Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter
The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…
Shaw, Daniel S.
This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…
Villodas, Miguel T; Pfiffner, Linda J; McBurnett, Keith
The purpose of this review is to discuss issues in the prevention of serious conduct problems among children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors began by reviewing research on the common genetic and environmental etiological factors, developmental trajectories, characteristics and impairments associated with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Next, the authors presented empirically based models for intervention with children and adolescents with ADHD that are at risk of developing serious conduct problems and detailed the evidence supporting these models. Researchers have demonstrated the utility of medication and psychosocial intervention approaches to treat youth with these problems, but current evidence appears to support the superiority of multimodal treatments that include both approaches. Future directions for researchers are discussed.
Jones, Damon; Godwin, Jennifer; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John D; Greenberg, Mark T; Lochman, John E; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E
We tested the impact of the Fast Track conduct disorder prevention program on the use of pediatric, general health, and mental health services in adolescence. Participants were 891 public kindergarten boys and girls screened from a population of 9594 children and found to be at risk for conduct disorder. They were assigned randomly (by school) to intervention or control conditions and were followed for 12 years. Intervention lasted 10 years and included parent training, child social-cognitive skills training, reading tutoring, peer-relations enhancement, and classroom curricula and management. Service use was assessed through annual interviews of parents and youth. Youth assigned to preventive intervention had significantly reduced use of professional general health, pediatric, and emergency department services relative to control youth on the basis of parent-report data. For control-group youth, the odds of greater use of general health services for any reason and general health services use for mental health purposes were roughly 30% higher and 56% higher, respectively. On the basis of self-report data, the intervention reduced the likelihood of outpatient mental health services among older adolescents for whom odds of services use were more than 90% higher among control-group youth. No differences were found between intervention and control youth on the use of inpatient mental health services. Statistical models controlled for key study characteristics, and potential moderation of the intervention effect was assessed. Random assignment to the Fast Track prevention program is associated with reduced use of general health and outpatient mental health services in adolescents. Future studies should examine the mechanism of this impact and service use patterns as subjects reach young adulthood.
Karjalainen, Piia; Santalahti, Pälvi; Sihvo, Sinikka
In this systematic review it will be evaluated whether parent-targeted programs teaching positive methods of upbringing and interaction are effective in the reduction and prevention of conduct disorders and behavioral problems in children belonging to a risk group. Altogether 29 European studies on parent-targeted programs were selected for the review. Most of the examined methods were based on the social learning theory and the cognitive behavior theory. The majority of the studies proved that long-term programs of 8 to 20 weeks'duration are effective in the reduction of behavioral problems and conduct disorders of childhood.
Romero, Estrella; Rodríguez, Concepción; Villar, Paula; Gómez-Fraguela, X Antón
The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term effects of a manualised program which intervenes on children with early-onset conduct problems, their families and teachers. The program evaluation involved 14 primary schools which were randomly assigned to the intervention (45 participating families) and control (30 families) conditions during 2007-2008. After a screening process which identified children with significant conduct problems both at home with their family and at school, the program was implemented in eight schools. Seven years later, 58 families (37 from the intervention group and 21 from the control group), with characteristics equivalent to those of the study's entire initial group, were contacted again. With measures administered to the children and their parents, comparisons through multivariate analyses of variance between intervention and control groups supported the program's efficacy in reducing both conduct problems and relations with antisocial peers. Furthermore, the program fostered social and communication skills. As regards drug use, the intervention group showed less favourable attitudes towards drugs, lower intention of drug use, lower frequency of tobacco use and lower intensity of alcohol use. These results support the usefulness of multicomponent programs for conduct problems as a way to prevent, in the long term, unfavourable developmental trajectories, where drug use is a key element.
... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Jamila Reid, M; Stoolmiller, Mike
School readiness, conceptualized as three components including emotional self-regulation, social competence, and family/school involvement, as well as absence of conduct problems play a key role in young children's future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate increased emotional dysregulation, fewer social skills, less teacher/parent involvement and more conduct problems. Consequently intervention offered to socio-economically disadvantaged populations that includes a social and emotional school curriculum and trains teachers in effective classroom management skills and in promotion of parent-school involvement would seem to be a strategic strategy for improving young children's school readiness, leading to later academic success and prevention of the development of conduct disorders. This randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management and Child Social and Emotion curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a universal prevention program for children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected because of high rates of poverty. Trained teachers offered the Dinosaur School curriculum to all their students in bi-weekly lessons throughout the year. They sent home weekly dinosaur homework to encourage parents' involvement. Part of the curriculum involved promotion of lesson objectives through the teachers' continual use of positive classroom management skills focused on building social competence and emotional self-regulation skills as well as decreasing conduct problems. Matched pairs of schools were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Results from multi-level models on a total of 153 teachers and 1,768 students are presented. Children and teachers were observed in the classrooms by blinded observers at the beginning and the end of the school year. Results indicated that
This paper seeks to critically review a traditional objection to preventive medicine (which I call here the 'prevention problem'). The prevention problem is a concern about the supposedly inequitable distribution of benefits and risks of harm resulting from preventive medicine's focus on population-based interventions. This objection is potentially applicable to preventive vaccination programmes and could be used to argue that such programmes are unethical. I explore the structure of the prevention problem by focusing upon two different types of vaccination (therapeutic vaccination and preventive vaccination). I argue that the 'prevention problem' cannot be fairly applied to the case of preventive vaccination because such programmes do not just focus upon benefits at the level of populations (as is claimed by the prevention problem). Most such preventive vaccination programmes explicitly seek to create and maintain herd protection. I argue that herd protection is an important public good which is a benefit shared by all individuals in the relevant population. This fact can then be used to block the 'prevention problem' argument in relation to preventive vaccination programmes. I conclude by suggesting that whilst the future development and use of therapeutic vaccines does raise some interesting ethical issues, any ethical objections to prophylactic vaccination on the basis of the 'prevention problem' will not be overcome through the substitution of therapeutic vaccines for preventive vaccines; indeed, the 'prevention problem' fails on its own terms in relation to preventive vaccination programmes.
Full Text Available Disruptive behavior disorders in children are on the increase. However, there is evidence that the younger a child is at the time of intervention, the more positive the behavioral effects on his/her adjustment at home and at school. Parental education might be an effective way of addressing early problems. The Incredible Years (IY programs were designed to prevent and treat behavior problems when they first appear (in infancy-toddlerhood through middle childhood and to intervene in multiple areas through parent, teacher, and child training. This paper summarizes the literature demonstrating the impact of the IY parent, teacher and child intervention programs, and describes in more detail the work done in Portugal so far to disseminate IY programs with fidelity, with particular emphasis on the IY Basic Preschool Parenting and Teacher Classroom Management programs.
Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part
Lin, Wen-Hsu; Yi, Chin-Chun
Although sleep has been linked to activities in various domains of life, one under-studied link is the relationship between unhealthy sleep practices and conduct problems among adolescents. The present study investigates the influence of adolescents' unhealthy sleep practices-short sleep (e.g., less than 6 h a day), inconsistent sleep schedule (e.g., social jetlag), and sleep problems-on conduct problems (e.g., substance use, fighting, and skipping class). In addition, this study examines unhealthy sleep practices in relationship to adolescent emotional well-being, defiant attitudes, and academic performance, as well as these three domains as possible mediators of the longitudinal association between sleep practices and conduct problems. Three waves of the Taiwan Youth Project (n = 2,472) were used in this study. At the first time-point examined in this study, youth (51% male) were aged 13-17 (M = 13.3). The results indicated that all three measures of unhealthy sleep practices were related to conduct problems, such that short sleep, greater social jetlag, and more serious sleep problems were concurrently associated with greater conduct problems. In addition, short sleep and sleep problems predicted conduct problems one year later. Furthermore, these three unhealthy sleep practices were differently related to poor academic performance, low levels of emotional well-being, and defiant attitudes, and some significant indirect effects on later conduct problems through these three attributes were found. Cultural differences and suggestions for prevention are discussed.
Shaw, Daniel S.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.
The current paper reviewed extant literature on the intersection between poverty and the development of conduct problems (CP) in early childhood. Associations between exposure to poverty and disruptive behavior were reviewed through the framework of models emphasizing how the stressors associated with poverty indirectly influence child CP by compromising parent psychological resources, investments in children’s welfare, and/or caregiving quality. We expanded upon the most well studied of these models, the family stress model, by emphasizing the mediating contribution of parent psychological resources on children’s risk for early CP, in addition to the mediating effects of parenting. Specifically, in we focused on the contribution of maternal depression, both in terms of compromising parenting quality and exposing children to even higher levels of stressful events and contexts. Implications of the adapted family stress model were then discussed in terms of its implications for the prevention and treatment of young children’s emerging CP. PMID:24471370
Loney, Bryan R.; Lima, Elizabeth N.; Butler, Melanie A.
This study examined for profiles of positive trait affectivity (PA) and negative trait affectivity (NA) associated with adolescent conduct problems. Prior trait affectivity research has been relatively biased toward the assessment of adults and internalizing symptomatology. Consistent with recent developmental modeling of antisocial behavior, this…
Each of the commercial power reactors in the U.S.A. has a pressure vessel surveillance program. The purpose of the programs is to monitor the effects of radiation on the mechanical properties on the steel pressure vessels. A program for a given reactor includes a series of irradiation capsules containing neutron dosimeters and mechanical property specimens. The capsules are periodically removed during the life of the reactor and evaluated. The surveillance capsule examinations conducted to date have been valuable in assessing the effects of radiation on pressure vessels. However, a number of problems have been observed in the course of capsule examinations which potentially could reduce the maximum value of the data obtained. These problems are related to specimen design and preparation, capsule design and preparation, capsule installation and removal, capsule disassembly, specimen testing and evaluation, program documentation, and quality assurance. Examples of problems encountered in the preceding areas are presented in the present paper, and recommendations are made for minimization or prevention of these problems in future programs. Included in the recommendations is that appropriate ASTM standards, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code sections, and NRC regulations provide the appropriate framework for prevention of problems
Sheptalov, N N
The author presents data on the incidence of diseases involving temporary invalidity among workers of the Moscow Railway. The difference in morbidity levels at various enterprises in this branch of industry is as high as 2.9 to 5.9 times, which fact is regarded as a sign of uncontrollable increase of morbidity among the workers of the predominant part of the production. A system of registration and organizational measures aimed at morbidity prevention, conditionally named Automated Monitoring System 'Morbidity' (AMSM) is presented. Results of distribution of morbidity by "days" in the final line 30 of record file 16BH in relative compatible parameters are described. Introduction of AMSM resulted in reduction of morbidity in 1993 as reflected in line 35 in "days" by 10% vs. the year 1992 and in a different rating of a test enterprise TC-18 in the total group of the Moscow Railway Depot, which moved from the 4th to 10th position. Economical estimation of the benefit due to morbidity reduction and validation of cost efficacy and self support of AMSM are presented.
This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...
Linda Kersten; Noortje Vriends; Martin Steppan; Nora M. Raschle; Martin Praetzlich; Helena Oldenhof; Robert Vermeiren; Lucres Jansen; Katharina Ackermann; Anka Bernhard; Anne Martinelli; Karen Gonzalez-Madruga; Ignazio Puzzo; Amy Wells; Jack C. Rogers
Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also te...
Rhee, Soo Hyun; Friedman, Naomi P; Corley, Robin P; Hewitt, John K; Hink, Laura K; Johnson, Daniel P; Smith Watts, Ashley K; Young, Susan E; Robinson, JoAnn; Waldman, Irwin D; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn
The present study tested specific hypotheses advanced by the developmental propensity model of the etiology of conduct problems in the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study, a prospective, longitudinal, genetically informative sample. High negative emotionality, low behavioral inhibition, low concern and high disregard for others, and low cognitive ability assessed during toddlerhood (age 14 to 36 months) were examined as predictors of conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence (age 4 to 17 years). Each hypothesized antisocial propensity dimension predicted conduct problems, but some predictions may be context specific or due to method covariance. The most robust predictors were observed disregard for others (i.e., responding to others' distress with active, negative responses such as anger and hostility), general cognitive ability, and language ability, which were associated with conduct problems reported by parents, teachers, and adolescents, and change in observed negative emotionality (i.e., frustration tolerance), which was associated with conduct problems reported by teachers and adolescents. Furthermore, associations between the most robust early predictors and later conduct problems were influenced by the shared environment rather than genes. We conclude that shared environmental influences that promote disregard for others and detract from cognitive and language development during toddlerhood also predispose individuals to conduct problems in later childhood and adolescence. The identification of those shared environmental influences common to early antisocial propensity and later conduct problems is an important future direction, and additional developmental behavior genetic studies examining the interaction between children's characteristics and socializing influences on conduct problems are needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Simons-Morton, Bruce; Chen, Rusan; Hand, Laura Shaffer; Haynie, Denise A.
This research examined the relationship between parenting practices and adolescent conduct problems and the mediation of these relationships by two parent-adolescent relationship variables, conflict and psychological autonomy. Autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) analyses were used to assess relationships over time between parent practices and adolescent conduct problems. Participants were 2,453 students recruited from 7 public middle schools and assessed 5 times between fall of 6th and 9th...
This paper focuses on the contribution of the second order corrector in periodic homogenization applied to a conductive-radiative heat transfer problem. Especially, for a heat conduction problem in a periodically perforated domain with a non-local boundary condition modelling the radiative heat transfer, if this model contains an oscillating thermal source and a thermal exchange with the perforations, the second order corrector helps us to model the gradients which appear between the source a...
Early behavioural problems in children may place them at risk of alcohol abuse in later life. The study investigated the association between childhood conduct problem and alcohol abuse of students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The data for this cross sectional study was collected from a randomly selected sample of ...
Kersten, Linda; Vriends, Noortje; Steppan, Martin; Raschle, Nora M; Praetzlich, Martin; Oldenhof, Helena; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres; Ackermann, Katharina; Bernhard, Anka; Martinelli, Anne; Gonzalez-Madruga, Karen; Puzzo, Ignazio; Wells, Amy; Rogers, Jack C; Clanton, Roberta; Baker, Rosalind H; Grisley, Liam; Baumann, Sarah; Gundlach, Malou; Kohls, Gregor; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel A; Sesma-Pardo, Eva; Dochnal, Roberta; Lazaratou, Helen; Kalogerakis, Zacharias; Bigorra Gualba, Aitana; Smaragdi, Areti; Siklósi, Réka; Dikeos, Dimitris; Hervás, Amaia; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu; De Brito, Stephane A; Konrad, Kerstin; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Fairchild, Graeme; Freitag, Christine M; Popma, Arne; Kieser, Meinhard; Stadler, Christina
Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD). Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1) to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2) to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression), age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES); and (3) to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD) aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), respectively). The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls). The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing violence
Full Text Available Exposure to community violence through witnessing or being directly victimized has been associated with conduct problems in a range of studies. However, the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE and conduct problems has never been studied separately in healthy individuals and individuals with conduct disorder (CD. Therefore, it is not clear whether the association between CVE and conduct problems is due to confounding factors, because those with high conduct problems also tend to live in more violent neighborhoods, i.e., an ecological fallacy. Hence, the aim of the present study was: (1 to investigate whether the association between recent CVE and current conduct problems holds true for healthy controls as well as adolescents with a diagnosis of CD; (2 to examine whether the association is stable in both groups when including effects of aggression subtypes (proactive/reactive aggression, age, gender, site and socioeconomic status (SES; and (3 to test whether proactive or reactive aggression mediate the link between CVE and conduct problems. Data from 1178 children and adolescents (62% female; 44% CD aged between 9 years and 18 years from seven European countries were analyzed. Conduct problems were assessed using the Kiddie-Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia diagnostic interview. Information about CVE and aggression subtypes was obtained using self-report questionnaires (Social and Health Assessment and Reactive-Proactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ, respectively. The association between witnessing community violence and conduct problems was significant in both groups (adolescents with CD and healthy controls. The association was also stable after examining the mediating effects of aggression subtypes while including moderating effects of age, gender and SES and controlling for effects of site in both groups. There were no clear differences between the groups in the strength of the association between witnessing
Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.
Knudsen, Kim; Lassas, Matti; Mueller, Jennifer
A strategy for regularizing the inversion procedure for the two-dimensional D-bar reconstruction algorithm based on the global uniqueness proof of Nachman [Ann. Math. 143 (1996)] for the ill-posed inverse conductivity problem is presented. The strategy utilizes truncation of the boundary integral...... equation and the scattering transform. It is shown that this leads to a bound on the error in the scattering transform and a stable reconstruction of the conductivity; an explicit rate of convergence in appropriate Banach spaces is derived as well. Numerical results are also included, demonstrating...... the convergence of the reconstructed conductivity to the true conductivity as the noise level tends to zero. The results provide a link between two traditions of inverse problems research: theory of regularization and inversion methods based on complex geometrical optics. Also, the procedure is a novel...
Simons-Morton, Bruce; Chen, Rusan; Hand, Laura Shaffer; Haynie, Denise L.
This research examined the relationship between parenting practices and adolescent conduct problems and the mediation of these relationships by two parent-adolescent relationship variables, conflict and psychological autonomy. Autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) analyses were used to assess relationships over time between parent practices and…
Marcus, David K.; Fulton, Jessica J.; Clarke, Erin J.
This meta-analysis examined the association between conduct problems and lead exposure. Nineteen studies on 8,561 children and adolescents were included. The average "r" across all 19 studies was 0.19 (p less than 0.001), which is considered a medium effect size. Studies that assessed lead exposure using hair element analysis yielded…
Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara
Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann
Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…
Gresham, Frank M.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lambros, Katina M.
This article reviews the characteristics of children who exhibit a behavior pattern characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention coupled with conduct problems such as fighting, stealing, truancy, noncompliance, and arguing. Procedures for early identification of these so-called "fledgling psychopaths" are described and discussed.…
Mays, Darren; Gilman, Stephen E; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Niaura, Raymond S
Adolescents with conduct problems are more likely to smoke, and tobacco advertising exposure may exacerbate this risk. Males' excess risk for conduct problems and females' susceptibility to advertising suggest gender-specific pathways to smoking. We investigated the associations between gender, conduct problems, and lifetime smoking and adolescents' exposure to tobacco advertising, and we examined prospective relationships with smoking behaviors. Adolescents completed baseline (2001-2004; n = 541) and 5-year follow-up (2007-2009; n =320) interviews for a family study of smoking risk. Baseline interviews assessed conduct problems and tobacco advertising exposure; smoking behavior was assessed at both timepoints. Generalized linear models analyzed gender differences in the relationship between conduct problems, advertising exposure, and smoking behavior at baseline and longitudinally. At baseline, among males, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure independent of demographics and lifetime smoking. Among females at baseline, conduct problems were associated with greater advertising exposure only among never-smokers after adjusting for demographics. In longitudinal analyses, baseline advertising exposure predicted subsequent smoking initiation (i.e., smoking their first cigarette between baseline and follow-up) for females but not for males. Baseline conduct problems predicted current (i.e., daily or weekly) smoking at follow-up for all adolescents in adjusted models. The findings of this study reinforce that conduct problems are a strong predictor of subsequent current smoking for all adolescents and reveal important differences between adolescent males and females in the relationship between conduct problems, tobacco advertising behavior, and smoking behavior. The findings suggest gender-specific preventive interventions targeting advertising exposure may be warranted.
Maslowsky, Julie; Schulenberg, John E.; Zucker, Robert A.
The identification of developmentally specific windows at which key predictors of adolescent substance use are most influential is a crucial task for informing the design of appropriately targeted substance use prevention and intervention programs. The current study examined effects of conduct problems and depressive symptomatology on changes in…
Galica, Victoria L; Vannucci, Anna; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley
Social media use has become pervasive in the lives of emerging adults. Although social media may provide individuals with positive opportunities for communication and learning, social media sites also may provide an outlet for youth conduct problems, such as bullying, harassment, and intentional hostility and aggression toward others. Yet, the relationship between social media use and conduct problems remains unclear. This study investigated the association between conduct disorder (CD) symptoms before age 15 and social media use during emerging adulthood in a large, nationally representative sample. Concurrent associations between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms and social media use in emerging adults also were examined. Data for this study were based on 567 emerging adults (50.2 percent female; M age = 20.0 years). Self-report questionnaires were completed online. Results suggested that more childhood CD symptoms were significantly associated with greater daily social media use during emerging adulthood, and that more daily social media use was significantly associated with current ASPD symptoms. Possible directional and cyclical explanations for these findings are explored. Given the pervasiveness of social media in the lives of emerging adults, these results underscore the importance of considering nuanced methods for using social media sites to encourage positive social interactions and to displace the promotion of conduct problems.
Zvara, Bharathi J; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha
We examined the mediating role of parenting behavior on the relationship between intimate partner violence and child conduct problems, as well as the moderating role of maternal gatekeeping to these associations. The sample (N = 395) is from a longitudinal study of rural poverty in the eastern United States, exploring the ways in which child, family, and contextual factors shape child development over time. Study findings indicate that a father's harsh-intrusive parenting behavior may be a key mediating pathway linking intimate partner violence and child conduct problems. Study findings further provide evidence for problematic outcomes for children when mothers encourage fathers with high levels of harsh-intrusive parenting to interact with their children.
Alifanov, O M; Nenarokomov, A V; Gonzalez, V M
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a iterative regularization method in the research of radiative and thermal properties of materials with applications in the design of Thermal Control Systems (TCS) of spacecrafts. In this paper the radiative and thermal properties (emissivity and thermal conductance) of a multilayered thermal-insulating blanket (MLI), which is a screen-vacuum thermal insulation as a part of the (TCS) for perspective spacecrafts, are estimated. Properties of the materials under study are determined in the result of temperature and heat flux measurement data processing based on the solution of the Inverse Heat Transfer Problem (IHTP) technique. Given are physical and mathematical models of heat transfer processes in a specimen of the multilayered thermal-insulating blanket located in the experimental facility. A mathematical formulation of the inverse heat conduction problem is presented too. The practical testing were performed for specimen of the real MLI.
Full Text Available The present paper refers to the assessment of three numerical methods for solving the inverse heat conduction problem: the Alifanov’s iterative regularization method, the Tikhonov local regularization method and the Tikhonov equation regularization method, respectively. For all methods we developed numerical algorithms for reconstruction of the unsteady boundary condition imposing some restrictions for the unsteady temperature field in the interior points. Numerical tests allow evaluating the accuracy of the considered methods.
Enrique Gracia; Mª Castillo Fuentes; Fernando García
This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent...
The project will consist of the following interlinked components: two Web-based modules on the basics of occupational health and infection control; three four-day face-to-face workshops; problem-based learning and team building; and community-based learning, to take place while conducting an actual participatory action ...
Paclt, Ivo; Přibilová, Nikol
Next to environmental factors and problems with interpersonal interaction in family represent developmental findings the basic of understanding these disorders (ADHD, conduct disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, tic disorders etc.). Knowledges of neurodevelopment disorders represent new possibilities of prevention and treatment.
Johnson, Ameika M; Hawes, David J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kohlhoff, Jane; Dudeney, Joanne
Decades of research have emphasized the role that coercive and ineffective discipline plays in shaping child and adolescent conduct problems, yet an emerging body of evidence has suggested that parents' emotion socialization behaviors (ESBs) (e.g., reactions to emotions, discussion of emotions, and emotion coaching) may also be implicated. This meta-analysis examined concurrent and longitudinal associations between parental ESBs and conduct problems, and tested for moderators of these associations. A systematic search identified 49 studies for which data on concurrent associations between ESBs and conduct problems were available (n=6270), and 14 studies reporting on prospective associations (n=1899). Parental ESBs were found to be significantly associated with concurrent (r=-0.08) and prospective (r =-0.11) conduct problems, in the order of small effect sizes. Key findings of moderator analyses were that ESBs were more strongly associated with conduct problems at younger ages and when ESBs were focused on the socialization of negative rather than positive emotions. Findings support the integration of ESBs into family-based models of antisocial behavior, and have the potential to inform the design of parent training interventions for the prevention and treatment of child conduct problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of the second order corrector in periodic homogenization applied to a conductive-radiative heat transfer problem. Especially, for a heat conduction problem in a periodically perforated domain with a non-local boundary condition modelling the radiative heat transfer, if this model contains an oscillating thermal source and a thermal exchange with the perforations, the second order corrector helps us to model the gradients which appear between the source area and the perforations. Ce papier est consacré à montrer l’influence du correcteur de second ordre en homogénéisation périodique. Dans l’homogénéisation d’un problème de conduction rayonnement dans un domaine périodiquement perforé par plusieurs trous, on peut voir une contribution non négligeable de ce correcteur lors de la présence d’une source thermique oscillante et d’un échange thermique dans les perforations. Ce correcteur nous permet de modéliser les gradients qui apparaissent entre la zone de la source thermique et les perforations.
Deng Zuicha; Yu Jianning; Yang Liu
This paper deals with the determination of a pair (q, u) in the heat conduction equation u t -u xx +q(x,t)u=0, with initial and boundary conditions u(x,0)=u 0 (x), u x vertical bar x=0 =u x vertical bar x=1 =0, from the overspecified data u(x, t) = g(x, t). By the time semi-discrete scheme, the problem is transformed into a sequence of inverse problems in which the unknown coefficients are purely space dependent. Based on the optimal control framework, the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution (q, u) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and parabolic variational inequality is deduced
Heron, Jon; Maughan, Barbara; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Munafò, Marcus; Hickman, Matthew
We consider the strength of the relationship between types of conduct problems in early life and pattern of alcohol use during adolescence. Children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a U.K. birth-cohort, had their level of conduct problems assessed repeatedly from 4 to 13 years using the maternal report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Developmental trajectories derived from these data were subsequently related to (i) patterns of alcohol use from 13 to 15 years, and (ii) hazardous alcohol used at age 16. Boys with 'Adolescent Onset' or 'Early Onset Persistent' conduct problems were much more likely to be high frequency drinkers between 13 and 15 years (OR 5.00 95% CI=[2.4, 10.6] and 3.9 95% CI=[2.1, 7.3] respectively) compared with those with Low or 'Childhood Limited' conduct. Adolescent Onset/Early Onset Persistent girls also had greater odds of this high-alcohol frequency drinking pattern (2.67 [1.4, 5.0] and 2.14 [1.2, 4.0] respectively). Associations were more moderate for risk of hazardous alcohol use at age 16. Compared to 32% among those with low conduct problems, over 40% of young people classified as showing Adolescent Onset/Early Onset Persistent conduct problems were drinking hazardously (OR 1.52 [1.09, 2.11] and 1.63 [1.22, 2.18] respectively). Whilst persistent conduct problems greatly increase the risk of adolescent alcohol problems, the majority of adolescents reporting hazardous use at age 16 lack such a history. It is important, therefore, to undertake alcohol prevention among all young people as a priority, as well as target people with manifest conduct problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Technical Considerations to Prevent Meatal Problems in Snodgrass Repair. GR Sharma. Abstract. Objectives To emphasize certain technical points which help in preventing meatal problems when using the Snodgrass repair for the treatment of hypospadias. Patients and Methods From April 2000 to June 2003, 23 patients ...
Causes of increasing interest to the problems of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of radiation sickness are presented. On the basis of recent publications some new aspects as quantitative criteria in radiobiology, organization problems of medical aid at radiation incidents estimation of efficiency of preventive medicine and radiation sickness therapy, theoretical development of radiotherapy of different organs et al., are characterized
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann
Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those with better executive function, and (b) this mechanism would be further moderated by the degree of household chaos. The socioeconomically diverse sample included 147 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers completed questionnaires and a laboratory assessment of executive function. Consistent with hypotheses, harsh parenting was linked with child conduct problems only among mothers with poorer executive function. This effect was particularly strong in calm, predictable environments, but was not evident in chaotic environments. Maternal executive function is critical to minimizing harsh parenting in the context of challenging child behavior, but this self-regulation process may not operate well in chaotic environments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Wilson, D.G.; Williams, M.A.
1 - Description of program or function: IMPSOR implements finite difference methods for multidimensional moving boundary problems with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. The geometry of the spatial domain is a rectangular parallelepiped with dimensions specified by the user. Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions may be specified on each face of the box independently. The user defines the initial and boundary conditions as well as the thermal and physical properties of the problem and several parameters for the numerical method, e.g. degree of implicitness, time-step size. 2 - Method of solution: The spatial domain is partitioned and the governing equation discretized, which yields a nonlinear system of equations at each time-step. This nonlinear system is solved using a successive over-relaxation (SOR) algorithm. For a given node, the previous iteration's temperature and thermal conductivity values are used for advanced points with current values at previous points. This constitutes a Gauss-Seidel iteration. Most of the computing time used by the numerical method is spent in the iterative solution of the nonlinear system. The SOR scheme employed is designed to accommodate vectorization on a Cray X-MP. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum of 70,000 nodes
It is well established that children of problem drinkers have an increased risk of developing mental health problems, including drinking and drug misuse problems, depression, eating disorders, conduct disorders, and delinquency. However, compared to the hundreds of studies that have examined the effects of parental problem drinking on their…
Sarver, Dustin E; McCart, Michael R; Sheidow, Ashli J; Letourneau, Elizabeth J
Recent studies have linked attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to elevated rates of risky sexual behavior (RSB) in adult samples. The current study tested whether ADHD symptoms were associated with RSB among adolescents, and examined comorbid conduct problems and problematic substance use as joint mediators of this association. ADHD symptoms, conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder symptoms), problematic alcohol use (alcohol use disorder symptoms, alcohol use frequency), problematic marijuana use (marijuana use disorder symptoms, marijuana use frequency), and RSB were assessed among an ethnically diverse cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N = 115; mean age = 14.9 years) involved in the juvenile justice system. Bootstrapped mediation models revealed an initial association between ADHD symptoms and RSB that was accounted for fully by the influence of problematic alcohol and marijuana use, but not conduct problems. A follow-up multiple groups mediation analysis demonstrated that the relationship between ADHD symptoms and RSB emerged only among youth with clinically elevated conduct problems, and that problematic marijuana use fully accounted for this relationship. Hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive, symptoms were related to RSB, although the pattern of indirect effects was consistent with the multiple groups analysis. The association between ADHD and adolescent RSB is restricted to youth with elevated comorbid conduct problems and reflects the contributions of comorbid marijuana use problems, and to a lesser extent alcohol use problems. Early identification and treatment of these comorbid conditions may be important for the prevention of negative sexual health outcomes among youth with ADHD. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Galán, Chardée A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N
The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information.
Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi
Noninvasive methods for deep body temperature measurement are based on the principle of heat equilibrium between the thermal sensor and the target location theoretically. However, the measurement position is not able to be definitely determined. In this study, a 2-dimensional mathematical model was built based upon some assumptions for the physiological condition of the human abdomen phantom. We evaluated the feasibility in estimating the internal organs temperature distribution from the readings of the temperature sensors arranged on the skin surface. It is a typical inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), and is usually mathematically ill-posed. In this study, by integrating some physical and physiological a-priori information, we invoked the quasi-linear (QL) method to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution. The solutions of this method were improved by increasing the accuracy of the sensors and adjusting their arrangement on the outer surface, and eventually reached the state of converging at the best state accurately. This study suggests that QL method is able to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution in this phantom and might be worthy of a further study in an anatomical based model.
Verdaasdonk, E.G.G.; Stassen, L.P.S.; Hoffmann, W.F.; Van der Elst, M.; Dankelman, J.
Background A high incidence of problems with the technical equipment is known to occur during routine laparoscopic procedures. Use of a structured checklist of preparatory measures could help to prevent these problems. This study aimed to determine the extent to which a checklist reduced the number
It is well established that children of problem drinkers have an increased risk of developing mental health problems, including drinking and drug misuse problems, depression, eating disorders, conduct disorders, and delinquency. However, compared to the hundreds of studies that have examined the
Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafo, Marcus R.; Heron, Jon
Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior
... how chronic harsh paternal parenting caused a young boy to deliberately poison himself with organophosphate chemicals (rat poison). This report is intended to stimulate the interest of physicians and psychiatrists in parenting style research and in how parenting style modification can be a therapeutic and preventive tool.
and influence their physical, emotional, social and intellectual development.1 Theories ... towards a better physical and psychosocial outcome, hence preventing ill health and promoting well-being.2. Parenting style is important, because several reports indicate that it predicts how children perform in the domains of social.
Parrish, Ian J.; Sharma, Prateek; Quataert, Eliot
We examine the long-standing cooling flow problem in galaxy clusters with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of isolated clusters including radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. The central regions of the intracluster medium (ICM) can have cooling timescales of ∼200 Myr or shorter-in order to prevent a cooling catastrophe the ICM must be heated by some mechanism such as active galactic nucleus feedback or thermal conduction from the thermal reservoir at large radii. The cores of galaxy clusters are linearly unstable to the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), which significantly changes the thermodynamics of the cluster core. The HBI is a convective, buoyancy-driven instability that rearranges the magnetic field to be preferentially perpendicular to the temperature gradient. For a wide range of parameters, our simulations demonstrate that in the presence of the HBI, the effective radial thermal conductivity is reduced to ∼<10% of the full Spitzer conductivity. With this suppression of conductive heating, the cooling catastrophe occurs on a timescale comparable to the central cooling time of the cluster. Thermal conduction alone is thus unlikely to stabilize clusters with low central entropies and short central cooling timescales. High central entropy clusters have sufficiently long cooling times that conduction can help stave off the cooling catastrophe for cosmologically interesting timescales.
Full Text Available We consider the stationary heat transfer near the contact line of an evaporating liquid wedge surrounded by the atmosphere of its pure vapor. In a simplified setting, the problem reduces to the Laplace equation in a half circle, subject to a non-homogeneous and singular boundary condition. By classical tools (conformal mapping, Green's function, we reformulate the problem as an integral equation for the unknown Neumann boundary condition in the setting of appropriate fractional Sobolev and weighted space. The unique solvability is then obtained by means of the Fredholm theorem.
Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John
Antisocial children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits appear to be disconnected from other people's emotions; although little is known about their experience of the parent-child emotional bond. This study examined parent-child attachment relationships and levels of CU traits in conduct-problem children. Attachment classifications in boys (M = 6.31 years) with disruptive behaviour disorders were assessed using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task. Multiple informants rated children's CU traits. Independent of severity of conduct problems, high levels of CU traits were associated with more insecure attachment; specifically, disorganised attachment representations; however, CU traits were not associated with avoidant representations. Among conduct-problem children, those higher on CU traits appear to be at increased risk of experiencing disruptions in parent-child attachment relationships; attachment may be an important area for treatment and prevention efforts for CU traits in young children. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Takushi, Ruby Y; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lostutter, Ty W; Cronce, Jessica M; Marlatt, G Alan
This research provides a brief qualitative description of the development of an indicated prevention intervention for college student gamblers. The proposed intervention integrates alcohol prevention strategies with elements of gambling treatment. The intervention combines cognitive-behavioral skills-training and motivational interviewing and includes personalized normative feedback, cognitive correction, discussion of gambling consequences, and relapse prevention techniques. Examples detailing all phases of the intervention are provided from interviews conducted in a pilot of the intervention. Preliminary pilot data suggests the intervention shows promise in reducing high risk gambling among college students.
Smolak, Linda; Levine, Michael P.
It is important for adults who work with youth to know how to address the issues of eating disorders and steroid use. This article provides signs and symptoms for both, and then gives practical suggestions for talking with youth about a potential problem. It ends with prevention strategies for adults who work with youth. (Contains 3 tables.)
Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…
Ames, Genevieve M.; Bennett, Joel B.
The workplace offers advantages as a setting for interventions that result in primary prevention of alcohol abuse. Such programs have the potential to reach broad audiences and populations that would otherwise not receive prevention programs and, thereby, benefit both the employee and employer. Researchers have implemented and evaluated a variety of workplace alcohol problem prevention efforts in recent years, including programs focused on health promotion, social health promotion, brief interventions, and changing the work environment. Although some studies reported significant reductions in alcohol use outcomes, additional research with a stronger and integrated methodological approach is needed. The field of workplace alcohol prevention also might benefit from a guiding framework, such as the one proposed in this article. PMID:22330216
Kretschmer, Tina; Hickman, Matthew; Doerner, Rita; Emond, Alan; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Maughan, Barbara; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon
Although conduct problems in childhood are stably associated with problem outcomes, not every child who presents with conduct problems is at risk. This study extends previous studies by testing whether childhood conduct problem trajectories are predictive of a wide range of other health and behavior problems in early adulthood using a general population sample. Based on 7,218 individuals from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, a three-step approach was used to model childhood conduct problem development and identify differences in early adult health and behavior problems. Childhood conduct problems were assessed on six occasions between age 4 and 13 and health and behavior outcomes were measured at age 18. Individuals who displayed early-onset persistent conduct problems throughout childhood were at greater risk for almost all forms of later problems. Individuals on the adolescent-onset conduct problem path consumed more tobacco and illegal drugs and engaged more often in risky sexual behavior than individuals without childhood conduct problems. Levels of health and behavior problems for individuals on the childhood-limited path were in between those for stable low and stable high trajectories. Childhood conduct problems are pervasive and substantially affect adjustment in early adulthood both in at-risk samples as shown in previous studies, but also in a general population sample. Knowing a child's developmental course can help to evaluate the risk for later maladjustment and be indicative of the need for early intervention.
Wu, Johnny; Witkiewitz, Katie; McMahon, Robert J; Dodge, Kenneth A
Conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior have been shown to coexist among adolescents, which may lead to significant health problems. The current study was designed to examine relations among these problem behaviors in a community sample of children at high risk for conduct disorder. A latent growth model of childhood conduct problems showed a decreasing trend from grades K to 5. During adolescence, four concurrent conduct problem and substance use trajectory classes were identified (high conduct problems and high substance use, increasing conduct problems and increasing substance use, minimal conduct problems and increasing substance use, and minimal conduct problems and minimal substance use) using a parallel process growth mixture model. Across all substances (tobacco, binge drinking, and marijuana use), higher levels of childhood conduct problems during kindergarten predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic adolescent trajectory classes relative to less problematic classes. For tobacco and binge drinking models, increases in childhood conduct problems over time also predicted a greater probability of classification into more problematic classes. For all models, individuals classified into more problematic classes showed higher proportions of early sexual intercourse, infrequent condom use, receiving money for sexual services, and ever contracting an STD. Specifically, tobacco use and binge drinking during early adolescence predicted higher levels of sexual risk taking into late adolescence. Results highlight the importance of studying the conjoint relations among conduct problems, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in a unified model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Velickovic, Zoran; Jankovic, Dragan; Perovic, Miodrag; Tiodorovic, Branislav; Miljkovic, Predrag; Rancic, Natasa; Spasic, Mihajlo
Vaccination is the fastest, most efficient and the cheapest measure to prevent communicable diseases. The purpose of the work was to evaluate the results of primary vaccination as well as the first revaccination by DPT,OPV and MMR vaccines. Descriptive epidemiological study was used. The investigation was done in the Primary Health Center in Nis and it involved all the children who were born in 2000, 2001, 2006 and 2007. A total number of 1863 vaccination records were examened. In the sample of examened records of children who were born in 2000 and 2001, there were 155 children (12.05%) who were vaccinated with different vaccines and according to the different vaccination schedules. The number of childern born in 2006 and 2007 was slightly higher and it was (14.70%). In the first group (children who were born in 2000 and 2001) there were 43 children (4.51%) who were not vaccinated (3 children haven't been vaccinated by DPT, and other 40 haven't been vaccinated by MMR). Similar situation was in the second group (children who were born in 2006 and 2007) in which 37 children (4.03%) haven't been vaccinated at all (3 of them by DPT and other 34 by MMR). In both observed groups DPT vaccine immunization started out late. 48.25% of children from the first group haven't been vaccinated with the first dose of DPT on time. 58.53% of children born in 2006 and 2007 haven't been vaccinated with the first dose of DPT on time. The first re-vaccination by DPT was also late in children born 2000 and 2001 (16.6% vs 45.36%). It was also delayed the first revaccination by MMR (10.3% vs 22.53%). To achieve the expected effects should be vaccinated at least 95% of planned persons but also make timely vaccinations. While the main goal of immunization is to prevent illness and death, the overriding concern of any public health intervention must be "Primum non nocere". A small number of post-vaccinal reactions is registered, and there haven't been registered cases of adverse events
Azimah, Mn; Khairani, O
To describe the management of mild conduct problems in an adolescent at the primary care level. A 16 year old girl presented with conduct problems with impending school suspension. The cause of her behavioural problems was mainly related to poor parenting skills of her parents and anger in herself. She was successfully managed with counselling and improvement of parenting styles in her parents. This case report illustrates the opportunity for family physicians to manage simple conduct problems at primary care level.
Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Sembower, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda
Among girls, little is known about the shared and unique associations that callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors and conduct problems have with aspects of emotional and behavioral dysregulation and with parenting practices. This study examined these associations using a large community-based sample of young girls (N = 990). The findings revealed that hyperactivity-impulsivity and negative emotionality were positively and uniquely associated with conduct problems, but not with CU behaviors, after controlling for co-occurring conduct problems. Conduct problems were also positively associated with both generalized anxiety and panic/somatic anxiety. In contrast, CU behaviors were negatively related to generalized anxiety problems after controlling for co-occurring conduct problems. The results also indicated that conduct problems were more closely associated with harsh punishment and low parental warmth among girls with low versus high CU behaviors.
Glaser, Beate; Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.
Purpose Conduct problems and peer effects are among the strongest risk factors for adolescent substance use and problem use. However, it is unclear to what extent the effects of conduct problems and peer behavior interact, and whether adolescents' capacity to refuse the offer of substances may moderate such links. This study was conducted to examine relationships between conduct problems, close friends' substance use, and refusal assertiveness with adolescents' alcohol use problems, tobacco, and marijuana use. Methods We studied a population-based sample of 1,237 individuals from the Cardiff Study of All Wales and North West of England Twins aged 11–18 years. Adolescent and mother-reported information was obtained. Statistical analyses included cross-sectional and prospective logistic regression models and family-based permutations. Results Conduct problems and close friends' substance use were associated with increased adolescents' substance use, whereas refusal assertiveness was associated with lower use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. Peer substance use moderated the relationship between conduct problems and alcohol use problems, such that conduct problems were only related to increased risk for alcohol use problems in the presence of substance-using friends. This effect was found in both cross-sectional and prospective analyses and confirmed using the permutation approach. Conclusions Reduced opportunities for interaction with alcohol-using peers may lower the risk of alcohol use problems in adolescents with conduct problems. PMID:20547290
Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with ADHD during childhood, in the context of three potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data emanated from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood (F1,118 change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069) and adolescent (F1,109 change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083) conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young-adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young-adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. PMID:26854507
Full Text Available Prolonged hypotensive effect in the postoperative period is one of the main tasks of modern glaucoma surgery. In connection with this, the aim of our study is to develop a surgical method of prevention of scarring during the classical sinustrabeculectomy. Material and Methods. The operation was performed in 13 patients (13 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG ll-lll (B-C in steps aged 50-70 years. The duration of observation up of 2 year. Results. After 9-12 months of hypotensive efficacy was 100% (13 eyes in 20-24 months — 98% (12 of 13 eyes. The result was confirmed using standard methods of examination (visometry, tonometry, computerized perimetry, tonography et al., in the early postoperative period was performed optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment, then — ultrasound biomicroscopy. Conclusions. Developed a new version of the surgical treatment of glaucoma a long-acting hypotensive effect.
Owens, Elizabeth B.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with ADHD during childhood, in the context of three potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data emanated from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls with ADHD Longitud...
Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L
To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.
Wertz, Jasmin; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Caspi, Avshalom; Danese, Andrea; Fisher, Helen L; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Moffitt, Terrie E; Arseneault, Louise
Childhood conduct problems are associated with poor functioning in early adulthood. We tested a series of hypotheses to understand the mechanisms underlying this association. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a birth cohort of 2,232 twins born in England and Wales in 1994 and 1995, followed up to age 18 years with 93% retention. Severe conduct problems in childhood were assessed at ages 5, 7, and 10 years using parent and teacher reports. Poor functioning at age 18 years, including cautions and convictions, daily cigarette smoking, heavy drinking, and psychosocial difficulties, was measured through interviews with participants and official crime record searches. Participants 18 years old with versus without a childhood history of severe conduct problems had greater rates of each poor functional outcome, and they were more likely to experience multiple poor outcomes. This association was partly accounted for by concurrent psychopathology in early adulthood, as well as by early familial risk factors, both genetic and environmental. Childhood conduct problems, however, continued to predict poor outcomes at age 18 years after accounting for these explanations. Children with severe conduct problems display poor functioning at age 18 years because of concurrent problems in early adulthood and familial risk factors originating in childhood. However, conduct problems also exert a lasting effect on young people's lives independent of these factors, pointing to early conduct problems as a target for early interventions aimed at preventing poor functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prescrire's analyses showed that the quality of drug packaging in 2010 still left much to be desired. Potentially dangerous packaging remains a significant problem: unclear labelling is source of medication errors; dosing devices for some psychotropic drugs create a risk of overdose; child-proof caps are often lacking; and too many patient information leaflets are misleading or difficult to understand. Everything that is needed for safe drug packaging is available; it is now up to regulatory agencies and drug companies to act responsibly. In the meantime, health professionals can help their patients by learning to identify the pitfalls of drug packaging and providing safe information to help prevent medication errors.
Shepard, Stephanie A; Dickstein, Susan
The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of preventive interventions targeting parents when addressing early childhood behavior problems. The authors briefly review evidence-based parent management training programs, focusing on one particular program, the Incredible Years (IY) Series. Next, the authors discuss the barriers to embedding evidence-based practice such as IY in community contexts and demonstrate how early childhood mental health consultation can be used to enhance community capacity to adopt evidence-based practice and improve outcomes for the large number of young children and their families in need.
Schulz-Heik, R Jay; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Silvern, Louise E; Haberstick, Brett C; Hopfer, Christian; Lessem, Jeffrey M; Hewitt, John K
It is often assumed that childhood maltreatment causes conduct problems via an environmentally mediated process. However, the association may be due alternatively to either a nonpassive gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children's genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them, or a passive gene-environment correlation, in which parents' tendency to engage in maltreatment and children's conduct problems are both influenced by a hereditary vulnerability to antisocial behavior (i.e. genetic mediation). The present study estimated the contribution of these processes to the association between maltreatment and conduct problems. Bivariate behavior genetic analyses were conducted on approximately 1,650 twin and sibling pairs drawn from a large longitudinal study of adolescent health (Add Health). The correlation between maltreatment and conduct problems was small; much of the association between maltreatment and conduct problems was due to a nonpassive gene-environment correlation. Results were more consistent with the hypothesis that parents respond to children's genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them than the hypothesis that maltreatment causes conduct problems.
Shahriari, Mohammadreza; Shoja, Naghi; Zade, Amir Ebrahimi; Barak, Sasan; Sharifi, Mani
This article investigates a JIT single machine scheduling problem with a periodic preventive maintenance. Also to maintain the quality of the products, there is a limitation on the maximum number of allowable jobs in each period. The proposed bi-objective mixed integer model minimizes total earliness-tardiness and makespan simultaneously. Due to the computational complexity of the problem, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm is implemented. Also, as well as MOPSO, two other optimization algorithms are used for comparing the results. Eventually, Taguchi method with metrics analysis is presented to tune the algorithms' parameters and a multiple criterion decision making technique based on the technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution is applied to choose the best algorithm. Comparison results confirmed the supremacy of MOPSO to the other algorithms.
Snyder, James; Schrepferman, Lynn; McEachern, Amber; Barner, Stacy; Johnson, Kassy; Provines, Jessica
The prospective relationships of conduct problems and peer coercion and deviancy training during kindergarten (mean age = 5.3 years) to overt and covert conduct problems in third-fourth grade were examined in a sample of 267 boys and girls. Coercion and deviancy training were distinct peer processes. Both were associated with earlier child conduct…
Powers, Christopher J.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coffman, Donna L.
Background: Students with early-starting conduct problems often do poorly in school; they are disproportionately placed in restrictive educational placements outside of mainstream classrooms. Although intended to benefit students, research suggests that restrictive placements may exacerbate the maladjustment of youth with conduct problems. Mixed…
Raudino, Alessandra; Woodward, Lianne J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
This paper uses data from a sample of 337 parents studied at age 30 to examine the linkages between childhood conduct problems assessed at ages 7-9 and later partnership and parenting outcomes. The key findings of this study were: 1) increasing levels of childhood conduct problems were associated with increased risk of partnership difficulties,…
Connor, Carol McDonald
Children who fail to learn to read proficiently are at serious risk of referral to special education, grade retention, dropping out of high school, and entering the juvenile justice system. Accumulating research suggests that instruction regimes that rely on assessment to inform instruction are effective in improving the implementation of personalized instruction and, in turn, student learning. However, teachers find it difficult to interpret assessment results in a way that optimizes learning opportunities for all of the students in their classrooms. This article focuses on the use of language, decoding, and comprehension assessments to develop personalized plans of literacy instruction for students from kindergarten through third grade, and A2i technology designed to support teachers' use of assessment to guide instruction. Results of seven randomized controlled trials demonstrate that personalized literacy instruction is more effective than traditional instruction, and that sustained implementation of personalized literacy instruction first through third grade may prevent the development of serious reading problems. We found effect sizes from .2 to .4 per school year, which translates into about a 2-month advantage. These effects accumulated from first through third grade with a large effect size (d = .7) equivalent to a full grade-equivalent advantage on standardize tests of literacy. These results demonstrate the efficacy of technology-supported personalized data-driven literacy instruction to prevent serious reading difficulties. Implications for translational prevention research in education and healthcare are discussed.
Khoddam, Rubin; Cho, Junhan; Jackson, Nicholas J; Leventhal, Adam M
To determine whether diminished alternative reinforcement (i.e. engagement and enjoyment from substance-free activities) mediated the longitudinal association of conduct problems with substance use in early-mid-adolescence. Structural equation modeling tested whether the association between wave 1 (baseline) conduct problems and wave 3 (24-month follow-up) substance use outcomes was mediated by diminished alternative reinforcement at wave 2 (12-month follow-up). Additional analyses tested whether sex and socio-economic status moderated this association. Ten high schools in Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2013-15. Students (n = 3396, 53.5% female, mean [standard deviation (SD)] age at wave 1 baseline = 14.1 (0.42) years). Self-reported conduct problems (11-item questionnaire), alternative reinforcement (44-item questionnaire) and use of alcohol, marijuana and combustible cigarettes during the past 6 months (yes/no) and the past 30 days (nine-level ordinal response based on days used in past 30 days). Significant associations of wave 1 conduct problems with wave 3 marijuana use during the past 6 months (β = 0.25) and past 30 days (β = 0.26) were mediated by wave 2 diminished alternative reinforcement (β indirect effect : 6 months = 0.013, 30 days = 0.017, Ps conduct problems with alcohol or combustible cigarette use were not mediated by alternative reinforcement. All associations did not differ by sex and socio-economic status. Diminished alternative reinforcement may be a modifiable mechanism linking early adolescent conduct problems and subsequent marijuana use that could be targeted in prevention programs to offset the adverse health and social sequelae associated with comorbid conduct problems and marijuana use in early-mid adolescence. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Brad M. Farrant
Full Text Available Conduct problems that emerge in childhood often persist into adolescence and are associated with a range of negative outcomes. It is therefore important to identify the factors that predict conduct problems in early childhood. The present study investigated the relations among maternal attachment status, mother-child emotion talk, child emotion understanding, and conduct problems in a sample of 92 (46 males typically developing children (M age = 61.3 months, SD = 8.3 months. The results support a model in which maternal attachment status predicts the level of appropriate/responsive mother-child emotion talk, which predicts child emotion understanding, which in turn negatively predicts child conduct problems. These findings further underline the developmental role of mother-child emotion talk as well as the importance of involving parents in programs designed to increase children’s emotion understanding and/or decrease the incidence of conduct problems.
Full Text Available Background. In adults with antisocial personality disorder, marked alterations in the recognition of facial affect were described. Less consistent data are available on the emotion recognition in adolescents with externalization problems. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation between the recognition of emotions and conduct symptoms in adolescent boys with externalization problems. Methods. Adolescent boys with externalization problems referred to Vadaskert Child Psychiatry Hospital participated in the study after informed consent (N=114, 11–17 years, mean = 13.4. The conduct problems scale of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (parent and self-report was used. The performance in a facial emotion recognition test was assessed. Results. Conduct problems score (parent and self-report was inversely correlated with the overall emotion recognition. In the self-report, conduct problems score was inversely correlated with the recognition of anger, fear, and sadness. Adolescents with high conduct problems scores were significantly worse in the recognition of fear, sadness, and overall recognition than adolescents with low conduct scores, irrespective of age and IQ. Conclusions. Our results suggest that impaired emotion recognition is dimensionally related to conduct problems and might have importance in the development of antisocial behavior.
Aspan, Nikoletta; Vida, Peter; Gadoros, Julia; Halasz, Jozsef
In adults with antisocial personality disorder, marked alterations in the recognition of facial affect were described. Less consistent data are available on the emotion recognition in adolescents with externalization problems. The aim of the present study was to assess the relation between the recognition of emotions and conduct symptoms in adolescent boys with externalization problems. Adolescent boys with externalization problems referred to Vadaskert Child Psychiatry Hospital participated in the study after informed consent (N = 114, 11-17 years, mean = 13.4). The conduct problems scale of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (parent and self-report) was used. The performance in a facial emotion recognition test was assessed. Conduct problems score (parent and self-report) was inversely correlated with the overall emotion recognition. In the self-report, conduct problems score was inversely correlated with the recognition of anger, fear, and sadness. Adolescents with high conduct problems scores were significantly worse in the recognition of fear, sadness, and overall recognition than adolescents with low conduct scores, irrespective of age and IQ. Our results suggest that impaired emotion recognition is dimensionally related to conduct problems and might have importance in the development of antisocial behavior.
Murray, Joseph; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Bordin, Isabel A.
Purpose This study aimed to review evidence on the prevalence of and risk factors for conduct problems in Brazil. Methods We searched electronic databases and contacted Brazilian researchers up to 05/2012. Studies were included in the review if they reported the prevalence of or risk factors for conduct problems, conduct disorder, or oppositional defiant disorder for 100?+?Brazilian children aged ?18?years, systematically sampled in schools or the community. Prevalence rates and sex differenc...
Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan
There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3-6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents' attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents' attitude to school were not significant. A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school.
Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan
Background There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. Method In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3–6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents’ attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Results Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents’ attitude to school were not significant. Conclusions A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school. PMID:22500015
Lauren C Ng
Full Text Available This study developed and validated the Youth Conduct Problems Scale-Rwanda (YCPS-R. Qualitative free listing (n = 74 and key informant interviews (n = 47 identified local conduct problems, which were compared to existing standardized conduct problem scales and used to develop the YCPS-R. The YCPS-R was cognitive tested by 12 youth and caregiver participants, and assessed for test-retest and inter-rater reliability in a sample of 64 youth. Finally, a purposive sample of 389 youth and their caregivers were enrolled in a validity study. Validity was assessed by comparing YCPS-R scores to conduct disorder, which was diagnosed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children, and functional impairment scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule Child Version. ROC analyses assessed the YCPS-R's ability to discriminate between youth with and without conduct disorder. Qualitative data identified a local presentation of youth conduct problems that did not match previously standardized measures. Therefore, the YCPS-R was developed solely from local conduct problems. Cognitive testing indicated that the YCPS-R was understandable and required little modification. The YCPS-R demonstrated good reliability, construct, criterion, and discriminant validity, and fair classification accuracy. The YCPS-R is a locally-derived measure of Rwandan youth conduct problems that demonstrated good psychometric properties and could be used for further research.
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A; Thompson, Lee A
Individual differences in conduct problems arise in part from proneness to anger/frustration and poor self-regulation of behavior. However, the genetic and environmental etiology of these connections is not known. Using a twin design, we examined genetic and environmental covariation underlying the well-documented correlations between anger/frustration, poor attention regulation (i.e., task persistence), and conduct problems in childhood. Participants included 105 pairs of MZ twins and 154 pairs of same-sex DZ twins (4-8 year olds). Independent observers rated child persistence and affect based on behavior during a challenging in-home cognitive and literacy assessment. Teachers and parents provided reports of conduct problems. Persistence, anger/frustration, and conduct problems included moderate heritable and nonshared environmental variance; conduct problems included moderate shared environmental variance as well. Persistence and anger/frustration had independent genetic covariance with conduct problems and nonshared environmental covariance with each other. The findings indicate genetically distinct though inter-related influences linking affective and self-regulatory aspects of temperament with behavior problems in childhood.
Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.
Background Individual differences in conduct problems arise in part from proneness to anger/frustration and poor self-regulation of behavior. However, the genetic and environmental etiology of these connections is not known. Method Using a twin design, we examined genetic and environmental covariation underlying the well-documented correlations between anger/frustration, poor attention regulation (i.e., task persistence), and conduct problems in childhood. Participants included 105 pairs of MZ twins and 154 pairs of same-sex DZ twins (4–8 year olds). Independent observers rated child persistence and affect based on behavior during a challenging in-home cognitive and literacy assessment. Teachers and parents provided reports of conduct problems. Results Persistence, anger/frustration, and conduct problems included moderate heritable and nonshared environmental variance; conduct problems included moderate shared environmental variance as well. Persistence and anger/frustration had independent genetic covariance with conduct problems and nonshared environmental covariance with each other. Conclusions The findings indicate genetically distinct though inter-related influences linking affective and self-regulatory aspects of temperament with behavior problems in childhood. PMID:17244273
Bai, Sunhye; Lee, Steve S
Given its considerable public health significance, identifying predictors of early expressions of conduct problems is a priority. We examined the predictive validity of daring, a key dimension of temperament, and the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a laboratory-based measure of risk taking behavior, with respect to two-year change in parent, teacher-, and youth self-reported oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and antisocial behavior. At baseline, 150 ethnically diverse 6- to 10-year old (M=7.8, SD=1.1; 69.3% male) youth with ( n =82) and without ( n =68) DSM-IV ADHD completed the BART whereas parents rated youth temperament (i.e., daring); parents and teachers also independently rated youth ODD and CD symptoms. Approximately 2 years later, multi-informant ratings of youth ODD, CD, and antisocial behavior were gathered from rating scales and interviews. Whereas risk taking on the BART was unrelated to conduct problems, individual differences in daring prospectively predicted multi-informant rated conduct problems, independent of baseline risk taking, conduct problems, and ADHD diagnostic status. Early differences in the propensity to show positive socio-emotional responses to risky or novel experiences uniquely predicted escalating conduct problems in childhood, even with control of other potent clinical correlates. We consider the role of temperament in the origins and development of significant conduct problems from childhood to adolescence, including possible explanatory mechanisms underlying these predictions.
Haugan, Ketil; Olsen, Kristine Boisen; Hartvig, Line
OBJECTIVE: As atrial conduction slowing is important in the pathogenesis of atrial reentry arrhythmias, a drug that increases atrial conduction or prevents atrial conduction slowing could serve to prevent atrial reentry arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether the novel stable antiarrh......OBJECTIVE: As atrial conduction slowing is important in the pathogenesis of atrial reentry arrhythmias, a drug that increases atrial conduction or prevents atrial conduction slowing could serve to prevent atrial reentry arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated whether the novel stable...... to a broad panel of 80 different cardiac and noncardiac ion channels and receptors and examined the effect of ZP123 on HERG channel conductance. RESULTS: ZP123 dose-dependently prevented metabolic stress-induced atrial CV slowing at doses ranging from 1 nM to 10 microM. ZP123 did not affect CV during...... physiological conditions nor did it affect dynamic CV restitution. ZP123 had no effect on atrial contractility. ZP123 showed no or low affinity binding to all ion channels and receptors examined. ZP123 had no effects on HERG channel activity in concentrations that affected atrial conduction. The concentration...
Barry, Christopher T; Frick, Paul J; Killian, Amber L
Investigated several possible models to explain the seemingly discrepant relations between self-esteem and conduct problems, as both low self-esteem and exaggerated levels of self-esteem, thought to be captured by narcissism, have been associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior. Our sample consisted of 98 nonreferred children (mean age = 11.9 years; SD = 1.68 years) recruited from public schools to oversample children at risk for severe aggressive and antisocial behavior. Results indicated that certain aspects of narcissism (i.e., those indicating a need to be evaluated well by, and obtain status over, others) were particularly predictive of maladaptive characteristics and outcomes such as low self-esteem, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and conduct problems. In addition, the relation between narcissism and conduct problems was moderated by self-esteem level, such that children with relatively high levels of narcissism and low self-esteem showed the highest rates of conduct-problem symptoms.
Denisov, A. M.; Zakharov, E. V.; Kalinin, A. V.; Kalinin, V. V.
A numerical method is proposed for solving an inverse electrocardiography problem for a medium with a piecewise constant electrical conductivity. The method is based on the method of boundary integral equations and Tikhonov regularization.
Ruchkin, V V; Koposov, R A; Eisemann, M; Hägglöf, B
The purpose of the present study was 1) to assess the predictive value of conduct problems prior to the age of 12 for the severity of antisocial behaviour during adolescence, and 2) to investigate the relationships between personality traits/parental rearing and childhood conduct problems/teenage antisocial behaviour. A group of 193 delinquents was assessed by means of the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Retrospective Childhood Problems (RETROPROB), the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the EMBU questionnaire on parental rearing. The extreme groups of delinquents as defined by childhood conduct problems, differed significantly on the experience of a rejecting father and a self-directed character. Furthermore, some specific predictive patterns for current antisocial behaviour by childhood conduct disorder and both personality dimensions and parental rearing factors emerged. The findings are discussed in the light of the interactive nature of relations between personality and parental rearing in the development of antisocial behaviour among adolescents.
Micale, Barbara L.
Andrea Wittenborn, assistant professor, human development, is heading a research team conducting the Strengthening Bonds Couples Therapy Study to treat depression and marital problems (dyadic distress) in married/committed couple relationships.
Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Fergusson, David; Horwood, John L.
independent additive contributions to crime. The important applied implication of these observations is that interventions that increase the eucational attainment of young people with early onset conduct problems may reduce the longer-term risks of antisocial behaviour faced by these young people. Further......This study used dato from a 30-year longitudinal study to esamine the associations between early conduct problems, school achievement and later crime. The analysis showed that, even following extensive adjustment for confounding, both early conduct problems and later educational achievement made...... experimental research is required to ascertain the extent that: a) the educational achievement of young people with early-onset conduct problems can be improved; and b) the extent to which any such improvements translate into reductions in subsequent antisocial behviour....
Messerlian, Carmen; Derevensky, Jeffrey
Gambling among adolescents is a growing public health concern. To date, social marketing as a strategy to address problem gambling among youth has not been widely used. A qualitative study through the use of focus groups was conducted to explore adolescents' exposure to existing prevention campaigns and their message content and communication strategy preferences for a youth gambling social marketing campaign. Participants prefer that youth gambling ads depict real-life stories, use an emotional appeal and portray the negative consequences associated with gambling problems. They further recommend illustrating the basic facts of gambling using simple messages that raise awareness without making a judgement. Participants caution against the "don't do it" approach, suggesting it does not reflect the current youth gambling culture. This study should serve as a starting point for the development of a gambling prevention social marketing campaign. Targeting variables and campaign strategies highlighted should be considered in the early stages of development and tested along the way.
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also prese...
Viding, Essi; Simmonds, Elizabeth; Petrides, K V; Frederickson, Norah
Although a lot is known about the association of conduct problems with bullying, less attention has been paid to co-occurring traits, such as callous-unemotional (CU) traits that might additionally contribute to the risk of engaging in bullying. This study investigated the contribution of CU traits to direct and indirect bullying, alongside the contributions made by conduct problems and gender. Seven hundred and four 11-13-year-olds completed self-report measures of callous-emotional traits and psychopathology, including conduct problems. Peer-report measures of direct and indirect bullying were collected from classmates. Higher levels of CU traits were associated with higher levels of direct bullying, over and above the association between bullying and conduct problems. Conduct problems and CU traits interacted in the prediction of both direct and indirect bullying. In line with previous research, males were more likely to engage in direct and females in indirect bullying. This study highlights the importance of viewing CU traits and conduct problems, not only as related phenomena, but also as distinct entities in mediating the underlying susceptibility of children to bully others directly. Furthermore, a combination of these traits appears to be a particularly potent risk factor for both direct and indirect bullying. Implications for intervention are discussed, in particular the concern that lack of empathy and insensitivity to punishment in those with CU traits may also make them particularly resistant to current forms of bullying intervention.
Wesseldijk, Laura W; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Middeldorp, Christel M
Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and
Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole
This note addresses the use of the finite volume method (FVM) for topology optimization of a heat conduction problem. Issues pertaining to the proper choice of cost functions, sensitivity analysis and example test problems are used to illustrate the effect of applying the FVM as an analysis tool ...
Hay, Dale F.; Hudson, Kathryn; Liang, Wentao
The aim was to examine the relationship between prosocial behavior and conduct problems, especially aggression, in early childhood. In Phase 1 of the study, teachers reported on 93 3-5-year-old children's prosocial behavior and psychological problems, using a screening instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In Phase 2, 65…
COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program
Toupin, Jean; Déry, Michèle; Verlaan, Pierrette; Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Lecocq, Aurélie; Jagiellowicz, Jadwiga
Students with conduct problems (CPs) may present heterogeneity in terms of behavioral manifestations and service needs. Previous studies using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to capture this heterogeneity have been conducted mostly with community samples and have often applied a narrow definition of CP. Considering this context, this study…
Bozdogan, Aykut Emre
The studies global warming problem conducted in education discipline in the world and in Turkey were analysed for this study. The literature was reviewed extensively especially through the articles in the indexed journals of Ebsco Host, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis and Web of Science databases and this study was conducted according to the…
Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Ollendick, Thomas H.
Given the relative lack of research on the comorbidity of anxiety disorders (ADs) and conduct problems (oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder) in youth, we examine this comorbidity from both basic and applied perspectives. First, we review the concept of comorbidity and provide a framework for understanding issues pertaining to…
Bhamani, Shelina; Ayub, Nadia
The aim of this study was to explore the conduct problems faced by school going children in the rural areas of Pakistan. Two hypotheses were formulated to explore the significant differences between the intervention and non-intervention groups and gender on the variables of conduct and internalization. The data of a total 386 young children were…
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What review of IHE drug prevention programs does the Secretary conduct? 86.101 Section 86.101 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND... programs does the Secretary conduct? The Secretary annually reviews a representative sample of IHE drug...
Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: 1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; n=126), 2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; n=607), and 3) non-users (never used marijuana; n=343). A conduct problem inventory used in previous studies was adapted for use in the present study. Early conduct...
Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.
Brody, Gene H; Ge, Xiaojia; Kim, Su Yeong; Murry, Velma McBride; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Conger, Rand D
Data from 296 sibling pairs (mean ages 10 and 13 years), their primary caregivers, and census records were used to test the hypothesis that African American children's likelihood of developing conduct problems associated with harsh parenting, a lack of nurturant-involved parenting, and exposure to an older sibling's deviance-prone attitudes and behavior would be amplified among families residing in disadvantaged neighborhoods. A latent construct representing harsh-inconsistent parenting and low levels of nurturant-involved parenting was positively associated with younger siblings' conduct disorder symptoms, as were older siblings' problematic attitudes and behavior. These associations were strongest among families residing in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods. Future research and prevention programs should focus on the specific neighborhood processes associated with increased vulnerability for behavior problems.
