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Sample records for preventing defective germination

  1. DOES JASMONIC ACID PREVENT THE GERMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAVUŞOĞLU, Kürşat

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Effect of jasmonic acid on seed germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bülbül 89) was investigated in the present study. Jasmonic acid concentrations less than 1500 µM have not inhibited the seed germination, while 1500 and 2000 µM jasmonic acid levels caused atypical germination. The germination was completely inhibited at 3000 µM level of jasmonic acid. However, the seedling growth clearly slowed down with increasing concentrations of jasmonic acid. Furt...

  2. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  3. Defective zoospore encystment and suppressed cyst germination of Phytophthora palmivora caused by transient leaching treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, J; Deacon, J W

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of encysting zoospores of Phytophthora palmivora during leaching conditions was studied. Zoospores encysted and germinated successfully on polycarbonate membranes after mechanical agitation. Transient (10 min) leaching treatments with nutrient-free buffer underneath the membranes

  4. Methods to prevent turbogenerators design elements defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Володимирівна Шевченко

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that the determination of a failure probability due to the design, technological and operational drawbacks, as well as due to the turbogenerators working time exceeding from statistics data is inaccurate. Machine park of turbogenerators being rather limited in number, the classification and the distribution of generators into groups is random. It can not be used in practice to identify the pre-emergency state of turbogenerators and their timely stop. Analysis and classification of most frequent defects of turbogenerators has been performed. Methods for assessing such defects and reduction of their development have been offered. The article notes that expenses should be taken into account when setting up a monitoring system to assess the state and to identify defects. Reduction of expenditures on both operating and new turbogenerators must be justified. Rapid return of investments must be ensured. The list of additional tests has been proposed: measurement of infrared radiation outside the body of the turbogenerator for the estimation of the thermal field distribution and the defects of gas coolers identification; vibroacoustic inspection of the stator core and casing to find out the defects in the suspension of the core in the stator casing; analysis of the impurities in the cooling gas and in the dry remains of the drainage products to detect the products of the steel core and the winding insulation wear; value measurement and establishment of the partial discharges formation position; research of vibrations to reveal the cracks in the shaft, circuiting in the rotor windings and defects in the bearings. The paper notes that at upgrading as power grows overall and mounting dimensions must be preserved so that the existing foundation could be used as well as the existing security systems. Therefore, when designing or upgrading turbogenerators with an increase in power it is necessary to introduce new design decisions

  5. Preventing neural tube defects in Europe : A missed opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busby, A; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; Armstrong, N; Haeusler, M; Berghold, A; Gillerot, Y; Baguette, A; Gjerga, R; Barisic, [No Value; Christiansen, M; Goujard, J; Steinbicker, [No Value; Rosch, C; McDonnell, R; Scarano, G; Calzolari, E; Neville, A; Cocchi, G; Bianca, S; Gatt, M; De Walle, H; Braz, P; Latos-Bielenska, A; Gener, B; Portillor, [No Value; Addor, MC; Abramsky, L; Ritvanen, A; Robert-Gnansia, E; Daltveit, AK; Aneren, G; Olars, B; Edwards, G

    2005-01-01

    Each year, more than 4500 pregnancies in the European Union are affected by neural tube defects (NTD). Unambiguous evidence of the effectiveness of peri conceptional folic acid in preventing the majority of neural tube defects has been available since 1991. We report on trends in the total

  6. Software defect prevention based on human error theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun HUANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Software defect prevention is an important way to reduce the defect introduction rate. As the primary cause of software defects, human error can be the key to understanding and preventing software defects. This paper proposes a defect prevention approach based on human error mechanisms: DPeHE. The approach includes both knowledge and regulation training in human error prevention. Knowledge training provides programmers with explicit knowledge on why programmers commit errors, what kinds of errors tend to be committed under different circumstances, and how these errors can be prevented. Regulation training further helps programmers to promote the awareness and ability to prevent human errors through practice. The practice is facilitated by a problem solving checklist and a root cause identification checklist. This paper provides a systematic framework that integrates knowledge across disciplines, e.g., cognitive science, software psychology and software engineering to defend against human errors in software development. Furthermore, we applied this approach in an international company at CMM Level 5 and a software development institution at CMM Level 1 in the Chinese Aviation Industry. The application cases show that the approach is feasible and effective in promoting developers’ ability to prevent software defects, independent of process maturity levels.

  7. Studies on the mechanism which prevents germination of unripe Triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticale (MT-3 caryopses were collected at three developmental stages (milk, milk-wax, and full ripeness i.e. 25, 39, 53 days after flowering and germinated for 72 hours. The highest polyribosome contribution to the sum total of ribosomes, as well as, the highest 3H-uridine incorporation into the total ribosomal fraction of embryos (seedlings were found at full ripeness, lower - at milk ripeness, and the lowest at milk-wax ripeness. Treatment of caryopses with gibberellin-A3 (GA3 and benzyloadenine (BA caused an increase in the percentage of embryonic polyribosomes in caryopses which were collected at milk and full ripeness. Whereas the significant increase in 3H-uridine incorporation intothe total ribosomal fractions of embryos (seedlings was observed only during the germination of the least ripe caryopses. This was characteristic of samples with caryopses at milk ripeness treated with BA, or BA and GA3 together. The studies proved that the mechanism which prevents the germination of unripe Triticale cyryopses and the formation of polyribosomes which were germination-induced, originated at the final stage of grain development, before its full ripeness.

  8. Global Burden of Neural Tube Defects, Risk Factors, and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects (NTDs, serious birth defects of the brain and spine usually resulting in death or paralysis, affect an estimated 300,000 births each year worldwide. Although the majority of NTDs are preventable with adequate folic acid consumption during the preconception period and throughout the first few weeks of gestation, many populations, in particular those in low and middle resource settings, do not have access to fortified foods or vitamin supplements containing folic acid. Further, accurate birth defects surveillance data, which could help inform mandatory fortification and other NTD prevention initiatives, are lacking in many of these settings. The burden of birth defects in South East Asia is among the highest in the world. Expanding global neural tube defects prevention initiatives can support the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce child mortality, a goal which many countries in South East Asia are currently not poised to reach, and the 63rd World Health Assembly Resolution on birth defects. More work is needed to develop and implement mandatory folic acid fortification policies, as well as supplementation programs in countries where the reach of fortification is limited.

  9. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  10. Maternal autoimmune disease and birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Meredith M; Browne, Marilyn L; Van Zutphen, Alissa R; Richardson, Sandra D; Blossom, Sarah J; Broussard, Cheryl S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Druschel, Charlotte M

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the association between maternal autoimmune disease or its treatment and the risk of birth defects. We examined these associations using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Analyses included 25,116 case and 9897 unaffected control infants with estimated delivery dates between 1997 and 2009. Information on autoimmune disease, medication use, and other pregnancy exposures was collected by means of telephone interview. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for birth defects with five or more exposed cases; crude ORs and exact 95% CIs were estimated for birth defects with three to four exposed cases. Autoimmune disease was reported by 373 mothers (279 case and 94 control mothers). The majority of birth defects evaluated were not associated with autoimmune disease; however, a statistically significant association between maternal autoimmune disease and encephalocele was observed (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 1.95-11.04). Eighty-two mothers with autoimmune disease used an immune modifying/suppressing medication during pregnancy; this was associated with encephalocele (OR, 7.26; 95% CI, 1.37-24.61) and atrial septal defects (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.16-7.80). Our findings suggest maternal autoimmune disease and treatment are not associated with the majority of birth defects, but may be associated with some defects, particularly encephalocele. Given the low prevalence of individual autoimmune diseases and the rare use of specific medications, we were unable to examine associations of specific autoimmune diseases and medications with birth defects. Other studies are needed to confirm these findings. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:950-962, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  12. Clinical and risk factor analysis of cloacal defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Conway, Kristin M; Shen, Dereck; Rhoads, Anthony J; Carey, John C; Romitti, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Cloacal exstrophy (CE) and persistent cloaca (PC) (alternatively termed urorectal septum malformation sequence [URSMS]), represent two major cloacal defects (CDs). Clinical characteristics and risk factors often are studied for both defects combined, rather than exploring if these defects have different etiologies. We enumerated clinical features for 47 CE and 54 PC (inclusive of URSMS) cases from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Thirty-three CE cases were classified as isolated and 14 as multiple (presence of unassociated major defects); respective totals for PC cases were 26 and 28. We compared selected child and maternal characteristics between 11,829 non-malformed controls and CE and PC cases using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Compared to controls, CE and PC cases were statistically more likely (p < 0.05) to be preterm; CE cases were more likely to be multiple births. We conducted logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for any CD, CE, and PC with selected self-reported maternal prepregnancy and periconceptional (one month prior to 3 months following conception) exposures. In crude and adjusted analyses, we observed significant positive associations for any CD, CE, and PC with use of any fertility medication or assisted reproductive technology procedure. Significant positive associations observed only in crude analyses were any CD with maternal obesity or use of progesterone, any CD and CE with any x-ray, and any CD and PC with use of folate antagonist medications. Our findings provide some of the first insights into potential differing etiologies for CE and PC. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Preventing customer defection and stimulating return of the lost customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senić Radoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Customers represent company's most valuable asset. Company can assure its survival, further growth and development by retaining existing, attracting new and returning lost customers. Retaining existing, loyal customers is the most profitable business activity, attracting new ones is the most expensive, while returning lost and frequently forgotten customers is a type of business activity that still generates modest interest among researchers and practitioners. So far, marketing strategies have been mainly directed towards the first two categories of customers. The objective of this paper is dedicated to customer defection and returning lost customers. Paper discusses customer relationship life-cycle and the significance of managing customer return within it, types of customer defections, the process of managing return, as well as, the reasons that led to customer defection.

  14. How to prevent echocardiographic misinterpretation of Gerbode type defect as pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Faramarz; Movahed, Mohammad-Reza

    2007-12-01

    We present a rare case of left ventricular to right atrial communication, a Gerbode type defect discovered in an adult female, originally misinterpreted as pulmonary arterial hypertension. The case report will be followed by the review of the literature and a discussion about how to prevent echocardiographic misinterpretation of this defect as pulmonary arterial hypertension using careful echocardiographic examination.

  15. Effectiveness Of Defect Prevention In I.T. For Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    V., Suma; Nair, T. R. Gopalakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Defect Prevention is the most critical but most neglected component of the software quality assurance in any project. If applied at all stages of software development, it can reduce the time, cost and resources required to engineer a high quality product. Software inspection has proved to be the most effective and efficient technique enabling defect detection and prevention. Inspections carried at all phases of software life cycle have proved to be most beneficial and value added to the attri...

  16. Mothers' beliefs as to causation and prevention of birth defects in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, E O; Elegbe, I

    1984-06-01

    The type of birth defects ever seen or heard of and beliefs as to the causation and means of preventing the defects were investigated among 225 newly deliverd and nursing mothers through interviews. The majority were between the ages of 20 to 29 years; 9.3% were between 35 and 40 years. The bulk of the respondents are illiterates. More than 75% of the mothers had 2 or more children. The most common birth defects seen were amputated leg; dislocated hips; lamed hand or funny elbows or ankles; extra digits; and missing digits. Common perceptions of the causes were God's will (32.9%) and evil doers or evil powers due to witchcraft or sorcery (40.9%). Poor nutrition or poor antenatal care was reported by only 2.2%; while 1.3% attributed the cause to an excessive combination of native and modern drugs. The majority believed that avoidance of walking at night and midafternoon during pregnancy would prevent birth defects. 10.2% and 5.3% were of the opinion that praying to God and going to the herbalist respectively would prevent birth defects. Prevention of birth defects is an essential task for all health workers in Nigeria. The causes of birth defects should be brodcast on radio and television and published in national dialects in the newspapers. 83.6% claimed that they were not informed of various means of preventing birth defects during prenatal clinic visits. The schools should include prevention and causation of birth defects in a health education curriculum.

  17. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  18. Prevention of visual field defects after macular hole surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinane, A B

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND\\/AIM: The pathogenesis of visual field loss associated with macular hole surgery is uncertain but a number of explanations have been proposed, the most convincing of which is the effect of peeling of the posterior hyaloid, causing either direct damage to the nerve fibre layer or to its blood supply at the optic nerve head. The purpose of this preliminary prospective study was to determine the incidence of visual field defects following macular hole surgery in cases in which peeling of the posterior hyaloid was confined only to the area of the macula. METHODS: 102 consecutive eyes that had macular hole surgery had preoperative and postoperative visual field examination using a Humphrey\\'s perimeter. A comparison was made between two groups: I, those treated with vitrectomy with complete posterior cortical vitreous peeling; and II, those treated with a vitrectomy with peeling of the posterior hyaloid in the area of the macula but without attempting a complete posterior vitreous detachment. Specifically, no attempt was made to separate the posterior hyaloid from the optic nerve head. Eyes with stage II or III macular holes were operated. Autologous platelet concentrate and non-expansile gas tamponade was used. Patients were postured prone for 1 week. RESULTS: In group I, 22% of patients were found to have visual field defects. In group II, it was possible to separate the posterior hyaloid from the macula without stripping it from the optic nerve head and in these eyes no pattern of postoperative visual field loss emerged. There were no significant vision threatening complications in this group. The difference in the incidence of visual field loss between group I and group II was significant (p=0.02). The anatomical and visual success rates were comparable between both groups. CONCLUSION: The results from this preliminary study suggest that the complication of visual field loss after macular surgery may be reduced if peeling of the posterior hyaloid is

  19. [Neural tube defects and folic acid: a historical overview of a highly successful preventive intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Adriana Ordoñez; Suarez-Obando, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This article gives a broad overview of part of the historical evolution of medical knowledge about neural tube defects (NTD) and the discovery of vitamin B9 or folic acid, as well as some relevant research events that, over the course of several centuries, defined the relationships between the understanding of central nervous system embryology, the discovery of the vitamin, the correlation between folic acid and cell proliferation and lastly the development of preventive measures for this type of defects. This narrative allows us to examine historically relevant concepts underlying clinical actions with a populational impact that prevent NTDs via folic acid consumption prior to conception.

  20. Maternal Occupational Pesticide Exposure and Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Bertke, Stephen J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Romitti, Paul A.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Malik, Sadia; Lupo, Philip J.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Bell, Erin; Druschel, Charlotte; Correa, Adolfo; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are common birth defects, affecting approximately 1% of live births. Pesticide exposure has been suggested as an etiologic factor for CHDs, but previous results were inconsistent. METHODS We examined maternal occupational exposure to fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides for 3328 infants with CHDs and 2988 unaffected control infants of employed mothers using data for 1997 through 2002 births from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based multisite case-control study. Potential pesticide exposure from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy was assigned by an expert-guided task-exposure matrix and job history details self-reported by mothers. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS Maternal occupational exposure to pesticides was not associated with CHDs overall. In examining specific CHD subtypes compared with controls, some novel associations were observed with higher estimated pesticide exposure: insecticides only and secundum atrial septal defect (OR =1.8; 95% CI, 1.3–2.7, 40 exposed cases); both insecticides and herbicides and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (OR =5.1; 95% CI, 1.7–15.3, 4 exposed cases), as well as pulmonary valve stenosis (OR =3.6; 95% CI, 1.3–10.1, 5 exposed cases); and insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (OR =2.2; 95% CI, 1.2–4.0, 13 exposed cases). CONCLUSION Broad pesticide exposure categories were not associated with CHDs overall, but examining specific CHD subtypes revealed some increased odds ratios. These results highlight the importance of examining specific CHDs separately. Because of multiple comparisons, additional work is needed to verify these associations. PMID:26033688

  1. Risk reduction using DDP (Defect Detection and Prevention): Software support and software applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Risk assessment and mitigation is the focus of the Defect Detection and Prevention (DDP) process, which has been applied to spacecraft technology assessments and planning, both hardware and software. DDP's major elements and their relevance to core requirement engineering concerns are summarized. The accompanying research demonstration illustrates DDP's tool support, and further customizations for application to software.

  2. Seed dormancy and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfield, Steven

    2017-09-11

    Reproduction is a critical time in plant life history. Therefore, genes affecting seed dormancy and germination are among those under strongest selection in natural plant populations. Germination terminates seed dispersal and thus influences the location and timing of plant growth. After seed shedding, germination can be prevented by a property known as seed dormancy. In practise, seeds are rarely either dormant or non-dormant, but seeds whose dormancy-inducing pathways are activated to higher levels will germinate in an ever-narrower range of environments. Thus, measurements of dormancy must always be accompanied by analysis of environmental contexts in which phenotypes or behaviours are described. At its simplest, dormancy can be imposed by the formation of a simple physical barrier around the seed through which gas exchange and the passage of water are prevented. Seeds featuring this so-called 'physical dormancy' often require either scarification or passage through an animal gut (replete with its associated digestive enzymes) to disrupt the barrier and permit germination. In other types of seeds with 'morphological dormancy' the embryo remains under-developed at maturity and a dormant phase exists as the embryo continues its growth post-shedding, eventually breaking through the surrounding tissues. By far, the majority of seeds exhibit 'physiological dormancy' - a quiescence program initiated by either the embryo or the surrounding endosperm tissues. Physiological dormancy uses germination-inhibiting hormones to prevent germination in the absence of the specific environmental triggers that promote germination. During and after germination, early seedling growth is supported by catabolism of stored reserves of protein, oil or starch accumulated during seed maturation. These reserves support cell expansion, chloroplast development and root growth until photoauxotrophic growth can be resumed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Osmoconditioning prevents the onset of microtubular cytoskeleton and activation of cell cycle and is detrimental for germination of Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, C D; Loureiro, M B; Ribeiro, P R; Vasconcelos, P C T; Fernandez, L G; de Castro, R D

    2016-11-01

    Jatropha curcas is an oilseed crop renowned for its tolerance to a diverse range of environmental stresses. In Brazil, this species is grown in semiarid regions where crop establishment requires a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying appropriate seed, seedling and plant behaviour under water restriction conditions. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the physiological and cytological profiles of J. curcas seeds in response to imbibition in water (control) and in polyethylene glycol solution (osmoticum). Seed germinability and reactivation of cell cycle events were assessed by means of different germination parameters and immunohistochemical detection of tubulin and microtubules, i.e. tubulin accumulation and microtubular cytoskeleton configurations in water imbibed seeds (control) and in seeds imbibed in the osmoticum. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed increasing accumulation of tubulin and appearance of microtubular cytoskeleton in seed embryo radicles imbibed in water from 48 h onwards. Mitotic microtubules were only visible in seeds imbibed in water, after radicle protrusion, as an indication of cell cycle reactivation and cell proliferation, with subsequent root development. Imbibition in osmoticum prevented accumulation of microtubules, i.e. activation of cell cycle, therefore germination could not be resumed. Osmoconditioned seeds were able to survive re-drying and could resume germination after re-imbibition in water, however, with lower germination performance, possibly due to acquisition of secondary dormancy. This study provides important insights into understanding of the physiological aspects of J. curcas seed germination in response to water restriction conditions. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Study of the predominant defect development in rails of underground systems after preventive grinding and lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin Serhii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the method of contact surface treatment and to define the rational surface roughness in the wheel/rail contact for the minimal growth rate of contact fatigue defects the program of experiments in operational conditions was developed. On the basis of the results and calculations the coefficients of regression equations, which describe dependencies of the wear rate on the parameters of the contact surface treatment in real operational conditions were obtained. Besides, the diagrams of dependencies of the friction coefficient on the roughness of railhead contact surface of the high rails with and without lubrication, when laid in curves of underground systems, were built. The experiments conducted in operational conditions of Kharkiv Metro revealed the influence of roughness of the railhead side surface of the high rails in curves on the contact fatigue defect development after preventive grinding and lubrication. According to the results of the experiments it was established that the rail preventive grinding with simultaneous lubrication led to slower contact fatigue defect development in rails of underground systems. The rational roughness of the railhead side surface of the high rails in curves after preventive grinding, which led to the minimal rate of defect development, was defined.

  5. Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

    2012-12-15

    Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy.

  6. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... recent progress in barley germination research and discuss the factors to be considered when designing 'omics' experiments and interpreting the results. These factors include the structural and functional relationships between the various tissues of the barley caryopsis and the timing of the events...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  7. Blob defect prevention in 193nm topcoat-free immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deyan; Liu, Jinrong; Kang, Doris; Liu, Cong; Estelle, Tom; Xu, Cheng-Bai; Barclay, George; Trefonas, Peter

    2012-03-01

    In 193nm immersion lithography, immersion top coat was the first proposed technique for preventing the leaching of photoresist (resist) components, such as photoacid generator (PAG) and quencher base, into the immersion fluid (DI water). In this approach, the top coat is coated onto a resist film in a separate step including coating the top coat film and baking the film. This approach certainly adds extra cost to the device manufacturing and incurs reduced throughput as compared to the dry lithography process. The embedded barrier layer (EBL) technology1-5 developed at Dow Electronic Materials has been demonstrated to be a revolutionary approach, in which a suitable EBL material is formulated into an existing resist, and in a spin coating process the EBL material comes to the resist surface to forms a leaching barrier in situ. This approach has now been widely accepted and implemented in the integrated circuit manufacturing industry for replacing the conventional immersion top coat process. In addition to being an excellent leaching barrier, EBL materials, in general, result in a resist surface with a high receding angle for water. This property makes the EBL approach more desirable in topcoat free immersion lithography, since it allow for the latest scanners to perform at their maximum scan speed without generating watermark defects. For immersion lithography, the most important issue for mass production is defectivity control. This is true for both top coat and topcoat free approaches. In the top coat approach, the formulation optimization for both top coat and resists was extensively involved for this technique finally to reach an acceptable defectivity level for mass production of semiconductor devices. As a later developed technology, the EBL approach has gone through a series of research and development stages particularly in material innovation to reach the same low defectivity level as that of an immersion top coat process. After achieving the target of low

  8. Differences in risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias in the national birth defects prevention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, S.G.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Olney, R.S.; Carmichael, S.L.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. METHODS: A wide variety of data

  9. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth

  10. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  11. Preventive program of birth defects: incidence of anencephaly in Maracaibo, Venezuela. 1993-1996 period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Fuenmayor, H; Valera, V; Socorro Candanoza, L; Bracho, A; Herrera, M; Rodriguez, Z; Concho, E

    1996-01-01

    Incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia, and specifically in the Eastern Coast of Lake Maracaibo, an oil exploitation area, has been declared high since the beginning of the 80's, coincident with the generalized use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for fetal evaluation. Through the Birth Defects Preventive Program, established at the Hospital Chiquinquira in Maracaibo, we have developed a fourfold strategy for the study of birth defects: i) analysis of more than 32,332 ultrasound evaluations within the Ultrasound Service, between 1993 and 1996, ii) a case-control malformation registry beginning in 1995, iii) a study of malformed stillbirths at the Pathology Service, observed after 4232 deliveries within this hospital, and iv) a registry of over 638 mothers with high risk pregnancy for fetal defects detected at the prenatal clinic and carried out at the Perinatal Medical Genetics Service. As a reference population we study 345 medical histories obtained from the Medical Genetics and Prenatal Diagnostic Service at Hospital Coromoto, and oil companies related medical facility. This approach has led us to conclude that the incidence of anencephaly in the State of Zulia is 0.75/1000, significantly similar to that expected for most populations

  12. Head midline position for preventing the occurrence or extension of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romantsik, Olga; Calevo, Maria Grazia; Bruschettini, Matteo

    2017-07-20

    Preterm birth is known to constitute the major risk factor for development of germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH). Head position may affect cerebral hemodynamics and thus may be involved indirectly in development of GM-IVH. Turning the head toward one side may functionally occlude jugular venous drainage on the ipsilateral side while increasing intracranial pressure and cerebral blood volume. Thus, it has been suggested that cerebral venous pressure is reduced and hydrostatic brain drainage improved if the patient is in supine midline position with the bed tilted 30°. The midline position might be achieved in the supine position and, with the use of physical aids, in the lateral position as well. Midline position should be kept, at least when the incidence of GM-IVH is greatest, that is, during the first two to three days of life. Primary objective To assess whether head midline position is more effective than any other head position for preventing or extending germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage in infants born at ≤ 32 weeks' gestational age. Secondary objectives To perform subgroup analyses regarding gestational age, birth weight, intubated versus not intubated, and with or without GM-IVH at trial entry. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to September 19, 2016), Embase (1980 to September 19,.2016), and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to September 19, 2016). We searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized trials. Randomized clinical controlled trials, quasi-randomized trials, and cluster-randomized controlled trials comparing placing very preterm infants in a head midline position versus placing them in a prone or lateral decubitus

  13. Ultraviolet light-irradiated photocrosslinkable chitosan hydrogel to prevent bone formation in both rat skull and fibula bone defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Yoshifumi; Hattori, Hidemi; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Satoko; Amako, Masatoshi; Arino, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Koichi

    2013-09-01

    In the field of orthopaedic surgery, an orthopaedic surgeon sometimes requires to suppress excessive bone formation, such as ectopic bone formation, ossifying myositis and radio-ulnar synostosis, etc. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of a photocrosslinkable chitosan (Az-CH-LA) generates an insoluble hydrogel within 30 s. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the photocrosslinked chitosan hydrogel (PCH) to inhibit bone formation in an experimental model of bone defect. Rat calvarium and fibula were surgically injured and PCH was implanted into the resultant bone defects. The PCH implants significantly prevented bone formation in the bone defects during the 4 and 8 week observation periods. In the PCH-treated defects, fibrous tissues infiltrated by inflammatory cells were formed by day 7, completely filling the bone defects. In addition to these findings, expression of osteocalcin and runt-related gene 2 (RUNX2) mRNA, both markers of bone formation, was lower in the PCH-treated defects than in the controls. In contrast, collagen type 1α2 and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA levels were significantly higher in the PCH-treated defects after 1 week. PCH stimulated the formation of fibrous tissue in bone defects while inhibiting bone formation. Thus, PCH might be a promising new therapeutic biomaterial for the prevention of bone formation in orthopaedic surgery. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Triple surveillance: a proposal for an integrated strategy to support and accelerate birth defect prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) easily qualifies as a high‐value opportunity to improve childhood survival and health: the unmet need is significant (major preventable burden), the intervention is transformative (providing sufficient folic acid), and delivery strategies (e.g., fortification) are effective in low‐resource countries. Yet, NTD prevention is lagging. Can public health surveillance help fix this problem? Critics contend that surveillance is largely unnecessary, that limited resources are best spent on interventions, and that surveillance is unrealistic in developing countries. The counterargument is twofold: (1) in the absence of surveillance, interventions will provide fewer benefits and cost more and (2) effective surveillance is likely possible nearly everywhere, with appropriate strategies. As a base strategy, we propose “triple surveillance:” integrating surveillance of cause (folate insufficiency), of disease occurrence (NTD prevalence), and of health outcomes (morbidity, mortality, and disability). For better sustainability and usefulness, it is crucial to refocus and streamline surveillance activities (no recreational data collection), weave surveillance into clinical care (integrate in clinical workflow), and, later, work on including additional risk factors and pediatric outcomes (increase benefits at low marginal cost). By doing so, surveillance becomes not a roadblock but a preferential path to prevention and better care. PMID:29532515

  15. Economic burden of neural tube defects and impact of prevention with folic acid: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yunni; Lindemann, Marion; Colligs, Antje; Snowball, Claire

    2011-11-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the second most common group of serious birth defects. Although folic acid has been shown to reduce effectively the risk of NTDs and measures have been taken to increase the awareness, knowledge, and consumption of folic acid, the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized in most countries. To understand the economic burden of NTDs and the economic impact of preventing NTDs with folic acid, a systematic review was performed on relevant studies. A total of 14 cost of illness studies and 10 economic evaluations on prevention of NTDs with folic acid were identified. Consistent findings were reported across all of the cost of illness studies. The lifetime direct medical cost for patients with NTDs is significant, with the majority of cost being for inpatient care, for treatment at initial diagnosis in childhood, and for comorbidities in adult life. The lifetime indirect cost for patients with spina bifida is even greater due to increased morbidity and premature mortality. Caregiver time costs are also significant. The results from the economic evaluations demonstrate that folic acid fortification in food and preconception folic acid consumption are cost-effective ways to reduce the incidence and prevalence of NTDs. This review highlights the significant cost burden that NTDs pose to healthcare systems, various healthcare payers, and society and concludes that the benefits of prevention of NTDs with folic acid far outweigh the cost. Further intervention with folic acid is justified in countries where the full potential of folic acid to reduce the risk of NTDs has not been realized.

  16. Prevention of dental anomalies in children by prosthetics defects hard tooth tissues and dentitions: the need to possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suetenkov D.Ye.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of restore the function and anatomy of the tooth and replacement of defects of dentition by prosthesis in children under the removable bite as a method of prevention of dentoalveolar anomalies. Identified the need for prosthetic treatment of children and the willingness of dentists as primary health care professional to address the problems identified. A clinical analysis of complex treatment of defects in the teeth with fixed restorations

  17. Prevention of late blowing defect by reuterin produced in cheese by a Lactobacillus reuteri adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Torres, Natalia; Ávila, Marta; Gaya, Pilar; Garde, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    In this study, reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri INIA P572 was added to cheese as an adjunct culture together with 50 or 100 mM glycerol (required for reuterin production), with the aim of controlling Clostridium tyrobutyricum CECT 4011 growth and preventing the late blowing defect (LBD) of cheese caused by this strain. L. reuteri survived cheese manufacture and produced reuterin in situ, detected at 6 and 24 h. However, the produced reuterin was enough to inhibit the growth of Clostridium, showing undetectable spore counts from day 30 onward and, therefore, to prevent cheese LBD during ripening (60 d, 14 °C). The acidification of these cheeses was not affected, although from day 14 they showed significantly lower lactococci counts than cheese made only with the starter (control cheese). Cheeses with LBD showed lower levels of lactic acid than control cheese and the formation of propionic and butyric acids, but cheeses with reuterin showed the same organic acids profile than control cheese. The cheese made with L. reuteri and 100 mM glycerol showed a light pink colour, not observed in the cheese made with L. reuteri and 50 mM glycerol. These results demonstrated a potent anti-clostridial activity of reuterin produced in an actual food product like cheese, and proved to be a novel approach to prevent LBD of cheese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Folic acid supplements to prevent neural tube defects: trends in East of Ireland 1996-2002.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, M

    2004-10-01

    Promotion of folic acid to prevent neural Tube Defects (NTD) has been ongoing for ten years in Ireland, without a concomitant reduction in the total birth prevalence of NTD. The effectiveness of folic acid promotion as the sole means of primary prevention of NTD is therefore questionable. We examined trends in folic acid knowledge and peri-conceptional use from 1996-2002 with the aim of assessing the value of this approach. From 1996-2002, 300 women attending ante-natal clinics in Dublin hospitals annually were surveyed regarding their knowledge and use of folic acid. During the period the proportion who had heard of folic acid rose from 54% to 94% between 1996 and 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Knowledge that folic acid can prevent NTD also rose from 21% to 66% (c2 test for trend: p<0.001). Although the proportion who took folic acid during pregnancy increased from 14% to 83% from 1996 to 2002 (c2 test for trend: p<0.001), peri-conceptional intake did not rise above 24% in any year. There is a high awareness of folic acid and its relation to NTD, which is not matched by peri-conceptional uptake. The main barrier to peri-conceptional uptake is the lack of pregnancy planning. To date promotional campaigns appear to have been ineffective in reducing the prevalence of NTD in Ireland. Consequently, fortification of staple foodstuffs is the only practical and reliable means of primary prevention of NTD.

  19. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, C; McDonnell, R; Robson, M; Corcoran, S; Fitzpatrick, C; De La Harpe, D

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  20. Folic acid supplement use in the prevention of neural tube defects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delany, C

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, planned folic acid fortification for the prevention of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) was postponed. Concurrently, the economic recession may have affected dietary folic acid intake, placing increased emphasis on supplement use. This study examined folic acid supplement use in 2009. A cross-sectional survey of 300 ante-natal women was undertaken to assess folic acid knowledge and use. Associations between demographic, obstetric variables and folic acid knowledge and use were examined. A majority, 284\\/297 (96%), had heard of folic acid, and 178\\/297 (60%) knew that it could prevent NTD. Most, 270\\/297 (91%) had taken it during their pregnancy, but only 107\\/297 (36%) had used it periconceptionally. Being older, married, planned pregnancy and better socioeconomic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from economic status were associated with periconceptional use. Periconceptional folic acid use in 2009 was very low, little changed from earlier years. Continuous promotion efforts are necessary. Close monitoring of folic acid intake and NTD rates is essential, particularly in the absence of fortification.

  1. The role of oxidized regenerate cellulose to prevent cosmetic defects in oncoplastic breast surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, G; Visconti, G; Terribile, D; Fabbri, C; Magno, S; Di Leone, A; Salgarello, M; Masetti, R

    2012-07-01

    Breast conserving surgery (BCS) combined with postoperative radiotherapy has become the gold standard of locoregional treatment for the majority of patients with early-stage breast cancer, offering equivalent survival and improved body image and lifestyle scores as compared to mastectomy. In an attempt to optimize the oncologic safety and cosmetic results of BCS, oncoplastic procedures (OPP) have been introduced in recent years combining the best principles of surgical oncology with those of plastic surgery. However, even with the use of OPP, cosmetic outcomes may result unsatisfying when a large volume of parenchyma has to be removed, particularly in small-medium size breasts. The aim of this article is to report our preliminary results with the use of oxidized regenerate cellulose (ORC) (Tabotamp fibrillar, Johnson & Johnson; Ethicon, USA) as an agent to prevent cosmetic defects in patients undergoing OPP for breast cancer and to analyze the technical refinements that can enhance its efficacy in optimizing cosmetic defects. Different OPP are selected based on the location and size of the tumor as well as volume and shape of the breast. After excision of the tumor, glandular flaps are created by dissection of the residual parenchyma from the pectoralis and serratus muscles and from the skin. After careful haemostasis, five layers of ORC are positioned on the pectoralis major in the residual cavity and covered by advancement of the glandular flaps. Two additional layers of ORC are positioned above the flaps and covered by cutaneous-subcutaenous flaps. The use of ORC after OPP has shown promising preliminary results, indicating a good tolerability and positive effects on cosmesis. This simple and reliable surgical technique may allow not only to reduce the rate of post-operative bleeding and infection at the surgical site but also to improve cosmetic results.

  2. A Knowledge-Based System For Analysis, Intervention Planning and Prevention of Defects in Immovable Cultural Heritage Objects and Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, J.; Cacciotti, R.; Kuneš, P.; ČerÅanský, M.; Bláha, J.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents a project aiming to develop a knowledge-based system for documentation and analysis of defects of cultural heritage objects and monuments. The MONDIS information system concentrates knowledge on damage of immovable structures due to various causes, and preventive/remedial actions performed to protect/repair them, where possible. The currently built system is to provide for understanding of causal relationships between a defect, materials, external load, and environment of built object. Foundation for the knowledge-based system will be the systemized and formalized knowledge on defects and their mitigation acquired in the process of analysis of a representative set of cases documented in the past. On the basis of design comparability, used technologies, materials and the nature of the external forces and surroundings, the developed software system has the capacity to indicate the most likely risks of new defect occurrence or the extension of the existing ones. The system will also allow for a comparison of the actual failure with similar cases documented and will propose a suitable technical intervention plan. The system will provide conservationists, administrators and owners of historical objects with a toolkit for defect documentation for their objects. Also, advanced artificial intelligence methods will offer accumulated knowledge to users and will also enable them to get oriented in relevant techniques of preventive interventions and reconstructions based on similarity with their case.

  3. Prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid: The Chinese experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ai-Guo

    2015-08-08

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of congenital malformations of the central nervous system that are caused by the closure failure of the embryonic neural tube by the 28(th) day of conception. Anencephaly and spina bifida are the two major subtypes. Fetuses with anencephaly are often stillborn or electively aborted due to prenatal diagnosis, or they die shortly after birth. Most infants with spina bifida are live-born and, with proper surgical treatment, can survive into adulthood. However, these children often have life-long physical disabilities. China has one of the highest prevalence of NTDs in the world. Inadequate dietary folate intake is believed to be the main cause of the cluster. Unlike many other countries that use staple fortification with folic acid as the public health strategy to prevent NTDs, the Chinese government provides all women who have a rural household registration and who plan to become pregnant with folic acid supplements, free of charge, through a nation-wide program started in 2009. Two to three years after the initiation of the program, the folic acid supplementation rate increased to 85% in the areas of the highest NTD prevalence. The mean plasma folate level of women during early and mid-pregnancy doubled the level before the program was introduced. However, most women began taking folic acid supplements when they knew that they were pregnant. This is too late for the protection of the embryonic neural tube. In a post-program survey of the women who reported folic acid supplementation, less than a quarter of the women began taking supplements prior to pregnancy, indicating that the remaining three quarters of the fetuses remained unprotected during the time of neural tube formation. Therefore, staple food fortification with folic acid should be considered as a priority in the prevention of NTDs.

  4. Is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate an alternative to folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Women have higher requirements for folate during pregnancy. An optimal folate status must be achieved before conception and in the first trimester when the neural tube closes. Low maternal folate status is causally related to neural tube defects (NTDs). Many NTDs can be prevented by increasing maternal folate intake in the preconceptional period. Dietary folate is protective, but recommending increasing folate intake is ineffective on a population level particularly during periods of high demands. This is because the recommendations are often not followed or because the bioavailability of food folate is variable. Supplemental folate [folic acid (FA) or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF)] can effectively increase folate concentrations to the level that is considered to be protective. FA is a synthetic compound that has no biological functions unless it is reduced to dihydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate. Unmetabolized FA appears in the circulation at doses of >200 μg. Individuals show wide variations in their ability to reduce FA. Carriers of certain polymorphisms in genes related to folate metabolism or absorption can better benefit from 5-methylTHF instead of FA. 5-MethylTHF [also known as (6S)-5-methylTHF] is the predominant natural form that is readily available for transport and metabolism. In contrast to FA, 5-methylTHF has no tolerable upper intake level and does not mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Supplementation of the natural form, 5-methylTHF, is a better alternative to supplementation of FA, especially in countries not applying a fortification program. Supplemental 5-methylTHF can effectively improve folate biomarkers in young women in early pregnancy in order to prevent NTDs.

  5. Melatonin prevents neural tube defects in the offspring of diabetic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangming; Guo, Yuji; Yuan, Qiuhuan; Pan, Yan; Wang, Liyan; Liu, Qian; Wang, Fuwu; Wang, Jingjing; Hao, Aijun

    2015-11-01

    Melatonin, an endogenous neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland, has a variety of physiological functions and neuroprotective effects. However, its protective role on the neural tube defects (NTDs) was not very clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin on the incidence of NTDs (including anencephaly, encephalocele, and spina bifida) of offspring from diabetic pregnant mice as well as its underlying mechanisms. Pregnant mice were given 10 mg/kg melatonin by daily i.p. injection from embryonic day (E) 0.5 until being killed on E11.5. Here, we showed that melatonin decreased the NTDs (especially exencephaly) rate of embryos exposed to maternal diabetes. Melatonin stimulated proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) under hyperglycemic condition through the extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) pathway. Furthermore, as a direct free radical scavenger, melatonin decreased apoptosis of NSCs exposed to hyperglycemia. In the light of these findings, it suggests that melatonin supplementation may play an important role in the prevention of neural malformations in diabetic pregnancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects and safety of periconceptional oral folate supplementation for preventing birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Fernández-Gaxiola, Ana C; Rayco-Solon, Pura

    2015-12-14

    It has been reported that neural tube defects (NTD) can be prevented with periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The effects of different doses, forms and schemes of folate supplementation for the prevention of other birth defects and maternal and infant outcomes are unclear. This review aims to examine whether periconceptional folate supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube and other congenital anomalies (including cleft palate) without causing adverse outcomes in mothers or babies. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane review on this topic. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015). Additionally, we searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 August 2015) and contacted relevant organisations to identify ongoing and unpublished studies. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised trials evaluating the effect of periconceptional folate supplementation alone, or in combination with other vitamins and minerals, in women independent of age and parity. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, checked data entry for accuracy and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. We assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach. Five trials involving 7391 women (2033 with a history of a pregnancy affected by a NTD and 5358 with no history of NTDs) were included. Four comparisons were made: 1) supplementation with any folate versus no intervention, placebo or other micronutrients without folate (five trials); 2) supplementation with folic acid alone versus no treatment or placebo (one trial); 3) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus other micronutrients without folate (four trials); and 4) supplementation with folate plus other micronutrients versus the same other micronutrients without

  7. Defect prevention in silica thin films synthesized using AP-PECVD for flexible electronic encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, Fiona M.; Starostin, Sergey A.; Meshkova, Anna S.; van der Velden-Schuermans, Bernadette C. A. M.; van de Sanden, Mauritius C. M.; de Vries, Hindrik W.

    2017-06-01

    Industrially and commercially relevant roll-to-roll atmospheric pressure-plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition was used to synthesize smooth, 80 nm silica-like bilayer thin films comprising a dense ‘barrier layer’ and comparatively porous ‘buffer layer’ onto a flexible polyethylene 2,6 naphthalate substrate. For both layers, tetraethyl orthosilicate was used as the precursor gas, together with a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen and argon. The bilayer films demonstrated exceptionally low effective water vapour transmission rates in the region of 6.1  ×  10-4 g m-2 d-1 (at 40 °C, 90% relative humidity), thus capable of protecting flexible photovoltaics and thin film transistors from degradation caused by oxygen and water. The presence of the buffer layer within the bilayer architecture was mandatory in order to achieve the excellent encapsulation performance. Atomic force microscopy in addition to solvent permeation measurements, confirmed that the buffer layer prevented the formation of performance-limiting defects in the bilayer thin films, which likely occur as a result of excessive plasma-surface interactions during the deposition process. It emerged that the primary function of the buffer layer was therefore to act as a protective coating for the flexible polymer substrate material.

  8. Hypospadias and maternal exposure to atrazine via drinking water in the National Birth Defects Prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Jennifer J; Emch, Michael; Meyer, Robert E; Langlois, Peter; Weyer, Peter; Mosley, Bridget; Olshan, Andrew F; Band, Lawrence E; Luben, Thomas J

    2016-07-15

    Hypospadias is a relatively common birth defect affecting the male urinary tract. It has been suggested that exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals might increase the risk of hypospadias by interrupting normal urethral development. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case-control study, we considered the role of maternal exposure to atrazine, a widely used herbicide and potential endocrine disruptor, via drinking water in the etiology of 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias. We used data on 343 hypospadias cases and 1,422 male controls in North Carolina, Arkansas, Iowa, and Texas from 1998-2005. Using catchment level stream and groundwater contaminant models from the US Geological Survey, we estimated atrazine concentrations in public water supplies and in private wells. We assigned case and control mothers to public water supplies based on geocoded maternal address during the critical window of exposure for hypospadias (i.e., gestational weeks 6-16). Using maternal questionnaire data about water consumption and drinking water, we estimated a surrogate for total maternal consumption of atrazine via drinking water. We then included additional maternal covariates, including age, race/ethnicity, parity, and plurality, in logistic regression analyses to consider an association between atrazine and hypospadias. When controlling for maternal characteristics, any association between hypospadias and daily maternal atrazine exposure during the critical window of genitourinary development was found to be weak or null (odds ratio for atrazine in drinking water = 1. 00, 95 % CI = 0.97 to 1.03 per 0.04 μg/day increase; odds ratio for maternal consumption = 1.02, 95 % CI = 0.99 to 1.05; per 0.05 μg/day increase). While the association that we observed was weak, our results suggest that additional research into a possible association between atrazine and hypospadias occurrence, using a more sensitive exposure metric

  9. Pre-germinated brown rice prevents high-fat diet induced hyperglycemia through elevated insulin secretion and glucose metabolism pathway in C57BL/6J strain mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Wu, Bin-Nan; Lin, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect and mechanism of pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) prevented hyperglycemia in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat-diet (HFD). Normal six-week-old mice were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 was fed standard-regular-diet (SRD) and group 2 was fed HFD for 16 weeks. In group 3, the mice were fed a HFD with its carbohydrate replaced with PGBR for 16 weeks. Comparing the SRD and HFD groups, we found the HFD group had higher blood pressure, higher concentrations of blood glucose and HbA1c. The HFD group had less protein expression of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and glucokinase (GCK) and greater expression of glucogen synthase kinase (GSK) in skeletal muscle. The HFD group also had less expression of IR, serine/threonine kinase PI3K-linked protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), GCK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in liver. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR could reverse the disorders of blood pressure, blood glucose, HbA1c and increase insulin concentration. PGBR increased the IR, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-1 and GLUT-4 proteins, and ameliorated AMPK, GCK, GSK and PPARγ proteins. Together, PGBR prevented HFD-induced hyperglycemia through improving insulin levels, insulin receptor, glucose transporters and enhancing glucose metabolism.

  10. Effect of closure of the mesenteric defect during laparoscopic gastric bypass and prevention of internal hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sara Danshøj; Naver, Lars; Jess, Per

    2014-01-01

    assigned to either conventional laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) without closing the mesenteric defects (n = 250) or RYGB with closing of the defects with hernia clips (n = 250). Follow-up is conducted at six months, one year, two years and five years after RYGB. The primary endpoint...

  11. Preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodr, Zeina G; Lupo, Philip J; Agopian, A J; Canfield, Mark A; Case, Amy P; Carmichael, Suzan L; Mitchell, Laura E

    2014-06-01

    Despite public health campaigns encouraging women to take a daily folic acid supplement, the proportion of reproductive age women, in the United States, who comply with this recommendation is less than optimal. The objective of this analysis was to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use to define subgroups of women who may benefit from targeted folic acid campaigns. This study included 6570 mothers of live born infants from the control population of National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2005). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. A classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to define subgroups of women with different patterns of preconceptional folic acid supplementation. Race/ethnicity, education, age at delivery, nativity, employment, income, number of dependents, smoking, and birth control use were significantly associated with preconceptional folic acid-containing supplement use. Based on a CART analysis, education, race/ethnicity, and age were the most distinguishing factors between women with different preconceptional supplementation patterns. Non-white women with <4 years of a college education were the least likely to use folic acid-containing supplements (11%). However, even in the most compliant subgroup (women with ≥4 years of college), only 60% of women supplemented with folic acid. These results demonstrate the need for continued efforts to increase folic acid supplementation among all reproductive aged women. However, the success of such efforts may be improved if maternal characteristics such as education, race/ethnicity, and age, are considered in the development of future interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prevention of neural tube defects by folic acid - awareness among women of childbearing age in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, F; Sabova, L; Pinterova, E; Hornova, J; Trnka, J

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid deficiency plays a central role in the aetiology of many congenital anomalies including neural tube defects. Protective effect of folic acid on embryo may be acquired only if taken periconceptionally. The aim of the study was to investigate the awareness about folic acid among women of childbearing age in Bratislava, Slovakia. There were 130 respondents involved in the research (106 pregnant women, 24 female students of medical faculty). Using questionnaire we acquired following data: pregnancy details, interest in diet before and during pregnancy, recommendations regarding nutrition and supplementation pre- and post-conception, knowledge about folic and other acid in 2004 and 2009. More than half of the respondents knew the sources of folic acid. The interest in the nutrition facts of the food dropped from 91 % to 58.5 %. The number of pregnant women advised about correct nutrition and folic acid supplementation before and during pregnancy increased from 16 % to 37 %. Planning the next gravidity with folic acid supplementation became greater than 21 % (38 % in 2009). Nevertheless, only 46 % of these women believed that proper food content with folic acid may prevent congenital anomalies. In a group of students planning to take folic acid periconceptionally the number raised up to 62.5 %. The results revealed low knowledge about the effect of folic acid on developing embryo among women of childbearing age. Effective intervention programs are needed with the aim to improve periconceptional intake of folic acid in 2004 and 2009. The results in both periods show low knowledge about this essential vitamin (Tab. 1, Fig. 8, Ref. 31).

