Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP). ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35-69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric measures and health and lifestyle questionnaires at enrolment. Overweight and obese were categorized as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 and ≥30 kg/m 2 , respectively. Abdominal obesity was categorized using cut-offs of waist circumference of >94 cm for men and >80 cm for women and waist-tp-hip ratio cut-offs of >0.90 for men and >0.85 for women. BMI and hip and waist circumference data were obtained from 12,062 men and 18,853 women enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Overall, 76.8% of men and 59.5% of women reported a BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 . The proportions of overweight and obese were significantly higher in older age groups (p overweight and obese was higher among lower education (p obesity. Overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were all associated with a history of several cardiometabolic chronic conditions including hypertension, heart attack, angina, high cholesterol, stroke and diabetes. A large majority of ATP participants were overweight and carried excess abdominal fat. Strategies to improve energy balance among Albertans are encouraged and may have a notable impact on future chronic disease burden.

  17. Sarcopenia, but not excess weight or increased caloric intake, is associated with coronary subclinical atherosclerosis in the very elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Alessandra M; Moura, Filipe A; Santos, Simone N; Freitas, Wladimir M; Sposito, Andrei C

    2017-03-01

    Excess weight is a widespread condition related to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Sarcopenia is a catabolic pathway common of the aging process and also associated with CHD. In the elderly, both changes occur concurrently and it remains unclear the relative contribution on CHD risk. We aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia, excess weight, or both are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and/or endothelial dysfunction in very elderly individuals. We performed a cross-sectional study of cohort enrolled individuals, aged 80 years or older (n = 208), who had never manifested cardiovascular diseases. Blood tests, medical and nutritional evaluations, cardiac computed tomography, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and physical performance tests were obtained at the study admission. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated by multivariate regression models using coronary calcium score (CCS) categories and FMD as dependent variables. Adjustment for potential confounders was done. Muscle mass, but not fatty mass, was inversely associated with CCS categories [OR:2.54(1.06-6.06); p = 0.018]. The lowering of gait speed was negatively related to CCS>100 [OR:2.36 (1.10-5.06); p = 0.028] and skeletal muscle index was directly associated with FMD [OR:5.44 (1.22-24.24); p = 0.026]. Total caloric intake was positively related to fatty mass [OR:2.71 (1.09-6.72); p = 0.031], but was not related to CCS. This study reveals that sarcopenia - comprised by reduction of muscle mass and its strength - is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction. Surprisingly, the excess of fatty mass seems not to be related to atherosclerotic burden in very elderly individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Parents' perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Melissa Maria Romero; Melo, Tatiana Rocha; Pinto, Rogério Melo Costa; Morales, Nívea Macedo Oliveira; Mendonça, Tânia Maria Silva; Paro, Helena Borges Martins da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n=170) and with overweight/obesity (n=127), from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50) were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (pde Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Adverse effect of excess body weight on survival in cervical cancer patients after surgery and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yunseon; Ahn, Ki Jung; Park, Sung Kwang; Cho, Heung Lae; Lee, Ji Young [Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    This study aimed to assess the effects of body mass index (BMI) on survival in cervical cancer patients who had undergone surgery and radiotherapy (RT). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 cervical cancer patients who underwent surgery and RT from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 40 patients (57.1%) had pelvic lymph node metastases at the time of diagnosis. Sixty-seven patients (95.7%) had received chemotherapy. All patients had undergone surgery and postoperative RT. Median BMI of patients was 22.8 kg/m2 (range, 17.7 to 35.9 kg/m2). The median duration of follow-up was 52.3 months (range, 16 to 107 months). Twenty-four patients (34.3%) showed recurrence. Local failure, regional lymph nodal failure, and distant failure occurred in 4 (5.7%), 6 (8.6%), and 17 (24.3%) patients, respectively. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 83.4%. The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 85.1% and 65.0%, respectively. The presence of pelvic lymph node metastases (n = 30) and being overweight or obese (n = 34, BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) were poor prognostic factors for CSS (p = 0.003 and p = 0.045, respectively). Of these, pelvic lymph node metastasis was an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.030) for CSS. Overweight or obese cervical cancer patients showed poorer survival outcomes than normal weight or underweight patients. Weight control seems to be important in cervical cancer patients to improve clinical outcomes.

  20. Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain Are Associated with Components of Child Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sarah J; Richardson, Gale A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Himes, Katherine P; Brooks, Maria M; Day, Nancy L; Bodnar, Lisa M

    2015-11-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity affect two-thirds of women of childbearing age and may increase the risk of impaired child cognition. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that high/low gestational weight gain (GWG) and high/low prepregnancy BMI were associated with offspring intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive function at age 10. Mother-infant dyads (n = 763) enrolled in a birth cohort study were followed from early pregnancy to 10 y postpartum. IQ was assessed by trained examiners with the use of the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale-4th edition. Executive function was assessed by the number of perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and time to complete Part B on the Trail Making Test. Self-reported total GWG was converted to gestational-age-standardized GWG z score. Multivariable linear regression and negative binomial regression were used to estimate independent and joint effects of GWG and BMI on outcomes while adjusting for covariates. At enrollment, the majority of women in the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development cohort were unmarried and unemployed, and more than one-half reported their race as black. The mean ± SD GWG z score was -0.5 ± 1.8, and 27% of women had a pregravid BMI ≥ 25. The median (IQR) number of perseverative errors was 23 (17, 29), the mean ± SD time on Part B was 103 ± 42.6 s, and 44% of children had a low average IQ (≤ 89). Maternal obesity was associated with 3.2 lower IQ points (95% CI: -5.6, -0.8) and a slower time to complete the executive function scale Part B (adjusted β: 12.7 s; 95% CI: 2.8, 23 s) compared with offspring of normal-weight mothers. Offspring of mothers whose GWG was >+1 SD, compared with -1 to +1 SD, performed 15 s slower on the executive function task (95% CI: 1.8, 28 s). There was no association between GWG z score and offspring composite IQ score (adjusted β: -0.32; 95% CI: -0.72, 0.10). Prepregnancy BMI did not modify these associations. Although GWG may be important

  1. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta’s tomorrow project cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Darren R.; Poirier, Abbey E.; Haig, Tiffany R.; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M.; Robson, Paula J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (ATP). Methods ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35–69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric ...

  2. Usual Dietary Energy Density Distribution Is Positively Associated with Excess Body Weight in Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, Tania C; Cantoral, Alejandra; Hernández-Barrera, Lucia; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-07-01

    Studies suggest a positive association between dietary energy density (DED) and body weight in adults, but evidence in children is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to compare usual DED distributions of nonoverweight vs. overweight or obese (OW/O) Mexican children. The study used 24-h recall (24HR) data from 2367 children aged 5-11 y from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). Repeated 24HR measures were obtained in a random sample (∼10%) to estimate usual intake distributions by using the Iowa State University (PC-Side) method. Implausible dietary reports were identified. Multivariate linear regression models were used to evaluate the relation between DED and body mass index status and to compare results with and without PC-Side adjustment and restriction to plausible reporters. A total of 35.1% of the children in the sample were OW/O. The usual DED mean was ∼175 kcal/100 g in both the complete sample and the plausible reporters subsample. Regression models adjusted by PC-Side and for potential confounders showed higher DED in OW/O relative to nonoverweight children for both plausible reporters (9.7 kcal/100 g; n = 1452, P 0.10). A positive association between usual DED and OW/O was found in Mexican children. The association was stronger when only plausible reporters were considered. This suggests that there is a need for strategies to reduce energy density in the diet of Mexican children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Parents' perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with excess weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Maria Romero Nascimento

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the perception of parents or caregivers on the health-related quality of life (HRQOL of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity and possible factors associated with this perception. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 297 caregivers of children and adolescents with normal weight (n = 170 and with overweight/obesity (n = 127, from public and private schools in the study municipality. HRQOL scores obtained through the Child Health Questionnaire - Parent Form 50 (CHQ-PF50 were compared according to the nutritional status and gender of the children/adolescents. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the predictive value of studied variables for the variation in HRQOL scores. RESULTS: Parents of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity attributed lower HRQOL scores to their children in the following domains: physical functioning (p < 0.01; d = 0.49, self-esteem (p < 0.01; d = 0.38, parental impact-emotional (p < 0.05; d= 0.29, family cohesion (p < 0.05; d = 0.26, physical summary score (p < 0.05;d = 0.29, and psychosocial summary score (p < 0.05; d = 0.25. In the multiple regression models, the variables with the highest contribution to the variation in HRQOL scores were: in the physical functioning domain, parental impact-time (ß = 0.23; p < 0.05; self-esteem, nutritional status (ß = -0.18;p ≤ 0.01; emotional impact on parents, impact on parents' time (ß = 0.31; p < 0.05; and in family cohesion, global behavior (ß = 0.30;p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: A negative impact on HRQOL of children/adolescents with overweight/obesity was observed in the physical and psychosocial aspects. The nutritional status was the variable with the greatest contribution for the assessment the self-esteem of children and adolescents in this study.

  4. The double burden of undernutrition and excess body weight in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroker-Lobos, Maria F; Pedroza-Tobías, Andrea; Pedraza, Lilia S; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-12-01

    In Mexico, stunting and anemia have declined but are still high in some regions and subpopulations, whereas overweight and obesity have increased at alarming rates in all age and socioeconomic groups. The objective was to describe the coexistence of stunting, anemia, and overweight and obesity at the national, household, and individual levels. We estimated national prevalences of and trends for stunting, anemia, and overweight and obesity in children aged obesity in women aged 20-49 y by using the National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012. With the use of the most recent data (2012), the double burden of malnutrition at the household level was estimated and defined as the coexistence of stunting in children aged obesity in the mother. At the individual level, double burden was defined as concurrent stunting and overweight and obesity in children aged 5-11 y and concurrent anemia and overweight or obesity in children aged 5-11 y and in women. We also tested if the coexistence of the conditions corresponded to expected values, under the assumption of independent distributions of each condition. At the household level, the prevalence of concurrent stunting in children aged obesity in mothers was 8.4%; at the individual level, prevalences were 1% for stunting and overweight or obesity and 2.9% for anemia and overweight or obesity in children aged 5-11 y and 7.6% for anemia and overweight or obesity in women. At the household and individual levels in children aged 5-11 y, prevalences of double burden were significantly lower than expected, whereas anemia and the prevalence of overweight or obesity in women were not different from that expected. Although some prevalences of double burden were lower than expected, assuming independent distributions of the 2 conditions, the coexistence of stunting, overweight or obesity, and anemia at the national, household, and intraindividual levels in Mexico calls for policies and programs to prevent

  5. Prevalence of male secondary hypogonadism in moderate to severe obesity and its relationship with insulin resistance and excess body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Berniza; Gómez-Martín, Jesús M; Vega-Piñero, Belén; Martín-Hidalgo, Antonia; Galindo, Julio; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F; Botella-Carretero, José I

    2016-01-01

    To study the prevalence of male obesity-secondary hypogonadism (MOSH) in patients with moderate to severe obesity, we performed a prospective prevalence study including 100 male patients with moderate to severe obesity at a university tertiary hospital. Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations among others were assayed in all patients. Serum-free testosterone (FT) concentration was calculated from TT and SHBG levels. Semen analysis was conducted in 31 patients. We found a prevalence of 45% (95% CI: 35-55%) when considering decreased TT and/or FT concentrations. Serum concentrations of TT were correlated negatively with glucose (r = -0.328, p obesity is high. Low circulating testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and low ejaculate volume with higher BMI and excess body weight. Semen analysis must be performed in these patients when considering fertility whether or not presenting low circulating testosterone. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Dis-appearance and dys-appearance anew: living with excess skin and intestinal changes following weight loss surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groven, Karen Synne; Råheim, Målfrid; Engelsrud, Gunn

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this article is to explore bodily changes following weight loss surgery. Our empirical material is based on individual interviews with 22 Norwegian women. To further analyze their experiences, we build primarily on the phenomenologist Drew Leder`s distinction between bodily dis-appearance and dys-appearance. Additionally, our analysis is inspired by Simone de Beauvoir, Merleau-Ponty and Julia Kristeva. Although these scholars have not directed their attention to obesity operations, they occupy a prime framework for shedding light on different dimensions of bodily change. In doing so, we were able to identify two main themes: The felt "inner" body versus the visible "surface" body and the "old" body versus the "new" body. In different, though interconnected ways, these main themes encompass tensions between changes the women experienced as contributing to a more "normal" and active life, feeling more accepted, and changes that generated ambivalence. In particular, their skin became increasingly problematic because it did not "shrink" like the rest of the body. On the contrary, it became looser and looser. Moreover, badsmelling folds of skin that wobbled, sweated and chafed at the smallest movement, aprons of fat hanging in front of their stomachs, batwing arms, thick flabby thighs and sagging breasts were described as a huge contrast to the positive response they received to their changed body shape when they were out and about with their clothes on. At the same time, they expressed ambivalence with regards to removing the excess skin by means of plastic surgery. Through their own and other women`s experiences they learned removing the excess skin by means of surgery could be a double-edged sword. By illuminating the experiences of the ones undergoing such changes our article offers new insight in a scholarly debate predominated by medical research documenting the positive outcomes of weight loss surgery.

  7. Association of excessive mobile phone use during pregnancy with birth weight: an adjunct study in Kumamoto of Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Oda, Masako; Ohba, Takashi; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Masuda, Shota; Katoh, Takahiko

    2017-06-08

    Low birth weight has been shown to be closely associated with neonatal mortality and morbidity, inhibited growth, poor cognitive development, and chronic diseases later in life. Some studies have also shown that excessive mobile phone use in the postnatal period may lead to behavioral complications in the children during their growing years; however, the relationship between mobile phone use during pregnancy and neonatal birth weight is not clear. The aim of the present study was to determine the associations of excessive mobile phone use with neonatal birth weight and infant health status. A sample of 461 mother and child pairs participated in a survey on maternal characteristics, infant characteristics, and maternal mobile phone usage information during pregnancy. Our results showed that pregnant women tend to excessively use mobile phones in Japan. The mean infant birth weight was lower in the excessive use group than in the ordinary use group, and the frequency of infant emergency transport was significantly higher in the excessive use group than in the ordinary use group. Excessive mobile phone use during pregnancy may be a risk factor for lower birth weight and a high rate of infant emergency transport.

  8. Exceso de peso corporal e hipertensión arterial en adolescentes de secundaria básica Corporal excess weight related to high blood pressure in adolescent students of secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Álvarez Gómez

    2010-03-01

    association between excess weight and presence of pre-high blood and high blood pressure with a value of Chi²= 50.43; x² < 0,01. Conclusions: relation between excess weight and high blood pressure seen in adolescents tool into account to apply prevention and control measures and to avoid the terrible consequences present in future ages.

  9. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinburn, B.A.; Caterson, I.; Seidell, J C; James, W.P.T.

    OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on the diet and nutrition causes of obesity and to recommend strategies to reduce obesity prevalence. DESIGN: The evidence for potential aetiological factors and strategies to reduce obesity prevalence was reviewed, and recommendations for public health action,

  10. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of excess weight gain and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinburn, B.A.; Caterson, I.; Seidell, J.C.; James, W.P.T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the evidence on the diet and nutrition causes of obesity and to recommend strategies to reduce obesity prevalence. Design: The evidence for potential aetiological factors and strategies to reduce obesity prevalence was reviewed, and recommendations for public health action,

  11. Active video games: Can they contribute to the prevention of excessive weight gain in gaming adolescents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.

    2015-01-01

    In dit proefschrift wordt onderzocht in hoeverre beweeggames kunnen bijdragen aan de preventie van overgewicht bij 12- tot 16-jarigen. Uit het onderzoek blijkt dat dit soort games nog niet kunnen concurreren met de gangbare computergames en daarom niet aantrekkelijk genoeg zijn voor jongeren om naar

  12. Dietary transition and excess weight in adults according to the Encuesta de la Situación Nutricional en Colombia, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrán, Oscar F; Patiño, Gonzalo A; Del Castillo, Sara E

    2016-03-03

    Dietary transition is codetermined by demographic and nutritional transitions.  To establish the prevalence of overweight individuals among Colombians aged 18 to 64, identify their dietary patterns and establish the relationship between this and their excess weight.  We analyzed the Encuesta de la Situación Nutricional en Colombia, 2010 (National Survey of the Nutritional Situation in Colombia, 2010). Dietary patterns were established with factor analysis in 5,217 subjects, who answered a questionnaire on food consumption frequency. The relationship between excess weight and adherence to quartiles in the patterns was established with binomial regression.  The prevalence of excess weight was 47.4% in men (95% CI: 44.7; 50.0) and 57.1% in women (95% CI: 54.9; 59.3, p<0.0001). Three patterns were established: protein/fiber, sandwich/snack and traditional/starch. When the models were adjusted for age, sex and level of food security in the home, the protein/fiber and traditional/starch patterns were found to be associated with excess weight (test of linear trend for quartiles of adherence, p=0.007 and p=0.001, respectively). Neither the frequency of consumption of carbonated and sugary drinks, with an adjusted relative risk of 100 (95% CI: 93 - 109; p=0.913), nor that of fast food with 102 (95% CI: 89; 117; p=0.759) were associated with excess weightExcess weight increases constantly with age, particularly in women, and is associated positively with indicators of socioeconomic status and subjects changing from the traditional/starch pattern to the protein/fiber one.

  13. Weight loss in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    The American Diabetes Association nutrition and lifestyle recommendations for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes focus on losing 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150minperweek. This emphasis is largely based on results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trials. DPP demonstrated that a lifestyle intervention aimed at 7% weight loss and 150min of activity per week reduced diabetes incidence by 58% after 2.8years of follow-up and resulted in sustained improvements in hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure and lipid levels. After 15years of follow-up, DPP's lifestyle intervention sustained a 27% risk reduction in progression to diabetes. Look AHEAD's lifestyle intervention significantly reduced hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, and the amount and costs of medications needed to treat these conditions when compared with diabetes support and education. Other clinical and psychological benefits achieved with lifestyle intervention were greater reductions in c-reactive protein, less self-reported retinopathy, reduced risk of nephropathy, less sexual dysfunction, decreased incidence of urinary incontinence and fatty liver, remission of sleep apnea, better physical functioning, less knee pain, more remission of diabetes, reduced incidence of depression, less body image dissatisfaction and improved quality-of-life. A number of DPP translation studies have demonstrated weight losses of 4 to 7% at 6month and 1year follow-up which has led to Medicare coverage for CDC recognized DPP lifestyle programs starting in April 2018. Translation studies of Look AHEAD using a variety of delivery formats are underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SFA intake among Japanese schoolchildren: current status and possible intervention to prevent excess intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-12-01

    Although a high intake of fat, particularly SFA, is a well-known risk factor for CVD, fat intake in Japan has attracted relatively little attention from health professionals to date due to the low intake in the Japanese population. However, recent surveys have shown an increase in fat intake in younger Japanese populations. Here, we described the fat intake and dietary sources of SFA in Japanese schoolchildren. Also, we experimentally exchanged a high-SFA food with a low-SFA substitute in the data, and calculated the resulting changes in nutrient intakes. The study was conducted nationwide under a cross-sectional design. A non-consecutive, three-day diet record was performed on two school days and a non-school day. Fourteen elementary and thirteen junior high schools. Elementary-school children (n 629) and junior high-school children (n 281). Prevalence of excess fat intake was 35·4 % in boys and 45·0 % in girls. Excess SFA intake was suspected in 97·7 % of boys and 99·4 % of girls when the dietary reference intake values for adults were applied. Major dietary sources of SFA were meat (26·4 % of total SFA intake), dairy products (25·7 %) and confectioneries (11·3 %). Since one-third to nearly one-half of our Japanese schoolchildren consumed excess fat, careful monitoring of fat intake in the Japanese population should be continued. Adoption of low-fat milk and/or lean meat in daily meals might be a suitable means of reducing fat, particularly SFA intake, in schoolchildren.

  15. The Midwest Exercise Trial for the Prevention of Weight Regain: MET POWeR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Washburn, Richard A.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Goetz, Jeannine; Lee, Jaehoon; Szabo, Amanda N.

    2013-01-01

    Weight reduction in overweight and obese individual’s results in physiological and behavioral changes that make the prevention of weight regain more difficult than either initial weight loss or the prevention of weight gain. Exercise is recommended for the prevention of weight regain by both governmental agencies and professional organizations. To date, the effectiveness of exercise recommendations for the prevention of weight regain has not been evaluated in a properly designed, adequately powered trial. Therefore, we will conduct a randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 levels of exercise on the prevention of weight regain, in initially overweight and obese sedentary men and women. Participants will complete a 3 month weight loss intervention of decreased energy intake (EI) and increased exercise (100 minutes/week). Participants achieving clinically significant weight loss (≥ 5% of initial weight), will then be randomly assigned to 12 months of verified exercise at 3 levels (150, 225 or 300 minutes/week). This study will evaluate: 1) the effectiveness of 3 levels of exercise on the prevention of weight regain over 12 months subsequent to clinically significant weight loss (≥ 5%); 2) gender differences in weight regain in response to 3 levels of exercise; and 3) potential compensatory changes in daily physical activity (PA) and EI on weight regain in response to 3 levels of exercise. Results of this investigation will provide information to develop evidenced based recommendations for the level of exercise associated with the prevention of weight regain. PMID:24012915

  16. Effect of excess body weight on quality of life and satisfaction with body image among middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baceviciene, Migle; Reklaitiene, Regina; Tamosiūnas, Abdonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of overweight, obesity, and conditions related to body weight on quality of life and to assess the relationship between body weight and satisfaction with body image between middle-aged Lithuanian inhabitants of Kaunas city. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A random sample of 1403 Kaunas men and women, aged 35-64 years and stratified by age and sex, was examined in 2001-2002. Response rate was 62.4%. Examination included physical measurements and information on risk factors related to lifestyle. Quality of life was assessed by World Health Organization Quality of Life 100 questionnaire. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the effect of excess body weight and conditions linked to body weight on quality of life. RESULTS. Less than three-fourths (73%) of men and women had excess body weight (body mass index, > or =25.0 kg/m(2)). Obesity in a complex with other analyzed factors had a negative effect on men's quality of life in the independence domain as compared to ones with BMI of image and appearance facet for men with normal body mass were 73.5, for overweigh ones 72.2, and for obese 66.8 (for women 69.9, 63.3, and 52.9, respectively; P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS. Among women excess body weight was associated with impaired quality of life. Men with excess body weight reported better overall quality of life. Obese persons were less satisfied with their body image as compared to ones with normal body weight.

  17. Variant in CAPN10 gene and environmental factors show evidence of association with excess weight among young people in a Colombian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ana C; Muñoz, Angélica M; Velásquez, Claudia M; Uscátegui, Rosa M; Parra, María V; Patiño, Fredy A; Manjarrés, Luz M; Parra, Beatriz E; Estrada, Alejandro; Agudelo, Gloria M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction : Obesity results from interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. To evaluate the effect of three gene variants and environmental factors on obesity and overweight in young people aged 10 to 18 years in a Colombian population. A total of 424 subjects were selected and separated into three groups for a cross-sectional study; 100 obese and 112 overweight subjects were matched with 212 normal-weight controls. Associations were evaluated between excess weight and three genetic polymorphisms ( UCP3- rs1800849, FTO -rs17817449, and CAPN10 -rs3842570), as well as the family history, the time spent watching television and playing video games, and the diet. A family history of obesity, the time spent watching television and playing video games, the lack of breastfeeding, a low consumption of cereals, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and a high consumption of fast foods were characteristics typically found in obese individuals compared to controls. A significant association between genotype I/I (SNP19 of CAPN10 ) and excess weight was found even with an active lifestyle. In addition, significant associations between the C/C genotype of the UCP3 gene and the G/G and T/T genotypes of the FTO gene and excess weight were found only in young sedentary individuals. In this population, inadequate diet and sedentary lifestyle increased the risk of excess weight. Genotype I/I of SNP19 in CAPN10 was significantly associated with excess weight. In contrast, FTO and UCP3 variants exhibited effects only in sedentary environments.

  18. [Effeciency of usage of natural low caloric protein-vegetable product by patients with excess body weight and hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmanov, R S; Istomin, A V; Narutdinov, D A; Kropachev, V Iu

    2014-01-01

    The efficiency of the usage of natural low caloric concentrated protein-vegetable food product (LCCF) by 23 persons with excess body weight at the age of 30-44 years (the 1st group) and 30 hypertensive patients at remission stage and overweight at age 45-59 years old (the 2nd group) has been assessed. According to energy expenditure, all examined male persons were classified to II group of physical activity: PhysicalActivity Coefficient (PAC) was 1,35±0,14 and 1,34±0,22 respectively. As for dietary intake, authors revealed an excess of protein (up to 20,1%), fat (up to 17,2%) and daily caloric content over daily energy expenditure that led to an increase of body weight along with metabolic and liver function disorders. Initially, body mass index (BMI) was 29,9±0,6 kg/m2 in the 1st group and 36,2±0,4 kg/m2 in the 2nd group. LCCFP was administrated to persons in studied groups and consisted of fat-free curd, egg white, rye bran, dried apricots, laminaria, leaves of green tea and cowberry. The product was made by cryogenic technology. LCCFP (35 g) was administrated two times per day instead of breakfast and supper during 15 days. Protein content in 1 portion of LCCFP was 5.2 g, fats -3.8 g, carbohydrates - 16.8 g; energy value - 122 kcal. The decrease of daily caloric content was 1225,5 kilocalories (kcal) in the 1st group and 1071,3 kcal in the 2nd group duringperiod of LCCFP administration; the energy value of the diet amounted to an average of 1420 and 1560 kcal per day. During the study, authors found serum protein indices were constant, but revealed the decrease of the level of glucose (by 15,3-18%), cholesterol (18,8-19%), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (13,9-15,8%), triglycerides (20-26,3%) and alanine aminotransferase (39,7-41,4%) and asparagine aminotransferase (40,6-40,7%) activity. This provided evidence of positive influence of the natural protein-vegetable LCCFP on fat and carbohydrate metabolisms as well as liver function. Also, the decrease of

  19. Excesso de peso de escolares em região do Nordeste Brasileiro: contraste entre as redes de ensino pública e privada Excess weight in children from Brazilian Northeast: difference between public and private schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana do Monte Paula Brasil

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: estimar a prevalência de excesso de peso em escolares na cidade de Natal. Métodos estudo transversal com 1927 crianças, de 6 a 11 anos de idade, de escolas públicas e privadas nas diferentes zonas da cidade de Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil. Foram analisadas as variáveis: sexo, faixa etária, tipo de escola e zonas da cidade. Foram considerados com excesso de peso os escolares com índice de massa corporal para sexo e idade igual ou superior ao percentil 85. RESULTADOS: o excesso de peso foi encontrado em 33,6% das crianças. Não houve diferenças significantes entre os sexos e faixas etárias. Nas escolas privadas, a prevalência de excesso de peso foi 54,5%; nas públicas, 15,6% (pOBJECTIVES: to determine the prevalence of excess weight in schoolchildren from the city of Natal. METHODS: transversal study with 1927 children aged 6-11 from public and private schools in different zones in the city of Natal, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and analyze related variables, such as gender, age-group, type of school and city zones. All scholars with a body mass index equal to or greater than the 85th percentile were considered as having excess weight. RESULTS: the prevalence of excess weight among the studied scholars was 33.6%. There were no significant differences between genders and age-groups. In the private schools, the prevalence of excess weight was 54.5%, while in the public schools, 15.6% (p<0.01; OR=6.49. The prevalence of excess weight was greater in schools located in the zones with the best quality of life, east-south zone (41.3%, if compared with schools in the north-west zone (28.4% (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of excess weight in scholars was found high, demonstrating the importance of programs of treatment and prevention. The biggest prevalence in children studying in private schools and in children studying in schools located in the best zone of the city reflects the importance of association

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged 0-5 years from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clariana V; Dumith, Samuel C; César, Juraci A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of excess weight and low height, and identify associated factors among children younger than five years. Cross-census study. A total of 1,640 children from two municipalities in Piauí, Brazil were included. The prevalence of low height was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.3 to 12.4), inversely associated with mother's younger age and low level of education, lower socioeconomic status, mothers who had fewer than six prenatal consultations, and households that had more than one child younger than 5 years. Excess weight prevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2 to 21.0), and remained inversely associated with lower maternal age, low maternal education, and cesarean delivery. Stunting was greater in children aged between 12 and 23 months, while excess weight decreased with age. It is noteworthy that the stunting rate, although decreasing, is still high, while the prevalence of excess weight, even in this very poor area, already exceeds the expected percentage for a population with better socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. 1H MRS Assessment of Hepatic Fat Content. Comparison Between Normal- and Excess-weight Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Bøjsøe, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to obtain a cutoff value of liver fat content for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis by comparing magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy results in children and adolescents with normal and excess weight. Materials and Methods: The study...

  2. Therapeutic ultrasound treatment for excessive skin on the upper arms due to extensive weight loss after bariatric surgery: A single blind, randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerså, Kristofer; Biörserud, Christina; Fagevik Olsén, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Excessive skin is a side-effect of massive weight loss. The only evidence-based treatment for excessive skin is plastic surgery. Non-invasive treatments, therefore, need to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of therapeutic ultrasound treatment on excess skin on the upper arms after bariatric surgery. Fourteen patients were randomised to receive five treatments, each lasting for 30 minutes with active ultrasound treatment by CellsonicTM (Cellsonic Ltd) on one arm. The other arm served as control. The effect was evaluated objectively by measuring arm volume, circumference, and ptosis, and subjectively by a questionnaire where the patients assessed the effect of the treatment and amount and/or discomfort of the excess skin. No statistical differences were observed in the objectively measured variables. Some patients reported perceived effects and a majority reported positive experiences of the treatment. No side-effects were reported. This study could not find any objectively measured effect of ultrasound treatment on excessive skin after bariatric surgery. However, participants experienced relief of symptoms associated with excess skin, such as pain, looseness, and decreased skin burst, which indicates that ultrasonic treatment of patients with excessive skin should be further investigated.

  3. Revision and reversal after biliopancreatic diversion for excessive side effects or ineffective weight loss: a review of the current literature on indications and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topart, Philippe A; Becouarn, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Biliopancreatic diversion is a powerful bariatric procedure that relies on gastric restriction combined with a large malabsorptive component. This can lead to excessive side effects and/or weight loss. Despite this, long-term weight regain can also occur. To determine the rate of and options for revision in patients who experience excessive side effects and weight loss. To explore the revisional procedures available to overcome weight regain. A PubMed search was conducted of all reports published between 1979 and August 31, 2014. Series and case reports on revision or reversal after biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS) or without (BPD) were included. Revision rates for excessive malabsorption ranges from .5%-4.9% and 3%-18.5% after BPD/DS and BPD respectively. Revisions increase common channel by up to 150 cm. Reversal is necessary in .2%-7% of cases, with an increased risk when the common channel is ≤ 50 cm. In most instances, reversal (of the malabsorptive component only) is indicated after the revision failure. A proximal, side-to-side anastomosis between the biliopancreatic and alimentary limbs is the preferred option. Most reoperations are performed within 2 years of the initial procedure and for protein malnutrition in about half of the cases. Revision for insufficient weight loss is reported in .5%-2.78% of cases. Except inadequate channel lengths, little is to be gained by common channel shortening. Additional gastric restriction, which results in an average 9-14 kg weight loss, is another option. Biliopancreatic diversion can be relatively easily revised to control excessive side effects and protein malnutrition. Early diagnosis is essential and warrants a close nutritional monitoring. In case of weight regain, limited results can be obtained by reducing the gastric volume provided the lengths of the small bowel channels are adequate. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up in non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Mauno; Marttunen, Mauri; Komulainen, Erkki; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Puukko-Viertomies, Leena-Riitta; Aalberg, Veikko; Lindberg, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The proportion of overweight and obese youths is high. The present study aimed to investigate the development of self-image and its components during a one-year follow-up among non-referred adolescents with excess and normal weight. Furthermore, we separately analyzed the data for girls and boys. Altogether 86 8(th) grades (41 girls and 45 boys) with a relative weight of 26% or more above the median and 91 controls (43 girls and 48 boys) with normal weight participated the follow-up. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire, Revised (OSIQ-R) was used to assess self-image at baseline and on follow-up. In the OSIQ-R, a low total raw score implies positive adjustment, while a high raw score implies poor adjustment and a negative self-image. The study design was doubly correlated (pairs and time), and a linear mixed model was used in the statistical analysis. In OSIQ-R total scores, a comparative improvement was observed in girls with normal weight. Among these girls, significant change scores compared to zero were seen in impulse control, social functioning, vocational attitudes, self-confidence, self-reliance, body image, sexuality, and ethical values. In girls with excess weight, none of the change scores compared to zero were statistically significant. When the girls with normal and excess weight were compared, the difference in change scores was largest in sexuality and vocational attitudes. Change scores compared to zero were significant in sexuality and idealism for boys with excess weight, and in impulse control, mental health, self-reliance, and sexuality for normal weight boys. When the boys with excess and normal weight were compared, no statistically significant differences emerged in change scores. In mid-adolescent girls, the influence of overweight and obesity on the development of self-image is substantial. Weight management programs directed at overweight adolescent girls should include psychological interventions aiming to diminish self-image distress

  5. Relação entre índice ponderal ao nascer e excesso de peso corporal em jovens The correlation between birth weight index and excess weight in young individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Maria Bismarck-Nasr

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A identificação de fatores de risco modificáveis para obesidade mostra-se fundamental para sua prevenção, como o inadequado crescimento intra-uterino. O presente estudo verificou a relação entre nutrição ao nascer e sobrepeso em jovens. Avaliaram-se 287 indivíduos com média (desvio-padrão de 15,2 (1,4 anos. Para diagnóstico nutricional ao nascer, utilizou-se o índice ponderal e, para o atual, índice de massa corporal (IMC, circunferência da cintura e composição corporal. Verificou-se, para os meninos, associação positiva entre índice ponderal e sobrepeso (p = 0,05 e excesso de gordura abdominal (p = 0,04. Para as meninas, houve associação negativa entre índice ponderal e comprimento ao nascer (p = 0,00 e quantidade de massa muscular (p = 0,01. Meninas de menor índice ponderal apresentaram maior quantidade de gordura corporal total e abdominal, enquanto as de maior índice ponderal apresentaram valores inferiores de estatura final (p = 0,09. Pode-se sugerir que indivíduos pertencentes aos extremos de índice ponderal enquadram-se em categoria de risco para obesidade futura, relação que se mostrou mais evidente para o extremo superior, no sexo masculino, e inferior, no feminino.Identification of modifiable risk factors for obesity has proven crucial for its prevention, for example inadequate intrauterine growth. The current study verified the relationship between nutritional status at birth and overweight in youth. A total of 287 individuals were evaluated, with a mean age of 15.2 years (SD 1.4. Nutritional status at birth was based on the birth weight index, and current status was based on BMI, waist circumference, and body composition. In boys there was a positive association between weight index and overweight (p = 0.05 and excess abdominal fat (p = 0.04. For girls, there was a negative association between weight index and length at birth (p = 0.00 and amount of muscle mass (p = 0.01. Girls with lower weight index

  6. Prevention of excessive postoperative sliding of the short femoral nail in femoral trochanteric fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Juji; Takakubo, Yuya; Sasaki, Kan; Sasaki, Junya; Owashi, Kazuya; Takagi, Michiaki

    2015-05-01

    Lag screw cut-out is one of the major postoperative complications on femoral trochanteric fractures. However, precise analyses of excessive sliding and lag screw cut-out were limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that induce this unfavorable event. From April 2010 to April 2013, 226 patients were operated in our institute using a short femoral nail. Among them, 177 patients (29 males and 148 females) with a mean age of 84 years (60-97 years), who were followed up >3 months, were included in this study. The postoperative sliding distance, fracture type (AO/OTA classification), tip-apex distance (TAD), reduction pattern in the postoperative X-ray (antero-posterior and lateral views), bone quality (canal flare and cortical indices), walking ability at the time of pre-injury and final follow-up, and complications were investigated retrospectively. The mean sliding distance was 3.7 mm, and one cut-out case (0.6 %) was observed. The sliding distance of the AO/OTA 31-A2 fractures was significantly longer than that of the A1 fractures (p fractures, an accurate reduction in the lateral view at surgery is important, particularly in unstable fractures.