Murray, Joseph; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Bordin, Isabel A
This study aimed to review evidence on the prevalence of and risk factors for conduct problems in Brazil. We searched electronic databases and contacted Brazilian researchers up to 05/2012. Studies were included in the review if they reported the prevalence of or risk factors for conduct problems, conduct disorder, or oppositional defiant disorder for 100 + Brazilian children aged ≤18 years, systematically sampled in schools or the community. Prevalence rates and sex differences were meta-analysed. Risk factor studies were reviewed one by one. The average prevalence of conduct problems in screening questionnaires was 20.8%, and the average prevalence of conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder was 4.1%. There was systematic variation in the results of screening studies according to methodology: recruitment location, informants, instruments, impairment criterion for case definition, and response rates. Risk factors previously identified in high-income countries were mainly replicated in Brazil, including comorbid mental health problems, educational failure, low religiosity, harsh physical punishment and abuse, parental mental health problems, single parent family, and low socioeconomic status. However, boys did not always have higher risk for conduct problems than girls. Studies using screening questionnaires suggest that Brazilian children have higher rates of conduct problems than children in other countries, but diagnostic studies do not show this difference. Risk factors in Brazil were similar to those in high-income countries, apart from child sex. Future research should investigate developmental patterns of antisocial behaviour, employ a variety of research designs to identify causal risk mechanisms, and examine a broader range of risk factors.
Bierman, Karen Linn; Smoot, David L.
Parent, teacher, and peer ratings were collected for 75 grade school boys to test the hypothesis that certain family interaction patterns would be associated with poor peer relations. Path analyses provided support for a mediational model, in which punitive and ineffective discipline was related to child conduct problems in home and school settings which, in turn, predicted poor peer relations. Further analyses suggested that distinct subgroups of boys could be identified who exhibited conduct problems at home only, at school only, in both settings, or in neither setting. Boys who exhibited cross-situational conduct problems were more likely to experience multiple concurrent problems (e.g., in both home and school settings) and were more likely than any other group to experience poor peer relations. However, only about one-third of the boys with poor peer relations in this sample exhibited problem profiles consistent with the proposed model (e.g., experienced high rates of punitive/ineffective home discipline and exhibited conduct problems in home and school settings), suggesting that the proposed model reflects one common (but not exclusive) pathway to poor peer relations. PMID:1865049
Romirowsky, A M; Chronis-Tuscano, A
Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems.
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7–9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n=112 boys; n=107 girls; n=7 gender unknown), their parents, and teachers. Both effective parenting and association with deviant peers influenced later conduct problems; however, the pattern of influence varied across time and between fathers and mothers, with complex patterns of interactions between effective parenting and peer deviance. From seventh to eighth grade, effective parenting by both mothers and fathers buffered the effect of higher levels of peer deviance on conduct problems across adolescent gender. From eighth to ninth grade (i.e., transition into high school), fathers’ effective parenting buffered the effects of deviant peer association on their daughters’ conduct problems, whereas both fathers’ and mothers’ influence was stronger for sons when deviant peer associations were lower. Analyses also evaluated bi-directional longitudinal effects among adolescents, parents, and peers. Although varying by parent and adolescent gender or adolescent age, results generally supported the protective effects of parenting on their children’s conduct problems during early to mid adolescence. PMID:22648200
Romirowsky, Abigail Mintz; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Background Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Results Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. Conclusions The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems. PMID:25250402
Full Text Available The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR influences human behavior. The G allele of OXTR rs53576 has been associated with both prosocial and maladaptive behaviors but few studies have taken account of environmental factors. The present study determined whether the association of childhood maltreatment with conduct problems was modified by OXTR rs53576 genotypes. In a general population sample of 1591 teenagers, conduct problems as well as maltreatment were measured by self-report. DNA was extracted from saliva samples. In males, there was a significant positive association between maltreatment and conduct problems independent of the genotype. In females, among G allele carriers, the level of conduct problems was significantly higher among those who had been maltreated as compared to those not maltreated. By contrast, among female AA carriers, conduct problems did not vary between those who were, and who were not, maltreated. The results indicate that OXTR rs53576 plays a role in antisocial behavior in females such that the G allele confers vulnerability for antisocial behavior if they experience maltreatment, whereas the A allele has a protective effect.
Thompson, Anne; Hollis, Chris; Dagger, David Richards
This study examines the associations, and possible causal relationship, between mothers' authoritarian attitudes to discipline and child behaviour using cross-sectional and prospective data from a large population sample surveyed in the 1970 British Cohort Study. Results show a clear linear relationship between the degree of maternal approval of authoritarian child-rearing attitudes and the rates of conduct problems at age 5 and age 10. This association is independent of the confounding effects of socio-economic status and maternal psychological distress. Maternal authoritarian attitudes independently predicted the development of conduct problems 5 years later at age 10. The results of this longitudinal study suggest that authoritarian parenting attitudes expressed by mothers may be of significance in the development of conduct problems.
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
LeMoine, Kaitlyn A; Romirowsky, Abigail M; Woods, Kelsey E; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea
Parental psychopathology and parenting quality robustly predict negative outcomes among children with ADHD. Little research has investigated associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and parenting, though there is clear evidence linking maternal ADHD symptoms with both suboptimal parenting and child conduct problems, and considerable research supporting fathers' significant contributions to their children's development. This cross-sectional study examined psychopathology and parenting in a sample of fathers (N = 102) and their 5- to 12-year-old children with previously diagnosed ADHD. Results suggested that paternal antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms (rather than ADHD symptoms) were robustly associated with child conduct problems, with an indirect effect through paternal negative parenting. This study suggests that negative parenting may be a potential mechanism by which paternal ASPD is associated with child conduct problems, and demonstrates the importance of considering co-occurring psychopathology in research examining adult ADHD, parenting, and child outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259
Wesseldijk, Laura W; Bartels, Meike; Vink, Jacqueline M; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Ligthart, Lannie; Boomsma, Dorret I; Middeldorp, Christel M
Conduct problems in children and adolescents can predict antisocial personality disorder and related problems, such as crime and conviction. We sought an explanation for such predictions by performing a genetic longitudinal analysis. We estimated the effects of genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental factors on variation in conduct problems measured at childhood and adolescence and antisocial personality problems measured at adulthood and on the covariation across ages. We also tested whether these estimates differed by sex. Longitudinal data were collected in the Netherlands Twin Register over a period of 27 years. Age appropriate and comparable measures of conduct and antisocial personality problems, assessed with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, were available for 9783 9-10-year-old, 6839 13-18-year-old, and 7909 19-65-year-old twin pairs, respectively; 5114 twins have two or more assessments. At all ages, men scored higher than women. There were no sex differences in the estimates of the genetic and environmental influences. During childhood, genetic and environmental factors shared by children in families explained 43 and 44% of the variance of conduct problems, with the remaining variance due to unique environment. During adolescence and adulthood, genetic and unique environmental factors equally explained the variation. Longitudinal correlations across age varied between 0.20 and 0.38 and were mainly due to stable genetic factors. We conclude that shared environment is mainly of importance during childhood, while genetic factors contribute to variation in conduct and antisocial personality problems at all ages, and also underlie its stability over age.
Computer program TRUMP3-JR is a revised version of TRUMP3 which is a finite difference computer program used for the solution of multi-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Pre- and post-processings for input data generation and graphical representations of calculation results of TRUMP3 are avaiable in TRUMP3-JR. The calculation equations, program descriptions and user's instruction are presented. A sample problem is described to demonstrate the use of the program. (author)
Full Text Available We consider an axisymmetric inverse heat conduction problem of determining the surface temperature from a fixed location inside a cylinder. This problem is ill-posed; the solution (if it exists does not depend continuously on the data. A special project method—dual least squares method generated by the family of Shannon wavelet is applied to formulate regularized solution. Meanwhile, an order optimal error estimate between the approximate solution and exact solution is proved.
Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Lago-Urbano, Rocio; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Carmona-Márquez, José
Objective: The demands of parenting are usually associated with some stress, and elevated levels of stress may affect the parent-child relationships and parenting practices. This is especially the case of families where children have special needs conditions or disorders, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method: This study examined parenting stress among mothers of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample comprised 126 mothers of girls (36; 29%) and boys (90; 71%) aged 6-17 years old. Results: Mothers reported their own stress levels as well as the children and adolescents' variables (severity of their ADHD symptoms, conduct, and emotional problems) and family-contextual variables (negative impact on family's social life, impact on couple relationship, and perceived social support). Hierarchical multiple regression showed that (a) negative impact on social life and conduct problems were the strongest predictors of mother's stress. Bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that (b) the association between child and adolescent's ADHD and parenting stress was mediated by children's conduct problems and by negative impact on family's social life, and not by children's emotional problems nor by mother's perceived social support. The mediation analysis also suggested (c) a pathway from child/adolescent's ADHD through children's conduct problems and then through their negative impact on family's social life to mother's parenting stress. Conclusion: These results suggest that both child/adolescent's and family factors should be considered in the designing of interventions for reducing parenting stress in families of children and adolescents with ADHD.
Angail A. Samaan
Full Text Available We introduce a magnetohydrodynamic model of boundary-layer equations for conducting viscous fluids. This model is applied to study the effects of free convection currents with thermal relaxation time on the flow of a viscous conducting fluid. The method of the matrix exponential formulation for these equations is introduced. The resulting formulation together with the Laplace transform technique is applied to a variety problems. The effects of a plane distribution of heat sources on the whole and semispace are studied. Numerical results are given and illustrated graphically for the problem.
R. I. Еsman
Full Text Available A mathematical model for non-stationary heat conduction of multi-layer bodies has been developed. Dirac’s δ-function is used to take into account phase and chemical transformations in one of the wall layers. While formulating a problem non-linear heat conduction equations have been used with due account of dependence of thermal and physical characteristics on temperature. Solution of the problem is realized with the help of methods of a numerical experiment and computer modeling.
Kloft, Lilian; Hawes, David; Moul, Caroline; Sultan, Sonia; Dadds, Mark
Children’s drawings have previously been found to reflect their representations of family relationships. The present study examined whether evidence-based parent training for child conduct problems impacts on representations of family functioning using the Family Drawing Paradigm (FDP). N = 53 clinic-referred children (aged 3–15) with conduct problems and their families were assessed pre-treatment and at 6-month follow-up on a modified version of the FDP. Analyses of changes in the FDP reveal...
Topology optimization was recently combined with anisotropic mesh adaptation to solve 3D minimum compliance problems in a fast and robust way. This paper demonstrates that the methodology is also applicable to 2D/3D heat conduction problems. Nodal design variables are used and the objective...... function is chosen such that the problem is self-adjoint. There is no way around the book keeping associated with mesh adaptation, so the whole 5527 line MATLAB code is published (https://github.com/kristianE86/trullekrul). The design variables as well as the sensitivities have to be interpolated between...
Tiesel, Judy Watson; Olson, David H.
Presents family professional with overview that highlights challenges and opportunities in the field by describing several troubling trends in family life (divorce, teenage pregnancy, domestic abuse/violence, poverty), growing diversity and complexity among families in the United States, and the importance of prevention. Emphasizes prevention,…
Riglin, Lucy; Thapar, Anita; Shelton, Katherine H; Langley, Kate; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances
Depression is typically more common in females and rates rise around puberty. However, studies of children and adolescents suggest that depression accompanied by conduct problems may represent a different subtype not characterised by a female preponderance, with differing risk factors and genetic architecture compared to pure-depression. This study aimed to identify aetiologically distinct profiles of depressive symptoms, distinguished by the presence or absence of co-occurring conduct problems. Latent profile analysis was conducted on a school sample of 1648 children (11-12 years) and replicated in a sample of 2006 twins (8-17 years). In both samples pure-depressive and conduct-depressive profiles were identified. The pure-depressive profile was associated with female gender, while the conduct-depressive profile was associated with lower cognitive ability but not with gender. Twin analyses indicated possible differences in genetic aetiology. There was evidence for aetiologically heterogeneous depression symptom profiles based on the presence or absence of co-occurring conduct problems. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Webster-Stratton, C; Lindsay, D W
Examined the differences in various facets of social competence in 2 groups of young children (ages 4-7 years)--a clinic-referred group of aggressive children (N = 60) diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct problems and a matched comparison group of typically developing children (N = 60). Four aspects of social competence were assessed: social information processing, actual observations of conflict management skills and social play interactions during peer interactions, positive social interactions with mothers and fathers at home, and teacher reports of social competence. The social information processing assessed included problem-solving skills (hypothetical skills as demonstrated on a social problem-solving test), self-perceptions (child's awareness of his or her own social self and feelings of loneliness), perceptions of others (attributions), and perceptions of others' attitudes toward oneself. To determine the construct validity of various means of assessing child social competence, we correlated children's social information processing measures with parent and teacher reports of social adjustment and with actual observations of interactions during peer play and at home with parents. Results comparing the 2 groups suggest that young children with conduct problems have deficits in their social information processing awareness or interpretation of social cues--they overestimate their own social competence and misattribute hostile intent to others. Tests of cognitive problem solving and observations of peer play interactions indicated that the children with conduct problems had significantly fewer positive problem-solving strategies and positive social skills, more negative conflict management strategies, and delayed play skills with peers than the comparison children. Correlation analyses indicated significant correlations between children's negative attributions and the ratio of positive to negative problem-solving strategies with observations
Morihisa,Rogerio Shigueo; Barroso,Lúcia Pereira; Scivoletto,Sandra
OBJECTIVE: To verify how conduct disorder and conduct problems are associated with gender, age at onset of drug use and categories of drugs used. METHOD: A test of association was conducted between the presence of comorbidity and gender. Mean age of first use of each drug was compared to mean age of first arrest, of first robbery/theft, and of first drug dealing. RESULTS: In this sample, approximately 59% of adolescents had already robbed and/or stolen, 38.6% had already been arrested, 32.3% ...
López-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Luengo, Ma Angeles
Conduct problems are among the most discussed behavioral problems during childhood and adolescence. Given their heterogeneity, in recent years, researchers on this topic have called for delineation of early-onset conduct problems on the basis of affective, interpersonal and behavioral traits that resemble adult psychopathy. The present study aims to analyze, from both a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective, whether early psychopathic traits allow identification of a group of individuals defined by severe and persistent behavioral problems. To achieve this goal, data from a sample of 192 children (aged 6 to 11) were analyzed; from this sample, 133 children were followed-up in a new data collection that took place three years later. From the data obtained with the mCPS and CBCL (parents), and APSD and TRF (teachers), we observed that children who showed early psychopathic traits, also showed greater frequency, severity and persistence of conduct problems. These results suggest the need to take into account the role of psychopathic traits (particularly, affective and interpersonal) as risk factors to delimit the most serious and persistent patterns of externalizing behavior.
Docherty, Meagan; Kubik, Joanna; Herrera, Carolina M; Boxer, Paul
Previous research indicates a link between childhood maltreatment and elevated conduct problems. Yet the literature is less clear on associations between maltreatment and callousness (e.g., lack of empathy or guilt). This is a critical gap given that callousness is a robust predictor of serious aggressive and violent behavior. We examine the association between substantiated maltreatment events in childhood and adolescence (up to age 13) and conduct problems and lack of guilt at age 14. We analyze self- and parent-report data along with official maltreatment records on 557 youth (50% female; 69% non-white) from a larger dataset (Longitudinal Studies on Childhood Abuse and Neglect; N = 1354). Results of multinomial logistic regression models indicate that youth with histories of substantiated maltreatment events are more likely to have elevated conduct problems and decreased guilt at age 14, particularly if they experienced maltreatment before the age of four years old. Youth who exhibit conduct problems and also appear to lack guilt are more likely to have a personal history of substantiated maltreatment. We discuss our results in terms of their implications for theory and practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fanti, Kostas A.; Kimonis, Eva R.
Bullying and victimization occurring in adolescence can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. This study investigates whether conduct problems (CP) and dimensions of psychopathy predict the developmental course of bullying and victimization from ages 12 to 14 among 1,416 Greek-Cypriot adolescents. Results indicate that initial levels…
Fanti, Kostas A.; Demetriou, Chara A.; Kimonis, Eva R.
Callous-unemotional traits are believed to be a childhood precursor to psychopathy, and among youth with conduct problems they designate those showing a particularly severe, stable, and aggressive pattern of antisocial behavior. Youth with callous-unemotional traits are a heterogeneous population and, analogous to adults with psychopathy, research…
It is unknown whether children with conduct problems (CP) and poor reading (PR) skills exhibit more profound executive function impairments than children with CP only and whether such impairments are explained by coexisting PR. Executive functions were compared in four groups of 7- to 8-year-old children: 26 CP only, 35 PR only, 27 CP-PR, and 31…
Denault, Anne-Sophie; Déry, Michèle
The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Lorenzi, Jill
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have poor relationships with peers. However, research on this topic has predominantly focused on boys. This study considered child gender, ADHD status, and dimensionally assessed conduct problems as predictors of peer relationship difficulties. Participants were 125 children (ages…
Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…
Trudeau, Linda; Mason, W. Alex; Randall, G. Kevin; Spoth, Richard; Ralston, Ekaterina
We investigated the influence of effective parenting behaviors (father and mother reports) and deviant peer association (adolescent reports) on subsequent young adolescent conduct problems (teacher reports) during grades 7-9, using structural equation modeling. Data were from a sample of 226 rural adolescents (n = 112 boys; n = 107 girls; n = 7…
Pasalich, Dave S.; Dadds, Mark R.; Hawes, David J.; Brennan, John
Background: Antisocial children with callous-unemotional (CU) traits appear to be disconnected from other people's emotions; although little is known about their experience of the parent-child emotional bond. This study examined parent-child attachment relationships and levels of CU traits in conduct-problem children. Method: Attachment…
Kotler, Julie S.; McMahon, Robert J.
To develop more accurate explanatory and predictive models of child and adolescent conduct problems, interest has grown in examining psychopathic traits in youth. The presence or absence of these traits may help to identify unique etiological pathways in the development of antisocial behavior. The current review provides a detailed summary and…
This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in t...
Vilaplana, Jose Perez
Let a discounted continuous review preventive-maintenance replacement model be such that its total discounted cost is given by means of two functional equations. We assume that downtime is caused by equipment breakdowns, and the length of a given downtime is the time necessary to repair the equipment and set it back in operation. The periodic preventive replacement policy is to replace the equipment by a new identical equipment when service age X is reached, or when the equipment ...
The present situations of superconducting electric power machines in the world and studied problems were investigated from viewpoint of the electric insulation. 50MVA generator (CRIE/Hitachi) or 120MVA generator (KWU/Siemens) where the dc superconducting technique was applied on field windings, are developed. As to Superconducting transformer, 220KVA transformer is trially manufactured and the conceptual design of 1,000MVA transformer is made by W.H. or Alstom. Future problems are the study of protecting method for the overvoltage to superconducting electric power machines and the study to prevent the quench for superconducting windings. The respective insulating characteristics of solid and liquid insulators become clear gradually under the cryogenic condition but a large part of insulating characteristics of composite insulator prepared by combination of both insulators are not clear, so that these problems must be clarified.
A heat conduction program CASKETSS-HEAT has been developed. CASKETSS-HEAT is a finite difference computer program used for the solution of multi-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Main features of CASKETSS-HEAT are as follows. (1) One, two and three-dimensional geometries for heat conduction calculation are available. (2) Convection and radiation heat transfer of boundry can be specified. (3) Phase change and chemical change can be treated. (4) Finned surface heat transfer can be treated easily. (5) Data memory allocation in the program is variable according to problem size. (6) The program is a compatible heat transfer analysis program to the stress analysis program SAP4 and SAP5. (7) Pre- and post-processing for input data generation and graphic representation of calculation results are available. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method, input data and sample calculation are presented. (author)
Gooren, Evelien M. J. C.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Stegge, Hedy; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Koot, Hans M.
Conduct problems in childhood often co-occur with symptoms of depression. This study explored whether the development of conduct problems becomes indirectly linked to depressive symptoms in a sample of 323 kindergarten children, followed over a period of 2 school years. Results showed that the development of conduct problems was indirectly linked…
Pequegnat, Willo; Rosser, B R Simon; Bowen, Anne M; Bull, Sheana S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Bockting, Walter O; Elford, Jonathan; Fishbein, Martin; Gurak, Laura; Horvath, Keith; Konstan, Joseph; Noar, Seth M; Ross, Michael W; Sherr, Lorraine; Spiegel, David; Zimmerman, Rick
The aim of this paper is to advance rigorous Internet-based HIV/STD Prevention quantitative research by providing guidance to fellow researchers, faculty supervising graduates, human subjects' committees, and review groups about some of the most common and challenging questions about Internet-based HIV prevention quantitative research. The authors represent several research groups who have gained experience conducting some of the first Internet-based HIV/STD prevention quantitative surveys in the US and elsewhere. Sixteen questions specific to Internet-based HIV prevention survey research are identified. To aid rigorous development and review of applications, these questions are organized around six common criteria used in federal review groups in the US: significance, innovation, approach (broken down further by research design, formative development, procedures, sampling considerations, and data collection); investigator, environment and human subjects' issues. Strategies promoting minority participant recruitment, minimizing attrition, validating participants, and compensating participants are discussed. Throughout, the implications on budget and realistic timetabling are identified.
Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…
Mental health problems are a major concern to employers, employees and occupational health professionals in the Netherlands. Employees developing these problems often have to take long-term leave from work, which may lead to disability. About a third of the total disability inflow is due to
Rousseau, Cécile; Hassan, Ghayda; Measham, Toby; Lashley, Myrna
This study investigates the prevalence and subtypes of conduct disorder (CD) and behavioral problems among youth in two communities characterized by prolonged parent-child separation upon immigration. CD and problem behaviors were assessed in 252 Caribbean-Canadian and Filipino-Canadian adolescents (12-19-year-old) using the DISC-C, the YSR and the CBCL cross-informant construct. Adolescents reported less problem behaviors than their host country peers, despite immigrant background or parent-child separation. The high adolescent-onset CD rate supports the hypothesis that psychosocial stressors play a role in the emergence of the disorder. Specifically, high levels of perceived racism and low collective self-esteem predicted problem behaviors in these youngsters.
Evgrafov, Anton; Gregersen, Misha Marie; Sørensen, Mads Peter
We present a convergence analysis of a cell-based finite volume (FV) discretization scheme applied to a problem of control in the coefficients of a generalized Laplace equation modelling, for example, a steady state heat conduction. Such problems arise in applications dealing with geometric optimal......, whereas the convergence of the coefficients happens only with respect to the "volumetric" Lebesgue measure. Additionally, depending on whether the stationarity conditions are stated for the discretized or the original continuous problem, two distinct concepts of stationarity at a discrete level arise. We...... provide characterizations of limit points, with respect to FV mesh size, of globally optimal solutions and two types of stationary points to the discretized problems. We illustrate the practical behaviour of our cell-based FV discretization algorithm on a numerical example....
Morihisa, Rogerio Shigueo; Barroso, Lúcia Pereira; Scivoletto, Sandra
To verify how conduct disorder and conduct problems are associated with gender, age at onset of drug use and categories of drugs used. A test of association was conducted between the presence of comorbidity and gender. Mean age of first use of each drug was compared to mean age of first arrest, of first robbery/theft, and of first drug dealing. In this sample, approximately 59% of adolescents had already robbed and/or stolen, 38.6% had already been arrested, 32.3% had prior history of drug dealing, 24.1% had depression, and 9.6% had conduct disorder. Prevalence of conduct problems was 65.2%. Tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine were used before the first robbery and/or theft, first drug dealing, and first arrest. The fact that drug use onset preceded illegal acts suggests that the latter are the consequence of the consumption of the former, or perhaps, the consequence of "social invisibility" (feeling of not belonging to anything or to anybody) by which these youths undergo. Labeling these youths as conduct-disordered adolescents may cloud a rather different reality, and it may submit them to more social isolation and stigmatization as well.
Full Text Available This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in the scope of the discussed phenomenon.
Hamiter, L.; Villella, F.
The current reliability problems related to electronic components and microcircuits are presented in this paper. Specific process controls, design, materials, application constraints, destructive testing, electrical tests, and procedures for implementation are recommended to improve the reliability of selected electronic components.
Full Text Available A problem of steady-state heat conduction which presents singularities is solved in this paper by using the conformal mapping method. The principle of this method is based on the Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. The considered problem is a semi-infinite medium with two different isothermal surfaces separated by an adiabatic annular disc. We show that the thermal resistance can be determined without solving the governing equations. We determine a simple and exact expression that provides the thermal resistance as a function of the ratio of annular disc radii.
Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.
School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…
risk factors across individual, family, workplace , and community were significantly related to men’s perpetration of physical abuse against their...Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevention Surveillance and Ecological Risk/ Protective Factors Models PRINCIPAL...CONTRACT NUMBER Family Maltreatment, Substance Problems, and Suicidality: Prevention Surveillance and Ecological Risk/ Protective Factors Models 5b
Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.
The present paper describes the applicability of hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis formulations for nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change. The methodology is based on application of transform approaches and classical Galerkin schemes with finite element formulations to maintain the modeling versatility and numerical features for computational analysis. In addition, in conjunction with the above, the effects due to latent heat are modeled using enthalpy formulations to enable a physically realistic approximation to be dealt computationally for materials exhibiting phase change within a narrow band of temperatures. Pertinent details of the approach and computational scheme adapted are described in technical detail. Numerical test cases of comparative nature are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed formulations for numerical modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change.
Jane L Ebejer
Full Text Available The Prevalence and persistence of ADHD have not been described in young Australian adults and few studies have examined how conduct problems (CP are associated with ADHD for this age group. We estimate lifetime and adult prevalence and persistence rates for three categories of ADHD for 3795 Australian adults, and indicate how career, health and childhood risk factors differ for people with ADHD symptoms and ADHD symptoms plus CP.Trained interviewers collected participant experience of ADHD, CP, education, employment, childhood experience, relationship and health variables. Three diagnostic definitions of ADHD used were (i full DSM-IV criteria; (ii excluding the age 7 onset criterion (no age criterion; (iii participant experienced difficulties due to ADHD symptoms (problem symptoms.Prevalence rates in adulthood were 1.1%, 2.3% and 2.7% for each categorization respectively. Persistence of ADHD from childhood averaged across gender was 55.3% for full criteria, 50.3% with no age criterion and 40.2% for problem symptoms. ADHD symptoms were associated with parental conflict, poor health, being sexually assaulted during childhood, lower education, income loss and higher unemployment. The lifetime prevalence of conduct problems for adults with ADHD was 57.8% and 6.9% for adults without ADHD. The greatest disadvantage was experienced by participants with ADHD plus CP.The persistence of ADHD into adulthood was greatest for participants meeting full diagnostic criteria and inattention was associated with the greatest loss of income and disadvantage. The disadvantage associated with conduct problems differed in severity and was relevant for a high proportion of adults with ADHD. Women but not men with ADHD reported more childhood adversity, possibly indicating varied etiology and treatment needs. The impact and treatment needs of adults with ADHD and CP and the report of sexual assault during childhood by women and men with ADHD also deserve further study.
Diligenskaya, A. N.; Rapoport, É. Ya.
Consideration has been given to the inverse problem on identification of a temperature-dependent thermal-conductivity coefficient. The problem was formulated in an extremum statement as a problem of search for a quantity considered as the optimum control of an object with distributed parameters, which is described by a nonlinear homogeneous spatially one-dimensional Fourier partial equation with boundary conditions of the second kind. As the optimality criterion, the authors used the error (minimized on the time interval of observation) of uniform approximation of the temperature computed on the object's model at an assigned point of the segment of variation in the spatial variable to its directly measured value. Pre-parametrization of the sought control action, which a priori records its description accurate to assigning parameters of representation in the class of polynomial temperature functions, ensured the reduction of the problem under study to a problem of parametric optimization. To solve the formulated problem, the authors used an analytical minimax-optimization method taking account of the alternance properties of the sought optimum solutions based on which the algorithm of computation of the optimum values of the sought parameters is reduced to a system (closed for these unknowns) of equations fixing minimax deviations of the calculated values of temperature from those observed on the time interval of identification. The obtained results confirm the efficiency of the proposed method for solution of a certain range of applied problems. The authors have studied the influence of the coordinate of a point of temperature measurement on the exactness of solution of the inverse problem.
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the feasibility of highly conductive carbon fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC as a self-heating material for ice formation prevention and curing in pavements. Tests were carried out in lab ambient conditions at different fixed voltages and then introduced in a freezer at −15 °C. The specimens inside the freezer were exposed to different fixed voltages when reaching +5 °C for prevention of icing and when reaching the temperature inside the freezer, i.e., −15 °C, for curing of icing. Results show that this concrete could act as a heating element in pavements with risk of ice formation, consuming a reasonable amount of energy for both anti-icing (prevention and deicing (curing, which could turn into an environmentally friendly and cost-effective deicing method.
Kot, V. A.
The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.
Антон Янович Карвацький
Full Text Available Methodology and effective solving algorithm of non-linear dynamic problems of thermal and electric conductivity with significant temperature dependence of thermal and physical properties are given on the basis of finite element method (FEM and Newton linearization method. Discrete equations system FEM was obtained with the use of Galerkin method, where the main function is the finite element form function. The methodology based on successive solving problems of thermal and electrical conductivity has been examined in the work in order to minimize the requirements for calculating resources (RAM. in particular. Having used Mathcad software original programming code was developed to solve the given problem. After investigation of the received results, comparative analyses of accurate solution data and results of numerical solutions, obtained with the use of Matlab programming products, was held. The geometry of one fourth part of the finite sized cylinder was used to test the given numerical model. The discretization of the calculation part was fulfilled using the open programming software for automated Gmsh nets with tetrahedral units, while ParaView, which is an open programming code as well, was used to visualize the calculation results. It was found out that the maximum value violation of potential and temperature determination doesn`t exceed 0,2-0,83% in the given work according to the problem conditions
Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra
Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…
Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.
The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction
Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E. Jr.; Gartling, David K.
The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems
Philip J. Morgan
Full Text Available Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed.
Tamma, Kumar K.; D'Costa, Joseph F.
This paper describes the evaluation of mixed implicit-explicit finite element formulations for hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects. In particular, mixed implicit-explicit formulations employing the alpha method proposed by Hughes et al. (1987, 1990) are described for the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models, which involves time-dependent relaxation effects. Existing analytical approaches for modeling/analysis of such models involve complex mathematical formulations for obtaining closed-form solutions, while in certain numerical formulations the difficulties include severe oscillatory solution behavior (which often disguises the true response) in the vicinity of the thermal disturbances, which propagate with finite velocities. In view of these factors, the alpha method is evaluated to assess the control of the amount of numerical dissipation for predicting the transient propagating thermal disturbances. Numerical test models are presented, and pertinent conclusions are drawn for the mixed-time integration simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects.
Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros
Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.
Harding, Frances M.; Connor, Leslie S.
This manual is designed to respond to the growing interest among colleges in technical assistance for dealing with alcohol-related problems. Part One provides an overview of the dimensions of alcohol related problems and delves into the causes and prevention of alcohol problems. It outlines the Public Health Model approach to dealing with alcohol…
Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P
We tested whether conduct problems predicted young adult functioning and psychiatric symptoms among women diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during childhood, in the context of 3 potential adolescent mediators: internalizing problems, peer rejection, and school failure and disciplinary problems. We controlled for childhood ADHD severity, IQ, and demographic factors, and in the mediational tests, for adolescent conduct problems. Data came from 140 participants in the Berkeley Girls With ADHD Longitudinal Study. We used bootstrapping methods to assess indirect effects (mediators). Both childhood, F(1, 118) change = 9.00, p = .003, R2 change = .069, and adolescent, F(1, 109) change = 10.41, p = .002, R2 change = .083, conduct problems were associated with worse overall functioning during young adulthood, controlling for initial ADHD severity, child IQ, and demographics. Results were similar when predicting psychiatric symptoms. Adolescent school failure and disciplinary problems mediated the relations between childhood conduct problems and both young adult functioning and externalizing problems; adolescent internalizing problems and peer conflict mediated the relation between childhood conduct problems and young adult internalizing problems. As is true for boys, childhood and adolescent conduct problems are associated with poor adult outcomes among girls with ADHD, with school failure and disciplinary problems, internalizing problems, and peer conflict functioning as mediators of these relations. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lopez-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Luengo, M. Angeles
Child and youth conduct problems are known to be a heterogeneous category that implies different factors and processes. The current study aims to analyze whether the early manifestation of psychopathic traits designates a group of children with severe, pervasive and persistent conduct problems. To this end, cluster analysis was conducted in a…
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: There are varieties of interventions to treatment of ADHD, among which drug therapy, behavior therapy, parental management training and neurofeedback can be cited. The present study designed to investigate and compare the effectiveness of neurofeedback and Ritalin on improving conduct problems and hyperactivity. Materials & Methods: Quasi-experimental research method with pretest-post test design has been applied in the research. Statistical population of the study consisted of ADHD children of Tehran. The study samples of the study were patients referred to children psychiatric clinic. Based on the purpose of the study' 20 children were randomly selected and classified into 2 groups according to random assignment. CPRS-48 (parent form was administered by parents before and after the treatments as research tools. Recruited data was analyzed by SPSS-19 in two sections of descriptive and inferential statistics. ANCOVA revealed some differences in the groups. Results: The findings of the study showed that there was a significant difference between Ritalin and neurofeedback on improving conduct problems; in other words, Ritalin was more effective in alleviating the problems. Also there was no significant difference between the interventions on improving hyperactivity index. Conclusion: With respect to more efficiency of Ritalin than neurofeedback on certain continuum of signs/symptoms of ADHD, as a whole, preferences of interventions should be based on type, magnitude and severity of the syndrome(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;18(4:53-59
Hingson, Ralph W.
In 2002, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) issued a report entitled A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Data on the magnitude of college drinking problems in 1998 to 1999 were reported. From 1999 to 2005, the proportion of college students aged 18–24 who drank five or more drinks on a single occasion in the past month increased from 41.7 percent to 45.2 percent. The proportion who drove under the influence of alcohol increased from...
Bjørknes, Ragnhild; Manger, Terje
A randomized prevention study for ethnic minority mothers assessed the intervention effects of Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO) on maternal parent practices and child behavior. Ninety-six mothers from Somalia and Pakistan and their children aged 3 to 9 years were randomized to PMTO or a wait-list condition (WLC). Assessments were carried out at the baseline and post-intervention, using standardized measures and a multi-agent approach. All analyses were based on the intention-to-treat principle. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that PMTO was effective in enhancing parent practices, with a decrease in harsh discipline and an increase in positive parenting. Moreover, PMTO produced reductions in motherreported child conduct problems. The largest effect sizes were found among mothers who attended more than 50 % of the PMTO group sessions. Teacher reports showed, however, that there were no significant intervention effects on conduct problems and social competence in kindergarten or school. The results emphasize the importance and feasibility of offering PMTO to ethnic minority families.