  13. Control selection and participation in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects: the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Mary E; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Anderka, Marlene; Caton, Alissa R; Feldkamp, Marcia L; Hockett Sherlock, Stacey M; Meyer, Robert E; Ramadhani, Tunu; Robbins, James M; Shaw, Gary M; Mathews, T J; Royle, Marjorie; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2009-10-15

    To evaluate the representativeness of controls in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of birth defects in 10 centers across the United States, researchers compared 1997-2003 birth certificate data linked to selected controls (n = 6,681) and control participants (n = 4,395) with those from their base populations (n = 2,468,697). Researchers analyzed differences in population characteristics (e.g., percentage of births at > or =2,500 g) for each group. Compared with their base populations, control participants did not differ in distributions of maternal or paternal age, previous livebirths, maternal smoking, or diabetes, but they did differ in other maternal (i.e., race/ethnicity, education, entry into prenatal care) and infant (i.e., birth weight, gestational age, and plurality) characteristics. Differences in distributions of maternal, but not infant, characteristics were associated with participation by selected controls. Absolute differences in infant characteristics for the base population versus control participants were controls from hospitals compared with centers that selected controls from electronic birth certificates. These findings suggest that control participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study generally are representative of their base populations. Hospital-based control selection may slightly underascertain infants affected by certain adverse birth outcomes.

  14. Pre-germinated brown rice prevented high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia through ameliorating lipid synthesis and metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kuo-Ping; Hao, Chi-Long; Yen, Hsueh-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chen, Jia-Hao; Chen, Fu-Chih; Lin, Hui-Li

    2016-07-01

    Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) can ameliorate hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism is not clear. We focus the mechanisms of PGBR prevented hyperlipidemia. Six-week-old mice were divided into: standard-regular diet (SRD), high-fat diet (HFD) and HFD with PGBR (HFD + PGBR) groups for 16 weeks. The HFD group has higher concentrations of TG, TC, HDL and Non-HDL in the blood, and a higher atherosclerosis index (AI). The TG levels in the liver, and TG, bile acid levels in the feces were enhanced; and the total adipocytokines level in adipose tissue was reduced. The HFD group had higher protein expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, LDLR, and CYP7α1 in the liver. Moreover, the greater expressions of SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS and the less expressions of PPAR-α and adiponectin were in adipose tissue. In the HFD + PGBR group, the PGBR regulated the levels of TG, TC, HDL, Non-HDL, AI and adipocytokines. PGBR increased more cholesterol and bile acid exhaust in feces. The SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, HMGCR, LDLR, CYP7α1 and PPAR-α proteins in the liver; and the SREBP-1, SCD-1, FAS, PPAR-α and adiponectin proteins in adipose tissue were reversed by PGBR. Taken together, PGBR can improve lipid synthesis and metabolism, and we suggest PGBR is a recommendable food for controlling hyperlipidemia.

  15. Power-Assisted Particulate Bone Grafting Effectively Prevents Osseous Defects After Cranial Vault Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Brad M; Hirji, Sameer A; Sobol, Danielle L; Allori, Alexander C; Marcus, Jeffrey R

    2018-02-12

    Cranial vault reconstruction (CVR) is the gold standard in the operative treatment of craniosynostosis. Full thickness osseous defects (FTOD) of the calvaria have been observed in 5% to 15% patients after CVR, with higher rates cited in the fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) subset. Particulate bone graft (PBG) harvested manually has been shown to decrease FTOD after FOA from 24% to 5.5%. The authors used a modified technique using a powered craniotome, with the hypothesis that the technique would also improve outcomes. A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent CVR for craniosynostosis between 2004 and 2014. Patient demographics, diagnosis, age, operative details, and postoperative care were reviewed in detail. Categorical, nonparametric variables were compared by Fisher exact tests. A total of 135 patients met inclusion criteria. The most common diagnoses were metopic (n = 41), sagittal (n = 33), and unilateral coronal craniosynostosis (n = 31); 65% (n = 88) underwent FOA, 29% (n = 39) underwent single-stage total vault reconstruction, and 6% (n = 8) had a posterior vault reconstruction. CVR was performed without PBG in 95 patients and with PBG in 40 patients. Without PBG, FTOD were discovered on clinical examination in 18% of patients (n=17): 11 presented with subcentimeter defects, while 6 had larger defects requiring revision cranioplasty (6% operative revision rate). Among those receiving PBG, 1 patient presented a subcentimeter FTOD (2.5% FTOD incidence and 0% operative revision rate). Particulate bone graft harvested with a powered device decreases the rate of FTOD and reoperation rate after CVR for craniosynostosis.

  16. A Germination Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity that involves using sponge seedlings to demonstrate the germination process without the usual waiting period. Discusses epigeous versus hypogeous germination, and cotyledon number and biodiversity. (JRH)

  17. Knowledge and practice of urban Iranian pregnant women towards folic acid intake for neural tube defect prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrat, Sepideh Bakhshande; Sedehi, Maliheh; Golalipour, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    To assess the knowledge and practice of urban Iranian pregnant women regarding periconceptional folic acid intake for neural tube defect (NTD) prevention. The population-based study was done on 676 primiparous women in an urban area in Golestan province in northern Iran from June to November, 2008. A questionnaire was completed by the subjects regarding their knowledge of folic acid. Questionnaires were administered to women who were seeking routine antenatal care at health centres, private gynaecological clinic and the Dezyani Gynaecologic and Obstetric Hospital. Questions covered knowledge and use of folic acid supplements and demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Out of the 676 women surveyed, 96.2% reported that they heard of folate. Of these, only 27.6% knew that folate was something important in the prevention of neural tube defects. Overall, 20.12% of the total women took folic acid during periconceptional period. The most common information sources on folate were healthcare service (54.5%). Besides, 37.6% of the subjects who heard about folate were aware that green leafy vegetables were fortified with folic acid. In univariate analysis, knowledge and intake of folic acid was not associated with education and the age of women. A healthcare plan for intervention to increase the knowledge and intake of folic acid by pregnant women during the protective period is required.

  18. Potential of anticlostridial Lactobacillus isolated from cheese to prevent blowing defects in semihard cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Pia; Vogensen,, F. K.; Nielsen, E. W

    2010-01-01

    Five anticlostridial Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese were selected for a mixed adjunct culture. Cheese with the mixed adjunct culture (experimental) and without (control) was made in triplicate and ripened as vacuum-packed and surface-ripened cheese. Cheese gross composition was similar....... Excessive gas formation occurred only in control cheeses. In contrast to control cheeses, the experimental cheeses were dominated by the added adjunct Lactobacillus strains (repetitive-PCR). Casein breakdown was not influenced, however, the total amount of amino acids and pH was slightly lower...... in the experimental cheeses. Anticlostridial nonstarter Lactobacillus strains have potential as protective adjunct cultures against blowing defects in cheese....

  19. Etiology of Cesarean Uterine Scar Defect (Niche): Detailed Critical Analysis of Hypotheses and Prevention Strategies and Peritoneal Closure Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholapurkar, Shashikant L

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing incidence of cesarean scar (CS) defect/niche and its sequelae, probably not entirely explained by better diagnosis or rising cesarean rate. Discussion of possible etiological factors has received scant attention but would be important to formulate preventive strategies. Meaningful informative studies on long-term sequelae of cesarean section are very difficult and none are available for causation of CS defect. Hence, it is crucial to identify key areas in etiology of CS defect for focused research. This practical review proposes an "ischemia and mal-apposition hypothesis for CS niche", stating that the surgical technique of uterine incision closure is the most important determinant of CS defect formation. Other factors such as cervical location incision, adhesion formation and patient specific factors seem far less important in etiology. Rather than the headline theme of "single versus double-layer closure of uterus", the finer details of surgical technique which achieve good apposition without inducing tissue ischemia seem more important. Different techniques are discussed and it is proposed that continuous, non-locking absorbable sutures in two layers, without including much of decidua and without undue tight (constricting/devasculaizing) pulling of sutures are likely to result in good healing of uterine scar. Single-layer technique may be best reserved for thin myometrial edges especially during repeat cesareans. Adhesions between uterine isthmus and bladder/abdominal wall seem common associations but not causative for CS niche. It would be desirable to prove these surgical principles by good quality prospective randomized "quantitative" studies but the wait may be very long and this should not hinder the adoption of good surgical principles. Science is much cognitive and not just empirical. To consider a related example, the current recommendation of non-suturing of peritoneal layers during cesarean is mistakenly based on short

  20. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and craniosynostosis among offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jacqueline L; Langlois, Peter H; Lawson, Christina C; Scheuerle, Angela; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Waters, Martha A; Symanski, Elaine; Romitti, Paul A; Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    Evidence in animal models and humans suggests that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may lead to birth defects. To our knowledge, this relationship has not been evaluated for craniosynostosis, a birth defect characterized by the premature closure of sutures in the skull. We conducted a case-control study to examine associations between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. We used data from craniosynostosis cases and control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) with estimated delivery dates from 1997 to 2002. Industrial hygienists reviewed occupational data from the computer-assisted telephone interview and assigned a yes/no rating of probable occupational PAH exposure for each job from 1 month before conception through delivery. We used logistic regression to assess the association between occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. The prevalence of exposure was 5.3% in case mothers (16/300) and 3.7% in control mothers (107/2,886). We observed a positive association between exposure to PAHs during the 1 month before conception through the third month of pregnancy and craniosynostosis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-3.05) after adjusting for maternal age and maternal education. The number of cases for each craniosynostosis subtype limited subtype analyses to sagittal craniosynostosis; the odds ratio remained similar (OR = 1.76, 95% CI, 0.82-3.75), but was not significant. Our findings support a moderate association between maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and craniosynostosis. Additional work is needed to better characterize susceptibility and the role PAHs may play on specific craniosynostosis subtypes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Progesterone Prevents High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Inducing Necroptosis of p53-Defective Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na-Yiyuan; Huang, Hsuan-Shun; Chao, Tung Hui; Chou, Hsien Ming; Fang, Chao; Qin, Chong-Zhen; Lin, Chueh-Yu; Chu, Tang-Yuan; Zhou, Hong Hao

    2017-03-14

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) originates mainly from the fallopian tube (FT) epithelium and always carries early TP53 mutations. We previously reported that tumors initiate in the FT fimbria epithelium because of apoptotic failure and the expansion of cells with DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) caused by bathing of the FT epithelial cells in reactive oxygen species (ROSs) and hemoglobin-rich follicular fluid (FF) after ovulation. Because ovulation is frequent and HGSOC is rare, we hypothesized that luteal-phase progesterone (P4) could eliminate p53-defective FT cells. Here we show that P4, via P4 receptors (PRs), induces necroptosis in Trp53 -/- mouse oviduct epithelium and in immortalized human p53-defective fimbrial epithelium through the TNF-α/RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway. Necroptosis occurs specifically at diestrus, recovers at the proestrus phase of the estrus cycle, and can be augmented with P4 supplementation. These results reveal the mechanism of the well-known ability of progesterone to prevent ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Progesterone Prevents High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer by Inducing Necroptosis of p53-Defective Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na-Yiyuan Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC originates mainly from the fallopian tube (FT epithelium and always carries early TP53 mutations. We previously reported that tumors initiate in the FT fimbria epithelium because of apoptotic failure and the expansion of cells with DNA double-strand breaks (DSB caused by bathing of the FT epithelial cells in reactive oxygen species (ROSs and hemoglobin-rich follicular fluid (FF after ovulation. Because ovulation is frequent and HGSOC is rare, we hypothesized that luteal-phase progesterone (P4 could eliminate p53-defective FT cells. Here we show that P4, via P4 receptors (PRs, induces necroptosis in Trp53−/− mouse oviduct epithelium and in immortalized human p53-defective fimbrial epithelium through the TNF-α/RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway. Necroptosis occurs specifically at diestrus, recovers at the proestrus phase of the estrus cycle, and can be augmented with P4 supplementation. These results reveal the mechanism of the well-known ability of progesterone to prevent ovarian cancer.

  3. Defective Insulin Signalling, Mediated by Inflammation, Connects Obesity to Alzheimer Disease; Relevant Pharmacological Therapies and Preventive Dietary Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Casado, Arantxa; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Toledano, Adolfo

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that obesity, besides being a risk factor for cardiovascular events, also increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Insulin resistance is common in all cases of obesity and appears to be the linkage between both diseases. Obesity, often associated with excessive fat and sugar intake, represents a preclinical stage toward insulin resistance during which nutrition intervention is likely to have maximum effect. In this way, healthy lifestyles lifetime to prevent obesity-related modifiable risk factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders could be simultaneously beneficial for preserving cognition and controlling the Alzheimer's disease. This review relates extensive research literature on facts linking nutrients and dietary patterns to obesity and Alzheimer's disease. In addition briefly presents molecular mechanisms involved in obesity- induced insulin resistance and the contribution of peripheral inflammatory and defective insulin signalling pathways, as well as ectopic lipids accumulation to Alzheimer's development through brain inflammation, neuronal insulin resistance, and cognitive dysfunction seen in Alzheimer's disease. The work relates current and emerging pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for the management of obesity, insulin resistance and Alzheimer's considering them as disorders with common molecular features. The findings of this review validate the importance of some nutritional interventions as possible approach to prevent or delay simultaneously progression of Alzheimer's disease and obesity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Maternal Medication and Herbal Use and Risk for Hypospadias: Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997--2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Jennifer N.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Broussard, Cheryl S.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Olney, Richard S.; Parker, Samantha E.; Werler, Martha M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Investigate associations between maternal use of common medications and herbals during early pregnancy and risk for hypospadias in male infants. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multi-site, population-based, case-control study. We analyzed data from 1,537 infants with second-or third-degree isolated hypospadias and 4,314 liveborn male control infants without major birth defects, with estimated dates of delivery from 1997–2007. Exposure was reported use of prescription or over-the-counter medications or herbal products, from 1 month before to 4 months after conception. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, pre-pregnancy BMI, previous live births, maternal sub-fertility, study site, and year. Results We assessed 64 medication and 24 herbal components. Maternal uses of most components were not associated with an increased risk of hypospadias. Two new associations were observed for venlafaxine (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) and progestin only oral contraceptives (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1, 3.2). The previously reported association for clomiphene citrate was confirmed (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0). Numbers were relatively small for exposure to other specific patterns of fertility agents, but elevated aORs were observed for the most common of them. Conclusions Overall, findings were reassuring that hypospadias is not associated with most medication components examined in this analysis. New associations will need to be confirmed in other studies. Increased risks for hypospadias associated with various fertility agents raises the possibility of confounding by underlying subfertility. PMID:23620412

  5. Differences in risk factors for 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    in 't Woud, Sander Groen; van Rooij, Iris A.L.M.; van Gelder, Marleen M.H.J.; Olney, Richard S.; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. Methods A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. Results In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Conclusions Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between 2nd and 3rd degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. PMID:25181604

  6. Differences in risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias in the national birth defects prevention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woud, Sander Groen In 't; van Rooij, Iris A L M; van Gelder, Marleen M H J; Olney, Richard S; Carmichael, Suzan L; Roeleveld, Nel; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2014-09-01

    Hypospadias is a frequent birth defect with three phenotypic subtypes. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large, multi-state, population-based, case-control study, we compared risk factors for second and third degree hypospadias. A wide variety of data on maternal and pregnancy-related risk factors for isolated second and third degree hypospadias was collected by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews to identify potential etiological differences between the two phenotypes. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios including a random effect by study center. In total, 1547 second degree cases, 389 third degree cases, and 5183 male controls were included in our study. Third degree cases were more likely to have a non-Hispanic black or Asian/Pacific Islander mother, be delivered preterm, have a low birth weight, be small for gestational age, and be conceived with fertility treatments than second degree cases and controls. Associations with both second and third degree hypospadias were observed for maternal age, family history, parity, plurality, and hypertension during pregnancy. Risk estimates were generally higher for third degree hypospadias except for family history. Most risk factors were associated with both or neither phenotype. Therefore, it is likely that the underlying mechanism is at least partly similar for both phenotypes. However, some associations were different between second and third degree hypospadias, and went in opposite directions for second and third degree hypospadias for Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Effect estimates for subtypes of hypospadias may be over- or underestimated in studies without stratification by phenotype. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Using bayesian models to assess the effects of under-reporting of cannabis use on the association with birth defects, national birth defects prevention study, 1997-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelder, M.M.H.J. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Devine, O.; Roeleveld, N.; Reefhuis, J.; Prevention, S. National Birth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on associations between periconceptional cannabis exposure and birth defects have mainly relied on self-reported exposure. Therefore, the results may be biased due to under-reporting of the exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify the potential effects of this form of

  8. Triple-negative breast cancer risk in women is defined by the defect of estrogen signaling: preventive and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suba Z

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zsuzsanna Suba National Institute of Oncology, Surgical and Molecular Tumor Pathology Centre, Budapest, Hungary Abstract: Epidemiologic studies strongly support that triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs may be distinct entities as compared with estrogen receptor (ER+ tumors, suggesting that the etiologic factors, clinical characteristics, and therapeutic possibilities may vary by molecular subtypes. Many investigations propose that reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use differently or even quite inversely affect the risk of TNBCs and ER+ cancers. Controversies concerning the exact role of even the same risk factor in TNBC development justify that the biological mechanisms behind the initiation of both TNBCs and non-TNBCs are completely obscure. To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the etiology of different breast cancer subtypes, we should also reconsider our traditional concepts and beliefs regarding cancer risk factors. Malignancies are multicausal, but the disturbance of proper estrogen signaling seems to be a crucial risk factor for the development of mammary cancers. The grade of defect in metabolic and hormonal equilibrium is directly associated with TNBC risk for women during their whole life. Inverse impact of menopausal status or parity on the development of ER+ and ER- breast cancers may not be possible; these controversial results derive from the misinterpretation of percentage-based statistical evaluations. Exogenous or parity-associated excessive estrogen supply is suppressive against breast cancer, though the lower the ER expression of tumors, the weaker the anticancer capacity. In women, the most important preventive strategy against breast cancers – included TNBCs – is the strict control and maintenance of hormonal equilibrium from early adolescence through the whole lifetime, particularly during the periods of great hormonal changes. Keywords: cancer prevention, infertility, insulin resistance, menopause

  9. [Attitudes of pregnant Japanese women and folic acid intake for the prevention of neural tube defects: a nationwide Internet survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Folic acid intake is recommended for pregnant women because it significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) in the fetus. However, the risk of NTD remains medium in Japan. In this study, the attitudes of pregnant Japanese women and factors related to folic acid intake for the prevention of NTD were evaluated using a nationwide survey. An Internet-based questionnaire was conducted on 2,367 pregnant Japanese women who were registrants of a Japanese social research company in January 2012; 1,236 of these women responded. In the questionnaires, the knowledge regarding the folate intake (i.e., name of folic acid, the risk of NTD, recommended doses, and timing), actual intake of folic acid, demographic factors (i.e., age, geographical area, gestational age, and birth order), and intake of dietary supplements were surveyed. Eighty-five percent of respondents consumed folate, which was mostly obtained through dietary folic acid supplements during the first month of pregnancy or after. Factors associated with loss of folic acid intake until 3 months of pregnancy included lack of knowledge, failure to consume dietary supplements, younger age, and multigravida. Many pregnant women in Japan consumed folic acid. However, most of them started supplementation after pregnancy recognition, which is too late to reduce the risk of NTD. Alternative strategies to increase the efficacy of folic acid intake, such as recommending folic acid-enriched foods, promoting folic acid fortification efforts, and providing access to practical information, are necessary.

  10. Awareness and intake of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects among Lebanese women of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Hage, Claudine; Jalloul, Maya; Sabbah, Mohamad; Adib, Salim M

    2012-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, international recommendations have promoted folic acid supplementation during the periconception period as an effective way of preventing neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the adoption of this recommendation remains insufficient. To assess the awareness and actual intake of folic acid among married Lebanese women aged 18-45 years, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 600 women selected from all five administrative districts in Lebanon, using a multistage cluster sampling procedure. An anonymous questionnaire was completed which covered measures of knowledge and use of folate supplements, as well as demographic, socioeconomic and obstetrical factors. Sixty percent of surveyed women (60%; n = 360) had heard about folic acid. Doctors were the most frequent source of information (61.1%) but only 24.7% of women have been told of the correct period during which folic acid supplementation was useful. Overall, only 6.2% had taken folic acid tablets during the adequate period. Younger age, higher education level and stability/sufficiency of income appeared to be significant predictors of awareness among Lebanese women. Actual folic acid intake was significantly associated with younger age, higher number of pregnancies, planning the last pregnancy and having had that last one after 1990. In Lebanon, the level of folic acid awareness and adequate intake remain relatively low. Several approaches should be used to promote folic acid intake including awareness campaigns, and routine counseling by primary health care physicians on folic acid during preconception visits.

  11. Prevention of birth defects in the pre-conception period: knowledge and practice of health care professionals (nurses and doctors in a city of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Romariz Ferreira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some congenital defects can be prevented in the pregestational stage. However, many health professionals are not prepared to provide counselling to couples regarding the same. Objective: This study aimed to assess the performance of doctors and nurses from a primary health-care unit in Florianopolis, Brazil, in preventing birth defects in the preconception period based on the recommendations of the Control Center of Disease Prevention. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study was performed at a tertiary referral center. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was provided to 160 health professionals comprising doctors and nurses who were actively involved in providing primary health care in family health programs. The non-parametric Chi-square (χ2 test was used to analyse the data obtained through multiple choice questions. Results: Our results showed that although 81.9% of health professionals provided health-care assistance based on protocols, and only 46.2% professionals were aware of the presence of the topic in the protocol. Of the recommendations provided by the Control Center of Disease Prevention, the use of folic acid was the most prescribed. However, this prescription was not statistically different between nurses and doctors (P=0.85. Conclusion: This study identified the fragile nature in these professional’s knowledge about the prevention of birth defects in pre-conception period, as evidenced by the inconsistency in their responses.

  12. Prevention of Bone Bridge Formation Using Transplantation of the Autogenous Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Physeal Defects: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

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    L. Plánka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Physeal cartilage is known to have poor self-repair capacity after injury. Evaluation of the ability of cultured mesenchymal stem cells to repair damaged physis is the topic of current research. In 10 immature New Zealand white rabbits autogenous mesenchymal stem cells were transplanted into a iatrogenic physeal defect in a lateral portion of the distal growth plate of the right femur. The same defect without stem cells transplantation in the left femoral distal physis served as a control. In our study, we used our own technique of implantation of MSCs with a newly modified gel scaffold (New Composite Hyaluronate/Collagen Type I/Fibrin Scaffold. The rabbits were euthanized 4 months after transplantation. Bone length discrepancy and valgus deformity were measured from femoral radiographs. Healing of the defect was investigated histologically. The ability of mesenchymal stem cells to survive and promote cartilage healing in the physeal defect was assessed by immunofluorescence. Average difference in femur length measured from surgery to euthanasia (4 months was 0.61 ± 0.19 cm after preventive transplantation of MSCs in the right femur, but only 0.11 ± 0.07 cm in the left femur. Average angular (valgus deformity of the right femur with MSCs preventively transplanted to iatrogenically damaged distal femoral physis was 1.2 ± 0.72 °. Valgus deformity in the left femur was 5.4 ± 2.5 °. Prophylactic transplantation of autogenous mesenchymal stem cells to iatrogenically damaged distal growth plate of the rabbit femur prevented a bone bridge formation and resulted in healing of the physeal defect with hyaline cartilage. Immunofluorescence examination showed that the chondrocytes newly formed in growth zone are the result of implanted MSCs differentiation. Femur growth in traumatized physis was maintained even after transplantation of autogenous MSCs. As compared with the opposite femur (with physeal defect but without transplanted MSCs, the bone

  13. Descriptive and risk factor analysis for choanal atresia: The National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Romitti, Paul A.; Sun, Lixian; Carey, John C.; Burns, Trudy L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Lin, Angela E.; Olney, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Choanal atresia causes serious posterior nasal obstruction. This defect is the leading cause of nasal surgery in newborns, although its etiology is largely unknown. Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a population-based case–control study, were used to examine associations between maternal self-reports of exposures and occurrence of choanal atresia in their offspring. Overall, 117 case and 8350 control mothers with deliveries from 1997 through 2007 provided telephone interview reports of pre-pregnancy (one year before conception) and periconceptional (one month before through three months after conception) exposures. The exposures analyzed were pre-pregnancy dietary intake, pre-pregnancy and periconceptional caffeine consumption, and periconceptional cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and medication use. Independent associations between each exposure and all choanal atresia cases combined (n = 117) and isolated choanal atresia cases (those without additional unrelated major defects; n = 61) were examined. Odds ratios (ORs), both unadjusted (uORs) and adjusted (aORs) for potential confounders, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression analysis. For all choanal atresia cases combined, positive associations were observed with maternal pre-pregnancy intake in the highest quartile for vitamin B-12 (aOR = 1.9; CI = 1.1,3.1), zinc (aOR = 1.7; CI = 1.0,3.1), and niacin (aOR = 1.8; CI = 1.0,3.1), and intake in the lowest quartile for methionine (aOR = 1.6; CI = 1.0,2.6) and vitamin D (aOR = 1.6; CI = 1.0,2.4) compared to intake in the two intermediate quartiles combined. Further, a positive association was observed with periconceptional use of thyroid medications (uOR = 2.6; CI = 1.0,6.3) compared to no use of such medications. Among isolated choanal atresia cases, negative associations were observed for pantothenic acid (aOR = 0.4; CI = 0.2,0.9) and fat (aOR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.2,1.0) intake in the lowest

  14. Seed dormancy and germination : light and nitrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    1990-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of the life cycle of seed plants is the formation and development of seeds on the motherplant and the subsequent dispersal. An equally important element of the survival strategy is the ability of seeds to prevent germination in unfavorable

  15. Primary prevention of neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities by folic acid and multivitamins: history, missed opportunity and tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártfai, Zoltán; Bánhidy, Ferenc

    2011-01-01

    The history of intervention trials of periconception folic acid with multivitamin and folic acid supplementation in women has shown a recent breakthrough in the primary prevention of structural birth defects, namely neural-tube defects and some other congenital abnormalities. Recently, some studies have demonstrated the efficacy of this new method in reducing congenital abnormalities with specific origin; for example, in the offspring of diabetic and epileptic mothers, and in pregnancy with high fever. The benefits and drawbacks of four possible uses of periconception folate/folic acid and multivitamin supplementation are discussed: we believe there has been a missed opportunity to implement this preventive approach in medical practice. The four methods are as follows: (i) dietary intake of folate and other vitamins, (ii) periconception folic acid/multivitamin supplementation, (iii) food fortification with folic acid, and (iv) the combination of oral contraceptives with 6S-5-methytetrahydrofolate (‘folate’). PMID:25083211

  16. Comparative seed germination traits in alpine and subalpine grasslands: higher elevations are associated with warmer germination temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pascual, E; Jiménez-Alfaro, B; Bueno, Á

    2017-01-01

    Seed germination traits in alpine grasslands are poorly understood, despite the sensitivity of these communities to climate change. We hypothesise that germination traits predict species occurrence along the alpine-subalpine elevation gradient. Phylogenetic comparative analyses were performed using fresh seeds of 22 species from alpine and subalpine grasslands (1600-2400 m) of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain (43° N, 5° W). Laboratory experiments were conducted to characterise germinability, optimum germination temperature and effect of cold and warm stratification on dormancy breaking. Variability in these traits was reduced by phylogenetic principal component analysis (phyl.PCA). Phylogenetic generalised least squares regression (PGLS) was used to fit a model in which species average elevation was predicted from their position on the PCA axes. Most subalpine species germinated in snow-like conditions, whereas most alpine species needed accumulation of warm temperatures. Phylogenetic signal was low. PCA1 ordered species according to overall germinability, whilst PCA2 ordered them according to preference for warm or cold germination. PCA2 significantly predicted species occurrence in the alpine-subalpine gradient, as higher elevation species tended to have warmer germination preferences. Our results show that germination traits in high-mountain grasslands are closely linked to the alpine-subalpine gradient. Alpine species, especially those from stripped and wind-edge communities, prefer warmer germination niches, suggesting that summer emergence prevents frost damage during seedling establishment. In contrast, alpine snowfield and subalpine grassland plants have cold germination niches, indicating that winter emergence may occur under snow to avoid drought stress. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. [Awareness and knowledge of the use of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects: a survey of women living in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo V, Rosa A; Lay-Son R, Guillermo; Aranda Ch, Waldo; Dib M, Martín; Espina M, Pablo; Muñoz K, María J; Muñoz B, Pilar; Navarrete C, María F; Ojeda M, Natalia V; Parra, Jorge; Rebolledo D, Cristian A; Recabal G, Pedro; Tenhamm T, Tamara

    2007-12-01

    Wheat flour in Chile is fortified with folie acid and pregnant women are also supplemented with the vitamin, but the population level of knowledge or awareness about this vitamin and its use by pregnant women is unknown. To assess the level of knowledge that postpartum women from Santiago de Chile have about folic acid. A questionnaire about folic acid and its effects on the prevention of neural tube defects was developed adapting questionnaires designed abroad. It was applied by medical students to puerperal women, hospitalized in public hospitals. The questionnaire was applied to 342 women aged 26 +/- 7 years. Sixty one percent were housewives and 55% completed high school education. Forty seven percent of these women had heard about folic acid, 9.6% knew that it was able to prevent congenital defects and only one received an adequate supplementation during pregnancy. Women aged 25 to 34 years and those with an adequate medical care during pregnancy had a significantly better knowledge about folic acid and its role in the prevention of congenital anomalies. The more common means to receive information about folic acid were midwives (34%), mass media (28%) and doctors (20%). Two hundred eleven women (62%) agreed to take folic acid in a future gestation and 58% preferred to do so using fortified foods. Post partum women from Santiago have a poor knowledge about the relevance of folic acid supplementation.

  18. Biochemical Changes Associated with Germinating Rice Grains and Germination Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine biochemical changes during the germination of rice grains (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan and to improve germination rate using gibberellic acid and surfactants [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS (1.0 g/L and Triton-X−100 (1.0 mL/L], whole rice grains soaked in distilled water for 12 h at 30°C were germinated in the dark at 30°C for five days. The highest germination rate (77.1% was obtained on the 5th day. An increase in the content of reducing sugars from 7.3 to 58.1 mg/g DM (dry matter was observed from the 1st day of germination. Free amino acids and soluble protein contents increased to 3.69 and 5.29 mg/g DM, respectively on the 5th day of germination. Total protein content decreased from 100.5 to 91.0 g/kg DM during germination. Increases in amylolytic (1.1 to 190.0 U/g DM and proteolytic (0 to 0.12 U/g DM activities were observed during germination. Effects of different concentrations of gibberellic acid on the germination of rice grains were evaluated and 0.1 g/L was found to promote germination. When effects of gibberellic acid (0.1 g/L and surfactants were evaluated individually and together, higher germination rate was observed in the control experiment (grains germinated in distilled water, whereas giberellic acid and surfactants decreased the germination rate. Therefore, the flour obtained from the grains germinated for four days using distilled water to obtain high content of soluble materials and enzyme activities can be used in preparation of bakery items.

  19. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: A prospective cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Huan; Ma, Duan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. Material/Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20?45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the indepen...

  20. Mitosis in neurons: Roughex and APC/C maintain cell cycle exit to prevent cytokinetic and axonal defects in Drosophila photoreceptor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ruggiero

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of cell cycle exit by neurons remain poorly understood. Through genetic and developmental analysis of Drosophila eye development, we found that the cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor Roughex maintains G1 cell cycle exit during differentiation of the R8 class of photoreceptor neurons. The roughex mutant neurons re-enter the mitotic cell cycle and progress without executing cytokinesis, unlike non-neuronal cells in the roughex mutant that perform complete cell divisions. After mitosis, the binucleated R8 neurons usually transport one daughter nucleus away from the cell body into the developing axon towards the brain in a kinesin-dependent manner resembling anterograde axonal trafficking. Similar cell cycle and photoreceptor neuron defects occurred in mutants for components of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome. These findings indicate a neuron-specific defect in cytokinesis and demonstrate a critical role for mitotic cyclin downregulation both to maintain cell cycle exit during neuronal differentiation and to prevent axonal defects following failed cytokinesis.

  1. Cement augmentation in the proximal femur to prevent stem subsidence in revision hip arthroplasty with Paprosky type II/IIIa defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Wen; Chen, Cheng-Fong; Wu, Po-Kuei; Chen, Chao-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ming

    2018-02-07

    Subsidence remains a common complication after revision hip arthroplasty which may lead to prolonged weight-bearing restrictions, leg-length discrepancies or considerable loss of function. We evaluated the effectiveness of cement augmentation in the proximal femoral metaphysis during a revision of femoral components to prevent post-operative stem subsidence. Forty patients were enrolled. Follow-up averaged 67.7 months (range: 24-149). Twenty-seven patients had a Paprosky type II defect and 13 had a type IIIa defect. All revision hip arthroplasty used a cementless, cylindrical, non-modular cobalt-chromium stem. The defect in the metaphysis was filled with antibiotic-loaded bone cement. Thirteen patients who had undergone stem revision only was allowed to walk immediately without weight-bearing restrictions. Twenty-seven patients who had undergone revision total hip arthroplasty was allowed partial weight-bearing within 6 weeks after surgery in the consideration of acetabular reconstruction. Three patients (7.5%) had post-surgery stem subsidences of three mm, five mm, and 10 mm, respectively, at three, one, and 14 months. There were no acute surgical site infections. There were three femoral stem failures: two delayed infections and one periprosthetic Vancouver B2 fracture. Both five- and 10-year survivorships of the femoral implant were 90.1%. An adequate length of the scratch-fit segment and diaphyseal ingrowth remain of paramount importance when revising femoral components. To fill metaphyseal bone defects with antibiotic-loaded bone cement may be an alternative method in dealing with proximal femoral bone loss during a femoral revision. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  2. The effect of regenerative periodontal therapy in preventing periodontal defects after the extraction of third molars: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Teh; Hum, Lauren; Chen, Ya-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Periodontal defect on the distal aspect of mandibular second molars is a common complication after mandibular third-molar extraction. Researchers have proposed different procedures, but no evidence has shown that a single effective method can prevent or treat this complication. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to answer this clinical question: what is the effect of regenerative periodontal therapy on the periodontal tissue healing of the distal site of the mandibular second molar after impacted mandibular third-molar extraction compared with extraction alone without using any biomaterials during a follow-up period of at least 6 months? The authors conducted an electronic search for randomized controlled trials using MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases, and they assessed the quality of selected articles. Among the 1,083 eligible articles found in the initial search, 7 studies fit all of the selection criteria. All of these studies had a follow-up period lasting at least 6 months. The authors found that regenerative periodontal therapy was significantly more effective in gaining clinical attachment level or reducing probing depth at the distal site of the mandibular second molar than extraction without therapy (weighted mean difference of clinical attachment level gain, 1.94 millimeters [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.56-2.31]; weighted mean difference of probing depth reduction, 1.67 mm [95% CI, 1.15-2.19]). The results of our systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that regenerative periodontal therapy effectively prevents the periodontal defect associated with impacted mandibular third-molar extraction. Clinicians should consider performing guided tissue regeneration when the defect is anticipated. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using an autologous fibrin sealant in the preventing of cerebrospinal fluid leak with large skull base defect following endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Dursun, Engin; Ozdol, Cagatay; Divanlioglu, Denizhan; Nacar, Osman Arikan; Koyun, Oguz Kara; Ilmaz, Adil Ery; Belen, Ahmed Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak following endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This prospective study is the first evaluation of using autologous fibrin sealant for preventing postoperative CSF leak and related complications. 200 endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches were included in the study and reviewed retrospectively from September 2010 to June 2012. A total of 55 patients who have large skull base and diafragma sella defects, connected with basal cisterns or ventricles, were chosen for the study. The patients were operated via extended or classical endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. The skull base has been repaired using AFS combined with multilayer reconstruction in all cases. The incidence of CSF leak as a complication of EETS was analyzed. The ages of the patients ranged from 20 to 83 years (mean 49.3 years). There were 25 (46%) male patients and 30 (54%) females. All patients had tumors with suprasellar or parasellar extension. Postoperative CSF leak was determined in 2 patients (3.6%). There were no complications and allergic reactions associated with the use of AFS. Using of AFS combined with multilayer reconstruction technique is a safe and effective method to prevent CSF leak in large defects following EETS.

  4. Transient inhibition of the ERK pathway prevents cerebellar developmental defects and improves long-term motor functions in murine models of neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Edward; Wang, Yuan; Kim, Sun-Jung; Bornhorst, Miriam; Jecrois, Emmanuelle S; Anthony, Todd E; Wang, Chenran; Li, Yi E; Guan, Jun-Lin; Murphy, Geoffrey G; Zhu, Yuan

    2014-12-23

    Individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) frequently exhibit cognitive and motor impairments and characteristics of autism. The cerebellum plays a critical role in motor control, cognition, and social interaction, suggesting that cerebellar defects likely contribute to NF1-associated neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we show that Nf1 inactivation during early, but not late stages of cerebellar development, disrupts neuronal lamination, which is partially caused by overproduction of glia and subsequent disruption of the Bergmann glia (BG) scaffold. Specific Nf1 inactivation in glutamatergic neuronal precursors causes premature differentiation of granule cell (GC) precursors and ectopic production of unipolar brush cells (UBCs), indirectly disrupting neuronal migration. Transient MEK inhibition during a neonatal window prevents cerebellar developmental defects and improves long-term motor performance of Nf1-deficient mice. This study reveals essential roles of Nf1 in GC/UBC migration by generating correct numbers of glia and controlling GC/UBC fate-specification/differentiation, identifying a therapeutic prevention strategy for multiple NF1-associcated developmental abnormalities.

  5. Trehalose metabolism is important for heat stress tolerance and spore germination of Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehlemann, Gunther; Berndt, Patrick; Hahn, Matthias

    2006-09-01

    To analyse the role of trehalose as stress protectant and carbon storage compound in the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea, mutants defective in trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS1) and neutral trehalase (TRE1) were constructed. The Deltatps1 mutant was unable to synthesize trehalose, whereas the Deltatre1 mutant showed elevated trehalose levels compared to the wild-type and was unable to mobilize trehalose during conidial germination. Both mutants showed normal vegetative growth and were not affected in plant pathogenicity. Growth of the Deltatps1 mutant was more heat sensitive compared to the wild-type. Similarly, Deltatps1 conidia showed a shorter survival under heat stress, and their viability at moderate temperatures was strongly reduced. In germinating wild-type conidia, rapid trehalose degradation occurred only when germination was induced in the presence of nutrients. In contrast, little trehalose breakdown was observed during germination on hydrophobic surfaces in water. Here, addition of cAMP to conidia induced trehalose mobilization and accelerated the germination process, probably by activation of TRE1. In accordance with these data, both mutants showed germination defects only in the presence of sugars but not on hydrophobic surfaces in the absence of nutrients. The data indicate that in B. cinerea trehalose serves as a stress protectant, and also as a significant but not essential carbon source for germination when external nutrients are low. In addition, evidence was obtained that trehalose 6-phosphate plays a role as a regulator of glycolysis during germination.

  6. Developing effective campaign messages to prevent neural tube defects: a qualitative assessment of women's reactions to advertising concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi Lindsey, Lisa L; Silk, Kami J; Von Friederichs-Fitzwater, Marlene M; Hamner, Heather C; Prue, Christine E; Boster, Franklin J

    2009-03-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs), serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect approximately 3,000 pregnancies in the United States each year, can be reduced by 50-70% with daily periconceptional consumption of the B vitamin folic acid. Two studies were designed to assess college women's reactions to and perceptions of potential campaign advertising concepts derived from preproduction formative research to increase folic acid consumption through the use of a daily multivitamin. Study one assessed draft advertising concepts in eight focus groups (N = 71) composed of college-enrolled women in four cities geographically dispersed across the United States. Based on study one results, the concepts were revised and reassessed in study two with a different sample (eight focus groups; N = 73) of college women in the same four cities. Results indicated that participants generally responded favorably to concepts in each of the two studies, and provided insight into individual concepts to increase their overall appeal and effectiveness. The specific findings and implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Germination of Afrocarpus usambarensis and Podocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    farm planting. Seed germination of .... 235. Germination of Afrocarpus usambarensis and Podocarpus milanjianus seeds. Table 2. Mean seed germination of A. usambarensis and P. milanjianus. Species .... National Forestry Authority and District.

  8. Effects of folic acid awareness on knowledge and consumption for the prevention of birth defects among Hispanic women in several U.S. Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Christine E; Hamner, Heather C; Flores, Alina L

    2010-04-01

    The neural tube defects (NTDs) anencephaly and spina bifida, are serious birth defects of the brain and spine that affect about 3000 pregnancies per year in the United States. Research has found a strong link between periconceptional folic acid consumption and NTD prevention. Because Hispanic women have higher rates of NTD-affected births, targeted folic acid promotion efforts were conducted in several major cities from 1999 to 2002. Efforts included paid and unpaid placements of Spanish language public service announcements (PSAs) and community-level education through the use of promotoras. Analyses focused on whether or not women's reported awareness of folic acid, regardless of promotion type, impacted their knowledge or behavior. Women who reported awareness of folic acid had greater folic acid knowledge and use of vitamins containing folic acid than those not aware. Analyses also examined the use of vitamins containing folic acid by pregnancy intention among women who reported awareness of folic acid. The results were varied. Pregnancy wanters were most likely to use vitamins containing folic acid daily. For this group, however, awareness did not play as large a role in whether they reported consuming a vitamin containing folic acid or not, as it did for pregnancy waiters and avoiders.

  9. Environmental filtering drives the shape and breadth of the seed germination niche in coastal plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pascual, Eduardo; Pérez-Arcoiza, Adrián; Prieto, José Alberto; Díaz, Tomás E

    2017-05-01

    A phylogenetic comparative analysis of the seed germination niche was conducted in coastal plant communities of western Europe. Two hypotheses were tested, that (1) the germination niche shape (i.e. the preference for a set of germination cues as opposed to another) would differ between beaches and cliffs to prevent seedling emergence in the less favourable season (winter and summer, respectively); and (2) the germination niche breadth (i.e. the amplitude of germination cues) would be narrower in the seawards communities, where environmental filtering is stronger. Seeds of 30 specialist species of coastal plant communities were collected in natural populations of northern Spain. Their germination was measured in six laboratory treatments based on field temperatures. Germination niche shape was estimated as the best germination temperature. Germination niche breadth was calculated using Pielou's evenness index. Differences between plant communities in their germination niche shape and breadth were tested using phylogenetic generalized least squares regression (PGLS). Germination niche shape differed between communities, being warm-cued in beaches (best germination temperature = 20 °C) and cold-cued in cliffs (14 °C). Germination niche was narrowest in seawards beaches (Pielou's index = 0·89) and broadest in landwards beaches (0·99). Cliffs had an intermediate germination niche breadth (0·95). The relationship between niche and plant community had a positive phylogenetic signal for shape (Pagel's λ = 0·64) and a negative one for breadth (Pagel's λ = -1·71). Environmental filters shape the germination niche to prevent emergence in the season of highest threat for seedling establishment. The germination niche breadth is narrower in the communities with stronger environmental filters, but only in beaches. This study provides empirical support to a community-level generalization of the hypotheses about the environmental drivers of the germination

  10. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  11. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haochen Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages. NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207–0473, p < 0.001. In terms of DALYs, burden in intervention group was approximately 58.5% lower than in the control group. Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory folic acid fortification in China.

  12. Effectiveness of Folic Acid Fortified Flour for Prevention of Neural Tube Defects in a High Risk Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haochen; De Steur, Hans; Chen, Gong; Zhang, Xiaotian; Pei, Lijun; Gellynck, Xavier; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-03-09

    Despite efforts to tackle folate deficiency and Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) through folic acid fortification, its implementation is still lacking where it is needed most, highlighting the need for studies that evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortified wheat flour in a poor, rural, high-risk, NTD region of China. One of the most affected regions, Shanxi Province, was selected as a case study. A community intervention was carried out in which 16,648 women of child-bearing age received fortified flour (eight villages) and a control group received ordinary flour (three villages). NTD birth prevalence and biological indicators were measured two years after program initiation at endline only. The effect on the NTD burden was calculated using the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) method. In the intervention group, serum folate level was higher than in the control group. NTDs in the intervention group were 68.2% lower than in the control group (OR = 0.313, 95% CI = 0.207-0473, p Flour fortification was associated with lower birth prevalence and burden of NTDs in economically developing regions with a high risk of NTDs. The positive findings confirm the potential of fortification when selecting an appropriate food vehicle and target region. As such, this study provides support for decision makers aiming for the implementation of (mandatory) folic acid fortification in China.

  13. Coagulation defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Doreen E; Broadman, Lynn M

    2006-09-01

    The present understanding of the coagulation process emphasizes the final common pathway and the proteolytic systems that result in the degradation of formed clots and the prevention of unwanted clot formations, as well as a variety of defense systems that include tissue repair, autoimmune processes, arteriosclerosis, tumor growth, the spread of metastases, and defense systems against micro-organisms. This article discusses diagnosis and management of some of the most common bleeding disorders. The goals are to provide a simple guide on how best to manage patients afflicted with congenital or acquired clotting abnormalities during the perioperative period, present a brief overview of the methods of testing and monitoring the coagulation defects, and discuss the appropriate pharmacologic or blood component therapies for each disease.

  14. Germination and storage of pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.

    1955-01-01

    Germination of pear pollen markedly improved when boric acid was added to the medium. The pollen was more sensitive to boron in water than in 10 % sugar solution. Supplying weak solutions of boron to pear branches before flowering resulted in a good germination of the pollen in sugar solution

  15. Germination of red alder seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; D.S. DeBell

    1981-01-01

    Red alder seeds were collected from six locations throughout the natural range of the species. Each seed lot was obtained from a single tree, and the seeds were used to determine germination with and without stratification treatment. Irrespective of treatment, germination varied significantly (P

  16. A resorbable antibiotic-eluting polymer composite bone void filler for perioperative infection prevention in a rabbit radial defect model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Brooks

    Full Text Available Nearly 1.3 million total joint replacement procedures are performed in the United States annually, with numbers projected to rise exponentially in the coming decades. Although finite infection rates for these procedures remain consistently low, device-related infections represent a significant cause of implant failure, requiring secondary or revision procedures. Revision procedures manifest several-fold higher infection recurrence rates. Importantly, many revision surgeries, infected or not, require bone void fillers to support the host bone and provide a sufficient tissue bed for new hardware placement. Antibiotic-eluting bone void fillers (ABVF, providing both osteoconductive and antimicrobial properties, represent one approach for reducing rates of orthopedic device-related infections. Using a solvent-free, molten-cast process, a polymer-controlled antibiotic-eluting calcium carbonate hydroxyapatite (HAP ceramic composite BVF (ABVF was fabricated, characterized, and evaluated in vivo using a bacterial challenge in a rabbit radial defect window model. ABVF loaded with tobramycin eliminated the infectious burden in rabbits challenged with a clinically relevant strain of Staphylococcus aureus (inoculum as high as 10⁷ CFU. Histological, microbiological, and radiographic methods were used to detail the effects of ABVF on microbial challenge to host bone after 8 weeks in vivo. In contrast to the HAP/BVF controls, which provided no antibiotic protection and required euthanasia 3 weeks post-operatively, tobramycin-releasing ABVF animals showed no signs of infection (clinical, microbiological, or radiographic when euthanized at the 8-week study endpoint. ABVF sites did exhibit fibrous encapsulation around the implant at 8 weeks. Local antibiotic release from ABVF to orthopedic sites requiring bone void fillers eliminated the periprosthetic bacterial challenge in this 8-week in vivo study, confirming previous in vitro results.