  7. Weight gain prevention in young adults: design of the study of novel approaches to weight gain prevention (SNAP) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah; Espeland, Mark; Gorin, Amy; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Robichaud, Erica Ferguson; Erickson, Karen; Perdue, Letitia; Bahnson, Judy; Lewis, Cora E

    2013-04-04

    Weight gain during young adulthood is common and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Preventing this weight gain from occurring may be critical to improving long-term health. Few studies have focused on weight gain prevention, and these studies have had limited success. SNAP (Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention) is an NIH-funded randomized clinical trial examining the efficacy of two novel self-regulation approaches to weight gain prevention in young adults compared to a minimal treatment control. The interventions focus on either small, consistent changes in eating and exercise behaviors, or larger, periodic changes to buffer against expected weight gains. SNAP targets recruitment of six hundred young adults (18-35 years) with a body mass index between 21.0-30.0 kg/m2, who will be randomly assigned with equal probability to: (1) minimal intervention control; (2) self-regulation with Small Changes; or (3) self-regulation with Large Changes. Both interventions receive 8 weekly face-to-face group sessions, followed by 2 monthly sessions, with two 4-week refresher courses in each of subsequent years. Participants are instructed to report weight via web at least monthly thereafter, and receive monthly email feedback. Participants in Small Changes are taught to make small daily changes (~100 calorie changes) in how much or what they eat and to accumulate 2000 additional steps per day. Participants in Large Changes are taught to create a weight loss buffer of 5-10 pounds once per year to protect against anticipated weight gains. Both groups are encouraged to self-weigh daily and taught a self-regulation color zone system that specifies action depending on weight gain prevention success. Individualized treatment contact is offered to participants who report weight gains. Participants are assessed at baseline, 4 months, and then annually. The primary outcome is weight gain over an average of 3 years of follow-up; secondary outcomes include

  8. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese particip...

  9. Increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio is associated with excess weight, body adiposity, and altered lipid profile in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana Paula Pereira; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda; Milagres, Luana Cupertino; Albuquerque, Fernanda Martins de; Filgueiras, Mariana De Santis; Rocha, Naruna Pereira; Novaes, Juliana Farias de

    2018-02-10

    To investigate ApoB/ApoA1 ratio and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in children. Cross-sectional study with 258 children aged 8 and 9 years old, enrolled in all urban schools in the city of Viçosa-MG. Anthropometric and body composition assessment, as well as biochemical profile of the children was performed. Socioeconomic variables and sedentary lifestyle were evaluated through a semi-structured questionnaire. Many children had excess weight (35.2%), abdominal adiposity (10.5%), and body fat (15.6%), as well as increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (14.7%), total cholesterol (51.8%), and triglycerides (19.8%). Children with excess weight and total and central fat had a higher prevalence of having a higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, as well as those with atherogenic lipid profile (increased LDL-c and triglycerides and low HDL-c). A direct association was found between the number of cardiovascular risk factors and the ApoB/ApoA1 ratio (p=0.001), regardless of age and income. The increased ApoB/ApoA1 ratio was associated with excess weight, body adiposity (total and central), and altered lipid profile in children. Children with a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors had higher ApoB/ApoA1 ratio, in both genders. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Excesso de peso, pressão arterial e atividade física no deslocamento à escola Excess weight, arterial pressure and physical activity in commuting to school: correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S. Silva

    2008-08-01

    percentile. Chi-square test and Poisson's regression were used for the analysis. RESULTS: Active commuting was associated with a lower prevalence of excess weight and body fat as compared to passive commuting (p0.05 CONCLUSION: Passive commuting to school showed a correlation with excess weight and body fat but not with elevated AP. Excess weight was associated with excessive body fat and elevated AP. Excess weight should be prevented as a way to avoid fat accumulation and AP elevation.

  11. Long-Term Excessive Body Weight and Adult Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Are Linked Through Later-Life Body Size and Blood Pressure: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijie; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Guo, Yajun; Shen, Wei; Fernandez, Camilo; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia A; Urbina, Elaine M; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-05-12

    Childhood adiposity is associated with cardiac structure in later life, but little is known regarding to what extent childhood body weight affects adult left ventricular geometric patterns through adult body size and blood pressure (BP). Determine quantitatively the mediation effect of adult body weight and BP on the association of childhood body mass index (BMI) with adult left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. This longitudinal study consisted of 710 adults, aged 26 to 48 years, who had been examined for BMI and BP measured ≥4× during childhood and ≥2× during adulthood, with a mean follow-up period of 28.0 years. After adjusting for age, race, and sex, adult BMI had a significant mediation effect (76.4%; P adult LV mass index association. The mediation effects of adult systolic BP (15.2%), long-term burden (12.1%), and increasing trends of systolic BP (7.9%) were all significant ( P adult LV hypertrophy, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. Importantly, the mediation effects of adult BMI were all significantly stronger than those of adult systolic BP on LV mass index, LV hypertrophy, and LV remodeling patterns ( P adult cardiac structure, and early life excessive body weight and adult LV hypertrophy are linked through later life excessive body weight and elevated BP. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Serum chemerin in children with excess body weight may be associated with ongoing metabolic complications - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzińska, Marta; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Brzezinski, Michał; Kaźmierska, Katarzyna; Sledziński, Tomasz; Kamińska, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if serum chemerin in children correlates with body weight, fat mass, selected inflammatory markers, parameters of liver function, lipid and glucose metabolism. The study included children aged 5-17 years with normal body weight (body weight presented with significantly higher serum concentrations of chemerin. Serum chemerin correlated positively with body weight, absolute BMI and its percentile, fat mass, systolic blood pressure, CRP, ALT, insulin and HOMA-IR. Serum level of chemerin may serve as a measure of ongoing obesity-related inflammation, early marker of subclinical liver dysfunction and metabolic syndrome in overweight pediatric patients. Copyright © 2017 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M

    2017-03-25

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18-64 years) from the ANIBES ("Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles") cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p weight and/or abdominal obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p weight and/or abdominal obesity (5.21%), p weight and abdominal obesity only when the whole sample was considered.

  14. The association between arthritis and depression is intensified by excessive body weight: Findings from a US national survey, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Maria D; Johnson, Krystina; Hansen, Andrew R; Sullivan, Kelly L; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and arthritis are leading chronic conditions, but comorbidity of these conditions and their interaction leading to depression have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this study is to determine the degree to which excess body weight effect-modifies the relationship between arthritis and depressive symptoms. We used the data of 8677 men and 8820 women aged 20 or older, who completed a depression screening and general medical condition interview as a part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2012. Depression was ascertained using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); a PHQ-9 score of 15 or higher was defined as indicative of depression. Arthritis was reported in 26.5% (SE=0.9) of men and 36.9% (SE=1.4) of women. The association between depression and arthritis was not significant among healthy weight women, but significant among overweight and obese women. The prevalence ratios (PRs) of depression among arthritis-free women were 1.00 (reference) for healthy weight, 1.43 (0.85-2.42) for overweight, and 1.99 (1.23-3.23) for obese women. For women with arthritis, the PRs were 1.16 (0.63-2.12) for healthy weight, 3.80 (2.24-6.45) for overweight and 3.73 (2.30-6.05) for obese women. The intensifying effect from excessive body weight on the association between arthritis and depression was less salient among men than women. The association between arthritis and depression is intensified significantly by increased body weight, in particular, among women. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  16. Preventive role of low-molecular-weight heparin in unexplained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a source of great distress for couples, and the search continues for an intervention to improve live birth rates in affected women. A daily injection of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is often prescribed to women with unexplained RPL, although evidence suggesting a ...

  17. Excesso de peso em crianças de pré-escolas: prevalência e fatores associados Excess weight in preschoolers: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaine Schuch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao excesso de peso em crianças matriculadas em escolas públicas dos estados do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e Santa Catarina (SC. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se estudo transversal com crianças de idade entre quatro e seis anos. O desfecho estudado foi o excesso de peso, definido através do escore Z > 2DP para o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC/idade, em comparação com a população de referência da OMS 2006/2007. As medidas antropométricas de massa corporal e altura foram aferidas em duplicata, utilizando-se técnicas padronizadas conforme a Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS. Os dados foram duplamente digitados utilizando o software EPI-INFO, versão 6.04. Foram calculadas frequências absolutas e relativas e médias (DP. Associações entre excesso de peso e demais variáveis foram avaliadas em modelo de Poisson de variância robusta. Foi utilizado o programa STATA versão 12.0 (p OBJECTIVE: To study the prevalence and factors associated with excess weight in children enrolled in public schools in the states of Rio Grande do Sul (RS and Santa Catarina (SC. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, carried out with children aged 4 to 6 years. The studied outcome was excess weight, defined by z-score > two standard deviations for body mass index (BMI/age, compared with the World Health Organization (WHO reference population of 2006/2007. Anthropometric measurements of body mass and height were measured in duplicate using standard techniques, in accordance with the WHO. Data were double entered using EPI-INFO software, release 6.04. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated, as well as mean values and standard deviations. Associations between excess weight and other variables were assessed by using Poisson model with robust variance. STATA software release 12.0 was used (p < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 4,914 children were evaluated (2,578 in RS and 2,336 in SC. In RS, the incidence of excess

  18. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Liliana G.; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles”) cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p obesity (5.18%), p obesity (5.21%), p obesity only when the whole sample was considered. PMID:28346353

  19. Teste de sentar-levantar: influência do excesso de peso corporal em adultos Sitting-rising test: influence of excess body weight in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma Rabelo Ricardo

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available As ações de sentar e levantar do solo integram o repertório motor de crianças e adultos e demandam força e potência muscular, flexibilidade de membros inferiores, equilíbrio e coordenação motora e são provavelmente influenciadas pelas dimensões corporais. Araújo (1999 propôs um procedimento simples, denominado de teste de sentar-levantar (TSL, para avaliar a destreza nessas ações. Neste estudo verificou-se a influência do excesso de peso corporal sobre o desempenho no TSL. Todos os 461 (288 homens/173 mulheres adultos submetidos à avaliação na Clinimex, entre setembro de 1998 e junho de 2000, que realizaram o TSL foram retrospectivamente analisados. No TSL, os resultados variam de 0 a 5, separadamente para o sentar e para o levantar, perdendo-se um ponto para cada apoio utilizado (ex.: mão ou joelho e meio ponto quando há desequilíbrio perceptível. A relação peso/altura foi avaliada por três métodos distintos: índice de massa corporal (IMC-peso (kg/altura² (m -, recíproco do índice ponderal (RIP -altura (cm/peso1/3 (kg e ectomorfia. Existe uma relação inversa entre o desempenho no TSL e o excesso de peso em relação à altura nos três métodos nos dois sexos (p 25kg/m² ou ectomorfia Sitting and rising from the floor belong to child and adult motor repertoire, demanding muscle strength and power, lower limb flexibility, and motor coordination, and are probably influenced by body dimensions. Araújo (1999 suggested a simple procedure, denominated Sitting-Rising Test (SRT, to evaluate the ability in these actions. In this study, the authors verified the influence of excess body weight on SRT performance. All 461 adults (288 male /173 female submitted to medical examination between September 1998 and June 2000 and that performed SRT were retrospectively analyzed. In SRT, scores range from 0 to 5, separately for sitting and rising. One point is subtracted for each support used in the action (e.g. hand or knee and

  20. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhana Samat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  1. Three months of high-fructose feeding fails to induce excessive weight gain or leptin resistance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J Tillman

    Full Text Available High-fructose diets have been implicated in obesity via impairment of leptin signaling in humans and rodents. We investigated whether fructose-induced leptin resistance in mice could be used to study the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in humans, particularly in children and adolescents. Male C57Bl/6 mice were weaned to a randomly assigned diet: high fructose, high sucrose, high fat, or control (sugar-free, low-fat. Mice were maintained on their diets for at least 14 weeks. While fructose-fed mice regularly consumed more kcal and expended more energy, there was no difference in body weight compared to control by the end of the study. Additionally, after 14 weeks, both fructose-fed and control mice displayed similar leptin sensitivity. Fructose-feeding also did not change circulating glucose, triglycerides, or free fatty acids. Though fructose has been linked to obesity in several animal models, our data fail to support a role for fructose intake through food lasting 3 months in altering of body weight and leptin signaling in mice. The lack of impact of fructose in the food of growing mice on either body weight or leptin sensitivity over this time frame was surprising, and important information for researchers interested in fructose and body weight regulation.

  2. Impact of excessive gestational weight gain in non-smoking mothers on body fatness in infancy and early childhood. Prospective prebirth cohort study in Cracow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, W; Maugeri, U; Kaim, I; Budzyn-Mrozek, D; Flak, E; Mroz, E; Sochacka-Tatara, E; Sowa, A; Musial, A

    2011-02-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for health policy as it may be associated with overweight epidemics in childhood and adolescence. The purpose of the study was to perform the risk assessment of joint effects of the excessive GWG and the pregravid maternal BMI on overweight in infancy and childhood. The observations were collected in the ongoing prospective birth cohort study of 482 non-smoking mothers and their newborns in Cracow inner city area. At 5 years of age the subsample of 312 infants were reexamined in order to assess their nutritional status. Body fatness was assessed by means of the weight/length ratio (WLR) in neonates and weight/height ratio (WHR) in 5-year-olds since they showed the strongest correlation with subcutaneous fat mass of young children. In the statistical analysis the binary regression models were applied to identify predictors of overweight. The excessive GWG (>18 kg) increased more than twofold the adjusted relative risk (RR) of neonatal fatness (R=2.7; 95% CI 2.0-3.7) and was also a significant independent risk factor for postnatal body fatness at 5 years of age (RR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.3). The results confirmed earlier findings that pregravid overweight increased not only the relative risk of neonatal fatness (RR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.2-3.9) but also overweight in early childhood (RR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.7-4.4). The conclusion is that excessive GWG may be a risk factor for overweight in early childhood and should be a focus of public health policy.

  3. The impact of excessive maternal weight on the nutritional status of the fetus - the role of leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiada, Lidia A; Głowacka, Ewa; Krekora, Michał; Sobantka, Stanisław; Krokocka, Aleksandra; Krasomski, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Assessment of leptin concentration in the blood of pregnant women (leptin concentration - Lc) and in their newborns, according to their nutritional status. Pregnant women (n = 42) were divided into normal body mass (NBM) and excessive body mass (EBM) groups. Neonates were divided into AGA (eutrophic) and LGA (macrosomic) groups. Leptin concentraction was studied in 4 subgroups: NBM/AGA, NBM/LGA, EBM/AGA, EBM/LGA. Mothers: A significant correlation was found between maternal Lc and body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.75, p Maternal Lc was 3 times higher than neonatal Lc (p nutritional status of fetuses does not affect the Lc of their non-obese mothers. The LGA neonates born to EBM women demonstrate higher Lc than LGA neonates born to NBM mothers, whereas Lc of AGA neonates is similar regardless of the nutritional status of their mothers.

  4. Greater Neonatal Fat-Free Mass and Similar Fat Mass Following a Randomized Trial to Control Excess Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dympna; Rosenn, Barak; Toro-Ramos, Tatiana; Paley, Charles; Gidwani, Sonia; Horowitz, Michelle; Crane, Janet; Lin, Susan; Thornton, John C; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of controlling maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) in the second and third trimesters on neonate body composition. Two hundred ten healthy women with overweight (25 > BMI fat and fat-free mass (FFM) at birth were measured by using air displacement plethysmography (PEA POD) and by using quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR). At baseline, there were no between-group differences in maternal characteristics (mean [SD]): age: 33.8 (4.3) years, weight: 81.9 (13.7) kg, BMI: 30.4 (4.5), and gestational age at randomization: 14.9 (0.8) weeks. GWG was less in the LI group by 1.79 kg (P = 0.003) or 0.0501 kg/wk (P = 0.002). Compared with UC infants, LI infants had greater weight (131 ± 59 g P = 0.03), FFM (98 ± 45 g; P = 0.03) measured by PEA POD, and lean mass (105 ± 38 g; P = 0.006) measured by QMR. Fat mass and percent fat were not significantly different. Intervening in women with overweight and obesity through behaviors promoting healthy diet and physical activity to control GWG resulted in neonates with similar fat and greater FFM. © 2018 The Obesity Society.

  5. Weight change associated with the use of migraine-preventive medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2008-06-01

    Medications administered long term, such as those used for migraine prophylaxis, are often associated with weight change as a side effect. Such effects may compromise general health status, exacerbate coexisting medical conditions, and affect medication adherence. Weight gain should be of particular concern in patients with migraine, as there is evidence that overweight and obese patients with migraine are at risk for an increased frequency and severity of migraine attacks. This article reviews weight-change data from recent clinical studies of migraine-preventive medications in children, adolescents, and adults with migraine. A PubMed search was conducted for English-language articles published between January 1970 and November 2007. Among the search terms were migraine prevention, migraine prophylaxis, migraine treatment, antidepressant drug, beta-adrenergic-receptor blockers, antiepileptic drug, anticonvulsant drug, weight gain, and weight loss. Studies that reported weight-change data (gain, loss, or neutral) were included. When available, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies were selected for review. Open-label, retrospective or prospective trials may also have been included. Most of the migraine-preventive medications classified by the United States Headache Consortium as group 1 based on the high level of evidence for their efficacy--for instance, amitriptyline, propranolol, and divalproex sodium-have been associated with varying degrees of weight gain. The exceptions are timolol, which is weight neutral, and topiramate, which is associated with weight loss. Among the drugs that have been associated with weight gain, a higher incidence of weight gain was observed with amitriptyline and divalproex sodium than with propranolol. Weight-change effects require careful consideration when selecting migraine-preventive medications, and weight should be monitored carefully over the course of any migraine treatment plan.

  6. Sobrepeso en adolescentes y su relación con algunos factores sociodemográficos The excess weight in adolescents and its relation to some sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelany Lima Rabelo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el sobrepeso en la adolescencia se relaciona con el desarrollo precoz de aterosclerosis, por lo que se considera una señal aterogénica temprana. Objetivo: determinar la relación del sobrepeso con algunos factores sociodemográficos y estilos de vida. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva de tipo transversal en 252 adolescentes de 16 a 19 años, de una población de 347 adolescentes, del policlínico "Héroes del Moncada", municipio Plaza de la Revolución. Se utilizó el modelo de recolección del dato primario del Centro de Investigaciones y Referencias de La Habana. Se realizaron mensuraciones del peso, la talla y la circunferencia de la cintura, se determinó el índice de masa corporal, evaluando el estado nutricional según las tablas cubanas. Las variables sociodemográficas estudiadas fueron: edad, sexo, escolaridad de los padres, condiciones de la vivienda y estructura familiar. La actividad física, fue clasificada según lo referido por el adolescente. Resultados: el 18,3 % de los adolescentes, presentó sobrepeso y obesidad, con predominio del sexo masculino. En el grupo con sobrepeso el mayor porcentaje de las madres tenían un nivel de escolaridad técnico medio y preuniversitario y procedían de familias monoparenterales. La actividad física intensa fue menor en los adolescentes con sobrepeso.Introduction: the excess weight in adolescence is related to the early development of the atherosclerosis, thus, it is considered an early atherogenic signal. Objective: to determine the relation of excess weight with some sociodemographic factors and lifestyle. Methods: a descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted in 252 adolescents aged 16-19 from a group of 347 adolescents of the "Héroes del Moncada" University Polyclinic, Plaza de La Revolución municipality. Authors used a form of collection of primary datum of the Center of Researches and References of La habana. The weight, height and waist

  7. Process Evaluation of an Occupational Health Guideline Aimed at Preventing Weight Gain Among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Lisanne M.; Proper, Karin I.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evuate the process of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain. Methods: Quantitative data on seven process items were assessed and linked to effects on employees' waist circumference and body weight at 6 months. Results: Occupational physicians (n = 7)

  8. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Khosravi, Elham; Ghannadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-08-01

    Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05) and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47) than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79). FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  9. Counseling for fetal macrosomia: an estimated fetal weight of 4,000 g is excessively low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, David; Warsof, Steven; Wolf, Maya Frank; Perlitz, Yuri; Shachar, Inbar Ben

    2015-01-01

    Because of the known complications of fetal macrosomia, our hospital's policy has been to discuss the risks of shoulder dystocia and cesarean section (CS) in mothers with a sonographic estimated fetal weight (SEFW) ≥ 4,000 g at term. The present study was performed to determine the effect of this policy on CS rates and pregnancy outcome. We examined the pregnancy outcomes of the macrosomic (≥ 4,000 g) neonates in two cohorts of nondiabetic low risk women at term without preexisting indications for cesarean: (1) SEFW ≥ 4,000 g (correctly suspected macrosomia) and (2) SEFW macrosomia). There were 238 neonates in the correctly suspected group and 205 neonates in the unsuspected macrosomia group, respectively. Vaginal delivery was accomplished in 52.1% of the suspected group and 90.7% of the unsuspected group, respectively, p macrosomia was correctly suspected. The policy of discussing the risk of macrosomia with SEFW ≥ 4,000 g to women is not justified. A higher SEFW to trigger counseling for shoulder dystocia and CS, more consistent with American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) guidelines, should be considered. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. College Freshmen Students' Perspectives on Weight Gain Prevention in the Digital Age: Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith

    2017-10-12

    College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a

  11. The Impact of Maternal Obesity and Excessive Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Infant Outcomes in Maine: Analysis of Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Results from 2000 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Baugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to understand the relationships between prepregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS data from Maine for 2000–2010 were used to determine associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health behavioral variables and maternal and infant outcomes. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the independent variables of age, race, smoking, previous live births, marital status, education, BMI, income, rurality, alcohol use, and GWG. Dependent variables included maternal hypertension, premature birth, birth weight, infant admission to the intensive care unit (ICU, and length of hospital stay of the infant. Excessive prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG independently predicted maternal hypertension. A high prepregnancy BMI increased the risk of the infant being born prematurely, having a longer hospital stay, and having an excessive birth weight. Excessive GWG predicted a longer infant hospital stay and excessive birth weight. A low pregnancy BMI and a lower than recommended GWG were also associated with poor outcomes: prematurity, low birth weight, and an increased risk of the infant admitted to ICU. These findings support the importance of preconception care that promotes achievement of a healthy weight to enhance optimal reproductive outcomes.

  12. Polymorphisms in the leptin (rs7799039) gene are associated with an increased risk of excessive gestational weight gain but not with leptin concentration during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maisa Cruz; Trujillo, Janet; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) have been shown to be linked to obesity-related metabolic markers and phenotype. Therefore, we hypothesized that the LEP-rs7799039 and LEPR-rs1137101 SNPs are related to the risk of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m 2 ) as well as to excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and high concentrations of leptin throughout pregnancy. We investigated a prospective cohort of 147 Brazilian pregnant women through weeks 5-13, 20-26, and 30-36 of gestation. Genetic variants of LEP and LEPR were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and leptin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses included multiple linear regression, linear mixed effects, and Poisson regression models. Genotype AA carriers for the LEP-rs7799039 gene maintained a lower body weight throughout pregnancy compared with those with genotypes GG or GA + GG (β AAvsGG = -7.91 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -14.21 to -1.61; P = .01; and β AAvsGA + GG = -7.66 kg; 95% CI, -14.07 to -1.25; P = .02). The A allele was significantly associated with an increased risk for excessive GWG (relative risk LEP-GAvsGG , 2.16; 95% CI, 1.23-3.80; and relative risk LEP-AAvsGG , 2.37; 95% CI, 1.04-5.39). Neither the LEP-rs7799039 nor LEPR-rs1137101 SNP was significantly associated with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity risk and leptin concentrations during pregnancy. In conclusion, our results indicate that women who had the AA genotype for LEP-rs7799039 displayed a lower body weight throughout pregnancy compared with GG or GA + GG carriers. LEP-rs7799039 was significantly associated with an increased risk for excessive GWG, but the results do not support significant associations of the LEP-rs7799039 and LEPR-rs1137101 polymorphisms with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity risk and leptin concentrations throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyathilake, Chandrika J; Badiga, Suguna; Alvarez, Ronald D; Partridge, Edward E; Johanning, Gary L

    2013-01-01

    Identification of associations between global DNA methylation and excess body weight (EBW) and related diseases and their modifying factors are an unmet research need that may lead to decreasing DNA methylation-associated disease risks in humans. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the following; 1) Association between the degree of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) L1 methylation and folate, and indicators of EBW, 2) Association between the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and folate, and insulin resistance (IR) as indicated by a higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). The study population consisted of 470 child-bearing age women diagnosed with abnormal pap. The degree of PBMC L1 methylation was assessed by pyrosequencing. Logistic regression models specified indicators of EBW (body mass index-BMI, body fat-BF and waist circumference-WC) or HOMA-IR as dependent variables and the degree of PBMC L1 methylation and circulating concentrations of folate as the independent predictor of primary interest. Women with a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation and lower plasma folate concentrations were significantly more likely to have higher BMI, % BF or WC (OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.41-4.47, P = 0.002; OR = 2.49, 95% CI:1.40-4.51, P = 0.002 and OR = 1.98, 95% = 1.14-3.48 P = 0.0145, respectively) and higher HOMA-IR (OR = 1.78, 95% CI:1.02-3.13, P = 0.041). Our results demonstrated that a lower degree of PBMC L1 methylation is associated with excess body weight and higher HOMA-IR, especially in the presence of lower concentrations of plasma folate.

  14. Effect of the peels of two Citrus fruits on endothelium function in adolescents with excess weight: A triple-masked randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity induces endothelial dysfunction even in the pediatric age group. The possible protective effects of fruits and herbal products on the endothelial dysfunction of obese children remain to be determined. This study aims to investigate the effects of lemon and sour orange peels on endothelial function of adolescents with excess weight. Materials and Methods: This triple-masked, randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted for 1-month among 90 overweight and obese participants, aged 6-18 years. They were randomly assigned into three groups of equal number receiving daily oral capsules containing lemon or sour orange powder or placebo. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD was compared between three groups by using analysis of covariance. Results: Overall, 30 participants in the lemon group, 27 in the sour orange group and 29 in the control group completed the trial. After the trial, mean FMD was significantly (P < 0.001 higher in the lemon group (11.99 ± 4.05 and in the sour orange group (12.79 ± 5.47 than in the placebo group (6.45 ± 2.79. FMD percent change was 145.02 ± 24.34 in the lemon group, 142.04 ± 16.11 in the sour orange group, and 46.73 ± 5.16 in controls (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This trial showed that consumption of extracts of lemon and sour orange peels, which contain plenty amounts of antioxidants, flavonoids, pectin, and vitamin C, might have significant benefits on endothelial function in children and adolescents with excess weight. Trial registry code: IRCT201311201434N10.

  15. Excess Weight Loss and Cardiometabolic Parameter Reduction Diminished among Hispanics Undergoing Bariatric Surgery: Outcomes in More than 2,000 Consecutive Hispanic Patients at a Single Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Oscar K; Zhang, Yang; Cumella, Lindsay; Kintzer, Emily; Ng, Nicole; Sandoval, Eduardo; Choi, Jenny; Melvin, W Scott; Camacho, Diego R

    2016-02-01

    Bariatric surgery has been established as the most effective long-term treatment for morbid obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. Despite its success, there is a paucity of data on the outcomes of bariatric surgery on Hispanic patients. We performed a retrospective review of obese patients treated at our institute between 2008 and 2014. We identified self-reported Hispanic patients who underwent a laparoscopic gastric bypass (LGBP), sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or gastric band (LGB) procedure. The primary end point was excess weight loss (EWL) at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Secondary end points included improvement of obesity-related metabolic parameters at 1 year. We performed a repeated measures analysis of variance to calculate statistical significance throughout our study time period. We identified 2002 Hispanic patients who underwent bariatric surgery (1,235 LGBP, 600 LSG, 167 LGB) at our institute from 2008 to 2014. Follow-ups at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months were 62.2%, 54.5%, 36.2%, and 19.8%, respectively. Mean preoperative BMIs were 47.0 ± 7.2 kg/m2, 46.1 ± 7.8 kg/m2, and 44.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2 for the LGBP, LSG, and LGB cohorts, respectively. Excess weight loss was significantly more pronounced in the LGBP and the LSG groups than in the LGB group; this difference was accentuated over time (p Bariatric surgery is highly successful in Hispanic obese patients. In the largest series to date, LGBP and LSG seem to yield more effective EWL and reduction of cardiometabolic parameters than LGB among Hispanics; however, outcomes are still markedly reduced when compared with those in non-Hispanic populations. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Comparison of the Association of Excess Weight on Health Related Quality of Life of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: An Age- and BMI-Matched Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Shishehgar

    Full Text Available It is assumed that obesity adversely affects the health related quality of life (HRQOL of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, not only due to the excess weight, but also due to several other obesity induced metabolic and reproductive consequences. We aimed to compare the effects of excess body weight on the HRQOL between women with PCOS and controls.This is a case control study of 142 women with PCOS and 140 age- and BMI- matched controls. The Iranian version of short form health survey 36 (SF 36 was used to assess HRQOL. Domains of SF 36 were compared in women with PCOS and controls using multivariate analysis of covariance. The Pearson correlation was used to assess the correlation between body mass index (BMI and domain scores of SF 36, and the differences between two correlations in cases and controls, using Fisher's Z test.Women with PCOS had significantly lower scores for both, the physical and the mental component summary scales, compared to controls. In the cases, a significant negative correlations were observed for BMI with physical function (r = - 0.301, P<0.001, bodily pain (r = - 0.23, P = 0.006, and physical summary score (r = -0.3, P = 0.007. In controls, significant correlation was seen for BMI with bodily pain (r = - 0.3, P<0.001 and physical summary score (r = - 0.27, P = 0.001. The differences between correlations of physical function with BMI in PCOS and controls were statistically significant (Z = -2.41, P = 0.008.Although the physical aspects of HRQOL are adversely affected by overweight in both PCOS and controls, these impaired effects are greater in women with PCOS.

  17. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  18. Maternal androgen excess reduces placental and fetal weights, increases placental steroidogenesis, and leads to long-term health effects in their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Maliqueo, Manuel; Benrick, Anna; Johansson, Julia; Shao, Ruijin; Hou, Lihui; Jansson, Thomas; Wu, Xiaoke; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2012-12-01

    Here, we tested the hypothesis that excess maternal androgen in late pregnancy reduces placental and fetal growth, increases placental steroidogenesis, and adversely affects glucose and lipid metabolism in adult female offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were randomly assigned to treatment with testosterone (daily injections of 5 mg of free testosterone from gestational days 16 to 19) or vehicle alone. In experiment 1, fetal and placental weights, circulating maternal testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone levels, and placental protein expression and distribution of estrogen receptor-α and -β, androgen receptor, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 were determined. In experiment 2, birth weights, postnatal growth rates, circulating testosterone, estradiol, and corticosterone levels, insulin sensitivity, adipocyte size, lipid profiles, and the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver were assessed in female adult offspring. Treatment with testosterone reduced placental and fetal weights and increased placental expression of all four proteins. The offspring of testosterone-treated dams were born with intrauterine growth restriction; however, at 6 wk of age there was no difference in body weight between the offspring of testosterone- and control-treated rats. At 10-11 wk of age, the offspring of the testosterone-treated dams had less fat mass and smaller adipocyte size than those born to control rats and had no difference in insulin sensitivity. Circulating triglyceride levels were higher in the offspring of testosterone-treated dams, and they developed nonalcoholic fatty liver as adults. We demonstrate for the first time that prenatal testosterone exposure alters placental steroidogenesis and leads to dysregulation of lipid metabolism in their adult female offspring.

  19. Measures of excess body weight and anthropometry among adult Albertans: cross-sectional results from Alberta’s tomorrow project cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren R. Brenner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess body weight during adulthood has been consistently associated with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at multiple sites among other chronic diseases. We describe the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity reported by participants enrolled in Alberta’s Tomorrow Project (ATP. Methods ATP is a geographically-based cohort study conducted among adults aged 35–69 years from across the province of Alberta. Participants completed anthropometric measures and health and lifestyle questionnaires at enrolment. Overweight and obese were categorized as a body mass index (BMI of 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Abdominal obesity was categorized using cut-offs of waist circumference of >94 cm for men and >80 cm for women and waist-tp-hip ratio cut-offs of >0.90 for men and >0.85 for women. Results BMI and hip and waist circumference data were obtained from 12,062 men and 18,853 women enrolled between 2001 and 2009. Overall, 76.8% of men and 59.5% of women reported a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. The proportions of overweight and obese were significantly higher in older age groups (p < 0.001. In addition, the proportion of participants reporting being overweight and obese was higher among lower education (p < 0.001 and lower income groups (p < 0.001. Overall, approximately two thirds of men and women in ATP cohort reported abdominal obesity. Overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity were all associated with a history of several cardiometabolic chronic conditions including hypertension, heart attack, angina, high cholesterol, stroke and diabetes. Conclusion A large majority of ATP participants were overweight and carried excess abdominal fat. Strategies to improve energy balance among Albertans are encouraged and may have a notable impact on future chronic disease burden.