Hawes, David J; Dadds, Mark R; Brennan, John; Rhodes, Tracy; Cauchi, Avril
This study examined whether the diminished treatment response previously reported for children with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits is evident when these traits are indexed using multi-informant data collected from mothers, fathers, and teachers. It also tested whether treatment outcomes associated with CU traits are independent of overlap between CU traits and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms. Diagnostic data on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) severity were collected pre-treatment (time 1) and at 6-month follow-up (time 2) in a sample of children (N = 95; 67 boys, 28 girls) aged 3-9 years with clinic-referred conduct problems and comorbid symptoms in a range of diagnostic domains. Time 1 measures of CU traits and ASD symptoms were tested as predictors of time 2 ODD severity using structural equation modeling, with multi-informant ratings of CU traits modeled as a single latent variable. Compared to children with low levels of CU traits, those with high levels exhibited more severe ODD symptoms at follow-up (β = 0.33, SE = 0.08, p treatment severity, socio-economic status, other demographics (age, gender), and parameters of treatment (number of treatment sessions, medication status). Although CU traits and ASD symptoms were positively correlated, ASD symptoms showed no association with change in ODD severity from pre-treatment to follow-up. Likewise, the association between CU traits and ODD outcomes held when controlling for covariation between CU traits and ASD symptoms. Our findings replicate previous evidence that CU traits are uniquely associated with poor clinical outcomes among children treated for conduct problems, and show for the first time that this association is not accounted for by symptoms of ASD.
Full Text Available This paper is intended to provide a numerical algorithm involving the combined use of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and the Galerkin finite element method for estimating the diffusion coefficient in an inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP. In the present study, the functional form of the diffusion coefficient is unknown a priori. The unknown diffusion coefficient is approximated by the polynomial form and the present numerical algorithm is employed to find the solution. Numerical experiments are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed method.
Full Text Available The implementation of sanctions to a producer, a number of franchisers, dealers and distributers of the most popular programme product called «1С: Accounting» caused the problem of software choice for conducting accounting for a great number of entities. The aim of the article is to analyze the possibilities of programme products (for conducting accounting presented at the Ukrainian market, to determine the possibilities of their use when providing services on accounting outsourcing. The article deals with the Ukrainian segment of software market for conducting accounting. The paper analyzes the most popular programmes («1С: Accounting for Ukraine»; «Sail-Accounting»; «Clerk»; «SAP»; «IT-Enterprise: Accounting»; «ІС-PRO», describes their functional possibilities, and compares them. This allowed to determine the possibilities of application of above-mentioned programme products while providing the accounting outsourcing services. The paper describes the peculiarities and substantiates the safety against cyber-attacks of using «cloud» services for conducting accounting, in particular, in the course of outsourcing of the present process at the enterprise. The prospects for the further study in the current direction is to determine the peculiarities of accounting representation of the software, which is provided under the terms of «cloud» technologies.
Feinberg, Emily; Stein, Rachel; Diaz-Linhart, Yaminette; Egbert, Lucia; Beardslee, William; Hegel, Mark T; Silverstein, Michael
Adapting evidence-based interventions to be more accessible and culturally sensitive to the needs of diverse populations is a potential strategy to address disparities in mental health care. We adapted an evidence-based depression-treatment strategy, Problem-Solving Treatment, to prevent depression among low-income mothers with vulnerable children. Intervention adaptations spanned 3 domains: (1) the intervention's new prevention focus, (2) conducting a parent-focused intervention in venues oriented to children; and (3) cultural competency. The feasibility of adaptations was assessed through 2 pilot-randomized trials (n = 93), which demonstrated high participant adherence, satisfaction, and retention, demonstrating the feasibility of our adaptations.
Weissenberger, S. (Editor)
A systems engineering approach is reported for the problem of reducing the number and severity of California's wildlife fires. Prevention methodologies are reviewed and cost benefit models are developed for making preignition decisions.
Alkis S. Tersenov
Full Text Available In the present paper, we investigate the preventive role of space dimension for semilinear parabolic problems. Conditions guaranteeing the absence of the blow-up of the solutions are formulated.
Kjøbli, John; Hukkelberg, Silje; Ogden, Terje
Group-based Parent Management Training, the Oregon model (PMTO, 12 sessions) was delivered by the regular staff of municipal child and family services. PMTO is based on social interaction learning theory and promotes positive parenting skills in parents of children with conduct problems. This study examined the effectiveness of the group-based training intervention in real world settings both immediately following and six months after termination of the intervention. One hundred thirty-seven children (3-12 years) and their parents participated in this study. The families were randomly assigned to group-based training or a comparison group. Data were collected from parents and teachers. The caregiver assessments of parenting practices and child conduct problems and caregiver and teacher reported social competence revealed immediate and significant intervention effects. Short- and long-term beneficial effects were reported from parents, although no follow-up effects were evident on teacher reports. These effectiveness findings and the potential for increasing the number of families served to support the further dissemination and implementation of group-based parent training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Breeden, A L; Cardinale, E M; Lozier, L M; VanMeter, J W; Marsh, A A
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits represent a significant risk factor for severe and persistent conduct problems in children and adolescents. Extensive neuroimaging research links CU traits to structural and functional abnormalities in the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In addition, adults with psychopathy (a disorder for which CU traits are a developmental precursor) exhibit reduced integrity in uncinate fasciculus, a white-matter (WM) tract that connects prefrontal and temporal regions. However, research in adolescents has not yet yielded similarly consistent findings. We simultaneously modeled CU traits and externalizing behaviors as continuous traits, while controlling for age and IQ, in order to identify the unique relationship of each variable with WM microstructural integrity, assessed using diffusion tensor imaging. We used tract-based spatial statistics to evaluate fractional anisotropy, an index of WM integrity, in uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis in 47 youths aged 10-17 years, of whom 26 exhibited conduct problems and varying levels of CU traits. Whereas both CU traits and externalizing behaviors were negatively correlated with WM integrity in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and stria terminalis/fornix, simultaneously modeling both variables revealed that these effects were driven by CU traits; the severity of externalizing behavior was not related to WM integrity after controlling for CU traits. These results indicate that WM abnormalities similar to those observed in adult populations with psychopathy may emerge in late childhood or early adolescence, and may be critical to understanding the social and affective deficits observed in this population.
Kasckow, John; Brown, Charlotte; Morse, Jennifer Q; Karpov, Irina; Bensasi, Salem; Thomas, Stephen B; Ford, Angela; Reynolds, Charles
This study compared African Americans' and Caucasians' willingness to participate in an indicated intervention to prevent depression with problem-solving therapy. It also examined participants' problem-solving skills. Hypotheses stated that there would be no racial differences in consent rates and that social problem-solving coping skills would be lower among African Americans than Caucasians. Proportions of African Americans and Caucasians who consented were compared, as were Social Problem Solving Inventory scores between the groups. Of 2,788 individuals approached, 82 (4%) of 1,970 Caucasians and 46 (6%) of 818 African Americans signed consent, and the difference was not significant (p=.09). Racial differences were observed in neither Social Problem Solving Inventory scores nor in the relationship between problem-solving skills and depressive symptoms. African Americans with depression demonstrated a willingness to participate in an indicated trial of depression prevention. Furthermore, both groups would appear to benefit from the problem-solving process.
Dadds, Mark Richard; Cauchi, Avril Jessica; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Hawes, David John; Brennan, John
Impairments in emotion recognition skills are a trans-diagnostic indicator of early mental health problems and may be responsive to intervention. We report on a randomized controlled trial of "Emotion-recognition-training" (ERT) versus treatment-as-usual (TAU) with N=195 mixed diagnostic children (mean age 10.52 years) referred for behavioral/emotional problems measured at pre- and 6 months post-treatment. We tested overall outcomes plus moderation and mediation models, whereby diagnostic profile was tested as a moderator of change. ERT had no impact on the group as a whole. Diagnostic status of the child did not moderate outcomes; however, levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits moderated outcomes such that children with high CU traits responded less well to TAU, while ERT produced significant improvements in affective empathy and conduct problems in these children. Emotion recognition training has potential as an adjunctive intervention specifically for clinically referred children with high CU traits, regardless of their diagnostic status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Degarmo, David S; Reid, John B; Fetrow, Becky A; Fisher, Philip A; Antoine, Karla D
This paper evaluated the Pathways Home manualized selective preventive intervention designed to prevent reunification failures once children are returned home to their biological parent(s) after first time stays in foster care ( n = 101). The theoretically based intervention focused on support and parent management practices designed to prevent the development of child behavior problems including internalizing and externalizing problems, and substance use. Intent to treat analyses employed probability growth curve approaches for repeated telephone assessments over 16 weeks of intervention. Findings showed that relative to services as usual reunification families, the Pathways Home families demonstrated better parenting strategies that were in turn associated with reductions in problem behaviors over time. Growth in problem behaviors in turn predicted foster care re-entry. Maternal substance use cravings were a risk factor for growth in problem behaviors that were buffered by participation in the Pathways Home intervention.
DeGarmo, David S.; Reid, John B.; Fetrow, Becky A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Antoine, Karla D.
This paper evaluated the Pathways Home manualized selective preventive intervention designed to prevent reunification failures once children are returned home to their biological parent(s) after first time stays in foster care (n = 101). The theoretically based intervention focused on support and parent management practices designed to prevent the development of child behavior problems including internalizing and externalizing problems, and substance use. Intent to treat analyses employed probability growth curve approaches for repeated telephone assessments over 16 weeks of intervention. Findings showed that relative to services as usual reunification families, the Pathways Home families demonstrated better parenting strategies that were in turn associated with reductions in problem behaviors over time. Growth in problem behaviors in turn predicted foster care re-entry. Maternal substance use cravings were a risk factor for growth in problem behaviors that were buffered by participation in the Pathways Home intervention. PMID:23914130
Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.
This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…
Vander Stoep, Ann; Adrian, Molly; Mc Cauley, Elizabeth; Crowell, Sheila E.; Stone, Andrea; Flynn, Cynthia
This study investigates the early manifestation of co-occurring depression and conduct problems as a predictor of heightened risk for later suicidal ideation and behavior in a community sample of 521 adolescents. Self-reported symptoms of depression and conduct problems were evaluated in early 6th grade. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors were…
Chronis, Andrea M.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Baumann, Barbara L.; Kipp, Heidi; Jones, Heather A.; Rathouz, Paul J.
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for adverse outcomes such as substance abuse and criminality, particularly if they develop conduct problems. Little is known about early predictors of the developmental course of conduct problems among children with ADHD, however. Parental psychopathology and parenting …
Full Text Available Purpose: To describe the management of mild conduct problems in an adolescent at the primary care level. Case report: A 16 year old girl presented with conduct problems with impending school suspension. The cause of her behavioural problems was mainly related to poor parenting skills of her parents and anger in herself. She was successfully managed with counselling and improvement of parenting styles in her parents. Conclusion: This case report illustrates the opportunity for family physicians to manage simple conduct problems at primary care level.
Brugman, E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Objectives: To assess the degree to which physicians and nurses working in preventive child health care (child health professionals [CHPs]) identify and manage psychosocial problems in children, and to determine its association with parent-reported behavioral and emotional problems, sociodemographic
Klein Velderman, Mariska; Crone, Matty R.; Wiefferink, Carin H.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.
Background: Objective of this study was to assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and act upon psychosocial problems among young toddlers in the general population and to determine the concordance with parent-reported behavioural and emotional problems.
Formalev, V. F.; Kolesnik, S. A.
The authors are the first to present a closed procedure for numerical solution of inverse coefficient problems of heat conduction in anisotropic materials used as heat-shielding ones in rocket and space equipment. The reconstructed components of the thermal-conductivity tensor depend on temperature (are nonlinear). The procedure includes the formation of experimental data, the implicit gradient-descent method, the economical absolutely stable method of numerical solution of parabolic problems containing mixed derivatives, the parametric identification, construction, and numerical solution of the problem for elements of sensitivity matrices, the development of a quadratic residual functional and regularizing functionals, and also the development of algorithms and software systems. The implicit gradient-descent method permits expanding the quadratic functional in a Taylor series with retention of the linear terms for the increments of the sought functions. This substantially improves the exactness and stability of solution of the inverse problems. Software systems are developed with account taken of the errors in experimental data and disregarding them. On the basis of a priori assumptions of the qualitative behavior of the functional dependences of the components of the thermal-conductivity tensor on temperature, regularizing functionals are constructed by means of which one can reconstruct the components of the thermal-conductivity tensor with an error no higher than the error of the experimental data. Results of the numerical solution of the inverse coefficient problems on reconstruction of nonlinear components of the thermal-conductivity tensor have been obtained and are discussed.
Tang Jian; Peng Muzhang; Cao Dongxing
A new numerical method-nodal green's function method is used for solving heat conduction function. A heat conduction problem in cylindrical geometry with axial conduction is solved in this paper. The Kirchhoff transformation is used to deal with the problem with temperature dependent conductivity. Therefor, the calculation for the function is simplified. On the basis of the formulas developed, the code named NGMEFC is programmed. A sample problem which has been calculated by the code COBRA-IV is chosen as checking. A good agreement between both codes is achieved. The calculation shows that the calculation efficiency of the nodel green's function method is much higher than that of finite difference method
KHAIRANI O; AZIMAH MN
Purpose: To describe the management of mild conduct problems in an adolescent at the primary care level. Case report: A 16 year old girl presented with conduct problems with impending school suspension. The cause of her behavioural problems was mainly related to poor parenting skills of her parents and anger in herself. She was successfully managed with counselling and improvement of parenting styles in her parents. Conclusion: This case report illustrates the opportunity for family physician...
A new finite volume method for cylindrical heat conduction problems based on local analytical solution is proposed in this paper with detailed derivation. The calculation results of this new method are compared with the traditional second-order finite volume method. The newly proposed method is more accurate than conventional ones, even though the discretized expression of this proposed method is slightly more complex than the second-order central finite volume method, making it cost more calculation time on the same grids. Numerical result shows that the total CPU time of the new method is significantly less than conventional methods for achieving the same level of accuracy. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loureiro, F. S.; Mansur, Webe Joao
This paper is concerned with the formulation and numerical implementation of a new class of time integration schemes applied to linear heat conduction problems. The temperature field at any time level is calculated in terms of the numerical Green’s function matrix of the model problem by considering an analytical time integral equation. After spatial discretization by the finite element method, the Green’s function matrix which transfers solution from t to t + Δ t is explicitly computed in nodal coordinates using efficient implicit and explicit Runge-Kutta methods. It is shown that the stability and the accuracy of the proposed method are highly improved when a sub-step procedure is used to calculate recursively the Green’s function matrix at the end of the first time step. As a result, with a suitable choice of the number of sub-steps, large time steps can be used without degenerating the numerical solution. Finally, the effectiveness of the present methodology is demonstrated by analyzing two numerical examples.
Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; De Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga; Pelino, José Eduardo Pelizon; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; De Almeida, Eliete Rodrigues
The scope of this study is to identify the prevalence of access to information about how to prevent oral problems among schoolchildren in the public school network, as well as the factors associated with such access. This is a cross-sectional and analytical study conducted among 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian municipality with a large population. The examinations were performed by 24 trained dentists and calibrated with the aid of 24 recorders. Data collection occurred in 36 public schools selected from the 89 public schools of the city. Descriptive, univariate and multiple analyses were conducted. Of the 2510 schoolchildren included in the study, 2211 reported having received information about how to prevent oral problems. Access to such information was greater among those who used private dental services; and lower among those who used the service for treatment, who evaluated the service as regular or bad/awful. The latter use toothbrush only or toothbrush and tongue scrubbing as a means of oral hygiene and who reported not being satisfied with the appearance of their teeth. The conclusion drawn is that the majority of schoolchildren had access to information about how to prevent oral problems, though access was associated with the characteristics of health services, health behavior and outcomes.
van Lier, Pol A. C.; van der Ende, Jan; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.
Background: To assess the co-occurrence in deviant trajectories of parent-rated symptoms of conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from age 4 to 18 years old in a general population sample of Dutch children. Methods: Developmental trajectories of CD, ODD, and ADHD were…
Jezior, Kristen L; McKenzie, Meghan E; Lee, Steve S
Although narcissism and callous-unemotional (CU) traits are separable facets of psychopathy, their independent prediction of conduct problems (CP) among young children is not well known. In addition, above-average IQ was central to the original conceptualization of psychopathy, yet IQ is typically inversely associated with youth CP. We examined narcissism and CU traits as independent and prospective predictors of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and youth self-reported antisocial behavior, as well as their moderation by IQ. At baseline, parents and teachers separately rated narcissism and CU traits in 188 6-to-10-year-old children (47.9% non-White; 69.1% male; M = 7.34 years, SD = 1.09) with (n = 99) and without (n = 89) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Approximately 2 years later, parents and teachers separately rated youth ODD and CD symptoms, and youth self-reported antisocial behavior. With control of baseline ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms, narcissism and CU traits independently and positively predicted ODD and CD symptoms at follow-up. IQ did not moderate any CP predictions from baseline narcissism or CU traits. These preliminary findings suggest that individual differences in narcissism and CU traits, even relatively early in development, are uniquely associated with emergent CP. Findings are considered within a developmental framework and the multiple pathways underlying the heterogeneity of CP are discussed.
Dadds, Mark R; Moul, Caroline; Cauchi, Avril; Hawes, David J; Brennan, John
The co-occurrence of conduct problems (CPs) and high callous-unemotional (CU) traits specifies risk for adult psychopathy and is under a high genetic influence. A previous genome-wide pooled DNA study of 7-year olds identified a set of candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might differentiate high CP+CU children from healthy children. We attempted to replicate an identified subset of these SNP-psychopathy associations. In a case-control design, 210 clinically referred children were partitioned into Comparison, High CP+Low CU, and High CP+CU groups and genotyped. One SNP, rs13064369, differentiated the groups but was associated with high CP, regardless of the level of CU traits, that is, the rare and heterozygote variants CC and CT were significantly more frequent in both CP groups compared with Comparisons but did not differ from each other. We replicated the finding that a polymorphism associated with the ROBO2 gene, which is involved in neurodevelopment, confers risk for the common emotionally reactive, impulsive aspects of conduct disorder, independent of concurrent risk for psychopathy.
Kim, Irene J; Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H; Conger, Rand D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L
The occurrence and co-occurrence of depressive symptoms and conduct problems were examined in the context of parenting behaviors in a community-based sample of 897 African American children and their primary caregivers using a multi-informant, longitudinal design. Parenting behaviors and clinical symptoms were assessed in 2 waves, when the children averaged 10.5 and 12.3 years of age. Parenting behaviors differed significantly according to a child's symptomatology; (a) that is, when a child exhibited no depressive or conduct problems, (b) depressive problems only, (c) conduct problems only, or (d) co-occurring depressive and conduct problems. When parenting behaviors were examined according to changes in children's symptom levels, children whose symptoms increased over time reported increases in hostility and harsh-inconsistent parenting and decreases in warmth and nurturant-involved parenting. ((c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved)
Ha, Carolyn; Petersen, Nancy; Sharp, Carla
The aim of the current report was to investigate the relationship between narcissism, self-esteem and conduct problems in a British community sample of pre-adolescent and young adolescent children (n = 659; 7-11 year olds). We demonstrated that narcissism is associated with conduct problems, but no evidence for an interaction between low self-esteem and high narcissism in the prediction of conduct problems was found. Whilst low self-esteem was associated with teacher-reported (but not parent-reported) conduct problems at the bivariate level of analyses, multi-variate analyses showed that self-esteem yielded no significant effects, neither independently, nor in interaction with narcissism for either parent- or teacher reported conduct problems. However, self-esteem was predictive of self-reported conduct problems at both the bivariate and multivariate level of analysis, possibly due to shared method variance. The findings suggest an important role for narcissism for conduct problems in children as young as seven years old.
Danforth, Jeffrey S; Connor, Daniel F; Doerfler, Leonard A
We describe interactions among factors that contribute to the development of conduct problems among children with ADHD. An integrative developmental psychopathology analysis combines various approaches and posits one model of how diverse risk factors operate together to contribute to the development of conduct problems among children with ADHD. Substantial genetic risk increases covariation between ADHD and conduct problems. Candidate genes are associated with CNS monoaminergic neurotransmission. Subsequent neurodevelopmental impairment interferes with executive function, with impaired verbal working memory playing an important role. Parent/child bi-directional influences exacerbate the risk for conduct problems when ADHD symptoms increase the likelihood of a coercive parenting style. Parent stress in reaction to child comorbid ADHD and conduct problems, and parent attribution for the child's conduct problem behavior, add to the potential for coercion and reduce constructive parent-child interaction that might otherwise enhance the development of verbal working memory. In an integrated manner, these variables increase the risk that a child with ADHD will subsequently develop conduct problems. © The Author(s) 2014.
Emery, C A; Roos, E M; Verhagen, E; Finch, C F; Bennell, K L; Story, B; Spindler, K; Kemp, J; Lohmander, L S
The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform the design, conduct and analytical approaches to RCTs evaluating the preventative effect of joint injury prevention strategies. Recommendations regarding the design, conduct, and reporting of RCTs evaluating injury prevention interventions were established based on the consensus of nine researchers internationally with expertise in epidemiology, injury prevention and/or osteoarthritis (OA). Input and resultant consensus was established through teleconference, face to face and email correspondence over a 1 year period. Recommendations for injury prevention RCTs include context specific considerations regarding the research question, research design, study participants, randomization, baseline characteristics, intervention, outcome measurement, analysis, implementation, cost evaluation, reporting and future considerations including the impact on development of PTOA. Methodological recommendations for injury prevention RCTs are critical to informing evidence-based practice and policy decisions in health care, public health and the community. Recommendations regarding the interpretation and conduct of injury prevention RCTs will inform the highest level of evidence in the field. These recommendations will facilitate between study comparisons to inform best practice in injury prevention that will have the greatest public health impact. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thoma-Lürken, Theresa; Bleijlevens, Michel H C; Lexis, Monique A S; de Witte, Luc P; Hamers, Jan P H
Although the majority of people with dementia wish to age in place, they are particularly susceptible to nursing home admission. Nurses can play an important role in detecting practical problems people with dementia and their informal caregivers are facing and in advising them on various ways to manage these problems at home. Six focus group interviews (n = 43) with formal and informal caregivers and experts in the field of assistive technology were conducted to gain insight into the most important practical problems preventing people with dementia from living at home. Problems within three domains were consistently described as most important: informal caregiver/social network-related problems (e.g. high load of care responsibility), safety-related problems (e.g. fall risk, wandering), and decreased self-reliance (e.g. problems regarding self-care, lack of day structure). To facilitate aging in place and/or to delay institutionalization, nurses in community-based dementia care should focus on assessing problems within those three domains and offer potential solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.
Kelly, Rhonda Alice
Studies have demonstrated that there is an excessive number of foot problems among personnel entering the military, which leads to disruption to training resulting in an increase in both costs and wastage. Days are lost in training due to foot problems, most commonly blisters, causing a loss of working/training days with a resultant low morale and a financial loss to the army. A cohort of Phase One British Army recruits completed a questionnaire in week 3 of training to identify previous and current foot problems and assess what education on the topic they received during their training. Also, 43 foot risk assessment tools were used by the medical staff to identify incidence, severity and working days lost. Questionnaires were completed by 31 instructors to gain data on prevention and management of foot problems. Focus groups were conducted among instructors to investigate their knowledge of prevention and management, and problems identified among recruits. A lack of formal training on foot care exists among recruits and instructors. Blisters were reported to be the main foot problem, and army-issue boots were reported to be the main cause of problems. Sizing of boots was inconsistent, and manufacturers can vary in their sizings. There were no policies available, and only one lesson on foot care was given. Currently, no policies exist on foot care at the Army Training Regiment (ATR). Foot clinics were available daily, and blisters and foot problems were already present; therefore, foot education is required in the early stages of training. The field craft exercise resulted in half of the recruits reporting blisters. Poor foot hygiene remained a problem when recruits arrived at the ATR for their training. Foot care instruction included in the training would reduce days and hours lost in training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Glass, Kerrie; Flory, Kate; Martin, Amber; Hankin, Benjamin L
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child and adolescent disorder that is associated with negative outcomes (e.g., emotional and behavioral problems, substance use) and is often comorbid with Conduct Problems (CP). Research findings are mixed as to whether youth with ADHD alone or comorbid ADHD/CP suffer from low self-esteem. Research has also shown links between low self-esteem and ADHD (alone and with CP) with substance use; yet, no research has examined the links between self-esteem and substance use in adolescents with ADHD and CP. The current study examined the relation between ADHD with and without comorbid CP and self-esteem, and whether self-esteem moderated the relation between ADHD and ADHD/CP with substance use among adolescents. We hypothesized that adolescents with comorbid ADHD/CP would experience lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or with neither disorder and that self-esteem would moderate the association between ADHD, CP, and substance use. Participants were 62 adolescents who completed the laboratory-based study with a parent. Results suggested that adolescents with comorbid ADHD and CP had significantly lower self-esteem than adolescents with ADHD alone or neither disorder. Self-esteem was not significantly different for adolescents with ADHD alone versus those in the control group. There was one marginally significant interaction between ADHD and self-esteem predicting substance use, such that individuals with comorbid ADHD/CP who also had low self-esteem tended to use more substances. Results have implications for treatments that target adolescents with ADHD and comorbid CP, as these adolescents are at risk for many deleterious outcomes.
Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: Design of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a problem-solving based intervention versus care-as-usual conducted at the Occupational Health Services
Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental disorders (CMDs are among the leading causes of sick leave in Sweden and other OECD countries. They result in suffering for the individual and considerable financial costs for the employer and for society at large. The occupational health service (OHS can offer interventions in which both the individual and the work situation are taken into account. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention given at the OHS to employees with CMDs or stress-related symptoms at work. In addition, intervention fidelity and its relation to the outcome will be assessed in a process analysis. Methods The study is designed as a cluster randomized trial in which the participating OHS consultants are randomized into either delivering the intervention or performing care as usual. Employees with CMDs or stress-related symptoms at work are recruited consecutively by the OHS consultants. The intervention aims to improve the match between the employee and the job situation. Interviews are held individually with the employee and the nearest supervisor, after which a joint meeting with both the employee and the supervisor takes place. A participatory approach is applied by which the supervisor and the employee are guided by the OHS consultant and encouraged to actively take part in problem solving concerning the work situation. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at six and 12 months. A long-term follow-up at 3 years will also be performed. The primary outcome is registered sickness absence during a 1-year period after study inclusion. Secondary outcomes are mental health and work ability. The intervention’s cost effectiveness, compared to treatment as usual, both for society and for the employer will be evaluated. A process evaluation by both the OHS consultants and the employee will be carried out. Discussion The study includes analyses of the effectiveness of the
Preventing sickness absenteeism among employees with common mental disorders or stress-related symptoms at work: Design of a cluster randomized controlled trial of a problem-solving based intervention versus care-as-usual conducted at the Occupational Health Services.
Bergström, G; Lohela-Karlsson, M; Kwak, L; Bodin, L; Jensen, I; Torgén, M; Nybergh, L
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are among the leading causes of sick leave in Sweden and other OECD countries. They result in suffering for the individual and considerable financial costs for the employer and for society at large. The occupational health service (OHS) can offer interventions in which both the individual and the work situation are taken into account. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention given at the OHS to employees with CMDs or stress-related symptoms at work. In addition, intervention fidelity and its relation to the outcome will be assessed in a process analysis. The study is designed as a cluster randomized trial in which the participating OHS consultants are randomized into either delivering the intervention or performing care as usual. Employees with CMDs or stress-related symptoms at work are recruited consecutively by the OHS consultants. The intervention aims to improve the match between the employee and the job situation. Interviews are held individually with the employee and the nearest supervisor, after which a joint meeting with both the employee and the supervisor takes place. A participatory approach is applied by which the supervisor and the employee are guided by the OHS consultant and encouraged to actively take part in problem solving concerning the work situation. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at six and 12 months. A long-term follow-up at 3 years will also be performed. The primary outcome is registered sickness absence during a 1-year period after study inclusion. Secondary outcomes are mental health and work ability. The intervention's cost effectiveness, compared to treatment as usual, both for society and for the employer will be evaluated. A process evaluation by both the OHS consultants and the employee will be carried out. The study includes analyses of the effectiveness of the intervention (clinical and economic) as well as an analysis of
McKenzie, Meghan E; Lee, Steve S
Although average or high IQ was central to initial conceptualizations of psychopathy, IQ is typically negatively associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). Few studies have simultaneously considered narcissism and callous-unemotional (CU) traits with respect to ODD and CD symptoms, including potential interactive associations with IQ. Participants were 221 ethnically-diverse (45 % non-White) 6-9 year-old children with (n = 114) and without (n = 107) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with separate parent and teacher ratings of narcissism, CU traits, ODD, and CD. To minimize shared method variance, we conservatively examined the association of parent-rated psychopathic traits with teacher-rated ODD and CD as well as the association of teacher-rated psychopathic traits with parent-rated ODD and CD. Controlling for age, sex, and the number of child ADHD symptoms, narcissism, but not CU traits, uniquely and positively predicted parent- and teacher-rated ODD and CD symptoms. We also observed a significant IQ × narcissism interaction where narcissism was more strongly associated with ODD and CD among children with high IQ relative to average and low IQ youth. Whereas studies of youth psychopathic traits focus almost exclusively on CU traits, narcissism independently predicted separate parent and teacher ratings of ODD and CD, particularly among children with high IQ. These preliminary data persuasively suggest that early narcissism is a critical facet of psychopathy and in conjunction with IQ, may suggest a unique profile associated with emergent conduct problems.
Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T; Currie, Shawn R
School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills for good decision making and problem solving. An overriding theme of the program is to approach life as a "smart gambler" by determining the odds and weighing the pros versus cons of your actions. A total of 949 grade 9-12 students in 10 schools throughout southern Alberta received the program and completed baseline and follow-up measures. These students were compared to 291 students in 4 control schools. Four months after receiving the program, students in the intervention group had significantly more negative attitudes toward gambling, improved knowledge about gambling and problem gambling, improved resistance to gambling fallacies, improved decision making and problem solving, decreased gambling frequency, and decreased rates of problem gambling. There was no change in involvement in high risk activities or money lost gambling. These results indicate that Stacked Deck is a promising curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.
Hiriscau, Ioana E; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Stadler, Christina; Schmeck, Klaus; Reiter-Theil, Stella
Conducting prevention research with children and adolescents raises ethical challenges especially regarding confidentiality. Research with children and adolescents often applies methodologies which aims at the disclosure of sensitive information about practices that impact on adolescent mental and physical health such as sexual activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, illegal drug use, self-damaging and suicidal behaviour (ideation and attempts). The scope of the article is to review normative documents that cover topics relevant for confidentiality when conducting research with children and adolescents. A systematic literature search in MEDLINE was performed to identify relevant international and European guidelines and codes of ethics that cover health, behavioural and social science research. Additionally, the European Research Ethics website was consulted for double check. However, none of the documents aimed at biomedical, behavioural or social research offers concrete support in resolving practical research ethics problems regarding confidentiality. The codes show a lack of clarity in any circumstances in which the researcher might have an obligation to breach confidentiality by disclosing sensitive information. Only little information is given on what kind of disclosed information, if disclosed, might justify breaching confidentiality. The findings prove a need for normative documents to address the ethical questions regarding confidentiality arising in research practice explicitly and specifically. Moreover, further forms of ethical guidance should be developed to support ethical research with children and adolescents.
Tung, Irene; Li, James J; Lee, Steve S
Although multiple dimensions of negative parenting behavior are associated with childhood conduct problems (CP), there is relatively little research on whether the association is equally robust in boys and girls. To improve the specificity of current models of negative parenting and offspring CP, we explored the potential moderating role of child sex in a sample of 179 5- to 10-year-old ethnically diverse boys and girls with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who were assessed using multiple methods (i.e., rating scales, semistructured interviews) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, race-ethnicity, and ADHD diagnostic status (i.e., ADHD vs. non-ADHD), inconsistent discipline was positively associated with offspring aggression and rule-breaking behavior, whereas harsh punishment was positively associated with aggression, rule-breaking behavior, and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Furthermore, child sex significantly moderated the association of inconsistent discipline and aggression and rule-breaking behavior, such that inconsistent discipline was positively associated with CP for boys, but not for girls. Given the centrality of negative parenting to theories of and efficacious interventions for aggression and CP, we discuss these findings within a developmental psychopathology framework and consider their implications for intervention. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Heat conduction in solids subjected to non-homogenous boundary conditions leads to singularities in terms of heat flux density. That kind of issues can be also encountered in various scientists’ fields as electromagnetism, electrostatic, electrochemistry and mechanics. These problems are difficult to solve by using the classical methods such as integral transforms or separation of variables. These methods lead to solving of dual integral equations or Fredholm integral equations, which are not easy to use. The present work addresses the calculation of thermal resistance of a finite medium submitted to conjugate surface Neumann and Dirichlet conditions, which are defined by a band-shape heat source and a uniform temperature. The opposite surface is subjected to a homogeneous boundary condition such uniform temperature, or insulation. The proposed solving process is based on simple and accurate correlations that provide the thermal resistance as a function of the ratio of the size of heat source and the depth of the medium. A judicious scale analysis is performed in order to fix the asymptotic behaviour at the limits of the value of the geometric parameter. The developed correlations are very simple to use and are valid regardless of the values of the defined geometrical parameter. The performed validations by comparison with numerical modelling demonstrate the relevant agreement of the solutions to address singularity calculation issues.
St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina
Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.
van Baardewijk, Y.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Stegge, H.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.
The current study investigated the 18-month stability of self-reported psychopathic traits measured through the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory-Child Version (YPI-CV) and their concurrent and prospective associations with conduct problems and aggression in a sample of 9-12 year olds (n=159, 52% boys) from the community. Self-reported psychopathy scores were moderately to highly stable and traits were positively related to conduct problems both concurrently and at follow-up, the latter eve...