  17. Knowledge and periconceptional use of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects in ethnic communities in the United Kingdom: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jordana N; Copp, Andrew J; Shawe, Jill

    2013-07-01

    It is widely accepted that periconceptional supplementation with folic acid can prevent a significant proportion of neural tube defects (NTDs). The present study evaluated how folic acid knowledge and periconceptional use for NTD prevention varies by ethnicity in the United Kingdom (U.K.). A literature search was conducted to identify studies that included assessment of folic acid knowledge or use in U.K. women of different ethnicities. Only research and referenced sources published after 1991, the year of the landmark Medical Research Council's Vitamin Study, were included. A meta-analysis was performed of studies that assessed preconceptional folic acid use in Caucasians and non-Caucasians. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for assessment of knowledge and/or use of folic acid supplements in U.K. women including non-Caucasians. The available evidence indicates that South Asians specifically have less knowledge and lower periconceptional use of folic acid than Caucasians; one study found that West Indian and African women also had lower folic acid uptake. A synthesis of results from three of the studies, in a meta-analysis, shows that Caucasians are almost three times more likely to take folic acid before conception than non-Caucasians. From the limited evidence available, U.K. women of non-Caucasian ethnicity appear to have less knowledge and a lower uptake of folic acid supplementation than Caucasians during the periconceptional period. Implementing targeted, innovative education campaigns together with a mandatory fortification policy, including the fortification of ethnic minority foods, will be required for maximum prevention of folic acid-preventable NTDs across different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of food fortification with folic acid for the primary prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Angeline

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periconceptional use of vitamin supplements containing folic acid reduces the risk of a neural tube defect (NTD. In November 1998, food fortification with folic acid was mandated in Canada, as a public health strategy to increase the folic acid intake of all women of childbearing age. We undertook a comprehensive population based study in Newfoundland to assess the benefits and possible adverse effects of this intervention. Methods This study was carried out in women aged 19–44 years and in seniors from November 1997 to March 1998, and from November 2000 to March 2001. The evaluation was comprised of four components: I Determination of rates of NTDs; II Dietary assessment; III Blood analysis; IV Assessment of knowledge and use of folic acid supplements. Results The annual rates of NTDs in Newfoundland varied greatly between 1976 and 1997, with a mean rate of 3.40 per 1,000 births. There was no significant change in the average rates between 1991–93 and 1994–97 (relative risk [RR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76–1.34. The rates of NTDs fell by 78% (95% CI 65%–86% after the implementation of folic acid fortification, from an average of 4.36 per 1,000 births during 1991–1997 to 0.96 per 1,000 births during 1998–2001 (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.14–0.35. The average dietary intake of folic acid due to fortification was 70 μg/day in women aged 19–44 years and 74 μg/day in seniors. There were significant increases in serum and RBC folate levels for women and seniors after mandatory fortification. Among seniors, there were no significant changes in indices typical of vitamin B12 deficiencies, and no evidence of improved folate status masking haematological manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency. The proportion of women aged 19–44 years taking a vitamin supplement containing folic acid increased from 17% to 28%. Conclusions Based on these findings, mandatory food fortification in Canada should continue at the

  19. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  20. 7 CFR 201.63 - Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.63 Section 201.63 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.63 Germination. The following tolerances are applicable to the percentage of germination and also to the sum of the germination plus the hard seed when 400 or more seeds are tested. Mean...

  1. Awareness, use and information sources of folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shumi; Wada, Yoshinao

    2018-03-01

    Folic acid supplementation and folate-rich diets are recommended for women of childbearing age worldwide to prevent congenital anomalies. We aimed to determine the current status of folic acid supplementation among pregnant Japanese women and identify means to increase the intake of these supplements. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1862 pregnant women who consulted the perinatal centre from September 2014 to December 2015 completed a questionnaire concerning knowledge about folic acid, sources of information and the use of folic acid supplements. Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health (Japan). In our study population, only 20·5 % of pregnant women took folic acid supplements periconceptionally even though 70·4 % knew about the protective effect of folic acid. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that age ≥35 years (OR=2·80; 95 % CI 1·24, 6·29) and knowledge of the benefits of folic acid (OR=2·64; 95 % CI 1·92, 3·62) were associated with periconceptional folic acid use, and multiparity was negatively associated with such use. Compared with those who took folic acid supplements periconceptionally, women who did not take supplements received information through passive and less interactive media. Although folic acid awareness was relatively high among pregnant Japanese women, folic acid supplementation before conception was insufficient. To increase the intake of folic acid supplements in countries in which foods are not fortified with folic acid, an effective public health approach promoting behavioural change is necessary for women of reproductive age.

  2. Aminopeptidases of Germinated and Non-Germinated Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Vukelić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In processes of barley plant development, various endo- and exopeptidases are involved. To determine the type and number of aminopeptidases that could participate in barley seed germination and tissue growth, their activities in extracts of non-germinated and germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Angora grains and young tissues have been examined, and some of their properties determined. Aminopeptidases (AP hydrolysing 2-naphthylamides of various amino acids were present in dry and germinated grains, roots, seedlings and leaves, showing preferences for amino acids phenylalanine (Phe, arginine (Arg, leucine (Leu and methionine (Met, and lower activity towards alanine (Ala, proline (Pro, glycine (Gly and histidine (His. Levels and ratios of AP activities changed during germination and tissue development, indicating that APs of different specificities are required at different stages of germination and in young tissues. Thus, the increase of all aminopeptidase activities during the first 24 hours of germination and subsequent decrease show significant involvement in seed primary metabolism restoration. The activities of Arg- and HisAP are equally important in green malt. Seedlings and leaves have pronounced substrate specificity for Phe, Leu, Ala and Pro, while roots have the lowest AP specific activities. From the activities and determined properties, the presence of at least six aminopeptidases optimally active at pH=7.4–8.2 could be discerned in dry and germinated grains, and young tissues of Angora barley. Two aminopeptidases are most probably of broad substrate specificity, three show narrow preference with dominating Leu, Phe, or Pro/His, while one is specific for Arg.

  3. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  4. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus niger is a black-spored filamentous fungus that forms asexual spores called conidospores (‘conidia’). Germination of conidia, leading to the formation of hyphae, is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilisation of endogenous carbon and energy stores, followed by polarisation and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. These morphological and biochemical changes which define the model of germination have been studied with the aim of understanding how conidia sense and utilise different...

  5. Grazing influences Stipa breviflora seed germination in desert grasslands of the Inner Mongolia Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenting; Wang, Tianle; Zhang, Shuang; Ding, Lijun

    2018-01-01

    Seed germination plays an important role in determining the composition and regeneration of plant populations (Stipa breviflora). However, the influencing factors and strategies employed for seed germination in desert grasslands under grazing remain unknown. Therefore, in this study, the reproductive allocation, seed density, seed properties, and corresponding seed germination rates of S. breviflora were examined. Possible situations encountered during dispersal were also simulated to determine their effects on seed germination. The results showed that reproductive individual density not subjected to grazing were significantly higher than those subjected to moderate and heavy grazing. For seed density and seed bank in soil, the highest values were observed for the no grazing treatment, followed by the moderate and heavy grazing treatments. The seed density for germination of soil seed banks was nearly one-fourth of seed density during the growing season. In addition, grazing treatments affected the phenotypic characteristics of seeds and reduced the lower limit of the weight of germinable seeds. Awn removal significantly increased germination. The longest germination time was observed for seeds that entered the soil at an angle of 0°. Our research demonstrated that grazing negatively affected the desert grassland edificator. Individual plants adopted different adaptation strategies under different grazing intensities; for example, a fixed proportion of the seed number and seed germination number of S. breviflora in the soil seed bank was maintained by exceeding the minimum weight of a seed for seed germination. During seed dispersion, the awn effectively prevented germination under unfavourable conditions and helped seeds enter the soil at an optimal angle for promoting germination. PMID:29507838

  6. Intestinal calcium and bile salts facilitate germination of Clostridium difficile spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Kochan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear. Here we describe a signaling role for Ca2+ during C. difficile spore germination and provide direct evidence that intestinal Ca2+ coordinates with bile salts to stimulate germination. Endogenous Ca2+ (released from within the spore and a putative AAA+ ATPase, encoded by Cd630_32980, are both essential for taurocholate-glycine induced germination in the absence of exogenous Ca2+. However, environmental Ca2+ replaces glycine as a co-germinant and circumvents the need for endogenous Ca2+ fluxes. Cd630_32980 is dispensable for colonization in a murine model of C. difficile infection and ex vivo germination in mouse ileal contents. Calcium-depletion of the ileal contents prevented mutant spore germination and reduced WT spore germination by 90%, indicating that Ca2+ present within the gastrointestinal tract plays a critical role in C. difficile germination, colonization, and pathogenesis. These data provide a biological mechanism that may explain why individuals with inefficient intestinal calcium absorption (e.g., vitamin D deficiency, proton pump inhibitor use are more prone to CDI and suggest that modulating free intestinal calcium is a potential strategy to curb the incidence of CDI.

  7. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  8. Comparative effects of NaCl and sea salt on seed germination of arthrocnemum indicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, S.; Gul, B.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Arthrocnemum indicum is a stem succulent perennial halophyte from the family Chenopodiaceae. Experiments on seed germination were carried out using NaCl and sea salt (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 dS m/sup -1) at alternating temperature regimes (10:20 deg.C, 15:25 deg. C, 20:30 deg. C and 25:35 deg. C) at photo period of 12 h dark: 12 h light and in 24 h dark. Seed germination of A. indicum was substantially delayed and/or prevented with an increase in NaCl and sea salt concentrations. Only few seeds germinated above 20 dS m/sup -1/. Sodium chloride and sea salt differ in their effect on seed germination at all temperature regimes. NaCl prevented more seeds from germination in comparison to sea salt. Optimal germination was obtained in non saline control at lower temperature regime whereas warmer temperatures in our experiment inhibited more seeds from germination. Seed germination was not affected either by photo period or dark conditions in non saline control at all temperature regimes. At low NaCl treatments there were significant differences between light and dark germinated seeds at 15:25 deg. C and 20:30 deg. C. Seed germination in sea salt was similar in both light and dark conditions except at 20 dS m/sup -1/ at 15:25 deg. C. Highest recovery was obtained at cooler temperature regime of 10:20 deg. C while lowest at warmer temperature regime of 25:35 deg. C. Most of the un-germinated seeds were found dead in both salt treatments and their mortality increased with an increase in temperature. (author)

  9. Seed priming to alleviate salinity stress in germinating seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ehab A

    2016-03-15

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that affect crop production in arid and semiarid areas. Seed germination and seedling growth are the stages most sensitive to salinity. Salt stress causes adverse physiological and biochemical changes in germinating seeds. It can affect the seed germination and stand establishment through osmotic stress, ion-specific effects and oxidative stress. The salinity delays or prevents the seed germination through various factors, such as a reduction in water availability, changes in the mobilization of stored reserves and affecting the structural organization of proteins. Various techniques can improve emergence and stand establishment under salt conditions. One of the most frequently utilized is seed priming. The process of seed priming involves prior exposure to an abiotic stress, making a seed more resistant to future exposure. Seed priming stimulates the pre-germination metabolic processes and makes the seed ready for radicle protrusion. It increases the antioxidant system activity and the repair of membranes. These changes promote seed vigor during germination and emergence under salinity stress. The aim of this paper is to review the recent literature on the response of plants to seed priming under salinity stress. The mechanism of the effect of salinity on seed germination is discussed and the seed priming process is summarized. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes induced by priming that lead to seed enhancement are covered. Plants' responses to some priming agents under salinity stress are reported based on the best available data. For a great number of crops, little information exists and further research is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. 5-HT(2C) serotonin receptor blockade prevents tau protein hyperphosphorylation and corrects the defect in hippocampal synaptic plasticity caused by a combination of environmental stressors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busceti, Carla Letizia; Di Pietro, Paola; Riozzi, Barbara; Traficante, Anna; Biagioni, Francesca; Nisticò, Robert; Fornai, Francesco; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Bruno, Valeria

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to multimodal sensory stressors is an everyday occurrence and sometimes becomes very intense, such as during rave parties or other recreational events. A growing body of evidence suggests that strong environmental stressors might cause neuronal dysfunction on their own in addition to their synergistic action with illicit drugs. Mice were exposed to a combination of physical and sensory stressors that are reminiscent of those encountered in a rave party. However, this is not a model of rave because it lacks the rewarding properties of rave. A 14-h exposure to environmental stressors caused an impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory, and an enhanced phosphorylation of tau protein in the CA1 and CA3 regions. These effects were transient and critically depended on the activation of 5-HT2C serotonin receptors, which are highly expressed in the CA1 region. Acute systemic injection of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist, RS-102,221 (2 mg/kg, i.p., 2 min prior the onset of stress), prevented tau hyperphosphorylation and also corrected the defects in hippocampal LTP and spatial memory. These findings suggest that passive exposure to a combination of physical and sensory stressors causes a reversible hippocampal dysfunction, which might compromise mechanisms of synaptic plasticity and spatial memory for a few days. Drugs that block 5-HT2C receptors might protect the hippocampus against the detrimental effect of environmental stressors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge and use of folic acid for birth defect prevention among women of childbearing age in Shanghai, China: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Huan; Ma, Duan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Li, Xiaotian

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of folic acid intake for prevention of birth defects in Chinese women of child-bearing age. In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 1,338 women aged 20-45 years were randomly selected for interview. Data on folic acid knowledge and information on folic acid intake in the subjects were collected. Age, education, contraception, and status of family planning were used as the independent variables in multivariate logistic regression. 55.6% of the subjects took contraception at all times, and 33.9% had pregnancy planning in the next six months. 49.7% of the interviewed women knew the benefits of folic acid and 34.6% realized the correct time of folic acid intake; and 14.9% of these women actually took folic acid daily. Planning to be pregnant in the next six months was associated with knowledge of folic acid benefits, correct time of folic acid intake and actual intake. A higher education level was correlated with the knowledge of folic acid benefits and correct time of folic acid intake, but was not linked to actual intake of folic acid. The knowledge and use of folic acid were at low to moderate levels in women at childbearing age in Shanghai, China, and general knowledge of folic acid benefits and correct time of folic acid intake should be conveyed to these women.

  12. Dormancy and germination: How does the crop seed decide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, K; Meng, Y J; Shuai, H W; Liu, W G; Du, J B; Liu, J; Yang, W Y

    2015-11-01

    Whether seeds germinate or maintain dormancy is decided upon through very intricate physiological processes. Correct timing of these processes is most important for the plants life cycle. If moist conditions are encountered, a low dormancy level causes pre-harvest sprouting in various crop species, such as wheat, corn and rice, this decreases crop yield and negatively impacts downstream industrial processing. In contrast, a deep level of seed dormancy prevents normal germination even under favourable conditions, resulting in a low emergence rate during agricultural production. Therefore, an optimal seed dormancy level is valuable for modern mechanised agricultural systems. Over the past several years, numerous studies have demonstrated that diverse endogenous and environmental factors regulate the balance between dormancy and germination, such as light, temperature, water status and bacteria in soil, and phytohormones such as ABA (abscisic acid) and GA (gibberellic acid). In this updated review, we highlight recent advances regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of seed dormancy and germination processes, including the external environmental and internal hormonal cues, and primarily focusing on the staple crop species. Furthermore, future challenges and research directions for developing a full understanding of crop seed dormancy and germination are also discussed. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. Guidance for Preventing Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  14. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  15. High-Throughput Scoring of Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very informative as it lacks information about start, rate, and uniformity of germination, which are highly indicative of such traits as dormancy, stress tolerance, and seed longevity. The calculation of cumulative germination curves requires information about germination percentage at various time points. We developed the GERMINATOR package: a simple, highly cost-efficient, and flexible procedure for high-throughput automatic scoring and evaluation of germination that can be implemented without the use of complex robotics. The GERMINATOR package contains three modules: (I) design of experimental setup with various options to replicate and randomize samples; (II) automatic scoring of germination based on the color contrast between the protruding radicle and seed coat on a single image; and (III) curve fitting of cumulative germination data and the extraction, recap, and visualization of the various germination parameters. GERMINATOR is a freely available package that allows the monitoring and analysis of several thousands of germination tests, several times a day by a single person.

  16. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  17. Describing phytotoxic effects on cumulative germination

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Phytotoxic studies strongly depend on evaluation of germination responses, which implies the need for adequate procedures to account for distinct aspects of the germinative process. For this, indices, comparisons among treatments at various times, and model fitting have been proposed. The objective of this work is to compare the three approaches and select the one providing greater insight and precision. Speed of germination, speed of accumulated germination, the coefficient of the rate of ge...

  18. Germination at low osmotic potential as a selection criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... papers at 26°C. The germination data were recorded daily. Percentage germination, mean germination time and coefficient velocity of germination were calculated by the equations 1, 2 and 3, respectively: 1) Germination percentage (%) = Final number of seeds germinated. × 100 (Scott et al., 1984).

  19. Methods for assessing Phytophthora ramorum chlamydospore germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce Eberhart; Elilzabeth Stamm; Jennifer Parke

    2013-01-01

    Germination of chlamydospores is difficult to accurately assess when chlamydospores are attached to remnants of supporting hyphae. We developed two approaches for closely observing and rigorously quantifying the frequency of chlamydospore germination in vitro. The plate marking and scanning method was useful for quantifying germination of large...

  20. 7 CFR 201.6 - Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.6 Section 201.6 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Records for Agricultural and Vegetable Seeds § 201.6 Germination. The complete record shall include the records of all laboratory tests for germination and hard seed for each lot of seed offered for...

  1. 7 CFR 201.20 - Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination. 201.20 Section 201.20 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.20 Germination. The label shall show the percentage of germination each kind, or kind and variety, or kind and type, or kind and hybrid of agricultural seed present...

  2. seed germination and seedlings growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is the major phytoecdysteroid of about 6% of plants. Its role in plant physiology has not been fully elucidated. In this work we studied the effects of 20E application on some morphological and biochemical parameters of tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum, seed during germination ...

  3. on germination of chickpea seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patience

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... electric field (by varying voltage) on the water absorption and germination of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. Chickpea seeds were exposed to the electric field (by varying voltage from zero to 1300 V) for 15 min at three different temperatures (13, 16 and 19°C). The present study was conducted to find ...

  4. Habitat specialization through germination cueing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ten Brink, Dirk-Jan; Hendriksma, Harmen; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adaptive association between seed germination ecology and specialization to either forest or open habitats across a range of evolutionary lineages of seed plants, in order to test the hypotheses that (1) species' specialization to open vs. shaded habitats is consistently...

  5. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  6. Defects and defect processes in nonmetallic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, W

    2004-01-01

    This extensive survey covers defects in nonmetals, emphasizing point defects and point-defect processes. It encompasses electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of defective solids, plus dislocations and grain boundaries. 1985 edition.

  7. Germination Requirements of Bacillus macerans Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, L. E.; Thompson, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    2-Phenylacetamide is an effective germinant for spores of five strains of Bacillus macerans, particularly in the presence of fructose. Benzyl penicillin, the phenyl acetamide derivative of penicillin, and phenylacetic acid are also good germinants. l-Asparagine is an excellent germinant for four strains. α-Amino-butyric acid is moderately effective. Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, adenine, and 2,6-diaminopurine are potent germinants for NCA strain 7X1 only. d-Glucose is a powerful germinant for strain B-70 only. d-Fructose and d-ribose strongly potentiate germination induced by other germinants (except l-asparagine) but have only weak activity by themselves. Niacinamide and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, inactive by themselves, are active in the presence of fructose or ribose. Effects of pH, ion concentration, and temperature are described. PMID:4251279

  8. Germination conditions affect physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2009-01-01

    Germinated brown rice has been reported to be nutritious due to increased free gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The physicochemical properties of brown rice (BR) and glutinous brown rice (GNBR) after germination as affected by different steeping times (24, 36, 48, and 72 h depending on the rice variety) and pHs of steeping water (3, 5, 7, and as-is) were determined and compared to those of the nongerminated one (control). As the steeping time increased or pH of steeping water decreased, germinated brown rice flours (GBRF) from both BR and GNBR had greater reducing sugar, free GABA and alpha-amylase activity; while the total starch and viscosity were lower than their respective controls. GBRFs from both BR and GNBR prepared after 24-h steeping time at pH 3 contained a high content of free GABA at 32.70 and 30.69 mg/100 g flour, respectively. The peak viscosity of GBRF obtained from both BR and GNBR (7.42 to 228.22 and 4.42 to 58.67 RVU, respectively) was significantly lower than that of their controls (255.46 and 190.17 RVU, respectively). The principal component analysis indicated that the important variables for discriminating among GBRFs, explained by the first 2 components at 89.82% of total explained variance, were the pasting profiles, alpha-amylase activity, and free GABA.

  9. Proteomic analysis of embryonic proteins synthesized from long-lived mRNAs during germination of rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoto; Permana, Hadian; Kumada, Ryota; Shinozaki, Yoshihito; Tanabata, Takanari; Yamada, Tetsuya; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Kanekatsu, Motoki

    2012-04-01

    Dry seeds contain translatable, long-lived mRNAs that are stored during seed maturation. Early studies using transcriptional inhibitors supported the view that protein synthesis during the initial phase of germination occurs on long-lived mRNA templates. Rice seeds were treated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D (Act D), and the embryonic proteins translated from long-lived mRNAs during germination were identified using a proteomic analysis. De novo transcription was not required for germination of rice seeds, since >80% of seeds germinated when transcription was prevented by treatment with Act D. In contrast, germination was completely inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide, an inhibitor of translation. Thus, de novo protein synthesis is necessary for germination of rice seeds. The proteomic analysis revealed that 20 proteins are up-regulated during germination, even after Act D treatment. Many of the up-regulated proteins are involved in carbohydrate metabolism and cytoskeleton formation. These results indicate that some of the germination-specific proteins involved in energy production and maintenance of cell structure in rice seeds are synthesized from long-lived mRNAs. The timing of translation of eight up-regulated proteins was clearly later than that of the other up-regulated proteins under conditions in which transcription was inhibited by Act D, suggesting that translation of long-lived mRNAs in rice seeds is regulated according to the germination phase.

  10. Seed germination and seedling growth of two Pseudobombax species (Malvaceae) with contrasting habitats from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Rodrigues, Clesnan; Oliveira, Paulo Eugênio; Ranal, Marli Aparecida

    2011-12-01

    Pseudobombax tomentosum and P. longiflorum are common trees in the Cerrado region, but the former species is more common in forest edges while the later is present in open cerrado areas. This work aimed to investigate differences in seed germination and seedling growth in these species, from seed collected from Cerrado areas in Central Brazil. For this, a seed germination experiment was designed and included four replicates with 25 seeds per species; seeds were randomly distributed in the germination chamber. To evaluate initial seedling growth, seedlings height was measured up to 67 days after seedling emergence; besides, some of these seedlings were grown for biomass evaluation during nine months. Results showed that seeds of the two species had the same germinability (near 100%) and mean germination time (ca. 12 days). However, P. longiflorum showed a more spread seed germination through time, with higher values of coefficient of variation in germination time and uncertainty index; and lower values of synchronization than P. tomentosum. The two species showed basically the same growth pattern, but lower values for height of apical meristem, diameter of underground structures (mostly roots), dry mass of shoots, underground structure and total mass of seedlings in P. tomentosum were obtained, compared to P. longiflorum. Both species allocated more dry mass to underground structures in detriment of shoot. This probably allows resprouting behavior which prevents hydric stress and detrimental fire action typical of the open Cerrado areas.

  11. Seed germination and seedling growth of two Pseudobombax species (Malvaceae with contrasting habitats from Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clesnan Mendes-Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudobombax tomentosum and P. longiflorum are common trees in the Cerrado region, but the former species is more common in forest edges while the later is present in open cerrado areas. This work aimed to investigate differences in seed germination and seedling growth in these species, from seed collected from Cerrado areas in Central Brazil. For this, a seed germination experiment was designed and included four replicates with 25 seeds per species; seeds were randomly distributed in the germination chamber. To evaluate initial seedling growth, seedlings height was measured up to 67 days after seedling emergence; besides, some of these seedlings were grown for biomass evaluation during nine months. Results showed that seeds of the two species had the same germinability (near 100% and mean germination time (ca. 12 days. However, P. longiflorum showed a more spread seed germination through time, with higher values of coefficient of variation in germination time and uncertainty index; and lower values of synchronization than P. tomentosum. The two species showed basically the same growth pattern, but lower values for height of apical meristem, diameter of underground structures (mostly roots, dry mass of shoots, underground structure and total mass of seedlings in P. tomentosum were obtained, compared to P. longiflorum. Both species allocated more dry mass to underground structures in detriment of shoot. This probably allows resprouting behavior which prevents hydric stress and detrimental fire action typical of the open Cerrado areas. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1915-1925. Epub 2011 December 01.

  12. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  13. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Germinant receptor diversity and germination responses of four strains of the Bacillus cereus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voort, Menno; García, Diego; Moezelaar, Roy; Abee, Tjakko

    2010-04-30

    Four strains of the Bacillus cereus group were compared for their germinant receptor composition and spore germination capacity. Phylogenetic analysis of the germinant receptor encoding operons of the enterotoxic strains B. cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987, the emetic strain AH187, and the psychrotolerant strain Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4, indicated a core group of five germinant receptor operons to be present in the four strains, with each strain containing one to three additional receptors. Using quantitative PCR, induction of expression during sporulation was confirmed for all identified germinant receptor operons in these strains. Despite the large overlap in receptors, diversity in amino acid-induced germination capacity was observed, with six out of 20 amino acids, serving as germinants for spores of all four strains. Each strain showed unique features: efficient germination of strain KBAB4 spores required non-inducing amounts of inosine as the co-germinant, strain ATCC 10987 spores germinated only efficiently after heat activation. Furthermore, strain ATCC 14579 and AH187 spores germinated without heat activation or inosine, with strain ATCC 14579 spores being triggered by all amino acids except phenylalanine and strain AH187 spores being specifically triggered efficiently only by phenylalanine. Analysis of all germination data did not reveal strict linkages between specific germinants and germinant receptors. Finally, the diversity in nutrient-induced germination capacity was also reflected in the diverse germination responses of heat-activated spores of the four B. cereus strains in food matrices, such as milk, rice water and meat bouillon, indicating that amino acid composition and/or availability of inosine are important germination determinants in foods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, J; Zhou, H; Cui, Z C; Wang, L; Luo, P F; Ji, S Z; Hu, X Y; Ma, B; Wang, G Y; Zhu, S H; Xia, Z F

    2018-04-20

    Objective: To study the antiseptic effect of compound lysostaphin disinfectant and its preventive effect on infection of artificial dermis after graft on full-thickness skin defect wound in rats. Methods: (1) Each one standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were selected. Each 20 clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were collected from those isolated from wound exudates of burn patients hospitalized in our wards from January 2014 to December 2016 according to the random number table. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of compound lysostaphin disinfectant to above-mentioned strains were detected. The experiment was repeated 3 times. Compared with the corresponding standard strain, the clinical strain with higher MIC and/or MBC was considered as having decreased sensitivity to the disinfectant. The percentage of strains of each of the three kinds of bacteria with decreased sensitivity was calculated. (2) Artificial dermis pieces were soaked in compound lysostaphin disinfectant for 5 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h, respectively, with 21 pieces at each time point. After standing for 0 (immediately), 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72 h (with 3 pieces at each time point), respectively, the diameters of their inhibition zones to standard strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Staphylococcus aureus were measured. The experiment was repeated 3 times. The shortest soaking time corresponding to the longest standing time, after which the disinfectant-soaked artificial dermis could form an effective inhibition zone (with diameter more than 7 mm), was the sufficient soaking time of the disinfectant to the artificial dermis. (3) Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into post injury day (PID) 3, 7, 14, and 21 sampling groups according to the random number table, with 10 rats in each group. A full-thickness skin

  16. Exploring the microbiota of the red-brown defect in smear-ripened cheese by 454-pyrosequencing and its prevention using different cleaning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Carafa, Ilaria; Tuohy, Kieran; Cervantes, Gonzalo; Vernetti, Luca; Barmaz, Andrea; Larcher, Roberto; Franciosi, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Red-brown pigmentation can occasionally form in smeared-ripened cheese such as Fontina during the ripening process. This reaction is due to over-development of the typical microbiota present on the rind. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between red-brown pigmentation and the traditional utilization of wooden shelves during cheese ripening. The first part of the paper focuses on the characterisation of yeast and bacterial microbiota: plate counts and 454-pyrosequencing were performed in spoiled (n = 6) and non-spoiled cheeses (n = 6) and on the wooden shelves used during ripening. The second part shows different systems tested for cleaning the wooden shelves and avoiding the development of the red-brown defect in cheese: washing with hot water and ozone treatment. Actinobacteria, dominated on the wooden shelves, suggesting to be responsible for the red-brown pigmentation; they were also found in traces in the defected cheese samples. Galactomyces and Debaryomyces were the main species characterizing the yeast population, with Debaryomyces being the most dominant species on the shelves used during ripening of the red-brown defective cheese. Hot water treatment reduced the microbial contamination of shelves, whereas only the ozone treatment ensured complete elimination of both yeast and bacteria, resulting in the cheese rind not having the red-brown defect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [The research of Valeriana amurensis seed germination characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Yang, Chun-Rong; Jiang, Bo; Fang, Min; Du, Juan

    2011-10-01

    To study the effect of different treatments on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Used different chemical reagents and seed soakings on the routine germination test and the orthogonal test of the Valeriana amurensis seed, calculated the germination rate under different germination condition. Valeriana amurensis treated with different chemical reagends had different germination rate. The suitable immersion time could enhance Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. Different treatment time, different disposal temperature, different germination temperature would have an impact on the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate. In order to raise the Valeriana amurensis seed germination rate, use appropriate treatment on the seed before plant seeds; The seed growing must under suitable time and temperature.

  18. 7 CFR 201.53 - Source of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of seeds for germination. 201.53 Section 201.53... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.53 Source of seeds for germination. (a) When both purity and germination tests are required, seeds for germination shall be taken from the...

  19. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiza Altine Adamu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. Objective: The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR and GBR-derived gamma (γ aminobutyric acid (GABA extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet–induced insulin resistance. Design: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD, HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4 were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Results: Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. Conclusions: These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  20. Perinatal exposure to germinated brown rice and its gamma amino-butyric acid-rich extract prevents high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in first generation rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Hadiza Altine; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Rosli, Rozita; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance. The present study was aimed at determining the effects of intrauterine exposure to germinated brown rice (GBR) and GBR-derived gamma (γ) aminobutyric acid (GABA) extract on epigenetically mediated high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+GBR, or HFD+GABA throughout pregnancy until 4 weeks postdelivery. The pups were weighed weekly and maintained on normal pellet until 8 weeks postdelivery. After sacrifice, biochemical markers of obesity and insulin resistance including oral glucose tolerance test, adiponectin, leptin, and retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) were measured. Hepatic gene expression changes and the global methylation and histone acetylation levels were also evaluated. Detailed analyses revealed that mothers given GBR and GABA extract, and their offspring had increased adiponectin levels and reduced insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, oxidative stress, and RBP4 levels, while their hepatic mRNA levels of GLUT2 and IPF1 were increased. Furthermore, GBR and GABA extract lowered global DNA methylation levels and modulated H3 and H4 acetylation levels. These results showed that intrauterine exposure to GBR-influenced metabolic outcomes in offspring of rats with underlying epigenetic changes and transcriptional implications that led to improved glucose homeostasis.

  1. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Im Chung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups (n = 10: normal control diet (NC and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH or germinated Superhongmi (GSH rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  2. Germinated Pigmented Rice (Oryza Sativa L. cv. Superhongmi) Improves Glucose and Bone Metabolisms in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soo Im; Ryu, Su Noh; Kang, Mi Young

    2016-10-21

    The effect of germinated Superhongmi, a reddish brown pigmented rice cultivar, on the glucose profile and bone turnover in the postmenopausal-like model of ovariectomized rats was determined. The ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups ( n = 10): normal control diet (NC) and normal diet supplemented with non-germinated Superhongmi (SH) or germinated Superhongmi (GSH) rice powder. After eight weeks, the SH and GSH groups showed significantly lower body weight, glucose and insulin concentrations, levels of bone resorption markers and higher glycogen and 17-β-estradiol contents than the NC group. The glucose metabolism improved through modulation of adipokine production and glucose-regulating enzyme activities. The GSH rats exhibited a greater hypoglycemic effect and lower bone resorption than SH rats. These results demonstrate that germinated Superhongmi rice may potentially be useful in the prevention and management of postmenopausal hyperglycemia and bone turnover imbalance.

  3. BIOSECURITY FOR REDUCING OCHRATOXIN A PRODUCTIVITY AND THEIR IMPACT ON GERMINATION AND ULTRASTRUCTURES OF GERMINATED WHEAT GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a secondary metabolite of some fungi that causes very serious problems for plants, animals and humans. Various microorganisms such as bacteria and microscopic fungi have been tested for their abilities to prevent ochratoxin A contamination or detoxify foods. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus reduced OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus to 40.88 µg/ml ( productivity 60.69% and 13.80 µg/ml (productivity 20.48% respectively compared with the control (67.35 µg/ml (productivity 100%. The results clearly indicated that the seed germinibility in the presence of OTA was decreased with increasing concentration, whereas the germinibility was uncompletely ceased at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml of OTA. The maximum amount of germination was observed in control (without OTA treatment and at low concentration (13.80 µg/ml within 4 days. Antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase decreased in germinated grains treated with OTA. Catalase was 18.12 U/ml in grains treated with low concentration (13.80 µg/ml of OTA while at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml, it was 12.23 U/ml compared with the control (20.33 U/ml. On the other hand, peroxidase decreased only in germinated grains treated with high concentration of OTA. The ultrastructural studies indicate that there were dramatic differences between the cells of root system of wheat seedlings of grains treated and untreated with the OTA. Cell ultrastructures of treated grains with OTA showed that the cytoplasmic membrane collapses away from the cell wall. Plasmodesmata threads were appeared in untreated cells but not formed in treated cells.

  4. Carboxypeptidase of Castor Bean Endosperm during Germination

    OpenAIRE

    山本, 知子; 下田, 忠久; 船津, 軍喜; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Shimoda, Tadahisa; Funatsu, Gunki

    1982-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase (CPase) in the endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) showed high activity at day 4 and 7 on germination. From the behavior of CPases on CM-cellulose column chromatography, the early stage CPases, which appeared before 4 day germination, were different from the later stage CPases which appeared after 6 day. Probably the former arised from ungerminated seeds and the latter was synthesized during the germination. The early stage endosperm of small grain castor bean cont...

  5. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kolb, Rosana Marta; Pilon, Natashi Aparecida Lima; Durigan, Giselda

    2016-01-01

    Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i) recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii) under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii)...

  6. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien De Giorgi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA and abscisic acid (ABA signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties.

  7. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubery, Sylvain; Utz-Pugin, Anne; Bailly, Christophe; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties. PMID:26681322

  8. An Endosperm-Associated Cuticle Is Required for Arabidopsis Seed Viability, Dormancy and Early Control of Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giorgi, Julien; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Loubery, Sylvain; Utz-Pugin, Anne; Bailly, Christophe; Mène-Saffrané, Laurent; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Cuticular layers and seeds are prominent plant adaptations to terrestrial life that appeared early and late during plant evolution, respectively. The cuticle is a waterproof film covering plant aerial organs preventing excessive water loss and protecting against biotic and abiotic stresses. Cutin, consisting of crosslinked fatty acid monomers, is the most abundant and studied cuticular component. Seeds are dry, metabolically inert structures promoting plant dispersal by keeping the plant embryo in an arrested protected state. In Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the embryo is surrounded by a single cell endosperm layer itself surrounded by a seed coat layer, the testa. Whole genome analyses lead us to identify cutin biosynthesis genes as regulatory targets of the phytohormones gibberellins (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways that control seed germination. Cutin-containing layers are present in seed coats of numerous species, including Arabidopsis, where they regulate permeability to outer compounds. However, the role of cutin in mature seed physiology and germination remains poorly understood. Here we identify in mature seeds a thick cuticular film covering the entire outer surface of the endosperm. This seed cuticle is defective in cutin-deficient bodyguard1 seeds, which is associated with alterations in endospermic permeability. Furthermore, mutants affected in cutin biosynthesis display low seed dormancy and viability levels, which correlates with higher levels of seed lipid oxidative stress. Upon seed imbibition cutin biosynthesis genes are essential to prevent endosperm cellular expansion and testa rupture in response to low GA synthesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that in the course of land plant evolution cuticular structures were co-opted to achieve key physiological seed properties.

  9. Gravitational stress on germinating Pinus pinea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaldi, Francesco; Giachetti, Eugenio; Guerin, Elizabeth; Bacci, Stefano; Paoletti, Elena; Boddi, Vieri; Vanni, Paolo

    2003-06-01

    In the germination of lipid-rich seeds, the glyoxylate cycle plays a control role in that, bypassing the two decarboxylative steps of the Krebs cycle; it allows the net synthesis of carbohydrates from lipids. The activity of isocitrate lyase, the key enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, is an indicator of the state of seed germination: stage of germination, growth of embryo, activation and progress of protein synthesis, depletion of lipidic supplies. In order to investigate the effects of gravity on seed germination, we carried out a study on the time pattern of germination of Pinus pinea seeds that were subjected to a hypergravitational stress (1000 g for 64 h at 4 degrees C), either in a dry or in a wet environment, before to be placed in germination plates. During the whole time of germination, we monitored the state of embryo growth and the most representative enzymes of the main metabolic pathways. In treated wet seeds, we observed an average germination of only 20% with a slowdown of the enzyme activities assayed and a noticeable degradation of lipidic reserves with respect to the controls. These differences in germination are not found for dry seeds.

  10. Zinnia Germination and Lunar Soil Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Germination testing was performed to determine the best method for germinating zinnias. This method will be used to attempt to germinate the zinnia seeds produced in space. It was found that seed shape may be critically important in determining whether a seed will germinate or not. The ability of compost and worm castings to remediate lunar regolith simulant for plant growth was tested. It was found that neither treatment effectively improves plant growth in lunar regolith simulant. A potential method of improving lunar regolith simulant by mixing it with arcillite was discovered.

  11. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rachel E; Waterworth, Wanda M; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M; Pritchard, Hugh W

    2016-12-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA 3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA 3 , indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Biomechanical, biochemical, and morphological mechanisms of heat shock-mediated germination in Carica papaya seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Rachel E.; Waterworth, Wanda M.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; West, Christopher E.; Ennos, Roland; Bray, Clifford M.; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Carica papaya (papaya) seed germinate readily fresh from the fruit, but desiccation induces a dormant state. Dormancy can be released by exposure of the hydrated seed to a pulse of elevated temperature, typical of that encountered in its tropical habitat. Carica papaya is one of only a few species known to germinate in response to heat shock (HS) and we know little of the mechanisms that control germination in tropical ecosystems. Here we investigate the mechanisms that mediate HS-induced stimulation of germination in pre-dried and re-imbibed papaya seed. Exogenous gibberellic acid (GA3 ≥250 µM) overcame the requirement for HS to initiate germination. However, HS did not sensitise seeds to GA3, indicative that it may act independently of GA biosynthesis. Seed coat removal also overcame desiccation-imposed dormancy, indicative that resistance to radicle emergence is coat-imposed. Morphological and biomechanical studies identified that neither desiccation nor HS alter the physical structure or the mechanical strength of the seed coat. However, cycloheximide prevented both seed coat weakening and germination, implicating a requirement for de novo protein synthesis in both processes. The germination antagonist abscisic acid prevented radicle emergence but had no effect on papaya seed coat weakening. Desiccation therefore appears to reduce embryo growth potential, which is reversed by HS, without physically altering the mechanical properties of the seed coat. The ability to germinate in response to a HS may confer a competitive advantage to C. papaya, an opportunistic pioneer species, through detection of canopy removal in tropical forests. PMID:27811004

  13. Identification of embryo proteins associated with seed germination and seedling establishment in germinating rice seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Xu, Heng-Heng; Wang, Wei-Qing; Li, Ni; Wang, Wei-Ping; Lu, Zhuang; Møller, Ian Max; Song, Song-Quan

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is a critical phase in the plant life cycle, but the mechanism of seed germination is still poorly understood. In the present study, rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Peiai 64S) seeds were sampled individually when they reached different germination stages, quiescent, germinated sensu stricto, germinated completely and seedling, and were used to study the changes in the embryo proteome. A total of 88 protein spots showed a significant change in abundance during germination in water, and the results showed an activation of metabolic processes. Cell division, cell wall synthesis, and secondary metabolism were activated at late seed germination and during preparation for subsequent seedling establishment. Cycloheximide (CHX) at 70μM inhibited seedling establishment without an apparent negative effect on seed germination, while CHX at 500μM completely blocked seed germination. We used this observation to identify the potentially important proteins involved in seed germination (coleoptile protrusion) and seedling establishment (coleoptile and radicle protrusion). Twenty-six protein spots, mainly associated with sugar/polysaccharide metabolism and energy production, showed a significant difference in abundance during seed germination. Forty-nine protein spots, mainly involved in cell wall biosynthesis, proteolysis as well as cell defense and rescue, were required for seedling establishment. The results help improve our understanding of the key events (proteins) involved in germination and seedling development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Germinant receptor diversity and germination responses of four strains of the Bacillus cereus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, van der M.; Garcia, D.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.

    2010-01-01

    Four strains of the Bacillus cereus group were compared for their germinant receptor composition and spore germination capacity. Phylogenetic analysis of the germinant receptor encoding operons of the enterotoxic strains B. cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987, the emetic strain AH187, and the

  15. KNOWLEDGE OF THE IMPORTANCE OF FOLIC ACID IN THE PREVENTION OF NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS IN BUTEMBO TOWN, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhindo Valimungighe Moise; Alexandre Amini Mitamo; Ahuka ona Longombe

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital malformations resulting from a problem of neural tube closure, at an early stage in the development of the human embryo. Numerous studies have established that these malformations, although multifactorial, are correlated with low intakes of folic acid. These studies also mentioned that the additional intake of folic acid in the periconceptional period reduces the risk. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge of w...

  16. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  17. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of Cantrell, omphalocele, bladder exstrophy, imperforate anus, spina bifida complex, prune-belly syndrome, body stalk anomaly, and bladder and cloacal exstrophy; they deserve multidisciplinary counselling and management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The germinal center antibody response in health and disease [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L. DeFranco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The germinal center response is the delayed but sustained phase of the antibody response that is responsible for producing high-affinity antibodies of the IgG, IgA and/or IgE isotypes. B cells in the germinal center undergo re-iterative cycles of somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin gene variable regions, clonal expansion, and Darwinian selection for cells expressing higher-affinity antibody variants. Alternatively, selected B cells can terminally differentiate into long-lived plasma cells or into a broad diversity of mutated memory B cells; the former secrete the improved antibodies to fight an infection and to provide continuing protection from re-infection, whereas the latter may jumpstart immune responses to subsequent infections with related but distinct infecting agents. Our understanding of the molecules involved in the germinal center reaction has been informed by studies of human immunodeficiency patients with selective defects in the production of antibodies. Recent studies have begun to reveal how innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors can enhance the magnitude and selective properties of the germinal center, leading to more effective control of infection by a subset of viruses. Just as early insights into the nature of the germinal center found application in the development of the highly successful conjugate vaccines, more recent insights may find application in the current efforts to develop new generations of vaccines, including vaccines that can induce broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against influenza virus or HIV-1.

  19. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  20. Is seed conditioning essential for Orobanche germination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakhine, Dina; Ziadna, Hammam; Joel, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Parasitic Orobanchaceae germinate only after receiving a chemical stimulus from roots of potential host plants. A preparatory phase of several days that follows seed imbibition, termed conditioning, is known to be required; thereafter the seeds can respond to germination stimulants. The aim of this study was to examine whether conditioning is essential for stimulant receptivity. Non-conditioned seeds of both Orobanche cumana Wallr. and O. aegyptiaca Pers. [syn. Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Pers.) Pomel] were able to germinate in response to chemical stimulation by GR24 even without prior conditioning. Stimulated seeds reached maximal germination rates about 2 weeks after the onset of imbibition, no matter whether the seeds had or had not been conditioned before stimulation. Whereas the lag time between stimulation and germination response of non-conditioned seeds was longer than for conditioned seeds, the total time between imbibition and germination was shorter for the non-conditioned seeds. Unlike the above two species, O. crenata Forsk. was found to require conditioning prior to stimulation. Seeds of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca are already receptive before conditioning. Thus, conditioning is not involved in stimulant receptivity. A hypothesis is put forward, suggesting that conditioning includes (a) a parasite-specific early phase that allows the imbibed seeds to overcome the stress caused by failing to receive an immediate germination stimulus, and (b) a non-specific later phase that is identical to the pregermination phase between seed imbibition and actual germination that is typical for all higher plants.

  1. Germination response of Zanthoxylum capense (small knobwood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Zanthoxylum capense is an important medicinal species in South Africa. It is propagated by seeds which are dispersed by different animals but the seeds rarely germinate even under favourable germination conditions which could be the result of dormancy. In addition, the species is currently listed as ...

  2. Comparative Germination Responses of Cowpea and Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination, emergence and establishment phase are critical to the growth cycle of plant as it determines the density of the stand obtained. However, a number of factors including soil available moisture decrease seed germination and the rate of decline is found to vary with crop species. Pot experiment was therefore ...

  3. COMPARATIVE GERMINATION RESPONSES OF COWPEA AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    iya beji

    ABSTRACT: Germination, emergence and establishment phase are critical to the growth cycle of plant as it determines the density of the stand obtained. However, a number of factors including soil available moisture decrease seed germination and the rate of decline is found to vary with crop species. Pot experiment was ...

  4. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  5. High-throughput scoring of seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W.M.

    2017-01-01

    High-throughput analysis of seed germination for phenotyping large genetic populations or mutant collections is very labor intensive and would highly benefit from an automated setup. Although very often used, the total germination percentage after a nominated period of time is not very

  6. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  7. Germination and seedlings performance of cashew ( Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of nut-sowing orientations on the germination of cashew nuts and the responses of the resultant seedlings to cotyledon removed were studied in the nursery. While cashew nuts sown flat and those with stylar-end up had highest mean germination of 91.67 % and 92.50 % respectively the nuts sown with ...