  20. Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    pressure relief maneuvers on ischial interface pressure and blood flow in people with spinal cord injury”, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 95 no.7, pp. 1350-1357, July 2014. ...0 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0387 TITLE: Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting Activities to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in Persons with...Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2015 - 29 Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pressure Relief Behaviors and Weight-Shifting

  1. Preventing Weight Gain in First Year College Students: An Online Intervention to Prevent the “Freshman Fifteen”

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, Rachel W.; Trace, Sara E.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The transition to college has been identified as a critical period for increases in overweight status. Overweight college students are at-risk of becoming obese adults, and, thus prevention efforts targeting college age individuals are key to reducing adult obesity rates. The current study evaluated an Internet intervention with first year college students (N = 170) randomly assigned to one of four treatment conditions: 1) no treatment, 2) 6-week online intervention 3) 6-week weight and calor...

  2. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  3. The evaluation of a mass media campaign aimed at weight gain prevention among young Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wammes, Birgitte; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes

    2007-11-01

    The objective was to evaluate a 3-year nationwide mass media campaign aimed at preventing weight gain. The campaign was aimed primarily at raising awareness of the importance of weight-gain prevention and bringing these issues to the attention of the Dutch public. Eleven serial, independent, cross-sectional, population-based telephone surveys were used to assess campaign awareness and impact (N ranged between 483 and 493 for each of the 11 surveys). The surveys were conducted before and after six campaign waves. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to test for trends over time and for differences among the surveys for campaign awareness, message recall, perceived body weight status, overweight-related risk perceptions, attitudes, perceived social support, self-efficacy expectations, and motivations for preventing weight gain. Campaign awareness ranged from 61% after the 1st campaign wave to 88.4% after the final wave. The campaign's television broadcasting activities were an important source of campaign awareness, from both the campaign's television commercials and television-based free publicity. Message recall ranged from 41.9% to 68.1%. Small positive differences were found in attitudes, perceived social support, and intentions for preventing weight gain. Additionally, the results suggest mixed effects on self-efficacy expectations and a negative effect on risk perception. The campaign resulted in high campaign awareness, especially as a result of television commercials and free publicity on television. The results suggest that the campaign was able to create more positive attitudes and motivation but lower risk perceptions and efficacy for preventing weight gain.

  4. Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gletsu-Miller, Nana; McCrory, Megan A

    2014-01-01

    This article is a summary of the symposium “Modifying Eating Behavior: Novel Approaches for Reducing Body Weight, Preventing Weight Regain, and Reducing Chronic Disease Risk” held 29 April 2014 at the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014 in San Diego, CA. In this symposium, novel approaches to modifying eating behavior were highlighted, including 1) alteration of meal timing and macronutrient composition and 2) retraining and provision of feedback about eating behavior. Dr. Ciampolini discussed a method for teaching individuals to recognize a decrease in blood glucose concentration, and therefore the need for energy, by learning the associated physical sensations (signifying hunger). Dr. Madar and Sigal Sofer presented their work on reducing hunger during energy reduction by feeding carbohydrate only in the evening. Dr. Hamilton-Shield reviewed studies on the Mandometer (Mikrodidakt), a device for training individuals to slow eating rate. Finally, Dr. Sazonov presented information on a wearable device, the Automatic Ingestion Monitor, which senses jaw motion and/or hand-to-mouth gestures to detect and characterize food intake. His goal is to use the instrument to prevent overeating by providing feedback to the user to stop ingestion at a predetermined limit. PMID:25398742

  5. Impact of an education intervention using email for the prevention of weight gain among adult workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Sarno, Flávio

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of a worksite intervention to prevent weight gain among adult workers. A controlled community trial was performed by dividing the workers into two groups: intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). The theoretical framework applied was Intervention Mapping Protocol and the intervention was implemented through interactive software for weight self-monitoring. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, the differences in weight, BMI and waist circumference between the IG and CG were assessed before and 6 months after the intervention by regression models. Additionally, the sustainability of the intervention was evaluated at 12 months after the intervention. Settings São Paulo, Brazil. Four companies; 281 workers for the analysis of effectiveness and 427 for the analysis of sustainability. The intervention resulted in significant reductions in weight, BMI and waist circumference in the IG compared with the CG. The impact of the intervention on IG individuals' body weight was -0·73 kg, while the weight of CG individuals increased. IG individuals with adequate initial weights did not show significant variations, while those who were overweight demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight. The intervention resulted in a reduction of 0·26 kg/m2 in BMI and 0·99 cm in waist circumference, and the sustainability analysis after 12 months showed a continued reduction in body weight (-0·72 kg). The behavioural intervention was effective, resulting in weight maintenance among participants with adequate initial weight and in significant reductions among those who were overweight. More research on longer-term weight maintenance is needed.

  6. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During

  7. Using obese-specific charts of height and height velocity for assessment of growth in obese children and adolescents during weight excess reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falorni, A; Galmacci, G; Bini, V; Faraoni, F; Molinari, D; Cabiati, G; Sanasi, M; Celi, F; Di Stefano, G; Berioli, M G; Contessa, G; Bacosi, M L

    1999-03-01

    The influence of weight excess reduction on height and height velocity of obese subjects should be evaluated on the basis of appropriate standards, since the pattern of growth of obese subjects is different from that of normal weight subjects. Height, weight and triceps skinfold thickness were recorded from 17987 school subjects (9256 males and 8731 females), 3-18 y of age, from three provinces of central Italy, and a growth reference curve of height was constructed. Using BMI (as computed using the tables of Rolland-Cachera et al) and triceps skinfold thickness, normal-weight subjects (NWS) and obese subjects (OS) were identified and specific reference curves (mean+/-s.d. every sixth month of age) were developed for both groups. Centiles of height were also calculated for OS. Various (2-4) measurements of height in school subjects were performed and a graph of height velocity (HV) was constructed in NWS and in OS using the JPPS method. The yearly mean +/-s.d. of HV was also calculated, based on square root transformed data (in order to realise a Gaussian distribution), deriving from successive measurements in total subjects, in NWS and in OS. The z-scores of height and of the square root of HV were calculated in 217 obese subjects (125 males and 92 females) before and during a weight excess reduction programme (WERP). Obese subjects in WERP who showed a reduction of z-score of BMI were considered as 'responsive'; those who either maintained or showed an increase of z-score of BMI were considered as 'non-responsive'. Obese subjects in WERP were followed for 1-4 y, giving the following results: 0-1 y, 142 responsives and 75 non-responsives; 0-2 y, 76 responsives and 33 non-responsives; 0-3 y, 35 responsives and 30 non-responsives; 0-4 y, 24 responsives and 18 non-responsives. Compared to NWS, OS showed a significantly greater HV in 4-9y males and in 4-8y females, but in older children the pubertal spurt was reduced and more precocious. As a result, the height of OS

  8. Charts for weight loss to detect hypernatremic dehydration and prevent formula supplementing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Boer, Suzanne; Unal, Sevim; van Wouwe, Jacobus P

    2014-06-01

    Most breast-fed newborns get the milk they need. However, very rarely milk intake is insufficient mostly as a result of poor breastfeeding techniques. Dramatic weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration may occur. Our aim was to construct charts for weight loss. A case-control study was performed. Charts with standard deviation score (SDS) lines for weight loss in the first month were constructed for 2,359 healthy breast-fed term newborns and 271 cases with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration with serum sodium level > 149 mEq/L. Day 0 was defined as the day of birth. Many cases with (or who will develop) hypernatremic dehydration (84%; +1 SDS line) fell below the -1 SDS line at day 3, the -2 SDS line at day 4, and the -2.5 SDS line at day 5 in the chart of the healthy breast-fed newborns. Weight loss of cases with permanent residual symptoms was far below the -2.5 SDS. Already at an early age, weight loss differs between healthy breast-fed newborns and those with hypernatremic dehydration. Charts for weight loss are, therefore, useful tools to detect early, or prevent newborns from developing, breastfeeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration, and also to prevent unnecessary formula supplementing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Replacing non-active video gaming by active video gaming to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, M. de; Seidell, J.; Vet, E. de

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of

  10. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chinapaw, M.J.M.; Boer, de M.; Seidell, J.; Vet, de E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective - The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of

  11. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J M; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of

  12. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Brug, J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Boer, M.R.; Seidell, J.C.; de Vet, E.W.M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy

  13. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  14. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Marie H; Håkansson, Pernilla; Jansen, Frank P; Magnell, Kerstin; Brodin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5) is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD) and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  15. A Randomized, Comparative Pilot Trial of Family-Based Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Reducing Psychosocial Symptoms, Disordered-eating, and Excess Weight Gain in At-Risk Preadolescents with Loss-of-control-eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Matherne, Camden E.; Mehari, Rim D.; Olsen, Cara H.; Marwitz, Shannon E.; Bakalar, Jennifer L.; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Kelly, Nichole R.; Schvey, Natasha A.; Burke, Natasha L.; Cassidy, Omni; Brady, Sheila M.; Dietz, Laura J.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children’s psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. Method A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n=15) or FB-HE (n=14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. Results FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI −7.23, −2.01, Cohen’s d=1.23) and anxiety (95% CI −6.08, −0.70, Cohen’s d=.79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI −3.93, −0.03, Cohen’s d=.38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI −0.72, −0.05, Cohen’s d=.66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI −8.82, 0.44, Cohen’s d=.69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. Discussion Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of

  16. A randomized, comparative pilot trial of family-based interpersonal psychotherapy for reducing psychosocial symptoms, disordered-eating, and excess weight gain in at-risk preadolescents with loss-of-control-eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Matherne, Camden E; Mehari, Rim D; Olsen, Cara H; Marwitz, Shannon E; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Kelly, Nichole R; Schvey, Natasha A; Burke, Natasha L; Cassidy, Omni; Brady, Sheila M; Dietz, Laura J; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2017-09-01

    Preadolescent loss-of-control-eating (LOC-eating) is a risk factor for excess weight gain and binge-eating-disorder. We evaluated feasibility and acceptability of a preventive family-based interpersonal psychotherapy (FB-IPT) program. FB-IPT was compared to family-based health education (FB-HE) to evaluate changes in children's psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, and body mass. A randomized, controlled pilot trial was conducted with 29 children, 8 to 13 years who had overweight/obesity and LOC-eating. Youth-parent dyads were randomized to 12-week FB-IPT (n = 15) or FB-HE (n = 14) and evaluated at post-treatment, six-months, and one-year. Changes in child psychosocial functioning, LOC-eating, BMI, and adiposity by dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry were assessed. Missing follow-up data were multiply imputed. FB-IPT feasibility and acceptability were indicated by good attendance (83%) and perceived benefits to social interactions and eating. Follow-up assessments were completed by 73% FB-IPT and 86% FB-HE at post-treatment, 60% and 64% at six-months, and 47% and 57% at one-year. At post-treatment, children in FB-IPT reported greater decreases in depression (95% CI -7.23, -2.01, Cohen's d = 1.23) and anxiety (95% CI -6.08, -0.70, Cohen's d = .79) and less odds of LOC-eating (95% CI -3.93, -0.03, Cohen's d = .38) than FB-HE. At six-months, children in FB-IPT had greater reductions in disordered-eating attitudes (95% CI -0.72, -0.05, Cohen's d = .66) and at one-year, tended to have greater decreases in depressive symptoms (95% CI -8.82, 0.44, Cohen's d = .69) than FB-HE. There was no difference in BMI gain between the groups. Family-based approaches that address interpersonal and emotional underpinnings of LOC-eating in preadolescents with overweight/obesity show preliminary promise, particularly for reducing internalizing symptoms. Whether observed psychological benefits translate into sustained prevention of disordered-eating or excess

  17. Excessive somnolence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Tavares

    Full Text Available Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  18. Excessive somnolence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, S; Alóe, F; Gentil, V; Scaff, M

    1996-01-01

    Excessive somnolence can be quite a incapacitating manifestation, and is frequently neglected by physicians and patients. This article reviews the determinant factors, the evaluation and quantification of diurnal somnolence, and the description and treatment of the main causes of excessive somnolence.

  19. The Effect of Technology-Mediated Diabetes Prevention Interventions on Weight: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Rachel R; Piatt, Gretchen A; Sen, Ananda; Plegue, Melissa A; De Michele, Mariana L; Hafez, Dina; Czuhajewski, Christina M; Buis, Lorraine R; Kaufman, Neal; Richardson, Caroline R

    2017-03-27

    Lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss, such as those delivered through the Diabetes Prevention Program, reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Technology-mediated interventions may be an option to help overcome barriers to program delivery, and to disseminate diabetes prevention programs on a larger scale. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of such technology-mediated interventions on weight loss. In this meta-analysis, six databases were searched to identify studies reporting weight change that used technology to mediate diet and exercise interventions, and targeted individuals at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Studies published between January 1, 2002 and August 4, 2016 were included. The search identified 1196 citations. Of those, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria and evaluated 18 technology-mediated intervention arms delivered to a total of 2774 participants. Study duration ranged from 12 weeks to 2 years. A random-effects meta-analysis showed a pooled weight loss effect of 3.76 kilograms (95% CI 2.8-4.7; Ptechnology-mediated intervention method was most efficacious. Technology-mediated diabetes prevention programs can result in clinically significant amounts of weight loss, as well as improvements in glycaemia in patients with prediabetes. Due to their potential for large-scale implementation, these interventions will play an important role in the dissemination of diabetes prevention programs. ©Rachel R Bian, Gretchen A Piatt, Ananda Sen, Melissa A Plegue, Mariana L De Michele, Dina Hafez, Christina M Czuhajewski, Lorraine R Buis, Neal Kaufman, Caroline R Richardson. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 27.03.2017.

  20. Obesity Prevention Interventions in US Public Schools: Are Schools Using Programs That Promote Weight Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-12-28

    Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.

  1. Women, weight, poverty and menopause: understanding health practices in a context of chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Mélisa; Dumas, Alex; Binette, Rachelle; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2017-11-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in health persist despite major investments in illness prevention campaigns and universal healthcare systems. In this context, the increased risks of chronic diseases of specific sub-groups of vulnerable populations should be further investigated. The objective of this qualitative study is to examine the interaction between socioeconomic status (SES) and body weight in order to understand underprivileged women's increased vulnerability to chronic diseases after menopause. By drawing specifically on Pierre Bourdieu's sociocultural theory of practice, 20 semi-structured interviews were conducted from May to December of 2013 to investigate the health practices of clinically overweight, postmenopausal women living an underprivileged life in Canada. Findings emphasise that poor life conditions undermine personal investment in preventive health and weight loss, showing the importance for policy makers to bring stronger consideration on upstream determinants of health. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  2. Self-determination theory and weight loss in a Diabetes Prevention Program translation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trief, Paula M; Cibula, Donald; Delahanty, Linda M; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2017-06-01

    We examined self-determination theory (SDT) and weight loss, and hypothesized that the Diabetes Prevention Program's (DPP) intervention would result in an increase in autonomous regulation of motivation (AR) in participants. Further, that those with higher AR, and those who perceived educators as supporting SDT-defined needs, would lose more weight. Support, Health Information, Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) Study data (N = 257) were analyzed. SHINE was a randomized, controlled DPP translation trial (2-years, telephonic, primary care staff). Autonomous motivation in males increased significantly, while females showed no change. Males with high AR, but not females, lost more weight. However, the significance of these relationships varied over time. Participants who perceived educators as more supportive of psychological needs lost more weight (especially males). However, effect of support on weight loss was not mediated by AR change. Autonomous motivation and educator support are relevant to male weight loss. Future research might develop interventions to enhance autonomous motivation and educator support, and understand change pathways.

  3. Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorder Symptoms and Unhealthy Weight Gain among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorder symptoms and unhealthy weight gain in young women. Method: Female college students at high-risk for these outcomes by virtue of body image concerns (N = 398; M age = 18.4 years, SD = 0.6) were randomized to the Healthy Weight group-based 4-hr prevention program,…

  4. Association of the Gly482Ser PPARGC1A gene variant with different cholesterol outcomes in response to two energy-restricted diets in subjects with excessive weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Riezu-Boj, Jose I; Milagro, Fermin I; Goni, Leticia; Cuervo, Marta; Martinez, Jose A

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two PPARGC1A gene polymorphisms on metabolic outcomes in response to two energy-restricted diets. A 4-mo nutritional intervention was conducted that involved two different hypo-energetic diets based on low-fat (LF) and moderately high-protein (MHP) dietary patterns. Unrelated subjects with excessive weight were genotyped for two PPARGC1A polymorphisms: Rs8192678 (Gly482Ser) and rs3755863 (G > A). Genotyping was performed by next-generation sequencing and haplotypes were screened. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were assessed with standardized methods. Different cholesterol outcomes were observed by diet and Gly482Ser genotype. The Gly482 Gly homozygotes after an LF diet had lower reductions in total cholesterol (-9 mg/dL vs. -27 mg/dL; P = 0.017) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (-5 mg/dL vs. -18 mg/dL; P = 0.016) than the subjects who were carriers of 482 Ser allele. However, this finding was not recorded in the MHP group where Gly482 Gly homozygotes underwent similar cholesterol decreases as the 482 Ser allele carriers. Likewise, all genotype carriers had significant reductions in the frequencies of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL) except for Gly482 Gly homozygotes in the LF group. Meanwhile, the rs3755863 polymorphism and PPARGC1A haplotypes showed borderline effects with regard to cholesterol decreases. An energy-restricted MHP diet might be more beneficial than an LF diet to reduce serum cholesterol among subjects who are carriers of the PPARGC1A Gly482Gly genotype. The analysis of this genetic variant might be the basis for a precise, nutrigenetic management of hypercholesterolemia based on genetic makeup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Preventing Weight Gain in Women in Rural Communities: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Lombard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in both developed and developing countries. Even modest weight gain increases the risk for chronic illness, yet evidence-based interventions to prevent weight gain are rare. This trial will determine if a simple low-intensity intervention can prevent weight gain in women compared to general health information.We conducted a 1-yr pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial in 41 Australian towns (clusters randomised using a computer-generated randomisation list for intervention (n = 21 or control (n = 20. Women aged 18 to 50 yr were recruited from the general population to receive a 1-yr self-management lifestyle intervention (HeLP-her consisting of one group session, monthly SMS text messages, one phone coaching session, and a program manual, or to a control group receiving one general women's health education session. From October 2012 to April 2014 we studied 649 women, mean age 39.6 yr (+/- SD 6.7 and BMI of 28.8 kg/m(2 (+/- SD 6.9 with the primary outcome weight change between groups at 1 yr. The mean change in the control was +0.44 kg (95% CI -0.09 to 0.97 and in the intervention group -0.48 kg (95% CI -0.99 to 0.03 with an unadjusted between group difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16 or -0.87 kg (95% CI -1.62 to -0.13 adjusted for baseline values and clustering. Secondary outcomes included improved diet quality and greater self-management behaviours. The intervention appeared to be equally efficacious across all age, BMI, income, and education subgroups. Loss to follow-up included 23.8% in the intervention group and 21.8% in the control group and was within the anticipated range. Limitations include lack of sensitive tools to measure the small changes to energy intake and physical activity. Those who gained weight may have been less inclined to return for 1 yr weight measures.A low intensity lifestyle program can prevent the persistent weight gain observed in women. Key features included

  6. Weight gain prevention among black women in the rural community health center setting: The Shape Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foley Perry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly 60% of black women are obese. Despite their increased risk of obesity and associated chronic diseases, black women have been underrepresented in clinical trials of weight loss interventions, particularly those conducted in the primary care setting. Further, existing obesity treatments are less effective for this population. The promotion of weight maintenance can be achieved at lower treatment intensity than can weight loss and holds promise in reducing obesity-associated chronic disease risk. Weight gain prevention may also be more consistent with the obesity-related sociocultural perspectives of black women than are traditional weight loss approaches. Methods/Design We conducted an 18-month randomized controlled trial (the Shape Program of a weight gain prevention intervention for overweight black female patients in the primary care setting. Participants include 194 premenopausal black women aged 25 to 44 years with a BMI of 25–34.9 kg/m2. Participants were randomized either to usual care or to a 12-month intervention that consisted of: tailored obesogenic behavior change goals, self-monitoring via interactive voice response phone calls, tailored skills training materials, 12 counseling calls with a registered dietitian and a 12-month YMCA membership. Participants are followed over 18 months, with study visits at baseline, 6-, 12- and 18-months. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, fasting lipids, fasting glucose, and self-administered surveys are collected at each visit. Accelerometer data is collected at baseline and 12-months. At baseline, participants were an average of 35.4 years old with a mean body mass index of 30.2 kg/m2. Participants were mostly employed and low-income. Almost half of the sample reported a diagnosis of hypertension or prehypertension and 12% reported a diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes. Almost one-third of participants smoked and over 20% scored above the clinical threshold

  7. A nutritional education program could prevent weight loss and slow cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, S; Gillette-Guyonnet, S; Voisin, T; Reynish, E; Andrieu, S; Lauque, S; Salva, A; Frisoni, G; Nourhashemi, F; Micas, M; Vellas, B

    2001-01-01

    Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). It is a predictive factor of mortality and it decreases patients' and caregivers' quality of life. To determine if a nutritional education program can prevent weight loss in AD patients. 151 AD patients and their caregivers were enrolled to follow the intervention and 74 AD patients and their caregivers constituted a control group. Caregivers in the intervention group followed 9 nutritional sessions of one hour each, over one year. Caregivers in the control group didn't follow any sessions but were offered advice provided in a normal follow-up. Patients weight, nutritional state, cognitive function, autonomy, mood, behaviour disorders at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Caregivers burden, nutritional and AD knowledge at the baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. During the year follow-up, the mean weight increased in the intervention group (0.7+/-3.6 kg) whereas it decreased in the control group (-0.7+/-5.4 kg) (pnutritional status (MNA) was maintained in the intervention group (0.3+/-2.6) whereas it decreased significantly in the control group (-1.0+/-3.4) (pnutritional state, eating behaviour disorders, depression), the weight change between the two groups was not significant (0.6+/-0.4 kg vs. -0.6+/-0. 6 kg respectively in intervention group and control group). However, the percentage of patients with significant weight loss is decreased. The MMSE change became significant between the two groups: -2.3+/-0.3 vs. -3.4+/-0.4 respectively in intervention group and control group (pnutritional educational program intended for caregivers of AD patients could have a positive effect on patients weight and cognitive function.

  8. Weight reduction for primary prevention of stroke in adults with overweight or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, C; André, C; Veras, R

    2006-10-18

    Obesity is seen as a worldwide chronic disease with high prevalence that has been associated with increased morbidity from many conditions including stroke, which is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and a leading cause of severe long-term disability. The causal association between overweight or obesity and stroke is unclear and there is no definite study clarifying the role of obesity treatment in the prevention of a first stroke (primary prevention). Given the prevalence of stroke and the enormous health and economic cost of the disease, it is important to establish the possible impact of weight reduction per se on stroke incidence. To assess the effects of weight reduction in people with overweight or obesity on stroke incidence. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, LILACS, databases of ongoing trials and reference lists were used to identify relevant trials. The last search was conducted in April 2006. Randomised controlled trials comparing any intervention for weight reduction (single or combined) with placebo or no intervention in overweight or obese people. No trials were found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. Obesity seems to be associated with an increased risk of stroke and it has been suggested that weight loss may lead to a reduction of stroke occurrence. However, this hypothesis is not based on strong scientific evidence resulting from randomised controlled clinical trials. This systematic review identified the urgent need for well-designed, adequately-powered, multi centre randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of weight reduction in persons with overweight or obesity on stroke occurrence.

  9. Preventing Excessive Blood Loss During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy by Using Tranexamic Acid: A Double Blinded Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Adnan Siddiq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is most frequently performed procedure for renal stones 2 cm and larger. Perioperative hemorrhage being most common complication, warrants as important predicting factor of adverse outcomes. Prevention with inexpensive and safe drug like tranexamic acid (TA would ultimately turn out to be cornerstone for establishing future guidelines. Aim of this study is to evaluate whether TA is efficacious in preventing blood loss during PCNL. Materials and Methods: Ethical review board approval taken. Sample size calculation yielded 240 patients, comprising 120 in each group. Group A receiving TA and group B receiving placebo. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI, stone size, volume and location, preoperative blood count, creatinine, urine analysis, coagulation profile and necessary radiological investigations done. Randomization through lottery method. Both patient and investigator were blinded. Hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels done at 24 hours postoperatively and fall in values recorded. Results: Both groups were equal in characteristics like age, gender, BMI, stone size, volume and location (p>0.05. Operative variables like calyx punctured, position of puncture and operative time were also found to be similar in both groups. Median change in Hb in placebo group was 1.6 interquartile range (IQR 4, while in TA group was 1.3 (IQR 7.8 (p=0.001. Similarly, median change in Hct level in placebo group was 3.6 (IQR 11.8 and in TA group was 2.4 (IQR 13 (p<0.001. Sixteen patients were transfused after surgery; 12 (75% belonged to placebo group while 4 (25% belonged to TA group (p=0.038. Hospital stay was not significantly different in both groups (p=0.177 with median of 4.0 and IQR of 0 in both groups. Conclusion: TA during PCNL reduces blood loss and minimizes blood transfusion rate.

  10. The 40-Something randomized controlled trial to prevent weight gain in mid-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren T; Hollis, Jenna L; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2013-10-25

    Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. Despite the health risks associated with weight gain, there has been a distinct lack of research into effective interventions to prevent, rather than treat, obesity particularly at high risk life stages such as menopause in women. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a 2-year randomized controlled trial (RCT) (the 40-Something Study) aimed at testing the feasibility and efficacy of a relatively low intensity intervention designed to achieve weight control in non-obese women about to enter the menopause transition. The study is a parallel-group RCT consisting of 12 months of intervention (Phase 1) and 12 months of monitoring (Phase 2). Non-obese pre-menopausal healthy females 44-50 years of age were screened, stratified according to Body Mass Index (BMI) category (18.5-24.9 and 25-29.9 kg/m²) and randomly assigned to one of two groups: motivational interviewing (MI) intervention (n = 28), or a self-directed intervention (SDI) (control) (n = 26). The MI intervention consisted of five consultations with health professionals (four with a Dietitian and one with an Exercise Physiologist) who applied components of MI counselling to consultations with the women over a 12 month period. The SDI was developed as a control and these participants received print materials only. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, three, 12, 18 and 24 months and included weight (primary outcome), waist circumference, body composition, blood pressure, plasma markers of metabolic syndrome risk, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life. Analysis of covariance will be used to investigate outcomes according to intervention type and duration (comparing baseline, 12 and 24 months). The 40-Something study is the first RCT aimed at preventing menopausal weight gain in Australian women. Importantly, this paper describes the methods used to evaluate whether a relatively low intensity, health professional led

  11. Weight control and cancer preventive mechanisms: role of insulin growth factor-1-mediated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linglin; Wang, Weiqun

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obese not only increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes mellitus, but are also now known risk factors for a variety of cancers. Weight control, via dietary calorie restriction and/or exercise, has been demonstrated to be beneficial for cancer prevention in various experimental models, but the underlying mechanisms are still not well defined. Recent studies conducted in a mouse skin carcinogenesis model show that weight loss induced a significant reduction of the circulating levels of insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 and other hormones, including insulin and leptin, resulting in reduced IGF-1-dependent signaling pathways, i.e. Ras-MAPK proliferation and protein kinase B-phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Akt-PI3K) antiapoptosis. Selective targeting IGF-1 to Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways, via negative energy balance, might inactivate cell cycle progression and ultimately suppress tumor development. This review highlights the current studies focused on the major role of reducing IGF-1-activated signaling via weight control as a potential cancer preventive mechanism.

  12. Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial to reduce excessive weight gain in the first two years of life: protocol for the POI follow-up study

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    Rachael W. Taylor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI study was a four-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT in 802 families which assessed whether additional education and support on sleep (Sleep group; food, physical activity and breastfeeding (FAB group; or both (Combination group, reduced excessive weight gain from birth to 2 years of age, compared to usual care (Control group. The study had high uptake at recruitment (58 % and retention at 2 years (86 %. Although the FAB intervention produced no significant effect on BMI or weight status at 2 years, the odds of obesity were halved in those who received the sleep intervention, despite no apparent effect on sleep duration. We speculate that enhanced self-regulatory behaviours may exist in the Sleep group. Self-regulation was not measured in our initial intervention, but extensive measures have been included in this follow-up study. Thus, the overall aim of the POI follow-up is to determine the extent to which augmented parental support and education on infant sleep, feeding, diet, and physical activity in the first 2 years of life reduces BMI at 3.5 and 5 years of age, and to determine the role of self-regulation in any such relationship. Methods/design We will contact all 802 families and seek renewed consent to participate in the follow-up study. The families have received no POI intervention since the RCT finished at 2 years of age. Follow-up data collection will occur when the children are aged 3.5 and 5 years (i.e. up to 3 years post-intervention. Outcomes of interest include child anthropometry, body composition (DXA scan, diet (validated food frequency questionnaire, physical activity (accelerometry, sleep (questionnaire and accelerometry, and self-regulation (questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment. Discussion Our follow-up study has been designed primarily to enable us to determine whether the intriguing benefit of the sleep intervention suggested at 2

  13. Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial to reduce excessive weight gain in the first two years of life: protocol for the POI follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachael W; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Galland, Barbara C; Cameron, Sonya L; Lawrence, Julie A; Gray, Andrew R; Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Healey, Dione; Sayers, Rachel M; Hanna, Maha; Meredith-Jones, Kim; Hatch, Burt; Taylor, Barry J

    2016-08-11

    The Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study was a four-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) in 802 families which assessed whether additional education and support on sleep (Sleep group); food, physical activity and breastfeeding (FAB group); or both (Combination group), reduced excessive weight gain from birth to 2 years of age, compared to usual care (Control group). The study had high uptake at recruitment (58 %) and retention at 2 years (86 %). Although the FAB intervention produced no significant effect on BMI or weight status at 2 years, the odds of obesity were halved in those who received the sleep intervention, despite no apparent effect on sleep duration. We speculate that enhanced self-regulatory behaviours may exist in the Sleep group. Self-regulation was not measured in our initial intervention, but extensive measures have been included in this follow-up study. Thus, the overall aim of the POI follow-up is to determine the extent to which augmented parental support and education on infant sleep, feeding, diet, and physical activity in the first 2 years of life reduces BMI at 3.5 and 5 years of age, and to determine the role of self-regulation in any such relationship. We will contact all 802 families and seek renewed consent to participate in the follow-up study. The families have received no POI intervention since the RCT finished at 2 years of age. Follow-up data collection will occur when the children are aged 3.5 and 5 years (i.e. up to 3 years post-intervention). Outcomes of interest include child anthropometry, body composition (DXA scan), diet (validated food frequency questionnaire), physical activity (accelerometry), sleep (questionnaire and accelerometry), and self-regulation (questionnaires and neuropsychological assessment). Our follow-up study has been designed primarily to enable us to determine whether the intriguing benefit of the sleep intervention suggested at 2 years of age remains as children approach school age

  14. [Role of donor human milk feeding in preventing nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hong-Juan; Xu, Jing; Wei, Qiu-Fen

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the role of donor human milk in the prevention of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants. MeETHODS: A total of 105 hospitalized preterm infants with a very low birth weight were enrolled. They were classified into mother's own milk feeding group, donor human milk feeding group, and preterm formula feeding group, with 35 infants in each group. The three groups were compared in terms of incidence rates of nosocomial infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, and feeding intolerance, time to full enteral feeding, and early growth indices. Compared with the preterm formula feeding group, the donor human milk feeding group and the mother's own milk feeding group had significantly lower incidence rates of nosocomial infection and necrotizing enterocolitis and shorter time to full enteral feeding (Pgroups. Donor human milk can be used in case of a lack of mother's own milk and may help to reduce nosocomial infection.

  15. Prevention of further weight gain in overweight school children, a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Anna; Lenner, Ragnhild Arvidsson

    2009-09-01

    Involving school nurses in weight gain prevention activities in already overweight children may be a means to address childhood obesity prevention. To describe and evaluate a treatment method aimed for implementation in school care centres. Twenty families (20 overweight children aged 7 years) were interviewed at baseline with standardized questionnaires, received simple dietary and lifestyle advice. Weight was measured and advice/support by school nurses was available monthly during the 1-year period. A follow-up was made after 1 year. Changes in wellbeing, life style and body mass index (BMI) z-score were recorded and analysed. Experiences from parents and nurses were also examined. A good (91%) or fair (54%) adherence to dietary advice was found in children who decreased or maintained their z-score respectively. Mean BMI z-score reduced [-0.16 (p = 0.03)] during the intervention period. Generally, parents and school nurses were satisfied with the programme, helping them to set limits and be more self-confident in their role as 'health adviser' respectively. Overweight progression in younger children is possible to modify by increased awareness of the problem, of their food habits and lifestyle practices. Providing school nurses with the knowledge to address the problem and working in collaboration with dieticians and a healthcare team can be an effective means to prevent further weight gain in overweight school-age children. Possibility of stigmatization was expressed thus efforts will need to be made to carry out such a programme to preserve the children's integrity and run activities in a discrete manner in the school environment. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  16. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

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    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  17. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeken, Rebecca J; Mahdi, Sundus; Johnson, Fiona; Meisel, Susanne F

    2018-03-21

    This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584) or >45 years (older adults; n = 107) participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01). Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight. © 2018 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Intentions to Prevent Weight Gain in Older and Younger Adults; The Importance of Perceived Health and Appearance Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Beeken

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study investigates whether health and appearance consequences predict intentions to prevent weight gain and whether these relationships differ in younger versus older adults and in men versus women. Methods: UK adults aged 18-26 years (younger adults; n = 584 or >45 years (older adults; n = 107 participated in an online survey. Logistic regression assessed associations between intentions to avoid gaining weight and age, gender as well as perceived negative consequences of weight gain for health and appearance. Co-variates were ethnicity, education, weight perception and perceived weight gain vulnerability. Interactions between age, gender and perceived health and appearance consequences of weight gain were also tested. Results: Perceived negative appearance consequences of weight gain predicted weight gain prevention intentions (OR = 9.3, p 0.01. Conclusion: Concerns about feeling unattractive predict intentions to prevent weight gain. However, health consequences of weight gain are only important motivators for older adults. Future research should identify ways to shift the focus of young people from appearance concerns towards the health benefits of maintaining a healthy weight.