Ijaz, Sharea; Thorley, Helen; Porter, Katie; Fleming, Clare; Jones, Tim; Kesten, Joanna; Mamluk, Loubaba; Richards, Alison; Marques, Elsa M. R.; Savović, Jelena
Background: Excessive drinking leads to poor absorption of nutrients and homeless problem-drinkers often have nutritionally inadequate diets. Depletion of nutrients such as vitamin B1 can lead to cognitive impairment, which can hinder efforts to reduce drinking or engage with services. This review aimed to assess effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent or treat malnutrition in homeless problem-drinkers.Methods: We systematically searched nine electronic databases and 13 grey litera...
Edward M. Sosu
Full Text Available This study investigated the mechanisms by which experiences of poverty influence the trajectory of conduct problems among preschool children. Drawing on two theoretical perspectives, we focused on family stress (stress and harsh discipline and investment variables (educational investment, nutrition, and cognitive ability as key mediators. Structural equation modeling techniques with prospective longitudinal data from the Growing Up in Scotland survey (N = 3,375 were used. Economic deprivation measured around the first birthday of the sample children had both direct and indirect effects on conduct problems across time (ages 4, 5, and 6. In line with the family stress hypothesis, higher levels of childhood poverty predicted conduct problems across time through increased parental stress and punitive discipline. Consistent with the investment model, childhood deprivation was associated with higher levels of conduct problems via educational investment and cognitive ability. The study extends previous knowledge on the mechanisms of this effect by demonstrating that cognitive ability is a key mediator between poverty and the trajectory of childhood conduct problems. This suggests that interventions aimed at reducing child conduct problems should be expanded to include factors that compromise parenting as well as improve child cognitive ability.
Morosan, Larisa; Badoud, Deborah; Salaminios, George; Eliez, Stephan; Van der Linden, Martial; Heller, Patrick; Debbané, Martin
Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15.78, SD = 1.60) participated in our study. In the IA group, 28 adolescents presented CPs (M age = 16.06, SD = 1.41) and 19 did not meet the diagnostic criteria for CPs (M age = 15.97, SD = 1.20). Source monitoring was assessed through a speech-monitoring task, using items requiring different levels of cognitive effort; recognition and source-monitoring bias scores (internalising and externalising biases) were calculated. Between-group comparisons indicate greater overall biases and different patterns of biases in the source monitoring. IA participants manifest a greater externalising bias, whereas CA participants present a greater internalising bias. In addition, IA with CPs present different patterns of item recognition. These results indicate that the two groups of adolescents present different types of source-monitoring bias for self-generated speech. In addition, the IAs with CPs present impairments in item recognition. Future studies may examine the developmental implications of self-monitoring biases in the perseverance of antisocial behaviours from adolescence to adulthood.
Andrade, Brendan F.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Doucet, Amelie; King, Sara; MacKinnon, Maura; McGrath, Patrick J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Corkum, Penny
Objective: This study examined social information processing (SIP) of events with varied outcomes in children with ADHD and conduct problems (CPs; defined as oppositional defiant disorder [ODD] or conduct disorder [CD]) and controls. Method: Participants were 64 children (46 boys, 18 girls) aged 6 to 12, including 39 with ADHD and 25 controls.…
Vicary, Judith R.; Karshin, Christine M.
Reviews the extent of underage drinking and alcohol abuse by college students currently and in an historical perspective. Profiles of those individuals and groups most at risk for problem drinking are suggested. Provides examples of efforts to prevent or reduce collegiate drinking, including campus-community coalitions, environmental management…
Knight, [No Value
Adolescents use alcohol more frequently and heavily than all other illicit drugs combined.(1) Given the myriad health, developmental, and social problems associated with alcohol use, it is not surprising that the American Medical Association's Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services recommends
Ghahramanlou-Holloway, M; Bhar, S S; Brown, G K; Olsen, C; Beck, A T
Cognitive therapy has been found to be effective in decreasing the recurrence of suicide attempts. A theoretical aim of cognitive therapy is to improve problem-solving skills so that suicide no longer remains the only available option. This study examined the differential rate of change in problem-solving appraisal following suicide attempts among individuals who participated in a randomized controlled trial for the prevention of suicide. Changes in problem-solving appraisal from pre- to 6-months post-treatment in individuals with a recent suicide attempt, randomized to either cognitive therapy (n = 60) or a control condition (n = 60), were assessed by using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, Short Form. Improvements in problem-solving appraisal were similarly observed for both groups within the 6-month follow-up. However, during this period, individuals assigned to the cognitive therapy condition demonstrated a significantly faster rate of improvement in negative problem orientation and impulsivity/carelessness. More specifically, individuals receiving cognitive therapy were significantly less likely to report a negative view toward life problems and impulsive/carelessness problem-solving style. Cognitive therapy for the prevention of suicide provides rapid changes within 6 months on negative problem orientation and impulsivity/carelessness problem-solving style. Given that individuals are at the greatest risk for suicide within 6 months of their last suicide attempt, the current study demonstrates that a brief cognitive intervention produces a rapid rate of improvement in two important domains of problem-solving appraisal during this sensitive period.
Ijaz, Sharea; Thorley, Helen; Porter, Katie; Fleming, Clare; Jones, Tim; Kesten, Joanna; Mamluk, Loubaba; Richards, Alison; Marques, Elsa M R; Savović, Jelena
Excessive drinking leads to poor absorption of nutrients and homeless problem-drinkers often have nutritionally inadequate diets. Depletion of nutrients such as vitamin B1 can lead to cognitive impairment, which can hinder efforts to reduce drinking or engage with services. This review aimed to assess effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent or treat malnutrition in homeless problem-drinkers. We systematically searched nine electronic databases and 13 grey literature sources for studies evaluating interventions to improve nutrition in homeless populations, without regional or language restrictions. Screening for inclusion was done in duplicate. One reviewer extracted data and assessed risk of bias, and another checked the extractions. Primary outcomes were nutrition status/deficiency, liver damage, and cognitive function. Secondary outcomes included abstinence, comorbidities, resource use, acceptability and engagement with intervention. Results were synthesised narratively. We included 25 studies (2 Randomised Controlled Trials; 15 uncontrolled before and after; 7 surveys; 1 case-control). Nine studies evaluated educational and support interventions, five food provision, and three supplement provision. Eight studies evaluated a combination of these interventions. No two interventions were the same, and all studies were at high risk of bias. Nutritional status (intake/ deficiency) were reported in 11 studies and liver function in one. Fruit and vegetable intake improved with some education and support interventions (n = 4 studies) but not others (n = 2). Vitamin supplements appeared to improve vitamin deficiency levels in the blood (n = 2). Free or subsidised meals (n = 4) and food packs (n = 1) did not always fulfil dietary needs, but were usually considered acceptable by users. Some multicomponent interventions improved nutrition (n = 3) but acceptability varied (n = 3). No study reported cost effectiveness. The evidence for
Sampaio, Filipa; Enebrink, Pia; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Feldman, Inna
Parenting programs and self-help parenting interventions employing written materials are effective in reducing child conduct problems (CP) in the short-term compared to control groups, however evidence on the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is insufficient. Few studies have looked at the differences in effects between interventions in the same study design. This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of four parenting programs: Comet, Incredible Years (IY), Cope and Connect, and bibliotherapy, compared to a waitlist control (WC), with a time horizon of 4 months, targeting CP in children aged 3-12 years. This economic evaluation was conducted alongside an RCT of the four parenting interventions and bibliotherapy compared to a WC. The study sample consisted of 961 parents of 3-12 year-old children with CP. CP was measured by the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Effectiveness was expressed as the proportion of "recovered" cases of CP. The time horizon of the study was four months with a limited health sector perspective, including parents' time costs. We performed an initial comparative cost analysis for interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from the WC, and later a cost-effectiveness analysis of interventions whose outcomes differed significantly from both the WC and each other. Secondary analyses were performed: (i) joint outcome "recovered and improved", (ii) intervention completers, (iii) exclusion of parents' time costs, (iv) exclusion of training costs. All interventions apart from Connect significantly reduced CP compared to the WC. Of the other interventions Comet resulted in a significantly higher proportion of recovered cases compared to bibliotherapy. A comparative cost analysis of the effective interventions rendered an average cost per recovered case for bibliotherapy of USD 483, Cope USD 1972, Comet USD 3741, and IY USD 6668. Furthermore, Comet had an ICER of USD 8375 compared to bibliotherapy. Secondary analyses of
Sentse, Miranda; Kretschmer, Tina; de Haan, Amaranta; Prinzie, Peter
Individual heterogeneity exists in the onset and development of conduct problems, but theoretical claims about predictors and prognosis are often not consistent with the empirical findings. This study examined shape and outcomes of conduct problem trajectories in a Belgian population-based sample (N = 682; 49.5 % boys). Mothers reported on children's conduct problems across six waves (age 4-17) and emerging adults reported on their behavioral adjustment (age 17-20). Applying mixture modeling, we found four gender-invariant trajectories (labeled life-course-persistent, adolescence-onset, childhood-limited, and low). The life-course-persistent group was least favorably adjusted, but the adolescence-onset group was similarly maladjusted in externalizing problems and may be less normative (15 % of the sample) than previously believed. The childhood-limited group was at heightened risk for specifically internalizing problems, being more worrisome than its label suggests. Interventions should not only be aimed at early detection of conduct problems, but also at adolescents to avoid future maladjustment.
Weiss, Bahr; Han, Susan; Harris, Vicki; Catron, Thomas; Ngo, Victoria K; Caron, Annalise; Gallop, Robert; Guth, Carol
Adolescent conduct problems exact serious social as well as personal costs, and effective treatments are essential. One of the most widely disseminated and effective programs for the treatment of serious conduct problems in adolescents is Multisystemic Therapy (MST). However, most evaluations of MST have involved the developers of MST. The purpose of the present study was to conduct an independent evaluation of MST, with non-court-referred adolescents with conduct problems. Participants were 164 adolescents ages 11-18 years who were recruited from self-contained behavior intervention classrooms in public schools. Adolescents and their families were randomly assigned to receive MST or services as usual. Outcome measures assessed conduct problems, school functioning, and court records of criminal behavior. Participants were followed for 18 months after baseline using parent, adolescent, and teacher reports; arrest data were collected for 2.5 years postbaseline. Two of 4 primary outcome measures focused on externalizing problems showed significant treatment effects favoring MST. Several secondary and intervention targets pertaining to family functioning and parent psychopathology showed positive effects of MST, and no negative effects were identified. Results provide some further support for the effectiveness of MST, although smaller effect sizes than previous studies also suggest the complexity of successful dissemination, particularly to non-court-referred populations.
Odgers, Candice L.; Milne, Barry J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Crump, Raewyn; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.
Objective: Many children with conduct disorder develop life-course persistent antisocial behavior; however, other children exhibit childhood-limited or adolescence-limited conduct disorder symptoms and escape poor adult outcomes. Prospective prediction of long-term prognosis in pediatric and adolescent clinical settings is difficult. Improved…
Silverstein, Michael; Feinberg, Emily; Cabral, Howard; Sauder, Sara; Egbert, Lucia; Schainker, Elisabeth; Kamholz, Karen; Hegel, Mark; Beardslee, William
We sought to assess the feasibility and document key study processes of a problem-solving intervention to prevent depression among low-income mothers of preterm infants. A randomized controlled pilot trial (n = 50) of problem-solving education (PSE) was conducted. We assessed intervention provider training and fidelity; recruitment and retention of subjects; intervention acceptability; and investigators' ability to conduct monthly outcome assessments, from which we could obtain empirical estimates of depression symptoms, stress, and functioning over 6 months. Four of four bachelor-level providers were able to deliver PSE appropriately with standardized subjects within 4 weeks of training. Of 12 randomly audited PSE sessions with actual subjects, all met treatment fidelity criteria. Nineteen of 25 PSE subjects (76%) received full four-session courses; no subjects reported negative experiences with PSE. Eighty-eight percent of scheduled follow-up assessments were completed. Forty-four percent of control group mothers experienced an episode of moderately severe depression symptoms over the follow-up period, compared to 24% of PSE mothers. Control mothers experienced an average 1.19 symptomatic episodes over the 6 months of follow-up, compared to 0.52 among PSE mothers. PSE appears feasible and may be a promising strategy to prevent depression among mothers of preterm infants.
Kjøbli, John; Sørlie, Mari-Anne
The Early Intervention for Children at Risk for Developing Behavioral Problems (EICR) is a community-wide intervention model preventing and treating problem behavior and promoting social competence in children. The aim of the study was to test whether EICR would result in fewer incidences of problem behavior and improved learning climate in elementary schools in a Norwegian municipality. The municipality was divided in two, each section having equal chance of being assigned to the intervention condition. Participants were principals and school staff. One year after the initiation of EICR, the prevalence of student problem behavior was significantly lower, and student relations were significantly better for schools located in the intervention area than for schools located in the comparison area. The findings support further development, implementation and research on the EICR model.
Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth; Kuthy, Raymond; Ortiz, Cristina; Hanson, Jessica D; Damiano, Peter
Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Parents' perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents' self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Taylor Rod S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct problems are common, disabling and costly. The prognosis for children with conduct problems is poor, with outcomes in adulthood including criminal behaviour, alcoholism, drug abuse, domestic violence, child abuse and a range of psychiatric disorders. There has been a rapid expansion of group based parent-training programmes for the treatment of children with conduct problems in a number of countries over the past 10 years. Existing reviews of parent training have methodological limitations such as inclusion of non-randomised studies, the absence of investigation for heterogeneity prior to meta-analysis or failure to report confidence intervals. The objective of the current study was to systematically review randomised controlled trials of parenting programmes for the treatment of children with conduct problems. Methods Standard systematic review methods were followed including duplicate inclusion decisions, data extraction and quality assessment. Twenty electronic databases from the fields of medicine, psychology, social science and education were comprehensively searched for RCTs and systematic reviews to February 2006. Inclusion criteria were: randomised controlled trial; of structured, repeatable parenting programmes; for parents/carers of children up to the age of 18 with a conduct problem; and at least one measure of child behaviour. Meta-analysis and qualitative synthesis were used to summarise included studies. Results 57 RCTs were included. Studies were small with an average group size of 21. Meta-analyses using both parent (SMD -0.67; 95% CI: -0.91, -0.42 and independent (SMD -0.44; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.23 reports of outcome showed significant differences favouring the intervention group. There was insufficient evidence to determine the relative effectiveness of different approaches to delivering parenting programmes. Conclusion Parenting programmes are an effective treatment for children with conduct problems
Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Dunsmore, Julie C.; Greene, Ross W.
Our objective in this study was to examine the moderating influence of parent-child relationship quality (as viewed by the child) on associations between conduct problems and treatment responses for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). To date, few studies have considered children’s perceptions of relationship quality with parents in clinical contexts even though extant studies show the importance of this factor in children’s behavioral adjustment in non-clinical settings. In this study, 123 children (ages 7 – 14 years, 61.8% male, 83.7% white) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ODD received one of two psychosocial treatments: Parent Management Training or Collaborative & Proactive Solutions. In an earlier study, both treatments were found to be effective and equivalent in treatment outcomes (Ollendick et al., in press). In the current study, pre-treatment maternal reports of conduct problems and pre-treatment child reports of relations with parents were used to predict outcomes in ODD symptoms and their severity following treatment. Elevated reports of children’s conduct problems were associated with attenuated reductions in both ODD symptoms and their severity. Perceived relationship quality with parents moderated the ties between conduct problems and outcomes in ODD severity but not the number of symptoms. Mother reports of elevated conduct problems predicted attenuated treatment response only when children viewed relationship quality with their parents as poorer. When children viewed the relationship as higher quality, they did not show an attenuated treatment response, regardless of reported conduct problems. The current findings underscore the importance of children’s perspectives in treatment response and reductions in externalizing child behaviors. PMID:27284234
Booker, Jordan A; Ollendick, Thomas H; Dunsmore, Julie C; Greene, Ross W
Our objective in this study was to examine the moderating influence of parent-child relationship quality (as viewed by the child) on associations between conduct problems and treatment responses for children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). To date, few studies have considered children's perceptions of relationship quality with parents in clinical contexts even though extant studies show the importance of this factor in children's behavioral adjustment in non-clinical settings. In this study, 123 children (ages 7 - 14 years, 61.8% male, 83.7% white) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for ODD received one of two psychosocial treatments: Parent Management Training or Collaborative & Proactive Solutions. In an earlier study, both treatments were found to be effective and equivalent in treatment outcomes (Ollendick et al., in press). In the current study, pre-treatment maternal reports of conduct problems and pre-treatment child reports of relations with parents were used to predict outcomes in ODD symptoms and their severity following treatment. Elevated reports of children's conduct problems were associated with attenuated reductions in both ODD symptoms and their severity. Perceived relationship quality with parents moderated the ties between conduct problems and outcomes in ODD severity but not the number of symptoms. Mother reports of elevated conduct problems predicted attenuated treatment response only when children viewed relationship quality with their parents as poorer. When children viewed the relationship as higher quality, they did not show an attenuated treatment response, regardless of reported conduct problems. The current findings underscore the importance of children's perspectives in treatment response and reductions in externalizing child behaviors.
Hipwell, Alison; Keenan, Kate; Kasza, Kristen; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Bean, Tammy
Although the reciprocal effects of parenting and child behavior have long been recognized, the emphasis of empirical study in the field of developmental psychopathology has been on parenting effects on children. For girls in particular, little is known about unique parenting effects on conduct problems in comparison to depression, or vice versa. In the current study, data from the large-scale (n = 2,451) Pittsburgh Girls Study were used to examine the reciprocal relations between parenting and child behavior over a six year period (child ages 7-12 years). Girls and their caregivers (85% of whom were biological mothers) were interviewed annually in their homes. Girls reported on symptoms of conduct disorder and depression, and caregivers reported on level of parent-child warmth and use of harsh punishment. The results of generalized estimating equation regression models demonstrated that both parenting behaviors were uniquely predictive of changes in girls' conduct problems and depressed mood. When the effects of race and poverty on these associations were controlled for, both parenting effects on girls' conduct problems remained significant, but only low parental warmth remained as a significant predictor of depressed mood. Girls' conduct problems, but not depressed mood, predicted changes in harsh punishment over time. The small effect of girls' depressed mood, on changes in parental warmth, was further weakened when socio-demographic factors were also included in the model.
Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S
campaigns and attention to the five major elements of the communications process. Mass media campaigns based on the communication-behavior change concept address the steps required to move a target population from initial awareness of interest in a problem to the adoption and maintenance of advocated attitudes or behaviors.Among public policy models, researchers have concluded that higher real prices on alcohol and restricted availability have the effect of lowering alcoholic beverage consumption among young people and the incidence of heavy and frequent drinking.Raising the minimum age for purchase has been found to reduce the rate of automobile accidents involving young persons. Essential components of prevention strategies and approaches are presented.
Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin
Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.
Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.
Z. Muradoglu Seyidmamedov
(isolation Ωδ tends to zero. For each case, the local truncation errors of the used conservative finite difference scheme are estimated on the nonuniform grid. A fast direct solver has been applied for the interface problems with piecewise constant but discontinuous coefficient k=k(x. The presented numerical results illustrate high accuracy and show applicability of the given approach.
van Woezik, Anne F G; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; Kulyk, Olga; Siemons, Liseth; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C
Infection prevention and control can be seen as a wicked public health problem as there is no consensus regarding problem definition and solution, multiple stakeholders with different needs and values are involved, and there is no clear end-point of the problem-solving process. Co-creation with stakeholders has been proposed as a suitable strategy to tackle wicked problems, yet little information and no clear step-by-step guide exist on how to do this. The objectives of this study were to develop a guideline to assist developers in tackling wicked problems using co-creation with stakeholders, and to apply this guideline to practice with an example case in the field of infection prevention and control. A mixed-method approach consisting of the integration of both quantitative and qualitative research was used. Relevant stakeholders from the veterinary, human health, and public health sectors were identified using a literature scan, expert recommendations, and snowball sampling. The stakeholder salience approach was used to select key stakeholders based on 3 attributes: power, legitimacy, and urgency. Key values of stakeholders (N = 20) were derived by qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitatively weighted and prioritized using an online survey. Our method showed that stakeholder identification and analysis are prerequisites for understanding the complex stakeholder network that characterizes wicked problems. A total of 73 stakeholders were identified of which 36 were selected as potential key stakeholders, and only one was seen as a definite stakeholder. In addition, deriving key stakeholder values is a necessity to gain insights into different problem definitions, solutions and needs stakeholders have regarding the wicked problem. Based on the methods used, we developed a step-by-step guideline for co-creation with stakeholders when tackling wicked problems. The mixed-methods guideline presented here provides a systematic, transparent method to
Full Text Available Minimum rates of applying article 149 of the RF Criminal Code, caused by crime categorization errors and technical and legal defects of article’s structure are stated. The elements of crime under this article include violating the constitutional right to freedom of meetings as a result of preventing mass actions. The commission of unlawful act by an official should be categorized as a crime according to article 149 when using prevention means stipulated in objective side of this act. Improper use of official position for illegal prevention and use of violence to people form a cumulative crime (articles 149 and 286 of the RF Criminal Code. Signs of violence and threats to use violence, specified by corpus delicti, draw a question on the amount of damage to health which does not demand additional categorization. Damage limits implies beating and slight damage to health. More serious damage forms a cumulative crime. Any threats to use violence are included in the elements of crime under study. Thus, illegal prevention of conducting public mass action can be categorized as a cumulative crime. Gross violation of public order which expresses contempt against public (committed by using means, specified in Art. 213 of the FR Criminal Code and simultaneously prevents conducting a rally, meeting, demonstration, march, picketing or participating in them (ideal cumulative crime complicates the categorization. If such prevention is accompanied with gross violation of public order, the act should be categorized as a cumulative crime according to articles 149 and 213.
Full Text Available There were examined organizational and conductional peculiarities of physical education training for foreign students in higher medical institution. 92 foreign students took part in the questionnaire procedure. It is suggested that the discipline should be revised not only as a mean for health conditions strengthening and motor activity increasing, but also as effective mean of social and professional adaptation for foreign students. The objective and subjective difficulties and complications were determined during the process of organization and conduction of trainings for students from foreign countries. It is suggested to take into account their motivation, wish and level of physical and functional qualification.
Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne
This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Hagen, Kristine Amlund; Ogden, Terje; Bjornebekk, Gunnar
This effectiveness study presents the results of a 1-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of Parent Management Training. Families of 112 Norwegian girls and boys with clinic-level conduct problems participated, and 75 (67%) families were retained at follow-up. Children ranged in age from 4 to 12 at intake (M = 8.44). Families randomized…
Liu, Lisa L.; Lau, Anna S.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T.; Kim, Su Yeong
Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between…
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra; Moulton, Vanessa
Previous research shows that, compared to children without ADHD, children with ADHD have worse socio-emotional outcomes and more experience of socio-economic disadvantage. In this study, we explored if and how the increased emotional and behavioural difficulties faced by children with ADHD may be accounted for by their more disadvantaged socio-economic circumstances. Our study, using data from 180 children (149 boys) with ADHD from the Millennium Cohort Study, had two aims. First, to examine the role of socio-economic disadvantage in the trajectories of emotional and conduct problems in children with ADHD at ages 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. Second, to explore the roles of the home environment (household chaos) and parenting (quality of emotional support, quality of the parent-child relationship and harsh parental discipline) in mediating any associations between socio-economic disadvantage and child emotional and conduct problems. Using growth curve models, we found that socio-economic disadvantage was associated with emotional and conduct problems but neither the home environment nor parenting attenuated this association. Lower quality of the parent-child relationship and harsher discipline were associated with more conduct problems. It appears that socio-economic disadvantage and parenting contribute independently to the prediction of comorbid psychopathology in children with ADHD.
Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Charman, Tony; Sarmadi, Zahra
We investigated the longitudinal relationship between socio-economic disadvantage (SED) and trajectories of emotional and conduct problems among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who had comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ASD + ADHD) or not (ASD-DHD). The sample was 209 children with ASD who took part in the UK's…
Bear, George G.; Yang, Chunyan; Glutting, Joseph; Huang, Xishan; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Dandan
Several previous studies have found that Chinese students perceive teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships more favorably than American students. In this study we examined if the same holds true with respect to teachers' perceptions. Also examined were both students' and teachers' perceptions of conduct problems. The sample…
Lorber, Michael F.; Slep, Amy M. Smith
In the present investigation we focused on 2 broad sets of questions: Do parental overreactivity, laxness, and corporal punishment show evidence of normative change in early to middle childhood? Are persistently elevated child conduct problems (CPs) associated with deviations from normative changes in, as well as high initial levels of, discipline…
Loukas, Alexandra; Roalson, Lori A.; Herrera, Denise E.
This study examined the unique and interactive contributions of school connectedness, negative family relations, and effortful control to subsequent early adolescent conduct problems. Data were collected from 476 adolescents when they were initially in the 6th and 7th grades and again 1 year later. Results from hierarchical regression analyses…
van Baardewijk, Y.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Stegge, H.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.
The current study investigated the 18-month stability of self-reported psychopathic traits measured through the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory-Child Version (YPI-CV) and their concurrent and prospective associations with conduct problems and aggression in a sample of 9-12 year olds (n=159, 52%
Bakker-Huvenaars, M.J.; Greven, C.U.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Glennon, J.C.
BACKGROUND: This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for conduct disorder (CD) problems in children and adolescents, based on child, parent and teacher report. METHODS: PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between January
Isakin, V.S.; Konev, G.V.
State-holding company Tselinnyj Mining Chemical Company (TMCC) is headed enterprise for mining and milling uranium ore in North Kazakstan was at five main areas (ore's direction). Mining was a traditional forms. Currently, the main problems of restoration disturbed areas in the conditions of uranium mining and milling are: economic insolvency of conversion enterprises, with has not own means for exude restoration and decontamination. TMCC has urgent need of State Programme, that provides finance of restoration work. Problem of radioactive contamination shall be insolvable, if company will go bankrupt. This programme should contained an item for elaboration regulative, normative and methodological documents if low level radioactive waste in Kazakstan. Program must take into consideration progressive domestic and foreign experience
1. To ascertain serious pains and sufferings in the meaning of section 17 no. 2 b law of prevention of cruelty to animals you cannot do without the help of an expert witness for taking possession of evidence--apart from simple cases. Except the clarifying of fundamental questions concerning prevention of cruelty to animals a professional statement of the administrative veterinary surgeon will be as a rule sufficient. 2. For the actual seizure of animals for the purpose of confiscation and compulsory disposal the criminal justice is extremely dependent on the support of the authorities of administration. Therefore a trouble-free cooperation of criminal justice, veterinary authorities, animal homes and--concerning the protection of species--authorities for protection of endangered nature is imperative. 3. The main problems with the application of the regulation concerning the interdiction of keeping animals according to sections 20 and 20 a law of prevention of cruelty to animals are justified in the legal prerequisites. It is unsatisfactory that an interdiction of keeping animals cannot be imposed by summary punishment order and that a confiscation of animals is not possible by criminal proceedings in case of offence against sections 20 subsection 3, 20 a subsection 3 law of prevention of cruelty to animals. Therefore an admission of the sections as mentioned above to section 19 law of prevention of cruelty to animals seems to be convenient.
Phillip, M; Friedman, M; Benor, D
A course has been described which attempts to introduce clinical relevancy to the basic science knowledge. It has been demonstrated how senior students' feedback about curricular shortcomings can be redirected to their constructive participation in the educational process. The described Clinical Confrontation course develops problem-solving skills and self-learning habits in the learners while they are processing and rearranging prior knowledge. At the same time, both the scientific base of medicine and the internal logic of the disciplines are preserved.
"The Inter-agency Plan for Conduct Disorder/Severe Antisocial Behaviour 2007-2012" (Ministry of Social Development, 2007) is assessed according to the SWOT dimensions of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. The document is one of the most important statements for the social services in New Zealand because of the primacy that…
Niec, Larissa N.; Barnett, Miya L.; Prewett, Matthew S.; Shanley, Jenelle
Objective Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems. Methods Eighty-one families with three- to six-year-old children (71.6% male; 85.2% Caucasian) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children’s conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and six-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Results Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children’s conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence. Conclusions Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of group PCIT in community settings. PMID:27018531
Niec, Larissa N; Barnett, Miya L; Prewett, Matthew S; Shanley Chatham, Jenelle R
Although efficacious interventions exist for childhood conduct problems, a majority of families in need of services do not receive them. To address problems of treatment access and adherence, innovative adaptations of current interventions are needed. This randomized control trial investigated the relative efficacy of a novel format of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), a treatment for young children with conduct problems. Eighty-one families with 3- to 6-year-old children (71.6% boys, 85.2% White) with diagnoses of oppositional defiant or conduct disorder were randomized to individual PCIT (n = 42) or the novel format, Group PCIT. Parents completed standardized measures of children's conduct problems, parenting stress, and social support at intake, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Therapist ratings, parent attendance, and homework completion provided measures of treatment adherence. Throughout treatment, parenting skills were assessed using the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System. Parents in both group and individual PCIT reported significant improvements from intake to posttreatment and follow-up in their children's conduct problems and adaptive functioning, as well as significant decreases in parenting stress. Parents in both treatment conditions also showed significant improvements in their parenting skills. There were no interactions between time and treatment format. Contrary to expectation, parents in Group PCIT did not experience greater social support or treatment adherence. Group PCIT was not inferior to individual PCIT and may be a valuable format to reach more families in need of services. Future work should explore the efficiency and sustainability of Group PCIT in community settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Provost, Sylvie; Gaulin, Colette; Piquet-Gauthier, Blandine; Emmanuelli, Julien; Venne, Sylvie; Dion, Réjean; Grenier, Jean-Luc; Dessau, Jean-Claude; Dubuc, Martine
Among the factors influencing travelers to seek preventive health advice before departure, the travel agent's recommendation plays an important role. The objective of our study was to document the practices and needs of travel agents in Québec (Canada) in relation to the prevention of health problems among travelers. In June 2000, a cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among travel agents from all travel agencies in Québec. One agent per agency was asked to answer our questions. Data were collected using a 32-item telephone questionnaire. Altogether, 708 travel agents from the 948 agencies contacted answered our questionnaire (participation rate: 75%). Most respondents (81%) believed that the travel agent has a role to play in the prevention of health problems among travelers, especially to recommend that travelers consult a travel clinic before departure. Although over 80% of the agents interviewed mentioned recommending a visit to a travel clinic before an organized tour to Thailand or a backpacking trip in Mexico, less than half said they make the same recommendation for a stay in a seaside resort in Mexico. The majority of respondents were acquainted with the services offered in travel health clinics, and these clinics were the source of travel health information most often mentioned by travel agents. However, nearly 60% of the agents questioned had never personally consulted a travel clinic. When asked about the best way to receive information about travelers' health, more than 40% of respondents favoured receiving information newsletters from public health departments regularly whereas 28% preferred the Internet. Despite the limits of this study, our results should help the public health network better target its interventions aimed to inform travel agents on prevention of health problems among travelers.
Tatsumisago, M.; Angell, C. A.; Martin, S. W.
Following the recent resolution of the longstanding problem of reconciling constant frequency nuclear-spin lattice relaxation (SLR) activation energies and d.c. conductivity activity energies in ion conducting glasses, we point out a new problem which seems not to have been discussed previously. We report conductivity data measured at a series of fixed frequencies and variable temperatures on a lithium chloroborate glass and compare them with SLR data on identically prepared samples, also using different fixed frequencies. While phenomenological similarities due to comparable departures from exponential relaxation are found in each case, pronounced differences in the most probable relaxation times themselves are observed. The conductivity relaxation at 500 K occurs on a time scale shorter by some 2 orders of magnitude than the 7Li SLR correlation, and has a significantly lower activation energy. We show from a literature review that this distinction is a common but unreported finding for highly decoupled (fast-ion conducting) systems, and that an inverse relationship is found in supercoupled salt/polymer ``solid'' electrolytes. In fast-ion conducting glasses, the slower SLR process would imply special features in the fast-ion motion which permit spin correlations to survive many more successive ion displacements than previously expected. It is conjectured that the SLR in superionic glasses depends on the existence of a class of low-lying traps infrequently visited by migrating ions.
Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y
Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.
Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.
Ott, L.J.; Hedrick, R.A.
The report develops an implicit solution technique to determine both the transient surface temperature and the transient surface heat flux of electrically heated rods given the power input and an ''indicated'' internal temperature during a simulated loss-of-coolant accident. A digital computer program ORINC (ORNL Inverse Code) is developed which solves a one-dimensional, transient, lumped parameter, implicit formulation of the conduction equation at each bundle thermocouple position in the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF).
Muñoz-Silva, Alicia; Lago-Urbano, Rocio; Sanchez-Garcia, Manuel; Carmona-Márquez, José
Objective: The demands of parenting are usually associated with some stress, and elevated levels of stress may affect the parent–child relationships and parenting practices. This is especially the case of families where children have special needs conditions or disorders, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method: This study examined parenting stress among mothers of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample comprised 126 mothers of girls (36; 29%) and boys (90; 71%) aged 6–17 years old. Results: Mothers reported their own stress levels as well as the children and adolescents’ variables (severity of their ADHD symptoms, conduct, and emotional problems) and family–contextual variables (negative impact on family’s social life, impact on couple relationship, and perceived social support). Hierarchical multiple regression showed that (a) negative impact on social life and conduct problems were the strongest predictors of mother’s stress. Bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that (b) the association between child and adolescent’s ADHD and parenting stress was mediated by children’s conduct problems and by negative impact on family’s social life, and not by children’s emotional problems nor by mother’s perceived social support. The mediation analysis also suggested (c) a pathway from child/adolescent’s ADHD through children’s conduct problems and then through their negative impact on family’s social life to mother’s parenting stress. Conclusion: These results suggest that both child/adolescent’s and family factors should be considered in the designing of interventions for reducing parenting stress in families of children and adolescents with ADHD. PMID:29312090
Full Text Available Objective: The demands of parenting are usually associated with some stress, and elevated levels of stress may affect the parent–child relationships and parenting practices. This is especially the case of families where children have special needs conditions or disorders, like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD.Method: This study examined parenting stress among mothers of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample comprised 126 mothers of girls (36; 29% and boys (90; 71% aged 6–17 years old.Results: Mothers reported their own stress levels as well as the children and adolescents’ variables (severity of their ADHD symptoms, conduct, and emotional problems and family–contextual variables (negative impact on family’s social life, impact on couple relationship, and perceived social support. Hierarchical multiple regression showed that (a negative impact on social life and conduct problems were the strongest predictors of mother’s stress. Bootstrap mediation analyses revealed that (b the association between child and adolescent’s ADHD and parenting stress was mediated by children’s conduct problems and by negative impact on family’s social life, and not by children’s emotional problems nor by mother’s perceived social support. The mediation analysis also suggested (c a pathway from child/adolescent’s ADHD through children’s conduct problems and then through their negative impact on family’s social life to mother’s parenting stress.Conclusion: These results suggest that both child/adolescent’s and family factors should be considered in the designing of interventions for reducing parenting stress in families of children and adolescents with ADHD.