  8. A simple and reliable method to detect gamma irradiated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) seeds by germination efficiency and seedling growth test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Sadhan K.

    2002-01-01

    Germination efficiency and root/shoot length of germinated seedling is proposed to identify irradiated lentil seeds. Germination percentage was reduced above 0.2 kGy and lentil seeds were unable to germinate above 1.0 kGy dose. The critical dose that prevented the root elongation varied from 0.1 to 0.5 kGy. The sensitivity of lentil seeds to gamma irradiation was inversely proportional to moisture content of the seeds. Radiation effects could be detected in seeds even 12 months storage after gamma irradiation

  9. EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE GERMINATION OF SEEDS SOEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to study the effect of thermal treatments (in the oven and in the compost on the seed germination SOEL. The laboratory evaluation on the treatment in the oven berries at two temperatures (50°C and 60°C for three exposure time ( one day, two days and three days gave a germination rate zero for 60°C for an exposure time of one day. The spatio-temporal thermal monitoring of forestry compost windrow which was introduced to deal with berries SOEL showed a substantially homogeneous distribution of the temperature rising to 60°C and even longer swath stretching and used for a time period of 5 consecutive days. The germination rate was zero for all fruit seeds treated before the first reversal fact, regardless of the depth and location of the windrow considered that the berries were introduced. Thus, composting can be a solution to prevent the spread of SOEL by seed.

  10. Germinal and somatic mutations in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudson, A.G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The role of germinal and somatic mutations in carcinogenesis leads to the conclusion that environmental carcinogens probably exert their effects via somatic mutations. Susceptibility to this process may itself be genetically determined, so we may deduce that two groups, one genetic and one non-genetic, are included in the 'environmental' class. Other individuals seem to acquire cancer even in the absence of such environmental agents, and these too may be classified into a genetic and a non-genetic group. It has been estimated that in industrial countries, the environmental groups include 70-80% of all cancer cases, but we are only beginning to know how to separate the genetic and non-genetic subgroups. The genetic subgroup of the 'non-environmental' group is very small, probably of the order of magnitude of 1-2% for cancer as a whole. The remainder, about 25%, comprises a non-genetic, non-environmental subgroup that seems to arise as a consequence of 'spontaneous' somatic mutations. The incidence of these 'background' cancers is what we should combat with preventive and therapeutic measures

  11. Mitochondrial Proteome Studies in Seeds during Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Czarna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed germination is considered to be one of the most critical phases in the plant life cycle, establishing the next generation of a plant species. It is an energy-demanding process that requires functioning mitochondria. One of the earliest events of seed germination is progressive development of structurally simple and metabolically quiescent promitochondria into fully active and cristae-containing mitochondria, known as mitochondrial biogenesis. This is a complex and tightly regulated process, which is accompanied by sequential and dynamic gene expression, protein synthesis, and post-translational modifications. The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive summary of seed mitochondrial proteome studies during germination of various plant model organisms. We describe different gel-based and gel-free proteomic approaches used to characterize mitochondrial proteomes of germinating seeds as well as challenges and limitations of these proteomic studies. Furthermore, the dynamic changes in the abundance of the mitochondrial proteomes of germinating seeds are illustrated, highlighting numerous mitochondrial proteins involved in respiration, tricarboxycylic acid (TCA cycle, metabolism, import, and stress response as potentially important for seed germination. We then review seed mitochondrial protein carbonylation, phosphorylation, and S-nitrosylation as well as discuss the possible link between these post-translational modifications (PTMs and the regulation of seed germination.

  12. Influence of diesel fuel on seed germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Gillian; Duncan, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The volatile fraction of diesel fuel played a major role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. - The use of plant-based systems to remediate contaminated soils has become an area of intense scientific study in recent years and it is apparent that plants which grow well in contaminated soils need to be identified and screened for use in phytoremediation technologies. This study investigated the effect of diesel fuel on germination of selected plant species. Germination response varied greatly with plant species and was species specific, as members of the same plant family showed differential sensitivity to diesel fuel contamination. Differences were also seen within plant subspecies. At relatively low levels of diesel fuel contamination, delayed seed emergence and reduced percentage germination was observed for the majority of plant species investigated. Results suggest the volatile fraction of diesel fuel played an influential role in delaying seed emergence and reducing percentage germination. In addition, the remaining diesel fuel in the soil added to this inhibitory effect on germination by physically impeding water and oxygen transfer between the seed and the surrounding soil environment, thus hindering the germination response

  13. Germinated grains--sources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkor, O N; Stojanovska, L; Ginn, P; Ashton, J; Vasiljevic, T

    2012-12-01

    Germination of seven selected commercially important grains was studied to establish its effects on the nutritional and chemical composition. The changes in the concentration of the nutrients, bioactive compounds and the inhibitory effect of extracts on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities were investigated. These were measured through proximate analysis, inhibition assays and HPLC. Germinated sorghum and rye extracts inhibited (pGerminated grains contained substantial amounts of total phenolics with rye having significantly higher content compared with the non-germinated grains. Radical scavenging activities of the phenolic extracts were between 13% and 73% for non-germinated and 14% and 53% for germinated. Inositol phosphate (InsP) 4, 5 and 6 were noted in all the grains, but InsP 6 was significantly lower in concentration. This study indicates the potential of germinated barley, sorghum and rye for the development of effective physiologically bioactive compounds for the reduction of the risk of diabetic agents and colon cancer. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Germination of beans and snap beans seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate germination of good bean seed of the variety Galeb and the bad bean seed of the same variety. We were also interested in germination of bean and snap bean seed damaged by grain weevil, and in germination of the seed treated by freezing which was aimed at controlling grain weevil by cold. We also recorded the differences between bean and snap bean seed, which was or was not treated by freezing in laboratory conditions. This investigation was carried out by applying the two factorial block system. The obtained results were evaluated by the variance analysis and x2 test These results suggest that the bean seed of a bad fraction had low levels of germination, but still it was present. Although the seed of good appearance was carefully selected, germination was slightly lower than it should have been. The seed with the large amount of grain weevils performed a high level germination in laboratory conditions. There were no differences in germination between the seed injured by grain weevil either in beans or in snap beans. As for the seed treated or untreated by freezing, there also were no differences between beans and snap beans. .

  15. Bicarbonate and amino acids are co-germinants for spores of Clostridium perfringens type A isolates carrying plasmid-borne enterotoxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnoman, Maryam; Udompijitkul, Pathima; Banawas, Saeed; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2018-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A isolates carrying a chromosomal enterotoxin (cpe) gene (C-cpe) are generally linked to food poisoning, while isolates carrying cpe on a plasmid (P-cpe) are associated with non-food-borne gastrointestinal diseases. Both C-cpe and P-cpe isolates can form metabolically dormant spores, which through germination process return to actively growing cells to cause diseases. In our previous study, we showed that only 3 out of 20 amino acids (aa) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) triggered germination of spores of P-cpe isolates (P-cpe spores). We now found that 14 out of 20 individual aa tested induced germination of P-cpe spores in the presence of bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.0). However, no significant spore germination was observed with bicarbonate (pH 7.0) alone, indicating that aa and bicarbonate are co-germinants for P-cpe spores. P-cpe strain F4969 gerKC spores did not germinate, and gerAA spores germinated extremely poorly as compared to wild-type and gerKA spores with aa-bicarbonate (pH 7.0) co-germinants. The germination defects in gerKC and gerAA spores were partially restored by complementing gerKC or gerAA spores with wild-type gerKC or gerAA, respectively. Collectively, this study identified aa-bicarbonate as a novel nutrient germinant for P-cpe spores and provided evidence that GerKC and GerAA play major roles in aa-bicarbonate induced germination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Variability of germination in digger pine in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Griffin

    1971-01-01

    Seeds collected from 17 Pinus sabiniana Dougl. populations in California were tested for germination. Unstratified seeds germinated slower than stratified seeds. Germination of stratified seeds showed distinct population differences. Some populations started germination at 5°C. and reached a level of 60 to 70 percent after 30 days at 25°. Less than...

  18. Germination Biology Of Mariacus longibracteatus Cherm And Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination biology of two most abundant and frequent weeds of lowland rice in Edo state was studied. The two species varied in their temperature requirements for germination: the optimum temperature for the germination of M. longibracteatus 40oC while O. barthii was 32oC. M. longibracteatus did not germinate at ...

  19. 7 CFR 201.54 - Number of seeds for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Number of seeds for germination. 201.54 Section 201.54... REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.54 Number of seeds for germination. At least 400 seeds shall be tested for germination; except that in mixtures, 200 seeds of each of those...

  20. Proteomics of pollen development and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shaojun; Wang, Tai; Yan, Xiufeng; Chen, Sixue

    2007-12-01

    In higher plants, pollen grains represent the vestiges of a highly reduced male gametophyte generation. After germination, the pollen tube delivers the sperm cells by tip-growing to the embryo sac for fertilization. Besides the intrinsic importance for sexual reproduction, pollen development and germination serve as an attractive system to address important questions related to cell division, cell differentiation, polar growth, cell-cell interaction, and cell fate. Recently, pollen functional specification has been well-studied using multidisciplinary approaches. Here, we review recent advances in proteomics of pollen development and germination.

  1. Factors Affecting the Germination of Akinetes of Nodularia spumigena (Cyanobacteriaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Nutritional and physical factors which influence the germination of akinetes of Nodularia spumigena (Cyanobacteriaceae) were examined. Low concentrations of phosphorus (45 μM, inhibited germination. Salinities of >20‰ were inhibitory to germination. Optimum temperatures were 22°C or greater. Germination did not take place in the dark, but only very low light intensities (0.5 microeinstein m−2 s−1) were necessary to initiate germination. Red light (620 to 665 nm) was required. More than 24 h o...

  2. Investigation of coriander germination (Coriandrum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coriander seed yield (Coriandrum sativum L. depends of many factors during vegetation period, and also depend of seed quality. Coriander fruit (Coriandri fructus which is used like spice and in medicinal purpose, and also in food and pharmacy, in the same time is and seed material. Because of that, it is very important to take care about its quality. In this paper is analyzed seed material obtained from field experiments village Mošorin, in 2011, and investigated was conducted in harvest year, and one year later. In harvest year, germination energy in average was 38,21%, and total germination 72,75%. After one year, germination energy was statistically significant smaller - 16,50%, as like total germination which was 67,42%.

  3. Intraspecific variation in pollen viability, germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oleaceae) cultivars 'Koroneiki', 'Mastoidis' and 'Kalamata' was studied with scanning electron microscopy to identify genotype- distinguishing characters that could be employed for morphological cultivar discrimination. Pollen viability and germination ...

  4. Performance characteristics of ungerminated and germinated fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NPR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention efficiency (PRE), Nitrogen efficiency ratio (NER), feed efficiency ratio (FER), net protein utilization (NPU) and relative NPR (RNPR) of the ungerminated and germinated seeds, while the Net ...

  5. Freezing tolerance of conifer seeds and germinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, B J; Guest, H J; Kolotelo, D

    2003-12-01

    Survival after freezing was measured for seeds and germinants of four seedlots each of interior spruce (Picea glauca x engelmannii complex), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Donn). Effects of eight seed treatments on post-freezing survival of seeds and germinants were tested: dry, imbibed and stratified seed, and seed placed in a growth chamber for 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30 days in a 16-h photoperiod and a 22/17 degrees C thermoperiod. Survival was related to the water content of seeds and germinants, germination rate and seedlot origin. After freezing for 3 h at -196 degrees C, dry seed of most seedlots of interior spruce, Douglas-fir and western red cedar had 84-96% germination, whereas lodgepole pine seedlots had 53-82% germination. Freezing tolerance declined significantly after imbibition in lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir and interior spruce seed (western red cedar was not tested), and mean LT50 of imbibed seed of these species was -30, -24.5 and -20 degrees C, respectively. Freezing tolerance continued to decline to a minimum LT50 of -4 to -7 degrees C after 10 days in a growth chamber for interior spruce, Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine, or after 15 days for western red cedar. Minimum freezing tolerance was reached at the stage of rapid hypocotyl elongation. In all species, a slight increase in freezing tolerance of germinants was observed once cotyledons emerged from the seed coat. The decrease in freezing tolerance during the transition from dry to germinating seed correlated with increases in seed water content. Changes in freezing tolerance between 10 and 30 days in the growth chamber were not correlated with seedling water content. Within a species, seedlots differed significantly in freezing tolerance after 2 or 5 days in the growth chamber. Because all seedlots of interior spruce and lodgepole pine germinated quickly, there was no correlation

  6. The COP9 Signalosome regulates seed germination by facilitating protein degradation of RGL2 and ABI5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dan; Wu, Ming; Li, Bosheng; Bücker, Birte; Keil, Philipp; Zhang, Shaoman; Li, Jigang; Kang, Dingming; Liu, Jie; Dong, Jie; Deng, Xing Wang; Irish, Vivian; Wei, Ning

    2018-02-01

    The control of seed germination and seed dormancy are critical for the successful propagation of plant species, and are important agricultural traits. Seed germination is tightly controlled by the balance of gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and is influenced by environmental factors. The COP9 Signalosome (CSN) is a conserved multi-subunit protein complex that is best known as a regulator of the Cullin-RING family of ubiquitin E3 ligases (CRLs). Multiple viable mutants of the CSN showed poor germination, except for csn5b-1. Detailed analyses showed that csn1-10 has a stronger seed dormancy, while csn5a-1 mutants exhibit retarded seed germination in addition to hyperdormancy. Both csn5a-1 and csn1-10 plants show defects in the timely removal of the germination inhibitors: RGL2, a repressor of GA signaling, and ABI5, an effector of ABA responses. We provide genetic evidence to demonstrate that the germination phenotype of csn1-10 is caused by over-accumulation of RGL2, a substrate of the SCF (CRL1) ubiquitin E3 ligase, while the csn5a-1 phenotype is caused by over-accumulation of RGL2 as well as ABI5. The genetic data are consistent with the hypothesis that CSN5A regulates ABI5 by a mechanism that may not involve CSN1. Transcriptome analyses suggest that CSN1 has a more prominent role than CSN5A during seed maturation, but CSN5A plays a more important role than CSN1 during seed germination, further supporting the functional distinction of these two CSN genes. Our study delineates the molecular targets of the CSN complex in seed germination, and reveals that CSN5 has additional functions in regulating ABI5, thus the ABA signaling pathway.

  7. Effect of EI-treatment in relation to physiological and biochemical traits in rice: delay in germination and its recovery with provision of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Hasegawa, H.; Hori, S.

    1975-01-01

    Rice seeds treated with 0.2 to 1.2 v/v % of ethyleneimine (EI) demonstrated increasingly delayed germination concomitant with increasing dose. At the time of germination, the release of storage products was slightly inhibited at lower doses and completely reduced at higher doses. With increasing time after germination the development of shoot length, content of reducing sugar and free amino acid, and synthesis of nucleic acid and protein in treated seeds, showed the same response pattern as the control, although at reduced levels in the treated seeds. Consequently, it is interpreted that the delay of germination is due to physiological dormancy, i.e. impaired release of dormancy which would normally yield active forms of enzymes. When treated seeds were cultured in [ 14 C]-glucose medium, the specific activity of [ 14 C]-glucose was higher in late-germinating seeds than in early-germinating seeds. Furthermore, the provision of glucose prevented the delay of germination, resulting in about a 10% increase in germination rate (survival rate), and yet had no effect on subsequent growth. Finally, it is concluded that the damage resulting in delayed germination and reduction of survival differs from the damage leading to inhibition of subsequent growth in that the former can be compensated for by provision of glucose while the latter cannot. (author)

  8. Oxygen dependency of germinating Brassica seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Hasenstein, Karl H.

    2016-02-01

    Establishing plants in space, Moon or Mars requires adaptation to altered conditions, including reduced pressure and composition of atmospheres. To determine the oxygen requirements for seed germination, we imbibed Brassica rapa seeds under varying oxygen concentrations and profiled the transcription patterns of genes related to early metabolism such as starch degradation, glycolysis, and fermentation. We also analyzed the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and measured starch degradation. Partial oxygen pressure (pO2) greater than 10% resulted in normal germination (i.e., protrusion of radicle about 18 hours after imbibition) but lower pO2 delayed and reduced germination. Imbibition in an oxygen-free atmosphere for three days resulted in no germination but subsequent transfer to air initiated germination in 75% of the seeds and the root growth rate was transiently greater than in roots germinated under ambient pO2. In hypoxic seeds soluble sugars degraded faster but the content of starch after 24 h was higher than at ambient oxygen. Transcription of genes related to starch degradation, α-amylase (AMY) and Sucrose Synthase (SUS), was higher under ambient O2 than under hypoxia. Glycolysis and fermentation pathway-related genes, glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK), fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), LDH, and ADH, were induced by low pO2. The activity of LDH and ADH was the highest in anoxic seeds. Germination under low O2 conditions initiated ethanolic fermentation. Therefore, sufficient oxygen availability is important for germination before photosynthesis provides necessary oxygen and the determination of an oxygen carrying capacity is important for uniform growth in space conditions.

  9. Seed germination and sowing options [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Kim Wilkinson; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of many native species are challenging to germinate. One important thing a grower can do is learn as much as possible about the life history, ecology, and habitat of the species they wish to grow.What processes do seeds of this species go through in nature? Any observations will be valuable when trying to germinate and grow species that have little or no...

  10. Multiple paths to similar germination behavior in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Liana T; Edwards, Brianne R; Donohue, Kathleen

    2016-02-01

    Germination timing influences plant fitness, and its sensitivity to temperature may cause it to change as climate shifts. These changes are likely to be complex because temperatures that occur during seed maturation and temperatures that occur post-dispersal interact to define germination timing. We used the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana to determine how flowering time (which defines seed-maturation temperature) and post-dispersal temperature influence germination and the expression of genetic variation for germination. Germination responses to temperature (germination envelopes) changed as seeds aged, or after-ripened, and these germination trajectories depended on seed-maturation temperature and genotype. Different combinations of genotype, seed-maturation temperature, and after-ripening produced similar germination envelopes. Likewise, different genotypes and seed-maturation temperatures combined to produce similar germination trajectories. Differences between genotypes were most likely to be observed at high and low germination temperatures. The germination behavior of some genotypes responds weakly to maternal temperature but others are highly plastic. We hypothesize that weak dormancy induction could synchronize germination of seeds dispersed at different times. By contrast, we hypothesize that strongly responsive genotypes may spread offspring germination over several possible germination windows. Considering germination responses to temperature is important for predicting phenology expression and evolution in future climates. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Temperature regulates positively photoblastic seed germination in four ficus (moraceae) tree species from contrasting habitats in a seasonal tropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Cao, Min; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2013-08-01

    Differences in seed germination responses of trees in tropical forests to temperature and light quality may contribute to their coexistence. We investigated the effects of temperature and red:far-red light (R:FR ratio) on seed germination of two gap-demanding species (Ficus hispida and F. racemosa) and two shade-tolerant species (F. altissima and F. auriculata) in a tropical seasonal rainforest in southwest China. A R:FR ratio gradient was created by filtering fluorescent light through polyester filters. Four temperature treatments were used to test the effect of temperature on seed germination of the four Ficus tree species across the R:FR gradient. Seeds of the four Ficus species were positively photoblastic. Seed germination of F. hispida and F. racemosa was not affected across the R:FR ratio gradient (0.25-1.19) at 25/35°C, but it was inhibited under low R:FR at 22/23°C. By contrast, germination percentages of F. altissima and F. auriculata were not inhibited along the entire light gradient in all temperature treatments. Differences in germination responses of Ficus species might contribute to differences in their habitat preferences. The inhibitory effect of understory temperatures in the forest might be a new mechanism that prevents positively photoblastic seeds of the gap-demanding species such as F. hispida and F. racemosa from germinating in the understory and in small canopy gaps.

  12. Fundamentos del ácido fólico en la prevención primaria farmacológica de defectos congénitos Foundations of folic acid in the primary pharmacological prevention of congential defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lardoeyt Ferrer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El ácido fólico fue descubierto en 1945 por los laboratorios Lederle, y desde entonces existe una gran variedad de derivados de esta vitamina, que se agrupan bajo el nombre común de folatos. Es en la APS donde se promueve la salud de la mujer y de su futura descendencia a través de la consulta de riesgo preconcepcional. Una de las acciones promotoras de la salud más importante de la asistencia preconcepcional, es la prevención de los defectos congénitos en la descendencia a través de la suplementación periconcepcional con folatos. El déficit de ácido fólico puede deberse tanto a factores genéticos como ambientales. Con el objetivo de incrementar los conocimientos de los profesionales de la salud que laboran en la atención médica a la mujer en edad reproductiva, se realizó una revisión del tema, en la que se tratan los fundamentos científicos que demuestran la importancia del uso de esta vitamina en la prevención de problemas congénitos como los defectos del tubo neural (DTN, síndrome de Down y de otras anomalías asociadas al déficit de este compuesto vitamínico.Folic acid was discovered in 1945 by Lederle laboratories and since then, there is a great variety of derivates of this vitamin that are grouped under the name of folates. It is in PHC where the health of woman and of her future off-spring is promoted through the office of preconceptional risk. One of the most important health promoting actions of preconceptional assistance is the prevention of the congenital defects in the off-spring by the periconceptional supplementation with folates. The deficit of folic acid may be caused by genetical and environmental factors. In order to increase the knowledge of the health professionals giving medical attention to women at gestational age, a review of this topic was made and the scientific foundations showing the importance of the use of this vitamin in the prevention of congenital defects, such as the neural tube defects

  13. Nicotinamidase activity is important for germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Lee; Holdsworth, Michael J; Gray, Julie E

    2007-08-01

    It has been suggested that nicotinamide must be degraded during germination; however, the enzyme responsible and its physiological role have not been previously studied. We have identified an Arabidopsis gene, NIC2, that is expressed at relatively high levels in mature seed, and encodes a nicotinamidase enzyme with homology to yeast and bacterial nicotinamidases. Seed of a knockout mutant, nic2-1, had reduced nicotinamidase activity, retarded germination and impaired germination potential. nic2-1 germination was restored by after-ripening or moist chilling, but remained hypersensitive to application of nicotinamide or ABA. Nicotinamide is a known inhibitor of NAD-degrading poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARP enzymes) that are implicated in DNA repair. We found reduced poly(ADP)ribosylation levels in nic2-1 seed, which were restored by moist chilling. Furthermore, nic2-1 seed had elevated levels of NAD, and germination was hypersensitive to methyl methanesulphonate (MMS), suggesting that PARP activity and DNA repair responses were impaired. We suggest that nicotinamide is normally metabolized by NIC2 during moist chilling or after-ripening, which relieves inhibition of PARP activity and allows DNA repair to occur prior to germination.

  14. Utility of Deep Inspiration Breath Hold for Left-Sided Breast Radiation Therapy in Preventing Early Cardiac Perfusion Defects: A Prospective Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagar, Timothy M., E-mail: zagar@med.unc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kaidar-Person, Orit [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Tang, Xiaoli [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, West Harrison, New York (United States); Jones, Ellen E.; Matney, Jason; Das, Shiva K.; Green, Rebecca L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Sheikh, Arif [Department of Radiology, Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Khandani, Amir H.; McCartney, William H.; Oldan, Jorge Daniel; Wong, Terence Z. [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate early cardiac single photon computed tomography (SPECT) findings after left breast/chest wall postoperative radiation therapy (RT) in the setting of deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH). Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective single-institution single-arm study of patients who were planned for tangential RT with DIBH to the left breast/chest wall (± internal mammary nodes). The DIBH was done by use of a controlled surface monitoring technique (AlignRT, Vision RT Ltd, London, UK). The RT was given with tangential fields and a heart block. Radiation-induced cardiac perfusion and wall motion changes were assessed by pre-RT and 6-month post-RT SPECT scans. A cumulative SPECT summed-rest score was used to quantify perfusion in predefined left ventricle segments. The incidence of wall motion abnormalities was assessed in each of these same segments. Results: A total of 20 patients with normal pre-RT scans were studied; their median age was 56 years (range, 39-72 years). Seven (35%) patients also received irradiation to the left internal mammary chain, and 5 (25%) received an additional RT field to supraclavicular nodes. The median heart dose was 94 cGy (range, 56-200 cGy), and the median V25{sub Gy} was zero (range, 0-0.1). None of the patients had post-RT perfusion or wall motion abnormalities. Conclusions: Our results suggest that DIBH and conformal cardiac blocking for patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer is an effective means to avoid early RT-associated cardiac perfusion defects.

  15. Mean germination time and germination rate of oat seeds subjected to stationary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Ramirez, Elvira; Florez Garcia, Mercedes; Carbonell, Maria Victoria; Amaya Garcia de la Escosura, Jose Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine and quantify the effect produced by stationary magnetic fields on oat seed germination (Avena sativa, L. var. c obena ) . For this purpose, seeds were exposed to a magnetic field 125 mT of 250 mT during different periods of time: 20 minutes (E1, E5), 1 hour (E2, E6), 24 hours (E3, E7), or in a conic form (E4, E8) during the whole germination process. Germination tests were carried out under laboratory conditions with cylindrical magnets to obtain the magnetic field. For magnetic treatment seed on Petri dishes were placed on magnets during time necessary for each treatment. Seeds without exposition to the magnetic field were used as control group. Parameters used for germination speed analysis were: number of germinated seeds (G), mean germination time (MGT) and necessary time for germination of 1, 10, 25, 50 and 75% of N number of speeds used for each treatment (T1, T10, T25, T50, and T75). These parameters were supplied through the software Seed calculator, as well as the corresponding germination curves. In general, from the results obtained it can be said that the time required to obtain different germination percentages was lower for seeds exposed to the magnetic field (treatments E1 and E8). Reduction in time for E1 treatment stands up with 20 a minutes-exposition-time to 125 mT. MGT obtained for seeds with magnetic treatment E1 was significantly lower (11.48%) than the control group. Parameters T1, T10, T25 were also lower for seeds submitted to treatment, obtaining reductions of 46.62 %, 24.02 % and 13.46 % respectively. Reduction in germination parameters indicates that germination speed is higher. Because parameters T1 and T10 are related to the beginning of germination, this study represents a progress in germination and a reduction in the induction phase in most of the magnetic treatments applied. Previous studies done by authors about the influence of stationary magnetic fields have shown increases in

  16. ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arc, Erwann; Sechet, Julien; Corbineau, Françoise; Rajjou, Loïc; Marion-Poll, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8′-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs) has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination. PMID:23531630

  17. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  18. Reduced prostasin (CAP1/PRSS8) activity eliminates HAI-1 and HAI-2 deficiency-associated developmental defects by preventing matriptase activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Roman; Uzzun Sales, Katiuchia; Kosa, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Loss of either hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 or -2 is associated with embryonic lethality in mice, which can be rescued by the simultaneous inactivation of the membrane-anchored serine protease, matriptase, thereby demonstrating that a matriptase-dependent proteolytic pathway...... is a critical developmental target for both protease inhibitors. Here, we performed a genetic epistasis analysis to identify additional components of this pathway by generating mice with combined deficiency in either HAI-1 or HAI-2, along with genes encoding developmentally co-expressed candidate matriptase...... targets, and screening for the rescue of embryonic development. Hypomorphic mutations in Prss8, encoding the GPI-anchored serine protease, prostasin (CAP1, PRSS8), restored placentation and normal development of HAI-1-deficient embryos and prevented early embryonic lethality, mid-gestation lethality due...

  19. The development of meat pate with increased the food and biological values with germinated grains lentils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the important technological trends in food production, balanced on the chemical and amino acid composition is the development of methods for enrichment product protein, vitamins and minerals. The solution to this problem has long been used a method of enrichment of vegetable raw materials to create a nutrient and healthy products available to different social groups. In theory justified the choice of research object – lentils, which have a number of advantages in food systems. Analyzed method of increasing the biological value of the object in the process of germination grains and marked improvement the balance of amino acid composition. Designed meat pate with using germination grains and investigated its main functional-technological (FTC, organoleptic properties and digestibility. In determining, the functional-technological characteristics revealed an increase in FTC-indicators, such as water binding, water holding, fat holding, and emulsifying ability when you add germination lentils. According to the results of organoleptic evaluation revealed improvement in the consistency of meat pate, when replacing 50% of raw meat, germination lentils, and in appearance, color, smell and taste, control and test products are almost identical. The digestibility of the paste was 97%. Proposed different options of using germination grains of lentils to create a products for public and preventive nutrition.

  20. Seed dispersal and germination patternsin a rare Mediterranean island endemic ( Anchusa crispa Viv., Boraginaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilichini, Angélique; Debussche, Max

    2000-12-01

    We analyse and discuss patterns of seed dispersal and germination of a rare endemic plant species, Anchusa crispa Viv. (Boraginaceae) from Corsica and Sardinia. This coastal plant inhabits dunes and back-dunes, and currently numbers only a few thousand individuals which generally occur in isolated populations. This study included experiments conducted in the field in Corsica and also under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Short-distance dispersal of A. crispa is performed by ants, both by myrmecochory and dyszoochory. The invasion of an exotic species of ant, Linepithema humile, could locally modify the dispersal system and possibly the population dynamics of A. crispa. Long-distance dispersal may occur by water transport since seeds can germinate after at least 1 week of immersion in seawater and readily float on the surface. Burial of seeds is favourable for germination, percentage germination being maximised at a depth of 1-2 cm below the soil surface. A. crispa has a seed bank of about ten viable seeds per m 2, which may contribute to the survival of this species which exists in small populations with a short life span. Due to its seed dispersal and germination patterns, the conservation of this species will necessitate that human disturbance, which can destabilise the surface of the sand is prevented and that new populations are introduced to favourable sites.

  1. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) Tea Intake Prevents Learning/Memory Defects and Neurobiochemical Alterations Induced by Aflatoxin B1 Exposure in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardaki, Zacharoula I; Lamari, Fotini N; Margarity, Marigoula

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential neurotoxic effects of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) and the preventive effects of saffron. Male Balb-c mice received AFB 1 (0.6 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally for 4 days), saffron infusion (90 mg styles/200 mL, ad libitum access for 2 weeks) or saffron infusion plus AFB 1 (saffron treatment as previously plus 0.6 mg AFB 1 /kg/day intraperitoneally for the last 4 days). Control mice were intraperitoneally injected with DMSO:saline (1:1, v/v) during AFB 1 treatment. Learning/memory was assessed by passive avoidance task. The activity of acetylcholinesterase [AChE, salt-(SS)/detergent-soluble(DS) isoforms], butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE, SS/DS isoforms), monoamine oxidase (MAO-A, MAO-B), the levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), were determined in whole brain (minus cerebellum) and cerebellum. We demonstrate for the first time that AFB 1 administration impaired the memory of adult mice and decreased significantly whole brain AChE and BuChE activity, cerebellar AChE activity and cerebral GSH content. Moreover, MAO isoforms activity in whole brain, MAO-B activity in cerebellum and MDA levels of both tissues were significantly higher after AFB 1 treatment. Pre-treatment with saffron prevented memory decline, activation of MAO-A and MAO-B in whole brain and cerebellum, respectively, and lipid peroxidation triggered by AFB 1 . Interestingly, the activity of AChE isoforms in whole brain, DS-AChE in cerebellum and GSH levels of both tissues were further significantly decreased in saffron +AFB 1 -treated mice compared with AFB 1 group. Our findings support the neuroprotective efficacy of saffron against AFB 1 in adult mice.

  2. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  3. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  4. A role for fruit structure in seed survival and germination of Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi beyond dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, T A A; Rodrigues-Junior, A G; Davide, A C; Nakamura, A T; Toorop, P E

    2018-03-01

    Diaspore structure has been hypothesised to play a role in seed viability and/or germination of recalcitrant seeds, especially for Swartzia langsdorffii. Thus, this work aims to (i) investigate the in situ contribution of pericarp and aril on seed viability and germination, and (ii) identify morphoanatomical traits of S. langsdorffii diaspores that allow its desiccation-sensitive seeds to remain viable. The role of the pericarp and aril in seed survival and germination was investigated by placing the whole fruit, whole seeds (arillate seed) and bare seeds (without aril) in soil in the forest understorey, assessing germination, emergence, dead, firm and predated seeds, and water content of pericarps, arils and seeds. Correlation analysis was performed between environmental variables and physiological parameters. Histochemical features of diaspores were also investigated. Pericarp water content fell after several months, while the aril maintained its water content. Seeds did not lose water even without the presence of the pericarp and aril. However, presence of the pericarp promoted seed water content, viability and germination long after dispersal. The embryo had a thickened outer periclinal cell wall. Pericarp and aril are not essential to prevent water loss in seeds, but do help to retain seed moisture, favouring viability maintenance and promoting germination during the rainy season. Morphoanatomical features of seeds are suggested as main factors that reduce water loss. Survival of these desiccation-sensitive seeds upon dispersal during the dry season appears to be facilitated by multiple diaspore features that prevent viability loss. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Fatty Acid Composition and Physiochemical Properties in Germinated Black Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Indriarsih, Siska; Astuti, Mary; Kanoni, Sri

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the research was to determine the effect of the germination of black rice. Black rice was soaked for 12 h and further germinated for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h. Non-germinated black rice was used as a control. Black rice was germinated for 19-20 h. Fat, and moisture content, total sugar, cooking quality, sensory analysis, and fatty acid composition of germinated black rice were further evaluated. Results show that fat content decreased during germination, but moisture content and t...

  6. Cyrtopodium paludicolum germination with two Tulasnella isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otieres Cirino de Carvalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Symbiosis between orchid seeds and mycorrhizal fungi has been reported to be a determining factor in the success of germination and protocorm development in vitro. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify by molecular analysis the mycorrhizal fungus associated with Cyrtopodium paludicolum, and to evaluate its efficiency in facilitating seed germination and development. Germination experiments were carried out using a fungus isolated from C. paludicolum (CH01 and Epidendrum secundum (M65, which has been successfully used a number of times in symbiotic germination. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with treatments of CH01, M65 as well as under asymbiotic conditions. The mycobiont CH01 was successfully isolated from Cyrtopodium paludicolum and identified as Tulasnella sp. Treatments with both fungi reached a higher germination percentage than under asymbiotic conditions, indicating no specificity in the relationship between Cyrtopodium paludicolum and the fungi. The results presented have the potential to advance research into the propagation and conservation of C. paludicolum, a native of the Cerrado biome.

  7. Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Aminul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P1 and P2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P1×P5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P2×P5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P4×P5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96% was observed in hybrid P2×P4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI and seedling vigor index (SVI were found in hybrid P1×P5 and P2×P5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.

  8. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Mussury, Rosilda M; Lima, Andréa A

    2012-03-01

    The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1) Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black) and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2) Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg.L(-1) gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C). The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.

  9. Identification of a Novel Lipoprotein Regulator of Clostridium difficile Spore Germination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A Fimlaid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. C. difficile infections are transmitted when ingested spores germinate in the gastrointestinal tract and transform into vegetative cells. Germination begins when the germinant receptor CspC detects bile salts in the gut. CspC is a subtilisin-like serine pseudoprotease that activates the related CspB serine protease through an unknown mechanism. Activated CspB cleaves the pro-SleC zymogen, which allows the activated SleC cortex hydrolase to degrade the protective cortex layer. While these regulators are essential for C. difficile spores to outgrow and form toxin-secreting vegetative cells, the mechanisms controlling their function have only been partially characterized. In this study, we identify the lipoprotein GerS as a novel regulator of C. difficile spore germination using targeted mutagenesis. A gerS mutant has a severe germination defect and fails to degrade cortex even though it processes SleC at wildtype levels. Using complementation analyses, we demonstrate that GerS secretion, but not lipidation, is necessary for GerS to activate SleC. Importantly, loss of GerS attenuates the virulence of C. difficile in a hamster model of infection. Since GerS appears to be conserved exclusively in related Peptostreptococcaeace family members, our results contribute to a growing body of work indicating that C. difficile has evolved distinct mechanisms for controlling the exit from dormancy relative to B. subtilis and other spore-forming organisms.

  10. Conidial germination patterns in powdery mildews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R T A; Braun, U

    2009-05-01

    Four conidial germination types namely, polygoni (syn. Pseudoidium), cichoracearum (syn. Reticuloidium), pannosa (syn. Fibroidium) and fuliginea (syn. Magnicellulatae) are commonly used as an aid in the identification of the Oidium anamorphs of powdery mildews. However, results of germination tests and a survey of the literature showed that these types did not adequately distinguish all taxa and did not reflect the range of species covered. Hence two new main types, Striatoidium and Blumeria, are proposed for the newly created genus Neoerysiphe and for the unique pattern of B. graminis. Two new names, orthotubus and brevitubus subtypes of Fibroidium, are proposed for the pannosa and fuliginea types respectively. Also proposed is a special longitubus pattern for the long, undifferentiated, negatively hydrotropic germ tubes prevalent in Erysiphe trifolii and species in Golovinomyces sect. Depressi. The recognition of the Striatoidium type of N. galeopsidis as distinct from the Pseudoidium type of E. elevata facilitated the detection of a simultaneous infection of Catalpa by these two powdery mildews. A key is provided for the identification of Oidium genera based on germination types. A review of germination patterns in the tribe Phyllactinieae found no consistent differences amongst the genera. Golovinomyces sect. Depressi is re-described to accommodate Golovinomyces spp. often having a longitubus pattern of germination. It includes G. cichoracearum var. latisporus, now considered a separate species based on its germination type, other anamorphic morphology and previous molecular sequence analyses. A new combination, Golovinomyces ambrosiae, is proposed for this species. Other anomalies within G. cichoracearum s. lat. were addressed by proposing another new combination, G. fischeri for the former G. cichoracearum var. fischeri that differs from G. cichoracearum s. str. in having larger chasmothecia and a well distinguished anamorph, and by proposing a new species, G

  11. The role of defects in laser damage of multilayer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, M.R.; Chow, R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser induced damage to optical coatings is generally a localized phenomenon associated with coating defects. The most common of the defect types are the well-known nodule defect. This paper reviews the use of experiments and modeling to understand the formation of these defects and their interaction with laser light. Of particular interest are efforts to identify which defects are most susceptible to laser damage. Also discussed are possible methods for stabilizing these defects (laser conditioning) or preventing their initiation (source stabilization, spatter particle trapping)

  12. Inhibition of spore germination of Alternaria tenuis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.

    1962-08-01

    As a part of a continuing study of SO/sub 2/ fumigation of table grapes, the effect of SO/sub 2/ on spores of an isolate of A. tenuis Auct. causing decay of table grapes was determined. The amount of SO/sub 2/ required to inhibit completely spore germination depended on availability of moisture and the temperature. At 20/sup 0/C, wet spores required 20-min exposure to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ to prevent germination, but spores equilibrated at 90% relative humidity (RH) required 10-min exposure to 1000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Dry spores at 60% RH were unaffected by a 20-min exposure to 4000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Increasing the temperature in the range 5-20/sup 0/C increased effectiveness of the SO/sub 2/ treatment. A comparison of Alternaria with Botrytis cinerea Fr. (studied earlier) showed that wet spores of these organisms were about equally sensitive to SO/sub 2/, but that dry Alternaria spores were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than dry Botrytis spores under comparable conditions.

  13. Factors Defining Field Germination of Oilseed Radish Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Dorofeev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Influence of temperature, depth of crops and granulometric of soil structure on germination speed, laboratory and field germination of oilseed radish seeds were studied. It was established that the period of seed-germination is defined both by temperature and granulometric structure of soil. The highest field germination was marked on sandy loam at depth of crops' seeds at 3 cm and 20°С.

  14. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    OpenAIRE

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle J.; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphospho...

  15. [Study on physiological characteristics of seed germination of Ephedra sinica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seqinbateer; Khasbagan; Wurina; Wei, Xian-Jun

    2009-05-01

    To study the characteristics of the Ephedra sinica seed germination, to provide a basis for its cultivation. The seed germination inhibitive substances were studied by water washing method; the seed vigor was determined by TTC method and red ink method, the influence of growth substances to seed germination was studied by agar medium cultivation, and the influence of different sand burying depth on seed germination was studied by sand medium cultivation. The seed germination rates of dry seeds, seeds as 12 h soaking with distilled water, 12 h washing by water and with ensheathe phyllary were 44%, 61%, 79.9% and 0%. Treated with 40 mg/L GA, the seed germination enhanced significantly as the maximum seed germination rate was 94% after 2 d. Treated with 40 mg/L IAA and 40 mg/L 6-BA, the seed germination delayed as the maximum seed germination rate appeared after 7 d, and the difference of seed germination index between treated and CK was significant (Pseed germination rate gradually increased. But above 6 cm, when the depth increased, the seed germination rate gradually decreased. Moreover, as the sand burying depth increased, the root length changed in parabola-shaped and the stem length increased, but the root top radio decreased. The phyllary and seed of Ephedra sinica contain some seed germination inhibitors, adequate water washing, dealing with GA and so on can improve the seed germination rate and speed up the seed germination. Appropriate deep sand burying can also improve seed germination and seedling emergence of Ephedra sinica.

  16. Translatome profiling in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds highlights post-transcriptional regulation of germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layat, Elodie; Leymarie, Juliette; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Caius, José; Langlade, Nicolas; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Seed dormancy, which blocks germination in apparently favourable conditions, is a key regulatory control point of plant population establishment. As germination requires de novo translation, its regulation by dormancy is likely to be related to the association of individual transcripts to polysomes. Here, the polysome-associated mRNAs, that is, the translatome, were fractionated and characterized with microarrays in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) embryos during their imbibition at 10°C, a temperature preventing germination of dormant embryos. Profiling of mRNAs in polysomal complexes revealed that the translatome differs between germinating and nongerminating embryos. Association of transcripts with polysomes reached a maximum after 15 h of imbibition; at this time-point 194 polysome-associated transcripts were specifically found in nondormant embryos and 47 in dormant embryos only. The proteins corresponding to the polysomal mRNAs in nondormant embryos appeared to be very pertinent for germination and were involved mainly in transport, regulation of transcription or cell wall modifications. This work demonstrates that seed germination results from a timely regulated and selective recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, thus opening novel fields of investigation for the understanding of this developmental process. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid content in germinated brown rice by repeated treatment of soaking and incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thitinunsomboon, Somboon; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Boonsiriwit, Athip

    2013-02-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), commonly produced by germination of brown rice grain, is a free amino acid which could help relieving or preventing non-communicable diseases in human. Several research works have been conducted on GABA production from germinated brown rice. However, the yielded GABA (10.1-69.2 mg/100 g germinated brown rice) was comparatively low; thus the amount was insufficient to be used as active ingredients in functional foods. The objective of this study was to explore alternative methods in order to gain higher yield of GABA. A new process of repeated soaking (in tap water at 35 °C, 3 h) and incubation (at 37 °C, 21 h) during germination was developed. The amount of GABA produced was highest at 116.88 ± 9.24 mg/100 g germinated brown rice (dry basis). However, an unpleasant odour was generated by some microorganisms during long germination. Lactic acid was applied at soaking step to overcome this problem; whereby 0.5% lactic acid solution (vol./vol.) could effectively control the microorganisms without impairing GABA producing ability and sensory qualities.

  18. Moisture stress affects germination of longleaf and slash pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1969-01-01

    Osmotic stresses greater than 8 atm markedly reduced germination of both Pinus palustris Mill. P. elliotii Engelm. seeds. At stresses of 18 or more atm, no germination occurred. Moisture content at the onset of germination was twice as high in longleaf as in slash pine seeds.

  19. Germination, seedling growth and ion accumulation of bitter vetch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of NaCl levels on germination and seedling growth, and ion accumulation in five bitter vetch lines. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (MGT, day), emergence percentage (%), shoot and root length (mm), shoot and root fresh and dry weight (mg/plant) and the ...

  20. Factors affecting the germination of hybrid rose achenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, De D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The smooth germination of mature Hybrid rose achenes is hampered by (i) hardseededness (HS), (ii) primary dormancy (PD) and (iii) germination polymorphism (GP). HS is owing to the hard pericarp. PD is, in principle, a natural phenomenon that protects the seeds from precocious germination. For

  1. Germination of Several Groundnut Cultivars in Relation to Incidence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed et al.

    such as Aspergilus niger and Fusarium spp. are associated with damage of plumule, radicle and hypocotyl of germinating seedling which consequently lead to the reduction of percentage germination and seedling vigour. The higher germination percentage recorded in Samnut 21, 23 and 24 with low incidence of seed ...

  2. Biorhythms in conifer seed germination during extended storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett; N.I. Marnonov

    1989-01-01

    A proportion of sound seeds of conifer species do not germinate during certain periods of the year, even when conditions are favorable. Mamonov et al. (1986) report that the non-germinating seeds have apparently undergone physiological changes that affected germination. This phenomenon may be due to seasonal periodicity, or biorhythms. As early as the mid-1930'...

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of the seed germination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyszewska, B.; Koper, R.

    2000-01-01

    Paper presented a mathematical model of seed germination process based on the Monte Carlo method and theoretical premises resulted from the physiology of seed germination suggesting three consecutive stages: physical, biochemical and physiological. The model was experimentally verified by determination of germination characteristics for seeds of ground tomatoes, Promyk cultivar, within broad range of temperatures (from 15 to 30 deg C)

  4. Optimization of conditions for in vitro pollen germination and pollen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen germination and pollen tube growth might have a significant effect on fruit and seed production. This study was conducted to investigate the best medium for pollen germination and pollen tube growth of date palm male. Significant differences in percentages of pollen germination and pollen tube growth were ...

  5. A plasma membrane H ATPase gene is germination- induced in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... The expression pattern of a germination specific plasma membrane H+-ATPase was analyzed by RT-. PCR and in situ RNA hybridization methods. RT-PCR results revealed that germination specific plasma membrane H+-ATPase accumulation was detectable in all organs and tissues of germinating wheat.

  6. Effect of stratification treatments on germination of Sorbus torminalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 1000 grains seed weight was 3.07 g. The seeds used in this study were sown in 3 different mediums at the beginning of April. When ratios of seed germination were analyzed, maximum germination occured in the 4 months stratification. Although S. torminalis L. Crantz seeds have germination ratio of 5 – 6%, in this study ...

  7. Allelopathic potential of macrofungi on germinating maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of methanol extracts of 10 macrofungi was evaluated on grain germination of maize (Zea mays L.). Germination percentage, radicle and plumule length and the level of carbohydrates and fatty acids were measured. Fungal metabolites inhibited germination up to 90.96%, plumule (97.77%) and radicle (92.83%) ...

  8. Effect of fungicides on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Cox; Lance H. Kosberg; Nancy L. Shaw; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2011-01-01

    Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different...

  9. DOG1-imposed dormancy mediates germination responses to temperature cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphey, M.; Kovach, K.; Elnacash, T.; He, H.; Bentsink, L.; Donohue, K.