  19. Screening for Obesity and Intervention for Weight Management in Children and Adolescents: Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Elizabeth A; Evans, Corinne V; Burda, Brittany U; Walsh, Emily S; Eder, Michelle; Lozano, Paula

    2017-06-20

    Obesity is common in children and adolescents in the United States, is associated with negative health effects, and increases the likelihood of obesity in adulthood. To systematically review the benefits and harms of screening and treatment for obesity and overweight in children and adolescents to inform the US Preventive Services Task Force. MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Collaboration Registry of Controlled Trials, and the Education Resources Information Center through January 22, 2016; references of relevant publications; government websites. Surveillance continued through December 5, 2016. English-language trials of benefits or harms of screening or treatment (behavior-based, orlistat, metformin) for overweight or obesity in children aged 2 through 18 years, conducted in or recruited from health care settings. Two investigators independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles, then extracted data from fair- and good-quality trials. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the benefits of lifestyle-based programs and metformin. Weight or excess weight (eg, body mass index [BMI]; BMI z score, measuring the number of standard deviations from the median BMI for age and sex), cardiometabolic outcomes, quality of life, other health outcomes, harms. There was no direct evidence on the benefits or harms of screening children and adolescents for excess weight. Among 42 trials of lifestyle-based interventions to reduce excess weight (N = 6956), those with an estimated 26 hours or more of contact consistently demonstrated mean reductions in excess weight compared with usual care or other control groups after 6 to 12 months, with no evidence of causing harm. Generally, intervention groups showed absolute reductions in BMI z score of 0.20 or more and maintained their baseline weight within a mean of approximately 5 lb, while control groups showed small increases or no change in BMI z score, typically gaining a mean of 5 to 17 lb. Only 3 of 26

  20. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

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    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  1. Is chloroquine chemoprophylaxis still effective to prevent low birth weight? Results of a study in Benin

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    Kiniffo Richard

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas of stable transmission, malaria during pregnancy is associated with severe maternal and foetal outcomes, especially low birth weight (LBW. To prevent these complications, weekly chloroquine (CQ chemoprophylaxis is now being replaced by intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in West Africa. The prevalence of placental malaria and its burden on LBW were assessed in Benin to evaluate the efficacy of weekly CQ chemoprophylaxis, prior to its replacement by intermittent preventive treatment. Methods In two maternity clinics in Ouidah, an observational study was conducted between April 2004 and April 2005. At each delivery, placental blood smears were examined for malaria infection and women were interviewed on their pregnancy history including CQ intake and dosage. CQ was measured in the urine of a sub-sample (n = 166. Multiple logistic and linear regression were used to assess factors associated with LBW and placental malaria. Results Among 1090 singleton live births, prevalence of placental malaria and LBW were 16% and 17% respectively. After adjustment, there was a non-significant association between placental malaria and LBW (adjusted OR = 1.43; P = 0.10. Multiple linear regression showed a positive association between placental malaria and decreased birth weight in primigravidae. More than 98% of the women reported regular chemoprophylaxis and CQ was detectable in 99% of urine samples. Protection from LBW was high in women reporting regular CQ prophylaxis, with a strong duration-effect relationship (test for linear trend: P Conclusion Despite high parasite resistance and limited effect on placental malaria, a CQ chemoprophylaxis taken at adequate doses showed to be still effective in reducing LBW in Benin.

  2. A Technology-Mediated Behavioral Weight Gain Prevention Intervention for College Students: Controlled, Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Delia Smith; Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Sundstrom, Beth; Larsen, Chelsea; Magradey, Karen; Wilcox, Sara; Brandt, Heather M

    2016-06-13

    Both men and women are vulnerable to weight gain during the college years, and this phenomenon is linked to an increased risk of several chronic diseases and mortality. Technology represents an attractive medium for the delivery of weight control interventions focused on college students, given its reach and appeal among this population. However, few technology-mediated weight gain prevention interventions have been evaluated for college students. This study examined a new technology-based, social media-facilitated weight gain prevention intervention for college students. Undergraduates (n =58) in two sections of a public university course were allocated to either a behavioral weight gain prevention intervention (Healthy Weight, HW; N=29) or a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination awareness intervention (control; N=29). All students were enrolled, regardless of initial body weight or expressed interest in weight management. The interventions delivered 8 lessons via electronic newsletters and Facebook postings over 9 weeks, which were designed to foster social support and introduce relevant educational content. The HW intervention targeted behavioral strategies to prevent weight gain and provided participants with a Wi-Fi-enabled scale and an electronic physical activity tracker to facilitate weight regulation. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted to examine within- and between-group differences in measures of self-reported weight control practices and objectively measured weight. Use of each intervention medium and device was objectively tracked, and intervention satisfaction measures were obtained. Students remained weight stable (HW: -0.48+1.9 kg; control: -0.45+1.4 kg), with no significant difference between groups over 9 weeks (P =.94). However, HW students reported a significantly greater increase in the number of appropriate weight control strategies than did controls (2.1+4.5 vs -1.1+3.4, respectively; P =.003) and there was no increase in

  3. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  4. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth

    2017-04-01

    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral immunoglobulin for the prevention of rotavirus infection in low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pammi, Mohan; Haque, Khalid N

    2011-11-09

    Rotavirus is a common neonatal nosocomial viral infection and epidemics with the newer P(6)G9 strains have been reported. Local mucosal immunity in the intestine to rotavirus is important in the resolution of infection and protection against subsequent infections. Oral administration of anti-rotaviral immunoglobulin preparations might be a useful strategy in preventing rotaviral infections, especially in low birth weight babies. To determine the effectiveness and safety of oral immunoglobulin preparations for the prevention of rotavirus infection in hospitalized low birthweight infants (birthweight rotavirus infection compared to placebo OR no intervention; 4) at least one of the following outcomes were reported: all cause mortality during hospital stay, mortality due to rotavirus infection during hospital stay, rotavirus infection , duration of diarrhea, need for rehydration, duration of viral excretion, duration of infection control measures, length of hospital stay in days, recurrent diarrhea or chronic diarrhea. The two review authors independently abstracted data from the included trials. One published study (Barnes 1982) was eligible for inclusion in this review. Barnes 1982 found no significant difference in the rates of rotavirus infection after oral gammaglobulin versus placebo in hospitalized low birthweight babies [RR 1.27 (95% CI 0.65 to 2.37)]. In the subset of infants who became infected with rotavirus after receiving gammaglobulin or placebo for prevention of rotavirus infection, there was no significant difference in the duration of rotavirus excretion between the group who had gammaglobulin (mean 2 days, range 1 to 4 days) and the group who had placebo (mean 3 days, range 1 to 6 days). Barnes 1982 reported no adverse effects after administration of oral immunoglobulin preparations. Current evidence does not support the use of oral immunoglobulin preparations to prevent rotavirus infection in low birthweight infants. Researchers are encouraged to

  6. Work, Weight, and Wellness: the 3W Program: a worksite obesity prevention and intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew E; Vogt, Thomas M; Stevens, Victor J; Albright, Cheryl A; Nigg, Claudio R; Meenan, Richard T; Finucane, Melissa L

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the aims, intervention, and design of the Work, Weight, and Wellness program, a group-randomized worksite obesity prevention and intervention trial being conducted at 31 hotels with 11,559 employees on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. We report baseline prevalence of overweight and obesity, and the distribution of BMI (kilograms per meter squared) across sex, race, and job categories. We also describe factors that have influenced intervention adoption and employee participation. The study's primary outcome is change in BMI among hotel employees over a 2-year intervention period. The intervention includes environmental and group components that target diet, physical activity, and weight management. Men, Pacific Islanders, and individuals employed in managerial or facility maintenance roles had higher prevalence of obesity and higher mean BMI than women and individuals from other races or in other occupational categories. These results may be helpful in guiding choices about the adoption or design of future worksite and community interventions addressing at-risk ethnically diverse populations and are especially relevant to the hotel industry and similar industries.

  7. Right sizing prevention. Food portion size effects on children's eating and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann L; Savage, Jennifer S; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2015-05-01

    Experimental findings provide consistent evidence that increasing the portion size of palatable, energy dense entrees relative to an age appropriate reference portion increases children's energy intake of the entree and the meal. Most of these studies have been conducted on preschool aged children between 2 and 6 years of age, in childcare or laboratory settings, using repeated measures designs. In these studies, children's intake is compared across a series of meals, where the size of the entrée portion is varied and other aspects of the meal, including the portion size of other items on the menu, are held constant. This paper provides an overview of what we know from this research, what is not known about the effects of portion size on children's intake and weight status, and points to some of the important unanswered questions and gaps in the literature. Lastly, we discuss how individual characteristics may make someone more or less susceptible to large portions of foods and how the palatability of foods may moderate observed associations among portion size, children's intake, and weight status. Future studies that address the gaps identified in this paper are needed to inform policy and to develop effective and efficient interventions to prevent childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, T.S.; Bergamo, F.C.; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns. PMID:22666778

  9. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higa, T.S.; Bergamo, F.C.; Mazzucatto, F.; Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H.; Evangelista, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns

  10. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, T.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bergamo, F.C. [Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mazzucatto, F. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca-Alaniz, M.H. [Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Evangelista, F.S. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Escola de Educação Física e Esporte, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Instituto do Coração, Departamento de Medicina-LIM13, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-08

    The relationship of body weight (BW) with white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT). Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18), 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15). Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05). S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01). WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05). Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05) but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL). WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  11. Physical training prevents body weight gain but does not modify adipose tissue gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Higa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of body weight (BW with white adipose tissue (WAT mass and WAT gene expression pattern was investigated in mice submitted to physical training (PT. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were submitted to two 1.5-h daily swimming sessions (T, N = 18, 5 days/week for 4 weeks or maintained sedentary (S, N = 15. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly in the T group (P < 0.05. S mice had a substantial weight gain compared to T mice (4.06 ± 0.43 vs 0.38 ± 0.28 g, P < 0.01. WAT mass, adipocyte size, and the weights of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland were not different. Liver and heart were larger and the spleen was smaller in T compared to S mice (P < 0.05. Food intake was higher in T than S mice (4.7 ± 0.2 vs 4.0 ± 0.3 g/animal, P < 0.05 but oxygen consumption at rest did not differ between groups. T animals showed higher serum leptin concentration compared to S animals (6.37 ± 0.5 vs 3.11 ± 0.12 ng/mL. WAT gene expression pattern obtained by transcription factor adipocyte determination and differentiation-dependent factor 1, fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipocyte lipid binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin did not differ significantly between groups. Collectively, our results showed that PT prevents BW gain and maintains WAT mass due to an increase in food intake and unchanged resting metabolic rate. These responses are closely related to unchanged WAT gene expression patterns.

  12. Peripherally Administered Y2-Receptor Antagonist BIIE0246 Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice With Excess Neuropeptide Y, but Enhances Obesity in Control Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailanen, Liisa; Vähätalo, Laura H; Salomäki-Myftari, Henriikka; Mäkelä, Satu; Orpana, Wendy; Ruohonen, Suvi T; Savontaus, Eriika

    2018-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the level of central and sympathetic nervous systems (SNSs). Genetic silencing of peripheral Y 2 -receptors have anti-obesity effects, but it is not known whether pharmacological blocking of peripheral Y 2 -receptors would similarly benefit energy homeostasis. The effects of a peripherally administered Y 2 -receptor antagonist were studied in healthy and energy-rich conditions with or without excess NPY. Genetically obese mice overexpressing NPY in brain noradrenergic nerves and SNS (OE-NPY DβH ) represented the situation of elevated NPY levels, while wildtype (WT) mice represented the normal NPY levels. Specific Y 2 -receptor antagonist, BIIE0246, was administered (1.3 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for 2 or 4.5 weeks to OE-NPY DβH and WT mice feeding on chow or Western diet. Treatment with Y 2 -receptor antagonist increased body weight gain in both genotypes on chow diet and caused metabolic disturbances (e.g., hyperinsulinemia and hypercholesterolemia), especially in WT mice. During energy surplus (i.e., on Western diet), blocking of Y 2 -receptors induced obesity in WT mice, whereas OE-NPY DβH mice showed reduced fat mass gain, hepatic glycogen and serum cholesterol levels relative to body adiposity. Thus, it can be concluded that with normal NPY levels, peripheral Y 2 -receptor antagonist has no potential for treating obesity, but oppositely may even induce metabolic disorders. However, when energy-rich diet is combined with elevated NPY levels, e.g., stress combined with an unhealthy diet, Y 2 -receptor antagonism has beneficial effects on metabolic status.

  13. Low molecular weight heparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with lower-leg immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testroote, Mark; Stigter, Willem A H; Janssen, Loes; Janzing, Heinrich M J

    2014-04-25

    Immobilization of the lower leg is associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is an anticoagulant treatment which might be used in adult patients with lower-leg immobilization to prevent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and its complications. This is an update of the review first published in 2008. To assess the effectiveness of low molecular weight heparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with lower-leg immobilization in an ambulant setting. For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched June 2013) and CENTRAL (2013, Issue 5). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) that described thromboprophylaxis by means of LMWH compared with no prophylaxis or placebo in adult patients with lower-leg immobilization. Immobilization was by means of a plaster cast or brace. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. The review authors contacted the trial authors for additional information if required. Statistical analysis was carried out using Review Manager (RevMan 5). We included six RCTs fulfilling the above criteria with a total of 1490 patients. We found an incidence of VTE ranging from 4.3% to 40% in patients who had a leg injury that had been immobilized in a plaster cast or a brace for at least one week and who received no prophylaxis, or placebo. This number was significantly lower in patients who received daily subcutaneous injections of LMWH during immobilization (event rates ranging from 0% to 37%; odds ratio (OR) 0.49; fixed 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.72; with minimal evidence of heterogeneity with an I(2) of 20%, P = 0. 29). Comparable results were seen in the following subcategories: operated patients, conservatively treated patients, patients with fractures, patients with soft-tissue injuries, patients with proximal thrombosis, patients with

  14. Excessive eccentric exercise leads to transitory hypothalamic inflammation, which may contribute to the low body weight gain and food intake in overtrained mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, B C; da Rocha, A L; Pauli, J R; Ropelle, E R; de Souza, C T; Cintra, D E; Sant'Ana, M R; da Silva, A S R

    2015-12-17

    Low body weight gain and food intake are related to exhaustive training and overtraining; however, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these alterations remain unknown. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of running overtraining (OT) protocols performed downhill, uphill and without inclination on the inflammatory pathway in the mouse hypothalamus. The rodents were randomized into the control (C), overtrained by downhill running (OTR/down), overtrained by uphill running (OTR/up) and overtrained by running without inclination (OTR) groups. The body weights and food intake were recorded daily. The incremental load, exhaustive, rotarod and grip force tests were used to measure performance. At 36 h after the grip force test was performed at the end of OT protocols (i.e., week eight) and/or after a 2-week total recovery period (i.e., week 10), the hypothalamus and gastrocnemius were extracted for immunoblotting analysis. In addition, the serum was used to determine cytokine and leptin concentrations. From week 0 to week 8, the OTR/down group exhibited decreased body weight and food intake, and the OTR/up group increased their food intake. At week 10, the OTR/down group exhibited increased body weight, while the OTR group decreased their food intake. The OTR/down group exhibited increased IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, pSAPK/JNK and SOCS3 levels at week eight. The OTR/down, OTR/up and OTR groups exhibited increased IL-10 levels at week 10. The OTR/up group displayed increased pJAK2 levels at week eight. While the OTR/down group exhibited increased IL-1beta levels, the OTR/down and OTR/up groups exhibited increased IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels, but decreased IL-10 levels in the gastrocnemius at week eight. The three OT protocols increased the IL-1beta and IL-6 levels, but only the OTR/down and OTR/up groups had increased TNF-alpha levels in serum at week eight. The serum leptin levels were lower for the OTR group compared with the CT group at week eight

  15. Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Eating Behavior in Adolescent Girls At-Risk for Excess Weight Gain and Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasofer, Deborah R.; Haaga, David A.F.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between self-related agency beliefs and observed eating behavior in adolescent girls with loss of control (LOC) eating. Method One-hundred eleven adolescent girls (14.5±1.7y; BMI: 27.1±2.6 kg/m2) were administered the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL). Adolescents then participated in a laboratory test meal. Results Greater general and eating self-efficacy were associated with fewer episodes of LOC eating. General self-efficacy was inversely related to total intake at the meal (p obesity, the domain-specific belief in one’s ability to refrain from eating when food is widely available may be especially salient in determining overeating in the current food environment. Further research is therefore needed to assess the predictive validity of these beliefs on eating and weight outcomes. PMID:23881587

  16. Self-efficacy beliefs and eating behavior in adolescent girls at-risk for excess weight gain and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasofer, Deborah R; Haaga, David A F; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-11-01

    To examine the relationship between self-related agency beliefs and observed eating behavior in adolescent girls with loss of control (LOC) eating. One-hundred eleven adolescent girls (14.5 ± 1.7 years; BMI: 27.1 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) were administered the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL). Adolescents then participated in a laboratory test meal. Greater general and eating self-efficacy were associated with fewer episodes of LOC eating. General self-efficacy was inversely related to total intake at the meal (p disordered eating and obesity, the domain-specific belief in one's ability to refrain from eating when food is widely available may be especially salient in determining overeating in the current food environment. Further research is therefore needed to assess the predictive validity of these beliefs on eating and weight outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Integrating weight bias awareness and mental health promotion into obesity prevention delivery: a public health pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Gail L; Walker, Kathryn S; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L; Simkins, Sari W; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2013-04-04

    Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness about 1) weight bias and its negative effect on health, 2) ways to balance healthy weight messaging to prevent the triggering of weight and shape preoccupation, and 3) the incorporation of mental health promotion into healthy weight messaging. We conducted a full-day workshop with 342 Ontario public health promoters and administered a survey at preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up. Participation in the full-day workshop led to significant decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes and to significant increases in self-efficacy to address weight bias. Participants reported that the training heightened their awareness of their own personal weight biases and the need to broaden their scope of healthy weight promotion to include mental health promotion. There was consensus that additional sessions are warranted to help translate knowledge into action. Buy-in and resource support at the organizational level was also seen as pivotal. Professional development training in the area of weight bias awareness is associated with decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes around thinness. Health promoters' healthy weight messaging was improved by learning to avoid messages that trigger weight and shape preoccupation or unhealthful eating practices among children and youth. Participants also learned ways to integrate mental health promotion and resiliency-building into daily practice.

  18. Evaluation of low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of equine laminitis after colic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rebière de Pouyade, Geoffroy; Grulke, Sigrid; Detilleux, Johann; Salciccia, Alexandra; Verwilghen, Denis R; Caudron, Isabelle; Gangl, Monika; Serteyn, Didier D A

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of postoperative laminitis in colic cases and to determine if low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is effective in preventing this complication. Retrospective clinical study. Client-owned horses. Interventions- SC administration of enoxaparin during the postoperative period. Medical records of 360 horses undergoing surgery for colic and surviving at least 3 days were evaluated. Fifty-six horses admitted before 1995 did not receive LMWH (control group) and 304 admitted after 1995 received LMWH as a prophylaxis for laminitis (treatment group). Three grades of severity were defined for laminitis. Prevalence and severity of laminitis were compared between the 2 groups. Several parameters recorded on admission (sex, age, breed, site and nature of the disease, heart rate, PCV, gravity score, and shock score) and the administration of LMWH were tested as risk factors in the development of laminitis in a logistic regression procedure. Prevalence and grade of laminitis were significantly lower in the treatment group. Only the absence of LMWH was recognized as a significant risk factor in the logistic regression model. The administration of LMWH appears to be effective in the prophylaxis of laminitis following colic surgery and may be useful in the postoperative management of these horses.

  19. Peer-facilitated cognitive dissonance versus healthy weight eating disorders prevention: A randomized comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Wilson, Chantale; Williams, Allison; Kelly, Mackenzie; McDaniel, Leda; Elmquist, Joanna

    2010-09-01

    Research supports the efficacy of both cognitive dissonance (CD) and healthy weight (HW) eating disorders prevention, and indicates that CD can be delivered by peer-facilitators, which facilitates dissemination. This study investigated if peer-facilitators can deliver HW when it is modified for their use and extended follow-up of peer-facilitated CD as compared to previous trials. Based on pilot data, we modified HW (MHW) to facilitate peer delivery, elaborate benefits of the healthy-ideal, and place greater emphasis on consuming nutrient dense foods. Female sorority members (N=106) were randomized to either two 2-h sessions of CD or MHW. Participants completed assessment pre- and post-intervention, and at 8-week, 8-month, and 14-month follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, CD decreased negative affect, thin-ideal internalization, and bulimic pathology to a greater degree post-intervention. Both CD and MHW reduced negative affect, internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and bulimic pathology at 14 months. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching Goal-Setting for Weight-Gain Prevention in a College Population: Insights from the CHOICES Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jolynn; Kjolhaug, Jerri; Linde, Jennifer A.; Sevcik, Sarah; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the effectiveness of goal setting instruction in the CHOICES (Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings) study, an intervention evaluating the effectiveness of weight gain prevention strategies for 2-year college students. Methods: Four hundred and forty-one participants from three community…

  1. Evaluation of a nationwide mass media campaign aimed at prevention of weight gain in Dutch young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Wammes (Birgitte)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing rapidly. In the Netherlands, the prevalence of obesity has roughly doubled over the last decade and now more than 40% of the Dutch adult population is overweight and more than 10% obese. To promote weight-gain preventive actions

  2. Selenium Supplementation for Prevention of Late-Onset Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rahul; Gathwala, Geeta; Yadav, Sudesh; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-06-01

    Neonatal mortality continues to be a significant problem in the Indian setting, especially in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Selenium (Se) has been shown to possess antioxidant properties, and some recent studies have shown a reduction in the sepsis-attributable neonatal mortality with its use. India is a Se-deficient country. Blood Se concentrations in newborns are lower than those of their mothers and lower still in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy of Se in preventing the first episode of late-onset sepsis in VLBW preterm neonates. Ninety neonates weighing birth and admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) in the first 12 h of birth with no maternal risk factors for sepsis were analyzed in the study. Se or placebo was supplemented orally once daily from 1st to 28th day of life to the test (n = 45) or control (n = 45) groups, respectively, followed by daily clinical assessment for signs or symptoms of sepsis in the hospital and weekly after discharge. Preterm VLBW neonates (mean birth weight 1464.22 ± 50.14 g and mean gestational age 221.75 ± 4 days) are Se deficient at birth, with mean (SD) Se levels 31.1 ± 14.8 µg/l. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day increased serum Se levels significantly (63.9 ± 13.9 µg/l on Day 28 in Se vs. 40.9 ± 17.3 on Day 28 in placebo; p supplementation. [7/45 (15.55%) in Se vs. 22/45 (48.88%) in placebo; p = 0.001]. Preterm VLBW neonates are Se deficient at birth. Se supplementation at 10 µg/day resulted in getting the Se levels into the acceptable normal level and reduced the incidence of the first episode of late-onset sepsis in these neonates. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Occupation is related to Weight and Lifestyle Factors among Employees at Worksites Involved in a Weight Gain Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M.; Salkeld, Judith; Risica, Patricia Markham; Lenz, Erin; Burton, Deborah; Mello, Jennifer; Bell, Johanna P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between job type, weight status and lifestyle factors that are potential contributors to obesity including, diet, physical activity and perceived stress among employees enrolled in the Working on Wellness (WOW) project. Methods Randomly selected employees at 24 worksites completed a baseline survey (n=1700); some also an in-person survey and anthropometric measures (n=1568). Employees were classified by US Labor standards as: white collar (n=1297), blue collar (n=303), or service worker (n=92), 8 unknown. Associations were analyzed using Chi-Square, GLM procedures, and adjusted for demographics using Logistic Regression. Results In unadjusted models, BMI of service workers was higher than white collar workers; F&V intake was higher for service and blue collar than white collar; white collar workers reported highest stress levels in job and life. However, in models adjusted for demographics, the only significant difference was to physical activity (i.e., MET/min per week), with blue collar workers reporting higher levels of physical activity than service workers, who reported higher levels than the white collar workers. Conclusions Future research should further examine the relationship between health and job status to corroborate the results of the current study and to consider designing future worksite health promotion interventions that are tailored by job category. PMID:26461872

  4. Low molecular weight heparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with lower-limb immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Aniek Ag; van Lieshout, Kelly; van der Heide, Maaike; Janssen, Loes; Janzing, Heinrich Mj

    2017-08-06

    Immobilization of the lower limb is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are anticoagulants, which might be used in adult patients with lower-limb immobilization to prevent deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and its complications. This is an update of the review first published in 2008. To assess the effectiveness of low molecular weight heparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with lower-limb immobilization in an ambulatory setting. For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Specialised Register, CENTRAL, and three trials registers (April 2017). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) that described thromboprophylaxis by means of LMWH compared with no prophylaxis or placebo in adult patients with lower-limb immobilization. Immobilization was by means of a plaster cast or brace. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The review authors contacted the trial authors for additional information if required. Statistical analysis was carried out using Review Manager 5. We included eight RCTs that fulfilled our criteria, with a total of 3680 participants. The quality of evidence, according GRADE, varied by outcome and ranged from low to moderate. We found an incidence of DVT ranging from 4.3% to 40% in patients who had a leg injury that had been immobilized in a plaster cast or a brace for at least one week, and who received no prophylaxis, or placebo. This number was significantly lower in patients who received daily subcutaneous injections of LMWH during immobilization, with event rates ranging from 0% to 37% (odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.61; with minimal evidence of heterogeneity: I² = 26%, P = 0.23; seven studies; 1676 participants, moderate-quality evidence). Comparable results were seen in the following groups of participants: patients with below

  5. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment Increases Bone Formation and Prevents Bone Loss in Weight-Reduced Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie R; Hartmann, Bolette; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten; Torekov, Signe S

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss-induced bone mass reduction. Randomized control study. Outpatient research hospital clinic. Thirty-seven healthy obese women with body mass index of 34 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) and age 46 ± 2 years. After a low-calorie-diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2 mg/d) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be replaced with a low-calorie-diet product to maintain the weight loss. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone markers [C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] were investigated before and after weight loss and after 52-week weight maintenance. Primary endpoints were changes in BMC and bone markers after 52-week weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance in the control group (P GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low-calorie diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent.

  6. Pharmacologically Counteracting a Phenotypic Difference in Cerebellar GABAA Receptor Response to Alcohol Prevents Excessive Alcohol Consumption in a High Alcohol-Consuming Rodent Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Josh Steven; Nipper, Michelle A; Richardson, Ben D; Jensen, Jeremiah; Helms, Melinda; Finn, Deborah Ann; Rossi, David James

    2016-08-31

    Cerebellar granule cell GABAA receptor responses to alcohol vary as a function of alcohol consumption phenotype, representing a potential neural mechanism for genetic predilection for alcohol abuse (Kaplan et al., 2013; Mohr et al., 2013). However, there are numerous molecular targets of alcohol in the cerebellum, and it is not known how they interact to affect cerebellar processing during consumption of socially relevant amounts of alcohol. Importantly, direct evidence for a causative role of the cerebellum in alcohol consumption phenotype is lacking. Here we determined that concentrations of alcohol that would be achieved in the blood after consumption of 1-2 standard units (9 mm) suppresses transmission through the cerebellar cortex in low, but not high, alcohol consuming rodent genotypes (DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, respectively). This genotype-selective suppression is mediated exclusively by enhancement of granule cell GABAA receptor currents, which only occurs in DBA/2J mice. Simulating the DBA/2J cellular phenotype in C57BL/6J mice by infusing the GABAA receptor agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride, into cerebellar lobules IV-VI, in vivo, significantly reduced their alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentrations achieved. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride infusions also significantly decreased sucrose consumption, but they did not affect consumption of water or general locomotion. Thus, genetic differences in cerebellar response to alcohol contributes to alcohol consumption phenotype, and targeting the cerebellar GABAA receptor system may be a clinically viable therapeutic strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption. Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of preventable death and illness; and although alcohol use disorders are 50%-60% genetically determined, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such genetic influences are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that genetic differences in

  7. Effect of dietary consumption as a modifier on the association between FTO gene variants and excess body weight in children from an admixed population in Brazil: the Social Changes, Asthma and Allergy in Latin America (SCAALA) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilella, Marília; Nunes de Oliveira Costa, Gustavo; Lima Barreto, Maurício; Alexandrina Figueredo, Camila; Maria Alcantara-Neves, Neuza; Cunha Rodrigues, Laura; Maria Alvim de Matos, Sheila; Leovigildo Fiaccone, Rosemeire; Oliveira, Pablo; Rocha, Aline; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown associations of variants of the FTO gene with body weight, but none of these have involved Latin American populations with a high level of miscegenation, as is seen in the north-eastern Brazilian population. This study evaluated the association between SNP in the FTO gene and excess weight in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. In addition, the effect of diet as a modifier on this association was also investigated. This cross-sectional study included 1191 participants aged 4-11 years, who were genotyped for 400 variants of the FTO gene. Direct anthropometric measures were made and dietary data were obtained by 24-h food recall. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations of interest. Overall, 11·2 % of the individuals included in the study were overweight/obese. Interactions were identified between the percentage energy intake from proteins and obesity risk linked to the rs62048379 SNP (P interaction=0·01) and also between fat intake (PUFA:SFA ratio) and obesity risk linked to the rs62048379 SNP (P interaction=0·01). The T allele for the variant rs62048379 was positively associated with overweight/obesity in individuals whose percentage energy intake from protein was above the median (OR 2·00; 95 % CI 1·05, 3·82). The rs62048379 SNP was also associated with overweight/obesity in individuals whose PUFA:SFA ratio was below the median (OR 1·63; 95 % CI 1·05, 2·55). The association between FTO gene variants and excess body weight can be modulated by dietary characteristics, particularly by fatty acid distribution and dietary protein intake in children.

  8. Indicated prevention of adult obesity: reference data for weight normalization in overweight children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Pediatric obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity. Indicated prevention--that is, helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status--has been suggested to prevent adult obesity. This study aimed to support the notion of indicated prevention by demonstrating that rel...

  9. Challenges and results of a school-based intervention to manage excess weight among school children in Tunisia 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatoug, Jihen; Fredj, Sihem Ben; Msakni, Zeineb; Dendana, Emna; Sahli, Jihene; Harrabi, Imed; Chouikha, Firas; Boughamoura, Lamia; Slama, Slim; Farpour-Lambert, Nathalie; Ghannem, Hassen

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a serious health issue and predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Its prevalence in children has increased worldwide. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of a school-based management program based on healthy lifestyle promotion for obese and overweight adolescents in Sousse, Tunisia. We conducted a quasi-experimental study among overweight and obese school children enrolled in 7th and 8th grades in Sousse, Tunisia with two groups, intervention and control. The 1-year intervention was based on promoting healthy eating and physical activity through a collective intervention for all recruited children and an individual intervention only for obese children who require intensive managing. Data collection was done before, at the end and at a 4-month follow up of the intervention, both in intervention and control groups. The body mass index Z score decreased significantly from pre-intervention to post-intervention (1.89±0.57 to 1.76±0.63, pmanagement in schools on one side and with increasing awareness of the importance of obesity prevention and treatment. The support of authorities for this type of action is very important to guarantee its sustainability.

  10. External pneumatic compression device prevents fainting in standing weight-bearing MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Bouert, Rasmus; Bliddal, Henning

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if a peristaltic external pneumatic compression device attached to the legs, while scanning, can reduce a substantial risk of fainting in standing weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).......To investigate if a peristaltic external pneumatic compression device attached to the legs, while scanning, can reduce a substantial risk of fainting in standing weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)....

  11. [Results of PROMESA I study; efficacy and safety of a very low calorie diet application and following alimentary reeducation with the PronoKal® method in the treatment of excess of weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Riquelme, Amparo; Sajoux, Ignacio; Fondevila, Joan

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy in the reduction of weight with a cetogenic very low calorie diet followed by alimentary reeducation according to the PronoKal® method in patients with overweight and obesity, and the safety during the procedure. Retrospective, observational and multicentre study where the patient's descriptive variables, variables related with the ponderal change, abdominal waist circumference, and general biochemistry were statistically analysed at the end of each treatment stages, and the adverse events referred at each visit during the treatment. From the 426 evaluable cases, 62.3% of the patients were obese. The 16.7% had hyperlipemia, the 2.3% type 2 diabetes mellitus, and the 4.8% arterial hypertension. At the end of treatment, the mean weight lost was 17.1 ± 8.0 kg (p diabetic, hypertensive and dyslipemic patients, reaching statistical significance (p diabetics, in glucose (12.7%) and cholesterol (14.5%) reduction in hypertensive, and in glucose (11.7%), total cholesterol (14.5%), LDL cholesterol (11.3%) and triglycerides (37.9%) reduction in dyslipemics. The presence of adverse events was reported in 23.7% of patients, mainly constipation (23.9%). The PronoKal® method is an effective and safe method of excess weight approach, when it is done at completion and under a strict multidisciplinary medical control, improving different cardiovascular risk parameters. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Universal prevention efforts should address eating disorder pathology across the weight spectrum: Implications for screening and intervention on college campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E

    2017-04-01

    Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intervening on spontaneous physical activity to prevent weight regain in older adults: design of a randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Gaukstern, Jill E; Legault, Claudine; Leng, Iris; Rejeski, W Jack

    2012-03-01

    There is a need to identify evidenced-based obesity treatments that are effective in maintaining lost weight. Weight loss results in reductions in energy expenditure, including spontaneous physical activity (SPA) which is defined as energy expenditure resulting primarily from unstructured mobility-related activities that occur during daily life. To date, there is little research, especially randomized, controlled trials, testing strategies that can be adopted and sustained to prevent declines in SPA that occur with weight loss. Self-monitoring is a successful behavioral strategy to facilitate behavior change, so a provocative question is whether monitoring SPA-related energy expenditure would override these reductions in SPA, and slow weight regain. This study is a randomized trial in older, obese men and women designed to test the hypothesis that adding a self-regulatory intervention (SRI), focused around self-monitoring of SPA, to a weight loss intervention will result in less weight and fat mass regain following weight loss than a comparable intervention that lacks this self-regulatory behavioral strategy. Participants (n=72) are randomized to a 5-month weight loss intervention with or without the addition of a behavioral component that includes an innovative approach to promoting increased SPA. Both groups then transition to self-selected diet and exercise behavior for a 5-month follow-up. Throughout the 10-month period, the SRI group is provided with an intervention designed to promote a SPA level that is equal to or greater than each individual's baseline SPA level, allowing us to isolate the effects of the SPA self-regulatory intervention component on weight and fat mass regain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of immunonutrients in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm very low birth weight infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC...... and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The fast progression from nonspecific signs to extensive necrosis also makes primary prevention the first priority. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated the important role of several nutrients in primary prevention of NEC. Therefore, the aim...