Sakai, Joseph T; Boardman, Jason D; Gelhorn, Heather L; Smolen, Andrew; Corley, Robin P; Huizinga, David; Menard, Scott; Hewitt, John K; Stallings, Michael C
Conduct disorder is a serious, relatively common disorder of childhood and adolescence. Findings from genetic association studies searching for genetic determinants of the liability toward such behaviors have been inconsistent. One possible explanation for differential results is that most studies define phenotype from a single assessment; for many adolescents conduct problems decrease in severity over time, whereas for others such behaviors persist. Therefore, longitudinal datasets offer the opportunity to refine phenotype. We used Caucasians that were first assessed during adolescence from the National Youth Survey Family Study. Nine waves of data were used to create latent growth trajectories and test for associations between trajectory class and 5HTTLPR genotype. For the full sample, 5HTTLPR was not associated with conduct problem phenotypes. However, the short (s) allele was associated with chronic conduct problems in females; a nominally significant sex by 5HTTLPR genotype interaction was noted. Longitudinal studies provide unique opportunities for phenotypic refinement and such techniques, with large samples, may be useful for phenotypic definition with other study designs, such as whole genome association studies.
Full Text Available The World Health Organization (since 1998 recognises that many modern diseases and disorders (including social problems are caused by risky behaviour. Youth risky behaviour is generally defined as a behaviour that directly or indirectly threatens the young person’s well-being and health. This is usually understood as smoking, abuse of alcohol and psychoactive substances and early initiated and unprotected sexual relations. However, the risky behaviour also includes basic things such as the failure to comply with diet regimen, sedentary lifestyle, not wearing the safety belt in the car and failure to wear a helmet whilst cycling or rollerblading. Adolescence itself is a risky span of the human life, as it is associated with moving from childhood into the adult world and intensive search for the personal identity. To ensure a consistent development of personality, adolescent risky behaviour prevention include harmonisation of education processes to help teenagers to develop responsible behaviour skills by reducing the risk factors and increasing protective factors. The article aims to overview the factors that influence youth risky behaviour and the factors that determine the planning and organisation of preventive activities for the pupils in the higher classes of the schools of general education. The study was completed in the form of a questionnaire that was conducted in the schools of the Lithuanian Republic in 2016. The results of the study describe trends of the prevention policies applied in the system of education, considering the national context of the individual Member States of the European Union.
Aitken, Madison; Waxman, Jordana A; MacDonald, Katie; Andrade, Brendan F
This study examined the effects of comorbid ADHD symptoms, internalizing psychopathology, Callous-Unemotional (CU) Traits, and conduct problem severity on children's response to an evidence-based psychosocial intervention. Clinic-referred children with DBD ages 8-12 years (N = 76) participated in a 15-week multi-component intervention. Parents provided weekly ratings of children's oppositionality-defiance, peer problems, and impairment. Oppositionality-defiance, peer problems, and impairment decreased significantly over the course of the intervention; however, there was considerable variability in weekly ratings. Baseline ADHD symptoms, internalizing psychopathology, CU traits, and conduct problem severity were unrelated to rate of change across treatment. However, ADHD symptoms uniquely predicted more oppositionality-defiance, peer problems, and impairment averaged across the 15 weeks of treatment. Follow-up analyses suggested this was driven by hyperactivity-impulsivity rather than inattention. Children with DBD and comorbid symptoms appear to benefit from a multi-component intervention, but those with ADHD symptoms may require additional support to address social and behavioral challenges.
Full Text Available Thermodynamics problems for the single-phase-lagging (SPL model have not been much studied. In this paper, the violation of the second law of thermodynamics by the SPL model is studied from two perspectives, which are the negative entropy production rate and breaking equilibrium spontaneously. The methods for the SPL model to avoid the negative entropy production rate are proposed, which are extended irreversible thermodynamics and the thermal relaxation time. Modifying the entropy production rate positive or zero is not enough to avoid the violation of the second law of thermodynamics for the SPL model, because the SPL model could cause breaking equilibrium spontaneously in some special circumstances. As comparison, it is shown that Fourier’s law and the CV model cannot break equilibrium spontaneously by analyzing mathematical energy integral.
Early diagnosis and prediction of potential maxillary canine impaction are of essential importance for the normal formation of dentition. The aim of this article is to present a protocol for primary prevention of potential maxillary canine impaction in the late mixed dentition. The diagnostic protocols include three methods of examination - anamnestic, clinical and radiological, and depending on the obtained results, the protocol for phase 1 of the late mixed dentition directs to three clinic...
Full Text Available Early diagnosis and prediction of potential maxillary canine impaction are of essential importance for the normal formation of dentition. The aim of this article is to present a protocol for primary prevention of potential maxillary canine impaction in the late mixed dentition. The diagnostic protocols include three methods of examination - anamnestic, clinical and radiological, and depending on the obtained results, the protocol for phase 1 of the late mixed dentition directs to three clinical preventive approaches of action. In phase 2 of the late mixed dentition, the clinical approaches are two, due to the approaching time of eruption of the canine and the need for immediate treatment measures. We believe that the most useful preventive interventions should take place during the early mixed dentition and phase 1 of the late mixed dentition. Early extraction of the temporary canine will lead to a change in the eruption path of the permanent canine – up righting and eruption in the normal position in the dental arch – if there is enough space.
Mikami, Katsunaka; Jorge, Ricardo E; Moser, David J; Arndt, Stephan; Jang, Mijin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark T; Robinson, Robert G
This study examined the efficacy of antidepressant treatment for preventing the onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among patients with recent stroke. Of 799 patients assessed, 176 were randomized, and 149 patients without evidence of GAD at the initial visit were included in this double-blind treatment with escitalopram (N=47) or placebo (N=49) or non-blinded problem-solving therapy (PST; 12 total sessions; N=53). Participants given placebo over 12 months were 4.95 times more likely to develop GAD than patients given escitalopram and 4.00 times more likely to develop GAD than patients given PST. Although these results should be considered preliminary, the authors found that both escitalopram and PST were effective in preventing new onset of post-stroke GAD.
Full Text Available Radiation is a major component of heat transfer in the modeling of furnaces. In this study, coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer problems are analyzed in complex geometries with inhomogeneous and anisotropic scattering participating media. A three-dimensional model is developed using combination of the discrete ordinates method and blocked-off-region procedure. The finite volume method has been adopted to solve the energy equation and the radiative source term in the energy equation is computed from intensities field. The accuracy of radiative conductive model is verified by comparison with benchmark solutions from the literature. As an example of engineering problems, radiative-conductive heat transfer in a furnace model with gray, inhomogeneous and anisotropic scattering media is numerically studied. The distributions of temperature and heat flux in the furnace are analyzed for different thermoradiative parameters such as conduction-radiation parameter, scattering albedo and anisotropic scattering coefficient. The numerical algorithm described is found to be fast and reliable for studying combined conductive and radiative heat transfer in three-dimensional irregular geometries.
Based on an idea that surface conditions should be a reflection of interior temperature and interior heat flux variation as inverse as interior conditions has been determined completely by the surface temperature and/on surface heat flux as boundary conditions, a method is presented for determining the surface temperature and the surface heat flux of a solid when the temperature and heat flux at an interior point are a prescribed function of time. The method is developed by the integration of Duhumels' integral which has unknown temperature or unknown heat flux in its integrand. Specific forms of surface condition determination are developed for a sample inverse problem: slab. Ducussing the effect of a degree of avairable informations at an interior point due to damped system and the effect of variation of surface conditions on those formulations, it is shown that those formulations are capable of representing the unknown surface conditions except for small time interval followed by discontinuous change of surface conditions. The small un-resolved time interval is demonstrated by a numerical example. An evaluation method of heat flux at an interior point, which is requested by those formulations, is discussed. (author)
Full Text Available The accurate knowledge of Heat Transfer Coefficients is essential for the design of precise heat transfer operations. The determination of these values requires Inverse Heat Transfer Calculations, which are usually based on heuristic optimisation techniques, like Genetic Algorithms or Particle Swarm Optimisation. The main bottleneck of these heuristics is the high computational demand of the cost function calculation, which is usually based on heat transfer simulations producing the thermal history of the workpiece at given locations. This Direct Heat Transfer Calculation is a well parallelisable process, making it feasible to implement an efficient GPU kernel for this purpose. This paper presents a novel step forward: based on the special requirements of the heuristics solving the inverse problem (executing hundreds of simulations in a parallel fashion at the end of each iteration, it is possible to gain a higher level of parallelism using multiple graphics accelerators. The results show that this implementation (running on 4 GPUs is about 120 times faster than a traditional CPU implementation using 20 cores. The latest developments of the GPU-based High Power Computations area were also analysed, like the new NVLink connection between the host and the devices, which tries to solve the long time existing data transfer handicap of GPU programming.
Kochlashvili, L Sh; Gogilashvili, K T; Gerzmava, O Kh
Dental health is an integral part of a normal state of a human body and, first of all, depends on knowledge of the population of bases of individual hygiene of an oral cavity and ability to use them in practical life. Numerous researches indicate low level of knowledge of the population in questions of prevention of dental diseases and individual hygiene of an oral cavity that testifies to existence of problems in the organization of sanitary education. Existing practice of hygienic training and education, in a certain measure, lags behind modern requirements, and some questions demand specification and optimization. For efficiency of sanitary and preventive actions it is necessary to study character and motivation structure to prevention and treatment of dental diseases and to develop an effective method of its increase. Therefore actual search of new forms of psycho hygiene and psycho prevention with use of modern information technologies which should provide high level of dental health of the military personnel is represented. The purpose of the real research was establishment of the factors forming motivation to prevention and treatment of the main dental diseases, and development of a psycho physiological method of its increase. The carried-out research allows to expand and systematize ideas necessary for the practical doctor of the major factors forming motivation to prevention and treatment of the main dental diseases. Development of an objective technique of a complex assessment of level of motivation of patients to prevention and treatment of dental pathology will allow to prove the new perspective direction of the sanitary educational work, allowing to reduce fobiya level, effectively to increase motivation of the patient to receiving the timely dental help. It especially is important if to consider that numerous programs of hygienic training and the education, applied in our country, didn't lead to change of hygienic skills of the population in expected
A heat transfer problem in parallel plates with infinite with has been solved, with axial heat conduction in the fluid and in the wall, considering steady-state laminar flow for a Newtonian fluid and a fully developed velocity profile. The duct consists of an infinite inicial part, insulated on both plates, an intermediale part of finite length, with a prescribed heat flux in the upper plate and insulated on the botton plate, and by another infinite part also insulated on both plates. The problem has been solved by a numerical combination of the integral equation method and the variational method. Both, the performance of the numerical technique employed and results obtained are analyzed in this work. It is demostrated that the heat conduction in the wall significantly modifies the heat transfer parameters. (Author) [pt
Pasalich, Dave S; Fleming, Charles B; Oxford, Monica L; Zheng, Yao; Spieker, Susan J
Multiple placement changes disrupt continuity in caregiving and undermine well-being in children in child welfare. This study conducted secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial to examine whether a relationship-based intervention, Promoting First Relationships(©) (PFR), reduced risk for a maladaptive cascade from placement instability to less secure attachment to elevated externalizing problems. Participants included caregivers (birth or foster/kin) of toddlers (10-24 months) recently transitioned to their care because of child welfare placement decisions. Although main effects of PFR on security and externalizing problems were not previously observed, this study's results revealed that PFR attenuated the association between multiple placement changes (baseline) and less security (postintervention) and that the indirect effect of placement instability on greater externalizing problems (6-month follow-up) via less security was evident only in toddlers in the comparison condition. These findings shed light on how a history of multiple caregiver changes may influence toddlers' risk for poor adjustment in subsequent placements, and the promise of supporting caregivers through a parenting intervention to prevent such risk. © The Author(s) 2016.
Liu, Lisa L; Lau, Anna S; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Dinh, Khanh T; Kim, Su Yeong
Associations among neighborhood disadvantage, maternal acculturation, parenting and conduct problems were investigated in a sample of 444 Chinese American adolescents. Adolescents (54% female, 46% male) ranged from 12 to 15 years of age (mean age = 13.0 years). Multilevel modeling was employed to test the hypothesis that the association between maternal acculturation and adolescents' conduct problems could be explained by differences in mothers' reliance on monitoring and harsh discipline. In addition, guided by segmented assimilation theory, measures of neighborhood disadvantage were expected not only to be related to differences in parenting, but also to moderate the effects of maternal acculturation on parenting. Results indicated that increased maternal acculturation was related to higher levels of maternal monitoring and lower levels of harsh discipline, which, in turn, were related to lower levels of adolescents' conduct problems. Hierarchical linear modeling results revealed that neighborhood disadvantage was related to lower levels of maternal monitoring. However, neighborhood disadvantage did not moderate the link between maternal acculturation and parenting practices.
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar
While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life.
Mokomane, Margaret; Kasvosve, Ishmael; de Melo, Emilia; Pernica, Jeffrey M; Goldfarb, David M
Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease. Other candidate vaccines against leading diarrhoeal pathogens, such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella spp., also hold significant promise in further ameliorating the burden of enteric infections in children. Large studies are also currently underway evaluating novel and potential easy-to-implement water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) preventive strategies. Given the ongoing global burden of this illness, the paucity of new advances in case management over the last several decades remains a challenge. The increasing recognition of post-acute illness mortality and growth impairment has highlighted the need for interventions that go beyond management of dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. The few trials of novel promising interventions such as probiotics have mainly been conducted in high-income settings. Trials of antimicrobials have also been primarily conducted in high-income settings or in travellers from high-income settings. Bloody diarrhoea has been shown to be a poor marker of potentially treatable bacterial enteritis, and rising antimicrobial resistance has also made empiric antimicrobial therapy more challenging in many settings. Novel effective and sustainable interventions and diagnostic strategies are clearly needed to help improve case management. Diarrhoeal disease and other enteric infections remain an unmet challenge in global
Lole, Lisa; Gonsalvez, Craig J; Barry, Robert J; Blaszczynski, Alex
Physiological arousal is purportedly a key determinant in the development and maintenance of gambling behaviors, with problem gambling conceptualized in terms of abnormal autonomic responses. Theoretical conceptualizations of problem gambling are discordant regarding the nature of deficit in this disorder; some accounts posit that problem gamblers are hypersensitive to reward, and others that they are hyposensitive to reward and/or punishment. Previous research examining phasic electrodermal responses in gamblers has been limited to laboratory settings, and reactions to real gaming situations need to be examined. Skin conductance responses (SCRs) to losses, wins, and losses disguised as wins (LDWs) were recorded from 15 problem gamblers (PGs) and 15 nonproblem gamblers (NPGs) while they wagered their own money during electronic gaming machine play. PGs demonstrated significantly reduced SCRs to reward. SCRs to losses and LDWs did not differ for either PGs or NPGs. This hyposensitivity to wins may reflect abnormalities in incentive processing, and may represent a potential biological marker for problem gambling. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Sebastian, Catherine L; McCrory, Eamon J P; Cecil, Charlotte A M; Lockwood, Patricia L; De Brito, Stéphane A; Fontaine, Nathalie M G; Viding, Essi
Reduced neural responses to others' distress is hypothesized to play a critical role in conduct problems coupled with callous-unemotional traits, whereas increased neural responses to affective stimuli may accompany conduct problems without callous-unemotional traits. Heterogeneity of affective profiles in conduct problems may account for inconsistent neuroimaging findings in this population. To broaden understanding of neural processing in conduct problems using an affective processing task including an empathy component as well as to explore dimensional contributions of conduct problems symptoms and callous-unemotional traits to variance in affective neural responses. Case-control study. On-campus neuroimaging facility. Thirty-one boys with conduct problems (mean age, 14.34 years) and 16 typically developing control subjects (mean age, 13.51 years) matched for age (range, 10-16 years), IQ, socioeconomic status, handedness, and race/ethnicity. Participants were recruited using screening questionnaires in a community-based volunteer sample. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of a task contrasting affective and cognitive theory of mind judgments. Relative to typically developing children, children with conduct problems showed reduced activation in right amygdala and anterior insula for affective vs cognitive theory of mind judgments. Furthermore, in the right amygdala, regression analysis within the conduct-problems group showed suppressor effects between ratings of conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits. Specifically, unique variance associated with conduct problems was positively correlated with amygdala reactivity, whereas unique variance associated with callous-unemotional traits was negatively correlated with amygdala reactivity. These associations were not explained by hyperactivity, depression/anxiety symptoms, or alcohol use ratings. Childhood conduct problems are associated with amygdala and anterior insula hypoactivity during a complex
Hiscock, Harriet; Gulenc, Alisha; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gold, Lisa; Bayer, Jordana; Shaw, Daniel; Le, Ha; Wake, Melissa
Prevention of child behavior problems may reduce later mental health problems. We compared the effectiveness, at the population level, of an efficacious targeted prevention program alone or following a universal parenting program. Three-arm, cluster randomized controlled trial. One thousand three hundred fifty-three primary caregivers and healthy 8-month-old babies recruited from July 2010 to January 2011 from well-child centers (randomization unit). Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) externalizing and internalizing scales* at child ages 3 and 4.5 years. Parenting Behavior Checklist* and over-involved/protective parenting (primary caregiver report). Secondary caregivers completed starred measures at age 3. Retention was 76% and 77% at ages 3 and 4.5 years, respectively. At 3 years, intention-to-treat analyses found no statistically significant differences (adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval (CI); p-value]) for externalizing (targeted vs usual care -0.2 [-1.7 to 1.2; p = .76]; combined vs usual care 0.4 [-1.1 to 1.9; p = .60]) or internalizing behavior problems (targeted vs usual care 0.2 [-1.2 to 1.6; p = .76]; combined vs usual care 0.4 [-1.1 to 2.0; p = .58]). Primary outcomes were similar at 4.5 years. At 3 years, primary and secondary caregivers reported less over-involved/protective parenting in both the combined and targeted versus usual care arm; secondary caregivers also reported less harsh discipline in the combined and targeted versus usual care arm. Mean program costs per family were A$218 (targeted arm) and A$682 (combined arm). When translated to the population level by existing staff, pre-existing programs seemed ineffective in improving child behavior, alone or in combination, but improved parenting.
Hernandez, Arthur E; Marcus, Marsha D; Hirst, Kathryn; Faith, Myles S; Goldberg, Linn; Treviño, Roberto P
To determine whether a school-wide intervention program to reduce risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) affected student achievement, rates of disciplinary actions, and attendance rates. The HEALTHY primary prevention trial was designed to evaluate a comprehensive school-based intervention to reduce factors for T2D, especially overweight and obesity. Students were followed up from beginning of sixth grade (Fall 2006) through end of eighth grade (Spring 2009). Forty-two middle schools at seven U.S. sites. Schools were randomized in equal numbers at each site to intervention (21 schools, 2307 students) or control (21 schools, 2296 students). Intervention . An integrated school-wide program that focused on (1) foods and beverages, (2) physical education, (3) classroom-based behavior change and education, and (4) social marketing communication and promotional campaigns. Aggregate (grade- and school-wide) test performance (passing rate), attendance, and referrals for disciplinary actions. Descriptive statistics and tests of intervention versus control using mixed linear models methods to adjust for the clustering of students within schools. There were no differences between intervention and control schools in test performance for mathematics (p = .7835) or reading (p = .6387), attendance (p = .5819), or referrals for disciplinary action (p = .8671). The comprehensive HEALTHY intervention and associated research procedures did not negatively impact student achievement test scores, attendance, or referrals for disciplinary action.
Shivanian, Elyas; Hosseini Ghoncheh, S. J.
In this paper, the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient is revisited. In this problem, it has been assumed that the heat transfer coefficient is expressed in a power-law form and the thermal conductivity is a linear function of temperature. A method based on the traditional shooting method and the homotopy analysis method is applied, the so-called shooting homotopy analysis method (SHHAM), to the governing nonlinear differential equation. In this technique, more high-order approximate solutions are computable and multiple solutions are easily searched and discovered due to being free of the symbolic variable. It is found that the solution might be empty, unique or dual depending on the values of the parameters of the model. Furthermore, corresponding fin efficiencies with high accuracy are computed. As a consequence, a new branch solution for this nonlinear problem by a new proposed method, based on the traditional shooting method and the homotopy analysis method, is obtained.
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fletcher, Jack M.
This study assessed the effects of preventative tutoring on the math problem solving of third-grade students with math and reading difficulties. Students (n = 35) were assigned randomly to continue in their general education math program or to receive secondary preventative tutoring 3 times per week, 30 min per session, for 12 weeks.…
Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy
Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…
Amone-P Olak, Kennedy; Ovuga, Emilio
Exposure to war is associated with poor psychosocial outcomes. Yet the effects of different types of war events on various psychosocial outcomes such as conduct problems remain unknown. This study aims to assess whether various war events differ in predicting conduct problems. Using data from an on-going longitudinal research project, the WAYS study, the current article examined the relationship between specific war events and conduct problems in war-affected youth in Northern Uganda (N=539, baseline age=22.39; SD=2.03, range 18-25). Regression analyses were conducted to relate each type of war experience to conduct problems. War categories of "witnessing violence", "deaths", "threat to loved ones" and "sexual abuse" were associated with reporting conduct problems. Multivariable models yielded independent effects of ''witnessing violence'' (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.18) and ''Sexual abuse'' (β=0.09, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.19) on conduct problems while "duration in captivity" independently and negatively predicted conduct problems (β=-0.14, 95% CI: -0.23, -0.06). Types of war events vary in predicting conduct problems and should be considered when designing interventions to alleviate negative consequences of exposure to war. Moreover, longer duration in captivity appear to protect war-affected youth from conduct problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bakker, M J; Greven, C U; Buitelaar, J K; Glennon, J C
This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for conduct disorder (CD) problems in children and adolescents, based on child, parent and teacher report. PubMed, PsycINFO and EMBASE were searched for peer-reviewed articles published between January 1970 and March 2015. Main inclusion criteria were nonpharmacological treatment, participants younger than 18 years, clinical CD problems/diagnosis, randomized controlled trials and inclusion of at least one CD problem-related outcome. Treatment efficacy is expressed in effect sizes (ESs) calculated for each rater (parent, teacher, self and blinded observer). Of 1,549 articles retrieved, 17 (published between June 2004 and January 2014) describing 19 interventions met the inclusion criteria. All studies used psychological treatments; only three studies included a blinded observer to rate CD problems. Most studies were of very poor to fair quality. ESs were significant but small for parent-reported outcomes (0.36, 95% CI = 0.27-0.47), teacher-reported outcomes (0.26, 95% CI = 0.12-0.49) and blinded observer outcomes (0.26, 95% CI = 0.06-0.47), and they were nonsignificant for self-reported outcomes (-0.01, 95% CI = -0.25 to 0.23). Comorbidity, gender, age, number of sessions, duration, intervention type, setting, medication use or dropout percentage did not influence the effect of treatment. Psychological treatments have a small effect in reducing parent-, teacher- and observer-rated CD problems in children and adolescents with clinical CD problems/diagnosis. There is not enough evidence to support one specific psychological treatment over another. Future studies should investigate the influence of participant characteristics (e.g. age of CD onset), use more homogeneous outcome measures and allow better evaluation of study quality. Many reports failed to provide detailed information to allow optimization of psychological treatment strategies. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent
Ilola, Anna-Marja; Lempinen, Lotta; Huttunen, Jukka; Ristkari, Terja; Sourander, Andre
There are few population-based studies on bullying behaviour among preschool children. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of bullying behaviour among four-year-old children, as reported by their parents, the prevalence of types of bullying behaviour and the associations between bullying behaviour and psychosocial factors. This study was based on a population-based study sample of 931 children who attended their check-up at a child health clinic at four years of age. Parents completed the questionnaire about their child's bullying behaviour and risk factors during the check-up. Bullying behaviour, especially being both a bully and a victim, was a common phenomenon among four-year-old children. Being a bully or both a bully and victim were most strongly associated with conduct problems, while being a victim was associated with somatic symptoms and peer problems. Bullying behaviour was frequently found in preschool children and associated with a wide range of other problems, which indicate that routine checking of bullying behaviour should be included in child health clinic check-ups. Bullying prevention programmes are usually targeted at school-aged children, but this study highlights the importance of focusing already on preschool children. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
INVERT 1.0 is a digital computer program written in FORTRAN IV which calculates the surface heat flux of a one-dimensional solid using an interior-measured temperature and a physical description of the solid. By using two interior-measured temperatures, INVERT 1.0 can provide a solution for the heat flux at two surfaces, the heat flux at a boundary and the time dependent power, or the heat flux at a boundary and the time varying thermal conductivity of a material composing the solid. The analytical solution to inversion problem is described for the one-dimensional cylinder, sphere, or rectangular slab. The program structure, input instructions, and sample problems demonstrating the accuracy of the solution technique are included
Schoorl, Jantiene; Van Rijn, Sophie; De Wied, Minet; Van Goozen, Stephanie H M; Swaab, Hanna
It is often reported that children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) are under-aroused. However, the evidence is mixed, with some children with ODD/CD displaying high arousal. This has led to the hypothesis that different profiles of arousal dysfunction may exist within children with ODD/CD. This knowledge could explain variability within children with ODD/CD, both in terms of specific types of aggression as well as comorbid symptoms (e.g., other emotional/behavioral problems). We measured heart rate variability (HRV), heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL) during rest and stress, and obtained parent and teacher reports of aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits in a sample of 66 ODD/CD and 36 non-clinical boys (aged 8-12 years). The ODD/CD group scored significantly higher on aggression, anxiety, attention problems and autism traits than the controls; boys with ODD/CD also had higher resting HRs than controls, but HR stress, HRV and SCL did not differ. Hierarchical regressions showed different physiological profiles in subgroups of boys with ODD/CD based on their type of aggression; a pattern of high baseline HR and SCL, but low stress HRV was related to reactive aggression, whereas the opposite physiological pattern (low HR, low stress SCL, high stress HRV) was related to proactive aggression. Furthermore, high stress SCL was related to anxiety symptoms, whereas low stress SCL was related to attention problems. These findings are important because they indicate heterogeneity within boys with ODD/CD and highlight the importance of using physiology to differentiate boys with different ODD/CD subtypes.
Brunborg, Geir Scott; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Frøyland, Lars Roar
Background and aims: While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Methods: Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Results: Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. Discussion: The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Conclusions: Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life. PMID:25215212
Ride, Jemimah; Lorgelly, Paula; Tran, Thach; Wynter, Karen; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane
Objectives Postnatal maternal mental health problems, including depression and anxiety, entail a significant burden globally, and finding cost-effective preventive solutions is a public policy priority. This paper presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention, What Were We Thinking (WWWT), for the prevention of postnatal maternal mental health problems. Design The economic evaluation, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, was conducted alongside a cluster-randomised trial. Setting 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres in Victoria, Australia. Participants Participants were English-speaking first-time mothers attending participating Maternal and Child Health Centres. Full data were collected for 175 participants in the control arm and 184 in the intervention arm. Intervention WWWT is a psychoeducational intervention targeted at the partner relationship, management of infant behaviour and parental fatigue. Outcome measures The evaluation considered public sector plus participant out-of-pocket costs, while outcomes were expressed in the 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental costs and outcomes were estimated using regression analyses to account for relevant sociodemographic, prognostic and clinical characteristics. Results The intervention was estimated to cost $A118.16 per participant. The analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in costs or outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $A36 451 per QALY gained and $A152 per percentage-point reduction in 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders. The estimate lies under the unofficial cost-effectiveness threshold of $A55 000 per QALY; however, there was considerable uncertainty surrounding the results, with a 55% probability that WWWT would be considered cost-effective at that threshold. Conclusions The results
Ride, Jemimah; Lorgelly, Paula; Tran, Thach; Wynter, Karen; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane
Postnatal maternal mental health problems, including depression and anxiety, entail a significant burden globally, and finding cost-effective preventive solutions is a public policy priority. This paper presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of the intervention, What Were We Thinking (WWWT), for the prevention of postnatal maternal mental health problems. The economic evaluation, including cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses, was conducted alongside a cluster-randomised trial. 48 Maternal and Child Health Centres in Victoria, Australia. Participants were English-speaking first-time mothers attending participating Maternal and Child Health Centres. Full data were collected for 175 participants in the control arm and 184 in the intervention arm. WWWT is a psychoeducational intervention targeted at the partner relationship, management of infant behaviour and parental fatigue. The evaluation considered public sector plus participant out-of-pocket costs, while outcomes were expressed in the 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Incremental costs and outcomes were estimated using regression analyses to account for relevant sociodemographic, prognostic and clinical characteristics. The intervention was estimated to cost $A118.16 per participant. The analysis showed no statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in costs or outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were $A36 451 per QALY gained and $A152 per percentage-point reduction in 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders. The estimate lies under the unofficial cost-effectiveness threshold of $A55 000 per QALY; however, there was considerable uncertainty surrounding the results, with a 55% probability that WWWT would be considered cost-effective at that threshold. The results suggest that, although WWWT shows promise as a preventive intervention for postnatal
Oleg Y. Filippov
Full Text Available The paper defines the problem of the initiation of an administrative case and conducting an administrative investigation on cases of identifying signs of minor theft under Art. 7.27 of the Code of Administrative Offences of the Russian Federation in cases where the identity of the offender at the time of committing minor theft is not established, this person is not detained. Guidance on the application of this provision under the existing legislation and on amendments and supplements to the law on administrative offenses is offered.
Ion Cârstea, Cătălin; Wang, Jenn-Nan
In the inverse boundary value problems of isotropic elasticity and complex conductivity, we derive estimates for the volume fraction of an inclusion whose physical parameters satisfy suitable gap conditions. For both the inclusion and the background medium we assume that the material coefficients are constant. In the elasticity case we require one measurement for the lower bound and another for the upper one. In the complex conductivity case we need three measurements for the lower bound and three for the upper. We accomplish this with the help of the ‘translation method’ which consists of perturbing the minimum principle associated with the equation by either a null-Lagrangian or a quasi-convex quadratic form.
Babel, Kimberly A; Jambroes, Tijs; Oostermeijer, Sanne; van de Ven, Peter M; Popma, Arne; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Jansen, Lucres M C
Attenuated activity of stress-regulating systems has consistently been reported in boys with conduct problems. Results in studies of girls are inconsistent, which may result from the high prevalence of comorbid post-trauma symptoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate post-trauma symptoms as a potential mediator in the relation between stress-regulation systems functioning and conduct problems in female adolescents. The sample consisted of 78 female adolescents (mean age 15.4; SD 1.1) admitted to a closed treatment institution. The diagnosis of disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) was assessed by a structured interview-the diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV (DISC-IV). To assess post-trauma symptoms and externalizing behaviour problems, self-report questionnaires, youth self report (YSR) and the trauma symptom checklist for Children (TSCC) were used. The cortisol awakenings response (CAR) measured hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, whereas autonomous nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed by heart rate (HR), pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Independent t-tests were used to compare girls with and without DBD, while path analyses tested for the mediating role of post- trauma symptoms in the relation between stress regulating systems and externalizing behaviour. Females with DBD (n = 37) reported significantly higher rates of post-trauma symptoms and externalizing behaviour problems than girls without DBD (n = 39). Path analysis found no relation between CAR and externalizing behaviour problems. With regard to ANS activity, positive direct effects on externalizing behaviour problems were present for HR (standardized β = 0.306, p = 0.020) and PEP (standardized β = -0.323, p = 0.031), though not for RSA. Furthermore, no relation-whether direct or indirect-could be determined from post-trauma symptoms. Present findings demonstrate that the neurobiological
Addiction in developmental perspective: influence of conduct disorder severity, subtype, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on problem severity and comorbidity in adults with opioid dependence.