    2015-01-01

    Seed dormancy and environment-dependent germination requirements interact to determine the timing of germination in natural environments. This study tested the contribution of the dormancy gene Delay Of Germination 1 (DOG1) to primary and secondary dormancy induction in response to environmental

  10. DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION 2 is a positive regulator of light-mediated seed germination and is repressed by DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santopolo, Silvia; Boccaccini, Alessandra; Lorrai, Riccardo; Ruta, Veronica; Capauto, Davide; Minutello, Emanuele; Serino, Giovanna; Costantino, Paolo; Vittorioso, Paola

    2015-03-04

    The transcription factor DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION1 (DAG1) is a repressor of the light-mediated seed germination process. DAG1 acts downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE 5 (PIL5), the master repressor, and negatively regulates gibberellin biosynthesis by directly repressing the biosynthetic gene AtGA3ox1. The Dof protein DOF AFFECTING GERMINATION (DAG2) shares a high degree of aminoacidic identity with DAG1. While DAG1 inactivation considerably increases the germination capability of seeds, the dag2 mutant has seeds with a germination potential substantially lower than the wild-type, indicating that these factors may play opposite roles in seed germination. We show here that DAG2 expression is positively regulated by environmental factors triggering germination, whereas its expression is repressed by PIL5 and DAG1; by Chromatin Immuno Precipitation (ChIP) analysis we prove that DAG1 directly regulates DAG2. In addition, we show that Red light significantly reduces germination of dag2 mutant seeds. In agreement with the seed germination phenotype of the dag2 mutant previously published, the present data prove that DAG2 is a positive regulator of the light-mediated seed germination process, and particularly reveal that this protein plays its main role downstream of PIL5 and DAG1 in the phytochrome B (phyB)-mediated pathway.

  11. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anuchita Moongngarm; Ekkalak Khomphiphatkul

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and ger...

  12. Practical aspects of temperature intervention in germination and post-germination development of bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastna, J.; Vinter, V.; Babicka, J.

    1974-01-01

    Temperature dependence of germination and post-germination growth was studied in the spores of B a c i l l u s c e r e u s NCIB 8122. It was found that a temperature of 5 0 C slowed down germination, with the cells showing the capacity of synthetizing only a limited amount of proteins. The synthesis of the cellular wall, however, went on for another few hours. Thick-walled, less permeable and less metabolically active cells formed having an altered ultrastructure. A prolonged cultivation at 30 0 C resulted in the reduction of living cells while the low cultivation temperature (5 0 C) was found to have a protective effect. Pre-irradiation with 30g krad of gamma radiation increased the sensitivity of surviving cells to the cultivation conditions. Spores in the post-germination period were found to be much more resistent and alternating use of low and higher temperatures had little effect on growth

  13. (edta) on the germination of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the effects of the combined treatment of salinity and ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the germination of tomato seeds in Petri-dishes were compared to sole salinity. The treatments consisted of seven concentrations of sodium chloride. (NaCL): 0 (control), 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ...

  14. Unravelling desiccation tolerance in germinated Arabidopsis seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maia de Oliveira, J.

    2014-01-01

    How different organisms survive in the absence or under very limited amounts of water is still an open question. The aim of the research presented in this thesis is to explore the molecular basis of desiccation tolerance in seeds. We investigated the possibilities of using germinated desiccation

  15. Changes in germination characteristics and seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-06

    Mar 6, 2012 ... In seed priming studies, seeds usually are sown directly in the field or stored for short periods of time. The objective of this ... seed germination performance without loss of longevity of tall fescue species, hydropriming can be advised. Key words: ..... Storability of Primed sh-2 Sweet Corn Seed. Crop Sci.

  16. Role of germinant receptors in Caco-2 cell-initiated germination of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 endospores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Voort, van der M.; Wijnands, L.M.; Roubos-van den Hil, P.J.; Abee, T.

    2009-01-01

    Spores obtained from Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and mutant strains lacking each of seven germinant receptor operons were exposed to differentiated Caco-2 cells and monitored for germination. Spores of the gerI and gerL mutants showed a reduced germination response, pointing to a role for these

  17. Conhecimento de médicos e enfermeiros obstetras sobre a prevenção dos defeitos no tubo neural Knowledge of physicians and obstetric nurses about the prevention of neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Campelo da Conceição

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o nível de conhecimento de médicos e enfermeiros obstetras sobre a utilização de ácido fólico (AF para a prevenção dos defeitos do fechamento do tubo neural (DFTN. Estudo descritivo transversal no qual 118 voluntários (95 médicos e 23 enfermeiros, responderam um questionário com 21 perguntas sobre a prevenção dos DFTN. Os dados foram analisados em função do conhecimento relatado, das recomendações preconizadas pelo Ministério da Saúde (MS e das evidências científicas (EC disponíveis sobre o assunto investigado. O nível de conhecimento baseado nas EC e nas recomendações do MS foi diferente (4,64 ± 0,20 vs 5,55 ± 0,15; p The scope of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of obstetricians and obstetric nurses about folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects (NTD. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 118 volunteers (95 physicians and 23 nurses answered a questionnaire with 21 questions about prevention of NTD. The data were analyzed according to the reported knowledge, the recommendations made by the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MOH and the scientific evidence (SE available in the literature on the topic. The knowledge based on the SE and recommendations of MOH was different (4.64 ± 0.20 vs. 5.55 ± 0.15, p <0.001, Mean ± SEM. There was no difference between the knowledge of respondents compared to their training, the time spent in prenatal care and between the two classes of professionals evaluated. There were differences between the reported knowledge and that based on SE (6.76 ± 0.18 vs. 4.64 ± 0.15, p <0.001 and based on the MOH recommendations (6.76 ± 0.18 vs. 5.55 ± 0.20, p <0.001. Thus, the conclusion reached was that 94.1% of those evaluated reported knowing the importance of folic acid in preventing NTD, though 64.2% reported that they did not know when to begin administration of the supplement.

  18. Mycoheterotrophic germination of Pyrola asarifolia dust seeds reveals convergences with germination in orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yasushi; Fukukawa, Satoru; Kunishi, Ayako; Suga, Haruhisa; Richard, Franck; Sauve, Mathieu; Selosse, Marc-André

    2012-08-01

    Dust seeds that germinate by obtaining nutrients from symbiotic fungi have evolved independently in orchids and 11 other plant lineages. The fungi involved in this 'mycoheterotrophic' germination have been identified in some orchids and non-photosynthetic Ericaceae, and proved identical to mycorrhizal fungi of adult plants. We investigated a third lineage, the Pyroleae, chlorophyllous Ericaceae species whose partial mycoheterotrophy at adulthood has recently attracted much attention. We observed experimental Pyrola asarifolia germination at four Japanese sites and investigated the germination pattern and symbiotic fungi, which we compared to mycorrhizal fungi of adult plants. Adult P. asarifolia, like other Pyroleae, associated with diverse fungal species that were a subset of those mycorrhizal on surrounding trees. Conversely, seedlings specifically associated with a lineage of Sebacinales clade B (endophytic Basidiomycetes) revealed an intriguing evolutionary convergence with orchids, some of which also germinate with Sebacinales clade B. Congruently, seedlings clustered spatially together, but not with adults. This unexpected transition in specificity and ecology of partners could support the developmental transition from full to partial mycoheterotrophy, but probably challenges survival and distribution during development. We discuss the physiological and ecological traits that predisposed to the repeated recruitment of Sebacinales clade B for dust seed germination. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Phytotoxicity of glyphosate in the germination of and its effect on germinated seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subinoy Mondal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of glyphosate on Pisum sativum germination as well as its effect on the physiology and biochemistry of germinated seedlings. Different physico-chemical biomarkers, viz., chlorophyll, root and shoot length, total protein and soluble sugar, along with sodium and potassium concentration, were investigated in germinated seedlings at different glyphosate concentrations. This study reports the influence of different concentrations of glyphosate on pea seeds and seedlings. Physicochemical biomarkers were significantly changed by glyphosate exposure after 15 days. The germination of seedlings under control conditions (0 mg/L was 100% after 3 days of treatment but at 3 and 4 mg/L glyphosate, germination was reduced to 55 and 40%, respectively. Physiological parameters like root and shoot length decreased monotonically with increasing glyphosate concentration, at 14 days of observation. Average root and shoot length (n=30 in three replicates were reduced to 14.7 and 17.6%, respectively, at 4 mg/L glyphosate. Leaf chlorophyll content also decreased, with a similar trend to root and shoot length, but the protein content initially decreased and then increased with an increase in glyphosate concentration to 3 mg/L. The study suggests that glyphosate reduces the soluble sugar content significantly, by 21.6% (v/v. But internal sodium and potassium tissue concentrations were significantly altered by glyphosate exposure with increasing concentrations of glyphosate. Biochemical and physiological analysis also supports the inhibitory effect of glyphosate on seed germination and biochemical effects on seedlings.

  20. The involvement of nitric oxide in ultraviolet-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth of Paulownia tomentosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun-Min He; Xiao-Ling Bai; Rui-Bin Wang; Bing Cao; Xiao-Ping She [School of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal Univ., Xi' an (China)

    2007-10-15

    The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B)-induced reduction of in vitro pollen germination and tube growth of Paulownia tomentosa Steud. was studied. Results showed that exposure of the pollen to 0.4 and 0.8 W m{sup -2} UV-B radiation for 2 h resulted in not only the reduction of pollen germination and tube growth but also the enhancement of NO synthase (NOS, EC 1.14.13.39) activity and NO production in pollen grain and tube. Also, exogenous NO donors sodium nitroprusside and S-nitrosoglutathione inhibited both pollen germination and tube growth in a dose-dependence manner. NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-L-Arg-methyl eater (L-NAME) and NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) not only largely prevented the NO generation but also partly reversed the UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth. These results indicate that UV-B radiation inhibits pollen germination and tube growth partly via promoting NO production in pollen grain and tube by a NOS-like enzyme. Additionally, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 6-anilino-5, 8-quinolinequinone (LY-83583) prevented both the UV-B- and NO donors-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth, suggesting that the NO function is mediated by cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate. However, the effects of c-PTIO, L-NAME and LY-83583 on the UV-B-inhibited pollen germination and tube growth were only partial, suggesting that there are NO-independent pathways in UV-B signal networks. (au)

  1. Promotion of seed germination by cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylorson, R B; Hendricks, S B

    1973-07-01

    Potassium cyanide at 3 mum to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form beta-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. beta-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 alpha-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from beta-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-(14)C is much lower than of cyanide.Radioactive tracer in K(14)CN shows uptake of about 1.5 mumoles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high (14)C activity in beta-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN(3) at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN(3) inhibit O(2) consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form beta-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis.

  2. Chemical inhibitors of viviparous germination in the fruit of watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2010-09-01

    It is well known that the seeds of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum and Nakai] have a high potential to germinate when the fruit has ripened. When removed from the mature fruit, the seeds can germinate under appropriate conditions. However, it is unclear why they cannot germinate in the flesh of the fruit. Here, we show that cis-ABA and its β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (ABA-β-GE) accumulate in the flesh of the fruit at levels high enough to inhibit seed germination. This result indicates the existence of chemical factors that inhibit viviparous seed germination of watermelon.

  3. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    The California chaparral community has a rich flora of species with different mechanisms for cuing germination to postfire conditions. Heat shock triggers germination of certain species but has no stimulatory effect on a great many other postfire species that are chemically stimulated by combustion products. Previous reports have shown that charred wood will induce germination, and here we report that smoke also induces germination in these same species. Smoke is highly effective, often inducing 100% germination in deeply dormant seed populations with 0% control germination. Smoke induces germination both directly and indirectly by aqueous or gaseous transfer from soil to seeds. Neither nitrate nor ammonium ions were effective in stimulating germination of smoke-stimulated species, nor were most of the quantitatively important gases generated by biomass smoke. Nitrogen dioxide, however, was very effective at inducing germination in Caulanthus heterophyllus (Brassicaceae), Emmenanthe penduliflora (Hydrophyllaceae), Phacelia grandiflora (Hydrophyllaceae), and Silene multinervia (Caryophyllaceae). Three species, Dendromecon rigida (Papaveraceae), Dicentra chrysantha, and Trichostema lanatum (Lamiaceae), failed to germinate unless smoke treatment was coupled with prior treatment of 1 yr soil storage. Smoke-stimulated germination was found in 25 chaparral species, representing 11 families, none of which were families known for heat-shock-stimulated germination. Seeds of smoke-stimulated species have many analogous characteristics that separate them from most heat-shock-stimulated seeds, including: (1) outer seed coats that are highly textured, (2) a poorly developed outer cuticle, (3) absence of a dense palisade tissue in the seed coat, and (4) a subdermal membrane that is semipermeable, allowing water passage but blocking entry of large (molecular mass > 500) solutes. Tentative evidence suggests that permeability characteristics of this subdermal layer are altered by

  4. Effect of cooking on functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thapanan Konwatchara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the changes in functional properties of germinated black glutinous rice (KKU-ULR012 after cooking. Black glutinous rice grains were obtained from Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. The rough grains were soaked for 12 hrs, then germinated for 30 hrs at 35±2°C (95%RH, dried at 45±2°C for 8 hrs, dehusked and cooked either using a microwave oven or a pressure cooker. The cooked grains were dehydrated in two stages, 85±2°C for 1 hr and 45±2°C for 12 hrs until the final moisture content was 10±2%wb. The antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, GABA and -oryzanol contents, and the microstructure of the dehydrated grains were then characterized. Germination process induced a 2.55 fold increase in GABA content compared to non-germinated KKU-ULR012. The germinated KKU-ULR012 gave DPPH value, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 33.74±0.15 mgTrolox/100gdb, 182.89±0.48 mg/100gdb and 37.72±0.16 mg/100gdb, respectively. Anthocyanins in cooked germinated KKU-ULR012 diminished almost 88-89% after cooking. The cooking methods employed strongly influenced the antioxidant activity and anthocyanins content that the pressure cooking tended to prevent loss of anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity. The GABA, -oryzanol and antho-cyanins contents and antioxidant activity of germinated grains cooked in the pressure cooker were higher than the samples cooked in the microwave oven (p<0.05. For pressure cooking, the cooked grains gave DPPH, ABTS, anthocyanins and -oryzanol contents of 9.89±0.35 mgTrolox/100gdb, 1.79±0.04 mgTrolox/100gdb, 21.60±0.14 mg/100gdb and 37.16±0.70 mg/100gdb, respectively. The rice grains cooked by pressure cooking were more moist and sticky than the grains cooked by microwave cooking. The microstructure examined by SEM showed that the center of the dehydrated cooked rice grain was smooth indicating starch gelatinization whereas the surface revealed

  5. Defective Reduction in Frozen Pie Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooted, Oranuch; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-06-01

    The frozen pie production has a lot of defects resulting in high production cost. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique has been applied to improve the frozen pie process. Pareto chart is also used to determine the major defects of frozen pie. There are 3 main processes that cause the defects which are the 1st freezing to glazing process, the forming process, and the folding process. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) obtained from FMEA is analyzed to reduce the defects. If RPN of each cause exceeds 45, the process will be considered to be improved and selected for the corrective and preventive actions. The results showed that RPN values decreased after the correction. Therefore, the implementation of FMEA technique can help to improve the performance of frozen pie process and reduce the defects approximately 51.9%.

  6. Germination Potential of Dormant and Nondormant Arabidopsis Seeds Is Driven by Distinct Recruitment of Messenger RNAs to Polysomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basbouss-Serhal, Isabelle; Soubigou-Taconnat, Ludivine; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Dormancy is a complex evolutionary trait that temporally prevents seed germination, thus allowing seedling growth at a favorable season. High-throughput analyses of transcriptomes have led to significant progress in understanding the molecular regulation of this process, but the role of posttranscriptional mechanisms has received little attention. In this work, we have studied the dynamics of messenger RNA association with polysomes and compared the transcriptome with the translatome in dormant and nondormant seeds of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) during their imbibition at 25°C in darkness, a temperature preventing germination of dormant seeds only. DNA microarray analysis revealed that 4,670 and 7,028 transcripts were differentially abundant in dormant and nondormant seeds in the transcriptome and the translatome, respectively. We show that there is no correlation between transcriptome and translatome and that germination regulation is also largely translational, implying a selective and dynamic recruitment of messenger RNAs to polysomes in both dormant and nondormant seeds. The study of 5′ untranslated region features revealed that GC content and the number of upstream open reading frames could play a role in selective translation occurring during germination. Gene Ontology clustering showed that the functions of polysome-associated transcripts differed between dormant and nondormant seeds and revealed actors in seed dormancy and germination. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the essential role of selective polysome loading in this biological process. PMID:26019300

  7. Education and the Prevention of Postural Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olchowska-Kotala Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine: whether and at what stage of education is proper body posture learned, the intention of young adults to participate in activities teaching proper posture, and the effects of factors related with the said intention. Methods. The study involved 430 university students aged 18-24 years. Anthropometric data was collected. Participants completed questionnaires assessing physical activity level (IPAQ and their intention to participate in extracurricular activities teaching proper posture while sitting or walking, proper running technique, corrective gymnastics, or weight loss exercises. A self-assessment of posture, physical fitness, attractiveness, and body satisfaction was also completed. Results. Lower back pain was experienced by 41% of the respondents. Most were taught proper posture-related habits in primary school, followed by secondary school, and then at university. Many students expressed their intention to participate in the extracurricular activities. None of the questionnaire variables were associated with the intention to learn proper walking posture or proper running technique. The intention to participate in classes teaching proper sitting posture was associated with lower back pain in women and low physical activity level in men. In women, a relationship was found between the intention to participate in weight loss exercises and body dissatisfaction, high BMI, and poor self-evaluations of posture and attractiveness. In men, this activity was associated with body dissatisfaction. Conclusions. There is a need for further education on the development of proper postural habits at the university level.

  8. National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Aorta D-Transposition of the Great Arteries Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Pulmonary Atresia Tetralogy of ... Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 USA 800-CDC-INFO ( ...

  9. Defect of the Eyelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guanning Nina; Pelton, Ron W; Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, John David

    2017-08-01

    Eyelid defects disrupt the complex natural form and function of the eyelids and present a surgical challenge. Detailed knowledge of eyelid anatomy is essential in evaluating a defect and composing a reconstructive plan. Numerous reconstructive techniques have been described, including primary closure, grafting, and a variety of local flaps. This article describes an updated reconstructive ladder for eyelid defects that can be used in various permutations to solve most eyelid defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bryophyte spore germinability is inhibited by peatland substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhao-Jun; Li, Zhi; Liu, Li-Jie; Sundberg, Sebastian; Feng, Ya-Min; Yang, Yun-He; Liu, Shuang; Song, Xue; Zhang, Xing-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Bryophyte substrates and species may affect spore germination through allelopathy. Polytrichum strictum is currently expanding in peatlands in north-eastern China - is this an effect of its superior spore germinability or do its gametophytes have a stronger allelopathic effect than do Sphagnum? We conducted a spore burial experiment to test the effect of species identity, substrate and water table depth (WTD) on spore germinability and bryophyte allelopathic effect with P. strictum and two Sphagnum species (S. palustre and S. magellanicum). After 5 months of burial during a growing season, the spores were tested for germinability. Allelopathic effect of bryophyte substrates was assessed by the difference between spore germinability after being stored inside or outside the substrates. After burial, more than 90% of the spores lost their germinability across all three species due to ageing and allelopathy. Spore germinability differed among species, where the spores in S. palustre had a higher germination frequency than those in P. strictum. The three bryophytes maintained a higher germinability in Sphagnum than in Polytrichum hummocks, probably due to a stronger allelopathic effect of P. strictum. Water table drawdown by 10 cm increased germinability by more than 60% across the three species. The study indicates that P. strictum does not possess an advantage regarding spore germination but rather its gametophytes have a stronger allelopathic effect. Due to the weaker inhibitive effect of Sphagnum gametophytes, P. strictum may have a potential establishment superiority over Sphagnum in peatlands, in addition to a better drought tolerance, which may explain its current expansion.

  11. Investigation on carob seed germination under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide GÜBBÜK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of some pre-treatments on seed germination of wild carob seeds were investigated under two different conditions (germination cabinet and greenhouse. Twenty two pre-treatments were applied to the seeds. Pre-treated and control seeds were placed under dark conditions at 25°C. All treated seeds were germinated at 27°C temperature in the germination cabinet and greenhouse conditions. Seed germination rate was determined according to the pre-treatments for both conditions. The results showed that if the seeds were soaked in pure (98 % or diluted sulphuric acid (H2SO4, 40 %, 90 % for 30 minutes then kept in water for 2 days or just soaking the seeds in H2SO4 sulfuric acid for 30 minute gave the best results in terms of seed germination as the seed germination rate was over 90 %. The lowest germination rate under both conditions was observed in the control and soaking the seeds in 60 % H2SO4 for 30 minutes. On the other hands, seeds soaked in 60 % H2SO4 and then kept in water for 2 days did not germinate as they lost germination ability. The highest germination rates were recorded after ten days of pre-treatments in both conditions.

  12. A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Current methodology to quantify temperature characteristics in germination of seeds is predominantly based on analysis of the time to reach a given germination fraction, that is, the quantiles in the distribution of the germination time of a seed. In practice interpolation between observed...... germination fractions at given monitoring times is used to obtain the time to reach a given germination fraction. As a consequence the obtained value will be highly dependent on the actual monitoring scheme used in the experiment. In this paper a link between currently used quantile models for the germination...... time and a specific type of accelerated failure time models is provided. As a consequence the observed number of germinated seeds at given monitoring times may be analysed directly by a grouped time-to-event model from which characteristics of the temperature profile may be identified and estimated...

  13. Nitric oxide is involved in light-specific responses of tomato during germination under normal and osmotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piterková, Jana; Luhová, Lenka; Hofman, Jakub; Turecková, Veronika; Novák, Ondrej; Petrivalsky, Marek; Fellner, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the signalling and regulation of plant growth and development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The photoperiod-sensitive mutant 7B-1 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) showing abscisic acid (ABA) overproduction and blue light (BL)-specific tolerance to osmotic stress represents a valuable model to study the interaction between light, hormones and stress signalling. The role of NO as a regulator of seed germination and ABA-dependent responses to osmotic stress was explored in wild-type and 7B-1 tomato under white light (WL) and BL. Germination data were obtained from the incubation of seeds on germinating media of different composition. Histochemical analysis of NO production in germinating seeds was performed by fluorescence microscopy using a cell-permeable NO probe, and endogenous ABA was analysed by mass spectrometry. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione stimulated seed germination, whereas the NO scavenger 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO) had an inhibitory effect. Under WL in both genotypes, PTIO strongly suppressed germination stimulated by fluridone, an ABA inhibitor. The stimulatory effect of the NO donor was also observed under osmotic stress for 7B-1 seeds under WL and BL. Seed germination inhibited by osmotic stress was restored by fluridone under WL, but less so under BL, in both genotypes. This effect of fluridone was further modulated by the NO donor and NO scavenger, but only to a minor extent. Fluorescence microscopy using the cell-permeable NO probe DAF-FM DA (4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate) revealed a higher level of NO in stressed 7B-1 compared with wild-type seeds. As well as defective BL signalling, the differential NO-dependent responses of the 7B-1 mutant are probably associated with its high endogenous ABA concentration and related impact on hormonal cross-talk in germinating seeds. These data confirm that light-controlled seed germination and

  14. Salinity effects on germination properties of Kochia scoparia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid jami ahmadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine seed germination responses of kochia to different levels of salinity, an experiment was performed in the Institute of Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC, Cordoba, Spain, in a completely randomized design with two replications. Treatments were different levels of salinities equal to 0,5, 10, 15, and 20 ds/m, obtained by mixing NaCl and CaCl2 in a 2:1 molar ratio. Evaluated properties were germination percentage, rate and final number of germinated seeds. The results showed that the germinated seed number and the germination percentage had a converse relation with salinity levels. About 91% of seeds were germinated in distilled water. This value reduced to about 36% in 20 ds/m. Increasing salinity up to 10 ds/m did not have any significant effects on germination, but after that, the germination rate and percentage begun to reduce significantly. Salinity also increased the time required for 50% germination from 28 hours in distilled water to 78 hours in 20 ds/m, showing a delay in germination as salinity increased. Regarding linear reduction in germination rate in response to increase in salinity, it seems that as salinity exceeds 30 ds/m, germination rate of kochia approaches zero. This perhaps could be accepted as the threshold of kochia germination tolerance to salinity. According to the results, the germination stage of kochia has a good tolerance to elevated levels of salinity and it seems that a good stand establishment in saline soils and water conditions could be insured, if proper management is exerted in farms.

  15. Functional characterisation of germinant receptors in Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes presents novel insights into spore germination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Jason; Plowman, June; Gaskin, Duncan J H; Itchner, Manoa; Carter, Andrew T; Peck, Michael W

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a dangerous pathogen that forms the highly potent botulinum toxin, which when ingested causes a deadly neuroparalytic disease. The closely related Clostridium sporogenes is occasionally pathogenic, frequently associated with food spoilage and regarded as the non-toxigenic equivalent of Group I C. botulinum. Both species form highly resistant spores that are ubiquitous in the environment and which, under favourable growth conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is imperative to comprehend the mechanisms by which spores germinate. Germination is initiated following the recognition of small molecules (germinants) by a specific germinant receptor (GR) located in the spore inner membrane. The present study precisely defines clostridial GRs, germinants and co-germinants. Group I C. botulinum ATCC3502 contains two tricistronic and one pentacistronic GR operons, while C. sporogenes ATCC15579 has three tricistronic and one tetracistronic GR operons. Insertional knockout mutants, allied with characterisation of recombinant GRs shows for the first time that amino acid stimulated germination in C. botulinum requires two tri-cistronic encoded GRs which act in synergy and cannot function individually. Spore germination in C. sporogenes requires one tri-cistronic GR. Two other GRs form part of a complex involved in controlling the rate of amino-acid stimulated germination. The suitability of using C. sporogenes as a substitute for C. botulinum in germination studies and food challenge tests is discussed.

  16. Suicidal germination for parasitic weed control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanenburg, Binne; Mwakaboko, Alinanuswe S; Kannan, Chinnaswamy

    2016-11-01

    Parasitic weeds of the genera Striga and Orobanche spp. cause severe yield losses in agriculture, especially in developing countries and the Mediterranean. Seeds of these weeds germinate by a chemical signal exuded by the roots of host plants. The radicle thus produced attaches to the root of the host plant, which can then supply nutrients to the parasite. There is an urgent need to control these weeds to ensure better agricultural production. The naturally occurring chemical signals are strigolactones (SLs), e.g. strigol and orobanchol. One option to control these weeds involves the use of SLs as suicidal germination agents, where germination takes place in the absence of a host. Owing to the lack of nutrients, the germinated seeds will die. The structure of natural SLs is too complex to allow multigram synthesis. Therefore, SL analogues are developed for this purpose. Examples are GR24 and Nijmegen-1. In this paper, the SL analogues Nijmegen-1 and Nijmegen-1 Me were applied in the field as suicidal germination agents. Both SL analogues were formulated using an appropriate EC-approved emulsifier (polyoxyethylene sorbitol hexaoleate) and applied to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) fields infested by Orobanche ramosa L. (hemp broomrape), following a strict protocol. Four out of 12 trials showed a reduction in broomrape of ≥95%, two trials were negative, two showed a moderate result, one was unclear and in three cases there was no Orobanche problem in the year of the trials. The trial plots were ca 2000 m 2 ; half of that area was treated with stimulant emulsion, the other half was not treated. The optimal amount of stimulant was 6.25 g ha -1 . A preconditioning prior to the treatment was a prerequisite for a successful trial. In conclusion, the suicidal germination approach to reducing O. ramosa in tobacco fields using formulated SL analogues was successful. Two other options for weed control are discussed: deactivation of stimulants prior to action and

  17. In vitro germination of desert rose varieties(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Lemos Varella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The drought stress resistance is a characteristic of the desert rose and its estimable beauty flowers, which gave it great relevance in the ornamental market. However, the desert rose production and germination is hampered by possible sterility of their male and female flowers and frequent problems in pollination, so the tissue culture is a promising alternative to the propagation of these plants. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on four commercial varieties of desert rose (Adenium obesum cultivated in vitro. The seeds of the varieties ‘Orange Pallet’, ‘Carnation violet’, ‘Diamond ring’ and ‘Vermiliont’ were sterilized and inoculated on Water + Agar (T0, medium MS (T1, ½ MS (T2, MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T3, MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T4, ½ MS + 0.25 mg L-1 GA3 (T5, ½ MS 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 (T6. The seeds germination of A. obesum was initiated on the fourth day of cultivation and on the tenth day was possible to observe the expansion of the cotyledons and leaf expansion with subsequent development of early secondary root. The ‘Orange pallet’ variety germinated 100% of seeds on water + agar and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. For ‘Diamond Ring’ and ‘Carnation violet’ the highest rate of germination occurred in treatments MS ½; 0.25 mg L-1 GA3; MS + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 averaging 80% and 70%, respectively. For ‘Vermiliont’ the best response was in MS and MS ½ + 0.5 mg L-1 GA3 ranging between 70-90% germinated embryos. It was registered different malformations in all treatments like absence of roots and apexes during seedling development. The concentrations of GA3 did not affect significantly the seed germination.

  18. EFFECTS OF PRE-GERMINATION TREATMENTS AND STORAGE ON GERMINATION OF Astronium fraxinifolium SCHOTT (ANACARDIACEAE DIASPORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Lima Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814577The goal of this study was to evaluate the germination and the storage capacity of Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores. Six pre-germination treatments were used in the experiment: control treatment (intact diaspores; diaspores immersed in water at room temperature (25º C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 70° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 100° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution (1:1000 for 2 min; and diaspores mechanically scarified with sandpaper #80. To evaluate storage conditions, we tested two different types of packaging (permeable paper bag and transparent glass jar and two environmental conditions (cold chamber and room conditions, resulting in four treatments. The germination tests were performed for zero (control and 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days after storage. The effects of different treatments on germination and storage of diaspores were evaluated by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. Regarding to pre-germination treatments, high germination rates were observed in the hypochlorite (98.0 ± 4.22%, control (97.0 ± 4.83%, water at room temperature (96.0 ± 6.99% and water at 70º C (83.0 ± 29.08% treatments. Thus, Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores do not present dormancy. During storage, the diaspores remained viable throughout the study period with high germination rates, except for the treatment in paper bags placed in the cold chamber, in which the diaspores lost their viability in the eighth month of storage. Therefore, this is not a recommended storage method for this species.

  19. On holographic defect entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, John [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Jensen, Kristan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY Stony Brook,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); O’Bannon, Andy [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford,1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Tsatis, Efstratios [8 Kotylaiou Street, Athens 11364 (Greece); Wrase, Timm [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  20. On holographic defect entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O'Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-05-01

    We study a number of (3 + 1)- and (2 + 1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3 + 1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1 + 1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions.

  1. HFR1 Sequesters PIF1 to Govern the Transcriptional Network Underlying Light-Initiated Seed Germination in Arabidopsis[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Zhong, Shangwei; Mo, Xiaorong; Liu, Na; Nezames, Cynthia D.; Deng, Xing Wang

    2013-01-01

    Seed germination is the first step for seed plants to initiate a new life cycle. Light plays a predominant role in promoting seed germination, where the initial phase is mediated by photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB). Previous studies showed that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) represses seed germination downstream of phyB. Here, we identify a positive regulator of phyB-dependent seed germination, LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED1 (HFR1). HFR1 blocks PIF1 transcriptional activity by forming a heterodimer with PIF1 that prevents PIF1 from binding to DNA. Our whole-genomic analysis shows that HFR1 and PIF1 oppositely mediate the light-regulated transcriptome in imbibed seeds. Through the HFR1–PIF1 module, light regulates expression of numerous genes involved in cell wall loosening, cell division, and hormone pathways to initiate seed germination. The functionally antagonistic HFR1–PIF1 pair constructs a fail-safe mechanism for fine-tuning seed germination during low-level illumination, ensuring a rapid response to favorable environmental changes. This study identifies the HFR1–PIF1 pair as a central module directing the whole genomic transcriptional network to rapidly initiate light-induced seed germination. PMID:24179122

  2. Polyamine biosynthesis during germination of yeast ascospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, J V; Ferro, A J

    1979-01-01

    The role of the diamine putrescine during germination and outgrowth of ascospores of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined. Ornithine decarboxylase activity increased and declined rapidly during germination and outgrowth; peak activity was attained after the cells had proceeded through the G1 interval of the cell cycle, whereas minimal activity was present at the completion of the first cell division. alpha-Methylornithine inhibited both ornithine decarboxylase activity and the in vivo accumulation of putrescine. In the presence of alpha-methylornithireak dormancy and proceed through one cell division. Subsequent cellular growth, however, was retarded but not completely inhibited. The supplementation of Methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) to sporulation medium greatly inhibited this sexual process. These data suggest that the synthesis of putrescine is not required for the breaking of spore dormancy, but that polyamine biosynthesis may be essential for meiosis and sporulation. PMID:387744

  3. Sporulation and Germination of Paenibacillus larvae Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Osama S; Fisher, Nathan A

    2018-02-22

    Endospores are metabolically dormant cells formed by a variety of Gram-positive bacteria within the phylum Firmicutes in response to nutrient limiting or otherwise unfavorable growth conditions. American foulbrood disease (AFB) is a serious disease of honeybees that is caused by the introduction of Paenibacillus larvae endospores into a honeybee colony. Progression to fulminant disease and eventual collapse of the colony requires multiple rounds of endospore germination, vegetative replication, endospore formation, and subsequent spread within the colony. This unit includes protocols for the in vitro sporulation and germination of P. larvae to assist investigators in the study of these processes. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Germination and storage of caranda seeds (Copernicia alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Caranda is a Brazilian native palm tree, belonging to Arecaceae family and occurring, predominan,t in the Brazilian Swampland. This work studied the germination and the caranda seeds storage behavior. The germination study was carried out in the temperatures of 25ºC and 30ºC in constant white light and the alternate temperature of 20/30ºC with 10 hours of darkness for the lowest temperature and 14 hours of light for the highest temperature, using paper and paper roll as substratum. At the end of test, the germination percentage, germination speed index, germination medium time and the primary root length were evaluated. After the seeds improvement, it was obtained two sub-samples destined for 30 days storage in two invironments: cold and dry chamber (16ºC/55% UR and freezer (-18ºC. The following tests, water content, germination, germination medium time and primary root length were evaluated. The caranda seeds germination in paper roll and on paper is favored by the temperature of 20/30ºC in paper roll and on paper and paper roll on 30ºC. The freezing and cold camera storage during 30 days are efficient to reduce the germination medium time of caranda seeds and to keep the germination percentage.

  5. Exogenous auxin regulates multi-metabolic network and embryo development, controlling seed secondary dormancy and germination in Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenhua; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Yiling; Zhao, Jiehong; Fu, Junjie; Ren, Xueliang; Wang, Guoying; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-02-09

    Auxin was recognized as a secondary dormancy phytohormone, controlling seed dormancy and germination. However, the exogenous auxin-controlled seed dormancy and germination remain unclear in physiological process and gene network. Tobacco seeds soaked in 1000 mg/l auxin solution showed markedly decreased germination compared with that in low concentration of auxin solutions and ddH2O. Using an electron microscope, observations were made on the seeds which did not unfold properly in comparison to those submerged in ddH2O. The radicle traits measured by WinRHIZO, were found to be also weaker than the other treatment groups. Quantified by ELISA, there was no significant difference found in β-1,3glucanase activity and abscisic acid (ABA) content between the seeds imbibed in gradient concentration of auxin solution and those soaked in ddH2O. However, gibberellic acid (GA) and auxin contents were significantly higher at the time of exogenous auxin imbibition and were gradually reduced at germination. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), revealed that the transcriptome of auxin-responsive dormancy seeds were more similar to that of the imbibed seeds when compared with primary dormancy seeds by principal component analysis. The results of gene differential expression analysis revealed that auxin-controlled seed secondary dormancy was associated with flavonol biosynthetic process, gibberellin metabolic process, adenylyl-sulfate reductase activity, thioredoxin activity, glutamate synthase (NADH) activity and chromatin regulation. In addition, auxin-responsive germination responded to ABA, auxin, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) mediated signaling pathway (red, far red and blue light), glutathione and methionine (Met) metabolism. In this study, exogenous auxin-mediated seed secondary dormancy is an environmental model that prevents seed germination in an unfavorable condition. Seeds of which could not imbibe normally, and radicles of which also could not develop normally and

  6. Germination Ecophysiology of Annona crassiflora Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Edvaldo A. A.; de Melo, Daniel L. B.; Davide, Antonio C.; de Bode, Nienke; Abreu, Guilherme B.; Faria, José M. R.; Hilhorst, Henk W. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Little is known about environmental factors that break morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of the Annonaceae and the mechanisms involved. The aim of this study was to characterize the morphological and physiological components of dormancy of Annona crassiflora, a tree species native to the Cerrado of Brazil, in an ecophysiological context. Methods Morphological and biochemical characteristics of both embryo and endosperm were monitored during dormancy break and germination at field conditions. Seeds were buried in the field and exhumed monthly for 2 years. Germination, embryo length and endosperm digestion, with endo-β-mannanase activity as a marker, were measured in exhumed seeds, and scanning electron microscopy was used to detect cell division. The effect of constant low and high temperatures and exogenous gibberellins on dormancy break and germination was also tested under laboratory conditions. Key Results After burial in April, A. crassiflora seeds lost their physiological dormancy in the winter months with lowest monthly average minimum temperatures (May–August) prior to the first rainfall of the wet season. The loss of physiological dormancy enabled initiation of embryo growth within the seed during the first 2 months of the rainy season (September–October), resulting in a germination peak in November. Embryo growth occurred mainly through cell expansion but some dividing cells were also observed. Endosperm digestion started at the micropylar side around the embryo and diffused to the rest of the endosperm. Exogenous gibberellins induced both embryo growth and endo-β-mannanase activity in dormant seeds. Conclusions The physiological dormancy component is broken by low temperature and/or temperature fluctuations preceding the rainy season. Subsequent embryo growth and digestion of the endosperm are both likely to be controlled by gibberellins synthesized during the breaking of physiological dormancy. Radicle protrusion thus

  7. Oxidative signaling in seed germination and dormancy

    OpenAIRE

    El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Bailly, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a key role in various events of seed life. In orthodox seeds, ROS are produced from embryogenesis to germination, i.e., in metabolically active cells, but also in quiescent dry tissues during after ripening and storage, owing various mechanisms depending on the seed moisture content. Although ROS have been up to now widely considered as detrimental to seeds, recent advances in plant physiology signaling pathways has lead to reconsider their role. ROS accumul...

  8. Etude des potentialites germinatives pour une regeneration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les différents aspects germinatifs du fruit de Neocarya macrophylla, ressource génétique fruitière spontanée du Niger, ont fait l'objet d'analyses. L'étude des performances germinatives de cette espèce a donc porté sur des graines récentes et des graines conservées à la température ambiante dans des flacons en verre ...

  9. Comparative Germination of Barley Seeds (Hordeum Vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Where-as the rate of germination for the solutions of NaOH and NaHCO3 remained the same as that of the water. The influence in length of rootlets was also examined as a function of the nature of the soaking solutions. Sharp increase in the length was observed in case of Mg (OH)2 and KOH while in NaOH, Ca(OH)2 and ...

  10. Germinal center architecture disturbance during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in CBA mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelajo-Machado Marcelo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune responses to malaria blood stage infection are in general defective, with the need for long-term exposure to the parasite to achieve immunity, and with the development of immunopathology states such as cerebral malaria in many cases. One of the potential reasons for the difficulty in developing protective immunity is the poor development of memory responses. In this paper, the potential association of cellular reactivity in lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches with immunity and pathology was evaluated during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in CBA mice. Methods CBA mice were infected with 1 × 106 P. berghei ANKA-parasitized erythrocytes and killed on days 3, 6–8 and 10 of infection. The spleen, lymph nodes and Peyer's patches were collected, fixed in Carson's formalin, cut in 5 μm sections, mounted in glass slides, stained with Lennert's Giemsa and haematoxylin-eosin and analysed with bright-field microscopy. Results Early (day 3 strong activation of T cells in secondary lymphoid organs was observed and, on days 6–8 of infection, there was overwhelming activation of B cells, with loss of conventional germinal center architecture, intense centroblast activation, proliferation and apoptosis but little differentiation to centrocytes. In the spleen, the marginal zone disappeared and the limits between the disorganized germinal center and the red pulp were blurred. Intense plasmacytogenesis was observed in the T cell zone. Conclusion The observed alterations, especially the germinal center architecture disturbance (GCAD with poor centrocyte differentiation, suggest that B cell responses during P. berghei ANKA infection in mice are defective, with potential impact on B cell memory responses.

  11. Effects of graphene on seed germination and seedling growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming; Gao, Bin, E-mail: bg55@ufl.edu [University of Florida, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering (United States); Chen, Jianjun [University of Florida, Department of Environmental Horticulture and Mid-Florida Research & Education Center (United States); Li, Yuncong [University of Florida, Soil and Water Science Department Tropical Research & Education Center (United States)

    2015-02-15

    The environmental impact of graphene has recently attracted great attention. In this work, we show that graphene at a low concentration affected tomato seed germination and seedling growth. Graphene-treated seeds germinated much faster than control seeds. Analytical results indicated that graphene penetrated seed husks. The penetration might break the husks to facilitate water uptake, resulting in faster germination and higher germination rates. At the stage of seedling growth, graphene was also able to penetrate root tip cells. Seedlings germinated from graphene-treated seeds had slightly lower biomass accumulation than the control, but exhibited significantly longer stems and roots than the control, which suggests that graphene, in contrast with other nanoparticles, had different effects on seedling growth. Taken together, our results imply that graphene played complicated roles in affecting the initial stage of seed germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  12. Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.R.; Ellar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    L-[2,3- 3 H]Alanine was used to probe for metabolism of alanine during triggering of germination of spores of Bacillus megaterium KM. No detectable incorporation of label into any compound, including water, was found, indicating that any metabolism involving the alanine germinant must be at a very low rate and also that alanine racemase is absent from spores of this strain. Spores were germinated in 3 H 2 0 to find if any of the many metabolic reactions causing irreversible incorporation of 3 H into reaction products took place during triggering og germination. No incorporation was detected until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is therefore concluded that a wide variety of metabolic routes, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and amino acid metabolism are either not involved in the reactions causing the triggering of germination or operate at an extremely low rate during this process. (author)

  13. Sensitizing Clostridium difficile Spores With Germinants on Skin and Environmental Surfaces Represents a New Strategy for Reducing Spores via Ambient Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Marie Nerandzic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Prevention of C. difficile transmission is challenging because spores are not killed by alcohol-based hand sanitizers or many commonly used disinfectants. One strategy to control spores is to induce germination, thereby rendering the spores more susceptible to benign disinfection measures and ambient stressors. Methods/Results: C. difficile spores germinated on skin after a single application of cholic acid-class bile salts and co-germinants; for 4 C. difficile strains, recovery of viable spores from skin was reduced by ~0.3 log10CFU to 2 log10CFU after 2 hours and ~1 log10CFU to >2.5 log 10CFU after 24 hours. The addition of taurocholic acid to 70% and 30% ethanol significantly enhanced reduction of viable spores on skin and on surfaces. Desiccation, and to a lesser extent the presence of oxygen, were identified as the stressors responsible for reductions of germinated spores on skin and surfaces. Additionally, germinated spores became susceptible to killing by pH 1.5 hydrochloric acid, suggesting that germinated spores that remain viable on skin and surfaces might be killed by gastric acid after ingestion. Antibiotic-treated mice did not become colonized after exposure to germinated spores, whereas 100% of mice became colonized after exposure to the same quantity of dormant spores. Conclusions: Germination could provide a new approach to reduce C. difficile spores on skin and in the environment and to render surviving spores less capable of causing infection. Our findings suggest that it may be feasible to develop alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing germinants that reduce spores on hands.

  14. High Pressure Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in Levels and Types of Germination Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microbiol 102, 65 76. Butzin, X.Y., Troiano, A.J., Coleman , W.H., Griffiths , K.K., Doona, C.J., Feeherry, F.E., Wang, G., Li, Y. Q. et al. (2012...germination, possibly because it is essential for organization of GRs in a complex in spores’ inner membrane ( Griffiths et aL 2011). Journal of... Griffiths , K.K., Zhang, J., Cowan, A.E., Yu, J. and Setlow, P. (2011) Germination proteins in the inner membrane of dormant Bacillus subtilis spores

  15. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  16. Germination phenology determines the propensity for facilitation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, Lindsay D

    2017-09-01

    A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition. I manipulated germination and neighbor presence across two years in order to quantify the effects of the local plant community on survival, fecundity, and total fitness as a function of germination phenology. Neighbors increased survival when germination occurred under conditions that were unsuitable for survival, but they reduced fecundity in germinants that were otherwise the most fecund. Later germination was associated with facilitation in the first year but competition in the second year. These episodes of facilitation and competition opposed each other, leading to no net effect of neighbors when averaged over all cohorts. These results indicate that variation in germination timing can explain some of the variation in the facilitation-competition balance in plant communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Evolution of 'smoke' induced seed germination in pyroendemic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J. E.; Pausas, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Pyroendemics are plants in which seedling germination and successful seedling recruitment are restricted to immediate postfire environments. In many fire-prone ecosystems species cue their germination to immediate postfire conditions. Here we address how species have evolved one very specific mechanism, which is using the signal of combustion products from biomass. This is often termed ‘smoke’ stimulated germination although it was first discovered in studies of charred wood effects on germination of species strictly tied to postfire conditions (pyroendemics). Smoke stimulated germination has been reported from a huge diversity of plant species. The fact that the organic compound karrikin (a product of the degradation of cellulose) is a powerful germination cue in many species has led to the assumption that this compound is the only chemical responsible for smoke-stimulated germination. Here we show that smoke-stimulated germination is a complex trait with different compounds involved. We propose that convergent evolution is a more parsimonious model for smoke stimulated germination, suggesting that this trait evolved multiple times in response to a variety of organic and inorganic chemical triggers in smoke. The convergent model is congruent with the evolution of many other fire-related traits.

  18. [Research advance in seed germination of desert woody plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei; Wu, Jian-guo; Liu, Yan-hong

    2007-02-01

    This paper reviewed the research methods of desert woody plants seed germination, and the effects of internal and external ecological factors on it. Most researchers use incubator and artificial climate chamber to dispose the seeds, while field investigation was few involved. Seed dormancy is the important physiological factor affecting germination, while seed size, mass and color are closely correlated with its maturity and vigor. The poor permeability of seed capsule is a barrier that restrains the germination, which can be weakened or eliminated by shaving, cutting, treating with low temperature, and dipping in chemical reagent, etc. Seed water content has a close correlation with its storage life and water-absorbing capability. Suitable temperature is the prerequisite of seed germination, while changing temperature can accelerate the germination. Soil moisture content is a limiting factor, while illumination is not so essential to the seed germination of most desert woody plants. Sand-burying plays an important role in the seed germination through regulating illumination, temperature, and soil moisture content. Salinity stress restrains the seed germination of desert woody plants observably. In further studies, the effects of multi-factors and the eco-physiological and molecular biological mechanisms of germination should be more concerned.