  15. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  16. The NHF-NRG In Balance-project: the application of Intervention Mapping in the development, implementation and evaluation of weight gain prevention at the worksite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, L.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Werkman, A.M.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Baak, van M.A.; Brug, J.

    2007-01-01

    Very few examples of theory-driven and systematically developed weight gain prevention interventions for adults have been described in the literature. The present paper systematically describes the development, implementation and evaluation framework of a weight gain prevention programme directed at

  17. Effect of body weight on fixed dose of diclofenac for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leerhøy, Bonna; Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Novovic, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of patient body weight on the clinical effect of 100 mg diclofenac administered as a single dose for the prevention of post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients subjected...... to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) from 2009 to 2014 were evaluated for inclusion. In total, 772 patients were included of whom 378 (49%) received diclofenac prophylaxis. RESULTS: In the diclofenac prophylaxis group, body weight was higher in patients with PEP (mean ± SD: 82 ± 18 kg) than...... of 100 mg diclofenac for the prophylaxis of PEP. CONCLUSIONS: High patient body weight was associated with a reduced effect of 100 mg diclofenac for prophylaxis of PEP....

  18. Weight management in African-Americans using church-based community interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth; Berry, Diane; Nasir, Laura

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to examine the utilization of church-based interventions designed for African-Americans in the community for the management of overweight and obesity and prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PubMed, CINAHL, and Google scholar were searched using the following key search terms: type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, prevention, management, African-Americans, Blacks, weight loss, weight management, church-based interventions, community interventions, faith-based interventions, and prayer. Sixteen primary studies were located and six met inclusion criteria. The studies were separated into two categories: faith-placed interventions or collaborative interventions. The overall results demonstrated significant weight loss ranging from 2.3 (SD = 4.1) pounds to 10.1 (SD = 10.3) pounds post-intervention. Further research is needed to understand interventions that are church-based and culturally sensitive for African-Americans. Weight management is important in order to decrease the morbidity and mortality related to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the African-American population.

  19. Butyrylcholinesterase gene transfer in obese mice prevents postdieting body weight rebound by suppressing ghrelin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vicky Ping; Gao, Yang; Geng, Liyi; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2017-10-10

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate but treatment options remain limited. Despite initial success, weight loss by calorie restriction (CR) often fails because of rebound weight gain. Postdieting hyperphagia along with altered hypothalamic neuro-architecture appears to be one direct cause of this undesirable outcome. In response to calorie deficiency the circulating levels of the appetite-promoting hormone, acyl-ghrelin, rise sharply. We hypothesize that proper modulation of acyl-ghrelin and its receptor's sensitivity will favorably impact energy intake and reprogram the body weight set point. Here we applied viral gene transfer of the acyl-ghrelin hydrolyzing enzyme, butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Our results confirmed that BChE overexpression decreased circulating acyl-ghrelin levels, suppressed CR-provoked ghrelin signaling, and restored central ghrelin sensitivity. In addition to maintaining healthy body weights, BChE treated mice had modest postdieting food intake and showed normal glucose homeostasis. Spontaneous activity and energy expenditure did not differ significantly between treated and untreated mice after body weight rebound, suggesting that BChE gene transfer did not alter energy expenditure in the long term. These findings indicate that combining BChE treatment with CR could be an effective approach in treating human obesity and aiding lifelong weight management.

  20. BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jarrod; Ensor, Charles; Gardner, Scott; Smith, Rebecca; Lodder, Robert

    This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723). D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis. The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone. Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the measured parameters with the combination BSN

  1. A controlled intervention to promote a healthy body image, reduce eating disorder risk and prevent excessive exercise among trainee health education and physical education teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE&PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an 'at-risk' population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year of the study, the control group cohort (n = 49 females, 20 males) received the regular didactic health education curriculum; in the second year of the study, the Intervention 1 cohort (n = 31 females, 21 males) received a self-esteem and media literacy health education program and in the third year of the study, the Intervention 2 cohort (n = 30 females, 19 males) received a combined self-esteem, media literacy and dissonance program using online and computer-based activities. Intervention 2 produced the best results, with males improving significantly in self-esteem, body image and drive for muscularity. Intervention 2 females improved significantly on Eating Disorders Inventory Drive for Thinness, Eating Disorder Examination and excessive exercise. The improvements were consistent at 6-month follow-up for females. It is feasible to promote body image, reduce body dissatisfaction and reduce excessive exercise among trainee HE&PE teachers via a health education curriculum.

  2. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  3. Impact of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance on effectiveness of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in pregnancy at clearing infections and preventing low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desai, Meghna; Gutman, Julie; Taylor, Steve M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Owing to increasing sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in sub-Saharan Africa, monitoring the effectiveness of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp) with SP is crucial. METHODS: Between 2009 and 2013, both the efficacy of IPTp-SP at clearing existing peripheral...... malaria infections and the effectiveness of IPTp-SP at reducing low birth weight (LBW) were assessed among human immunodeficiency virus-uninfected participants in 8 sites in 6 countries. Sites were classified as high, medium, or low resistance after measuring parasite mutations conferring SP resistance......, in these high-resistance areas, IPTp-SP use remains associated with increases in birth weight and maternal hemoglobin. The effectiveness of IPTp in eastern and southern Africa is threatened by further increases in SP resistance and reinforces the need to evaluate alternative drugs and strategies for the control...

  4. Exceso de peso, aspectos económicos, políticos y sociales en el mundo: un análisis ecológico Excess weight and economic, political, and social factors: an international ecological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Inés González-Zapata

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las prevalencias de exceso de peso, según índice de masa corporal (IMC, en adultos y su asociación con algunas variables demográficas, socioeconómicas e índice de democracia. Se realizó un diseño ecológico que consideró un total de 105 países, con datos de IMC de 2000 a 2006. Las demás variables se obtuvieron en correspondencia con el año del dato de estado nutricional, o su referente más cercano. Se utilizaron los puntos de corte de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para IMC. Se calcularon correlaciones de Spearman y modelos de regresión múltiple. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se correlacionaron en ambos sexos con la disponibilidad energética y con el Índice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH y sus variables constitutivas. En cuanto a las variables relacionadas con democracia, la correlación fue inversa y más fuerte con el nivel ponderal de los hombres. En conclusión, indicadores de condiciones de vida más favorables en los países se asociaron de forma directa con mayores prevalencias de exceso de peso poblacional, con comportamientos diferentes en función del género.This study analyzed prevalence rates for excess weight in adults based on body mass index (BMI and the association with various demographic, socioeconomic, and political variables (democracy index. An ecological design was used, including a total of 105 countries, with BMI data from 2000 to 2006. Other variables were obtained by proximity to the year of nutritional status. The study used the World Health Organization (WHO classification for BMI. Spearman correlation coefficients and multiple logistic regression models were used. In both genders, overweight and obesity were correlated with calorie availability and the human development index (HDI and its component variables. As for the variables related to democracy, there was an inverse correlation with weight, stronger in men than women. In conclusion, better living conditions in countries were

  5. Parental weight perceptions: a cause for concern in the prevention and management of childhood obesity in the United Arab Emirates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Aljunaibi

    Full Text Available Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1-12; 50% boys and their parents, but only 1440 (6-19 years and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. CDC BMI percentile charts for age and sex were used to classify children's weight. Parental perception of their children's weight status (underweight, normal, and overweight/obese was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of parental perceptions of children's weight status. Of all parents, 33.8% misclassified their children's' weight status; underestimating (27.4% or overestimating (6.3%. Misclassification was highest among parents of overweight/obese children (63.5% and underweight (55.1% children. More importantly, parental perceptions of their children being overweight or obese, among truly overweight/obese children, i.e. correct identification of an overweight/obese child as such, were associated with the true child's BMI percentile (CDC with an OR of 1.313 (95% CI: 1.209-1.425; p<0.001 per percentile point, but not age, parental education, household income, and child's sex. We conclude that the majority of parents of overweight/obese children either overestimated or, more commonly, underestimated children's weight status. Predictors of accurate parental perception, in this population, include the true children's BMI, but not age, household income, and sex. Thus, parents having an incorrect perception of their child's weight status may ignore otherwise appropriate health messages.

  6. Initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse in elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishikawa Y

    2012-04-01

    group.Conclusion: These results suggest that initial non-weight-bearing therapy is important for preventing vertebral body collapse and for relieving pain among elderly patients with clinical vertebral fractures.Keywords: clinical vertebral fracture, non-weight-bearing, brace, osteoporosis

  7. Intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy and incidence of low birth weight in malaria-endemic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cates, Jordan E.; Westreich, Daniel; Unger, Holger W.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate the impact of hypothetical antimalarial and nutritional interventions (which reduce the prevalence of low midupper arm circumference [MUAC]) on the incidence of low birth weight (LBW). Methods. We analyzed data from 14 633 pregnancies from 13 studies conducted across Africa...

  8. Improving the Weight of the Nation by engaging the medical setting in obesity prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Jennifer L; Belay, Brook; Blackburn, George L

    2013-01-01

    This manuscript highlights examples of strategies that have made strides in improving the quality of health care environments, systems-level improvements to support self-management, and collaborations between primary care and public health to support effective approaches to prevent obesity among children and adults in the U.S. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT HEPARIN TREATMENT FAILURE IN PREVENTION OF PROSTHETIC MITRAL VALVE THROMBOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    David Šuran; Vojko Kanič; Tatjana Golob Gulič; Husam Franjo Naji; Robert Lipovec

    2009-01-01

    Background Prosthetic heart valve thrombosis (PHVT) represents a dangerous postoperative complication following prosthetic heart valve replacement. Incidence varies according to different data from 0.5–4 % per year following mitral or aortic valve replacement in spite of adequate oral anticoagulation with coumarins. Case report We are presenting a case of prosthetic mitral valve thrombosis as a result of 6-month lowmolecular-weight heparin (LMWH) (nadroparine) treatment failure. Our pat...

  10. Oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants: theoretical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy A; Caplan, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk-placing drops of milk onto the infant's oral mucosa-may serve as a preventative strategy against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) for extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW: birth weight pneumonia, an earlier attainment of full enteral feeds, enhanced maturation of oral feeding skills, improved growth, and enhanced breast-feeding outcomes. While more research is needed to definitively establish safety and efficacy of this intervention, this article will examine biological plausibility and will describe the theoretical mechanisms of protection against NEC for ELBW infants who receive this intervention. Nurses play a key role in advancing the science and practice of this intervention. Future directions for research and implications for nursing practice will also be presented.

  11. [Quality management in weight restitution in Anorexia nervosa--pathophysiology, evidence-based practice and prevention of the refeeding syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Michael; Imgart, Hartmut; Skala, Katrin; Karwautz, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    During refeeding syndrome-a well-known and dreaded complication of weight-restauration in anorexia nervosa-a shift of electrolytes and fluid can occur in malnourished patients and might therefore lead to-potentially fatal-cardiovascular, respiratory and neurological symptoms. Causes of this are metabolic and hormonal changes during re-establishment of a carbohydrate-rich diet. This syndrome is most commonly associated with hypophosphatemia, which can however be accompanied by other chemical laboratory abnormalities. Standardized guidelines for the prevention and management of the refeeding syndrome have not yet been established. In case and cohort studies different low- and high-calorie diet protocols led to comparable results with similar complication rates. A focus should be placed on prevention of serious complications by careful monitoring. The pathophysiology, the main constituents in the development of the refeeding syndrome, recommendations for risk assessment and treatment, and current evidence are discussed.

  12. The Potential Role of Yogurt in Weight Management and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Yogurt is a semisolid fermented milk product that originated centuries ago and is viewed as an essential food and important source of nutrients in the diet of humans. Over the last 30 years, overweight and obesity have become characteristic of Western and developing countries, which has led to deleterious health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and other chronic conditions. Recent epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that yogurt is involved in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis and may play a role in reducing the risk for type 2 diabetes partly via the replacement of less healthy foods in the diet, its food matrix, the effect of specific nutrients such as calcium and protein on appetite control and glycemia, and alteration in gut microbiota. This review will discuss the specific properties that make yogurt a unique food among the dairy products, epidemiological and clinical evidence supporting yogurt's role in body weight, energy balance, and type 2 diabetes, including its potential mechanisms of action and gaps that need to be explored. Key teaching points • Several epidemiological and clinical studies have suggested a beneficial effect of yogurt consumption in the control of body weight and energy homeostasis, although this remains controversial. • Yogurt possesses unique properties, including its nutritional composition; lactic acid bacteria, which may affect gut microbiota; and food matrix, which may have a potential role in appetite and glycemic control. • Potential mechanisms of action of yogurt include an increase in body fat loss, decrease in food intake and increase in satiety, decrease in glycemic and insulin response, altered gut hormone response, replacement of less healthy foods, and altered gut microbiota. • The relative energy and nutrient content and contribution of a standard portion of yogurt to the overall diet suggest that the percentage daily intake of these nutrients

  13. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J.; Brindle, Mary; Daneman, Alan

    2005-01-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  14. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  15. Symptom profiles of subsyndromal depression in disease clusters of diabetes, excess weight, and progressive cerebrovascular conditions: a promising new type of finding from a reliable innovation to estimate exhaustively specified multiple indicators–multiple causes (MIMIC models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur School of Social Work, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA Abstract: Addressing subsyndromal depression in cerebrovascular conditions, diabetes, and obesity reduces morbidity and risk of major depression. However, depression may be masked because self-reported symptoms may not reveal dysphoric (sad mood. In this study, the first wave (2,812 elders from the New Haven Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (EPESE was used. These population-weighted data combined a stratified, systematic, clustered random sample from independent residences and a census of senior housing. Physical conditions included progressive cerebrovascular disease (CVD; hypertension, silent CVD, stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment [VCI] and co-occurring excess weight and/or diabetes. These conditions and interactions (clusters simultaneously predicted 20 depression items and a latent trait of depression in participants with subsyndromal (including subthreshold depression (11≤ Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D] score ≤27. The option for maximum likelihood estimation with standard errors that are robust to non-normality and non-independence in complex random samples (MLR in Mplus and an innovation created by the author were used for estimating unbiased effects from latent trait models with exhaustive specification. Symptom profiles reveal masked depression in 1 older males, related to the metabolic syndrome (hypertension–overweight–diabetes; silent CVD–overweight; and silent CVD–diabetes and 2 older females or the full sample, related to several diabetes and/or overweight clusters that involve stroke or VCI. Several other disease clusters are equivocal regarding masked depression; a couple do emphasize dysphoric mood. Replicating findings could identify subgroups for cost-effective screening of subsyndromal depression. Keywords: depression, diabetes, overweight, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, metabolic

  16. The preventive effect of Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract administered simultaneously to excess iron on markers of iron overload in Spraque-Dawley rats

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    Purnama Fajri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, there is no agent available for the prevention of iron overload (IO in thalassemia patients. Previous studies showed that Mangifera foetida L. leaf extracts reduced the levels of iron in IO in vitro and in vivo models. The present study aimed to determine the efficacy of Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract in the prevention of IO induced in rats.Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: control (untreated, IO, 3 treatment groups with leaf extract equivalent to 50, 100, and 200 mg of mangiferin per kg BW. Fe-dextran (15 mg was administered intraperitoneally twice a week for 4 weeks to all groups except control (IO, DSM50, DSM100, and DSM200. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after treatments. After 4 weeks of treatment, rats were terminated, and samples of spleen, liver, and heart were taken. Ferritin and mangiferin levels and SOD activities were determined in plasma. Iron levels were measured in plasma, urine, and spleen.Results: Experimental IO increased plasma Fe content 4.23 times and plasma ferritin levels 6.9 times vs normal. Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract DSM50 resulted in the highest blood levels of 212 ng mangiferin per mL and moderately, although not significant, prevented increased plasma ferritin levels and IO in organs and protected against oxidative stress.Conclusion: Aqueous Mangifera foetida L. leaf extract may be useful to prevent IO and oxidative stress in thalassemia patients.

  17. Excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes sobreviventes de leucemia linfoide aguda: estudo de coorte Excessive weight in children and adolescents surviving acute lymphoid leukemia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme B. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA é a neoplasia maligna mais comum na infância. A taxa de cura é hoje em torno de 80% e entre os sobreviventes tem sido descrito um aumento de risco de obesidade. Entretanto, não há estudos sobre esse risco em países em desenvolvimento, especialmente naqueles que atravessam um momento de transição nutricional, como o Brasil. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a frequência de excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes sobreviventes de leucemia linfoide aguda. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 101 crianças e 19 adolescentes sobreviventes de leucemia linfoide aguda. Todos esses pacientes foram tratados no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP, entre os anos de 1998 e 2002. O seguimento foi de quatro anos e meio, sendo o índice de massa corpórea (IMC calculado no momento do diagnóstico, ao final de tratamento e dois anos após o término da terapia. A idade média do diagnóstico foi de 4,6 (2,1 anos nas crianças e de 12,2 (1,9 anos nos adolescentes. O tempo de tratamento foi de 2,6 (1,0 anos. O IMC aumentou de 16,1 (2,3 para 19,1 (3,5 após o tratamento; pAcute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common malignancy of childhood. The cure rate is now about 80% but an increased risk for obesity has been described among survivors. Even so there are no studies reporting this risk in developing countries especially in countries in which the problem of dietary deficiency is rapidly shifting to one of dietary excess. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of excessive weight in child and teenage survivors of ALL. A retrospective cohort study was carried out of 101 children and 19 adolescents diagnosed and treated for ALL between 1998 and 2002 in the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP. The body mass index (BMI was calculated at the time of diagnosis, at the end of therapy and two years later. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.6 (

  18. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the top reasons for doctor visits. Back pain has many causes, including bad posture, excessive weight, poor workstation setup, lack of exercise and limited flexibility. Fortunately, many of them are preventable and ... can help prevent back pain. Depending on the cause, the pain can occur ...

  19. School-age outcomes of very low birth weight infants in the indomethacin intraventricular hemorrhage prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter C; Westerveld, Michael; Schneider, Karen C; Katz, Karol H; Makuch, Robert W; Ment, Laura R

    2003-04-01

    The cohort consisted of 328 very low birth weight infants (600-1250 g birth weight) who were enrolled in the low-dose prophylactic indomethacin prevention trial and were intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) negative at 6 postnatal hours. The objective was to determine the effects of both IVH and indomethacin on cognitive, language, and achievement performance at 8 years of age. The cohort was divided into 4 subgroups for analysis: indomethacin plus IVH, indomethacin no IVH, saline plus IVH, and saline with no IVH. The children were evaluated prospectively at 8 years of age with a neurologic assessment, history of school performance, and a battery of cognitive, academic, behavioral, and functional assessments. Children in both IVH groups had more cerebral palsy; more hearing impairment; lower daily living skills scores; lower IQ, vocabulary, and reading and mathematics achievement test scores; and greater educational resource needs. With logistic regression analyses grade 3 to 4 IVH, periventricular leukomalacia and/or ventriculomegaly, male gender, maternal education, and language spoken in the home contributed to outcomes. No effects of indomethacin or gestational age were identified. Although biological factors including IVH, ventriculomegaly, and periventricular leukomalacia contribute significantly to school age outcomes among very low birth weight survivors at 8 years of age, social and environmental factors including maternal level of education and primary language spoken in the home are also important contributors to outcome.

  20. Association of ADIPOQ gene variants with body weight, type 2 diabetes and serum adiponectin concentrations: the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venojärvi Mika

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, secreted mainly by mature adipocytes, is a protein with insulin-sensitising and anti-atherogenic effects. Human adiponectin is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene on the chromosomal locus 3q27. Variations in ADIPOQ are associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM and related phenotypes in several populations. Our aim was to study the association of the ADIPOQ variations with body weight, serum adiponectin concentrations and conversion to T2DM in overweight subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. Moreover, we investigated whether ADIPOQ gene variants modify the effect of lifestyle changes on these traits. Methods Participants in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study were randomly assigned to a lifestyle intervention group or a control group. Those whose DNA was available (n = 507 were genotyped for ten ADIPOQ single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Associations between SNPs and baseline body weight and serum adiponectin concentrations were analysed using the univariate analysis of variance. The 4-year longitudinal weight data were analysed using linear mixed models analysis and the change in serum adiponectin from baseline to year four was analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test. In addition, the association of SNPs with the risk of developing T2DM during the follow-up of 0-11 (mean 6.34 years was analysed by Cox regression analysis. Results rs266729, rs16861205, rs1501299, rs3821799 and rs6773957 associated significantly (p Conclusions These results from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study support the concept that genetic variation in ADIPOQ locus contributes to variation in body size and serum adiponectin concentrations and may also modify the risk of developing T2DM. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00518167

  1. Rad51 recombinase prevents Mre11 nuclease-dependent degradation and excessive PrimPol-mediated elongation of nascent DNA after UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, María Belén; Mansilla, Sabrina F.; Federico, María Belén; Bertolin, Agustina P.; Gottifredi, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    After UV irradiation, DNA polymerases specialized in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) aid DNA replication. However, it is unclear whether other mechanisms also facilitate the elongation of UV-damaged DNA. We wondered if Rad51 recombinase (Rad51), a factor that escorts replication forks, aids replication across UV lesions. We found that depletion of Rad51 impairs S-phase progression and increases cell death after UV irradiation. Interestingly, Rad51 and the TLS polymerase polη modulate the elongation of nascent DNA in different ways, suggesting that DNA elongation after UV irradiation does not exclusively rely on TLS events. In particular, Rad51 protects the DNA synthesized immediately before UV irradiation from degradation and avoids excessive elongation of nascent DNA after UV irradiation. In Rad51-depleted samples, the degradation of DNA was limited to the first minutes after UV irradiation and required the exonuclease activity of the double strand break repair nuclease (Mre11). The persistent dysregulation of nascent DNA elongation after Rad51 knockdown required Mre11, but not its exonuclease activity, and PrimPol, a DNA polymerase with primase activity. By showing a crucial contribution of Rad51 to the synthesis of nascent DNA, our results reveal an unanticipated complexity in the regulation of DNA elongation across UV-damaged templates. PMID:26627254

  2. Preventing Weight Gain One-Year Results of a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention : one-year results of a randomized lifestyle intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Broer, Jan; Smit, Andries J.; van der Meer, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle interventions targeting prevention of weight gain may have better long-term success than when aimed at weight loss. Limited evidence exists about such an approach in the primary care setting. Design: An RCT was conducted. Setting/Participants were 457 overweight or obese

  3. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Laura M.; Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle interv...

  4. HealthWorks: results of a multi-component group-randomized worksite environmental intervention trial for weight gain prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde Jennifer A

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. adults are at unprecedented risk of becoming overweight or obese, and most scientists believe the primary cause is an obesogenic environment. Worksites provide an opportunity to shape the environments of adults to reduce obesity risk. The goal of this group-randomized trial was to implement a four-component environmental intervention at the worksite level to positively influence weight gain among employees over a two-year period. Environmental components focused on food availability and price, physical activity promotion, scale access, and media enhancements. Methods Six worksites in a U.S. metropolitan area were recruited and randomized in pairs at the worksite level to either a two-year intervention or a no-contact control. Evaluations at baseline and two years included: 1 measured height and weight; 2 online surveys of individual dietary intake and physical activity behaviors; and 3 detailed worksite environment assessment. Results Mean participant age was 42.9 years (range 18-75, 62.6% were women, 68.5% were married or cohabiting, 88.6% were white, 2.1% Hispanic. Mean baseline BMI was 28.5 kg/m2 (range 16.9-61.2 kg/m2. A majority of intervention components were successfully implemented. However, there were no differences between sites in the key outcome of weight change over the two-year study period (p = .36. Conclusions Body mass was not significantly affected by environmental changes implemented for the trial. Results raise questions about whether environmental change at worksites is sufficient for population weight gain prevention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00708461

  5. Tea decoctions prevent body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet; black tea being more efficient than green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hédi Hamdaoui

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Chronic GTD and BTD prevent fat storage in the liver, lowering blood lipids and glucose, increasing fecal excretion of TG, decreasing AT and weight gains in rats fed HFD, with a strong effect of BTD compared to GTD. Therefore, these beverages containing high amounts of TPC and caffeine could constitute a natural alternative in the prevention of obesity.

  6. Aspirin and low-molecular weight heparin combination therapy effectively prevents recurrent miscarriage in hyperhomocysteinemic women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratip Chakraborty

    Full Text Available The management of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL still remains a great challenge, and women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS are at a greater risk for spontaneous abortion. Treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH has become an accepted treatment option for women with RPL; however, the subgroup of women, who are likely to respond to LMWH, has not been precisely identified. The present study evaluated the efficacy of LMWH with reference to PCOS and associated metabolic phenotypes including hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, insulin resistance (IR and obesity. This prospective observational study was conducted at Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Kolkata, India. A total of 967 women with history of 2 or more consecutive first trimester abortions were screened and 336 were selected for the study. The selected patients were initially divided on the basis of presence or absence of PCOS, while subsequent stratification was based on HHcy, IR and/or obesity. The subjects had treatment with aspirin during one conception cycle and aspirin-LMWH combined anticoagulant therapy for the immediate next conception cycle, if the first treated cycle was unsuccessful. Pregnancy salvage was the sole outcome measure. The overall rate of pregnancy salvage following aspirin therapy was 43.15%, which was mostly represented by normohomocysteinemic women, while the salvage rate was lower in the HHcy populations irrespective of the presence or absence of PCOS, IR, or obesity. By contrast, aspirin-LMWH combined therapy could rescue 66.84% pregnancies in the aspirin-failed cases. Logistic regression analyses showed that HHcy remained a significant factor in predicting salvage rates in the PCOS, IR, and obese subpopulations controlled for other confounding factors. With regard to pregnancy salvage, combined anticoagulant therapy with aspirin and LMWH conferred added benefit to those with HHcy phenotype.

  7. Bortezomib prevents acute doxorubicin ovarian insult and follicle demise, improving the fertility window and pup birth weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elon C Roti Roti

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of female patients survive cancer, but succumb to primary ovarian insufficiency after chemotherapy. We tested the hypothesis that Bortezomib (Bort protects ovaries from doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy by treating female mice with Bort 1 hour prior to DXR. By preventing DXR accumulation in the ovary, Bort attenuated DXR-induced DNA damage in all ovarian cell types, subsequent γH2AFX phosphorylation, and resulting apoptosis in preantral follicles. Bort pretreatment extended the number of litters per mouse, improved litter size and increased pup weight following DXR treatment, thus increasing the duration of post-chemotherapy fertility and improving pup health. As a promising prophylactic ovoprotective agent, Bort does not interfere with cancer treatment, and is currently used as a chemotherapy adjuvant. Bort-based chemoprotection may preserve ovarian function in a non-invasive manner that avoids surgical ovarian preservation, thus diminishing the health complications of premature menopause following cancer treatment.

  8. Salicornia herbacea prevents weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation in obese ICR mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichiah, P B Tirupathi; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Foods that are rich in fat and or sodium chloride promote obesity and associated diseases, whereas intake of dietary fiber averts obesity development. Salicornia herbacea (SH) is a rich source of dietary fiber and high in sodium chloride; therefore, we investigated whether replacing common salt with SH in a high-fat diet could prevent obesity development. Mice were divided into five groups: group ND was fed a normal diet, group HD was fed a high-fat diet, group HD-NaCl was fed a high fat diet with sodium chloride 10 g kg(-1) , group HD-CL was fed a high-fat diet with cellulose 30 g kg(-1) and group HD-SH was fed a high-fat diet with SH powder 50 g kg(-1) . The amount of sodium chloride and cellulose added in the respective diet was equivalent to their amount in SH. Data from our study showed that, SH supplementation significantly decreased body weight gain, liver weight, hepatic triglyceride, serum leptin and insulin, along with the mRNA level of key lipid anabolic genes such as SREBP-1c, PPARγ and FAS compared to the HD group. The results of this study demonstrated that SH is a potential natural anti-obesity agent that can be used in place of sodium chloride. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin A; Deasy, William; Stathis, Christos G; Hayes, Alan; Cooke, Matthew B

    2018-03-12

    Intermittent fasting (IF) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males ( n = 39) and females ( n = 49)) were fed a high fat (HF) and sugar (S) water diet (30% ( w / v )) for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1) 'obese' baseline control (OBC); (2) no intervention (CON); (3) intermittent fasting (IF); (4) high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT) and (5) combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT). Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL) levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice ( p < 0.05). The results suggest that IF, with or without HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet.

  10. Intermittent Fasting with or without Exercise Prevents Weight Gain and Improves Lipids in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin A. Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting (IF and high intensity interval training (HIIT are effective lifestyle interventions for improving body composition and overall health. However, the long-term effects of IF and potential synergistic effects of combining IF with exercise are unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate the long-term effects of IF, with or without HIIT, on body composition and markers of metabolic health in diet-induced obese mice. In a randosmised, controlled design, 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice (males (n = 39 and females (n = 49 were fed a high fat (HF and sugar (S water diet (30% (w/v for 24-weeks but were separated into five groups at 12-weeks: (1 ‘obese’ baseline control (OBC; (2 no intervention (CON; (3 intermittent fasting (IF; (4 high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIT and (5 combination of dietary and exercise intervention (IF + HIIT. Body composition, strength and blood variables were measured at 0, 10 and/or 12-weeks. Intermittent fasting with or without HIIT resulted in significantly less weight gain, fat mass accumulation and reduced serum low density lipoproteins (LDL levels compared to HIIT and CON male mice (p < 0.05. The results suggest that IF, with or without HIIT, can be an effective strategy for weight gain prevention despite concurrently consuming a high fat and sugar diet.

  11. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Selvi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most common sleep-related patient symptoms, with preva-lence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Patients with excessive daytime sleepiness may exhibit life threatening road and work accidents, social maladjustment, decreased academic and occupational performance and have poorer health than comparable adults. Thus, excessive daytime sleepiness is a serious condition that requires investigation, diagnosis and treatment primarily. As with most medical condition, evaluation of excessive daytime sleepiness begins a precise history and various objective and subjective tools have been also developed to assess excessive daytime sleepiness. The most common causes of excessive daytime sleepiness are insufficient sleep hygiene, chronic sleep deprivation, medical and psychiatric conditions and sleep disorders, such as obstructive sleep apnea, medications, and narcolepsy. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity by ensuring good sleep hygiene. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 114-132

  12. Time to add a new priority target for child injury prevention? The case for an excess burden associated with sport and exercise injury: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela

    2014-07-02

    To determine the population-level burden of sports injuries compared with that for road traffic injury for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases in children aged sports-related cases and ICD-10-AM cause and location codes to identify road traffic injuries; and injury presentations to 38 Victorian public hospital emergency departments, using a combination of activity, cause and location codes. Trends in injury frequency and rate were analysed by log-linear Poisson regression and the population-level injury burden was assessed in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), hospital bed-days and direct hospital costs. Over the 7-year period, the annual frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury increased significantly by 29% (from N=7405 to N=9923; pSports injury accounted for a larger population health burden than did road traffic injury on all measures: 3-fold the number of YLDs (7324.8 vs 2453.9); 1.9-fold the number of bed-days (26 233 vs 13 886) and 2.6-fold the direct hospital costs ($A5.9 millions vs $A2.2 millions). The significant 7-year increase in the frequency of hospital-treated sports injury and the substantially higher injury population-health burden (direct hospital costs, bed-day usage and YLD impacts) for sports injury compared with road traffic injury for children aged sports injury prevention in this age group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Adherence to self-monitoring via interactive voice response technology in an eHealth intervention targeting weight gain prevention among Black women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Levine, Erica L; Lane, Ilana; Askew, Sandy; Foley, Perry B; Puleo, Elaine; Bennett, Gary G

    2014-04-29

    eHealth interventions are effective for weight control and have the potential for broad reach. Little is known about the use of interactive voice response (IVR) technology for self-monitoring in weight control interventions, particularly among populations disproportionately affected by obesity. This analysis sought to examine patterns and predictors of IVR self-monitoring adherence and the association between adherence and weight change among low-income black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. The Shape Program was a randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-month eHealth behavioral weight gain prevention intervention to usual care among overweight and obese black women in the primary care setting. Intervention participants (n=91) used IVR technology to self-monitor behavior change goals (eg, no sugary drinks, 10,000 steps per day) via weekly IVR calls. Weight data were collected in clinic at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Self-monitoring data was stored in a study database and adherence was operationalized as the percent of weeks with a successful IVR call. Over 12 months, the average IVR completion rate was 71.6% (SD 28.1) and 52% (47/91) had an IVR completion rate ≥80%. At 12 months, IVR call completion was significantly correlated with weight loss (r =-.22; P=.04) and participants with an IVR completion rate ≥80% had significantly greater weight loss compared to those with an IVR completion rate self-monitoring. Adherence to IVR self-monitoring was high among socioeconomically disadvantaged black women enrolled in a weight gain prevention intervention. Higher adherence to IVR self-monitoring was also associated with greater weight change. IVR is an effective and useful tool to promote self-monitoring and has the potential for widespread use and long-term sustainability. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00938535; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00938535.

  14. Adequacy of Prenatal Care and Gestational Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, SeonAe; Crandell, Jamie L; Jones-Vessey, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    The goal of prenatal care is to maximize health outcomes for a woman and her fetus. We examined how prenatal care is associated with meeting the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. The study used deidentified birth certificate data supplied by the North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics. The sample included 197,354 women (≥18 years) who delivered singleton full-term infants in 2011 and 2012. A generalized multinomial model was used to identify how adequate prenatal care was associated with the odds of gaining excessive or insufficient weight during pregnancy according to the 2009 IOM guidelines. The model adjusted for prepregnancy body size, sociodemographic factors, and birth weight. A total of 197,354 women (≥18 years) delivered singleton full-term infants. The odds ratio (OR) for excessive weight gain was 2.44 (95% CI 2.37-2.50) in overweight and 2.33 (95% CI 2.27-2.40) in obese women compared with normal weight women. The OR for insufficient weight gain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.09-1.22) for underweight and 1.34 (95% CI 1.30-1.39) for obese women compared with normal weight women. Prenatal care at the inadequate or intermediate levels was associated with insufficient weight gain (OR: 1.32, 95% CI 1.27-1.38; OR: 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.21, respectively) compared with adequate prenatal care. Women with inadequate care were less likely to gain excessive weight (OR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.86-0.91). Whereas prenatal care was effective for preventing insufficient weight gain regardless of prepregnancy body size, educational background, and racial/ethnic group, there were no indications that adequate prenatal care was associated with reduced risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Further research is needed to improve prenatal care programs for preventing excess weight gain.