Carpentier, P.J.; Knapen, L.J.; Gogh, M.T. van; Buitelaar, J.K.; Jong, C.A.J. de
This retrospective cross-sectional study examines whether conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are associated with problem severity and psychiatric comorbidity in 193 middle-aged, opioid-dependent patients. Conduct disorder history, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,
Mancipe Navarrete, Jenny Alejandra; Garcia Villamil, Shanen Samanta; Correa Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt Rio-Valle, Jacqueline
Overweight and obesity are serious public health problem, which is specially among children populations. To determine the effectiveness of educational interventions conducted in Latino America for the prevention of overweight and obesity in scholar children from 6 to 17 years old. Metodology: MEDLINE, LILACS and EMBASE were searched between february and may 2014 to retrieve randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies that evaluated the effects of educational interventions intended to retrieve randomized controlled trials and longitudinal studies aiming to prevent overweight and obesity among Latinoamerican children. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale and the CASPe tool. Twenty one studies were included (n=12,092). Different types of educational interventions were identified, such as nutritional campaigns, physical activity practice and environmental changes. Mixed approaches combining nutritional campaigns, physical activity promotion and enviromental changes were the most effective interventions, since their results produced the largest improvements in the overweight and obesity of children. None evidence of reporting bias was observed. Educational interventions performed in the educational environment that combined an adequate nutrition and the promotion of physical activity practice, are more effective for preventing overweight and obesity in Latino American children, although familiar interventions are also encouraged approach, associated with better responses on the behavioral change in scholar children. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Fontan, Lionel; Fraval, Marie; Michon, Anne; Déjean, Sébastien; Welby-Gieusse, Muriel
Sports and fitness instructors (SFIs) are known for being a high-risk population for voice difficulties (VD). However, past studies have encountered various methodological difficulties in determining prevalence and risk factors for VD in SFIs, such as limited population, gender and selection biases, or poor statistical power, because VD were studied as a binary variable. The present research work addresses these issues and aims at studying the prevalence of vocal problems and risk factors in French SFIs, a population in which no such study was conducted yet. Another objective is to survey the French SFIs' habits and expectations regarding vocal prevention and care. This is a cross-sectional study. Three hundred and twenty SFIs answered a questionnaire, whether in an online (n = 267) or a paper (n = 53) version. The questionnaire consisted of 31 items addressing self-reported vocal difficulties, supposed risk factors, and personal health-care history, followed by the Voice Handicap Index assessment. Prevalence of self-reported vocal difficulties is 55%. The Voice Handicap Index is significantly associated with gender, age, and variables related to work environment (noise and music) and habits (shouting, frequency of classes), as well as with daily sleeping time. Results also indicate that a minority of the SFIs (37%) received information on vocal difficulties, whereas a majority (80%) declares being interested in participating in prevention programs. This work confirms that SFIs are a high-risk population for VD, underlines the need for specific information programs in France, and provides relevant data for driving such preventive actions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Preeti; Nangia, Sushma; Tiwari, Soumya; Goel, Ankita; Singla, Bhupesh; Saili, Arvind
The role of gastric lavage in preventing retching, vomiting and secondary meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates with meconium-stained amniotic fluid is uncertain, and no there are no definitive guidelines. To evaluate the effect of gastric lavage in preventing retching, vomiting and secondary meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. This was an open-label, parallel, randomized controlled trial conducted in the labour room, postnatal and neonatal wards of a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Vigorous neonates of ≧34 weeks gestation with meconium-stained amniotic fluid were randomised into two groups using block randomisation. Infants requiring oxygen, in respiratory distress or with major congenital malformations were excluded. Infants in the study group received elective gastric lavage in the labour room after initial stabilisation. No gastric lavage was done in the control group. The newborns were assessed for retching, vomiting and secondary meconium aspiration syndrome in the first 48 hrs of life or until discharge from the hospital, whichever was later. A total of 267 newborns were randomly assigned to the gastric lavage group and 269 to the no gastric lavage group. There were no statistical differences in overall feeding between the two groups (6·74% vs 10·78%). Feeding of two newborns in the no-lavage group had to be omitted for the initial few hours because of vomiting; this did not happen in any newborn in the lavage group. No newborn in either group developed secondary meconium aspiration syndrome. Gastric lavage in newborns with meconium-stained amniotic fluid does not prevent or reduce the occurrence of feeding problems or secondary meconium aspiration syndrome.
Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa, with its scientific capacity, good infrastructure and high HIV incidence rates, is ideally positioned to conduct large-scale HIV prevention trials. The HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council conducted four phase III and one phase IIb trials of women-initiated HIV prevention options in KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2009. A total of 7046 women participated, with HIV prevalence between 25% and 45% and HIV incidence ranging from 4.5-9.1% per year. Unfortunately none of the interventions tested had any impact on reducing the risk of HIV acquisition; however, extremely valuable experience was gained, lessons learned and capacity built, while the communities gained associated benefits. Experience Our experience in conducting these trials ranged from setting up community partnerships to developing clinical research sites and dissemination of trial results. Community engagement included setting up community-based research sites with approval from both political and traditional leaders, and developing community advisory groups to assist with the research process. Community-wide education on HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment and care was provided to over 90 000 individuals. Myths and misconceptions were addressed through methods such as anonymous suggestion boxes in clinic waiting areas and intensive education and counselling. Attempts were made to involve male partners to foster support and facilitate recruitment of women. Peer educator programmes were initiated to provide ongoing education and also to facilitate recruitment of women to the trials. Recruitment strategies such as door-to-door recruitment and community group meetings were initiated. Over 90% of women enrolled were retained. Community benefits from the trial included education on HIV prevention, treatment and care and provision of ancillary care (such as Pap smears, reproductive health care and
Mesirow, Maurissa Sc; Cecil, Charlotte; Maughan, Barbara; Barker, Edward D
Little is known about early life diet as a risk factor for early-onset persistent conduct problems (EOP CP). To investigate this, we used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK-based prospective epidemiological birth cohort. 5727 mother-child pairs (49.9 % boys) monitored since pregnancy (delivery date between 1 April, 1991 and 31 December, 1992) reported intake of fish and processed foods at 32 weeks gestation and, for the child, at 3 years; EOP (n = 666) and Low conduct problem (Low CP, n = 5061) trajectories were measured from 4 to 13 years; hyperactivity and emotional difficulties were assessed in childhood (4-10 years) and early adolescence (12-13 years), in addition to potential confounding factors (family adversity, birth complications, income). Compared to Low CP, mothers of EOP children consumed less fish (p processed food (p processed food at 3 years (p processed food (vs. less than one serving/day, p processed food, and low in fish, associate with an EOP CP trajectory and co-occurring difficulties in early adolescence. As small effect size differences were found, further studies are needed to investigate the long-term impact of early unhealthy diet.
Hawes, David J; Price, Matthew J; Dadds, Mark R
The treatment of conduct problems among children and adolescents with callous-unemotional (CU) traits has been subject to much speculation; however, treatment outcome research has been surprisingly limited and findings have been mixed. This review examines the research to date in this field as it pertains to two key questions. First, are CU traits associated with clinical outcomes and processes in the family based treatment of child and adolescent conduct problems? Second, can family based intervention produce change in CU traits? Using a systematic search strategy, we identified 16 treatment outcomes studies that can be brought to bear on these questions. These studies provide strong evidence of unique associations between CU traits and risk for poor treatment outcomes, while at the same time indicating that social-learning-based parent training is capable of producing lasting improvement in CU traits, particularly when delivered early in childhood. We discuss the potential for this emerging evidence base to inform the planning and delivery of treatments for clinic-referred children with CU traits, and detail an ongoing program of translational research into the development of novel interventions for this high-risk subgroup.
Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana K; Price, Anna; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Rogers, Susan; Wake, Melissa
To determine whether a parenting programme, offered universally in primary care, can prevent behavioural problems in children and improve parenting and maternal mental health. Cluster randomised trial. 40 primary care nursing centres (clusters) in Victoria, Australia. 733 English speaking mothers of 8 month old children sequentially recruited from well child appointments; 656 retained at 24 months. Structured three session programme at age 8-15 months, co-led by well child providers and a parenting expert. The programme covered normal development and behaviour, strategies to increase desired behaviour, and strategies to reduce unwanted behaviour. Maternal report of child externalising behaviour (child behavior checklist 1(1/2)-5 year old), parenting (parent behavior checklist), and maternal mental health (depression anxiety stress scales) at 18 and 24 months. At 18 months, child behaviour and parenting scores were similar in the two groups. At 24 months, externalising scores in the intervention and control groups were similar (mean 11.9 (SD 7.2) v 12.9 (7.4)); however, on the parent behavior checklist subscale scores, intervention group parents were less likely to report harsh/abusive parenting (mean 38.9 (SD 7.7) v 40.5 (8.8); adjusted mean difference -1.83, 95% confidence interval -3.12 to -0.55) and unreasonable expectations of child development (40.9 (9.9) v 42.7 (9.6); -2.18, -3.74 to -0.62). Mean scores for nurturing parenting and maternal mental health were similar in the two groups at both times. A universal parenting programme resulted in modest improvement in parenting factors that predict behavioural problems in children but did not reduce externalising behavioural problems or affect maternal mental health at 2 years. Trial registration ISRCTN 77531789.
Chamberlain, Patricia; Price, Joe; Leve, Leslie D; Laurent, Heidemarie; Landsverk, John A; Reid, John B
Parent training for foster parents is mandated by federal law and supported by state statues in nearly all states; however, little is known about the efficacy of that training, and recent reviews underscore that the most widely used curricula in the child welfare system (CWS) have virtually no empirical support (Grimm, Youth Law News, April-June:3-29, 2003). On the other hand, numerous theoretically based, developmentally sensitive parent training interventions have been found to be effective in experimental clinical and prevention intervention trials (e.g., Kazdin and Wassell, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39:414-420, 2000; McMahon and Forehand, Helping the noncompliant child, Guilford Press, New York, USA, 2003; Patterson and Forgatch, Parents and adolescents: I. Living together, Castalia Publishing, Eugene, OR, USA, 1987; Webster-Stratton et al., Journal of Clinical Child Pyschology Psychiatry, 42:943-952, 2001). One of these, Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC; Chamberlain, Treating chronic juvenile offenders: Advances made through the Oregon Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2003), has been used with foster parents of youth referred from juvenile justice. The effectiveness of a universal intervention, KEEP (Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported) based on MTFC (but less intensive) was tested in a universal randomized trial with 700 foster and kinship parents in the San Diego County CWS. The goal of the intervention was to reduce child problem behaviors through strengthening foster parents' skills. The trial was designed to examine effects on both child behavior and parenting practices, allowing for specific assessment of the extent to which improvements in child behavior were mediated by the parenting practices targeted in the intervention. Child behavior problems were reduced significantly more in the intervention condition than in the
Joseph T Sakai
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Youth with conduct problems (CP often make decisions which value self-interest over the interests of others. Self-benefiting behavior despite loss to others is especially common among youth with CP and callous-unemotional traits (CU. Such behavioral tendencies are generally measured using self- or observer-report. We are unaware of attempts to measure this tendency with a behavioral paradigm. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our AlAn's (altruism-antisocial game a computer program presents subjects with a series of offers in which they will receive money but a planned actual charity donation will be reduced; subjects decide to accept or reject each offer. We tested (1 whether adolescent patients with CP (n = 20 compared with adolescent controls (n = 19 differed on AlAn's game outcomes, (2 whether youths with CP and CU differed significantly from controls without CP or CU, and (3 whether AlAn's game outcomes correlated significantly with CP and separately, CU severity. Patients with CP and CU compared with controls without these problems took significantly more money for themselves and left significantly less money in the charity donation; AlAn's game outcomes were significantly correlated with CU, but not CP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In the AlAn's game adolescents with conduct problems and CU traits, compared with controls without CP/CU, are disposed to benefit themselves while costing others even in a novel situation, devoid of peer influences, where anonymity is assured, reciprocity or retribution are impossible, intoxication is absent and when the "other" to be harmed is considered beneficent. AlAn's game outcomes are associated with measures of CU. Results suggest that the AlAn's game provides an objective means of capturing information about CU traits. The AlAn's game, which was designed for future use in the MRI environment, may be used in studies attempting to identify the neural correlates of self-benefiting decision-making.
Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Gelhorn, Heather L; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Crowley, Thomas J
Youth with conduct problems (CP) often make decisions which value self-interest over the interests of others. Self-benefiting behavior despite loss to others is especially common among youth with CP and callous-unemotional traits (CU). Such behavioral tendencies are generally measured using self- or observer-report. We are unaware of attempts to measure this tendency with a behavioral paradigm. In our AlAn's (altruism-antisocial) game a computer program presents subjects with a series of offers in which they will receive money but a planned actual charity donation will be reduced; subjects decide to accept or reject each offer. We tested (1) whether adolescent patients with CP (n = 20) compared with adolescent controls (n = 19) differed on AlAn's game outcomes, (2) whether youths with CP and CU differed significantly from controls without CP or CU, and (3) whether AlAn's game outcomes correlated significantly with CP and separately, CU severity. Patients with CP and CU compared with controls without these problems took significantly more money for themselves and left significantly less money in the charity donation; AlAn's game outcomes were significantly correlated with CU, but not CP. In the AlAn's game adolescents with conduct problems and CU traits, compared with controls without CP/CU, are disposed to benefit themselves while costing others even in a novel situation, devoid of peer influences, where anonymity is assured, reciprocity or retribution are impossible, intoxication is absent and when the "other" to be harmed is considered beneficent. AlAn's game outcomes are associated with measures of CU. Results suggest that the AlAn's game provides an objective means of capturing information about CU traits. The AlAn's game, which was designed for future use in the MRI environment, may be used in studies attempting to identify the neural correlates of self-benefiting decision-making.
...: Species, Guinea Pig, Number Allowed, 276, Number Used, 83, LSU IACUC# 1061. ANIMAL PROJECT: The SPECIFIC MMS of this study are to demonstrate and explore mechanisms for preventing the effects of intense sound...
Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate
Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8 through 16 years) from 1215 participants of the Pittsburgh Girls Study. A series of autoregressive path models were tested that included ODD-Emotion Dysregulation (ODD-ED) and ODD-Defiance, as time-varying covariates on CD predicting depression severity in the following year, and vice versa. Conduct problems, depression, and ODD dimensions were relatively stable throughout childhood and adolescence, and a moderate degree of covariance was observed between these variables. Path analyses showed that CD often preceded depression across this developmental period, although the effect sizes were small. There was less consistent prediction from depression to CD. The overlap between ODD-ED and CD partially explained the prospective relations from CD to depression, whereas these paths were fully explained by the overlap between ODD-ED and depression. The overlap between ODD-Defiance and CD did not account for the prospective relations from CD to depression. In contrast, the overlap between ODD-Defiance and depression accounted for virtually all paths from CD to depression. Accounting for the overlap between ODD dimensions and both CD and depression eliminated all significant predictive paths. Symptoms of CD tend to precede depression in girls during childhood and adolescence. However, covariance between depression and both ODD-ED and ODD-Defiance accounts for these prospective relations. ODD dimensions should be assessed when evaluating risk for comorbid depression in girls with conduct problems, and emotion dysregulation and defiance aspects of ODD should be identified as targets for treatment in order to prevent depression in the future. © 2011 The
Thorley, Helen; Porter, Katie; Fleming, Clare; Jones, Tim; Kesten, Joanna; Marques, Elsa; Richards, Alison; Savović, Jelena
Problem alcohol drinking in homeless and vulnerably housed people can lead to malnutrition, which is associated with complications such as alcohol-related brain damage. Homeless alcohol drinkers are likely to have worse health outcomes and different nutritional needs compared with housed alcohol-drinking persons. It is not clear whether interventions to improve nutritional status in this population have been effective. The purpose of this review is to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions for preventing or correcting micronutrient deficiencies and other forms of malnutrition and related comorbidities in this population. A systematic search for studies of a nutrition-based intervention applied in the homeless or vulnerably housed population with problem drinking will be conducted. The following electronic databases will be systematically searched for relevant studies: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CAB abstracts, CINAHL, Cochrane Public Health Group Register and Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Register. Screening of identified abstracts for relevance and assessment of papers for inclusion will be done in duplicate. One reviewer will extract data from the studies and assess quality, and this will be checked by another reviewer. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus. The primary outcomes are (mal)nutrition status or micronutrient deficiencies or change in (mal)nutrition status or micronutrient deficiencies, measures of liver damage and cognitive function. Secondary outcomes include comorbidities, quality of life and functional scales, resources used to deliver treatment, uptake/acceptability of the intervention and engagement with treatment services. Results will be analysed descriptively, and, if appropriate, meta-analyses will be performed. The results of this review should help to inform the development of effective interventions that can be implemented in the community to improve the health of homeless people who are
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1 a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2 the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices. Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity.
Full Text Available The boundary-type hybrid finite element formulation coupling the Kirchhoff transformation is proposed for the two-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems in solids with or without circular holes, and the thermal conductivity of material is assumed to be in terms of temperature change. The Kirchhoff transformation is firstly used to convert the nonlinear partial differential governing equation into a linear one by introducing the Kirchhoff variable, and then the new linear system is solved by the present hybrid finite element model, in which the proper fundamental solutions associated with some field points are used to approximate the element interior fields and the conventional shape functions are employed to approximate the element frame fields. The weak integral functional is developed to link these two fields and establish the stiffness equation with sparse and symmetric coefficient matrix. Finally, the algorithm is verified on several examples involving various expressions of thermal conductivity and existence of circular hole, and numerical results show good accuracy and stability.
Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard
What is scientific dishonesty? How to handle the problem? How to prevent it? These three questions are discussed in an international perspective, focusing on ways of achieving and maintaining good conduct in the sciences.......What is scientific dishonesty? How to handle the problem? How to prevent it? These three questions are discussed in an international perspective, focusing on ways of achieving and maintaining good conduct in the sciences....
Martha Frías Armenta
Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue analizar la relación de los problemas de conducta que los niños presentan en la escuela y el maltrato infantil. La muestra la constituyeron 110 menores; 61 fueron identificados como maltratados y 50 fueron de la población general. Se aplicó la lista de chequeo de Achenbach (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & McConaughy, 1997 a los maestros, así como la Escala de Tácticas de Conflicto de Straus et al. (1998, la de Depresión de Hamilton (1959, obteniendo también variables demográficas de los niños. Se probó un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales en donde la variable dependiente fueron los problemas de conducta y las independientes la violencia familiar y la depresión. Los resultados indican que el maltrato tuvo un efecto significativo en los problemas de conducta de los menores, mediada por la depresión. Concluimos que los profesores deben ser entrenados en la detección y atención del maltrato infantil para prevenir problemas sociales graves como la delincuencia.The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between conduct problems that children display at school and child abuse. The sample was constituted by 110 minors; 61 were identified as abused and 50 were from the general population. Achenbach's checklist (Achenbach, 1991; Achenbach & McConaughy, 1997 was administered to teachers, and Straus et al.'s (1998 Tactics of Conflict Scale and Hamilton's (1959 Depression Scale were administered to children. Demographic variables were also considered. A structural equations model was tested wherein the dependent variable was conduct problems, while family violence and depression were the independent variables. Results indicated that child abuse had an indirect effect on children's conduct problems, which was mediated by depression. We concluded that teachers should be trained in detecting and attending child abuse in order to prevent further serious social problems such as delinquency.
Rafi, Jonas; Ivanova, Ekaterina; Rozental, Alexander; Carlbring, Per
Despite being considered a public health problem, no prevention programme for problem gambling in workplace settings has been scientifically evaluated. This study aims to fill a critical gap in the field of problem gambling by implementing and evaluating a large-scale prevention programme in organisations. Ten organisations, with a total of n=549 managers and n=8572 employees, will be randomised to either receiving a prevention programme or to a waitlist control condition. Measurements will be collected at the baseline and 3, 12 and 24 months after intervention. The primary outcome of interest is the managers' inclination to act when worried or suspicious about an employee's problem gambling or other harmful use. Additional outcomes of interest include the Problem Gambling Severity Index and gambling habits in both managers and employees. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of the responses from semistructured interviews with managers will be performed. This study has been approved by the regional ethics board of Stockholm, Sweden, and it will contribute to the body of knowledge concerning prevention of problem gambling. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed, open-access journals. NCT02925286; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Mikami, Katsunaka; Jorge, Ricardo E; Moser, David J; Arndt, Stephan; Jang, Mijin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark T; Robinson, Robert G
Apathy occurs frequently following stroke and prior studies have demonstrated the negative effect of apathy on recovery from stroke. This study was a secondary analysis examining the efficacy of escitalopram, problem-solving therapy (PST), or placebo administered for 1 year to prevent the onset of apathy among patients with recent stroke. Patients within 3 months of an index stroke who did not meet DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major or minor depression and who did not have a serious comorbid physical illness were enrolled. Patients were recruited from three sites: University of Iowa, University of Chicago, and Burke Rehabilitation Hospital. One hundred fifty-four patients without evidence of apathy at initial evaluation were included in the randomized controlled trial using escitalopram (10 mg patients ≤65 years; 5 mg patients >65 years) (N = 51) or placebo (N = 47) or non-blinded PST (12 total sessions) (N = 56) over 1 year. At 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, patients were assessed for diagnosis and severity of apathy using the Apathy Scale. Using a Cox proportional hazards model of time to onset of apathy, participants given placebo were 3.47 times more likely to develop apathy than patients given escitalopram and 1.84 times more likely to develop apathy than patients given PST after controlling for age, sex, cognitive impairment, and diabetes mellitus status (adjusted hazard ratio: 3.47, 95% CI: 1.79-6.73 [escitalopram group]; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.21-2.80 [PST group]). Escitalopram or PST was significantly more effective in preventing new onset of apathy following stroke compared with placebo. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Fischer, Aaron J; Collier-Meek, Melissa A; Bloomfield, Bradley; Erchul, William P; Gresham, Frank M
School psychologists who experience challenges delivering face-to-face consultation may utilize videoconferencing to facilitate their consultation activities. Videoconferencing has been found to be an effective method of service delivery in related fields and emerging research suggests that it may be effective for providing teacher training and support in school settings. In this exploratory investigation, we used the Consultation Analysis Record (Bergan & Tombari, 1975) and its four indices to assess the effectiveness of conducting problem identification interviews via videoconferencing versus face-to-face. Overall, findings indicated significant differences across these two conditions, with videoconference interviews coded as having higher indices of content relevance, process effectiveness, and message control, but lower content focus, compared to face-to-face interviews. As these indices have been positively associated with favorable consultation outcomes, the results provide initial support for the effectiveness of consultation delivered via videoconferencing. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mills-Koonce, William R; Wagner, Nicholas J; Willoughby, Michael T; Stifter, Cynthia; Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A
Approximately one third of children who meet criteria for conduct problems (CP) are also characterized by elevated callous-unemotional (CU) traits. This subgroup is at elevated risk for more pervasive and extreme levels of later antisocial behavior and has been characterized by a fearlessness temperament and blunted stress psychophysiology at older ages. The objective of this study was to examine group differences in fear reactivity and stress psychophysiology in infancy among children classified as having CP with CU (CP + CU), CP without CU (CP only), or no CP in later childhood. A birth cohort study (n = 1,292) was followed longitudinally from birth through first grade. Behavioral fear, baseline heart period (HP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and pretask, 20-min posttask, and 40-min posttask salivary cortisol were assessed at 6 and 15 months of age around a fear challenge task. CP and CU were assessed by maternal report at first grade and children were classified into CP and CU groups if they scored in the upper 10(th) percentile of these ratings. No group differences were observed in children at 6 months of age. However, at 15 months of age children with later CP + CU displayed greater high-intensity fear behavior, higher pretask and overall cortisol levels, and lower levels of HP and RSA compared to children with CP only and children with no CP. The discrepancy between the biobehavioral correlates of conduct problems with callous-unemotional traits in infancy and those reported from studies of older children and adults suggests that the etiology of this behavioral phenotype may be more complex than a simple genetic maturation model. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Reniers, Genserik L L; Sörensen, Kenneth
On the basis of the combination of the well-known knapsack problem and a widely used risk management technique in organizations (that is, the risk matrix), an approach was developed to carry out a cost-benefits analysis to efficiently take prevention investment decisions. Using the knapsack problem as a model and combining it with a well-known technique to solve this problem, bundles of prevention measures are prioritized based on their costs and benefits within a predefined prevention budget. Those bundles showing the highest efficiencies, and within a given budget, are identified from a wide variety of possible alternatives. Hence, the approach allows for an optimal allocation of safety resources, does not require any highly specialized information, and can therefore easily be applied by any organization using the risk matrix as a risk ranking tool. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.
Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder – irritability and defiance -that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across time in a community-based sample of 662 youth (342 females) spanning ages 12 to 18 years old at baseline. On average, irritability was stable across assessment points and defiance declined. Within time, associations of irritability with internalizing were consistently stronger than associations of irritability with conduct problems. Defiance was similarly associated within time with both internalizing and conduct problems in mid-adolescence, but was more highly related to internalizing than to conduct problems by early adulthood (ages 18 to 25). Over time, increasing irritability was related to changes in both internalizing and conduct problems; whereas increases in defiance predicted increases in conduct problems more strongly than internalizing symptoms. Increases in both internalizing and conduct problems were also associated with subsequent increases in both irritability and defiance. Sex differences in these associations were not significant. PMID:25028284
Déry, Michèle; Lapalme, Mélanie; Jagiellowicz, Jadzia; Poirier, Martine; Temcheff, Caroline; Toupin, Jean
This study investigated the relationship between the three DSM-5 categories of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms (irritable mood, defiant behavior, vindictive behavior) and anxiety/depression in girls and boys with conduct problems (CP) while controlling for comorbid child psychopathology at baseline. Data were drawn from an ongoing longitudinal study of 6- to 9-year-old French-Canadian children (N = 276; 40.8 % girls) receiving special educational services for CP at school and followed for 2 years. Using linear regression analysis, the results showed that irritable mood symptoms predicted a higher level of depression and anxiety in girls and boys 2 years later, whereas the behavioral symptoms of ODD (e.g., defiant, vindictive symptoms) were linked to lower depression scores. The contribution of ODD symptoms to these predictions, while statistically significant, remained modest. The usefulness of ODD irritable symptoms as a marker for identifying girls and boys with CP who are more vulnerable to developing internalizing problems is discussed.
Klingzell, Ida; Fanti, Kostas A; Colins, Olivier F; Frogner, Louise; Andershed, Anna-Karin; Andershed, Henrik
Children with early onset of conduct problems (CP) are at risk for long lasting psychosocial problems, especially if CP co-occurs with callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Joint trajectories of CP and CU traits during early childhood were identified using data from the SOFIA study, following 2031 children longitudinally from ages 3-5 to 5-7 years. The results showed that children exhibiting stable high CP and CU traits were characterized by high levels of fearlessness, and psychopathic traits, including grandiose-deceitfulness, and impulsivity, need for stimulation. Children with decreasing or increasing CP and CU traits were characterized by decreases and increases respectively in their levels of fearlessness and psychopathic traits. Children high on CP and low on CU traits exhibited lower levels of these dimensions. Thus, stability and change of fearlessness and psychopathic traits are associated with stability and change in CP and CU traits, making these temperamental and personality traits promising target candidates for early intervention.
Petrenko, Christie L M
Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly all studies demonstrated medium to large intervention effects on child behavior post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests interventions developed for the general population can be effective for children with developmental disabilities and their families. A greater emphasis on the prevention of behavior problems in young children with developmental disabilities prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical disorders is needed. Multi-component interventions may be more efficacious for child behavior problems and yield greater benefits for parent and family adjustment. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.
Pour, Shahrzad M.; Drake, John H.; Ejlertsen, Lena Secher
A railway signaling system is a complex and interdependent system which should ensure the safe operation of trains. We introduce and address a mixed integer optimisation model for the preventive signal maintenance crew scheduling problem in the Danish railway system. The problem contains many...... practical constraints, such as temporal dependencies between crew schedules, the splitting of tasks across multiple days, crew competency requirements and several other managerial constraints. We propose a novel hybrid framework using Constraint Programming (CP) to generate initial feasible solutions...
Mosher, James F.
This report, fourth in a series of eight, highlights the views of Californians about policies local communities and the state can establish to reduce the potential for alcohol problems among young people. In the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) "Children and Youth Survey," 51% of the adults surveyed said that they were…
Fazzini, Massimiliano; Vaccaro, Carmela
The Italian territory is one of the most fragile hydraulic and hydro geologic of the world, due to its complexity physiographic, lithological and above meteo-climatic too. Moreover, In recent years, the unhappy urbanization, the abandonment of mountain areas and countryside have fostered hydro geological instability, ever more devastating, in relation to the extremes of meteorological events. After the dramatic floods and landscapes of the last 24 months - in which more than 50 people died - it is actually open a public debate on the issues related to prevention, forecasting and management of hydro-meteorological risk. Aim of the correct weather forecasting at different spatial and temporal scales is to avoid or minimize the potential occurrence of damage or human losses resulting from the increasingly of frequent extreme weather events. In Italy, there are two major complex problems that do not allow for effective dissemination of the correct weather forecasting. First, the absence of a national meteorological service - which can ensure the quality of information. In this regard, it is at an advanced stage the establishment of a unified national weather service - formed by technicians to national and regional civil protection and the Meteorological Service of the Air Force, which will ensure the quality of the prediction, especially through exclusive processing of national and local weather forecasting and hydro geological weather alert. At present, however, this lack favors the increasing diffusion of meteorological sites more or less professional - often totally not "ethical" - which, at different spatial scales, tend to amplify the signals from the weather prediction models, describing them the users of the web such as exceptional or rare phenomena and often causing unjustified alarmism. This behavior is almost always aimed at the desire of give a forecast before other sites and therefore looking for new commercial sponsors, with easy profits. On the other hand
Full Text Available Increased maternal serum bile acid concentrations in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP are associated with fetal cardiac arrhythmias. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA has been shown to demonstrate anti-arrhythmic properties via preventing ICP-associated cardiac conduction slowing and development of reentrant arrhythmias, although the cellular mechanism is still being elucidated.High-resolution fluorescent optical mapping of electrical activity and electrocardiogram measurements were used to characterize effects of UDCA on one-day-old neonatal and adult female Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. ICP was modelled by perfusion of taurocholic acid (TC, 400μM. Whole-cell calcium currents were recorded from neonatal rat and human fetal cardiomyocytes.TC significantly prolonged the PR interval by 11.0±3.5% (P<0.05 and slowed ventricular conduction velocity (CV by 38.9±5.1% (P<0.05 exclusively in neonatal and not in maternal hearts. A similar CV decline was observed with the selective T-type calcium current (ICa,T blocker mibefradil 1μM (23.0±6.2%, P<0.05, but not with the L-type calcium current (ICa,L blocker nifedipine 1μM (6.9±6.6%, NS. The sodium channel blocker lidocaine (30μM reduced CV by 60.4±4.5% (P<0.05. UDCA co-treatment was protective against CV slowing induced by TC and mibefradil, but not against lidocaine. UDCA prevented the TC-induced reduction in the ICa,T density in both isolated human fetal (-10.2±1.5 versus -5.5±0.9 pA/pF, P<0.05 and neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (-22.3±1.1 versus -9.6±0.8 pA/pF, P<0.0001, whereas UDCA had limited efficacy on the ICa,L.Our findings demonstrate that ICa,T plays a significant role in ICP-associated fetal cardiac conduction slowing and arrhythmogenesis, and is an important component of the fetus-specific anti-arrhythmic activity of UDCA.
Fanti, Kostas A
Conduct problems (CP) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits can have a long-lasting negative impact into adulthood. Importantly, among youth with CP, those high on CU traits engage in a more severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of antisocial behavior. The current study investigates the co-occurrence between CP and CU traits among a large sample of Greek-Cypriot adolescents (N = 1,674; 50.1 % girls). Five distinct groups were identified with Latent Profile Analysis: low risk (48.7 %), average risk (33.8 %), co-occurring high CP-high CU (5.4 %), high CP-low CU (5.2 %), and low CP-high CU (6.9 %). Although more boys were identified in the higher risk groups, boys and girls within each group were not differentiated on levels of CP or CU traits during early adolescence. Youth in the identified groups were compared on early (Mean age = 12.12) and middle (Mean age = 14.02) adolescence individual and contextual factors. Youth with high CP-high CU were at higher risk for behavioral (bullying and substance use), individual (inattention, impulsivity, narcissism), and contextual (low family-support) problems compared to youth in the high CP-low CU and low CP-high CU groups, providing evidence that the combination of CP and CU traits might constitute a pathological group. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of sub-typing CP based on CU traits for the forthcoming fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Additional novel findings suggested that adolescents scoring high on CP, irrespective of CU, were not differentiated on hyperactivity, victimization, and anxiety/depression, and adolescents scoring high on CU traits, with or without CP, reported similar low levels of self-esteem and peer and family social-support.
Winther, Jo; Carlsson, Anthony; Vance, Alasdair
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD) occurs when children's disruptive and antisocial behaviours start to interfere with their academic, emotional and/or social development. Recently, there has been a considerable investment to implement national school-based early intervention programs to help prevent the onset of ODD/CD. This paper describes the delivery of the Royal Children's Hospital, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service and Schools Early Action Program: a whole school, multi-level, multidisciplinary approach to address emerging ODD/CD and pre- versus post-delivery assessment in 40 schools over a 4-year period (2007-2010). All children from preparatory to grade 3 (ages 4-10 years) were screened for conduct problems (n = 8546) using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Universal, targeted and indicated interventions were delivered in school settings. In total, 304 children participated in the targeted group program where the Child Behaviour Checklist was used as a pre- and post-intervention measure. Cohen's d effect sizes and a reliability change index were calculated to determine clinical significance. Significant reductions in both parent- and teacher-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms were noted. Parent, teacher and child feedback were very positive. A future randomized controlled trial of the program would address potential placebo and selection bias effects. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Full Text Available Objective: To summarize the best available evidence on effectiveness of therapeutic or sport climbing in preventing or treating health problems. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, PEDro, OTseeker and SportDiscus for randomized controlled trials published up to December 26, 2010. We included all trials assessing patient-relevant outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected relevant studies, assessed their methodological quality and extracted data. Quality of evidence was rated using the GRADE system. Data were entered into RevMan 5 to calculate effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals where appropriate.Results: Eligible for inclusion were four RCTs studying the effectiveness of climbing in (a geriatric patients, (b adults with multiple sclerosis, (c adults with chronic low-back pain and (d children with disabilities and poor motor function. The sample sizes ranged between 20 and 95. All trials had major methodological limitations. We found very low quality evidence that therapeutic climbing may improve activities of daily living in geriatric patients compared to physiotherapy as measured by the Barthel index (difference in mean change score: 2.32 [95%-CI: 0.45 to 4.19]. We found very low quality evidence that therapeutic climbing compared to standard exercise therapy may improve physical functioning (difference in mean change score: 16.15 [95%-CI: 4.45 to 27.85] and general physical health (13.14 [95%-CI: 3.61 to 22.67] as measured by the SF-36 in adults with chronic low back-pain. Conclusions: Evidence for the effectiveness of therapeutic climbing is limited to small trials at high risk of bias. The effects of therapeutic climbing are therefore unclear.