  19. Differential Effects of Carbohydrates on Arabidopsis Pollen Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsche, Jörg; García Fernández, José M; Stabentheiner, Edith; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Roitsch, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination. Whereas several di- and oligosaccharides supported pollen germination, hexoses such as glucose, fructose and mannose did not support and even considerably inhibited pollen germination when added to germination-supporting medium. Complementary experiments using glucose analogs with varying functional features, the hexokinase inhibitor mannoheptulose and the glucose-insensitive hexokinase-deficient Arabidopsis mutant gin2-1 suggested that mannose- and glucose-mediated inhibition of sucrose-supported pollen germination depends partially on hexokinase signaling. The results suggest that, in addition to their role as energy source, sugars act as signaling molecules differentially regulating the complex process of pollen germination depending on their structural properties. Thus, a sugar-dependent multilayer regulation of Arabidopsis pollen germination is supported, which makes this approach a valuable experimental system for future studies addressing sugar sensing and signaling. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The mechanism underlying fast germination of tomato cultivar LA2711.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchao; Chu, Zhuannan; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Ying; Wang, Jinfang; Li, Dianbo; Weeda, Sarah; Ren, Shuxin; Ouyang, Bo; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Seed germination is important for early plant morphogenesis as well as abiotic stress tolerance, and is mainly controlled by the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA). Our previous studies identified a salt-tolerant tomato cultivar, LA2711, which is also a fast-germinating genotype, compared to its salt-sensitive counterpart, ZS-5. In an effort to further clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we compared the dynamic levels of ABA and GA4, the transcript abundance of genes involved in their biosynthesis and catabolism as well as signal transduction between the two cultivars. In addition, we tested seed germination sensitivity to ABA and GAs. Our results revealed that insensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA and low ABA content in seeds are the physiological mechanisms conferring faster germination rates of LA2711 seeds. SlCYP707A2, which encodes an ABA catabolic enzyme, may play a decisive role in the fast germination rate of LA2711, as it showed a significantly higher level of expression in LA2711 than ZS-5 at most time points tested during germination. The current results will enable us to gain insight into the mechanism(s) regarding seed germination of tomato and the role of fast germination in stress tolerance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of red-yellow soil acidification on seed germination of Chinese pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hong-shou; Wang, Ru-song; Izuta, Takeshi; Aoki, Masatoshi; Totsuka, Tsumugu

    2002-01-01

    Acid treatments significantly change the physical and chemical properties of red-yellow soil by lowering its pH value and leaching out aluminum(Al) ions that are harmful to the growth of plants. The structure of soil will be damaged, resulting in higher viscosity, higher water retention rate and lower air permeability of the soil. The germination rate of Chinese pine(Pinus tobulacformic Carr.) seeds sowed in soil treated with sulphuric acid(H2SO4) decreased compared to that for untreated soil. The direct cause was the large amount of Al ions leached out because of low pH values(> or = 3.5). The added acid decreased the soil aggregation and increased the number of micro-aggregates(under 250 microns in diameter). Such changes increased the soil's viscosity, which tied the pine needles to the soil after the seeds had germinated and prevented the seedlings from fully developing.

  2. The role of hull in germination and salinity tolerance in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hulled and dehulled) of sunflower seeds of Opal, Shelly (Confectionary) and Pactol (Oily) were tested to determine the effects of the hull on salinity tolerance during germination. Germination percentage (%), mean germination time (day), root and ...

  3. The role of hull in germination and salinity tolerance in some sunflower

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    hulled and dehulled) of sunflower seeds of Opal, Shelly (Confectionary) and Pactol (Oily) were tested to determine the effects of the hull on salinity tolerance during germination. Germination percentage (%), mean germination.

  4. Defects in hardwood timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswell D. Carpenter; David L. Sonderman; Everette D. Rast; Martin J. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Includes detailed information on all common defects that may aRect hardwood trees and logs. Relationships between manufactured products and those forms of round material to be processed from the tree for conversion into marketable products are discussed. This handbook supersedes Agriculture Handbook No. 244, Grade defects in hardwood timber and logs, by C.R. Lockard, J...

  5. Craniotomy Frontal Bone Defect

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... with cosmetic deformity of fore head (Figure 1), and he claimed that he could not get job because of ... 1: Pre-operative forontal view of patient. Figure 2: Intra operative photography of defect (A) reconstructed defect (B) ... with a cosmetic deformity of forehead on left side. (4nA and B). He was a candidate for.

  6. Defects at oxide surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and characterization of defects at oxide surfaces. It provides a state-of-the-art review of the field, containing information to the various types of surface defects, describes analytical methods to study defects, their chemical activity and the catalytic reactivity of oxides. Numerical simulations of defective structures complete the picture developed. Defects on planar surfaces form the focus of much of the book, although the investigation of powder samples also form an important part. The experimental study of planar surfaces opens the possibility of applying the large armoury of techniques that have been developed over the last half-century to study surfaces in ultra-high vacuum. This enables the acquisition of atomic level data under well-controlled conditions, providing a stringent test of theoretical methods. The latter can then be more reliably applied to systems such as nanoparticles for which accurate methods of characterization of structure and electronic properties ha...

  7. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  8. Germinated Thai Black Rice Extract Protects Experimental Diabetic Rats from Oxidative Stress and Other Diabetes-Related Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat Chaiyasut

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM, particularly type 2 DM (T2DM, is one of the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. The prevention measures and treatment strategies for DM are improving steadily. The current study explains the impact of germination on phytochemical content of Thai black rice (BR, and the influence of germinated BR extract (GBRE supplementation on diabetic conditions in rats. Methods: BR was germinated and the phenolic, anthocyanin, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA content of the extract were analyzed using HPLC and spectrophotometric methods. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were supplemented with high and low doses of GBRE. The plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, antioxidant status, and antioxidant enzyme levels of treated animals were assessed using ELISA and spectrophotometric methods. Results: Germination enhanced the GABA content of BR, and GBRE intervention improved the total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rats. The plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were reduced, and the degree of insulin secretion in rat plasma was significantly increased upon GBRE treatment. Both pre and post-treatment approaches showed the anti-diabetic ability of GBRE. In most of the analyzed parameters, GBRE was quite equal to the performance of drug-metformin. Conclusions: GBRE supplementation helps prevent and manage the consequences of DM.

  9. Germinated Thai Black Rice Extract Protects Experimental Diabetic Rats from Oxidative Stress and Other Diabetes-Related Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Pengkumsri, Noppawat; Keapai, Waranya; Kesika, Periyanaina; Saelee, Manee; Tojing, Parichart; Sirilun, Sasithorn; Chaiyasut, Khontaros; Peerajan, Sartjin; Lailerd, Narissara

    2016-12-28

    Background : Diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly type 2 DM (T2DM), is one of the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. The prevention measures and treatment strategies for DM are improving steadily. The current study explains the impact of germination on phytochemical content of Thai black rice (BR), and the influence of germinated BR extract (GBRE) supplementation on diabetic conditions in rats. Methods : BR was germinated and the phenolic, anthocyanin, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of the extract were analyzed using HPLC and spectrophotometric methods. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were supplemented with high and low doses of GBRE. The plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, antioxidant status, and antioxidant enzyme levels of treated animals were assessed using ELISA and spectrophotometric methods. Results : Germination enhanced the GABA content of BR, and GBRE intervention improved the total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rats. The plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were reduced, and the degree of insulin secretion in rat plasma was significantly increased upon GBRE treatment. Both pre and post-treatment approaches showed the anti-diabetic ability of GBRE. In most of the analyzed parameters, GBRE was quite equal to the performance of drug-metformin. Conclusions : GBRE supplementation helps prevent and manage the consequences of DM.

  10. Changes in Lipid Content of Ungerminated and Germinated Seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lipid contents of ungerminated and germinated seeds of Capsicunl srmuurn and Atremomum melequeta were studied to determine the level of total lipids, neutral lipids and phospholipids. The percentage germination of Capsicum annuum and Aframomum melequeta were 95+2.0% and 90+1.5% respectively. The total ...

  11. Temperature and substrate on Plukenetia volubilis L. seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Givanildo Z. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of temperature and substrate on the germination of P. volubilis seeds. Seeds harvested from 25 matrix plants were submitted, in two studies, to conditions of (i sowing in rolled paper towel at the temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C, for the evaluation of germination, first count of germination, germination speed index and mean time for germination, and (ii sowing in the substrates paper towel, sand, Bioplant®, Bioplant® and micron, superfine, fine, medium and coarse vermiculite. The same evaluations mentioned in the first study were conducted at the temperature of 30 oC, as well as plant growth. The treatment replicates were distributed in a completely randomized block design and the effects of temperature were compared by polynomial regression analysis. The substrates were compared by the Scott-Knott test at 0.05 probability level. The data show that the ideal range of temperature for the germination of P. volubilis is between 25 and 30 °C. The temperature of 20 °C is the minimum for germination and those above 35 °C are lethal to these seeds. The most favorable substrate for P. volubilis seed germination is micron or fine vermiculite.

  12. Effects of seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Lagenaria siceraria seed fermentation method on seed germination and vigor. Three seed fermentation methods (fermented in ambient air, plastic bag stored in ambient or in plastic bag buried) were tested on two cultivars during two years. Seed germination and ...

  13. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... seeds survived even at the lower osmotic potential of PEG and NaCl; whereas, seedling obtained from small seeds did not survive in the intensive stress. Key words: xTriticosecale Witm, seed size, drought, germination, seedling growth. INDRODUCTION. Seed germination is an essential process in plant.

  14. IAA production during germination of Orobanche spp. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, Slavtcho; van Onckelen, Henry; Batchvarova, Rossitza; Atanassov, Atanas; Prinsen, Els

    2004-07-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche spp.) are parasitic plants, whose growth and development fully depend on the nutritional connection established between the parasite and the roots of the respective host plant. Phytohormones are known to play a role in establishing the specific Orobanche-host plant interaction. The first step in the interaction is seed germination triggered by a germination stimulant secreted by the host-plant roots. We quantified indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) during the seed germination of tobacco broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) and sunflower broomrape (O. cumana). IAA was mainly released from Orobanche seeds in host-parasite interactions as compared to non-host-parasite interactions. Moreover, germinating seeds of O. ramosa released IAA as early as 24 h after the seeds were exposed to the germination stimulant, even before development of the germ tube. ABA levels remained unchanged during the germination of the parasites' seeds. The results presented here show that IAA production is probably part of a mechanism triggering germination upon the induction by the host factor, thus resulting in seed germination.

  15. Germination potential index of Sindh rice cultivars on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Alpha amylase activities were found to be directly correlated with germination percentage. Gradual increase in reducing sugars along with α-amylase activity was observed, while total ... seed vigor and alpha amylase activity along with germination period. .... strates for energy generation for fast and uniform.

  16. Nitrogen fertilization stimulates germination of dormant pin cherry seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody

    1979-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizers triggered germination of dormant Prunus pensylvanica L. seed naturally buried in the forest floor of 60-year-old Allegheny hardwood stands. Neither triple superphosphate nor muriate of potash applied with urea increased germination over that which occurred with urea alone. Rates as low as 56 kg/ha N from urea and calcium...

  17. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salinity is considered as a major abiotic stress affecting germination, seedling growth and crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Many techniques are used to improve tolerance to salinity. Priming is believed to be an effective technique that increases germination, plant growth and improve yield of several ...

  18. Germination potential index of Sindh rice cultivars on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time sequence analysis of germination and vigor of five rice cultivars were carried out by investigating the associated biochemical changes. The experiments were conducted with varying periods of incubation for germination and varietal differences were observed for different parameters. Alpha amylase activities were ...

  19. Variation in seed morphometric traits, germination and early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results evidence that pre-treatment is not necessarily relevant to reach a high germination percentage for tamarind seeds but may speed germination. The Guineo-Congolian provenance may be preferably used as rootstock onto which further selected cultivars will be grafted and used to rejuvenate traditional agroforestry ...

  20. The Significance of Hydrogen Sulfide for Arabidopsis Seed Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Emmanuel; Poilevey, Aurélie; Hewage, Nishodi Indiketi; Cochet, Françoise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Bailly, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) recently emerged as an important gaseous signaling molecule in plants. In this study, we investigated the possible functions of H2S in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination. NaHS treatments delayed seed germination in a dose-dependent manner and were ineffective in releasing seed dormancy. Interestingly, endogenous H2S content was enhanced in germinating seeds. This increase was correlated with higher activity of three enzymes (L-cysteine desulfhydrase, D-cysteine desulfhydrase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase) known as sources of H2S in plants. The H2S scavenger hypotaurine and the D/L cysteine desulfhydrase inhibitor propargylglycine significantly delayed seed germination. We analyzed the germinative capacity of des1 seeds mutated in Arabidopsis cytosolic L-cysteine desulfhydrase. Although the mutant seeds do not exhibit germination-evoked H2S formation, they retained similar germination capacity as the wild-type seeds. In addition, des1 seeds responded similarly to temperature and were as sensitive to ABA as wild type seeds. Taken together, these data suggest that, although its metabolism is stimulated upon seed imbibition, H2S plays, if any, a marginal role in regulating Arabidopsis seed germination under standard conditions. PMID:27446159

  1. Effects of animal's rumen juice on seed germination of Vicia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To help understand the effects of grazing on seed germination characteristics of Vicia angustifolia L., we conducted a laboratory germination experiment of V. angustifolia L., which is a main companion species of Leguminosae family in alpine grassland of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, using Yak and Tibetan sheep rumen ...

  2. The role of seed priming in improving seed germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win7

    2013-11-13

    Nov 13, 2013 ... the effect of seed priming with 5 g/L NaCl on germination and seedling growth of maize (Zea mays L.) exposed to five salinity levels ... Seed priming alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on germination and seedling ..... Beneficial effects of silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under salinity stress.

  3. Potential germination and initial growth of Sclerocarya birrea (A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of potential germination and initial growth of seedlings was conducted in Niamey. The objective of the study was to determine the parameters of seed germination and initial growth of seedlings of this species in order to assess how the findings could help in reforestation in some areas. Methodology: The parameters ...

  4. Asymbiotic germination of immature embryos of a medicinally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H.piri

    The immature embryos (28 weeks after pollination) were inoculated on M (Mitra et al., 1976), and PDA. (Potato Dextrose Agar) media, with and without different growth additives. The seeds showed positive germination response in both the nutrient media but the frequency and onset of germination response and associated ...

  5. Effect of chromium toxicity on germination and early seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-19

    Jul 19, 2010 ... This study was conducted to determine and compare the inhibitory effects of chromium on seed germination and early seedling growth of melon (Cucumis melo L.). Chromium applications were controls; 2.5, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200 and 300 mgl-1 Cr in germination stage, and controls; 2.5, 5, 10,. 20, 30 ...

  6. Germination, growth and nodulation of Trigonella foenum graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... In this work, we analyzed the effects of salinity on seed germination, growth and nodulation of fenugreek plants. The germination of fenugreek seeds was not affected by salt concentrations lower than 140 mM. Two saline tolerant indigenous rhizobia strains were isolated from the root nodules of fenugreek ...

  7. Modelling the effect of temperature on seed germination in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... The prediction of germination percentage (GP) and germination speed (GS) of the seeds for some cucurbits (watermelon, melon, cucumber, summer squash, pumpkin and winter squash) was investigated by mathematical model based on temperature. The model, D = [a - (b x T) + (c x T2)] of Uzun et al.

  8. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores adhered to stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Leeuw, de P.P.L.A.; Moezelaar, R.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Vries, de Y.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Adhered spores of Bacillus cereus represent a significant part of the surface-derived contamination in processing equipment used in the dairy industry. As germinated spores lose their resistance capacities instantaneously, efficient germination prior to a cleaning in place treatment could aid to the

  9. Germination of important East African mountain forest trees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Primary forest species mainly germinated under low illumination or dark conditions and showed a very short seed viability. The storage temperature did not influence viability, whereas the maturity of the seeds collected had a considerable influence on the germination success. Journal of East African Natural History Vol.

  10. Proximate Compositions and Sensory Properties of Germinated and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seeds were carefully selected cleaned and divided into two lots for flour production. One portion was germinated following soaking in water for 36 hours with water being changed every 6 hours, at a ratio of 1:10, including an hour air rest before re-soaking. The seeds were germinated to obtain ...

  11. Allelopathic effect of Jatropha curcas (Lin) leachate on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory study was conducted using sterilized petri dishes with double layer of Whatman filter paper at averagely 27oC and 70% humidity. An interval of 24, 48, 76 and 92 hours were recorded on germination studies while radicle and shoot lengths at 92nhours respectively. Decreased in germination percentage, shoot ...

  12. Germination, growth and nodulation of Trigonella foenum graecum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of salinity on seed germination, growth and nodulation of fenugreek plants. The germination of fenugreek seeds was not affected by salt concentrations lower than 140 mM. Two saline tolerant indigenous rhizobia strains were isolated from the root nodules of fenugreek grown in two ...

  13. Studies on the germination and seedling characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mode of germination and seedling characteristics of four Savanna palm trees; Borassus aethiopum, Hyphaene thebaica, Phoenix reclinata and Raphia sudanica were studied. In the course of their germination, the radicle was found to be cotyledonary in nature, and it carried the undeveloped plumule below ground before ...

  14. Seed germination of five Poa species at negative water potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under field conditions water is often inadequate for satisfactory seed germination. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of simulated dry conditions on germination and seedling growth of five bluegrass (Poa) species including: Texas, P. arachnifera Torr.; annual, P. annua L.; mutto...

  15. Soil water potential requirement for germination of winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In semi-arid climates seed is often sown into soil with inadequate water for rapid germination. This study was designed to measure the soil water potential limits for rapid, adequate, and marginal germination of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). We also tested for differences between cultivars an...

  16. Pollen characteristics and in vitro pollen germination of Cedrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims to determine the germination characteristics, pollen tube developments, effects of germination media and temperature and incubation durations of the pollens obtained from the four clones (11342, 11344, 11345 and 11351) of Cedrus libani A. Rich. (Lebanon Cedrus) obtained from clonal seed orchard (with ...

  17. Tetrazolium chloride as an indicator of pine pollen germinability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton A. Cook; Robert G. Stanley

    1960-01-01

    Controlled pollination in forest tree breeding requires pollen of known germination capacity. Methods of determining pollen viability include germination in a hanging drop, in a moist atmosphere, on agar gel, or in a sugar solution (DUFFIELD, 1954; DILLON et al., 1957). Errors commonly arise in the application of these techniques because maximum...

  18. The effect of micronutrients and gibberellic acid on the germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dormancy of the caryopsis of Themeda triandra Forsk was shown to be broken by the addition of boron to the germination media. This effect was specific to boron, as no response was observed with zinc, copper, manganese, iron, cobalt and molybdenum in the germinating media. Evidence is put forward suggesting that ...

  19. Germination of tomatoes under PEG-induced drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were: to assess the effects of drought stress on germination percentage, germination energy and number of days to complete germination in fifteen tomato populations; to distinguish the treatment that is the most suitable for classifying the tomatoes for their response to early-imposed drought; as well as to distinguish populations which could be used for breeding tolerant varieties. The experiment included control germination assay (distilled water and the increasing (4, 8, and 12%, w/v polyethylene glycol (PEG treatments. Both germination percentage and energy considerably decreased with the increasing PEG treatments, while the observed average increase in the number of days required to complete germination remained statistically insignificant. The differences in germination among the populations were most pronounced in 12% PEG treatment, which is therefore recommended for further research. Several populations are indicated as tolerant; however, tomato drought tolerance exhibited as early as at the germination stage does not necessarily indicate the tolerance in later phases of plant development. The population 105 is recommended for breeding drought tolerant varieties.

  20. Effects of hydropriming on seed germination and seedling growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The germination of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) seeds is a problem of great concern that may be overcome by employing seed priming techniques. Seed priming is an efficient technique for improvement of seed vigor, increasing germination and seedling growth. Little information has been reported on seedling development ...

  1. Production of Ogi from germinated sorghum supplemented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three varieties of sorghum grains were germinated before fermentation to Ogi. The protein and ash contents of Sorghum vulgare, Sorghum guineensis and Sorghum bicolor increased by 7.20 and 40.20%; 5.44 and 29.20%; and 4.00 and 42.18% respectively. Fermentation of the germinated grains however caused ...

  2. Effect of stratification treatments on germination of Sorbus torminalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... average size of seeds of Samsun origin was 5.59 mm, average diameter was 3.36 mm, 1000 grains seed weight was 3.07 g. The seeds used in this study were sown in 3 different mediums at the beginning of. April. When ratios of seed germination were analyzed, maximum germination occured in the 4 ...

  3. Effect of germination and autoclaving of sprouted finger millet and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim was to establish the extent of cyanide content increase resulting from the germination process and the effectiveness of the autoclaving process on the reduction of cyanide levels in the samples, for safety considerations. Autoclaving was carried out at 121°C for 20 minutes. It was found that germination increased the ...

  4. Comparative Study of Pre-Germination Treatments and their Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    of leaves (10.05) respectively. Pre-germination treatments of seeds soaked in running water (SRW) for 24 hours were found to be more effective in seedlings growth and biomass production. Keywords: Tectona grandis, pre-germination treatment, seed dormancy, seedling growth. Introduction. Tectona grandis is one of the ...

  5. The pleiotropic effects of the seed germination inhibitor germostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yajin; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Seed dormancy and germination are the most important adaptive traits of seed plants, which control the germination in a proper space and time. Internal genetic factors together with environmental cues govern seed dormancy and germination. Abscisic acid (ABA), a key phytohormone induces seed dormancy and inhibits seed germination through its molecular genetic signaling network responding the seed inherent physiological and environmental factors. Recently, auxin has been shown to be another phytohormone that induces seed dormancy. We have recently shown that germonstatin (GS), a small synthetic molecule identified by high through-put chemical genetic screenings, inhibits seed germination through up-regulating auxin signaling and inducing auxin biosynthesis. GERMOSTATIN RESISTANCE LOCUS 1 (GSR1) encodes a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein and is responsible for GS seed germination inhibition. Its knockdown mutant gsr1 displays decreased dormancy. In this report, we show that GS is not an ABA analog and provided 2 other GS-resistant mutants related to the chemical's function in seed germination inhibition other than gsr1, suggesting that GS may have pleiotropic effects through targeting different pathway governing seed germination.

  6. Germination phenology of some Great Basin native annual forb species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara A. Forbis

    2010-01-01

    Great Basin native plant communities are being replaced by the annual invasive cheatgrass Bromus tectorum. Cheatgrass exhibits a germination syndrome that is characteristic of facultative winter annuals. Although perennials dominate these communities, native annuals are present at many sites. Germination timing is often an important predictor of competitive...

  7. Investigating the Influence of Karrikins on Seed Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has identified a karrikin (a butenolide derative) known as 3-methyl-2H-furo[2,3-c]pyran-2-one, formed from burning cellulose, that stimulates seed germination. Here, I present ideas on how to investigate the influence of karrikins on seed germination in the laboratory.

  8. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ( 35 S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

  9. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  10. Germination of several groundnut cultivars in relation to incidence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is concerned with the germination of nine cultivars of groundnut grown in Nigeria in relation to incidence of fungi. The cultivars were NHK 5V8, NUTII 288, Samnut 10, 11, 21, 22, 23, 24 and MK 373. Germination potential was assessed after 10 days of planting in petri-dishes. Parameters such as seedling ...

  11. Differentiation inside multicelled macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum during early germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, Gilma S; Breeuwer, Pieter; Rombouts, Frans M; Abee, Tjakko; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    Multicelled conidia are formed by many fungal species, but germination of these spores is scarcely studied. Here, the germination and the effects of antimicrobials on multicompartment macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum were investigated. Germ-tube formation was mostly from apical compartments. The

  12. Differentiation inside multicelled macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum during early germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chitarra, G.S.; Breeuwer, P.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.; Dijksterhuis, J.

    2005-01-01

    Multicelled conidia are formed by many fungal species, but germination of these spores is scarcely studied. Here, the germination and the effects of antimicrobials on multicompartment macroconidia of Fusarium culmorum were investigated. Germ-tube formation was mostly from apical compartments. The

  13. Effect of exogenous gibberellic acid on germination, seedling growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of gibberellic acid on germination and seedling growth of lettuce variety, Vista, under salinity conditions was studied. A reduction in germination percentage, roots and shoots length and fresh weight were observed under salt stress. At the same time, acid phosphatase and phytase activities in roots were reduced ...

  14. Improving the seed germination of little bluestem with selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid seed germination is an important characteristic when it comes to plant stand establishment under variable environmental conditions. This research was designed to improve the seed germination of six experimental Syn-0 lines of little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash]. Two cycle...

  15. Modelling the effect of temperature on seed germination in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of germination percentage (GP) and germination speed (GS) of the seeds for some cucurbits (watermelon, melon, cucumber, summer squash, pumpkin and winter squash) was investigated by mathematical model based on temperature. The model, D = [a - (b x T) + (c x T2)] of Uzun et al. (2001), was adapted ...

  16. Effects of Sowing Media and Sowing Depth on Germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the effect of sowing media and sowing depth on the germination and growth of Lecanodiscus cupanoides (Planch.Ex Benth). The germination of L. cupanoides seed was significantly affected by sowing depth and sowing medium at p=0.05. The result of various sowing media and sowing depth showed ...

  17. Asymbiotic germination of immature embryos of a medicinally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immature embryos (28 weeks after pollination) were inoculated on M (Mitra et al., 1976), and PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar) media, with and without different growth additives. The seeds showed positive germination response in both the nutrient media but the frequency and onset of germination response and associated ...

  18. The effect of different treatments on improving seed germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Creating optimal conditions for germination of medicinal plants seed is essential for their cultivation. Therefore, to evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of two medicinal species, Descurainia sophia and Plantago ovata collected in 2009 from Tehran Province, an experiment with a factorial ...

  19. Full Length Research Paper Seed germination and in vitro plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parkia biglobosa is an important leguminous forest species which is being threatened of going into extinction in Senegal. To preserve this genetic resource of great economic value, studies on germination were carried out and in vitro conservation option through tissue culture technique was adopted. 100% of germination ...

  20. Effect of germination duration on nutritional and functional properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of germination duration on proximate, minerals, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of two local sorghum varieties (Girana and Miskr) were investigated. A 2*3*2 full factorial design was used to conduct the experiment. Sorghum varieties were soaked for 24 hours at room temperature and germinated ...

  1. Germination of fresh seed of thirty Cenchrus ciliaris ecotypes as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination tests were carried out with fresh seed of 30 ecotypes of Cenchrus ciliaris produced under uniform conditions. Untreated seeds were compared with washed and shelled seeds. Illustrates with a graphLanguage: English. Keywords: Buffel grass; Caryopsis; Cenchrus ciliaris; Dormancy; Ecotypes; Germination; ...

  2. Germination potential index of Sindh rice cultivars on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Germination potential index of Sindh ... α-amylase activity is a biochemical indicator showing different germination abilities of rice varieties, leading to different seed vigor. Among ... production of this foreign commodity may be due to many constraints such as poor seed quality, ...

  3. STUDY OF WHEAT PROTEIN DEGRADATION DURING GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Michalcová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutens, the storage proteins of cereals, play significant role in technological and nutraceutical quality of cereal grains. Whereas the high content of glutens allows making better structure of dough, consummation of foods with high gluten content can cause digestive problems. In our work, we studied ability of wheat proteases to degrade proteins, especially glutens. Wheat grains were germinated for up to seven days at three different temperatures 15, 20, 30 °C and pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.5, 7.0, 8.0. Proteins were fractionated into salt-soluble albumins and globulins, alcohol-soluble gliadins and base-soluble glutenins. In these fractions, protein content and their composition were analyzed by Bradford method and SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that remarkable degradation of glutens started after three days and the lowest concentration was measured at the seventh day of germination of wheat grain at temperature 20 °C, pH 5.5.

  4. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  5. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, Luc M; de Vries, Ynte P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; de Vos, Willem M; Abee, Tjakko

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that l-alanine, l-cysteine, l-threonine, and l-glutamine are capable of initiating the germination of endospores of B. cereus ATCC 14579. In addition, the purine ribonucleosides inosine and adenosine can trigger germination of the spores. Advanced annotation of the B. cereus ATCC 14579 genome revealed the presence of seven putative germination (ger) operons, termed gerG, gerI, gerK, gerL, gerQ, gerR, and gerS. To determine the role of the encoded putative receptors in nutrient-induced germination, disruption mutants were constructed by the insertion of pMUTIN4 into each of the seven operons. Four of the seven mutants were affected in the germination response to amino acids or purine ribonucleosides, whereas no phenotype could be attributed to the mutants with disrupted gerK, gerL, and gerS loci. The strain with a disrupted gerR operon was severely hampered in the ability to germinate: germination occurred in response to l-glutamine but not in the presence of any of the other amino acids tested. The gerG mutant showed significantly reduced l-glutamine-induced germination, which points to a role of this receptor in the l-glutamine germination signaling pathway. gerR, gerI, and gerQ mutants showed reduced germination rates in the presence of inosine, suggesting a role for these operons in ribonucleoside signaling. Efficient germination by the combination of l-glutamine and inosine was shown to involve the gerG and gerI operons, since the germination of mutants lacking either one of these receptors was significantly reduced. Germination triggered by the combination of l-phenylalanine and inosine was lost in the gerI mutant, indicating that both molecules are effective at the GerI receptor.

  6. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle Juel

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule...... structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics...... showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated...

  7. In-Depth Temporal Transcriptome Profiling Reveals a Crucial Developmental Switch with Roles for RNA Processing and Organelle Metabolism That Are Essential for Germination in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Reena; Law, Simon R.; Carrie, Chris; Xu, Lin; Whelan, James

    2011-01-01

    Germination represents a rapid transition from dormancy to a high level of metabolic activity. In-depth transcriptomic profiling at 10 time points in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), including fresh seed, ripened seed, during stratification, germination, and postgermination per se, revealed specific temporal expression patterns that to our knowledge have not previously been identified. Over 10,000 transcripts were differentially expressed during cold stratification, with subequal numbers up-regulated as down-regulated, revealing an active period in preparing seeds for germination, where transcription and RNA degradation both play important roles in regulating the molecular sequence of events. A previously unidentified transient expression pattern was observed for a group of genes, whereby a significant rise in expression was observed at the end of stratification and significantly lower expression was observed 6 h later. These genes were further defined as germination specific, as they were most highly expressed at this time in germination, in comparison with all developmental tissues in the AtGenExpress data set. Functional analysis of these genes using genetic inactivation revealed that they displayed a significant enrichment for embryo-defective or -arrested phenotype. This group was enriched in genes encoding mitochondrial and nuclear RNA-processing proteins, including more than 45% of all pentatricopeptide domain-containing proteins expressed during germination. The presence of mitochondrial DNA replication factors and RNA-processing functions in this germination-specific subset represents the earliest events in organelle biogenesis, preceding any changes associated with energy metabolism. Green fluorescent protein analysis also confirmed organellar localization for 65 proteins, largely showing germination-specific expression. These results suggest that mitochondrial biogenesis involves a two-step process to produce energetically active organelles: an

  8. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  9. Effect of Amino Acid Substitutions in the GerAA Protein on the Function of the Alanine-Responsive Germinant Receptor of Bacillus subtilis Spores▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolthanaruk, Wiyada; Cooper, Gareth R.; Mawer, Julia S. P.; Allan, Raymond N.; Moir, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis require the GerAA, GerAB, and GerAC receptor proteins for l-alanine-induced germination. Mutations in gerAA, both random and site directed, result in phenotypes that identify amino acid residues important for receptor function in broad terms. They highlight the functional importance of two regions in the central, integral membrane domain of GerAA. A P324S substitution in the first residue of a conserved PFPP motif results in a 10-fold increase in a spore's sensitivity to alanine; a P326S change results in the release of phase-dark spores, in which the receptor may be in an “activated” or “quasigerminated” state. Substitutions in residues 398 to 400, in a short loop between the last two likely membrane-spanning helices of this central domain, all affect the germination response, with the G398S substitution causing a temperature-sensitive defect. In others, there are wider effects on the receptor: if alanine is substituted for conserved residue N146, H304, or E330, a severe defect in l-alanine germination results. This correlates with the absence of GerAC, suggesting that the assembly or stability of the entire receptor complex has been compromised by the defect in GerAA. In contrast, severely germination-defective mutants such as E129K, L373F, S400F, and M409N mutants retain GerAC at normal levels, suggesting more local and specific effects on the function of GerAA itself. Further interpretation will depend on progress in structural analysis of the receptor proteins. PMID:21378197

  10. Association mapping of soybean seed germination under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Guizhen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wenming; Ma, Deyuan; Zhang, Dan; Hao, Derong; Hu, Zhenbin; Yu, Deyue

    2015-12-01

    Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture sustainability worldwide. Seed germination is a critical phase that ensures the successful establishment and productivity of soybeans in saline soils. However, little information is available regarding soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic mechanisms of soybean seed germination under salt stress. One natural population consisting of 191 soybean landraces was used in this study. Soybean seeds produced in four environments were used to evaluate the salt tolerance at their germination stage. Using 1142 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the molecular markers associated with salt tolerance were detected by genome-wide association analysis. Eight SNP-trait associations and 13 suggestive SNP-trait associations were identified using a mixed linear model and the TASSEL 4.0 software. Eight SNPs or suggestive SNPs were co-associated with two salt tolerance indices, namely (1) the ratio of the germination index under salt conditions to the germination index under no-salt conditions (ST-GI) and (2) the ratio of the germination rate under salt conditions to the germination rate under no-salt conditions (ST-GR). One SNP (BARC-021347-04042) was significantly associated with these two traits (ST-GI and ST-GR). In addition, nine possible candidate genes were located in or near the genetic region where the above markers were mapped. Of these, five genes, Glyma08g12400.1, Glyma08g09730.1, Glyma18g47140.1, Glyma09g00460.1, and Glyma09g00490.3, were verified in response to salt stress at the germination stage. The SNPs detected could facilitate a better understanding of the genetic basis of soybean salt tolerance at the germination stage, and the marker BARC-021347-04042 could contribute to future breeding for soybean salt tolerance by marker-assisted selection.

  11. Pre-treating Seed to Enhance Germination of Desert Shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. K. Ostler; D. C. Anderson; D. J. Hansen

    2002-06-01

    Creosotebush [Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cav.] and white bursage [Ambrosia dumosa (A. Gray) W.W. Payne] seeds were subjected to pre-treatments of rinsing and soaking in water and thiourea to enhance germination in laboratory experiments. The effects of darkness, temperature, seed source, and soil moisture were also evaluated in the laboratory. The best pre-treatment from the laboratory experiments, rinsing with water for 36 hours followed by drying, was field-tested at Fort Irwin, California. Two sites and two seeding dates (early March and mid April) were determined for each site. Five mulch treatments (no mulch, straw, gravel, chemical stabilizer, and plastic) were evaluated in combination with the seed pre-treatments. Field emergence was greatly enhanced with the seed pre-treatment for white bursage during the March (18-42% increase in germination) and April seedings (16-23% increase in germination). Creosotebush showed poor germination during March (2-5%) when soil temperatures averaged 15 C, but germination increased during the April trials (6-43%) when soil temperatures averaged 23 C. The seed pre-treatment during the April trials increased germination from 16-23%. The plastic mulch treatment increased germination dramatically during both the March and April trials. The plastic mulch increased soil temperatures (8-10 C)and maintained high humidity during germination. Both the chemical stabilizer and the gravel mulches improved germination over the control while the straw mulch decreased germination. These results suggest that seed pre-treatments combined with irrigation and mulch are effective techniques to establish these two dominant Mojave Desert species from seed.

  12. Physicochemical properties of germinated dehulled rice flour and energy requirement in germination as affected by ultrasound treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junzhou; Hou, Gary G; Dong, Mengyi; Xiong, Shanbai; Zhao, Siming; Feng, Hao

    2018-03-01

    Limited data are published regarding changes in the physicochemical properties of rice flours from germinated de-hulled rice treated by ultrasound. This work was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ultrasound treatment (25 kHz, 16 W/L, 5 min) on starch hydrolysis and functional properties of rice flours produced from ultrasound-treated red rice and brown rice germinated for up to 36 h. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) microimages showed that the ultrasound treatment altered the surface microstructure of rice, which helped to improve moisture transfer during steam-cooking. The flours from sonicated germinated de-hulled rice exhibited significantly (p germinating red rice and brown rice displayed different sensitivity to ultrasonic treatment. The ultrasonic pre-treatment resulted in a significant reduction in energy use during germination with a potential to further reduce energy use in germinated rice cooking process. The present study indicated that ultrasound could be a low-power consumption method to modify the rheological behavior of germinated rice flour, as well as an efficient approach to improve the texture, flavor, and nutrient properties of steam-cooked germinated rice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Methyl anthranilate and γ-decalactone inhibit strawberry pathogen growth and achene Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Alan H; Evans, Shane Alan; Folta, Kevin M

    2013-12-26

    Plant volatile compounds have been shown to affect microbial growth and seed germination. Here two fruity volatiles found in strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ), γ-decalactone ("peachlike" aroma) and methyl anthranilate ("grapelike" aroma), were tested for effects on relevant pathogens and seedling emergence. Significant growth reduction was observed for Botrytis cinerea , Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , Colletotrichum acutatum , Phomopsis obscurans , and Gnomonia fragariae at 1 mM γ-decalactone or methyl anthranilate, and 5 mM γ-decalactone or methyl anthranilate supplemented medium resulted in complete cessation of fungal growth. Phytophthora cactorum was especially sensitive to 1 mM γ-decalactone, showing complete growth inhibition. Bacteriostatic effects were observed in Xanthamonas cultures. Postharvest infestations on store-bought strawberries were inhibited with volatile treatment. The γ-decalactone volatile inhibited strawberry and Arabidopsis thaliana germination. These findings show that two compounds contributing to strawberry flavor may also contribute to shelf life and suggest that γ-decalactone may play an ecological role by preventing premature germination.

  14. Single Ventricle Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... heart defects along with pulmonary atresia. (Children with tetralogy of Fallot who also have pulmonary atresia may have treatment similar to others with tetralogy of Fallot.) How does it affect the heart? An opening ...

  15. Repairing Nanoparticle Surface Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, Emanuele; Kodger, Thomas E.; Crisp, R.W.; Timmerman, Dolf; MacArthur, Katherine E.; Heggen, Marc; Schall, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Solar devices based on semiconductor nanoparticles require the use of conductive ligands; however, replacing the native, insulating ligands with conductive metal chalcogenide complexes introduces structural defects within the crystalline nanostructure that act as traps for charge carriers. We

  16. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  17. Impact of temperature, nutrients, pH and cold storage on the germination, growth and resistance of Bacillus cereus spores in egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Aswathi; Oey, Indrawati; Silcock, Patrick; Bremer, Phil J

    2018-04-01

    B. cereus spores are a concern to the food industry, especially to the producers of heat sensitive food products like egg white or precooked and stored food such as fried rice. This study investigated the impact of nutrients, temperature (4, 8, 15 and 25 °C), pH (4, 5, 7 and 9), and cold storage on the germination, growth and resistance of B. cereus spores. In egg white held at 4 °C for 12 days spore germination was not apparent, however the addition of egg yolk (5%) resulted in a 2 Log colony forming units (CFU)/mL increase in vegetative cells (p egg white did not induce germination unless the spores were simultaneously heat activated at 70 °C for 30 min. On incubation at 15 or 25 °C in egg white, spore germination increased by 3.0 Log and 3.7 Log CFU/mL on day 12. The presence of 5% yolk further enhanced germination and subsequent sporulation during storage at 15 and 25 °C. Acidification (pH 4) of 10% egg white solution prevented germination at 4, 8, 15 and 25 °C. Spores held at 4 °C for 6 days in phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 4) had visible deformations on their surface (scanning electron microscopy) and a significant reduction in D 88, and D 92 values of 13.9 and 8.2 min respectively. A better understanding of how spores sense and respond to changing environmental conditions will help in the development of processing strategies, involving multiple hurdles to ensure the prevention of germination and subsequent toxin production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  19. Effect of different germination conditions on antioxidative properties and bioactive compounds of germinated brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, You-Tung; Pao, Cheng-Cheng; Wu, Shwu-Tzy; Chang, Chi-Yue

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds of ungerminated brown rice (UBR) and germinated brown rice (GBR). We used two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.), Taiwan Japonica 9 (TJ-9) and Taichung Indica 10 (TCI-10), as the materials in our experiments. The conditions for inducing germination are soaking time in water 24, 48, or 72 h; temperature 26 or 36°C; incubation in light or darkness; and open or closed vessels, in which the antioxidative activities and bioactive compounds of GBR were determined. We found that, in order to maximize antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds, germination should be under higher temperature (36°C), long soaking time (72 h), darkness, and closed vessel. GBR contains much higher levels of antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds than ungerminated brown rice (UBR). We found a strong correlation between antioxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanols, tocopherol, and tocotrienol). Higher temperature (36°C) is also conducive to the production of GABA in GBR. These results are considered very useful research references for the development of future functional foods and additives.

  20. Effect of Different Germination Conditions on Antioxidative Properties and Bioactive Compounds of Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Tung Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds of ungerminated brown rice (UBR and germinated brown rice (GBR. We used two rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L., Taiwan Japonica 9 (TJ-9 and Taichung Indica 10 (TCI-10, as the materials in our experiments. The conditions for inducing germination are soaking time in water 24, 48, or 72 h; temperature 26 or 36°C; incubation in light or darkness; and open or closed vessels, in which the antioxidative activities and bioactive compounds of GBR were determined. We found that, in order to maximize antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds, germination should be under higher temperature (36°C, long soaking time (72 h, darkness, and closed vessel. GBR contains much higher levels of antioxidative activity and bioactive compounds than ungerminated brown rice (UBR. We found a strong correlation between antioxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging ability, reducing power, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanols, tocopherol, and tocotrienol. Higher temperature (36°C is also conducive to the production of GABA in GBR. These results are considered very useful research references for the development of future functional foods and additives.

  1. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores adhered to stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornstra, L M; de Leeuw, P L A; Moezelaar, R; Wolbert, E J; de Vries, Y P; de Vos, W M; Abee, T

    2007-05-30

    Adhered spores of Bacillus cereus represent a significant part of the surface-derived contamination in processing equipment used in the dairy industry. As germinated spores lose their resistance capacities instantaneously, efficient germination prior to a cleaning in place treatment could aid to the disinfecting effect of such a treatment. Therefore, spores of B. cereus ATCC 14579 and that of the environmental isolate B. cereus CMCC 3328 were assessed for their germination behaviour when adhered to a stainless steel surface. A mixture of l-alanine and inosine initiated germination of adhered spores efficiently, resulting in 3.2 decimal logarithms of germination. Notably, implementation of a germination-inducing step prior to a representative cleaning in place procedure reduced the number of survivors with over 3 decimal log units, while an alkali treatment alone, as part of the cleaning in place procedure, did not show any effect on B. cereus spore viability. These results show that implementation of a germination step enhances the disinfection effect of currently used cleaning in place procedures.

  2. Evolution of nutrient ingredients in tartary buckwheat seeds during germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiming, Zhou; Hong, Wang; Linlin, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhou; Wen, Tang; Xinli, Song

    2015-11-01

    Evolution of nutrient components and the antioxidative activity of seed sprouts of tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum L. Gaertn) were investigated in the course of germination. Results showed that the contents of total flavonoids increased with germination time and leveled off after the third germination day with the changing trend of rutin and quercetin opposite to each other. The decrease of total protein and total sugar contents in the germinated seeds was accompanied respectively by an increase of amino acid and reducing sugar contents. The contents of vitamin C (Vc) and B1(V(B1)) exhibited a minimum with no appreciable changes found for vitamin B(2) (V(B2)) and B(6) (V(B6)). The contents of total chlorophyll, chlorophyll A and B all exhibited a maximum on the fifth germination day. The contents of fatty acids had no regular changing trend with germination time. The free radical-scavenging activities of the seeds increased with germination time and were caused by an increase in their antioxidative activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Traffic jam in the primitive streak: the role of defective mesoderm migration in birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herion, Nils J; Salbaum, J Michael; Kappen, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    Gastrulation is the process in which the three germ layers are formed that contribute to the formation of all major tissues in the developing embryo. We here review mouse genetic models in which defective gastrulation leads to mesoderm insufficiencies in the embryo. Depending on severity of the abnormalities, the outcomes range from incompatible with embryonic survival to structural birth defects, such as heart defects, spina bifida, or caudal dysgenesis. The combined evidence from the mutant models supports the notion that these congenital anomalies can originate from perturbations of mesoderm specification, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and mesodermal cell migration. Knowledge about the molecular pathways involved may help to improve strategies for the prevention of major structural birth defects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Gene activity during germination of spores of the fern, Onoclea sensibilis. Cell-free translation analysis of mRNA of spores and the effect of alpha-amanitin on spore germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, V.

    1992-01-01

    Poly(A)-RNA fractions of dormant, dark-imbibed (non-germinating) and photoinduced (germinating) spores of Onoclea sensibilis were poor templates in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate protein synthesizing system, but the translational efficiency of poly(A)+RNA was considerably higher than that of unfractionated RNA. Poly(A)+RNA isolated from photoinduced spores had a consistently higher translational efficiency than poly(A)+RNA from dark-imbibed spores. Analysis of the translation products by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed no qualitative differences in the mRNA populations of dormant, dark-imbibed, and photoinduced spores. However, poly(A)+RNA from dark-imbibed spores appeared to encode in vitro fewer detectable polypeptides at a reduced intensity than photoinduced spores. A DNA clone encoding the large subunit of maize ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase hybridized at strong to moderate intensity to RNA isolated from dark-imbibed spores, indicating the absence of mRNA degradation. Although alpha-amanitin did not inhibit the germination of spores, the drug prevented the elongation of the rhizoid and protonemal initial with a concomitant effect on the synthesis of poly(A)+RNA. These results are consistent with the view that some form of translational control involving stored mRNA operates during dark-imbibition and photoinduced germination of spores.

  5. Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Hugh C.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale This review comes at a time when in vitro embryo culture techniques are being adopted for the safe exchange and cryo-conservation of coconut germplasm. In due course, laboratory procedures may replace the options that exist among standard commercial nursery germination techniques. These, in their turn, have supplanted traditional methods that are now forgotten or misunderstood. Knowledge of all germination options should help to ensure the safe regeneration of conserved material. Scope This review outlines the many options for commercial propagation, recognizes the full significance of one particular traditional method and suggests that the diversity of modern cultivated coconut varieties has arisen because natural selection and domestic selection were associated with different rates of germination and other morphologically recognizable phenotypic characteristics. The review takes into account both the recalcitrant and the viviparous nature of the coconut. The ripe fruits that fall but do not germinate immediately and lose viability if dried for storage are contrasted with the bunches of fruit retained in the crown of the palm that may, in certain circumstances, germinate to produce seedlings high above ground level. Significance Slow-germinating and quick-germinating coconuts have different patterns of distribution. The former predominate on tropical islands and coastlines that could be reached by floating when natural dispersal originally spread coconuts widely—but only where tides and currents were favourable—and then only to sea-level locations. Human settlers disseminated the domestic types even more widely—to otherwise inaccessible coastal sites not reached by floating—and particularly to inland and upland locations on large islands and continental land masses. This review suggests four regions where diversity has been determined by germination rates. Although recent DNA studies support these distinctions, further analyses of genetic markers

  6. Germination traits of three weed species in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mehmeti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus retroflexus, Echinochloa crus-galli and Datura stramonium are the most important weed species in Kosovo. They cause severe yield depression, contaminate fodder and negatively affect growth and reproduction of other weed species. To counteract these problems, specific strategies need to be developed. Such strategies should consider information on species germination traits. In this context, our study provides information on temperature requirements for germination. Seeds of A. retroflexus, E. crus-galli and D. stramonium were harvested in two sub-regions of Kosovo (western and eastern parts differing in climate and land use. They were set for germination experiments in growth chambers at temperatures ranging from 3 to 35 °C and under field conditions. In both experiments, the germination rate differed between species and provenances. In the growth chamber experiment, germination of all three species was negligible below 15 °C and reached the highest rates between 24 and 30 °C. Seeds originating from the western part of Kosovo had higher germination rates and required a lower temperature for germination than seeds originating from the eastern part. In the field experiment, the time-dependent germination behaviour of D. stramonium differed between provenances. In general, germination started when soil temperature was above 18 °C and continued as long as the soil was moist. The results are discussed in the context of the need to develop weed management strategies against these weeds in Kosovo.