  15. Excessive Acquisition in Hoarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Randy O.; Tolin, David F.; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E.; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  16. A Lifestyle Program of Exercise and Weight Loss is Effective in Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Why Are Programs Not More Available?

    OpenAIRE

    Ades, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (< 1 year) can go into remission after weight loss and exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care ins...

  17. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  18. Innovative Self-Regulation Strategies to Reduce Weight Gain in Young Adults: The Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah F; Espeland, Mark A; Lewis, Cora E; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Gorin, Amy A; Bahnson, Judy; Perdue, Letitia H; Hatley, Karen E; Ferguson, Erica; Garcia, Katelyn R; Lang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Weight gain occurs commonly in young adults and has adverse effects on health. To compare 2 self-regulation interventions vs control in reducing weight gain in young adults over a mean follow-up of 3 years. Randomized clinical trial in 2 academic settings of 599 participants aged 18 to 35 years with body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 21.0 to 30.0, recruited via mailings and emails from August 2010 to February 2012. Data were analyzed from January 2015 to January 2016. Participants were randomized to control, self-regulation plus small changes, or self-regulation plus large changes. Both interventions focused on frequent self-weighing to cue behavior changes. "Small changes" taught participants to reduce intake and increase activity, both by approximately 100 calories per day. "Large changes" focused on losing 2.3 to 4.5 kg initially to buffer against expected weight gain. Changes in weight from baseline over mean follow-up of 3 years. Secondary outcomes included proportion gaining at least 0.45 kg from baseline, proportion developing obesity (BMI, ≥30.0), and weight change baseline to 2 years. Among the 599 participants (22% men; 27% minority; mean [SD] age, 27.7 [4.4] years; mean [SD] BMI, 25.4 [2.6]), mean (SE) weight changes over a mean follow-up of 3 years were 0.26 (0.22), -0.56 (0.22), and -2.37 (0.22) kg in the control, small-changes, and large-changes groups, respectively (P Self-regulation with large or small changes both reduced weight gain in young adults over 3 years relative to control, but the large-changes intervention was more effective. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01183689.

  19. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; McEwen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    Context: For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. Objective: To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Methods: Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Results: Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Conclusions: Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that

  20. Strategies for successful recruitment of young adults to healthy lifestyle programmes for the prevention of weight gain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, E; Partridge, S R; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2016-02-01

    Recruiting healthy young adults, aged 18-35, to lifestyle programmes for prevention of weight gain is challenging but important given their increasing rates of obesity. This review aimed to examine the success of different recruitment strategies. A systematic literature search identified 26 separate studies using 10 electronic databases. Participant characteristics and efficacy of interventions were well reported in all studies, but reporting of recruitment procedures, costs, times and effectiveness was minimal. Of those reporting recruitment, both active (e.g. face-to-face) and passive (e.g. print-media and mass-mailings) approaches were identified with the latter most frequently employed. Novel strategies such as social media and marketing approaches were identified. Television and radio have potentially high reach but low efficiency with high cost compared with mass-mailings which yield high numbers of participants. Marketing campaigns appeared to be a promising approach. Incentives demonstrated enhanced recruitment. The use of formative research to guide recruitment strategies for interventions is recommended. Reporting of success, cost and timelines for recruitment should be included in reporting of future trials. This first synthesis of recruitment information can be used to inform recruitment frameworks for lifestyle programmes seeking to attract young adults. © 2015 World Obesity.

  1. A Prevention of Pre-eclampsia with the Use of Acetylsalicylic Acid and Low-molecular Weight Heparin - Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmochwal-Kolarz, Dorota; Kolarz, Bogdan; Korzeniewski, Michal; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Patro-Malysza, Jolanta; Mierzynski, Radzisław; Przegalinska-Kałamucka, Monika; Oleszczuk, Jan

    Pre-eclampsia appears to be the main cause for the maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women with pre-eclampsia are more likely to be threatened with conditions which potentially may be lethal, such as: disseminated intravascular coagulation, cerebral hemorrhage, liver and renal failure. Pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia is also associated with a greater risk for iatrogenic prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation, premature abruption of placenta, and even intrauterine fetal death. In the majority of cases the reasons for arterial hypertension among pregnant women remain obscure. For the past decades, there were many abortive attempts in the use of some microelements, vitamins or specific diets, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, for the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia. Recently, it has been shown that a prevention of pre-eclampsia with the use of a lowmolecular- weight heparins (LMWHs) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) could considerably reduce the frequency of preeclampsia. In this review, we present the studies concerning the applications of LMWHs and aspirin in the prophylaxis of pre-eclampsia and some important data about the mechanisms of anti-inflammatory actions of LMWHs and ASA.

  2. Low molecular weight heparins prevent the induction of autophagy of activated neutrophils and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Angelo A; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; D'Angelo, Armando; Maugeri, Norma

    2017-09-01

    The protection exerted by neutrophils against invading microbes is partially mediated via the generation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In sterile conditions NETs are damaging species, enriched in autoantigens and endowed with the ability to damage the vessel wall and bystander tissues, to promote thrombogenesis, and to impair wound healing. To identify and reposition agents that can be used to modulate the formation of NETs is a priority in the research agenda. Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) are currently used, mostly on an empirical basis, in conditions in which NETs play a critical role, such as pregnancy complications associated to autoimmune disease. Here we report that LMWHs induce a profound change in the ability of human neutrophils to generate NETs and to mobilize the content of the primary granules in response to unrelated inflammatory stimuli, such as IL-8, PMA and HMGB1. Autophagy consistently accompanies NET generation in our system and autophagy inhibitors, 3-MA and wortmannin, prevent NET generation. Pretreatment with LMWH in vitro critically jeopardizes neutrophil ability to activate autophagy, a mechanism that might contribute to neutrophil unresponsiveness. Finally, we verified that treatment of healthy volunteers with a single prophylactic dose of parnaparin abrogated the ability of neutrophils to activate autophagy and to generate NETs. Together, these results support the contention that neutrophils, and NET generation in particular, might represent a preferential target of the anti-inflammatory action of LMWH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Excess wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2005-01-01

    analyses it is analysed how excess productions are better utilised; through conversion into hydrogen of through expansion of export connections thereby enabling sales. The results demonstrate that particularly hydrogen production is unviable under current costs but transmission expansion could...

  4. AVE5026, a new hemisynthetic ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients after total knee replacement surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Michael Rud; Dahl, O E; Mismetti, P

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AVE5026 is a new hemisynthetic ultra-low-molecular-weight heparin, with a novel anti-thrombotic profile resulting from high anti-factor (F)Xa activity and residual anti-FIIa activity. AVE5026 is in clinical development for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention, a frequent complication...

  5. Verification of excess defense material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  6. Self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity and sedentary behavior to prevent weight regain in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Gaukstern, Jill E; Beavers, Kristen M; Newman, Jill C; Leng, Xiaoyan; Rejeski, W Jack

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether adding a self-regulatory intervention (SRI) focused on self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and sedentary behavior to a standard weight loss intervention improved maintenance of lost weight. Older (65-79 years), obese (BMI = 30-40 kg/m(2) ) adults (n = 48) were randomized to a 5-month weight loss intervention involving a hypocaloric diet (DIET) and aerobic exercise (EX) with or without the SRI to promote SPA and decrease sedentary behavior (SRI + DIET + EX compared with DIET + EX). Following the weight loss phase, both groups transitioned to self-selected diet and exercise behavior during a 5-month follow-up. Throughout the 10-months, the SRI + DIET + EX group utilized real-time accelerometer feedback for self-monitoring. There was an overall group by time effect of the SRI (P weight and regained more weight than SRI + DIET + EX. The average weight regain during follow-up was 1.3 kg less in the SRI + DIET + EX group. Individuals in this group maintained approximately 10% lower weight than baseline compared with those in the DIET + EX group whom maintained approximately 5% lower weight than baseline. Addition of a SRI, designed to increase SPA and decrease sedentary behavior, to a standard weight loss intervention enhanced successful maintenance of lost weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  7. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment......CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss induced...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...

  8. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  9. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Review the literature on excessive crying in young infants, also known as infantile colic, and its effects on family dynamics, its pathophysiology, and new treatment interventions. Data source: The literature review was carried out in the Medline, PsycINFO, LILACS, SciELO, and Cochrane Library databases, using the terms “excessive crying,” and “infantile colic,” as well technical books and technical reports on child development, selecting the most relevant articles on the subject, with emphasis on recent literature published in the last five years. Summary of the findings: Excessive crying is a common symptom in the first 3 months of life and leads to approximately 20% of pediatric consultations. Different prevalence rates of excessive crying have been reported, ranging from 14% to approximately 30% in infants up to 3 months of age. There is evidence linking excessive crying early in life with adaptive problems in the preschool period, as well as with early weaning, maternal anxiety and depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioral problems. Several pathophysiological mechanisms can explain these symptoms, such as circadian rhythm alterations, central nervous system immaturity, and alterations in the intestinal microbiota. Several treatment alternatives have been described, including behavioral measures, manipulation techniques, use of medication, and acupuncture, with controversial results and effectiveness. Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative

  10. Healthy weight regulation and eating disorder prevention in high school students: a universal and targeted Web-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Megan; Taylor Lynch, Katherine; Kass, Andrea E; Burrows, Amanda; Williams, Joanne; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr

    2014-02-27

    Given the rising rates of obesity in children and adolescents, developing evidence-based weight loss or weight maintenance interventions that can be widely disseminated, well implemented, and are highly scalable is a public health necessity. Such interventions should ensure that adolescents establish healthy weight regulation practices while also reducing eating disorder risk. This study describes an online program, StayingFit, which has two tracks for universal and targeted delivery and was designed to enhance healthy living skills, encourage healthy weight regulation, and improve weight/shape concerns among high school adolescents. Ninth grade students in two high schools in the San Francisco Bay area and in St Louis were invited to participate. Students who were overweight (body mass index [BMI] >85th percentile) were offered the weight management track of StayingFit; students who were normal weight were offered the healthy habits track. The 12-session program included a monitored discussion group and interactive self-monitoring logs. Measures completed pre- and post-intervention included self-report height and weight, used to calculate BMI percentile for age and sex and standardized BMI (zBMI), Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) nutrition data, the Weight Concerns Scale, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. A total of 336 students provided informed consent and were included in the analyses. The racial breakdown of the sample was as follows: 46.7% (157/336) multiracial/other, 31.0% (104/336) Caucasian, 16.7% (56/336) African American, and 5.7% (19/336) did not specify; 43.5% (146/336) of students identified as Hispanic/Latino. BMI percentile and zBMI significantly decreased among students in the weight management track. BMI percentile and zBMI did not significantly change among students in the healthy habits track, demonstrating that these students maintained their weight. Weight/shape concerns significantly decreased among participants in

  11. Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity Effects on Body Weight and Gut Microbiota in Mice Treated Chronically with Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina L Cluny

    Full Text Available Acute administration of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, or the ingestion of cannabis, induces short-term hyperphagia. However, the incidence of obesity is lower in frequent cannabis users compared to non-users. Gut microbiota affects host metabolism and altered microbial profiles are observed in obese states. Gut microbiota modifies adipogenesis through actions on the endocannabinoid system. This study investigated the effect of chronic THC administration on body weight and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese (DIO and lean mice.Adult male DIO and lean mice were treated daily with vehicle or THC (2mg/kg for 3 weeks and 4 mg/kg for 1 additional week. Body weight, fat mass, energy intake, locomotor activity, whole gut transit and gut microbiota were measured longitudinally.THC reduced weight gain, fat mass gain and energy intake in DIO but not lean mice. DIO-induced changes in select gut microbiota were prevented in mice chronically administered THC. THC had no effect on locomotor activity or whole gut transit in either lean or DIO mice.Chronic THC treatment reduced energy intake and prevented high fat diet-induced increases in body weight and adiposity; effects that were unlikely to be a result of sedation or altered gastrointestinal transit. Changes in gut microbiota potentially contribute to chronic THC-induced actions on body weight in obesity.

  12. Adesão a um programa de aconselhamento nutricional para adultos com excesso de peso e comorbidades Adherence to a nutritional counseling program for adults with excess weight and comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Gonzaga Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    éticos estudados. O apro-fundamento da abordagem comportamental, continuada e multiprofissional deve ser objeto de mais investigações.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify adherence to a nutritional group counseling program for patients with excess weight and comorbidities. METHODS: This was an analytical, open, controlled, intervention study. Eighty adults from both genders with a body mass index ranging from 25 to 35kg/m² with two or more associated cardiovascular risk factors were randomly allocated to two groups for a three-month follow-up. The intervention group with nutritional group counseling received personalized care and participated in six group meetings to discuss healthy eating and physical activity, with group dynamics and participatory method. The control group was given standard personalized care in three outpatient visits. The parameters of adherence to treatment were the dietary repercussions before and after the intervention and attendance to the meetings. RESULTS: Thirty-three participants concluded the study. In all, 45.8% and 40.7% of intervention group and control group, respectively, had excellent attendance. The main barriers to adherence to treatment were the need of eating out (46.7% - control group and the difficulty of putting their knowledge to use, especially in social occasions (33.3% - intervention group. There was a significant increase in the mean percentage use of natural seasonings and in the number of daily meals of both groups after the intervention. However, there was no significant decrease in energy intake within groups or between groups. CONCLUSION: Despite the breadth of the content and the use of a participatory method in the intervention group, adherence was not enough to change the main dietary parameters significantly. A deeper, continuous and multidisciplinary behavioral approach should be object of further investigations.

  13. Vitamin A supplementation to prevent mortality and short- and long-term morbidity in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Brian A; Graham, P J; Rojas-Reyes, Maria Ximena

    2016-08-22

    Vitamin A is necessary for normal lung growth and the integrity of respiratory tract epithelial cells. Preterm infants have low vitamin A status at birth and this has been associated with an increased risk of developing chronic lung disease. To evaluate supplementation with vitamin A on the incidence of death or neonatal chronic lung disease and long-term neurodevelopmental disability in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants compared with a control (placebo or no supplementation), and to consider the effect of the supplementation route, dose, and timing. For the original review and subsequent updates, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. The reference lists of relevant trials, paediatric and nutrition journals, and conference abstracts and proceedings were handsearched up to 2010.For the 2016 update, we used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE via PubMed (1 May 2016), EMBASE (1 May 2016), and CINAHL (1 May 2016). We also searched clinical trials' databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised controlled trials comparing vitamin A supplementation with a control (placebo or no supplementation) or other dosage regimens in VLBW infants (birth weight ≤ 1500 grams or less than 32 weeks' gestation). Two review authors screened the search results, extracted data, and assessed the trials for risk of bias. Results were reported as risk ratios (RR), risk differences (RD), and number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB), all with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Trialists were contacted for additional data. Eleven trials met the inclusion criteria. Ten trials (1460 infants) compared vitamin A supplementation with a

  14. Vitamin A supplementation for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very-low-birth-weight premature Thai infants: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatchoosakun, Pakaphan; Jirapradittha, Junya; Panthongviriyakul, M Charnchai; Khampitak, Tueanjit; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Boonsiri, Patcharee

    2014-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one ofthe most significant complications among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. Vitamin A deficiency increases the risk of BPD in VLBWinfants. To assess the effect of vitamin A supplementation for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in VLBW premature Thai infants. Randomized control trial. Eighty premature infants weighing supplementation at 24 hours ofage-admitted to Neonatal units ofSrinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand-were assigned to receive either intramuscular vitaminA 5, 000 IU3 times/week (treatment group) or sham procedure (control group) for four weeks. Serum vitamin A levels were measured before and after administration of the vitamin A. The baseline of mean serum vitamin A levels were similar in both groups. The mean serum level of vitamin A was significantly higher in the vitamin A supplemented infants than in the control infants on day 7 (1.41 +/- 0.48 vs. 0.92+0.38 pmol/ L, psupplementation. None of the infants in the vitamin A supplemented group, compared to 5% of the infants in the control group, had vitamin A level supplemented group required oxygen supplementation at 36 weeks postmenstrual age than in the control group albeit not statistically significant (22.5 vs. 35% relative risk 0.71; 95% CI 0.40 +/- 1.26; p = 0.21). Supplementation with vitamin A was also associated with a significant reduction in the duration ofintubation (10.8 +/- 3.1 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 26.1 +/- 6.4 days control group, p = 0.03), days on oxygen therapy (29.8 +/- 5.1 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 58.2 +/- 9.1 days control group, p = 0.01) and length of hospital stay (61.9 +/- 4.2 days vitamin A supplemented group vs. 88.3 +/- 7.2 days control group, p = 0.002). The dose of vitamin A used in this study reduced biochemical evidence of vitamin A deficiency and, without complications, resulted in reducing duration of intubation, days of oxygen therapy, and length of

  15. High molecular weight fibroblast growth factor-2 in the human heart is a potential target for prevention of cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Jon-Jon; McNaughton, Leslie J; Koleini, Navid; Ma, Xin; Bestvater, Brian; Nickel, Barbara E; Fandrich, Robert R; Wigle, Jeffrey T; Freed, Darren H; Arora, Rakesh C; Kardami, Elissavet

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) is a multifunctional protein synthesized as high (Hi-) and low (Lo-) molecular weight isoforms. Studies using rodent models showed that Hi- and Lo-FGF-2 exert distinct biological activities: after myocardial infarction, rat Lo-FGF-2, but not Hi-FGF-2, promoted sustained cardioprotection and angiogenesis, while Hi-FGF-2, but not Lo-FGF-2, promoted myocardial hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Because there is no information regarding Hi-FGF-2 in human myocardium, we undertook to investigate expression, regulation, secretion and potential tissue remodeling-associated activities of human cardiac (atrial) Hi-FGF-2. Human patient-derived atrial tissue extracts, as well as pericardial fluid, contained Hi-FGF-2 isoforms, comprising, respectively, 53%(±20 SD) and 68% (±25 SD) of total FGF-2, assessed by western blotting. Human atrial tissue-derived primary myofibroblasts (hMFs) expressed and secreted predominantly Hi-FGF-2, at about 80% of total. Angiotensin II (Ang II) up-regulated Hi-FGF-2 in hMFs, via activation of both type 1 and type 2 Ang II receptors; the ERK pathway; and matrix metalloprotease-2. Treatment of hMFs with neutralizing antibodies selective for human Hi-FGF-2 (neu-AbHi-FGF-2) reduced accumulation of proteins associated with fibroblast-to-myofibroblast conversion and fibrosis, including α-smooth muscle actin, extra-domain A fibronectin, and procollagen. Stimulation of hMFs with recombinant human Hi-FGF-2 was significantly more potent than Lo-FGF-2 in upregulating inflammation-associated proteins such as pro-interleukin-1β and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1. Culture media conditioned by hMFs promoted cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, an effect that was prevented by neu-AbHi-FGF-2 in vitro. In conclusion, we have documented that Hi-FGF-2 represents a substantial fraction of FGF-2 in human cardiac (atrial) tissue and in pericardial fluid, and have shown that human Hi-FGF-2, unlike Lo-FGF-2, promotes deleterious

  16. Two Distinct Mediated Pathways to Disordered Eating in Response to Weight Stigmatization and Their Application to Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Melissa; Lockhart, Ginger

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Disordered eating behaviors among undergraduate women are common and, thus, are an important public health concern. Weight stigmatization, stress, and social withdrawal are often associated with disordered eating behaviors; however, it is unclear whether stress and social withdrawal act as mediators between weight stigmatization and…

  17. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  18. Disposition of excess material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews briefly the means available to an enrichment customer to dispose of excess material scheduled for delivery under a fixed-commitment contract, other than through termination of the related separative work. The methods are as follows: (1) sales; (2) use in facilities covered by other DOE contracts; and (3) assignment

  19. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  20. Variação temporal na prevalência do excesso de peso e obesidade em adultos: Brasil, 2006 a 2009 Temporal variation in the prevalence of weight and obesity excess in adults: Brazil, 2006 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Petrucci Gigante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Excesso de peso e obesidade são problemas de saúde pública que atingem parcela importante da população mundial. Este estudo tem o objetivo de descrever as tendências nas prevalências do excesso de peso e da obesidade, no período de 2006 e 2009, obtidas por meio de entrevistas telefônicas em 27 cidades brasileiras com uma população de 18 anos ou mais. O índice de massa corporal (IMC foi calculado a partir do peso e altura referidos; o excesso de peso e obesidade foram definidos por IMC >25 kg/m² e >30 kg/m², respectivamente. A variação temporal das prevalências do excesso e peso e de obesidade é apresentada para homens e mulheres, de acordo com grupo etário, escolaridade, união estável e cor da pele. A regressão de Poisson foi utilizada na análise. As prevalências do excesso de peso foram 43,0, 42,7, 44,2 e 46,6%, para cada ano do período de 2006 a 2009, respectivamente. Para obesidade, no mesmo período, foram encontradas as seguintes prevalências: 11,4, 12,7, 13,2 e 13,8%. A tendência temporal variou em relação às variáveis demográficas e econômicas. O aumento nas prevalências ocorreu nas mulheres e entre os mais jovens. A tendência temporal foi independente do estado civil dos entrevistados, mas o aumento nas prevalências ocorreu em mulheres brancas e com menor escolaridade. Os resultados do presente estudo confirmam a urgência da necessidade de medidas efetivas de prevenção e controle, uma vez que a tendência do aumento está ocorrendo em um curto intervalo de tempo, especialmente entre os jovens.Overweight and obesity are public health issues that affect an important part of the world population. This study aims at describing the trends in overweight and obesity prevalence rates from 2006 to 2009, by means of telephone surveys in 27 Brazilian cities, with a population aged 18 years or older. The body mass index (BMI was calculated by the reported height and weight; overweight and obesity were

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  2. Prevention of weight gain among overweight adults: development and evaluation of a computer-tailored self-regulation intervention [Preventie van gewichtstoename bij volwassenen met overgewicht: ontwikkeling en evaluatie van een advies-op-maat interventie gebaseerd op zelfregulatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genugten, L. van

    2012-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is a major public health problem because of its negative effect on health. The long-term-effects of weight loss treatment for obesity are limited and therefore, prevention of obesity is very important. This might be achieved by weight gain prevention. This is

  3. Prevention of body weight loss and sarcopenia by a novel selective androgen receptor modulator in cancer cachexia models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Megumi; Aikawa, Katsuji; Hara, Takahito; Yamaoka, Masuo

    2017-12-01

    Cancer cachexia is a syndrome that impairs the quality of life and overall survival of patients, and thus the effectiveness of anticancer agents. There are no effective therapies for cancer cachexia due to the complexity of the syndrome, and insufficient knowledge of its pathogenesis results in difficulty establishing appropriate animal models. Previously, promising results have been obtained in clinical trials using novel agents including the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin, and the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) enobosarm to treat cachexia in patients with cancer. The present study examined the pharmacological effects of SARM-2f, a novel non-steroidal small molecule SARM, in animal models. SARM-2f increased body and skeletal muscle weight without significantly increasing the weight of the seminal vesicles or prostates of the castrated male rats. In the mice with tumor necrosis factor α-induced cachexia, SARM-2f and TP restored body weight, carcass weight, and food consumption rate. In the C26 and G361 cancer cachexia animal models, body and carcass weight, lean body mass, and the weight of the levator ani muscle were increased by SARM-2f and TP treatments. Tissue selectivity of SARM-2f was also observed in these animal models. The results demonstrate the anabolic effects of SARM-2f in a cytokine-induced cachexia model and other cancer cachexia models, and suggest that SARM-2f may be a novel therapeutic option for cachexia in patients with cancer.

  4. Self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity and sedentary behavior to prevent weight regain in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Barbara J.; Gaukstern, Jill E.; Beavers, Kristen M.; Newman, Jill C.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study determined whether adding a self-regulatory intervention (SRI) focused on self-monitoring of spontaneous physical activity and sedentary behavior to a standard weight loss intervention improved maintenance of lost weight. Design and Methods Older (65–79 yrs), obese (BMI=30–40 kg/m2) adults (n=48) were randomized to a five-month weight loss intervention involving a hypocaloric diet (DIET) and aerobic exercise (EX) with or without the SRI to promote spontaneous physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior (SRI+DIET+EX compared to DIET+EX). Following the weight loss phase, both groups transitioned to self-selected diet and exercise behavior during a 5-month follow-up. Throughout the 10-months, the SRI+DIET+EX group utilized real-time accelerometer feedback for self-monitoring. Results There was an overall group by time effect of the SRI (P physical activity and decrease sedentary behavior, to a standard weight loss intervention enhances successful maintenance of lost weight. PMID:24585701

  5. Excessive crying in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Halpern

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Excessive crying in the early months is a prevalent symptom; the pediatrician's attention is necessary to understand and adequately manage the problem and offer support to exhausted parents. The prescription of drugs of questionable action and with potential side effects is not a recommended treatment, except in extreme situations. The effectiveness of dietary treatments and use of probiotics still require confirmation. There is incomplete evidence regarding alternative treatments such as manipulation techniques, acupuncture, and use of the herbal supplements and behavioral interventions.

  6. ACTIVATION PARAMETERS AND EXCESS THERMODYANAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Applying these data, viscosity-B-coefficients, activation parameters (Δμ10≠) and (Δμ20≠) and excess thermodynamic functions, viz., excess molar volume (VE), excess viscosity, ηE and excess molar free energy of activation of flow, (GE) were calculated. The value of interaction parameter, d, of Grunberg and Nissan ...

  7. Loss of 50% of excess weight using a very low energy diet improves insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jazet, I. M.; Schaart, G.; Gastaldelli, A.; Ferrannini, E.; Hesselink, M. K.; Schrauwen, P.; Romijn, J. A.; Maassen, J. A.; Pijl, H.; Ouwens, D. M.; Meinders, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Both energy restriction (ER) per se and weight loss improve glucose metabolism in obese insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Short-term ER decreases basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) but not glucose disposal. In contrast the blood glucose-lowering mechanism of long-term ER with

  8. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 Diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penn, L.; White, M.; Lindström, J.; Boer, den A.Th.; Blaak, E.E.; Eriksson, J.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Walker, M.; Mathers, J.C.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial

  9. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Suraweera, Chathurie; Ratnatunga, Suhashini S; Dayabandara, Madhubashinee; Wanniarachchi, Nimali; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-10-03

    Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn't been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was -3.27 kg (95 % CI -4.66 to -1.89) (Z = 4.64, p resistance index [-1.49 (95 % CI -2.40 to -0.59)] but not fasting blood sugar [-2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI -5.54 to 0.57]. This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  10. Implications of the Institute of Medicine weight gain recommendations for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, L E; Stoltzfus, R J; Witter, F R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relation between gestational weight gain and risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age or large-for-gestational-age infant by race, along with the implications of gaining weight according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. METHODS: Logistic regression methods were used to identify risk factors for small- and large-for-gestational-age births among 2617 Black and 1253 White women delivering at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1987 and 1989. RESULTS: Rate of total weight gain was related to risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age births; the relationship differed according to maternal body mass index but not race. No differences in outcome by race were evident for women with low body mass indexes; among those with average or high indexes, however, Black women were at higher risk of small-for-gestational-age births and at lower risk of large-for-gestational-age births. CONCLUSIONS: Having Black women gain at the upper end of the recommended range is unlikely to produce measurable reductions in small-for-gestational-age births. Some beneficial reductions in the risk of large-for-gestational-age births may occur if weight gain recommendations are lowered for average-weight and overweight White women. PMID:9702142

  11. Weight Gain Prevention for College Freshmen: Comparing Two Social Cognitive Theory-Based Interventions with and without Explicit Self-Regulation Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The college transition represents a critical period for maintaining a healthy weight, yet intervention participation and retention represent significant challenges. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of two interventions to prevent freshman weight gain. One intervention provided opportunities to improve outcome expectations and self-efficacy within a social cognitive theory framework (SCT, while the other targeted the same variables but focused on explicit training in self-regulation skills (SCTSR. Methods. Freshmen (n=45 aged >18 years were randomized to a 14-week intervention, SCT or SCTSR; both included online modules and in-class meetings. Of the 45 students randomized, 5 withdrew before the classes began and 39 completed pre- and posttesting. Primary outcomes included body weight/composition, health behaviors, and program acceptability. Analyses included independent sample t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA, and bivariate correlational analyses. Results. Body weight increased over the 14-week period, but there was no group difference. Percent body fat increased in SCTSR but not SCT (mean difference: SCTSR, +1.63 ± 0.52%; SCT, −0.25 ± 0.45%; P=0.01. Class attendance was 100% (SCTSR and 98% (SCT; SCTSR students (>50% remarked that the online tracking required “too much time.” Conclusions. The intervention was well received, although there were no improvements in weight outcomes.

  12. Weighing the options: criteria for evaluating weight-management programs. The Committee to Develop Criteria for Evaluating the Outcomes of Approaches to Prevent and Treat Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J S; Hirsch, J; Blair, S N; Foreyt, J P; Frank, A; Kumanyika, S K; Madans, J H; Marlatt, G A; St Jeor, S T; Stunkard, A J

    1995-11-01

    strongly that obese individuals who lose even relatively small amounts of weight are likely to decrease their blood pressure (and thereby the risk of hypertension), reduce abnormally high levels of blood glucose (associated with diabetes), bring blood concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides (associated with cardiovascular disease) down to more desirable levels, reduce sleep apnea, decrease their risk of osteoarthritis of the weight-bearing joints and depression, and increase self-esteem. In many cases, the obese person who loses weight finds that an accompanying comorbidity is improved, its progression is slowed, or the symptoms disappear. Healthy weights are generally associated with a body mass index (BMI; a measure of whether weight is appropriate for height, measured in kg/m2) of 19-25 in those 19-34 years of age and 21-27 in those 35 years of age and older. Beyond these ranges, health risks increase as BMI increases. Health risks also increase with excess abdominal/visceral fat (as estimated by a waist-hip ratio [WHR] > 1.0 for males and > 0.8 for females), high blood pressure (> 140/90), dyslipidemias (total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations of > 200 and > 225 mg/dl, respectively), non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and a family history of premature death due to cardiovascular disease (e.g., parent, grandparent, sibling, uncle, or aunt dying before age 50). Weight loss usually improves the management of obesity-related comorbidities or decreases the risks of their development. The high prevalence of obesity in the United States together with its link to numerous chronic diseases leads to the conclusion that this disease is responsible for a substantial proportion of total health-care costs. We estimate that today's health-care costs of obesity exceed $70 billion per year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  13. Promoting healthful family meals to prevent obesity: HOME Plus, a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Friend, Sarah; Flattum, Colleen; Horning, Melissa; Draxten, Michelle; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Gurvich, Olga; Story, Mary; Garwick, Ann; Kubik, Martha Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background Family meal frequency has been shown to be strongly associated with better dietary intake; however, associations with weight status have been mixed. Family meals-focused randomized controlled trials with weight outcomes have not been previously conducted. Therefore, this study purpose was to describe weight-related outcomes of the HOME Plus study, the first family meals-focused randomized controlled trial to prevent excess weight gain among youth. Methods Families (n?=?160 8-12-yea...

  14. Dissonance and Healthy Weight Eating Disorder Prevention Programs: Long-Term Effects from a Randomized Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Spoor, Sonja; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent girls with body dissatisfaction (N = 481, SD = 1.4) were randomized to a dissonance-based thin-ideal internalization reduction program, healthy weight control program, expressive writing control condition, or assessment-only control condition. Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in thin-ideal internalization,…

  15. Fish oil combined with SCFA synergistically prevent tissue accumulation of NEFA during weight loss in obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Based on their proposed metabolic effects, we examined whether fish oil (FO) and SCFA, alone or in combination, accelerate weight loss and the resultant metabolic improvements. Obesity was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by high-energy feeding for 10 weeks. The mice were transferred to a low-fat diet...

  16. Metformin in prevention and treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varuni Asanka de Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain and other metabolic complications. Several randomized trials have shown metformin to be effective, but this still hasn’t been included in clinical guidelines on managing antipsychotic induced weight gain. Methods All double blind placebo controlled trials assessing the efficacy of metformin in the treatment of antipsychotic induced weight gain were included. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and MEDLINE were searched for the period January 2000-December 2015. Meta-analysis was carried out using the random effects model. Results Meta analysis of 12 published studies with a total of 743 patients found that in patients treated with antipsychotics, metformin treatment resulted in significantly better anthropometric and metabolic parameters than placebo. The mean change in weight was −3.27 kg (95 % CI −4.66 to −1.89 (Z = 4.64, p < 0.001. Metformin compared to placebo resulted in significant reduction in BMI [−1.13 kg/m2 (95 % CI −1.61 to −0.66] and insulin resistance index [−1.49 (95 % CI −2.40 to −0.59] but not fasting blood sugar [−2.48 mg/dl (95 % CI −5.54 to 0.57]. Conclusion This meta-analysis confirms that metformin is effective in treating antipsychotic induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

  17. Putting the Diabetes Prevention Program into practice: a program for weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction for patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, P E; Einerson, J A; Grant, H; Sargent, C; Underbakke, G; Vitcenda, M; Zeller, L; Stein, J H

    2008-12-01

    The increasing incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have significant implications on health world-wide. Large clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle program with a goal of moderate weight loss (5-7%) and regular exercise (150 minutes/week), resulting in a significant decrease in the incidence of type 2 DM and cardiovascular risk. This study reports on the translation of the multi-center Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) into a cardiac rehabilitation program, utilizing the expertise and experience of a cardiac rehabilitation program staff. The study adapted materials from the DPP to develop a program that fit local needs for diabetes prevention. Most participants completed the program (11 months) and their moderate weight loss was maintained for 11-12 months. At 11-12 months, waist circumference was reduced by approximately 2 inches, percent body fat was reduced by 5% (11% relative decrease, pExercise, nutrition, glucose, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were all were significantly improved at 11-12 months (pdiabetes. This program demonstrates that an intensive effort can significantly improve lifestyle and reduce body weight in patients with DM or at risk for DM. A program that simulates cardiac rehabilitation, translated from a successful clinical trial into practice, resulted in significant reduction and improvement in metabolic outcomes and cardiovascular risk. Support for cardiac rehabilitation from insurers to develop similar programs is encouraged and deserves further study.

  18. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  19. Parental perceptions of weight terminology that providers use with youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Luedicke, Joerg

    2011-10-01

    Little research has been performed to examine patient perceptions of weight-related language, especially related to childhood obesity. In this study we assessed parental perceptions of weight-based terminology used by health care providers to describe a child's excess weight and assessed perceived connotations associated with these terms including stigma, blame, and motivation to reduce weight. A national sample of American parents with children aged 2 to 18 years (N = 445) completed an online survey to assess their perceptions of 10 common terms to describe excess body weight in youth (including "extremely obese," "high BMI," "weight problem," "unhealthy weight," "weight," "heavy," "obese," "overweight," "chubby," and "fat"). Parents were asked to use a 5-point rating scale to indicate how much they perceived each term to be desirable, stigmatizing, blaming, or motivating to lose weight. Regression models revealed that the terms "weight" and "unhealthy weight" were rated as most desirable, and "unhealthy weight" and "weight problem" were rated as the most motivating to lose weight. The terms "fat," "obese," and "extremely obese" were rated as the most undesirable, stigmatizing, blaming, and least motivating. Parents' ratings were consistent across sociodemographic variables, body weight, and child's body weight. The results of this study have important implications for the improvement of health care for youth with obesity; it may be advantageous for health care providers to use or avoid using specific weight-based language during discussions about body weight with families. Pediatricians play a key role in obesity prevention and treatment, but their efforts may be undermined by stigmatizing or offensive language that can hinder important discussions about children's health.

  20. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Preventing olanzapine-induced weight gain using betahistine: a study in a rat model with chronic olanzapine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamei Lian

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is the one of first line antipsychotic drug for schizophrenia and other serious mental illness. However, it is associated with troublesome metabolic side-effects, particularly body weight gain and obesity. The antagonistic affinity to histamine H1 receptors (H1R of antipsychotic drugs has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. Our previous study showed that a short term (2 weeks combination treatment of betahistine (an H1R agonist and H3R antagonist and olanzapine (O+B reduced (-45% body weight gain induced by olanzapine in drug-naïve rats. A key issue is that clinical patients suffering with schizophrenia, bipolar disease and other mental disorders often face chronic, even life-time, antipsychotic treatment, in which they have often had previous antipsychotic exposure. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic O+B co-treatment in controlling body weight in female rats with chronic and repeated exposure of olanzapine. The results showed that co-administration of olanzapine (3 mg/kg, t.i.d. and betahistine (9.6 mg/kg, t.i.d. significantly reduced (-51.4% weight gain induced by olanzapine. Co-treatment of O+B also led to a decrease in feeding efficiency, liver and fat mass. Consistently, the olanzapine-only treatment increased hypothalamic H1R protein levels, as well as hypothalamic pAMPKα, AMPKα and NPY protein levels, while reducing the hypothalamic POMC, and UCP1 and PGC-1α protein levels in brown adipose tissue (BAT. The olanzapine induced changes in hypothalamic H1R, pAMPKα, BAT UCP1 and PGC-1α could be reversed by co-treatment of O+B. These results supported further clinical trials to test the effectiveness of co-treatment of O+B for controlling weight gain/obesity side-effects in schizophrenia with chronic antipsychotic treatment.

  2. Results and lessons learned from a prevention of weight gain program for low-income overweight and obese young mothers: Mothers In Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Wei Chang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers In Motion (MIM, a community-based lifestyle behavioral intervention, was designed and conducted to help low-income overweight and obese young mothers prevent further weight gain via promotion of stress management, healthy eating, and physical activity. This paper presents intervention effect on body weight (primary outcome and summarizes lessons learned. Methods Participants (N = 612 were recruited from 7 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC offices in Michigan and were individually randomized to an intervention n= 410 or a comparison (n =202 group (2: 1 ratio. During the 16-week intervention, intervention participants watched theory-based culturally sensitive videos (in DVD format featuring peers from the target audience to learn skills for managing stress, eating healthier, and being more physically active. They also dialed into peer support group teleconferences to enhance skills learned in the videos and increase motivation for lifestyle behavioral changes. Body weight, the primary outcome, was measured at baseline, immediately after the 16-week intervention, and 3 months after the 16-week intervention. Intervention effect was tested via general linear mixed model for repeated measures, using baseline measures as adjusting covariates. Results At baseline, the mean age of the participants was 28.5 ± 5.0 years (intervention: 28.4 ± 5.0, comparison: 28.9 ± 5.0; the mean body weight was 190.2 ± 1.4 lbs (intervention: 191.8 ± 30.0, comparison: 188.5 ± 29.1; and the mean body mass index (BMI was 32.2 ± 4.4 (intervention: 32.2 ± 4.4, comparison: 31.7 ± 4.2. Of sample, 64.7% were obese. At 3 months after the 16-week intervention, no significant weight differences were found between the intervention (188.3 ± 10.6 lbs, BMI: 31.6 ± 1.8 and comparison groups (187.7 ± 10.6 lbs, BMI: 31.53 ± 1.8 when controlling

  3. Telmisartan prevents weight gain and obesity through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta-dependent pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Liqun

    2010-01-01

    -gamma expression, whereas neither candesartan nor losartan affected PPAR-delta expression. In vivo, long-term administration of telmisartan significantly reduced visceral fat and prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity in wild-type mice and hypertensive rats but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. Administration...

  4. Pressão arterial, excesso de peso e nível de atividade física em estudantes de universidade pública Blood pressure, excess weight and level of physical activity in students of a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo de Carvalho e Martins

    2010-08-01

    í, Teresina, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 605 students (46.1% males and 53.9% females, with a mean age of 21.7 ± 3.7 years. The nutritional status was classified according to body mass index (BMI, and central adiposity according to waist circumference (WC. The level of physical activity was evaluated using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Elevated blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure > 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. RESULTS: The prevalence of elevated blood pressure was 9.7%, and was higher among men. Excess weight (BMI > 25 kg/m² was found in 18.2% of the students, with overweight and obesity rates of 15.2% and 3%, respectively. Abdominal obesity was found in 2.4% of the students regardless of gender, and sedentary lifestyle in 52%. The mean blood pressure increased with increasing BMI and WC. No association was found between the levels of physical activity and blood pressure. CONCLUSION: An association of increased body weight and waist circumference with higher blood pressure levels was observed among the participants. Instruments for an early assessment of the cardiovascular risk and preventive advice should be established for these young individuals.

  5. Determinantes do ganho ponderal excessivo durante a gestação em serviço público de pré-natal de baixo risco Determinants of excessive weight gain during pregnancy in a public low risk antenatal care service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara E. Stulbach

    2007-03-01

    , as sem companheiro, as primíparas e aquelas com estado nutricional inicial adequado ou sobrepeso/obesidade durante a gestação, mais atenção deveria ser dada à prevenção e ao controle do problema durante o pré-natal.INTRODUCTION: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy tends to result in postpartum weight retention and contributes to obesity in women. METHODS: This study evaluated the influence of socio-economic factors, obstetric history, smoking, having a job, and initial nutritional status on excessive weight gain (EWG. EWG was estimated according to IOM recommendations (weekly gain > 0.58g, >0.53g and >0.39g which correspond to an initial nutritional status of underweight, eutrophic, overweight/obesity, respectively. We studied a cohort of 141 healthy pregnant women enrolled in public health services, between March 1997 and March 1998. The influence of each study variable on EWG was checked separately for the 2nd and 3rd trimesters using the Poisson model for hierarchy multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Amongst the 237 eligible pregnant women, there were 37.8% of patient losses, but no statistical significance was detected for the main study variables. The incidence of EWG during the 2nd trimester was 38.6% (CI95% 30.5 - 47.2 and during 3rd trimester it was 36.4% (CI95% 28.5 - 45.0. During the 2nd trimester only schooling was associated with EWG. When comparing women who studied less than 5 years, with the ones who studied 5 to 8 years and those with more than 8 years of schooling, relative risks were 2.09 (CI95% 1.03 - 4.25 and 2.62 (CI95% 1.32 - 5.22, respectively. In the 3rd trimester the variables that resulted in statistical significance were: less than 8 years of schooling (RR= 1.91 [CI95% 1.22 - 2.97], living without a partner (RR=1.66 [(CI95% 1.06 - 2.59], primiparas (RR= 2.13 [CI95% 1.20 - 3.85]; adequate initial nutritional status and overweight/obesity (RR= 1.53 [CI95% 0.82 - 2.84] and RR=2.02 [IC95% 1.04 - 3.92], respectively in comparison

  6. A high-fat, ketogenic diet causes hepatic insulin resistance in mice, despite increasing energy expenditure and preventing weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jornayvaz, François R; Jurczak, Michael J; Lee, Hui-Young; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Frederick, David W; Zhang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xian-Man; Samuel, Varman T; Shulman, Gerald I

    2010-11-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by ¹H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications.

  7. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weel Andre NH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Methods Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Discussion Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism

  8. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Lisanne M; Proper, Karin I; Weel, Andre N H; Hulshof, Carel T J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-12-14

    Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism. After an effect- and process evaluation the guideline will be

  9. [What nosographic framework for excessive tanning?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Karila, L; Lejoyeux, M

    2014-04-01

    Socially valorised tanning, like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. Excessive tanning, defined by the presence of impulsivity and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, is a psychiatric disorder that has only recently been recognized. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report an addictive relationship in their patients with tanning cabins despite announcement of the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on excessive tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, aetiology, and treatment of this disorder. The literature review was conducted from 1983 to 2012, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: Tanning, Addiction, Sunbeds, Skin cancer prevention, and Treatment. We investigated different models to determine how excessive tanning met these criteria. Excessive Tanning was described in the 2000s by an American dermatologist, Carolyn Heckman. Wartham et al. were the first to have proposed a theoretical framework for addiction to sunbathing, as well as two scales (m CAGE and m DSM IV) for the diagnosis and to assess the degree of addiction. These diagnostic criteria describe the craving like-symptoms, the feeling of losing control, or the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of negative consequences. Excessive Tanning is not present in the classifications of the DSM or ICD, but may be related to Addiction, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, Impulse control disorders, Anorexia, or Body Dysmorphic Disorder. Excessive tanning can be included in the spectrum of behavioural addictions due its clinical characteristics in common with classics addictive disorders. They are a variety of other models, which may offer an explanation for or insight into tanning behaviour. Further studies must be controlled, notably on

  10. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Knüppel, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population....

  11. Effects of Exposure to the Communities That Care Prevention System on Youth Problem Behaviors in a Community-Randomized Trial: Employing an Inverse Probability Weighting Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Coffman, Donna; Hawkins, J David

    2018-01-01

    Earlier intention-to-treat (ITT) findings from a community-randomized trial demonstrated effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on reducing problem behaviors among youth. In ITT analyses, youth were analyzed according to their original study community's randomized condition even if they moved away from the community over the course of follow-up and received little to no exposure to intervention activities. Using inverse probability weights (IPWs), this study estimated effects of CTC in the same randomized trial among youth who remained in their original study communities throughout follow-up. Data were from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized trial of 24 small towns in the United States. A cohort of 4,407 youth was followed from fifth grade (prior to CTC implementation) to eighth grade. IPWs for one's own moving status were calculated using fifth- and sixth-grade covariates. Results from inverse probability weighted multilevel models indicated larger effects for youth who remained in their study community for the first 2 years of CTC intervention implementation compared to ITT estimates. These effects included reduced likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, smokeless tobacco use, and delinquent behavior. These findings strengthen support for CTC as an efficacious system for preventing youth problem behaviors.

  12. Delphi-consensus weights for ischemic and bleeding events to be included in a composite outcome for RCTs in thrombosis prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Dechartres

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To weight ischemic and bleeding events according to their severity to be used in a composite outcome in RCTs in the field of thrombosis prevention.Using a Delphi consensus method, a panel of anaesthesiology and cardiology experts rated the severity of thrombotic and bleeding clinical events. The ratings were expressed on a 10-point scale. The median and quartiles of the ratings of each item were returned to the experts. Then, the panel members evaluated the events a second time with knowledge of the group responses from the first round. Cronbach's a was used as a measure of homogeneity for the ratings. The final rating for each event corresponded to the median rating obtained at the last Delphi round.Of 70 experts invited, 32 (46% accepted to participate. Consensus was reached at the second round as indicated by Cronbach's a value (0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00 so the Delphi was stopped. Severity ranged from under-popliteal venous thrombosis (median = 3, Q1 = 2; Q3 = 3 to ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage with severe disability at 7 days and massive pulmonary embolism (median = 9, Q1 = 9; Q3 = 9. Ratings did not differ according to the medical specialty of experts.These ratings could be used to weight ischemic and bleeding events of various severity comprising a composite outcome in the field of thrombosis prevention.

  13. Phytoextraction of excess soil phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nilesh C.; Starnes, Daniel L.; Sahi, Shivendra V.

    2007-01-01

    In the search for a suitable plant to be used in P phytoremediation, several species belonging to legume, vegetable and herb crops were grown in P-enriched soils, and screened for P accumulation potentials. A large variation in P concentrations of different plant species was observed. Some vegetable species such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) were identified as potential P accumulators with >1% (dry weight) P in their shoots. These plants also displayed a satisfactory biomass accumulation while growing on a high concentration of soil P. The elevated activities of phosphomonoesterase and phytase were observed when plants were grown in P-enriched soils, this possibly contributing to high P acquisition in these species. Sunflower plants also demonstrated an increased shoot P accumulation. This study shows that the phytoextraction of phosphorus can be effective using appropriate plant species. - Crop plants such as cucumber, squash and sunflower accumulate phosphorus and thus can be used in the phytoextraction of excess phosphorus from soils

  14. Fractionation Spares Mice From Radiation-Induced Reductions in Weight Gain But Does Not Prevent Late Oligodendrocyte Lineage Side Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begolly, Sage [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Shrager, Peter G. [Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Olschowka, John A. [Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Williams, Jacqueline P. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); O' Banion, M. Kerry, E-mail: Kerry_OBanion@URMC.Rochester.edu [Department of Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States); Department of Neurology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the late effects of fractionated versus single-dose cranial radiation on murine white matter. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to 0 Gy, 6 × 6 Gy, or 1 × 20 Gy cranial irradiation at 10 to 12 weeks of age. Endpoints were assessed through 18 months from exposure using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and electrophysiology. Results: Weight gain was temporarily reduced after irradiation; greater loss was seen after single versus fractionated doses. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were reduced early and late after both single and fractionated irradiation. Both protocols also increased myelin g-ratio, reduced the number of nodes of Ranvier, and promoted a shift in the proportion of small, unmyelinated versus large, myelinated axon fibers. Conclusions: Fractionation does not adequately spare normal white matter from late radiation side effects.

  15. Fractionation Spares Mice From Radiation-Induced Reductions in Weight Gain But Does Not Prevent Late Oligodendrocyte Lineage Side Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begolly, Sage; Shrager, Peter G.; Olschowka, John A.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; O'Banion, M. Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the late effects of fractionated versus single-dose cranial radiation on murine white matter. Methods and Materials: Mice were exposed to 0 Gy, 6 × 6 Gy, or 1 × 20 Gy cranial irradiation at 10 to 12 weeks of age. Endpoints were assessed through 18 months from exposure using immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and electrophysiology. Results: Weight gain was temporarily reduced after irradiation; greater loss was seen after single versus fractionated doses. Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were reduced early and late after both single and fractionated irradiation. Both protocols also increased myelin g-ratio, reduced the number of nodes of Ranvier, and promoted a shift in the proportion of small, unmyelinated versus large, myelinated axon fibers. Conclusions: Fractionation does not adequately spare normal white matter from late radiation side effects.

  16. Greater Healthful Dietary Variety Is Associated with Greater 2-Year Changes in Weight and Adiposity in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Sacks, Frank M; Champagne, Catherine M; Bray, George A; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Greater healthful dietary variety has been inversely associated with body adiposity cross-sectionally; however, it remains unknown whether it can improve long-term weight loss. This study prospectively examined associations between healthful dietary variety and short-term (6 mo) and long-term (2 y) changes in adiposity in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) weight-loss trial completed in 2007. Healthful dietary variety was assessed from 24-h recalls with the use of the US Healthy Food Diversity index among participants aged 30-70 y with overweight/obesity (n = 367). Changes in the index between baseline and 6 mo were divided into tertiles representing reduced (T1), stable (T2), or increased variety (T3). Body weight and waist circumference (WC) were measured every 6 mo, and the percentage of body fat and trunk fat were measured at 6 mo and 2 y. Associations between changes in variety and short-term and long-term changes in adiposity were analyzed by use of multivariable-adjusted generalized linear models and repeated-measures ANOVA. Regardless of dietary arm, T3 compared with T2 was associated with greater reduction in weight (-8.6 compared with -6.7 kg), WC (-9.1 compared with -6.1 cm), and body fat at 6 mo (β = -4.61 kg, P < 0.05). At 2 y, individuals in T3 compared with those in T2 or T1 maintained greater weight loss [-4.0 (T3) compared with -1.8 kg (T2 and T1), P = 0.02] and WC reduction [-5.4 (T3) compared with -3.0 (T2) and -2.9 cm (T1), P = 0.01]. Total body fat and trunk fat reductions were similarly greater in T3 than in T2. Increasing healthful food variety in energy-restricted diets may improve sustained reductions in weight and adiposity among adults with overweight or obesity on weight-loss regimens. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenman, L K; Waget, A; Garret, C; Klopp, P; Burcelin, R; Lahtinen, S

    2014-12-01

    Alterations of the gut microbiota and mucosal barrier are linked with metabolic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the potential benefit of the potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 in reducing high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and diabetes in mice. In the obesity model, C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (60 energy %) for 12 weeks, and gavaged daily with B. lactis 420 (109 cfu) or vehicle. In the diabetes model, mice were fed a high-fat, ketogenic diet (72 energy % fat) for 4 weeks, with a 6-week subsequent treatment with B. lactis 420 (108-1010 cfu/day) or vehicle, after which they were analysed for body composition. We also analysed glucose tolerance, plasma lipopolysaccharide and target tissue inflammation using only one of the B. lactis 420 groups (109 cfu/day). Intestinal bacterial translocation and adhesion were analysed in a separate experiment using an Escherichia coli gavage. Body fat mass was increased in both obese (10.7 ± 0.8 g (mean ± standard error of mean) vs. 1.86 ± 0.21 g, Pdiabetic mice (3.01 ± 0.4 g vs. 1.14 ± 0.15 g, Pdiabetic mice (1.89 ± 0.16 g, P=0.02 for highest dose). This was reflected as reduced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide levels (Pdiabetic mice. Reduced intestinal mucosal adherence and plasma lipopolysaccharide suggest a mechanism related to reduced translocation of gut microbes.

  18. Understanding parent concerns about children's diet, activity and weight status: an important step towards effective obesity prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Bowen, Jane; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Golley, Rebecca; Noakes, Manny

    2010-08-01

    To identify parents' concerns and attitudes towards children's diets, activity habits and weight status. Computer-assisted telephone interviewing administration of a 37-item survey. Data were weighted for parental education level. Descriptive results are presented, and comparisons are made by the age, gender and parental characteristics of the child. Online research panel of Australian parents. A total of 1202 randomly selected parents of children aged 2-16 years, broadly representative of the Australian population. Parents were concerned about their child's education (reported by 35 % of respondents), child's health and well-being (25 %), and violence, drugs and alcohol (20 %). Concern about nutrition was indicated by 14 % of respondents and concern about fitness/exercise was indicated by 3 % of the sample. Factors perceived as making a healthy diet difficult to achieve for their child were child resistance (89 %), the availability of healthy food (72 %), a busy lifestyle (67 %) and the influence of food advertising (63 %). Ninety-two per cent of parents thought that it was realistic for their child to be active for at least 1 h/d, with 75 % of parents feeling that it was realistic for their child to have less than 2 h recreational screen time per d. Despite this, common barriers to achieving the activity guidelines were lack of time, weather and keeping children occupied. Insights into parental concerns from the current study may be useful in guiding development of interventions to improve children's nutrition and physical activity habits by framing messages in a way that are most likely to resonate with parents.

  19. Intermittent Preventive Therapy for Malaria During Pregnancy Using 2 vs 3 or More Doses of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Risk of Low Birth Weight in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayentao, Kassoum; Garner, Paul; van Eijk, Anne Maria; Naidoo, Inbarani; Roper, Cally; Mulokozi, Abdunoor; MacArthur, John R.; Luntamo, Mari; Ashorn, Per; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to control malaria during pregnancy is used in 37 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and 31 of those countries use the standard 2-dose regimen. However, 2 doses may not provide protection during the last 4 to 10 weeks of pregnancy, a pivotal period for fetal weight gain. Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of trials to determine whether regimens containing 3 or more doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy are associated with a higher birth weight or lower risk of low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g) than standard 2-dose regimens. Data Sources and Study Selection ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, SCOPUS, PubMed, LILACS, the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, Cochrane CENTRAL, and trial registries from their inception to December 2012, without language restriction. Eligible studies included randomized and quasi-randomized trials of intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine monotherapy. Data Extraction Data were independently abstracted by 2 investigators. Relative risk (RR), mean differences, and 95% CIs were calculated with random-effects models. Results Of 241 screened studies, 7 trials of 6281 pregnancies were included. The median birth weight in the 2-dose group was 2870 g (range, 2722–3239 g) and on average 56 g higher (95% CI, 29–83 g; I2=0%) in the ≥3-dose group. Three or more doses were associated with fewer LBW births (RR,0.80; 95% CI, 0.69–0.94; I2=0%), with a median LBW risk per 1000 women in the 2-dose group (assumed control group risk) of 167 per 1000 vs 134 per 1000 in the ≥3-dose group (absolute risk reduction, 33 per 1000 [95% CI, 10–52]; number needed to treat=31). The association was consistent across a wide range of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance (0% to 96% dihydropteroate-synthase K540E mutations). There was no evidence of small-study bias. The ≥3-dose group had

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise ...

  2. Factor for adipocyte differentiation 158 gene disruption prevents the body weight gain and insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Nozaki, Yuriko; Nishizuka, Makoto; Ikawa, Masahito; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, we previously isolated a novel gene, factor for adipocyte differentiation (fad) 158, whose expression was induced during the earliest stages of adipogenesis, and its product was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. We found that the knockdown of fad158 expression prevented the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. In addition, over-expression of fad158 promoted the differentiation of NIH-3T3 cells, which do not usually differentiate into adipocytes. Although these findings strongly suggest that fad158 has a crucial role in regulating adipocyte differentiation, the physiological role of the gene is still unclear. In this study, we generated mice in which fad158 expression was deleted. The fad158-deficient mice did not show remarkable changes in body weight or the weight of white adipose tissue on a chow diet, but had significantly lower body weights and fat mass than wild-type mice when fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, although the disruption of fad158 did not influence insulin sensitivity on the chow diet, it improved insulin resistance induced by the high-fat diet. These results indicate that fad158 is a key factor in the development of obesity and insulin resistance caused by a high-fat diet.

  3. Maintenance of energy expenditure on high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate diets at a constant body weight may prevent a positive energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, E A; Gonnissen, H K; Gatta-Cherifi, B; Janssens, P L; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2015-10-01

    Relatively high-protein diets are effective for body weight loss, and subsequent weight maintenance, yet it remains to be shown whether these diets would prevent a positive energy balance. Therefore, high-protein diet studies at a constant body weight are necessary. The objective was to determine fullness, energy expenditure, and macronutrient balances on a high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC) diet compared with a high-carbohydrate low-protein (HCLP) diet at a constant body weight, and to assess whether effects are transient or sustained after 12 weeks. A randomized parallel study was performed in 14 men and 18 women [mean ± SD age: 24 ± 5 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22.8 ± 2.0] on diets containing 30/35/35 (HPLC) or 5/60/35 (HCLP) % of energy from protein/carbohydrate/fat. Significant interactions between dietary intervention and time on total energy expenditure (TEE) (P = 0.013), sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) (P = 0.040), and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (P = 0.027) appeared from baseline to wk 12. TEE was maintained in the HPLC diet group, while it significantly decreased throughout the intervention period in the HCLP diet group (wk 1: P = 0.002; wk 12: P = 0.001). Energy balance was maintained in the HPLC diet group, and became positive in the HCLP diet group at wk 12 (P = 0.008). Protein balance varied directly according to the amount of protein in the diet, and diverged significantly between the diets (P = 0.001). Fullness ratings were significantly higher in the HPLC vs. the HCLP diet group at wk 1 (P = 0.034), but not at wk 12. Maintenance of energy expenditure on HPLC vs. HCLP diets at a constant body weight may prevent development of a positive energy balance, despite transiently higher fullness. The study was registered on clinicaltrials.gov with Identifier: NCT01551238. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Beluzi

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re

  5. Diabetes mellitus prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende-Vigo, Myriam Zaydee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review lifestyle modification interventions and pharmacological clinical studies designed to prevent diabetes and provide evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of Diabetes Mellitus. A review of relevant literature compiled via a literature search (PUBMED) of English-language publications between 1997 and 2010 was conducted. It is found that people at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus can halt the development of the disease. Lifestyle modification intervention with reduction of 5%-10% of excess body weight and increase in moderate physical activity by 150 min/wk has consistently proven to reduce the appearance of diabetes in different at-risk populations. Pharmacologic interventions have also demonstrated the prevention of the appearance of diabetes in persons at risk. Bariatric surgery has decreased the appearance of diabetes patients in a select group of individuals. The progression from prediabetes to diabetes mellitus can be prevented. Lifestyle modification intervention changes with weight loss and increased physical activity are currently recommended for the prevention of diabetes.

  6. Healthy School, Happy School: Design and Protocol for a Randomized Clinical Trial Designed to Prevent Weight Gain in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Daniela Schneid; Goulart, Maíra Ribas; Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Sica, Caroline D'Azevedo; Borges, Raphael; Moraes, David William; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2017-06-01

    Schools have become a key figure for the promotion of health and obesity interventions, bringing the development of critical awareness to the construction and promotion of a healthy diet, physical activity, and the monitoring of the nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. To describe a study protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention designed to improve knowledge of food choices in the school environment. This is a cluster-randomized, parallel, two-arm study conducted in public elementary and middle schools in Brazil. Participants will be children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 15 years, from both genders. The interventions will be focusing on changes in lifestyle, physical activities and nutritional education. Intervention activities will occur monthly in the school's multimedia room or sports court. The control group arm will receive usual recommendations by the school. The primary outcome variable will be anthropometric measures, such as body mass index percentiles and levels of physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. We expect that after the study children will increase the ingestion of fresh food, reduce excessive consumption of sugary and processed foods, and reduce the hours of sedentary activities. The purpose of starting the dietary intervention at this stage of life is to develop a knowledge that will enable for healthy choices, providing opportunities for a better future for this population. As escolas tornaram-se essenciais para a promoção de saúde e de intervenções para obesidade, propiciando o desenvolvimento de consciência crítica para a construção e promoção de dieta saudável, atividade física e monitoramento do status nutricional na infância e adolescência. Descrever um protocolo de estudo para avaliar a eficiência de uma intervenção projetada para aprimorar o conhecimento sobre escolhas alimentares no ambiente escolar. Estudo clínico randomizado em cluster

  7. Low molecular weight heparin prevents CLP-induced acute lung injury in rats by anti-inflammatory coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Yong-Hua

    2013-02-01

    The aim of our study was to observe the influence of low molecular Weight heparin (LMWH) on systemic inflammation, including high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and protective effect on acute lung injury induced by cecal ligation and puncture(CLP). Discuss the mechanism of this effect. 144 male SD rats were randomly divided into sham operation group (A), normal treatment group (B), the LMWH treatment group (C), n=48.Group A received a sham operation and the other groups were underwent CLP operation. Groups A and B accepted intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of normal saline (NS) at a dose of 2.0 ml/kg and ceftriaxone (30 mg/kg), Group C were intraperitoneal injection additional LMWH (150 U/kg) except saline and ceftriaxone. Observe points were made at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48 h, the rats were anesthetized and killed, mortality, lungs wet/dry ratio and Pathology change were determined. HMGB-1 mRNA, protein of lung tissues was calculated by RT-PCR and Western blot. TNF-α and IL-6 of blood plasma calculated by ELSIA. There was significantly different in each index between A and B group (pCLP group, there was a significant decrease in the lung injury, the mortality, HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression on lung tissues (pCLP-induced inflammation. As a result, LMWH ameliorated lung pathology and reduces mortality in CLP-induced systemic inflammation in a rat model. This effect may be mediated through the inhibition of axis of inflammation and coagulation.

  8. Metabolism of L-leucine-U-14C in young rats fed excess glycine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Hisanao; Tadauchi, Nobuo; Muramatsu, Keiichiro

    1975-01-01

    As reported previously, while the growth-depressing effect of excess glycine was prevented by supplementing L-arginine and L-methionine, the degradation of glycine-U-(SUP 14)C into expired carbon dioxide was not accelerated by the supplement of both amino acids. However, it was found that the incorporation of the isotope into the lipids of livers and carcasses increased in the rats fed the excess glycine diet containing both amino acids. The lipid synthesis utilizing excess glycine may be accelerated by adding both amino acids to the 10% casein diet containing excess glycine. In the present experiment, the metabolic fate of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C was studied with the rats fed the excess glycine diet with or without L-arginine and L-methionine. 10% casein (10C), 10% casein diet containing 7% glycine (10C7G), or 10C7G Supplemented with 1.4% L-arginine-HCL and 0.9% L-methionine (10C7GArgMet) was fed to each rat, and the diet suspension containing 4 sup(μ)Ci of L-leucine-U-(SUP 14)C per 100 g of body weight was fed forcibly after 12 hr fast. The radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide, TCA soluble fraction, protein, glycogen, lipids and urine, and the concentration of free amino acids in blood plasma, livers and urine were measured. The body weight gain and food intake of the 10C7G group were much smaller than those of the other groups. The recovery of (SUP 14)C-radioactivity in expired carbon dioxide was much lower in the 10C7GArgMet group than that of the other groups. (Kako, I.)

  9. Efeitos da precipitação pluvial, da umidade relativa do ar e de excesso e déficit hídrico do solo no peso do hectolitro, no peso de mil grãos e no rendimento de grãos de trigo Effects of rainfall, relative humidity and water excess and deficit on test weight, thousand kernel weight, and grain yield of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Guarienti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 90% da produção de trigo no Brasil está localizada nos estados do Paraná, do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina. Nesses estados, a variabilidade climática é muito expressiva, tornando a produção tritícola uma atividade de risco e fazendo com que o decréscimo da produção e da produtividade de trigo seja objeto de questionamento de grande número de investigadores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a influência da precipitação pluvial, da umidade relativa do ar e de excesso e déficit hídrico do solo no peso do hectolitro, peso de mil grãos e rendimento de grãos. Foram usados dados de experimentos com a cultivar de trigo Embrapa 16, conduzidos durante os anos de 1990 a 1998, em sete locais do Rio Grande do Sul e em quatro locais de Santa Catarina. A análise estatística realizada foi correlação múltipla. Verificou-se que: a a precipitação pluvial e o excesso hídrico do solo afetaram negativamente o peso do hectolitro, peso de mil grãos e rendimento de grãos, e a umidade relativa do ar influenciou tanto positiva quanto negativamente essas variáveis; b o déficit hídrico do solo afetou positivamente o peso do hectolitro, peso de mil grãos e rendimento de grãos após a maturação fisiológica, isto é, nos dez primeiros dias anteriores à colheita, e negativamente nos demais períodos.About 90% of the wheat production in Brazil is located in Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states. In these states there is a considerable climatic variability and consequently wheat production becomes a risky activity. Therefore, the decrease of wheat production and grain yield has been analyzed by a great number of investigators. This work aimed to verify the influence of rainfall, relative humidity, and water excess and deficit on test weight, thousand kernel weight, and grain yield of wheat. Data of Embrapa 16 wheat cultivar, obtained during the 1990-98 period, in seven Rio Grande do Sul state

  10. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a community-based delivery system and its effect on parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Bygbjerg, Ib; Magnussen, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to assess the impact of a community-based delivery system of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) for malaria in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) on access, parasitemia, anemia and low birth weight as primary outcome measures. METHODS.......0001). At both health units and the community-based approaches, IPT increased mean hemoglobin by 6.7% (panemia from 5.7% to 3.1% (p.... This intervention was acceptable to 89.6% of the women at the community-based approaches intending to use IPT in the future, while 48.1% of them had recommended it to other women. CONCLUSIONS: The community-based approaches increased access and adherence to IPT with an effect on anemia, severe anemia, parasitemia...

  11. Psychosocial preventive interventions for obesity and eating disorders in youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2012-06-01

    Abstract The rates of paediatric obesity have risen dramatically. Given the challenge of successful weight loss and maintenance, preventive interventions are sorely needed. Furthermore, since a substantial proportion of individuals do not respond to traditional behavioural weight loss therapy, alternative approaches are required. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder have been generally effective at reducing binge episodes and producing weight maintenance or modest weight loss in obese adults. Given the strong link between loss of control eating and obesity in youths, binge eating disorder treatment may serve as a viable form of excess weight gain prevention. An adapted version of interpersonal psychotherapy for binge eating disorder is one such intervention that we have considered. A description of the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism is described. Adaptations of interpersonal psychotherapy and other established therapies for binge eating disorder may serve as platforms from which to develop and disseminate obesity and eating disorder prevention programs in children and adolescents.