  7. Germination and seedling establishment in orchids: a complex of requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Hanne N; Dixon, Kingsley W; Jersáková, Jana; Těšitelová, Tamara

    2015-09-01

    Seedling recruitment is essential to the sustainability of any plant population. Due to the minute nature of seeds and early-stage seedlings, orchid germination in situ was for a long time practically impossible to observe, creating an obstacle towards understanding seedling site requirements and fluctuations in orchid populations. The introduction of seed packet techniques for sowing and retrieval in natural sites has brought with it important insights, but many aspects of orchid seed and germination biology remain largely unexplored. The germination niche for orchids is extremely complex, because it is defined by requirements not only for seed lodging and germination, but also for presence of a fungal host and its substrate. A mycobiont that the seedling can parasitize is considered an essential element, and a great diversity of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota have now been identified for their role in orchid seed germination, with fungi identifiable as imperfect Rhizoctonia species predominating. Specificity patterns vary from orchid species employing a single fungal lineage to species associating individually with a limited selection of distantly related fungi. A suitable organic carbon source for the mycobiont constitutes another key requirement. Orchid germination also relies on factors that generally influence the success of plant seeds, both abiotic, such as light/shade, moisture, substrate chemistry and texture, and biotic, such as competitors and antagonists. Complexity is furthermore increased when these factors influence seeds/seedling, fungi and fungal substrate differentially. A better understanding of germination and seedling establishment is needed for conservation of orchid populations. Due to the obligate association with a mycobiont, the germination niches in orchid species are extremely complex and varied. Microsites suitable for germination can be small and transient, and direct observation is difficult. An experimental approach using several

  8. YwdL in Bacillus cereus: its role in germination and exosporium structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Terry

    Full Text Available In members of the Bacillus cereus group the outermost layer of the spore is the exosporium, which interacts with hosts and the environment. Efforts have been made to identify proteins of the exosporium but only a few have so far been characterised and their role in determining spore architecture and spore function is still poorly understood. We have characterised the exosporium protein, YwdL. ΔywdL spores have a more fragile exosporium, subject to damage on repeated freeze-thawing, although there is no evidence of altered resistance properties, and coats appear intact. Immunogold labelling and Western blotting with anti-YwdL antibodies identified YwdL to be located exclusively on the inner surface of the exosporium of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. We conclude that YwdL is important for formation of a robust exosporium but is not required to maintain the crystalline assembly within the basal layer or for attachment of the hairy nap structure. ΔywdL spores are unable to germinate in response to CaDPA, and have altered germination properties, a phenotype that confirms the expected defect in localization of the cortex lytic enzyme CwlJ in the coat.

  9. Effect of salt stress on germination and early seedling growth of rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... The response of twelve rice varieties against six salinity levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 dS m-1) were studied at germination and early seedling stages. Data were analyzed using SAS and means were separated by LSD for final germination percentage (FGP), speed of germination (SG), germination.

  10. Effects of seed pretreatment and seed source on germination of five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of seed pre-sowing treatment and geographic source of seeds on three germination parameters of five Acacia species (GP = germination percent; GMT = germination mean time (days) and GI = germination index) were studied. Pre-sowing treatment included immersion in concentrated sulphuric acid for 5, 10 and ...

  11. The plasma membrane proteome of germinating barley embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hynek, Radovan; Svensson, Birte; Jensen, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal seed germination involves a complex coordination between different seed tissues. Plasma membranes must play crucial roles in coordination and execution of germination; however, very little is known about seed plasma membrane proteomes due to limited tissue amounts combined with amphiphilic...... was used to reduce soluble protein contamination and enrich for hydrophobic proteins. Sixty-one proteins in 14 SDS-PAGE bands were identified by LC-MS/MS and database searches. The identifications provide new insight into the plasma membrane functions in seed germination....

  12. Effect of synthetic detergents on germination of fern spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devi, Y.; Devi, S.

    1986-12-01

    Synthetic detergents constitute one of the most important water pollutants by contaminating the lakes and rivers through domestic and industrial use. Considerable information is now available for the adverse effects of detergents an aquatic fauna including fish, algae, and higher aquatic plants. Marked inhibition of germination in orchids and brinjals and of seedlings growth in raddish suggest that rapidly growing systems could be sensitive to detergent polluted water. The present study of the effect of linear alkyl benzene sulphonate on germination of the spores of a fern, Diplazium esculentum aims at the understanding of the effects of water pollution on pteridophytes and the development of spore germination assay for phytoxicity evaluation.

  13. [Viability and germination of Hechtia perotensis (Bromeliaceae) seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizalde, Violeta; García, José Rodolfo; Peña-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Ybarra, Ma Carmen; Leyva, Otto Raúl; Trejo, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Endemic populations of Hechtia perotensis have been described in Puebla and Veracruz, Mexico. Good quality seed collections can be used in conservation, research and ecological restoration. To evaluate seed quality of wild and endemic species, some compounds are used as effective promoters of germination, such as potassium nitrate (KNO3) and gibberellic acid (AG3), because they increase seed germination capacity and reduce latency. The triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (tetrazolium) test correlates seed viability because it is based on the activity of dehydrogenases in live tissues that catalyze mitochondrial respiration. The objective of this study was to obtain information on size and weight of capsules and seeds and seed germination and viability of H. perotensis, collected in Veracruz in the year 2012 and 2015. The hypotheses were 1) that seed germination and viability are independent of the year of collection, 2) that there is a tetrazolium concentration that can identify seed viability better than others, and 3) that pretreatment with KNO3 or AG3 improves seed germination. Seed germination was assessed using a completely randomized design with three treatments (control and the germination promoters 0.2 % KNO3 and 500 mg/L AG3), four treatments for the viability test (control, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 % of tetrazolium) and six replicates for each treatment. A total of one hundred seeds for germination experiments, and 25 seeds for the viability test were used. The results between and within years were analyzed with ANOVA and multiple comparison with the Tukey test. The proportion of non-germinated seeds was quantified along with the number of normal and abnormal seedlings, seeds with viable embryo, seeds without embryo, and seeds with low or no viability. On average, for the 2012 collected sample, 36 % had viable embryos, 7 % had low viability, 24 % were not viable and 33 % had no embryo. This result was significantly different from the 2015 sample, for which 87 % of

  14. Production and germination of Tussilago farfara (L. diaspores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Namur-Ochocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the production of generative diaspores in Tussilago farfara (L. was assessed in four different ecological systems. Also their morphological characteristics, as well as their germinability under natural and laboratory conditions were analysed, depending upon the age, density and size of diaspores, as well as sowing depth, substrate type and light conditions. The studies showed that diaspores: 1 were highly germinable under laboratory conditions; 2 did not germinate effectively under natural conditions; 31 were short-lived; 4 were tolerant to unfavourable habitat agents. Tussilago farfara was determined to exhibit high diaspore production only under conditions of suppresed interspecific competition.

  15. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzolini, A.P.; Sealock, R.M.; Legge, G.J.F.; Grant, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn. (orig.)

  16. Elemental variations in the germinating fungus Phytophthora palmivora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, A. P.; Grant, B. R.; Sealock, R. M.; Legge, G. J. F.

    1991-03-01

    We have measured the elemental variations between zoospores and germinating cystospores of the fungus Phytophthora palmivora, using a scanning proton microprobe. Averaged over a number of individual cells, our results indicate that the level of Ca is much lower in germinating cystospores than in zoospores. The levels of S, Cl, and Zn also appear to be lower, and the level of K appears to be higher. The spatial distribution of elements within the germinating cystospore is very similar for P, S, Cl, K, Mn, Fe, and Cu, but significantly different for Ca and Zn.

  17. Pre-germinated Parboiled Brown Rice Drying Using Fluidization Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Nattapol Poomsa-ad; Lamul Wiset

    2012-01-01

    Pre-germinated parboiled brown rice or Khao hang (in Thai) is paddy which undergoing the processes of soaking, steaming, drying and dehusking to obtain the edible form for consumption. The objectives of this research were to study the kinetic of pre-germinated parboiled brown rice drying using fluidization technique and to study the properties of pre-germinated parboiled brown rice after drying. The dryings were performed at the different temperatures of 110, 120 and 130 oC at the bed depth o...

  18. Seed germination of three provenances of arbutus Andrachne L. in response to different pretreatments, temperature and light

    OpenAIRE

    Tilki, Fahrettin; Güner, Sinan

    2007-01-01

    Seeds of Arbutus andrachne possess a physiological dormancy that prevents synchronized and rapid germina­ tion. The seeds were subjected to different pretreatments involving hot water, concentrated sulphuric acid, gibberellic acid and cold-moist stratification to break the dormancy. To determine the effects of temperature and light on seed germination they were treated with gibberellic acid and incubated at 20 and 24°C in light or dark. Gennination ability of seeds from different sources was ...

  19. Allelopathic Effect of Leaf Water Extract of Hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. at Rosette Stage on Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Madani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The allelopathic effects of leaves at rosette stage of the hoary alyssum (Berteroa incana L. against some associated grasses like, prairie June grass (Koeleria macrantha, Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis, blue-bunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata and cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and its own were investigated. The experiment al materials used were the leaf extracts and its allelopathic effects on seed germination and seedling emergence of the abave mentioned grasses in Petri dishes. According to our study, leaves of hoary alyssum rosettes at stage have the potential to reduce germination rate, root and shoot growth of pasture grasses and hoary alyssum itself due to its allelopathic effect. The leaf leachate solution bioassays also showed that the germination of cheat grass was more susceptible to 4% solution of allelopathic extract of leaves. Hoary alyssum leaf extract also exhibited allelopathic self-inhibition, in both seedling root and shoot growth at 2 and 4% concentrations. Self- inhibitory allelopathic effects of hoary alyssum could also be important in preventing seed germination and seedling establishment of neighboring plant.

  20. DELAY OF GERMINATION1 requires PP2C phosphatases of the ABA signalling pathway to control seed dormancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Née, Guillaume; Kramer, Katharina; Nakabayashi, Kazumi; Yuan, Bingjian; Xiang, Yong; Miatton, Emma; Finkemeier, Iris; Soppe, Wim J J

    2017-07-13

    The time of seed germination is a major decision point in the life of plants determining future growth and development. This timing is controlled by seed dormancy, which prevents germination under favourable conditions. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the protein DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1) are essential regulators of dormancy. The function of ABA in dormancy is rather well understood, but the role of DOG1 is still unknown. Here, we describe four phosphatases that interact with DOG1 in seeds. Two of them belong to clade A of type 2C protein phosphatases: ABA-HYPERSENSITIVE GERMINATION 1 (AHG1) and AHG3. These phosphatases have redundant but essential roles in the release of seed dormancy epistatic to DOG1. We propose that the ABA and DOG1 dormancy pathways converge at clade A of type 2C protein phosphatases.The DOG1 protein is a major regulator of seed dormancy in Arabidopsis. Here, Née et al. provide evidence that DOG1 can interact with the type 2C protein phosphatases AHG1 and AHG3 and that this represents the convergence point of the DOG1-regulated dormancy pathway and signalling by the plant hormone abscisic acid.

  1. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana P.Q. Scalon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1 Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2 Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg. L-1 gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C. The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.O presente trabalho avaliou a germinação e vigor de sementes de Croton urucurana. 1 As sementes foram classificadas por cores (caramelo, cinza e preto e foram submetidas a sete diferentes tratamentos pré-germinativos seguidos de incubação a 20ºC, 25°C e 20/30°C. 2 As sementes foram armazenadas em câmaras frias ou em temperatura ambiente por até 300 dias e foram posteriormente incubadas a 20/30ºC em câmara de germinação ou em condições de estufa. Somente sementes cinza apresentaram taxas significativas de germinação. As maiores percentagens de primeira contagem de germinação total e os maiores índices de velocidade de germinação foram observados em sementes de controle e naquelas que foram tratadas com água ou 200 mg L-1 de ácido giberélico por 12 horas. Sementes armazenadas sob refrigeração apresentaram os maiores valores para

  2. DEFECTS SIMULATION OF ROLLING STRIP

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Mišičko; Tibor Kvačkaj; Martin Vlado; Lucia Gulová; Miloslav Lupták; Jana Bidulská

    2009-01-01

    The defects in the continuous casting slabs can be developed or kept down in principle by rolling technology, especially depend to sort, size and distribution of primary defects, as well as used of rolling parameters. Scope of the article is on observation behavior artificial surface and undersurface defects (scores) without filler (surface defects) and filling by oxides and casting powder (subsurface defects). First phase of hot rolling process have been done by software simulation DEFORM 3D...

  3. Quantum computing with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Joel

    2011-03-01

    The development of a quantum computer is contingent upon the identification and design of systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information. One of the most promising candidates consists of a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV-1) center, since it is an individually-addressable quantum system that can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. While the success of the NV-1 stems from its nature as a localized ``deep-center'' point defect, no systematic effort has been made to identify other defects that might behave in a similar way. We provide guidelines for identifying other defect centers with similar properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate systems. To elucidate these points, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV-1 center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). Using hybrid functionals, we report formation energies, configuration-coordinate diagrams, and defect-level diagrams to compare and contrast the properties of these defects. We find that the NC VSi - 1 center in SiC, a structural analog of the NV-1 center in diamond, may be a suitable center with very different optical transition energies. We also discuss how the proposed criteria can be translated into guidelines to discover NV analogs in other tetrahedrally coordinated materials. This work was performed in collaboration with J. R. Weber, W. F. Koehl, B. B. Buckley, A. Janotti, C. G. Van de Walle, and D. D. Awschalom. This work was supported by ARO, AFOSR, and NSF.

  4. Constant and alternating temperature effects on germination and early growth of scorzonera

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, A.S.; Dias, L.S.; Pereira, I.P.

    2013-01-01

    Scorzonera is a threatened species in Portugal. Given the role of temperature in germination and seedling recruitment, the performance of total germination, lag of germination, duration of germination, shape of germination, root and hypocotyl length, and relative root growth of scorzonera was investigated under constant and alternating temperatures between 10 and 25ºC. Because of scorzonera’s rarity and threatened status, seeds of cultivated scorzonera were used, providing the framework for h...

  5. Study on evaluation of gamma oryzanol of germinated brown rice by near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Kannapot Kaewsorn; Panmanas Sirisomboon

    2014-01-01

    Germinated brown rice (GBR) is rich in gamma oryzanol which increase its consumption popularity, particularly in the health food market. The objective of this research was to apply the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for evaluation of gamma oryzanol of the germinated brown rice. The germinated brown rice samples were prepared from germinated rough rice (soaked for 24 and 48 h, incubated for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 h) and purchased from local supermarkets. The germinated brown rice sampl...

  6. Structure defects in cementite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    After a presentation of experimental techniques (elaboration principles, elaboration techniques, and investigation techniques for cementite thin layers and iron-carbon massive alloys), the author of this research thesis reports the study of cementite structure (interatomic distance, description and representation), reports the study of iron-carbon thin layers (structure, influence of silicon, defects), reports the study of perfect and imperfect dislocations and of plane defects in cementite. The author also reports hardness measurements, and discusses the relationships between cementite and other iron carbides

  7. Lipoxygenase Activity Accelerates Programmed Spore Germination in Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J. Fischer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus initiates invasive growth through a programmed germination process that progresses from dormant spore to swollen spore (SS to germling (GL and ultimately invasive hyphal growth. We find a lipoxygenase with considerable homology to human Alox5 and Alox15, LoxB, that impacts the transitions of programmed spore germination. Overexpression of loxB (OE::loxB increases germination with rapid advance to the GL stage. However, deletion of loxB (ΔloxB or its signal peptide only delays progression to the SS stage in the presence of arachidonic acid (AA; no delay is observed in minimal media. This delay is remediated by the addition of the oxygenated AA oxylipin 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE that is a product of human Alox5. We propose that A. fumigatus acquisition of LoxB (found in few fungi enhances germination rates in polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich environments.

  8. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Cibele C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrical conductivity and moisture were measured. The seeds of A. alexandrae are recalcitrant, with high germination percentage (over 67% when undried (47% seed moisture. Lowering seed moisture below 31.5% reduced the germination rate significantly (<52.5%. Total germination failure was observed when seed moisture reached 15.1%. The electrical conductivity was the most sensitive vigor test to identify seed deterioration.

  9. In vitro pollen germination of five citrus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Perveen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study is In vitro germination of the pollen grains of five Citrus species belonging to the family Rutaceae viz., Citrus aurantium L. var., aurantium Hook.f., C. limon (L.) Brum. f., C. paradisii Macfad, C. reticulata Blanco and C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck. using hanging drop technique. The germination was checked up to 48 weeks, for the pollen stored at different temperatures like 4 degree C, -20 degree C, -30 degree C and -60 degree C. The study indicates that low temperature and low relative humidity is better than high temperature and humidity with respect to pollen germination capacity and viability. Freeze dryer (-60 degree C) seems to be the best method to maintain pollen viability of stored pollen grains for a long period of time. Among five species Citrus aurantium, C. limon and C. sinensis showed high percentage of germination as compared to C. reticulata and C. paradisii. (author)

  10. Effect Of Green Leaves And Germination And Boiling Treatments Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trigonella foenum graecum L.) were commercial, Giza 2 and Giza 30 and fenugreek green leaves and raw, boiled and germinated commercial sweet lupin seeds (lupinus termis forssk L.) were analyzed for its chemical composition, alkaloids and ...

  11. Germination et utilisation de Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baillon) P.S. ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Germination et utilisation de Caesalpinia benthamiana (Baillon) P.S.Herendeen & J.L.Zarucchi (Leguminosae-Caesalpiniaceae) dans l'aménagement anti-érosif des retenues d'hydraulique pastorale au Bénin.

  12. A germination test: an easy approach to know the irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawar, A.; Bhatti, I.A.; Bhatti, H.N.

    2010-01-01

    Food irradiation is an evolving preserving technique that provides a shield against the spoilage and might have a potential to ensure the food safety and security world wide. In the present study, feasibility to apply germination test to distinguish an un-irradiated and irradiated samples of wheat, maize, chickpea and black eye beans was checked. Samples were irradiated to the absorbed doses ranging from 0-10 kGy using Co-60 gamma irradiator and were germinated in plant growth chamber. Root and shoot lengths were measured at 7th day after gamma radiation treatment. In all the irradiated samples root and shoot lengths were decreased with the increase in radiation absorbed doses. The seeds irradiated to the absorbed doses more than 2 kGy were not germinated. Germination test proved as an easy and simple method to detect irradiation in wheat, maize, chickpea and black eye beans irradiated even at low absorbed doses. (author)

  13. pre-germination treatments in castor seeds, cultivar IAC 226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Nobre, Danubia Aparecida; Gomes Damascena, Joyce; Marcia, Andreia; Santos de Souza, David; Pereira dos Santos, Marlucia; Rodrigues Pereira, Adriana; Goncalves Pereira, Cassio

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of different pre-germination treatments in castor beans, IAC 226. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 4 x 4 (four temperatures and four immersion times), with four replications. Pre-germination treatments were: immersion in water at room temperature (25 Celsius degrade) and immersion in hot water at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 Celsius degrade for 2, 4, 6 and 8 minutes. Water content of the seeds was determined before treatments. Before and after each treatment, seeds were subjected to germination test; 20-30 Celsius degrade alternating temperature, determining the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings, dormant and dead seeds. Independent of time, immersion in 70 Celsius degrade, water was the most efficient treatment for accelerating germination of castor bean cultivar IAC 226.

  14. Germination of Chenopodium Album in Response to Microwave Plasma Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Bozena; Stranak, Vitezslav; Sery, Michal; Spatenka, Petr; Tichy, Milan

    2008-01-01

    The seeds of Lamb's Quarters (Chenopodium album agg.) were stimulated by low-pressure discharge. The tested seeds were exposed to plasma discharge for different time durations (from 6 minutes to 48 minutes). Germination tests were performed under specified laboratory conditions during seven days in five identical and completely independent experiments. Significant differences between the control and plasma-treated seeds were observed. The treated seeds showed structural changes on the surface of the seat coat. They germinated faster and their sprout accretion on the first day of seed germination was longer. Germination rate for the untreated seeds was 15% while it increased approximately three times (max 55%) for seeds treated by plasma from 12 minutes to 48 minutes.

  15. Germinated brown rice and its role in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fengfeng; Yang, Na; Touré, Alhassane; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2013-01-01

    Brown rice, unmilled or partly milled, contains more nutritional components than ordinary white rice. Despite its elevated content of bioactive components, brown rice is rarely consumed as a staple food for its dark appearance and hard texture. The germination of brown rice can be used to improve its taste and further enhance its nutritional value and health functions. Germinated brown rice is considered healthier than white rice, as it is not only richer in the basic nutritional components such as vitamins, minerals, dietary fibers, and essential amino acids, but also contains more bioactive components, such as ferulic acid, γ-oryzanol, and gamma aminobutyric acid. Moreover, germinated brown rice has been reported to exhibit many physiological effects, including antihyperlipidemia, antihypertension, and the reduction in the risk of some chronic diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, it is likely that germinated brown rice will become a popular health food.

  16. Germinated brown rice and its bio-functional compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Hwa; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-04-01

    Brown rice (BR) contains bran layers and embryo, where a variety of nutritional and biofunctional components, such as dietary fibers, γ-oryzanol, vitamins, and minerals, exist. However, BR is consumed less than white rice because it has an inferior eating texture when cooked. Germination is one of the techniques used to improve the texture of the cooked BR. In addition, it induces numerous changes in the composition and chemical structure of the bioactive components. Moreover, many studies reported that the germination could induce the formation of new bioactive compounds, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR) is increasing in many Asian countries because of its improved eating quality and potential health-promoting functions. However, there is still a lack of studies on the compositional and functional changes of the bioactive components during germination. This review contains recent research findings, especially on the bioactive components in GBR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Germination Responses of Several Poaceae Members towards Differential Storage Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna R. PANCHAL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Concerns over biodiversity loss and increasing biological invasion have forced interest on assessment of the effects on native plant species diversity in grassland community. To observe different patterns of grass emergence (dormancy/germination in the warm tropical grasslands of India, time span of a seed from the seedling stage to a mature plant becomes very crucial for the community development. In the present study seed germination response of six dominant species of the selected study area were tested to record the various effects of dry storage conditions on seed germinability. The species selected were Apluda mutica L., Cenchrus ciliaris L., Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng. Chiov., Dichanthium annulatum (Forsk. Stapf., Heteropogon contortus (L. P. Beauv. ex Roem. and Schult. and Themeda triandra (R. Br. Stapf. For this purpose, seed collection at mature seed stage, seed processing and dry seed storage were followed by the germination test system. Obtained results are exhibited in the form of different responses such as, species response patterns towards capacity for immediate germination, responses to dormancy, dry storage and temperature fluctuation. The extent of the requirement in breakage of primary dormancy was highly correlated with the timing of seed maturity, precursors of seed dormancy and seed viability. In present screening out of the six studied species Apluda mutica, Cenchrus ciliaris and Dichanthium annulatum showed dependable germination pattern to fluctuating temperature. The correlation between viability and germination suggests that the germination of Apluda mutica, Cenchrus ciliaris and Themeda triandra are linearly dependent on the viability that the seeds of these species have. As these species showed less influence with the relative fluctuating environment, they can be stored for longer period and frequently can be use for community regeneration in pasture development.

  18. Precocious germination and its regulation in embryos of triticale caryopses

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Triticale var. Lasko embryos, isolated from grain gathered at milk ripeness, the beginning of wax ripeness and at full ripeness, were allowed to germinate for 48 h on agar with glucose. The highest incorporation of tritiated adenosine into polyribosomal RNA during germination was found in the ribosome fractions from embryos of grain gathered at full ripeness, lower incorporation was in preparations from embryos of milk ripe grain and the lowest in preparations from embryos of wax ripe grain. ...

  19. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shahnoor S; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle J; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-06-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and β-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. α-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination β-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and β-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Effect of Estrogen and Progeterone on seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala

    Full Text Available Early pregnancy detection in dairy cattle is an integral part of a successful animal husbandry practice. A simple seed germination technique (Punyakoti test comprises observation of differential seed germination response of wheat seeds to diluted fresh urine samples as reflected by significant inhibition of germination percentage in pregnant cow urine when compared to non pregnant cow urine. Hormone metabolites excreted through urine might affect the seed germination in pregnant cow urine. In the present study an attempt was made to test the effect of hormones (in their natural forms at different concentrations of estrogen (17-ß estradiol and progesterone on wheat and green gram germination. Stock solutions of estrogen and progesterone were prepared in alcohol (1mg/ml and serial dilutions made using distilled water to get the concentrations of T1=10, T2=1, T3=0.1 and T4=0.01 μg/ml respectively in treatment groups. About 15 seeds each of wheat and green gram were taken in sterile Petri dishes into which 15ml of each test preparation was poured. The treatments were compared with distilled water and alcohol controls. The study was conducted for a period of five days during which seed germination was observed after 48 hrs and shoot lengths were also measured by the end of study. The average seed germination and shoot length in treatment groups did not vary significantly (P>0.05 when compared with that of control groups. Thus from the present study, it can be concluded that estrogen and progesterone in their natural form will not affect seed germination and shoot length. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(8.000: 241-242

  1. Germination and In-Vitro Regeneration in 'Egusi' Melon, Citrullus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out in order to determine the germination and in-vitro regeneration of five accessions of “egusi' melon. Seeds from de-coated melon were used for germination and in-vitro regeneration was carried out on excised pregerminated cotyledons in MS medium (4.43g of MS, 30g of sucrose, water of pH 5.8, ...

  2. Enhanced germination and gravitropism of soybean in a hypogeomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Weichuan

    For the future manned space exploration, the duration of the missions would significantly in-crease. Investigating plant growth and development under the space environmental conditions is of essential importance for the food supply projects for the astronauts. Hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF), namely, extremely low magnetic field, is one of the main characters of the space environment. Germination is the first vital step of plant growth and development, which determines the final yield of plants. The effect of HGMF on plant growth, especially early ger-mination, still remains open. In this study, we established a hypogeomagnetic field (HGMF) incubation system, the remnant magnetic field inside no more than 250 nT. Soybean seeds were incubated at 25 in HGMF, and the very beginning of soybean germination, from water ab-sorbance of cotyledon to radicle emergence, was examined within 24 h. Our results showed that the germination ratio and weight ratio of emerged soybean radicles were markedly increased during germination in HGMF. Furthermore, the tropism angle of emerged radicle with gravity in HGMF was statistically smaller than that in GMF when the radicle direction was placed opposite to gravity before germination. These results indicate that the germination and gravit-ropism of soybean is enhanced in a hypogeomagnetic environment, This is a new finding about the early seed germination in such a low environmental magnetic field which is comparable to the magnetic field of Lunar Swirls on the Moon (a few hundred nT), and it might provide new perspectives on the space science researches concerning plant growth and food supply.

  3. Constant temperatures and the rate of seed germination in maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of germination of the NEM cultivar was faster than that of the QPM cultivar at all temperatures. The thermal times for median germination were 46 for QPM and 40.7 oCd for the NEM cultivar. The cardinal temperatures (base, Tb, optimum, To and ceiling, Tc) for the NEM cultivar were Tb: 7, To: 30 and Tc: 48.2 oC.

  4. Proteomic analysis of lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition by sampling of individual seeds at germination and removal of storage proteins by polyethylene glycol fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Bin-Yan; Deng, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Germination and thermoinhibition in lettuce (Lactuca sativa ‘Jianyexianfeng No. 1’) seeds were investigated by a proteomic comparison among dry seeds, g1erminated seeds at 15°C, at 15°C after imbibition at 25°C for 48 h, or at 25°C in KNO3 (all sampled individually at germination), and ungerminated......-dimensional gels. A total of 108 protein spots were identified to change more than 2-fold (P , 0.05) in abundance in at least one germination treatment. Nineteen proteins increasing and one protein decreasing in abundance during germination had higher abundance in germinated 15°C, 15°C after imbibition at 25°C...... to lettuce seed germination and thermoinhibition. Accumulation of three proteins and expression of five genes participating in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis correlated positively with seed germinability. Inhibition of this pathway by lovastatin delayed seed germination and increased...

  5. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  6. The biological role of exogenic factors in broomrape germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelev, N.

    1987-01-01

    The often observed contradictory effect of the substances stimulating broomrape seed germination were assessed and explained. Low and optimal concentrations of these substances had a stimulating effect, while the high concentrations produced an inhibiting effect. For chemically pure mustard oil, phenylisothiocianate and allylisothiocianate such concentrations are 10 -4 to 10 -3 and more. The effectiveness of substances stimulating germination is conditioned in many cases by their watersoluble or gaseous state. The latter state of the stimulating substances is more natural, more economic and more efficient for the fumigation (in low concentrations) of the soil layer penetrated by the roots where parasitic seeds are present. A considerable number of agricultural crops, releasing by their roots essential oils containing glucosides, the hydrolysis of which results in elimination of volatile products of mustard oil type, represent natural stimulators for the germination of broomrape seeds. The effect of gamma-ray irradiation of parasitic seeds depends on their state. Dry seeds endure 80-120 krad, while moist ones - only 40-80 krad. Broomrape (O. ramosa and O. mutella) seeds begin their germination at 10 grad C. The optimal temperature for germination is 18-30 grad C, while 35-40 grad C irreversively discontinues the germination

  7. Germination and seedling development of Trapa bispinosa Roxb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirani, O Ima; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar

    2012-07-01

    Trapa bispinosa is a freshwater macrophyte occurring in stagnant or slow moving water streams. Information on assessment of seeds storage and germination of Trapa bispinosa is less available in literature. Dependence on fresh seeds abundance only from natural environment for plant propagation or cultivation may lead to insufficient supply of seeds due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This study evaluated the viability and germination of Trapa bispinosa seeds stored in zip-lock plastic bag at low temperature of 7 degrees C for six months and fresh seeds. In addition germinating seeds progressive development to juvenile plants was recorded and described. Experiments were conducted where stored and fresh seeds were soaked in 62 x 45 x 54 cm glass tanks filled with aged tap water to the level of 15 cm depth. Stored seeds showed low percentage germination of 2.82% compared to fresh seeds which was 71.19%. Eight distinct developmental stages were identified from germinating seeds to juvenile plants. Both stored and fresh seeds produced plants of similar morphology but stored seeds progressive development from germination, seedling to juvenile plants needed longer duration to achieve. The storage of seed at low temperature at 7 degrees C for six months showed reduced viability and also vigorousity. Improved methods should be developed for Trapa seeds storage taking into account of the seeds' endurance to dryness and moisture levels in order to maintained seeds viability for future uses either for production, research purposes or even conservation and restoration programs.

  8. Quantum computing with defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J R; Koehl, W F; Varley, J B; Janotti, A; Buckley, B B; Van de Walle, C G; Awschalom, D D

    2010-05-11

    Identifying and designing physical systems for use as qubits, the basic units of quantum information, are critical steps in the development of a quantum computer. Among the possibilities in the solid state, a defect in diamond known as the nitrogen-vacancy (NV(-1)) center stands out for its robustness--its quantum state can be initialized, manipulated, and measured with high fidelity at room temperature. Here we describe how to systematically identify other deep center defects with similar quantum-mechanical properties. We present a list of physical criteria that these centers and their hosts should meet and explain how these requirements can be used in conjunction with electronic structure theory to intelligently sort through candidate defect systems. To illustrate these points in detail, we compare electronic structure calculations of the NV(-1) center in diamond with those of several deep centers in 4H silicon carbide (SiC). We then discuss the proposed criteria for similar defects in other tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors.

  9. Defects in semiconductor nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sizes were less than 100 Si atoms due to computational limitations. An interesting parallel is that current first principles calculations alluded to in §5 are size ham- pered for similar reasons. These 'defect molecule' calculations were probably the first studies in SN. We believe that a perusal of this 'ancient' scientific literature.

  10. Production of point defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.

    1975-01-01

    Vacancies at thermodynamic equilibrium and the annealing of these defects are studied first, after which electron irradiations are dealt with. The displacement threshold energy concept is introduced. Part three concerns heavy ion and neutron irradiations. Displacement cascades and the thermal spike concept are discussed [fr

  11. Defects in flexoelectric solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Sheng; Purohit, Prashant K.

    2015-11-01

    A solid is said to be flexoelectric when it polarizes in proportion to strain gradients. Since strain gradients are large near defects, we expect the flexoelectric effect to be prominent there and decay away at distances much larger than a flexoelectric length scale. Here, we quantify this expectation by computing displacement, stress and polarization fields near defects in flexoelectric solids. For point defects we recover some well known results from strain gradient elasticity and non-local piezoelectric theories, but with different length scales in the final expressions. For edge dislocations we show that the electric potential is a maximum in the vicinity of the dislocation core. We also estimate the polarized line charge density of an edge dislocation in an isotropic flexoelectric solid which is in agreement with some measurements in ice. We perform an asymptotic analysis of the crack tip fields in flexoelectric solids and show that our results share some features from solutions in strain gradient elasticity and piezoelectricity. We also compute the energy release rate for cracks using simple crack face boundary conditions and use them in classical criteria for crack growth to make predictions. Our analysis can serve as a starting point for more sophisticated analytic and computational treatments of defects in flexoelectric solids which are gaining increasing prominence in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  12. Semiconductor Nanowires: Defects Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Karen L.

    2008-05-01

    Structural defects commonly observed in semiconducting nanowires by electron microscopy will be reviewed and their origins discussed. Their effects on electrical and optical properties will be illustrated with examples from GaSb, InAs, and ZnSe nanowires grown by MOCVD and MBE.

  13. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further

  14. Germination and growth of purple passion fruit seedlings under pre-germination treatments and mycorrhizal inoculation1

    OpenAIRE

    Gil,Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez; Agudelo,Melissa Muñoz; Bedoya,Laura Osorno; Osorio,Nelson Walter; Osorio,Juan Gonzalo Morales

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe cultivation of purple passion fruit plants has increased in Colombia, as a direct result of its well-accepted consumption. Therefore, there is a need for technological solutions aimed at the sustainable growth of its fruit, such as improving seed germination and decreasing phosphorus (P) deficiencies, given its low availability in tropical soils. This study aimed to evaluate pre-germination treatments (control, apical and basal seed cuts, alternation of temperature, photoperiod, a...

  15. Effect of zinc sulfate fortification in germinated brown rice on seed zinc concentration, bioavailability, and seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yanyan; Shohag, M J I; Wang, Yuyan; Lu, Lingli; Wu, Chunyong; Yang, Xiaoe

    2012-02-22

    Rice is the staple food for more than half of the world's population and, hence, the main source of a vital micronutrient, zinc (Zn). Unfortunately, the bioavailability of Zn from rice is very low not only due to low content but also due to the presence of some antinutrients such as phytic acid. We investigated the effect of germination and Zn fortification treatment on Zn bioavailability of brown rice from three widely grown cultivars using the Caco-2 cell model to find a suitable fortification level for producing germinated brown rice. The results of this study showed that Zn content in brown rice increased significantly (p 0.05) on germination percentage of rice was observed when the Zn supply was lower than 150 mg/L. Zn fortification during the germination process has a significant impact on the Zn content and finally Zn bioavailability. These findings may result from the lower molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and higher Zn content in Zn fortified germinated brown rice, leading to more bioavailable Zn. Likewise, a significant difference (p germinated brown rice fortified with 100 mg/L ZnSO(4) as a suitable concentration to use in the germination process, which contains high Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability. In the current study, the cultivar Bing91185 fortified with Zn through the germination process contained a high amount as well as bioavailable Zn, which was identified as the most promising cultivar for further evaluation to determine its efficiency as an improved source of Zn for target populations.

  16. Profiling Gene Expression in Germinating Brassica Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung Ryoul; Wang, Yi-Hong; Hasenstein, Karl H

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously developed solid-phase gene extraction (SPGE) we examined the mRNA profile in primary roots of Brassica rapa seedlings for highly expressed genes like ACT7 (actin7), TUB (tubulin1), UBQ (ubiquitin), and low expressed GLK (glucokinase) during the first day post-germination. The assessment was based on the mRNA load of the SPGE probe of about 2.1 ng. The number of copies of the investigated genes changed spatially along the length of primary roots. The expression level of all genes differed significantly at each sample position. Among the examined genes ACT7 expression was most even along the root. UBQ was highest at the tip and root-shoot junction (RS). TUB and GLK showed a basipetal gradient. The temporal expression of UBQ was highest in the MZ 9 h after primary root emergence and higher than at any other sample position. Expressions of GLK in EZ and RS increased gradually over time. SPGE extraction is the result of oligo-dT and oligo-dA hybridization and the results illustrate that SPGE can be used for gene expression profiling at high spatial and temporal resolution. SPGE needles can be used within two weeks when stored at 4 °C. Our data indicate that gene expression studies that are based on the entire root miss important differences in gene expression that SPGE is able to resolve for example growth adjustments during gravitropism.

  17. La organización germinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Soca Filella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las vicisitudes de estos últimos años en las economías occidentales, y sobre todo en las del arco mediterráneo, han sumido las empresas en un profundo callejón sin salida, dónde tras efectuar reducciones drásticas en sus estructuras ahora ven mermadas sus posibilidades de crecimiento. Surge el interrogante de qué tipo de crecimiento perseguimos y qué organización precisamos para conseguirlo. Vislumbramos a partir de lo acaecido en los últimos dos lustros que las organizaciones preferirán moverse dentro de unos patrones de crecimientos sostenibles, en lugar de las alocadas carreras de inicios de siglo. Este crecimiento sostenible comportará decidir que formas de organización permitirán gestionar mejor este crecimiento. Dentro del abanico de las posibilidades, planteo un tipo de organización en constante cambio que facilite la adaptación a los diversos tipos de mercados que puedan ir surgiendo en el futuro: LA ORGANIZACIÓN GERMINAL.

  18. Environmental Factors that Interfere in the Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the application of experiments with sixth graders of elementary school, aiming motivation, skills development focused on observation, interpersonal relationships in teams, related to the various forms of language skills, as well to identify and resume misconceptions about the external (environmental factors required for seed germination, in order that the contents developed this year refer to the study of the earth, soil, water and air, among others, and that many students do not understand all the concepts and the importance of these factors for the existence of living beings. The experiments were organized in two stages, first to observe the influence of soil and another moment to observe the interference of water, air and light. The temperature impractical activities were conducted, however, during the observation period (three weeks experiments remained in a controlled environment in the science laboratory. For the experiments we used materials easily found in commerce, some recycled; students were organized into six teams, which improved the data collection, the maintenance of the experiments, the calculations of the percentages, and the producing of report. Many of these contents had not yet been studied in other disciplines, but were developed in the discipline of science, respecting prior knowledge and cognitive abilities. The use of experiments was effective for the construction of new knowledge and to develop skills necessary to start the search.

  19. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  20. Temperature in the seeds germination of pitaya genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Borini Lone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optimum temperature for germination of cacti vary with the species. With this work, we aimed to evaluate the seeds germination of pitaya genotypes under different temperatures. The used genotypes were: Hylocereus undatus (PB, H. polyrhizus (PV, Selenicereus megalanthus (PA, H. undatus x H. costaricensis (PH1 and H. costaricensis x H. undatus (PH2. For each genotype we used four replicates of 50 seeds, in a completely randomized design. The sowing was carried out on blotter paper in boxes type Gerbox ®, maintained at temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 oC constant and 15-25, 20-30 and 25-35 oC alternating with photoperiod 12 hours. The test lasted 30 days which were appraised the germination percentage, the germination speed index and the average time of germination. For seeds germination of PB, the result obtained in the temperature of 25 oC didn’t differ of the obtained to 30 and 20-30 oC, however it was superior to the others temperatures. In PV, the result at 25 oC didn’t differ of the obtained to 20 and 30 oC, being superior to the results of the others temperatures. For PA, the best result was obtained to 25 oC. In PH1, the temperatures of 25, 30 and 20-30 oC presented superiors results to the others. For PH2, the result obtained in 15-25oC didn’t differ of the obtained at 25 oC, however it was superior to the others temperatures. The constants temperatures of 25 and 30 °C and alternating 20-30 °C are suitable for germination of H. undatus and for the hybrid H. undatus x H. costaricensis. For H. polyrhizus, constant temperatures of 20, 25 to 30 °C are suitable for seed germination. The constant temperature of 25 °C is the most suitable for the germination of S. megalanthus. For the hybrid H. costaricensis x H. undatus, constant temperature of 25 °C and alternating 15-25°C are suitable for seed germination.

  1. Optimal spore germination in Clostridium botulinum ATCC 3502 requires the presence of functional copies of SleB and YpeB, but not CwlJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Carolyn A; Cartman, Stephen T; McClure, Peter J; Minton, Nigel P

    2015-08-01

    Germination, the process by which dormant endospores return to vegetative growth, is a critical process in the life cycle of the notorious pathogen Clostridium botulinum. Crucial is the degradation by hydrolytic enzymes of an inner peptidoglycan spore layer termed the cortex. Two mechanistically different systems of cortex lysis exist in spores of Clostridium species. C. botulinum ATCC 3502 harbours the Bacillus-like system of SleB, CwlJ and YpeB cortex lytic enzymes (CLEs). Through the construction of insertional gene knockout mutants in the sleB, cwlJ and ypeB genes of C. botulinum ATCC 3502 and the production of spores of each mutant strain, the effect on germination was assessed. This study demonstrates a reduced germination efficiency in spores carrying mutations in either sleB or ypeB with an approximate 2-fold reduction in heat resistant colony forming units (CFU/OD600) when plated on rich media. This reduction could be restored to wild-type levels by removing the spore coat and plating on media supplemented with lysozyme. It was observed that cwlJ spores displayed a similar germination efficiency as wild-type spores (P > 0.05). An optimal germinant commixture was identified to include a combination of l-alanine with sodium bicarbonate as it resulted in a 32% drop in OD600, while the additional incorporation of l-lactate resulted in a 57% decrease. Studies of the germination efficiency of spores prepared from all three CLE mutants was performed by monitoring the associated decrease in optical density but a germination defect was not observed in any of the CLE mutant strains. This was likely due to the lack of specificity of this particular assay. Taken together, these data indicate that functional copies of SleB and YpeB, but not CwlJ are required for the optimal germination of the spores of C. botulinum ATCC 3502. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Different Modes of Hydrogen Peroxide Action During Seed Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyla, Łukasz; Lechowska, Katarzyna; Kubala, Szymon; Garnczarska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide was initially recognized as a toxic molecule that causes damage at different levels of cell organization and thus losses in cell viability. From the 1990s, the role of hydrogen peroxide as a signaling molecule in plants has also been discussed. The beneficial role of H2O2 as a central hub integrating signaling network in response to biotic and abiotic stress and during developmental processes is now well established. Seed germination is the most pivotal phase of the plant life cycle, affecting plant growth and productivity. The function of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and seed aging has been illustrated in numerous studies; however, the exact role of this molecule remains unknown. This review evaluates evidence that shows that H2O2 functions as a signaling molecule in seed physiology in accordance with the known biology and biochemistry of H2O2. The importance of crosstalk between hydrogen peroxide and a number of signaling molecules, including plant phytohormones such as abscisic acid, gibberellins, and ethylene, and reactive molecules such as nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide acting on cell communication and signaling during seed germination, is highlighted. The current study also focuses on the detrimental effects of H2O2 on seed biology, i.e., seed aging that leads to a loss of germination efficiency. The dual nature of hydrogen peroxide as a toxic molecule on one hand and as a signal molecule on the other is made possible through the precise spatial and temporal control of its production and degradation. Levels of hydrogen peroxide in germinating seeds and young seedlings can be modulated via pre-sowing seed priming/conditioning. This rather simple method is shown to be a valuable tool for improving seed quality and for enhancing seed stress tolerance during post-priming germination. In this review, we outline how seed priming/conditioning affects the integrative role of hydrogen peroxide in seed germination and aging.

  4. Ventricular Septal Defect (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a heart defect should avoid getting body piercings. Piercing increases the possibility that bacteria can get into ... damage heart valves. If you're considering a piercing and you have a heart defect, talk to ...

  5. Congenital Heart Defects (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed until the teen years — or even adulthood. Newborn Screening Newborns in the U.S. are screened at ... Has a Heart Defect Coarctation of the Aorta Arrhythmias Mitral Valve Prolapse Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal ...

  6. Defects in Quantum Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardas, Bartłomiej; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Zurek, Wojciech H; Zwolak, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The shift of interest from general purpose quantum computers to adiabatic quantum computing or quantum annealing calls for a broadly applicable and easy to implement test to assess how quantum or adiabatic is a specific hardware. Here we propose such a test based on an exactly solvable many body system-the quantum Ising chain in transverse field-and implement it on the D-Wave machine. An ideal adiabatic quench of the quantum Ising chain should lead to an ordered broken symmetry ground state with all spins aligned in the same direction. An actual quench can be imperfect due to decoherence, noise, flaws in the implemented Hamiltonian, or simply too fast to be adiabatic. Imperfections result in topological defects: Spins change orientation, kinks punctuating ordered sections of the chain. The number of such defects quantifies the extent by which the quantum computer misses the ground state, and is, therefore, imperfect.

  7. Reconstructions of eyelid defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Subramanian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eyelids are the protective mechanism of the eyes. The upper and lower eyelids have been formed for their specific functions by Nature. The eyelid defects are encountered in congenital anomalies, trauma, and postexcision for neoplasm. The reconstructions should be based on both functional and cosmetic aspects. The knowledge of the basic anatomy of the lids is a must. There are different techniques for reconstructing the upper eyelid, lower eyelid, and medial and lateral canthal areas. Many a times, the defects involve more than one area. For the reconstruction of the lid, the lining should be similar to the conjunctiva, a cover by skin and the middle layer to give firmness and support. It is important to understand the availability of various tissues for reconstruction. One layer should have the vascularity to support the other layer which can be a graft. A proper plan and execution of it is very important.

  8. INFLUENCE OF pH AND TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION ENERGY, GERMINATION, ROOT AND SEEDLINGS HYPOCOTIL LENGTH OF VARIOUS ALFALFA CULTIVARS (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Bukvić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The traits of germination energy, seed germination, as well as root and hypocotyls length of domestic alfalfa cultivars (Slavonka, Stela, Vuka were investigated in a climate chamber. The experiment was set up at two pH levels of water solution (4.00 and 6.00 and temperature levels of 10°C and 20°C using rolled filter paper method. Significant difference between cultivars (p=0.01, p=0.05 was determined for germination energy, seed germination and hypocotyls length. Cultivar Slavonka had the highest average values for germination energy and seed germination, and the lowest for hypocotyls length. Cultivar Vuka had the lowest germination energy (but with the same germination as Stela and the longest hypocotyls. Seed germination as well as root and hypocotyl length significantly depended (p=0.01 on pH of water solution. The higher average values of all traits were found at pH 4.00, except for germination energy. Temperature also significantly affected on all investigated traits (p=0.01, whilst the higher values were attained at higher temperature. Interactions cultivar x pH and cultivar x temperature were significant (p=0.01 for all traits, while pH x temperature interaction was not significant only for seed germination.