  12. Pharmacoeconomic impact of use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimaguila MAVT

    2013-04-01

    initiation of L. reuteri as a probiotic for prevention of NEC in neonates with birth weight ≤ 1000 g is a cost-effective strategy during their stay in neonatal intensive care. Keywords: necrotizing enterocolitis, probiotic, extremely low birth weight, Lactobacillus reuteri, pharmacoeconomics

  13. COH-SR4 reduces body weight, improves glycemic control and prevents hepatic steatosis in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lester Figarola

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, and is one of the principal causative factors in the development of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cancer. COH-SR4 ("SR4" is a novel investigational compound that has anti-cancer and anti-adipogenic properties. In this study, the effects of SR4 on metabolic alterations in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese C57BL/J6 mice were investigated. Oral feeding of SR4 (5 mg/kg body weight. in HFD mice for 6 weeks significantly reduced body weight, prevented hyperlipidemia and improved glycemic control without affecting food intake. These changes were associated with marked decreases in epididymal fat mass, adipocyte hypertrophy, increased plasma adiponectin and reduced leptin levels. SR4 treatment also decreased liver triglycerides, prevented hepatic steatosis, and normalized liver enzymes. Western blots demonstrated increased AMPK activation in liver and adipose tissues of SR4-treated HFD obese mice, while gene analyses by real time PCR showed COH-SR4 significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes such as sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebf1, acetyl-Coenzyme A carboxylase (Acaca, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparg, fatty acid synthase (Fasn, stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (Hmgcr, as well as gluconeogenic genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pc in the liver of obese mice. In vitro, SR4 activates AMPK independent of upstream kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ. Together, these data suggest that SR4, a novel AMPK activator, may be a promising therapeutic compound for treatment of obesity, fatty liver disease, and related metabolic disorders.

  14. Field Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Oral Toltrazuril and Iron Combination (Baycox® Iron) in Maintaining Weaning Weight by Preventing Coccidiosis and Anaemia in Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streyl, Kristina; Carlstron, Janaina; Dantos, Eliana; Mendoza, Roberto; Islas, Juan Agustin Torres; Bhushan, Chandra

    2015-08-01

    Effectiveness of an oral combination of toltrazuril and iron dextran (Baycox(®) Iron) to maintain weaning weight by preventing coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis and iron-deficiency anaemia in neonatal piglets was investigated on three commercial pig farms with a history of coccidiosis: two in Mexico and one in Brazil. On day (SD) 2 of life, piglets were randomised within litter by bodyweight to treatment or control group. On SD 3 piglets allocated to the control group (CG) each received 1 mL Baycox(®), containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril orally and commercially available iron (200 mg/piglet) by intramuscular injection. Piglets allocated to the treatment group (TG) each received 1 mL toltrazuril and iron combination orally (Baycox(®) Iron) containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril and 228 mg iron as iron dextran. All piglets had access to creep feed. 6493 piglets completed the study. Bodyweight at weaning on SD 21 of piglets treated with the oral toltrazuril and iron combination was confirmed to be non-inferior to the control treatment with toltrazuril and iron combination treated piglets compared to control levels but above minimum haemoglobin levels to maintain health. There was no difference in mortality between the two groups. This large scale field evaluation clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of oral toltrazuril and iron (Baycox(®) Iron) in maintaining body weight at weaning compared to conventional treatment. The combination was effective in preventing coccidiosis and anaemia and thus provides a valuable alternative that reduces stressful events in neonatal piglets. There were no product related adverse events.

  15. Efficacy of Bovine Lactoferrin Supplementation in Preventing Late-onset Sepsis in low Birth Weight Neonates: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Gathwala, Geeta

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) in preventing first episode of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in low birth weight (LBW) neonates. In this study conducted from May 2012 to July 2013 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital, inborn asymptomatic neonates, birth with no maternal risk factors for sepsis were randomized to receive BLF or placebo from 1st to 28th day of life. The incidence of culture-proven sepsis and sepsis-attributable mortality after 72 h of life was recorded. Increasing doses of BLF were used with higher birth weights. Incidence of first episode of culture-proven LOS was significantly lower in the BLF group vs. placebo [2/63 (3.2%) vs. 9/67(13.4%); risk ratio, 0.211; 95% CI, 0.044-1.019; p = 0.036]. Statistically significant reduction in the sepsis-attributable mortality was also seen after use of prophylactic BLF [0/63 (0%) vs. 5/67 (7.5%); p = 0.027]. BLF supplementation in LBW neonates reduced the incidence of first episode of LOS. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Efficacy of Probiotics Versus Placebo in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Double-blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, T.; Ali, M.M.; Hossain, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study Design: Arandomized double blind controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: The Paediatrics Department of Sylhet M.A.G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Bangladesh, from July 2012 to June 2015. Methodology: Preterm (28 - 33 weeks gestation) VLBW (birth weight 1000 - 1499 g) neonates were enrolled. The study group was fed with probiotics once daily with breast milk from first feeding, and the control group with only breast milk without the addition of probiotics. Both the groups received other standard care. The primary outcome was the development of NEC (stage II and III), categorized by modified Bell's classification. Result: In 108 neonates, development of NEC was significantly lower in the study group than that of control group [1 (1.9 percent) vs. 6 (11.5 percent); p=0.044]. Age of achievement of full oral feeding was significantly earlier in the study group than that in the control group (14.88 ±3.15 and 18.80 ±4.32 days; p < 0.001). Duration of hospital stay was significantly short in the study group compared to the control group (15.82 ±2.94 days vs. 19.57 ±4.26 days; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Probiotic supplementation reduces the frequency of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm neonates with very low birth weight. It is also associated with faster achievement of full oral feeding and short duration of hospital stay. (author)

  17. Understanding weight gain at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Castelo-Branco, C; Chedraui, P; Lumsden, M A; Nappi, R E; Shah, D; Villaseca, P

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding the impact of the menopause transition on body weight and body composition. We conducted a search of the literature using Medline (Ovid, 1946-present) and PubMed (1966-2012) for English-language studies that included the following search terms: 'menopause', 'midlife', 'hormone therapy' or 'estrogen' combined with 'obesity', 'body weight' or 'body composition'. Whereas weight gain per se cannot be attributed to the menopause transition, the change in the hormonal milieu at menopause is associated with an increase in total body fat and an increase in abdominal fat. Weight excess at midlife is not only associated with a heightened risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, but also impacts adversely on health-related quality of life and sexual function. Animal and human studies indicate that this tendency towards central abdominal fat accumulation is ameliorated by estrogen therapy. Studies mostly indicate a reduction in overall fat mass with estrogen and estrogen-progestin therapy, improved insulin sensitivity and a lower rate of development of type 2 diabetes. The hormonal changes across the perimenopause substantially contribute to increased abdominal obesity which leads to additional physical and psychological morbidity. There is strong evidence that estrogen therapy may partly prevent this menopause-related change in body composition and the associated metabolic sequelae. However, further studies are required to identify the women most likely to gain metabolic benefit from menopausal hormone therapy in order to develop evidence-based clinical recommendations.

  18. Role of vitamin A supplementation in prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight neonates: a systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Bhawan Deep; Bansal, Anju; Kabra, Nandkishor S

    2018-02-22

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common consequence of extreme prematurity (birth weight (ELBW) neonates. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of vitamin A supplementation in prevention of BPD in ELBW neonates. The literature search was done for various randomized control trial (RCT) by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, EMBASE, and ongoing clinical trials. This review included two RCTs that fulfilled inclusion criteria. There were statistically significant reduction in the incidence of BPD (oxygen requirement at 36 weeks of postmenstrual age (PMA)) (relative risk (RR) 0.88; 95%CI 0.77-0.99; p = .04; NNTB 14) and borderline significant reduction in combined outcomes of mortality/BPD (oxygen requirement at 36 weeks of PMA) (RR 0.90; 95%CI 0.82-1.00; p = .05). However, oxygen requirement at 28 days of life and combined outcome of mortality/BPD (oxygen requirement at 28 days of life) were not statistically significant. The role of vitamin A supplementation in the prevention of BPD is supported by the current evidences. However, due to limited number of studies, current evidences are not sufficient which can translate into routine clinical practice. We need large high-quality trials, with sufficient power to reliably assess clinically relevant differences in outcomes.

  19. Effective multi-level, multi-sector, school-based obesity prevention programming improves weight, blood pressure, and academic performance, especially among low-income, minority children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, Danielle; Lombardo, Michelle; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriella; Hollar, Theodore L; Almon, Marie; Agatston, Arthur S; Messiah, Sarah E

    2010-05-01

    Successfully addressing childhood onset obesity requires multilevel (individual, community, and governmental), multi-agency collaboration. The Healthier Options for Public Schoolchildren (HOPS)/OrganWise Guys (OWG) quasi-experimental controlled pilot study (four intervention schools, one control school, total N=3,769; 50.2% Hispanic) was an elementary school-based obesity prevention intervention designed to keep children at a normal, healthy weight, and improve health status and academic achievement. The HOPS/OWG included the following replicable, holistic components: (1) modified dietary offerings, (2) nutrition/lifestyle educational curricula; (3) physical activity component; and (4) wellness projects. Demographic, anthropometric (body mass index [BMI]), blood pressure, and academic data were collected during the two-year study period (2004-6). Statistically significant improvements in BMI, blood pressure, and academic scores, among low-income Hispanic and White children in particular, were seen in the intervention versus controls. Holistic school-based obesity prevention interventions can improve health outcomes and academic performance, in particular among high-risk populations.

  20. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to excess body weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulation-modelling techniques were used for the uncertainty analysis. Setting. South Africa. Subjects. Adults ≥ 30 years of age. Outcome measures. Deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, hypertensive disease, osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, ...

  1. Functional Defecation Disorders and Excessive Body Weight: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Saps, Miguel; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Benninga, Marc A.; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S.; Tabbers, Merit M.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between functional defecation disorders (FDDs) and overweight/obesity in children. To synthesize current evidence evaluating the association between FDDs and overweight/obesity in children. PubMed, Medline, and Embase were searched from inception until

  2. The consequences of obesity and excess weight gain in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in pregnancy is rising exponentially; about 15-20% of pregnant women now enter pregnancy with a BMI which would define them as obese. This paper provides a review of the strong links between obesity and adverse pregnancy outcome which operate across a range of pregnancy complications. For example, obesity is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality, gestational diabetes mellitus, thromboembolism, pre-eclampsia and postpartum haemorrhage. Obesity also c...

  3. Effective Strategies to Recruit Young Adults Into the TXT2BFiT mHealth Randomized Controlled Trial for Weight Gain Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette Ty; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-06-05

    Younger adults are difficult to engage in preventive health, yet in Australia they are gaining more weight and increasing in waist circumference faster than middle-to-older adults. A further challenge to engaging 18- to 35-year-olds in interventions is the limited reporting of outcomes of recruitment strategies. This paper describes the outcomes of strategies used to recruit young adults to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), healthy lifestyle mHealth program, TXT2BFiT, for prevention of weight gain. The progression from enquiry through eligibility check to randomization into the trial and the costs of recruitment strategies are reported. Factors associated with nonparticipation are explored. Participants were recruited either via letters of invitation from general practitioners (GPs) or via electronic or print advertisements, including Facebook and Google-social media and advertising-university electronic newsletters, printed posters, mailbox drops, and newspapers. Participants recruited from GP invitation letters had an appointment booked with their GP for eligibility screening. Those recruited from other methods were sent an information pack to seek approval to participate from their own GP. The total number and source of enquiries were categorized according to eligibility and subsequent completion of steps to enrolment. Cost data and details of recruitment strategies were recorded. From 1181 enquiries in total from all strategies, 250 (21.17%) participants were randomized. A total of 5311 invitation letters were sent from 12 GP practices-16 participating GPs. A total of 131 patients enquired with 68 participants randomized (68/74 of those eligible, 92%). The other recruitment methods yielded the remaining 182 randomized participants. Enrolment from print media was 26% of enquiries, from electronic media was 20%, and from other methods was 3%. Across all strategies the average cost of recruitment was Australian Dollar (AUD) $139 per person. The least expensive

  4. Effective Strategies to Recruit Young Adults Into the TXT2BFiT mHealth Randomized Controlled Trial for Weight Gain Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette TY; Hebden, Lana; McGeechan, Kevin; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Younger adults are difficult to engage in preventive health, yet in Australia they are gaining more weight and increasing in waist circumference faster than middle-to-older adults. A further challenge to engaging 18- to 35-year-olds in interventions is the limited reporting of outcomes of recruitment strategies. Objective This paper describes the outcomes of strategies used to recruit young adults to a randomized controlled trial (RCT), healthy lifestyle mHealth program, TXT2BFiT, for prevention of weight gain. The progression from enquiry through eligibility check to randomization into the trial and the costs of recruitment strategies are reported. Factors associated with nonparticipation are explored. Methods Participants were recruited either via letters of invitation from general practitioners (GPs) or via electronic or print advertisements, including Facebook and Google—social media and advertising—university electronic newsletters, printed posters, mailbox drops, and newspapers. Participants recruited from GP invitation letters had an appointment booked with their GP for eligibility screening. Those recruited from other methods were sent an information pack to seek approval to participate from their own GP. The total number and source of enquiries were categorized according to eligibility and subsequent completion of steps to enrolment. Cost data and details of recruitment strategies were recorded. Results From 1181 enquiries in total from all strategies, 250 (21.17%) participants were randomized. A total of 5311 invitation letters were sent from 12 GP practices—16 participating GPs. A total of 131 patients enquired with 68 participants randomized (68/74 of those eligible, 92%). The other recruitment methods yielded the remaining 182 randomized participants. Enrolment from print media was 26% of enquiries, from electronic media was 20%, and from other methods was 3%. Across all strategies the average cost of recruitment was Australian Dollar

  5. 30 CFR 870.18 - General rules for calculating excess moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General rules for calculating excess moisture... COAL PRODUCTION REPORTING § 870.18 General rules for calculating excess moisture. If you are an operator who mined coal after June 1988, you may deduct the weight of excess moisture in the coal to...

  6. Excessive Gambling and Online Gambling Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirola, Anu; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte

    2018-04-05

    The Internet provides an accessible context for online gambling and gambling-related online communities, such as discussion forums for gamblers. These communities may be particularly attractive to young gamblers who are active Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the use of gambling-related online communities and their relevance to excessive gambling among 15-25-year-old Finnish Internet users (N = 1200). Excessive gambling was assessed by using the South Oaks Gambling Screen. Respondents were asked in a survey about their use of various kinds of gambling-related online communities, and sociodemographic and behavioral factors were adjusted. The results of the study revealed that over half (54.33%) of respondents who had visited gambling-related online communities were either at-risk gamblers or probable pathological gamblers. Discussion in these communities was mainly based on sharing gambling tips and experiences, and very few respondents said that they related to gambling problems and recovery. In three different regression models, visiting gambling-related online communities was a significant predictor for excessive gambling (with 95% confidence level) even after adjusting confounding factors. The association of visiting such sites was even stronger among probable pathological gamblers than among at-risk gamblers. Health professionals working with young people should be aware of the role of online communities in terms of development and persistence of excessive gambling. Monitoring the use of online gambling communities as well as utilizing recovery-oriented support both offline and online would be important in preventing further problems. Gambling platforms should also include warnings about excessive gambling and provide links to helpful sources.

  7. The prevention and reduction of weight loss in an acute tertiary care setting: protocol for a pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial (the PRoWL project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition, with accompanying weight loss, is an unnecessary risk in hospitalised persons and often remains poorly recognised and managed. The study aims to evaluate a hospital-wide multifaceted intervention co-facilitated by clinical nurses and dietitians addressing the nutritional care of patients, particularly those at risk of malnutrition. Using the best available evidence on reducing and preventing unplanned weight loss, the intervention (introducing universal nutritional screening; the provision of oral nutritional supplements; and providing red trays and additional support for patients in need of feeding) will be introduced by local ward teams in a phased way in a large tertiary acute care hospital. Methods/Design A pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial with repeated cross section design will be conducted. The unit of randomisation is the ward, with allocation by a random numbers table. Four groups of wards (n = 6 for three groups, n = 7 for one group) will be randomly allocated to each intervention time point over the trial. Two trained local facilitators (a nurse and dietitian for each group) will introduce the intervention. The primary outcome measure is change in patient’s body weight, secondary patient outcomes are: length of stay, all-cause mortality, discharge destinations, readmission rates and ED presentations. Patient outcomes will be measured on one ward per group, with 20 patients measured per ward per time period by an unblinded researcher. Including baseline, measurements will be conducted at five time periods. Staff perspectives on the context of care will be measured with the Alberta Context Tool. Discussion Unplanned and unwanted weight loss in hospital is common. Despite the evidence and growing concern about hospital nutrition there are very few evaluations of system-wide nutritional implementation programs. This project will test the implementation of a nutritional intervention across one hospital system using a

  8. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, RG; Rathleff, M

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient...

  9. Does excessive pronation cause pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Nielsen, R.G.; Rathleff, M.

    2008-01-01

    of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive pronation patients recieve antipronation training often if the patient......Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...

  10. Does Excessive Pronation Cause Pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Olesen Gammelgaard, Christian; Nielsen, R. G.

    Excessive pronation could be an inborn abnormality or an acquired foot disorder caused by overuse, inadequate supported shoes or inadequate foot training. When the muscles and ligaments of the foot are insufficient it can cause an excessive pronation of the foot. The current treatment consist...... of antipronation shoes or insoles, which latest was studied by Kulce DG., et al (2007). So far there have been no randomized controlled studies showing methods that the effect of this treatment has not been documented. Therefore the authors can measure the effect of treatments with insoles. Some of the excessive...

  11. Dietary intake of fruit in relation to body weight management among adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alinia, Sevil

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults worldwide is high with an increasing trend. Therefore, effective strategies in relation to body weight management, targeting to maintain normal body weight and prevent excessive weight gain, are warranted. Reducing the energy density of the diet...... and culinary use. The overall aim of the present thesis was to examine the potential role of fruit intake in relation to body weight management among adults. The specific objectives were to investigate the association between fruit intake and body weight and aspects of other dietary intake and further...... of fruit intake in body weight management, including the association between fruit intake and body weight and the effect of fruit intake on body weight, among adults was assessed by carrying out a review (paper I) encompassing all human prospective observational, cross-sectional and intervention studies...

  12. Enteral L-arginine supplementation for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in very low birth weight neonates: a double-blind randomized pilot study of efficacy and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polycarpou, Elena; Zachaki, Sophia; Tsolia, Maria; Papaevangelou, Vasiliki; Polycarpou, Nicodemos; Briana, Despina D; Gavrili, Stavroula; Kostalos, Christos; Kafetzis, Dimitrios

    2013-09-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common acquired gastrointestinal disease in premature infants and has high mortality and morbidity. Endothelial nitric oxide is an important regulator of vascular perfusion and is synthetized from the amino acid L-arginine. Hypoargininemia is frequently observed in preterm neonates and may predispose them to NEC. Our objective was to determine the effect of enteral L-arginine supplementation on the incidence and severity of NEC in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. We conducted a parallel blind randomized pilot study, comprising VLBW neonates with birth weight ≤1500 g and gestational age ≤34 weeks. VLBW neonates were randomly assigned to receive enteral L-arginine supplementation (1.5 mmol/kg/d bid) between the 3rd and 28th day of life or placebo. Diagnosis and classification of NEC were done according to modified Bell's criteria. Eighty-three neonates were randomized to the arginine (n = 40) or placebo (n = 43) group. No adverse effects were observed in neonates receiving L-arginine supplementation. The incidence of NEC stage III was significantly lower in the arginine-supplemented group (2.5% vs 18.6%, P = .030). Enteral L-arginine supplementation of 1.5 mmol/kg/d bid can be safely administered in VLBW neonates from the 3rd to the 28th day of life. Enteral L-arginine supplementation appears to reduce the incidence of stage III NEC in VLBW infants. Larger studies are needed to further evaluate the effect of L-arginine supplementation in preventing NEC in VLBW infants.

  13. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be

  14. [Cardiovascular disease prevention and life style modifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudet, M; Daugareil, C; Ferrieres, J

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are mainly caused by atherosclerosis, the development of which is highly dependent on our Western lifestyle. Slowing this pathology depends on the reduction of risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, smoking, lack of physical activity, excess weight and diabetes. Drug treatment exists and is very effective, but too often they treat the immediate abnormality such as diabetes, high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia and not the underlying causes: poor eating habits, lack of physical activity and excess weight. These have a negative impact on endothelial function, oxidative stress, and can trigger inflammation, arrythmias and thrombosis. Cardiovascular prevention must therefore target sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, and favor low-calorie, low-salt food and Mediterranean diet. The way this diet works begins to be understood and goes beyond simple cardiovascular prevention. Therapeutic education holds a growing and complementary role in the Public Health system which should call upon the strengths of all healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Associação entre ganho de peso no primeiro ano de vida com excesso de peso e adiposidade abdominal na idade pré-escolar Asociación entre ganancia de peso en el primer año de vida con exceso de peso y de adiposidad abdominal en la edad pre-escolar Association between weight gain in the first year of life with excess weight and abdominal adiposity at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Leite Bertotto

    2012-12-01

    12 a 16 meses. A los 3 a 4 años de edad, se verificó también la circunferencia de la cintura. Se calculó la ganancia de peso por la diferencia en el escore Z de IMC/Edad a los 12 a 16 meses respecto al IMC/Edad al nacer, adoptando punto de corte >0,67 para ganancia de peso excesiva. Relación cintura/estatura fue realizada, considerando exceso de adiposidad central valores >0,5. Se utilizó el análisis multivariado para probar la asociación entre los desenlaces y las variables independientes. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de ganancia de peso excesiva en el primer año de vida fue de 29,5% de un total de 338 niños. Después del ajuste para las variables sexo, grupo, peso al nacer, tiempo de lactancia materna exclusiva e IMC de la madre, el cambio en el escore z >0,67 del nacimiento hasta los 12 a 16 meses se presentó como factor de riesgo para excesos de peso (RR 2,81; IC95% 1,53-5,16 y elevada relación cintura/altura en la edad pre-escolar (RR 2,10; IC95% 1,19-3,72. CONCLUSIÓN: Ganancia de peso excesivo en el primer año de vida está asociada a exceso de peso y elevada adiposidad abdominal en la edad pre-escolar.OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the change in body mass index Z-score for age >0.67 in the first year of life was associated with overweight at preschool age. METHODS: A cohort study nested in a randomized field trial conducted in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Data on weight and height of children at birth, from six to eight, and from 12 to 16 months were collected. From ages three to four, besides these data, waist circumference was measured. Weight gain was calculated by the difference in body mass index/age Z-score from 12 to 16 months in relation to that at birth, adopting as cutoff >0.67 Z-score for weight gain. Waist-to-height ratio was calculated, and the excess of central adiposity was considered for values >0.5. Multivariate analysis to test the association between outcomes and independent variables was applied. RESULTS: The

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient ... the floor; rotate from side to side. Repeat 10 times. Check with your physician; if you are ...

  19. Excess mortality following hip fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B; van Staa, T; Ariely, R

    2009-01-01

    Summary This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter, highlig......Summary This systematic literature review has shown that patients experiencing hip fracture after low-impact trauma are at considerable excess risk for death compared with nonhip fracture/community control populations. The increased mortality risk may persist for several years thereafter...... and excess mortality rates for hip fracture. Although a lack of consistent study design precluded any formal meta-analysis or pooled analysis of the data, we have shown that hip fracture is associated with excess mortality (over and above mortality rates in nonhip fracture/community control populations......) during the first year after fracture ranging from 8.4% to 36%. In the identified studies, individuals experienced an increased relative risk for mortality following hip fracture that was at least double that for the age-matched control population, became less pronounced with advancing age, was higher...

  20. Antigen excess in modern immunoassays: to anticipate on the unexpected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Joannes F M; van der Molen, Renate G; Bossuyt, Xavier; Damoiseaux, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Immunoassays measuring sera with high analyte concentration may be prone to an artifact that causes underestimation of the analyte concentration. This phenomenon is generally described as antigen excess or the prozone effect. Characteristically, serum with high concentrations of a certain analyte can give a false negative/low result when tested at the recommended dilution, but reacts strongly positive upon further dilution. Increased insight of the antigen excess mechanisms and tools to prevent it has reduced the analytical problems caused by prozone effects in daily laboratory practice. However, misinterpretation of laboratory results caused by antigen excess does still occur, in virtually any type of immunoassay. Awareness by the laboratory specialist of the mechanisms underlying antigen excess in the different immunoassays, strategies to detect it, and adequate communication with clinicians can help to avoid reporting false negative test-results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA, CALIDAD DE LA DIETA Y EXCESO DE PESO EN ESCOLARES: ANÁLISIS EN FUNCIÓN DEL ENTORNO DE RESIDENCIA EN LA COMUNIDAD AUTÓNOMA DE EXTREMADURA [Physical activity, diet quality and weight excess in scholar children: Analysis ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto de la Cruz Sánchez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar las diferencias en función del contexto de residencia en el cumplimiento de las recomendaciones de práctica de actividad física, la calidad de la dieta y el exceso de peso. Tomaron parte en el estudio 293 escolares de ambos sexos (137 chicos y 156 chicas, 9,99 ± 0,79 años, siendo la muestra representativa de la población objeto de estudio. Tras recibir el consentimiento informado paterno, se evaluó su patrón de actividad física, la calidad de la dieta y el índice de masa corporal (IMC=18,35 ± 3,58, estableciendo el exceso de peso a través de estándares internacionales para el IMC. Para establecer las relaciones entre las diferentes variables estudiadas, se realizó un análisis estadístico a través del programa estadístico SPSS (15.0 empleándose una prueba de Chi cuadrado y un análisis de regresión logística multinomial con el objetivo de establecer las odds ratio e intervalos de confianza en función del núcleo de residencia. Los escolares de zonas rurales cumplen en mayor medida las recomendaciones de práctica de actividad física y tienen una dieta de mayor calidad que los residentes en el entorno urbano, si bien no existen diferencias significativas en la prevalencia de exceso de peso entre ambos grupos. Palabras clave: Infancia, ejercicio, deporte, obesidad, nutrición   Abstract The aim of this paper is to study the differences depending on the context of residence in compliance with physical activity guidelines, diet quality and weight excess. A total of 293 schoolchildren of both sexes (137 boys and 156 girls, 9,99 ± 0,79 years took part in this study, being a representative sample of the population studied. After receiving informed parental consent, we assessed their physical activity pattern, diet quality and body mass index (BMI= 18.35 ± 3.58, establishing weight-excess through international standards for BMI. To study the relationships between different

  2. Menopause Weight Gain: Stop the Middle Age Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but excess pounds aren't inevitable. To minimize menopause weight gain, step up your activity level and ... In fact, many women gain weight around the menopause transition. Menopause weight gain isn't inevitable, however. ...

  3. Cool WISPs for stellar cooling excesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannotti, Maurizio [Barry Univ., Miami Shores, FL (United States). Physical Sciences; Irastorza, Igor [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Redondo, Javier [Zaragoza Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2015-12-15

    Several stellar systems (white dwarfs, red giants, horizontal branch stars and possibly the neutron star in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) show a preference for a mild non-standard cooling mechanism when compared with theoretical models. This exotic cooling could be provided by Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), produced in the hot cores and abandoning the star unimpeded, contributing directly to the energy loss. Taken individually, these excesses do not show a strong statistical weight. However, if one mechanism could consistently explain several of them, the hint could be significant. We analyze the hints in terms of neutrino anomalous magnetic moments, minicharged particles, hidden photons and axion-like particles (ALPs). Among them, the ALP represents the best solution. Interestingly, the hinted ALP parameter space is accessible to the next generation proposed ALP searches, such as ALPS II and IAXO.

  4. Severe rhabdomyolysis after excessive bodybuilding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterer, J; Zuntner, G; Fuchs, M; Weinberger, A

    2007-12-01

    A 46-year-old male subject performed excessive physical exertion during 4-6 h in a studio for body builders during 5 days. He was not practicing sport prior to this training and denied the use of any aiding substances. Despite muscle aching already after 1 day, he continued the exercises. After the last day, he recognized tiredness and cessation of urine production. Two days after discontinuation of the training, a Herpes simplex infection occurred. Because of acute renal failure, he required hemodialysis. There were absent tendon reflexes and creatine kinase (CK) values up to 208 274 U/L (normal: <170 U/L). After 2 weeks, CK had almost normalized and, after 4 weeks, hemodialysis was discontinued. Excessive muscle training may result in severe, hemodialysis-dependent rhabdomyolysis. Triggering factors may be prior low fitness level, viral infection, or subclinical metabolic myopathy.

  5. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8)) ...

  6. Excess water dynamics in hydrotalcite: QENS study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dynamics of excess water in hydrotalcite sample with varied content of excess water are reported. Translational motion of excess water can be best described by random transla- tional jump diffusion model. The observed increase in translational diffusivity with increase in the amount of excess water is attributed to the ...

  7. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by the...

  8. Moderate excess of pyruvate augments osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna E. Fong

    2013-03-01

    Cell differentiation leads to adaptive changes in energy metabolism. Conversely, hyperglycemia induces malfunction of many body systems, including bone, suggesting that energy metabolism reciprocally affects cell differentiation. We investigated how the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, large polykaryons formed through fusion and growth of cells of monocytic origin, is affected by excess of energy substrate pyruvate and how energy metabolism changes during osteoclast differentiation. Surprisingly, small increases in pyruvate (1–2 mM above basal levels augmented osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo, while larger increases were not effective in vitro. Osteoclast differentiation increased cell mitochondrial activity and ATP levels, which were further augmented in energy-rich conditions. Conversely, the inhibition of respiration significantly reduced osteoclast number and size. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK acts as a metabolic sensor, which is inhibited in energy-rich conditions. We found that osteoclast differentiation was associated with an increase in AMPK levels and a change in AMPK isoform composition. Increased osteoclast size induced by pyruvate (1 mM above basal levels was prevented in the presence of AMPK activator 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR. In keeping, inhibition of AMPK using dorsomorphin or siRNA to AMPKγ increased osteoclast size in control cultures to the level observed in the presence of pyruvate. Thus, we have found that a moderate excess of pyruvate enhances osteoclastogenesis, and that AMPK acts to tailor osteoclastogenesis to a cell's bioenergetics capacity.

  9. Genetic determinant for amino acid metabolites and changes in body weight and insulin resistance in response to weight-loss diets: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Qi, Qibin; Liang, Jun; Bray, George A; Hu, Frank B; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2013-03-26

    Circulating branched-chain amino acids and aromatic amino acids were recently related to insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in prospective cohorts. We tested the effects of a genetic determinant of branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio on changes in body weight and insulin resistance in a 2-year diet intervention trial. We genotyped the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 near the PPM1K gene in 734 overweight or obese adults who were assigned to 1 of 4 diets varying in macronutrient content. At 6 months, dietary fat significantly modified genetic effects on changes in weight, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) after adjustment for the confounders (all P for interaction ≤0.006). Further adjustment for weight change did not appreciably change the interactions for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. In the high-fat diet group, the C allele was related to less weight loss and smaller decreases in serum insulin and HOMA-IR (all P ≤ 0.02 in an additive pattern), whereas an opposite genotype effect on changes in insulin and HOMA-IR was observed in the low-fat diet group (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). At 2 years, the gene-diet interactions remained significant for weight loss (P=0.008) but became null for changes in serum insulin and HOMA-IR resulting from weight regain. Individuals carrying the C allele of the branched-chain amino acid/aromatic amino acid ratio-associated variant rs1440581 may benefit less in weight loss and improvement of insulin sensitivity than those without this allele when undertaking an energy-restricted high-fat diet. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00072995.

  10. Anemia Due to Excessive Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... sample? Analysis of cell surface proteins Chromosomal analysis Cultures for bacteria Determination of the original arrangement of ...

  11. Weight gain after bariatric surgery as a result of a large gastric stoma: endotherapy with sodium morrhuate may prevent the need for surgical revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Marc F; Rudic, Goran; Anderson, Alfred J; Chua, Thomas Y

    2007-08-01

    Obesity affects more than 30% of the U.S. population and is associated with the development of life-threatening complications. Numerous therapeutic approaches to the problem have been advocated, including low-calorie diets, anoretic drugs, behavior modifications, and exercise therapy. The only treatment proven to be effective in the long-term management of morbid obesity is surgical intervention. Complications of bariatric surgery include stomal stenosis and/or ulcer and stomal dilation (secondary to overeating). The latter complication can result in a gain of previously lost weight. To determine the effect of endoscopic injection by using a sclerosant (sodium morrhuate) to induce stomal stenosis in patients who present with stomal dilatation complicated by weight gain. Bariatric patients with a large gastric stoma were treated with sodium morrhuate stomal injection. Diameters of the stoma were followed at repeat endoscopy. Weight loss at scheduled clinic visits were compared with pretherapy weights. Twenty-eight patients (10 men, 18 women; age range, 27-58 years), after bariatric surgery with GI bypass, were referred with weight gain after initial weight loss. Weight gain was believed to be the result of a large gastric stoma. Treatment included injection of sodium morrhuate (1-2 mL circumferentially) surrounding the stoma. A total of 1 to 3 injection sessions were performed in an attempt to achieve a stoma diameter of 1.2 cm or smaller. Treatment success was defined as a decrease of stoma size to weight loss >or=75% of the weight the patient gained after establishing a steady state post bariatric surgery weight. A total of 2.3 injection sessions were performed. Successful endotherapy was achieved in 18 of 28 patients (64%). One patient developed symptoms of stomal stenosis, which required 2 separate balloon dilating sessions. No other complications were encountered. Retrospective case series. Endoscopic injection of sodium morrhuate surrounding the dilated

  12. Weight Maintenance: Determinants of Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitchell, Cynthia L

    2005-01-01

    .... Obesity and physical inactivity are major preventable health problems in the United States, but despite overwhelming evidence regarding the benefits of a healthy weight and regular physical activity...

  13. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...

  14. Effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive programme on weight and fasting blood glucose in "at-risk" adolescents of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani Salameh, Ayman; Al-Sheyab, Nihaya; El-Hneiti, Mamdouh; Shaheen, Abeer; Williams, Leonie M; Gallagher, Robyn

    2017-06-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a 12-week school-based educational preventive programme for type 2 diabetes by change in weight and fasting blood glucose level in Jordanian adolescents. Sixteen percent of Jordanian adults have obesity-related type 2 diabetes and 5.6% of obese adolescents examined, however one-third unexamined. Rates in Arabic countries will double in 20 years, but this can be prevented and reversed by controlling obesity. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 unisex high schools in Irbid, Jordan, in 2012. Intervention and control participants, aged 12 to 18 years, were visibly overweight/obese. They were randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 205) or control (n = 196) groups. At-risk students were assessed before and after the 12-week intervention, for change in weight and fasting blood glucose level following preventive instruction and parent-supported changes. Mean age of participants was 15.3 years with equal percentages of both males (49.4%) and females. Post intervention, the intervention group, demonstrated statistically significant reductions: mean difference of 3.3 kg in weight (P blood glucose (P blood glucose in Jordanian at-risk adolescents. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled proof of concept study to evaluate samidorphan in the prevention of olanzapine-induced weight gain in healthy volunteers.

    Sci