  9. Effects Of Pre Germination Treatments On The Germination And Early Seedling Growth Of Tetrapleura Tetraptera Schum. amp Thonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokhua G. E

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the effect of pre-germination treatments on the germination and early growth of Tetrapleura tetraptera Schum. amp Thonn.. The seeds were extracted and subjected to the following treatments Soaking in cold water for 24hrs T1 dipping in hot water for 1minute T2 soaking in coconut water for 30 minutes T3 soaking in coconut milk for 30 minutes T4 dipping in hydrogen peroxide for 1 minute T5 and for the control T6. The results showed that T3 had the highest germination value of 60 while T2 had the least of 25. There was significant difference p amp8804 0.05 in germination percentage between the treatments at 95 probability level. The seed treated with T3 had the highest mean seedling height of 44.54cm follow by mean seedling height 40.35cm of both T1 and T6 the control while T5 had the lowest mean seedling height of 39.84cm. The ANOVA of the stem-collar diameters shows that there was no significant difference P 0.05 between the effects of the different treatment on the seedlings stem-collar diameter. The seedlings subjected to treatment T3 had the highest mean leaf number of 22 while the seedlings subjected to T1 and T6 had same lowest leaf number of 18. It was observed in this study that coconut water T3 significantly did better in terms of seedling growth and development when used as a pre germination treatment for T. tetraptera seeds. However the seeds when dipped in hot water for 1 minute T2 as pre germination treatment did not significantly improve germination and growth of T. tetraptera seeds.

  10. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  11. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  12. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

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    Matouš Čihák

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Spore awakening is a series of actions that starts with purely physical processes and continues via the launching of gene expression and metabolic activities, eventually achieving a vegetative phase of growth. In spore-forming microorganisms, the germination process is controlled by intra- and inter-species communication. However, in the Streptomyces clade, which is capable of developing a plethora of valuable compounds, the chemical signals produced during germination have not been systematically studied before. Our previously published data revealed that several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes are expressed during germination. Therefore, we focus here on the secondary metabolite production during this developmental stage. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that the sesquiterpenoid antibiotic albaflavenone, the polyketide germicidin A, and chalcone are produced during germination of the model streptomycete, S. coelicolor. Interestingly, the last two compounds revealed an inhibitory effect on the germination process. The secondary metabolites originating from the early stage of microbial growth may coordinate the development of the producer (quorum sensing and/or play a role in competitive microflora repression (quorum quenching in their nature environments.

  13. The Determination of Different Germination Applications on Some Sage Species

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    İmge İhsane Özcan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sage, which belongs to Labiatae family and contains essential oils, is a typical Mediterranean plant. Being an important and one of the biggest species of this family, sage is said to be named being inspired by the word "Salveo" which means “saver” or “healer” in Latin. Salvia genus is represented by about 900 species on earth. There are 97 natural species of this genus in Turkey’s flora. There is dormancy in seeds of Salvia genus and having mucilage-like seed-coats is an inhibiting factor for germination. Seed germination studies of these species are of great importance in determining production strategies. This research is carried out at 25/15°C, 12 hours in light and 12 hours in dark environment to determine the effects of various germination applications (ethylene, gibberellin, PEG 8000, salicylic acid and seaweed and pre-treatments (pre-drying, pre-cooling and untreated in four species (S. fruticosa, S. officinalis, S. pomifera, S. tomentosa. These trials were conducted at the Department of Field Crops Laboratory of Adnan Menderes University according to completely randomized design with three factors with three replications. Important differences were observed about the germination rate and germination power among the species.

  14. Germinative potential of encrusted seed of tropical forage species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Brazil is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of seeds of forage species, thus the adoption of new technologies for expansion and maintenance of this market is of great importance. The aim of this work was to evaluate encrustation effect on germination potential in seeds of Brachiaria sp. species. The experiment was carried out in Biofabrica laboratory from June to August 2014, in Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Vitória da Conquista-BA. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial scheme 6x2, with two treatments (with and without coating and four replications. For germination quality of seeds were evaluated germination and vigor (emergence, emergence speed index, total length of seedling, shoot and root. The encrustation affected positively the germination of seeds in all species tested and encrustation did not affect the total length, shoot and root of the seedlings. Coating after chemical scarification is an alternative to improve germination of the seeds of tropical forage species.

  15. Germination and seedling morphology of four South American Smilax (Smilacaceae

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    Aline Redondo Martins

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Species of Smilax, also known as greenbrier, are widely distributed in Brazil and their commercial trades are carried out by the extractivism of native species. We the aim to provide information about the germination and development of seedlings in four Smilax species, different experiments were developed under controlled conditions. We evaluated two germination treatments: temperature (30ºC and 20-30ºC and light (presence/ absence, and for few cases the tetrazolium treatment was applied. A different treatment response was observed among the studied species. Light had a significant influence in S. brasiliensis, with the highest germination rates at 20-30ºC in dark conditions. S. campestris showed significant differences among temperature treatments, but not to light; while S. cissoides showed high germination rates (66-78%, independently of treatment. However, S. polyantha had low germination rates (19-24%. After one year, the expanded leaves showed different characteristics among the studied species. Leaves of S. brasiliensis were ovate, coriaceous, three main veins and prickle-like structures only on the midrib on abaxial face. S. campestris leaves were oblong, coriaceous and prickle-like structures were located at the leaf midrib and margin. S. cissoides had ovate-elliptic, membranaceous leaves, with three main veins with prickle-like structures on the abaxial face. S. polyantha leaves showed ovateelliptic, coriaceous leaves, with three main veins, translucent secondary veins and no prickle-like structures. A seedling identification key was elaborated based on morphological characteristics.

  16. Germination and seedling morphology of four South American Smilax (Smilacaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline Redondo; Soares, Anielca Nascimento; Bombo, Aline Bertolosi; Fidelis, Alessandra; Novembre, Ana Dionisia da Luz Coelho; da Glória, Beatriz Appezzato

    2012-03-01

    Species of Smilax, also known as greenbrier, are widely distributed in Brazil and their commercial trades are carried out by the extractivism of native species. We the aim to provide information about the germination and development of seedlings in four Smilax species, different experiments were developed under controlled conditions. We evaluated two germination treatments: temperature (30 degrees C and 20-30 degrees C) and light (presence/ absence), and for few cases the tetrazolium treatment was applied. A different treatment response was observed among the studied species. Light had a significant influence in S. brasiliensis, with the highest germination rates at 20-30 degrees C in dark conditions. S. campestris showed significant differences among temperature treatments, but not to light; while S. cissoides showed high germination rates (66-78%), independently of treatment. However, S. polyantha had low germination rates (19-24%). After one year, the expanded leaves showed different characteristics among the studied species. Leaves of S. brasiliensis were ovate, coriaceous, three main veins and prickle-like structures only on the midrib on abaxial face. S. campestris leaves were oblong, coriaceous and prickle-like structures were located at the leaf midrib and margin. S. cissoides had ovate-elliptic, membranaceous leaves, with three main veins with prickle-like structures on the abaxial face. S. polyantha leaves showed ovate-elliptic, coriaceous leaves, with three main veins, translucent secondary veins and no prickle-like structures. A seedling identification key was elaborated based on morphological characteristics.

  17. Evaluation of Oxygen Deficit Stress on Germination Indicators and Seedling

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    F Hoseini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship oxygen deficit stress on germination indicators and seedling growth of five wheat cultivars in laboratory condition, an experiment with Randomized Complete Block design in factorial arrangement with three replications was conducted in 2008. The treatments consisted of five wheat cultivars (Chamran, Flat, Roshan, Stare and Shole as A factor, and two oxygen level (normal seed and seed under oxygen deficit stress conditions as B factor in each of these figures was done. Results showed that oxygen deficit stress caused to decrease for various cultivars germination percentage, germination rate, allometric coefficient, seed vigor index and other germination indicators. Therefore, this test as a suitable method for determining the quality of various seed lot can be used in the water logging condition. In addition, among different cultivars characterized that Roshan cultivar was more resistant to oxygen deficit stress than Chamran, Flat and Star cultivars. Although Chamran cultivar is common cultivar in Khouzestan, but of look most germination indicators arranged as weak seed class. The highest correlation coefficients among the tested cultivars have been related to seed vigor with seedling length and dry weight of radicle with seedling with 0.92 and 0.90, respectively.

  18. Use of ultrasonication to increase germination rates of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribera, Ignacio; Vicient, Carlos M

    2017-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is widely used as model organism in plant biology. Although not of agronomic significance, it offers important advantages for basic research in genetics and molecular biology including the availability of a large number of mutants and genetically modified lines. However, Arabidopsis seed longevity is limited and seeds stored for more than 10 years usually show a very low capacity for germination. The influence of ultrasonic stimulation was investigated on the germination of A. thaliana L. seeds. All experiments have been performed using a frequency of 45 kHz at constant temperature (24 °C). No germination rate differences were observed when using freshly collected seeds. However, using artificially deteriorated seeds, our results show that short ultrasonic stimulation (seeds after ultrasonic stimulation. Scanning electron microscopy observations showed an increase in the presence of pores in the seed coat after sonication that may be the cause, at least in part, of the increase in germination. The ultrasound treated seeds developed normally to mature fertile plants. Ultrasound technology can be used to enhance the germination process of old Arabidopsis seeds without negatively affecting seedling development. This effect seems to be, at least in part, due to the opening of pores in the seed coat. The use of ultrasonic stimulation in Arabidopsis seeds may contribute to the recovering of long time stored lines.

  19. Microorganisms control during processing of germinated brown rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Maekawa, T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to limit the growth of microorganisms during processing of germinated brown rice (GBR), three kinds of operations for sanitation control were investigated. For a surface-disinfection treatment of brown rice, soaking in 1% of sodium hypochlorite for 10min. and 0.1% of calcium preparation solutions for 10min. at 30°C, resulted in 2log decrease by aerobic plate count in culture water after 1h of the germination processing. Soaking in 10% of sodium hypochlorite for 10min. and 1% of calcium preparation solutions for 10min at 30°C were found to inhibit germination, respectively. During the germination processing, including aeration stage and non-aeration stage, continuous ultraviolet irradiation on the culture water in the water tank resulted in limited bacterial growth in culture water below 102CFU/ml by aerobic plate count. Moreover, the turbidity of the culture water was improved by filtration of the stored water using activated carbon-hollow fiber filter. The filtration by activated carbon-hollow fiber filter during the germination processing was an effective method to eliminate microorganisms and contamination factor during GBR production. It also improved the efficiency of ultraviolet irradiation effect on the culture water

  20. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

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    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  1. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

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    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  2. Windows of opportunity for germination of riparian species after restoring water level fluctuations: a field experiment with controlled seed banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, J.M.; Janssen, R.H.; Rip, W.J.; Bender, I.; Bakker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Restoration activities aiming at increasing vegetation diversity often try to stimulate both dispersal and germination. In wetlands, dispersal and germination are coupled as water and water level fluctuations (WLF) simultaneously influence seed transport and germination conditions (soil moisture).

  3. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores.

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    Tidhar Turgeman

    Full Text Available Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes-RdAQP1 and RdAQP2-were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection.

  4. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Moshelion, Menachem; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Skory, Christopher D; Lichter, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2016-01-01

    Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes-RdAQP1 and RdAQP2-were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf) compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His) residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection.

  5. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeman, Tidhar; Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Moshelion, Menachem; Teper-Bamnolker, Paula; Skory, Christopher D.; Lichter, Amnon; Eshel, Dani

    2016-01-01

    Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes—RdAQP1 and RdAQP2—were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf) compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His) residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection. PMID:26959825

  6. Embryos, genes, and birth defects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferretti, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    ... Structural anomalies The genesis of chromosome abnormalities Embryo survival The cause of high levels of chromosome abnormality in human embryos Relative parental risks - age, translocations, inversions, gonadal and germinal mosaics 33 33 34 35 36 44 44 45 4 Identification and Analysis of Genes Involved in Congenital Malformation Syndromes Peter J. Scambler Ge...

  7. Effect of water and saline stress on germination of Atriplex nummularia (Chenopodiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Monica B; Parera, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Saline soils, characteristic of arid zones, can affect the germination of the species due to low water potential or ion toxicity. The effect of water and saline stress on germination was evaluated in atriplex nummularia a potential source of forage for arid zones. the seeds were scarified to reduce the inhibitory effect on germination and incubated in at 23 Celsius degrade on germination paper imbibed with solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (peg) at three water potentials: -0,5; -1,0 and -1,5 MPA. The percentage germination and germination speed were significantly affected by the concentration of the solution and the solute used. While more negative osmotic potentials, the percentage of germination and germination speed were significantly lower. The seeds germinated in peg solution have higher germination and germination speed than the seeds germinated in NaCl, especially in -1,0 MPA. The data suggest that the seeds of a. nummularia show sensitivity to the presence of Na+ and Cl- ions affecting the germination process.

  8. Thermal properties of defective fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the thermal conductivity of defective fullerene (C60) by using the nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) method. It is found that the thermal conductivity of C60 with one defect is lower than the thermal conductivity of perfect C60. However, double defects in C60 have either positive or negative influence on the thermal conductivity, which depends on the positions of the defects. The phonon spectra of perfect and defective C60 are also provided to give corresponding supports. Our results can be extended to long C60 chains, which is helpful for the thermal management of C60.

  9. STUDY OF BIRTH DEFECTS IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE

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    Subhra Ghosh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Birth defects are responsible for increased perinatal mortality and long-term morbidities. To reduce its incidence, which is the need of the hour we should know more about them and possible risk factors, which can be prevented. The aim of the study is to study the overall frequency of birth defects in a tertiary hospital and search for association with certain risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS All newborns/stillborns with birth defects during one year were enrolled for the study. Similar number of newborns without birth defect during this period was taken as control. Relevant information was documented in both the groups and analysed. RESULTS Out of 11,008 births, congenital anomaly was found in 130 cases. The prevalence of birth defects was 1.18 percent. Association of occurrence of birth defects with increased paternal age, consanguinity, fever and drug intake in first trimester was found. 57.6% of the newborns with birth defects were stillborn, born at an earlier gestational age (33.6 week v/s. 37.5 weeks. Commonest system to be affected was CNS (49.2%. CONCLUSION Screening for aneuploidy and birth defects should be universal. Routine folic acid supplementation and pregnancy termination of malformed babies will reduce the incidences.

  10. [Ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects reconstruction with free flaps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xin; Mao, Chi; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lei; An, Jin-gang; Yu, Guang-yan

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the application, indications and outcomes of free flaps for ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects reconstruction. Twenty consecutive cases of ora-maxillofacial the traumatic defects reconstruction with free flaps were reviewed. All clinical data including causes of injuries, the type of defects, selection of free flaps, perioperative complications and the follow-up were analyzed. All the cases underwent free flap reconstruction for ora-maxillofacial traumatic defects: 8 cases with soft tissue defects, 12 cases with soft and hard tissue defects. Fifteen patients received two-stage operation and 5 patients underwent primary reconstruction at the time of debridement or fracture reduction. Twenty free flaps were applied for the reconstruction, 11 cases with fibula flap, 1 case with iliac crest free flap, 7 cases with radial forearm flap and 1 case with scapula flap. No flap failure occurred. The successful rate of free flaps transfer was 100%. The free flaps transfer is reliable and can reconstruct the ora-maxillofacial traumatic soft and hard tissue defects. Fibula and radial forearm free flap are the most common used flaps. Early aggressive surgery with free flaps transfer for traumatic defects can prevent the scar contracture and tissue displace, which can shorten the treatment period and improve the final outcome.

  11. Regulation of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) arginase in developing seedling tissue during germination and post-germinative growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, C D; Cooke, J E; Mullen, R T; Gifford, D J

    2001-03-01

    After seed germination, hydrolysis of storage proteins provides a nitrogen source for the developing seedling. In conifers the majority of these reserves are located in the living haploid megagametophyte tissue. In the developing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedling an influx of free amino acids from the megagametophyte accompanies germination and early seedling growth. The major component of this amino acid pool is arginine, which is transported rapidly and efficiently to the seedling without prior conversion. This arginine accounts for nearly half of the total nitrogen entering the cotyledons and is likely a defining factor in early seedling nitrogen metabolism. In the seedling, the enzyme arginase is responsible for liberating nitrogen, in the form of ornithine and urea, from free arginine supplied by the megagametophyte. In this report we investigate how the seedling uses arginase to cope with the large arginine influx. As part of this work we have cloned an arginase cDNA from a loblolly pine expression library. Analysis of enzyme activity data, accumulation of arginase protein and mRNA abundance indicates that increased arginase activity after seed germination is due to de novo synthesis of the enzyme. Our results suggest that arginase is primarily regulated at the RNA level during loblolly pine seed germination and post-germinative growth.

  12. Proteomics identification of differentially expressed proteins associated with pollen germination and tube growth reveals characteristics of germinated Oryza sativa pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shaojun; Chen, Taotao; Chong, Kang; Xue, Yongbiao; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Tai

    2007-02-01

    Mature pollen from most plant species is metabolically quiescent; however, after pollination, it germinates quickly and gives rise to a pollen tube to transport sperms into the embryo sac. Because methods for collecting a large amount of in vitro germinated pollen grains for transcriptomics and proteomics studies from model plants of Arabidopsis and rice are not available, molecular information about the germination developmental process is lacking. Here we describe a method for obtaining a large quantity of in vitro germinating rice pollen for proteomics study. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of approximately 2300 protein spots revealed 186 that were differentially expressed in mature and germinated pollen. Most showed a changed level of expression, and only 66 appeared to be specific to developmental stages. Furthermore 160 differentially expressed protein spots were identified on mass spectrometry to match 120 diverse protein species. These proteins involve different cellular and metabolic processes with obvious functional skew toward wall metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, cytoskeleton dynamics, and carbohydrate/energy metabolism. Wall metabolism-related proteins are prominently featured in the differentially expressed proteins and the pollen proteome as compared with rice sporophytic proteomes. Our study also revealed multiple isoforms and differential expression patterns between isoforms of a protein. These results provide novel insights into pollen function specialization.

  13. Seed germination of peanuts irradiated with cobalt (60CO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Niedja Marrize C.; Almeida, Francisco de Assis C.; Gomes, Josivanda P.; Pessoa, Elvira B.; Leal, Artur S. Cavalcanti

    2010-01-01

    This work was realized to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation ( 60 Co) at doses 0, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00 and 4.00 kGy, on germination of seeds of peanut, cultivar BR1. Irradiation Department of Nuclear, UFPE, where he received after the irradiation, they were stored in packing of PET and polyethylene braided with a time of 90 days. Through the results, obtained monthly, concluded that the dose of 0.5 kGy was effective in the germination of seeds of peanut, not affecting its power of germination and overcoming the witness within 30 to 60 days. (author)

  14. Pre-germination treatments on palm tree seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm tree seeds present slow and uneven germination. Therefore, the objective of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of pre-germination treatments in promoting germination and early seedling growth of palm tree (Euterpe edulis Martius. Treatments were: control, immersion in GA3 solution, exposure to ethylene, water immersion, H2SO4 immersion, mechanical scarification, stratification for 30 days at 10 °C, and scarification followed by stratification. Soaking seeds in gibberellic acid (GA3; 2000 µL L-1 for 24 h or their exposure to ethylene (1000 µL L-1 for 24 h are effective for promoting emergence, which started 30 days after seed treatment, and for early seedling growth of palm tree.

  15. Seed Germination of selected Taxa from Kachchh Desert, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Madhukar RAOLE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The district of Kachchh contains many culturally important plants. However, their conservation status is little known due to direct and indirect human activities. This study was undertaken with the aim of contributing to the conservation of the native species of these semi-arid regions through germination trials under laboratory conditions. Mature fruits of ten selected species were collected randomly from the known habitats to obtain viable seeds. These seeds were pre-treated with growth regulators singly or in combination after acid scarification or without scarification. Seeds were found to be dormant due to presence of thick seed coat or due to low level of endogenous hormonal level. Most of these seeds required different storage period to mature. Only seeds of Capparis cartilaginea germinated without treatment while the other species required treatments. Addition of growth regulators has enhanced seed germination in few taxa singly and in some plant cases in combination.

  16. Point defects in nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretto, P.

    1969-01-01

    The defects in electron irradiated nickel (20 deg. K) or neutron irradiated nickel (28 deg. K) are studied by simultaneous analysis using the magnetic after-effect, electron microscopy and electrical resistivity recovery. We use zone refined nickel (99.999 per cent) which, for some experiments, is alloyed with a small amount of iron (for example 0.1 per cent Fe). The temperature dependant electrical recovery may be divided in four stages. The sub-stages I B (31 deg. K), I C (42 deg. K), I D (from to 57 deg. K) and I E (62 deg. K) of stage I are due to the disappearance of single interstitials into vacancies. The interstitial defect has a split configuration with a migration energy of about 0.15 eV. In the close pair which disappears in stage I B the interstitial is found to be in a 3. neighbour position whilst in stage I D it is near the direction from the vacancy. In stage I E there is no longer any interaction between the interstitial and the vacancy. The stage II is due to more complicated interstitial defects: di-interstitials for stage II B (84 deg. K) and larger and larger interstitial loops for the following sub-stages. The loops may be seen by electron microscopy. Impurities can play the role of nucleation centers for the loops. Stages III A (370 deg. K) and III B (376 deg. K) are due to two types of di-vacancies. During stage IV (410 deg. K) the single vacancies migrate. Vacancy type loops and interstitial type loops grow concurrently and disappear at about 800 deg. K as observed by electron microscopy. (author) [fr

  17. EFFECTS OF LIGHT WAVELENGTHS AND COHERENCE ON BASIDIOSPORES GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Poyedinok

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light wavelengths and coherence on basidiospore germination of Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus have been studied. Short-term low-intensity irradiation by coherent (laser light wavelength 488.0 nm and 632.8 nm at doses 45 and 230 mJ/cm2 has significantly increased the number of germinated basidiospores. It has established that there are differences in the photosensitivity not only between species but also between strains. Spores irradiation by 514.5 nm light has been either neutral or inhibitory. A comparative analysis of basidiospores sensitivity to laser and LED light has also been conducted. To stimulate germination of basidiospores and growth of monokaryons the most suitable solution was to use red coherent and incoherent light of 632.8 nm and 660,0 nm for A. bisporus, G. applanatum and P. ostreatus, red and blue coherent light of 632.8 nm and 488,0 nm for F. velutipes, and both red and blue laser and LED light G. lucidum and H. erinaceus and for L. edodes. No essential difference of a continuous wave mode and intermittent mode light effect at the same doses and wavelength on spore germination were revealed. Light influence has reduced germination time and formation of aerial mycelium on agar medium as compared to the original value and increased the growth rate of monosporous isolates. Characterization of basidiospores photosensitivity and development of environmentally friendly stimulating methods of their germination is important for creating highly effective technologies of mushrooms selection and cultivation.

  18. Precocious germination and its regulation in embryos of triticale caryopses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Weidner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Triticale var. Lasko embryos, isolated from grain gathered at milk ripeness, the beginning of wax ripeness and at full ripeness, were allowed to germinate for 48 h on agar with glucose. The highest incorporation of tritiated adenosine into polyribosomal RNA during germination was found in the ribosome fractions from embryos of grain gathered at full ripeness, lower incorporation was in preparations from embryos of milk ripe grain and the lowest in preparations from embryos of wax ripe grain. Different tendencies were observed in respect to the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. The highest incorporation of 14C-amino acids into ribosomal proteins was found in preparations of ribosome fractions from embryos of milk ripe grain, lower in preparations of embryos from fully ripe grain, the lowest in preparations of embryos from wax ripe grain. ABA (10-4 M completely inhibited the external symptoms of germination of immature embryos, while its inhibition of the synthesis of polyribosomal RNA and ribosomal proteins was greater the more mature the embryos that were germinated. The greatest stimulation of precocious germination by exogenous BA and GA3 was demonstrated in the least mature embryos isolated from milk ripe grain. Under the influence of both stimulators, an increase of the proportion of polyribosomes in the total ribosome fraction occurred in this sample, as did a rise in the intensity of ribosomal protein synthesis. The incorporation of 3H-adenosine into polyribosomal RNA, however, was lower than in the control sample. The results obtained suggest that the regulation of precocious germination of triticale embryos by phyto-hormones is not directly related to transcription.

  19. PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 is involved in Arabidopsis pollen grain germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Christelle; Bouton, Sophie; Kiefer-Meyer, Marie-Christine; Fabrice, Tohnyui Ndinyanka; Mareck, Alain; Guénin, Stéphanie; Fournet, Françoise; Ringli, Christoph; Pelloux, Jérôme; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice; Lehner, Arnaud; Mollet, Jean-Claude

    2015-02-01

    Germination of pollen grains is a crucial step in plant reproduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the role of PECTIN METHYLESTERASE48 (PME48), an enzyme implicated in the remodeling of pectins in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) pollen. A combination of functional genomics, gene expression, in vivo and in vitro pollen germination, immunolabeling, and biochemical analyses was used on wild-type and Atpme48 mutant plants. We showed that AtPME48 is specifically expressed in the male gametophyte and is the second most expressed PME in dry and imbibed pollen grains. Pollen grains from homozygous mutant lines displayed a significant delay in imbibition and germination in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, numerous pollen grains showed two tips emerging instead of one in the wild type. Immunolabeling and Fourier transform infrared analyses showed that the degree of methylesterification of the homogalacturonan was higher in pme48-/- pollen grains. In contrast, the PME activity was lower in pme48-/-, partly due to a reduction of PME48 activity revealed by zymogram. Interestingly, the wild-type phenotype was restored in pme48-/- with the optimum germination medium supplemented with 2.5 mm calcium chloride, suggesting that in the wild-type pollen, the weakly methylesterified homogalacturonan is a source of Ca(2+) necessary for pollen germination. Although pollen-specific PMEs are traditionally associated with pollen tube elongation, this study provides strong evidence that PME48 impacts the mechanical properties of the intine wall during maturation of the pollen grain, which, in turn, influences pollen grain germination. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. SEED GERMINATION BEHAVIOUR OF THREE ALPINE SPECIES FROM ULUDAĞ MOUNT,TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HülyaARSLAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the germination requirements of three species from alpine belt of Uludağ Mount; Gypsophila olympica Boiss., Matthiola montana Boiss. and Silene rhynchocarpa Boiss. We tested thegermination under (20 °C dark, (20 °C continuous light, and photoperiod 20/10 °C (12/12h with distilled water. Different germination behaviour was found for these three species from closely related habitat conditions. G. olympica showed similar germination percentages in dark, light and photoperiod, and germinated faster in light (3.9 days. S. rhyncocarpa germinated 100 % at all the threeconditions but faster in dark with 2.0 days. M. montana seeds were found to require light for germination. The germination was 27.2 % at dark, whereas the seeds were germinated 90 % under photoperiod.The results can be useful for both in situ and ex situ conservation of these plant species.

  1. Esterase activity as a novel parameter of spore germination in Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencko, Linda; Cote, Mindy A.; Rotman, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis were shown to produce esterase activity about 4 min after exposure to conventional germinants such as combinations of amino acids and purine ribosides. Neither amino acids nor ribosides alone induce germination and esterase activity. Expression of esterase activity was chloramphenicol resistant, and correlated with loss of spore refractivity, a traditional parameter of early germination. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that esterase activity could be used as a novel parameter for quantifying early events during spore germination. To test this hypothesis, we measured expression of esterase activity under a variety of germinating conditions. Using diacetyl fluorescein as fluorogenic substrate of esterases, we demonstrated that esterase activity was invariably induced whenever spores were triggered by known germinants. Moreover, D-alanine, an inhibitor of L-alanine-mediated germination, was found to significantly inhibit expression of esterase activity. In terms of molecular mechanisms, esterase expression could represent activation of proteases at the onset of spore germination

  2. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eren, B.; Turkmen, N.; Fedakar, R.; Cetin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  3. Germination of guatambu seeds subjected to two light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Guollo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Guatambu (Aspidosperma parvifolium A. DC. is a species that faces extinction in different regions of Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of photoperiod on germination of guatambu seeds at 25°C. The statistical procedure used was factorial design with two factors. Factor A was seed lots (Mother tree A, B, and C and factor B was photoperiod (dark and 12 h of photoperiod. Guatambu seeds are not affected by photoperiod condition during the germination process.

  4. Echinacea: anatomy, phytochemical pattern, and germination of the achene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulthess, B H; Giger, E; Baumann, T W

    1991-08-01

    The achenes (fruits) of the therapeutically used Echinacea species E. purpurea, E. angustifolia, and E. pallida can be differentiated structurally (shape, anatomy) as well as phytochemically (essential oil components, alkamides). During germination in all three species dodeca-2E, 4E, 8Z, 10E(10Z)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide (8/9) is mainly formed. Besides this a number of alkamides typical for the root of E. purpurea are synthesized in moderate amounts. Also, alkene derivatives of isovalerianic acid are produced. It is an interesting fact that neither 2-monoene alkalmides nor polyacetylenes could be detected during achene germination.

  5. Seed germination in a southern Australian temperate seagrass

    OpenAIRE

    Cumming, Erin; Jarvis, Jessie C.; Sherman, Craig D.H.; York, Paul H.; Smith, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    In a series of experiments, seeds from a temperate seagrass species, Zostera nigricaulis collected in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia were exposed to a range of salinities (20 PSU pulse/no pulse, 25 PSU, 30 PSU, 35 PSU), temperatures (13 °C, 17 °C, 22 °C), burial depths (0 cm, 1 cm, 2 cm) and site specific sediment characteristics (fine, medium, coarse) to quantify their impacts on germination rate and maximum overall germination. In southern Australia the seagrass Z. nigricaulis is a c...

  6. Proteomic analysis of Magnolia sieboldii K. Koch seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Mei, Mei; Liu, Guang-Lin; Ma, Bei-Bei

    2016-02-05

    Magnolia sieboldii is a deciduous tree native to China. This species has a deep dormancy characteristic. To better understand seed germination, we used protein analysis of changes in seed protein at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification. Comparative 2DE analysis of M. sieboldii seed protein profiles at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification revealed 80 differentially abundance protein species. Comparative analysis showed that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit was degraded during germination. In particular, it was degraded almost completely at 110 d of germination. Starch granules in the microstructure decreased after 65 d of stratification. Starch granules provided a sufficient amount of substrates and ATPs for subsequent germination. Four storage protein species were identified, of which all were down accumulated. Spots 44 and 46 had different MW and pI values, spots 36 and 46 had nearly the same MW with pI shift in the 2-DE gels, suggesting that they might be present as different isoforms of the same protein family and the post translational modification. Our results suggested that degradation of starch granules and storage protein species prepared the seed embryo for growth, as well as regulated seed germination. The present proteomics analysis provides novel insights into the mobilisation of nutrient reserves during the germination of M. sieboldii seeds. To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of M. sieboldii seed. We performed the first comprehensive proteomic and microstructure analysis during different seed stratification stages of M. sieboldii. Among the 80 protein species, 26 were identified, 7 and 14 protein species were up or down accumulated significantly. Many of the identified key proteins were involved in embryo development, starch biosynthesis and energy metabolism, Microstructure of stratification seed analysis revealed degradation of starch was used for preparing the seed

  7. Peroxidase activity in scutella of maize in association with anatomical changes during germination and grain storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Carrillo, José Isaac; Flores-Ponce, Mitzi; Chávez-Nájera, Gerardo; Díaz-Pontones, David Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The embryo of the maize grain (Zea mays L.) is separated from the starchy endosperm by a fibrous structure, which is called the fibrous layer (FL). Using histochemical staining, it was determined that the FL is composed of collapsed cellular layers that contain phenols, neutral lipids, and 1,3-β-glucan. Due to its composition, the FL prevents free diffusion and separates the embryo from the endosperm during germination. Twenty-four hours after imbibition, the scutellum epidermis initiated a series of asynchronous spatial modifications, including cell growth, the perforation of cell walls, increased peroxidase activity in the apoplastic space, and elevated levels of superoxide, phenols, and other components that interact with the fibrous layer, enabling its transformation in addition to the free flow between compartments. During storage at high relative humidity levels, which leads to fast or slow deterioration depending on the temperature, the activity of phenol peroxidase in the scutellum was associated with a loss of vigor and reduced germination capacity when compared with low temperature and low relative humidity conditions. Such deterioration is associated with alterations in autofluorescent emissions from endogenous compounds in the scutellum, indicating changes in the microenvironment or in the differential proportions of epidermal and FL components.

  8. Structural Features of Sugars That Trigger or Support Conidial Germination in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B.

    2013-01-01

    The asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus niger germinate to produce hyphae under appropriate conditions. Germination is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilization of internal carbon and energy stores, followed by polarization and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. The effects of different pyranose sugars, all analogues of d-glucose, on the germination of A. niger conidia were explored, and we define germination as the transition from a dormant conidium into a germling. Within germinatio...

  9. Blood flow patterns underlie developmental heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgett, Madeline; Thornburg, Kent; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2017-03-01

    Although cardiac malformations at birth are typically associated with genetic anomalies, blood flow dynamics also play a crucial role in heart formation. However, the relationship between blood flow patterns in the early embryo and later cardiovascular malformation has not been determined. We used the chicken embryo model to quantify the extent to which anomalous blood flow patterns predict cardiac defects that resemble those in humans and found that restricting either the inflow to the heart or the outflow led to reproducible abnormalities with a dose-response type relationship between blood flow stimuli and the expression of cardiac phenotypes. Constricting the outflow tract by 10-35% led predominantly to ventricular septal defects, whereas constricting by 35-60% most often led to double outlet right ventricle. Ligation of the vitelline vein caused mostly pharyngeal arch artery malformations. We show that both cardiac inflow reduction and graded outflow constriction strongly influence the development of specific and persistent abnormal cardiac structure and function. Moreover, the hemodynamic-associated cardiac defects recapitulate those caused by genetic disorders. Thus our data demonstrate the importance of investigating embryonic blood flow conditions to understand the root causes of congenital heart disease as a prerequisite to future prevention and treatment. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Congenital heart defects result from genetic anomalies, teratogen exposure, and altered blood flow during embryonic development. We show here a novel "dose-response" type relationship between the level of blood flow alteration and manifestation of specific cardiac phenotypes. We speculate that abnormal blood flow may frequently underlie congenital heart defects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. [Effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Xue; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Yun; Chen, Yi-Tai; Feng, Da-Lan; Li, Sha

    2012-11-01

    The seeds from ten Hibiscus hamabo provenance families were treated with concentrated sulfuric acid for different durations (0, 10, 15, and 20 min) , and the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index, as well as the seed relative water adsorption rate, soluble sugar and starch contents, and alpha-amylase activity during the germination, were determined, aimed to study the effects of treating with concentrated sulfuric acid on the seed germination of H. hamabo and the differences of the seed germination among different H. hamabo provenance families. After treated with concentrated sulfuric acid, the seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index increased significantly, and the germination time shortened remarkably. Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid for 15 minutes had the best effect, i. e., the germination rate, germination energy, and germination index were up to 95.7%, 91.3%, and 13.28, respectively, and the germination time was the shortest. The seed germination rate, germination energy, and germination index differed significantly with different provenance families, the highest germination index (15.13) being 2.12 times of the lowest germination index (7.15), and the highest germination energy (98.0%) being 1.77 times of the lowest one (55.5%). Treating with concentrated sulfuric acid accelerated the physiological and biochemical processes of seed germination, and the relative water absorption rate, soluble sugar content, and a-amylase activity were decreased after an initial increase, with the maximum at the early stage of germination. There was a significant negative relationship between the seed starch content and the seed germination index.

  11. Dipole defects in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R

    2010-01-01

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  12. Impact of crop residues on seed germination of native desert plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop residues produce allelochemicals that may inhibit seed germination of many weeds. In this study, I assessed the effect of aqueous extracts of three crop residues (radish, rocket and rhodes) on final germination percentage and germination rate of four desert plants recorded as weeds in the United Arab Emirates farms ...

  13. Bases génétiques et biochimiques de la capacité germinative des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recherche et discute de la relation entre capacité germinative des graines et sécurité alimentaire. Mots clé: Semence, capacité germinative, facteurs biochimiques, gènes, systèmes semenciers, sécurité alimentaire. Abstract. Genetic and biochemical bases of seed germination capacity: implications for seed systems and.

  14. Effects of Seed Cryopreservation and Priming on Germination in Several Cultivars of Apium graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benito, M E; Iriondo, J M; Pita, J M; Pérez-García, F

    1995-01-01

    Seed germination of seven celery cultivars was studied after storage in liquid nitrogen for 1 or 30 d. Cryopreservation was also carried out on pelleted and primed seeds. None of the treatments applied reduced germination percentages. T(50) (time for germination to reach 50%) significantly decreased in Florida, Utah and Istar cultivars when priming, alone or in combination with cryopreservation, was used.

  15. Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles on germinating Sesamum indicum (Co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    All treatments led to the germination of seeds showing that nano-ZnO and bulk ZnO did not adversely affect the sesa- mum seed germination. However, with increasing soaking time (day), there was a slight decrease in root lengths. Sig- nificantly, positive influence on root elongation, higher per- centage of germination were ...

  16. Pre-germinated conidia of Coniothyrium minitans enhances the foliar biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junling; Li, Yin; Qian, Huali; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2004-11-01

    The relatively slow germination rate of Coniothyrium minitans limits its control efficiency against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Pre-germinated conidia of C. minitans enhanced its efficiency significantly: in foliar experiments with oilseed rape, hyphal extension of S. sclerotiorum was inhibited by 68%, while formation of sclerotia was completely inhibited when pre-germinated conidia were applied.

  17. Toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles on germinating Sesamum indicum (Co ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seeds and young leaves are eaten as stews and used in soaps, respectively, in Asia [7]. Sesamum oil is used as active .... After 7 days of treatment, seed germination was recorded by counting germinated seeds and the .... 3.2 Effect of ZnO nanoparticles treatment on S. indicum. All treatments led to the germination of seeds ...

  18. 7 CFR 201.29 - Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination of vegetable seed in containers of 1 pound... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.29 Germination of... a germination equal to or better than the standard set forth in § 201.31 need not be labeled to show...

  19. Endophytic bacterial effects on seed germination and mobilization of reserves in ammodendron biofolium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.; She, X.P.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze the mobilization of storage reserves during seed germination of Ammodendron bifolium by host plant-endophytic bacteria interaction and to determine the contribution of endophytic bacteria in plant establishment. The seeds were inoculated with three different endophytic bacteria from A. bifolium, Staphylococcus sp. AY3, Kocuria sp. AY9 and Bacillus sp. AG18, and they were germinated in the dark. Fresh weight changes and early seedling growth were assessed, and the content of storage compounds was quantified using biochemical assays in all germinated and non-germinated seeds. To understand the mechanism promoting seed germination, the activities of extracellular enzymes of bacterial isolates were also analyzed by the plate assay method. The results showed that treatment with endophytic bacteria accelerated seed germination; promoted further water absorption and radicle growth; and also promoted degradation of sucrose, protein and lipids during the germination process. At the same time, our results also showed that strain AG18 was able to produce protease and amylase, strain AY9 had only amylase activity, and strain AY3 had no extracellular enzyme activity. In summary, our current study showed that (i) endophytic bacteria improved seed germination and post-germination seedling growth of A. bifolium; (ii) inoculation with endophytic bacteria could promote storage reserve mobilization during or following germination; (iii) the degradation of protein, lipids and sucrose could provide essential energy for post-germination growth; and (iv) three bacterial isolates might have different action mechanisms on seed germination. (author)

  20. Hydrothermal time models for conidial germination and mycelial growth of the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor W. Barth; Susan E. Meyer; Julie Beckstead; Phil S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Population-based threshold models using hydrothermal time (HTT) have been widely used to model seed germination. We used HTT to model conidial germination and mycelial growth for the seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in a novel approach to understanding its interactions with host seeds. Germination time courses and mycelial growth rates for P.semeniperda were...

  1. 7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce. 201.31 Section 201.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce. The following germination standards for...

  2. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Chicago Univ., IL; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs

  3. Diaphragmatic defect in trisomy 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbold, W.D.; Reinwein, H.; Back, E.

    1986-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic defect is often combined with other malformations that are severe or fatal. The rare finding of a congenital diaphragmatic defect in a newborn with trisomy 13 is reported. The newborn died within 2 days. Postmortem examination showed typical malformations due to trisomy 13 besides a diaphragmatic defect of left retrosternal position. Karyotype revealed a 13/14 translocation of trisomy 13. (orig.) [de

  4. Topological defects in extended inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, E.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Liddle, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings

  5. The Cooperative and Interdependent Roles of GerA, GerK, and Ynd in Germination of Bacillus licheniformis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch-Pedersen, Kristina; Lindbäck, Toril; Madslien, Elisabeth H; Kidd, Shani W; O'Sullivan, Kristin; Granum, Per Einar; Aspholm, Marina

    2016-07-15

    When nutrients are scarce, Bacillus species form metabolically dormant and extremely resistant spores that enable survival over long periods of time under conditions not permitting growth. The presence of specific nutrients triggers spore germination through interaction with germinant receptors located in the spore's inner membrane. Bacillus licheniformis is a biotechnologically important species, but it is also associated with food spoilage and food-borne disease. The B. licheniformis ATCC 14580/DSM13 genome exhibits three gerA family operons (gerA, gerK, and ynd) encoding germinant receptors. We show that spores of B. licheniformis germinate efficiently in response to a range of different single l-amino acid germinants, in addition to a weak germination response seen with d-glucose. Mutational analyses revealed that the GerA and Ynd germination receptors function cooperatively in triggering an efficient germination response with single l-amino acid germinants, whereas the GerK germination receptor is essential for germination with d-glucose. Mutant spores expressing only GerA and GerK or only Ynd and GerK show reduced or severely impaired germination responses, respectively, with single l-amino acid germinants. Neither GerA nor Ynd could function alone in stimulating spore germination. Together, these results functionally characterize the germination receptor operons present in B. licheniformis We demonstrate the overlapping germinant recognition patterns of the GerA and Ynd germination receptors and the cooperative functionalities between GerA, Ynd, and GerK in inducing germination. To ensure safe food production and durable foods, there is an obvious need for more knowledge on spore-forming bacteria. It is the process of spore germination that ultimately leads to food spoilage and food poisoning. Bacillus licheniformis is a biotechnologically important species that is also associated with food spoilage and food-borne disease. Despite its importance, the

  6. Standardization of different media for in vitro pollen germination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almond is an important nut crop which, mostly for fruit set, needs the pollination of flowers followed by fertilization. Therefore, pollen viability and its germination capability are essential. To optimize the pollen culture medium of almond and standardization of the best medium, the present study was carried out with 48 different ...

  7. Coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Rubi) seed germination: mechanisms and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da E.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Coffee seeds display slow and variable germination which severely hampers the production of seedlings for planting in the following growth season. Little work has been done with the aim to understand the behavior of

  8. Germination characteristics of autumn collected Pinus sylvestris seeds.

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Markku

    1987-01-01

    Tests on seeds from a natural stand and from a clone archive, with various photoperiods and temperature regimes, showed that germination was delayed at low temperature (10 degrees C) and in darkness. This effect diminished the later in autumn seeds were collected.

  9. Isozvme specificity during germination and early growth of knobcone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Thompson Conkle

    1971-01-01

    Five enzyme classes from 11 developmental stages of germinating embryos were separated by starch gel electrophoresis. Alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes found in embryos of dry seed were most active at the time of radicle emergence; activity decreased thereafter, fading below the level of detection when seed coats were shed. Peroxidase isozymes were absent and esterase...

  10. Marking tree seeds with spray paint for germination studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2003-01-01

    I evaluated the potential use of spray paint for marking conifer seeds for germination studies in forest nurseries. For bulk seedlots of large-seeded species like western white pine (Pinus monticola), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), paint had little or no effect on six...

  11. Pollen characteristics and in vitro pollen germination of Cedrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... 1Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directory, Ankara, Turkey. 2Zonguldak Karaelmas ... germination rate in MS medium was achieved in clone no.11342 with 84.77% among the pollen samples of 2005. On the other hand ... Among these species, Cedrus libani A. Rich. (Lebanon. Cedar) is a ...

  12. Effects of different NaCl Concentrations on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    in plants. Ratnakar and Rai (2013) stated that high salt concentration hampers vital processes such as seed germination, seedling growth and vigour, vegetative growth .... 80°C for 24 h hand the total leaf area per plant was then calculated using the .... studying maize seedlings under NaCl influences and. Ratnakar and Rai ...

  13. on seed germination and growth of Garcinia kola

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-07-31

    Jul 31, 2016 ... plastic bags, seeds were washed abundantly with tap water. Cleaned seeds were then subjected to different treatments (mechanical scarification, chemical and soaking). Treatments applied were based on previous results of germination experiments in several plant species (Bradbeer, 1988; Yang et al., ...

  14. Seed germination and seedling establishment of some wild almond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last experiment, the establishment and vigor of 14 accessions from eight almond species have been evaluated in plastic bags in outdoor conditions. Two ecotypes of Prunus spp. had the highest stem diameter and length at all growing stages. Keywords: Amygdalus, germination percentage, index vigor, root initiation, ...

  15. Secondary Metabolites Produced during the Germination of Streptomyces coelicolor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čihák, M.; Kameník, Zdeněk; Šmídová, Klára; Bergman, N.; Benada, Oldřich; Kofroňová, Olga; Petříčková, Kateřina; Bobek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, DEC 13 (2017), č. článku 2495. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : spore germination * Streptomyces * cell signaling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.076, year: 2016

  16. Effects of water stress and seed mass on germination and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... forest. The northern Loess Plateau of China is dry and has little rain, resulting in water as a limiting factor to plant growth. X. sorbifolia seed varies greatly in mass. Thus, whether water and seed mass influence the germination of X. sorbifolia in this region must be determined. The primary objectives of this ...

  17. Extensive translational regulation during seed germination revealed by polysomal profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Bing; Peviani, Alessia; Horst, van der Sjors; Gamm, Magdalena; Snel, Berend; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanson, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the extent of translational regulation during seed germination. The polysome occupancy of each gene is determined by genome-wide profiling of total mRNA and polysome-associated mRNA. This reveals extensive translational regulation during Arabidopsis thaliana seed

  18. PLANT INDUCTION OF GERMINATION OF WITCH WEED SEEDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orobanche control using synthetic germination stimulants. Weed Research 16: 223-227. Kim, S.K. and Adetimirin, V.O. 1997. Striga hermonthica seed inoculum rate effects on maize hybrid tolerance and susceptibility expression. Crop Science 37:1066-1071. M'Boob, S.S. 1989. A regional program for. Striga control in West ...

  19. Comparative evaluation of the germination capability of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... This study evaluates the response of wild genotypes of C. olitorius with different seed sizes to various dry heat and ... impermeable seed coat. Key words: Corchorus olitorius, genotypes, germination, heat treatment, wild vegetables species. ..... A Wely Inter-Science Publication, John. Wiley and Sons: New ...

  20. Multivariate analysis of germination ability and tolerance to salinity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... Salinity stress is one of the major problems for crop production in arid and semiarid regions of the world. Hence, germination ability and salt stress tolerance of Agropyron desertorum were evaluated using ten genotypes originally collected from different areas of Iran in greenhouse condition. Five different ...