Rivenbark, Joshua G; Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate M; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Children with conduct problems that persist into adulthood are at increased risk for future behavioral, health, and social problems. However, the longer term public service usage among these children has not been fully documented. To aid public health and intervention planning, adult service usage across criminal justice, health care, and social welfare domains is compared among all individuals from a representative cohort who followed different conduct problem trajectories from childhood into adulthood. Participants are from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a prospective, representative cohort of consecutive births (N = 1,037) from April 1972 to March 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand. Regression analyses were used to compare levels of public service usage up to age 38, gathered via administrative and electronic medical records, between participants who displayed distinct subtypes of childhood conduct problems (low, childhood-limited, adolescent-onset, and life-course persistent). Children exhibiting life-course persistent conduct problems used significantly more services as adults than those with low levels of childhood conduct problems. Although this group comprised only 9.0% of the population, they accounted for 53.3% of all convictions, 15.7% of emergency department visits, 20.5% of prescription fills, 13.1% of injury claims, and 24.7% of welfare benefit months. Half of this group (50.0%) also accrued high service use across all three domains of criminal justice, health, and social welfare services, as compared to only 11.3% of those with low conduct problems (OR = 7.27, 95% CI = 4.42-12.0). Conduct problems in childhood signal high future costs in terms of service utilization across multiple sectors. Future evaluations of interventions aimed at conduct problems should also track potential reductions in health burden and service usage that stretch into midlife. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Martella, Ronald C.; And Others
A two-stage problem-solving strategy involving cue cards and their gradual withdrawal was used to teach nine sheltered workshop employees how to prevent work-related accidents. Results indicated that participants used the strategy appropriately and generalized their skills to similar and dissimilar situations up to eight weeks after training.…
Arends, Iris; Bulmann, Ute; van Rhenen, Willem; Groen, Henk; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Objectives: Workers with common mental disorders (CMDs) frequently experience recurrent sickness absence but scientifically evaluated interventions to prevent recurrences are lacking. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a problem solving
Danforth, Jeffrey S; Doerfler, Leonard A; Connor, Daniel F
The goal was to examine whether anxiety modifies the risk for, or severity of, conduct problems in children with ADHD. Assessment included both categorical and dimensional measures of ADHD, anxiety, and conduct problems. Analyses compared conduct problems between children with ADHD features alone versus children with co-occurring ADHD and anxiety features. When assessed by dimensional rating scales, results showed that compared with children with ADHD alone, those children with ADHD co-occurring with anxiety are at risk for more intense conduct problems. When assessment included a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) diagnosis via the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Epidemiologic Version (K-SADS), results showed that compared with children with ADHD alone, those children with ADHD co-occurring with anxiety neither had more intense conduct problems nor were they more likely to be diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder. Different methodological measures of ADHD, anxiety, and conduct problem features influenced the outcome of the analyses.
Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S
Although harsh parenting and peer rejection are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (CP), these patterns are often informant specific, suggesting that their associations across contexts (i.e., home and school) should be considered. In a sample of 142 children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; ages 5-10; 66% male), we used structural equation modeling to evaluate the structure of multi-informant (parent, teacher) and multimethod (semi-structured interview, questionnaire) rated aggressive, rule-breaking, and oppositional behavior. Next, we explored context-specific associations by modeling harsh parenting and peer rejection as simultaneous and independent predictors of home and school CP. We observed several key findings: (a) the structure of parent- and teacher-reported CP was best accounted by context-specific CP (i.e., home vs. school) and a second-order general CP factor; (b) harsh punishment and peer rejection each independently predicted the second-order general CP factor; and (c) peer rejection was uniquely associated with school CP, whereas harsh punishment was associated only with the second-order general CP factor and did not exhibit specificity with home CP. Whereas harsh parenting and peer rejection were each independently associated with generalized CP, peer rejection showed an additional, unique context-specific association with CP exclusively expressed at school. We discuss potential explanatory mechanisms underlying context-specific associations of CP, as well as address etiological and clinical implications for understanding informant-discrepancies in CP.
Menting, B.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.
Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in
Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan
Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra D
As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if interventions are well standardized. Some protocols are better suited to cooperative groups than are others, and there are advantages and disadvantages to conducting survivorship research within the cooperative group setting. Behavioral researchers currently involved in cooperative groups, as well as program staff within the NCI, can serve as sources of information for those wishing to pursue symptom management and survivorship studies within the clinical trial setting. The structure of the cooperative groups is currently changing, but going forward, survivorship is bound to be a topic of interest and one that perhaps may be more easily addressed using the proposed more centralized structure. ©2011 AACR.
Xing, Dezhi; Kjølbye, Anne Louise; Nielsen, Morten S
demonstrated that 10 nM ZP123 improved gap junctional intercellular conductance by 69% +/- 20% in pairs of guinea pig ventricular myocytes. VT was induced by programmed stimulation in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized open chest dogs 1 to 4 hours after coronary artery occlusion. Three-dimensional activation...... mapping was done using six bipolar electrograms on each of 23 multipolar needles in the risk zone. When VT was reproducibly induced, dogs were randomly assigned to receive either saline or ZP123 cumulatively at three dose levels (intravenous bolus followed by 30-min infusion per dose). Attempts to induce...... VT were repeated in each infusion period. Mass spectrometry was used to measure ZP123 plasma concentrations. Twenty-six dogs with reentrant VT were included. ZP123 significantly prevented reentrant VT at all plasma concentrations vs saline: 1.0 +/- 0.2 nM: 6/12 vs 0/12; 7.7 +/- 0.6 nM: 7/13 vs 1...
Rahman, Ardeshir S; Balodis, Iris M; Pilver, Corey E; Leeman, Robert F; Hoff, Rani A; Steinberg, Marvin A; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N
The study examined in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. A survey assessing alcohol, gambling, and health and functioning measures in 1609 high school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/nondrinking and high-frequency-drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ(2)(1,N = 1842) = 49.22, P drinking versus low-frequency/nondrinking adolescents exhibited more permissive attitudes towards gambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ(2)(1, N = 1842) = 31.58, P drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR] = 3.17, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = [1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/nondrinking (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = [0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (interaction OR = 1.78, 95% CI = [1.05, 3.02]). Interrelationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking.
Elizur, Yoel; Somech, Lior Y
Parenting intervention (PI) is an effective treatment for children's conduct problems (CP) that has been shown to be mediated by improved parenting practices and parenting self-efficacy. Recently, Hitkashrut's randomized controlled trial demonstrated that ineffective parenting (IP) mediated effects on callous-unemotional (CU) traits and effortful control (EC), while controlling for more general treatment effects on CP. These temperament and personality-based features predict the formation of early-onset antisocial trajectories with poor long-term prognosis. The objective of this study was to use Hitkashrut's 3-wave dataset to test posttreatment EC and CU mediation of treatment effect on 1-year follow-up CP, and to determine whether mediation by each child-level potential mediator remains significant when tested concurrently with the parenting mediator. Parents of 209 3-5 year-old preschoolers (163 boys; 46 girls), with subclinical-clinical range CP were assigned to 14-session co-parent training groups (n = 140 couples), or to minimal intervention control groups (n = 69 couples). Assessments were based on both parents' questionnaires. An intent-to-treat analysis showed that EC and CU traits simultaneously mediated treatment effects on CP in one EC/CU mediational model. The concurrent testing of child- and parent-level mediators showed mediation by IP and CU traits in the CU/IP model, and IP mediation in the EC/IP model. Similar results were obtained in mediational analyses that controlled for the shared variance between the mediators and CP at T2. Overall, the findings support an intervention model of coaching parents of high-CP children to promote moral self-regulatory competencies while concurrently applying behavioral methods that directly target CP.
Crum, Kathleen I; Cornacchio, Danielle; Coxe, Stefany; Greif Green, Jennifer; Comer, Jonathan S
A large body of work documents the heavy mental health burden of youth exposure to disasters, but the majority of this research has focused on posttraumatic stress and internalizing symptoms. Less is known about associations between disaster exposure and children's conduct problems (CPs), or variables that may moderate such relationships. Given well-documented links between CPs and children's exposure to community violence, youth with greater prior community violence exposure through residence in high-crime areas may be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of disaster exposure on CPs. We surveyed Boston-area caregivers (N = 460) in the first 6 months following the 2013 Marathon bombing on their children's event-related exposures, as well as CPs. To estimate prior violent crime exposure, children's neighborhoods were assigned corresponding violent crime rates obtained from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's uniform crime reporting statistics. Almost 1 in 6 Boston-area children assessed in this convenience sample showed clinically elevated CPs in the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombing and subsequent manhunt. Prior violent crime exposure significantly moderated the link between children's manhunt exposure (but not bombing exposure) and child CPs. Manhunt exposure was related to increased CPs among children living in areas with high and medium (but not low) levels of prior violent crime. Children living in neighborhoods characterized by violent crime may be at particularly increased risk for developing CPs after violent manmade disasters. As most postdisaster child intervention efforts focus on posttraumatic stress, efforts are needed to develop programs targeting child CPs, particularly for youth dwelling in violent neighborhoods.
Saltz, Robert F; Welker, Lara R; Paschall, Mallie J; Feeney, Maggie A; Fabiano, Patricia M
This article evaluates Western Washington University's Neighborhoods Engaging with Students project-a comprehensive strategy to decrease disruptive off-campus parties by increasing student integration into and accountability to the neighborhoods in which they live. The intervention includes increasing the number of and publicity regarding "party emphasis patrols" and collaboration with the city to develop a regulatory mechanism to reduce repeat problematic party calls to the same address. The enforcement components are complemented by campus-based, late-night expansion programming, as well as neighborhood engagement strategies including an educational Web site designed to increase students' knowledge of and skills in living safely and legally in the community, service-learning projects in the campus-contiguous neighborhoods, and a neighborhood-based conflict-resolution program. The evaluation comprised data from three public universities in Washington. In addition to the Western Washington University site, a second campus created an opportunity for a "natural experiment" because it adopted a very similar intervention in the same time frame, creating two intervention sites and one comparison site. Annual, Web-based student surveys in 2005 and 2006 included measures of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and student perception of alcohol control and prevention activities. Although statistical power with three campuses was limited, results using hierarchical linear modeling showed that the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was significantly lower at the intervention schools (odds ratio = 0.73; N = 6,150 students). The results suggest that alcohol control measures can be effective in reducing problematic drinking in college settings. These findings strongly support conducting a replication with greater power and a more rigorous design.
Drugli, May Britt; Larsson, Bo
In this study, generalisation effects to day-care/school settings were examined in an outpatient clinic sample of 127 children aged 4-8 years treated because of oppositional conduct problems in the home with parent training (PT) and parent training combined with child therapy (CT) ("Incredible Years"). Before treatment all children scored above the 90th percentile on the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) for home problems, and met criteria for a possible or a confirmed diagnosis of either an oppositional defiant (ODD) or a conduct (CD) disorder. Further, 83% of the children showed clinical levels of conduct problems both at home and in day-care/school before treatment. Although most children improved at home, the majority still showed clinical levels of conduct problems in day-care/school settings after treatment and 1-year later. Combined PT and CT produced the most powerful and significant generalisation effects across the treatment period, however these improvements were not maintained 1-year later for most areas. The results of the present study, therefore, underline the need to target conduct problems not only exhibited at home but also in day-care/school settings, and to develop strategies to maintain positive generalisation effects after treatment for this age and problem-group.
Full Text Available but that it happens in certain and predictable places. The process has the ability to empower communities to act together with the police in order to prevent and reduce violent crime....
Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; King, Kevin M
Structured observations of parent-child interactions are commonly used in research and clinical settings, but require additional empirical support. The current study examined the capacity of child-directed play, parent-directed play, and parent-directed chore interaction analogs to uniquely predict the development of conduct problems across a 6-year follow-up period. Parent-child observations were collected from 338 families from high-risk neighborhoods during the summer following the child's first-grade year. Participating children were 49.2 % female, 54.4 % white, and 45.6 % black, and had an average age of 7.52 years at the first assessment. Conduct problems were assessed via parent report and teacher report at five assessment points between first grade and seventh grade. Latent growth curve modeling was used to analyze predictors of conduct problem trajectory across this 6-year follow-up period. When race, sex, socioeconomic status, and maternal depressive symptoms were controlled, parental negative attention during child-directed play predicted higher levels of parent-reported conduct problems concurrently and after a 6-year follow-up period. Parental negative attention during child-directed play also predicted higher teacher-reported conduct problems 6 years later. Findings support the use of child-directed play and parent-directed chore analogs in predicting longitudinal development of conduct problems. The presence of parental negative attention during child-directed play appears to be an especially important predictor of greater conduct problems over time and across multiple domains. Additionally, the potential importance of task-incongruent behavior is proposed for further study.
Lozier, Leah M; Cardinale, Elise M; VanMeter, John W; Marsh, Abigail A
Among youths with conduct problems, callous-unemotional (CU) traits are known to be an important determinant of symptom severity, prognosis, and treatment responsiveness. But positive correlations between conduct problems and CU traits result in suppressor effects that may mask important neurobiological distinctions among subgroups of children with conduct problems. To assess the unique neurobiological covariates of CU traits and externalizing behaviors in youths with conduct problems and determine whether neural dysfunction linked to CU traits mediates the link between callousness and proactive aggression. This cross-sectional case-control study involved behavioral testing and neuroimaging that were conducted at a university research institution. Neuroimaging was conducted using a 3-T Siemens magnetic resonance imaging scanner. It included 46 community-recruited male and female juveniles aged 10 to 17 years, including 16 healthy control participants and 30 youths with conduct problems with both low and high levels of CU traits. Blood oxygenation level-dependent signal as measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging during an implicit face-emotion processing task and analyzed using whole-brain and region of interest-based analysis of variance and multiple-regression analyses. Analysis of variance revealed no group differences in the amygdala. By contrast, consistent with the existence of suppressor effects, multiple-regression analysis found amygdala responses to fearful expressions to be negatively associated with CU traits (x = 26, y = 0, z = -12; k = 1) and positively associated with externalizing behavior (x = 24, y = 0, z = -14; k = 8) when both variables were modeled simultaneously. Reduced amygdala responses mediated the relationship between CU traits and proactive aggression. The results linked proactive aggression in youths with CU traits to hypoactive amygdala responses to emotional distress cues, consistent with theories that externalizing
Menting, Barbara; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol
Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in intervention compared to control-group children. A total…
Klein Velderman, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Juffer, F.; IJzendoorn, M.H. van; Mangelsdorf, S.C.; Zevalkink, D.J.
In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.
Klein Velderman, Mariska; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C; Zevalkink, D.J.
In the present study (1) intervention effects on children's preschool behavior problems were evaluated in a high risk sample with an overrepresentation of insecure adult attachment representations in 77 first-time mothers, and (2) predictors and correlates of child problem behavior were examined.
Rahman, Ardeshir S.; Balodis, Iris M.; Pilver, Corey E.; Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Steinberg, Marvin A.; Rugle, Loreen; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.
Background To examine in adolescents how alcohol-drinking frequency relates to gambling-related attitudes and behaviors and their perceptions of both problem-gambling prevention strategies and adult (including parental) behaviors/attitudes. Methods A survey assessing alcohol, gambling and health and functioning measures in 1609 high-school students. Students were stratified into low-frequency/non-drinking and high-frequency drinking groups, and into low-risk and at-risk/problematic gambling groups. Results High-frequency drinking was associated with at-risk/problematic gambling (χ2(1, N=1842)=49.22, pgambling (e.g., less likely to report multiple problem-gambling prevention efforts to be important). At-risk problematic gamblers exhibited more severe drinking patterns and greater likelihood of acknowledging parental approval of drinking (χ2(1, N=1842)=31.58, pProblem-gambling severity was more strongly related to gambling with adults among high-frequency-drinking adolescents (odds ratio [OR]=3.17, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]=[1.97, 5.09]) versus low-frequency/non-drinking (OR=1.86, 95%CI=[0.61, 2.68]) adolescents (Interaction OR=1.78, 95%CI=[1.05, 3.02]). Conclusions Inter-relationships between problematic drinking and gambling in youth may relate to more permissive attitudes across these domains. Stronger links between at-risk/problem gambling and gambling with adults in the high-frequency-drinking group raises the possibility that interventions targeting adults may help mitigate youth gambling and drinking. PMID:25147928
V. S. Zarubin
dependence of the absorption factor on the local intensity of this radiation. Furthermore, it can be a significant dependence of this factor on the local value of the material temperature, reflecting the above-mentioned relationship between the absorption of electromagnetic wave energy and the excitation of material microparticles. This process can be described by Boltzmann distribution function that comprises the energy to activate microparticles and the local value of temperature.This paper presents a variational formulation of the nonlinear problem of stationary heat conduction in a plate for the case when the radiation reduction factor in relation to the Bouguer law depends on the local temperature. This formulation includes a functional that can have several fixed points corresponding to different steady states of the plate temperature. Analysis of the properties of this functional enabled us to identify the stationary points, which correspond to the realized temperature distribution in the plate.
Sakai, Joseph T; Dalwani, Manish S; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Raymond, Kristen; McWilliams, Shannon; Tanabe, Jody; Rojas, Don; Regner, Michael; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J
We sought to identify brain activation differences in conduct-problem youth with limited prosocial emotions (LPE) compared to conduct-problem youth without LPE and community adolescents, and to test associations between brain activation and severity of callous-unemotional traits. We utilized a novel task, which asks subjects to repeatedly decide whether to accept offers where they will benefit but a beneficent other will be harmed. Behavior on this task has been previously associated with levels of prosocial emotions and severity of callous-unemotional traits, and is related to empathic concern. During fMRI acquisition, 66 male adolescents (21 conduct-problem patients with LPE, 21 without, and 24 typically-developing controls) played this novel game. Within typically-developing controls, we identified a network engaged during decision involving bilateral insula, and inferior parietal and medial frontal cortices, among other regions. Group comparisons using non-parametric (distribution-free) permutation tests demonstrated LPE patients had lower activation estimates than typically-developing adolescents in right anterior insula. Additional significant group differences emerged with our a priori parametric cluster-wise inference threshold. These results suggest measurable functional brain activation differences in conduct-problem adolescents with LPE compared to typically-developing adolescents. Such differences may underscore differential treatment needs for conduct-problem males with and without LPE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lahey, Benjamin B; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Van Hulle, Carol A; Rathouz, Paul J
Associations among receptive vocabulary measured at 4-9 years, mother-reported childhood conduct problems at 4-9 years, and self-reported adolescent delinquency at 14-17 years were assessed using data from a prospective study of the offspring of a large U.S. nationally representative sample of women. A novel quasi-experimental strategy was used to rule out family-level confounding by estimating path-analytic associations within families in a sibling comparison design. This allowed simultaneous tests of the direct and indirect effects of receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems, and of their joint moderation, on adolescent delinquency without family-level environmental confounding. The significant association of receptive vocabulary with later adolescent delinquency was indirect, mediated by childhood conduct problems. Furthermore, a significant interaction between receptive vocabulary and childhood conduct problems reflected a steeper slope for the predictive association between childhood conduct problems and adolescent delinquency when receptive vocabulary scores were higher. These findings of significant indirect association were qualitatively identical in both population-level and within-family analyses, suggesting that they are not the result of family-level confounds.
To promote effective aid to alcohol-dependents in a company it is essential to treat the problem "alcohol in the office, workshops and plant" not only as a problem concerning the alcohol-dependents and addicts, but as a problem that has to be jointly tackled by all the company divisions involved and by all the echelons of the firm. It has become evident that the multiplicator directly involved in helping alcohol-dependents must take into consideration the structure and group dynamics within the company before they can work efficiently. The following report deals with the difficulties within a company that are linked to this problem area. Examples serve to show how poorly efficient any aid to alcohol-dependents can be if the persons involved fail to see clearly which prerequisites and approaches are essential. Advice is given how to avoid such pitfalls and misunderstandings.
Brown, C Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J; Pantin, Hilda M; Gallo, Carlos G; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J; McManus, John W
What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted.
Brown, C. Hendricks; Kellam, Sheppard G.; Kaupert, Sheila; Muthén, Bengt O.; Wang, Wei; Muthén, Linda K.; Chamberlain, Patricia; PoVey, Craig L.; Cady, Rick; Valente, Thomas W.; Ogihara, Mitsunori; Prado, Guillermo J.; Pantin, Hilda M.; Gallo, Carlos G.; Szapocznik, José; Czaja, Sara J.; McManus, John W.
What progress prevention research has made comes through strategic partnerships with communities and institutions that host this research, as well as professional and practice networks that facilitate the diffusion of knowledge about prevention. We discuss partnership issues related to the design, analysis, and implementation of prevention research and especially how rigorous designs, including random assignment, get resolved through a partnership between community stakeholders, institutions, and researchers. These partnerships shape not only study design, but they determine the data that can be collected and how results and new methods are disseminated. We also examine a second type of partnership to improve the implementation of effective prevention programs into practice. We draw on social networks to studying partnership formation and function. The experience of the Prevention Science and Methodology Group, which itself is a networked partnership between scientists and methodologists, is highlighted. PMID:22160786
Garrett-Price, B.A.; Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.
A comprehensive overview of heat exchanger fouling in the manufacturing industries is provided. Specifically, this overview addresses: the characteristics of industrial fouling problems; the mitigation and accommodation techniques currently used by industry; and the types and magnitude of costs associated with industrial fouling. A detailed review of the fouling problems, costs and mitigation techniques is provided for the food, textile, pulp and paper, chemical, petroleum, cement, glass and primary metals industries.
Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the presence of the participants’ target infants between birth and age 26 months. Mediating pathways were examined through structural equation modeling and tested using the products of the coefficients approach. The mediated pathway from maternal history of sexual abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization was significant (standardized mediated path [ab]=.07, 95% CI [.02, .14]; effect size=.26), as was the mediated pathway from maternal history of physical abuse to substance use problems to offspring victimization (standardized mediated path [ab]=.05, 95% CI [.01, .11]; effect size =.19). There was no significant mediated pathway from maternal history of neglect. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention, including the importance of assessment and early intervention for maternal history of maltreatment and substance use problems, targeting women with maltreatment histories for substance use services, and integrating child welfare and parenting programs with substance use treatment. PMID:21240556
Pate, David J., Jr.; Knight, Susan
This document describes the Parents Too Soon (PTS) program, a project which integrated a comprehensive array of services for teenagers in an effort to help prevent premature and unwanted pregnancies. Four components of the PTS program are listed: (1) comprehensive family planning medical services including provision of contraceptives; (2) social…
Ludmer, Jaclyn A; Sanches, Marcos; Propp, Lee; Andrade, Brendan F
This study compared the multicomponent Coping Power (group) program to individualized parent-child treatment with respect to changing the parenting efficacy and satisfaction of parents of children with conduct problems. One hundred fourteen parents of 9-12-year-old children with conduct problems were randomized to Coping Power or individualized treatment at an urban children's mental health clinic. Parents reported their pre- and post-treatment parenting efficacy and parenting satisfaction (Parent Sense of Competence Scale). Mixed effect models revealed that parenting efficacy and satisfaction significantly increased from pre- to post-treatment, and there was no evidence that this effect is different between Coping Power and individualized treatment, even after controlling for initial severity of child symptomatology. Findings support the effectiveness of Coping Power as an intervention for parenting efficacy and satisfaction among parents of children aged 9-12 years with conduct problems.
Kerekes, Nóra; Lundström, Sebastian; Chang, Zheng; Tajnia, Armin; Jern, Patrick; Lichtenstein, Paul; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik
Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems-ODD/CD-like problems-and the neurodevelopmental disorders-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-and to investigate underlying genetic effects. Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism-Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting. Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains) was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%-62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%). Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls. Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.
Full Text Available Three main laws, 13th July 1982, 2nd February 1995 and 30th July 2003, have reformed the French legal framework and introduced special measures to prevent flood risks. Besides, completing these measures, the urban planning law have imposed since the 1987 Law that the urban planning documents have had to take into account the natural hazards to define the buildable areas. But, the late implementation of the prevention provisions and the lack of the urban planning documents concerning the natural hazards have led to a development of the urbanism in the flood prone areas. As consequences, most of the constructions are not flood proof, and many large damages are caused each time a flood occurs. We present this problematic through 8 municipalities in three departments (Aude, Gard, and Var.
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LACKLAND D.; GROSCHE B.; PIVINA L.; KERIMKULOVA A.; MARKABAEVA A.
In the paper we have presented the developed algorithm for prognosis, earl diagnostics, treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases in the population of East-Kazakhstan area exposed to ionizing radiation in results of nuclear tests. For every group of radiation risk we have developed the list of necessary measures aimed to prognosis, treatment, primary and secondary prophylactics and monitoring of the effectiveness of done measures.
S.V.Sidorenko. A.S. Tikhonova
Full Text Available Aim: To study the efficacy and lolerability of new benzatin-penicitlin (Extencillin, A VENTIS, France, Germany as a means of prevention of A-streptococcal tonsillites and following repeated rheumatic attacks and also the data of comparative pharmacokinetics assessment for three therapeutical forms of benzatin-penicillin (Extencillin powder for injections 2.4 tnln U.; Bicillin-5 powder for injections 1.5 mln U, SYNTHESIS. Kurgan, Russia. Results: On prescribing Extencillin in dosage of 2.4 mln U i.m. once per three weeks to 60 pts with reliable rheumatism for 3 years the stable normalization of titers of antistreptolysin-0 was noticed in 8S.2% pts, absence of hemolytic streptococci in fauces - in 86.7%. There were no repeated rheumatic attacks in any patient. In 6.67% cases side effects were noticed (eosinophilia, skin itching which were short-termed, reversible, and did not require cancellation of the drug. In comparative study off pharmacokinetics it was determined that after Extencillin administration in dosage of 2.4 mln U. concentration of benzyl-penicillin was enough for inhibition of 13-hemolytic A-streptococci (> 0.025 mkg/ml was preserved for 3-weeks term in 83.3% of cases. After injection of Extencillin 1.2 mln U of Bicillin-5 1.5 mln U this level of benzyl-penicillin was noticed on 21 day’ in 30 and 0% cases cotrespondingly Conclusion: High and prolonged antistreptococcal activity> and good tolerability of Extencillin 2.4 mln U. allow us to recommend it as an effective remedy for secondary prevention of rheumatism. Due to discrepancy to pharmacokinetic requirements to preventive drugs, medical forms of benzatin-penicillin such as Extencillin 1. 2 mln U and Bicillin-5 1.5 mln U. are not acceptable for adequate rheumatism prevention in adult patients.
Kuchma, V R; Sokolova, S B; Rapoport, I K; Makarova, A Yu
Prevention measures are relevant for children and adolescents as among them there is the high prevalence of leading risk factors for chronic diseases. For the improvement of the preventive work it is necessary the introduction of amendments into the legislative documents and orders of the Ministry of Health, governing health care for children and adolescents in educational organizations. The consistent methodology for primary health care must be provided with the appropriate protocols. It is necessary to perform the systematic work on the reduction of the prevalence of risk factors for children's health and a healthy lifestyle. The number of doctors and nurses in the preschool and educational institutions is insufficient, and in organizations of primary and secondary vocational education is disastrous. Medical personnel departments of medical assistance to students due to the excessive load is not capable to fufill all of their functional responsibilities. Due to the low wages there is a constant reduction of health workers in schools and kindergartens. In the paper there are proposed measures aimed at improving the quality of preventive work in educational organizations.
Emery, C.A.; Roos, E.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Finch, C.F.; Bennell, K.L.; Story, B.; Spindler, K.; Kemp, J.; Lohmander, L.S.
The risk of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) substantially increases following joint injury. Research efforts should focus on investigating the efficacy of preventative strategies in high quality randomized controlled trials (RCT). The objective of these OARSI RCT recommendations is to inform
Vetrov, Iu. P.
One of the most urgent problems of Russian society today remains children's homelessness and neglect. This social phenomenon, which has come about due to a number of factors, is characterized by the following indicators: (1) More than 100,000 children have been left without parental care; and (2) The number of parents who have been stripped of…
Avci, Ozgur; Fendrich, Michael
Objective: Researchers who study the etiology of college drinking typically employ measures of alcohol-use behaviors as outcomes; however, relatively little is known about the properties of alcohol-related problems (AP). This study aims to develop a single continuous measure of AP. Participants: The sample included 531 undergraduate college…
Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Sanders, Matthew R.
Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend…
Psychosocial problems (e.g. aggressive behaviour, fear, anxiety) frequently occur in children and may lead to serious restrictions in daily functioning currently and in later life, and are the major cause of long-term work disability in young adults. Ineffective and inconsistent parenting styles may
Gostev, A. N.; Demchenko, T. S.; Borisova, E. A.
On the basis of an analysis of the literature, social practice, and the results of a concrete sociological survey, the article examines the main problems of education in Russia today, the ways they are conditioned by corruption, and possible solutions. [This article was translated by Kim Braithwaite.
... Brain Listen Up! Wise Choices Avoid Voice Problems Drink 6 to 8 glasses of water a day. This helps keep your vocal folds moist and healthy. Limit intake of caffeinated or alcoholic drinks. These can dehydrate your body and make the ...
M F Tunde-Ayinmode
Full Text Available The correlation between psychosocially unhealthy parenting styles and child psychopathology has been established. This case report describes how chronic harsh and overbearing paternal parenting style tipped a young boy into deliberate self poisoning with the aid of organo-phosphorous chemicals (rat poison. This report is purposed to increase the interest of physicians and psychiatrists in parenting style research and in how potentially its modification could be a therapeutic and preventive tool.
Edméa Rita Temporini
Full Text Available Apresenta-se abordagem preventiva de problemas visuais de escolares, considerando os níveis de prevenção em Saúde Pública (Leavell e Clark. É destacada a importância da atuação em educação para a saúde na escola, dirigida à promoção da saúde ocular e à prevenção de distúrbios oftalmológicos, buscando a adoção de condutas acertadas do indivíduo, em termos pessoais e coletivos. A linha geral da programação é descrita sucintamente, concluindo pela necessidade da manutenção dos seus propósitos e bom nível, embora já implantada como rotina de serviço.The preventive approach to schoolchildren's visual problems is presented, taking into consideration the levels of Public Health prevention (Leavell & Clark. The importance of health education in schools with regard to the promotion of eye health and the prevention of ophthalmological problems is indicated in the attempt at the adoption of appropriate individual behavior both on the personal and the collective level. The general outline of the program is briefly described with a concluding appeal for the maintance of its objectives and continued effective functioning, though already established as a routine service.
Sheridan, Kathryn; Haight, Wendy L; Cleeland, Leah
Preventive interventions are urgently needed for children from rural, methamphetamine-involved families, who are at risk for the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavioral problems. This mixed method study explored naturally occurring sources of protection and considers the implications for targeted interventions. Participants were 41 children aged six to 14 years from rural families involved with methamphetamine and the public child welfare system, their primary caregivers, and 19 parents recovering from methamphetamine addiction. When invited during semi-structured interviews to talk about their families, 48% of children spontaneously described socially and emotionally supportive relationships with healthy grandparents. Children's reports of support from grandparents were associated with lower scores on CBCL Social Problems, [t(37)= 2.23, pgrandparents, and 26% also described the support that they had received from their own grandparents. Children's and parents' descriptions of grandparent support suggest how grandparents may protect children from the development of aggressive and other externalizing behavior problems. First, grandparents may prevent obstacles to healthy development by providing their grandchildren with safe shelter and basic child care when parents are incapacitated from substance misuse. Second, they may promote their grandchildren's positive social-emotional development through supportive relationships. Third, they may promote social competence through enjoyable leisure activities with healthy adults and non-delinquent peers. Understanding naturally occurring sources of protection for children can inform the development of interventions by identifying strengths on which to build, and suggesting culturally sensitive approaches when children are struggling.
Marc H. V. Van Regenmortel
Full Text Available Hypotheses and theories are essential constituents of the scientific method. Many vaccinologists are unaware that the problems they try to solve are mostly inverse problems that consist in imagining what could bring about a desired outcome. An inverse problem starts with the result and tries to guess what are the multiple causes that could have produced it. Compared to the usual direct scientific problems that start with the causes and derive or calculate the results using deductive reasoning and known mechanisms, solving an inverse problem uses a less reliable inductive approach and requires the development of a theoretical model that may have different solutions or none at all. Unsuccessful attempts to solve inverse problems in HIV vaccinology by reductionist methods, systems biology and structure-based reverse vaccinology are described. The popular strategy known as rational vaccine design is unable to solve the multiple inverse problems faced by HIV vaccine developers. The term “rational” is derived from “rational drug design” which uses the 3D structure of a biological target for designing molecules that will selectively bind to it and inhibit its biological activity. In vaccine design, however, the word “rational” simply means that the investigator is concentrating on parts of the system for which molecular information is available. The economist and Nobel laureate Herbert Simon introduced the concept of “bounded rationality” to explain why the complexity of the world economic system makes it impossible, for instance, to predict an event like the financial crash of 2007–2008. Humans always operate under unavoidable constraints such as insufficient information, a limited capacity to process huge amounts of data and a limited amount of time available to reach a decision. Such limitations always prevent us from achieving the complete understanding and optimization of a complex system that would be needed to achieve a truly
M. Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani
, the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...
Full Text Available This article discusses the flu, as one of the most common infectious diseases affecting humanity throughout its history. The data on the structure of A influenza virus and its variability is given historical background for most famous of the pandemics, which inflicted irreparable damage to the population of the Earth, are shown the basic stages of the study for influenza virus. Are considered the types of variability of the A virus influenza, its ability to overcome interspecies barriers that form the basis of pathogen escape from the immune response. The article shows the promising areas of modern prevention and treatment of this disease
Alexandr A. Baranov
Full Text Available These clinical guidelines were developed by the professional association of pediatric specialists «Union of Pediatricians of Russia» and approved by the Association’s Executive Committee at the Congress of Pediatricians of Russia «Actual Problems of Pediatrics». Clinical guidelines are devoted to the problem of rotavirus infection, the relevance of which is determined by the high prevalence level and significant contribution of infectious diarrhea to the mortality pattern of children in the first 5 years of life. We present epidemiological data and detailed information on the infectious agent and pathogenesis of rotavirus infection progression. A detailed picture of clinical manifestations as well as extraintestinal complications is presented. The approach to specific prophylaxis has been reasoned. Practical recommendations for immunization as well as various regimens for administering the vaccine, depending on the age and condition of the patient, are given.
de Castro, T.M.
This document contains the text of a presentation on safety problems associated with the use of analytical x-ray equipment. General comments on the positive and negative aspects of both administrative and hardware controls preceded a more detailed discussion of specific examples in each area. Also included were comments on machine safety by the manufacturer and suggestions for further reading on the safe use of x-ray diffraction and spectrometry equipment
Donohue, Brad; Teichner, Gordon; Azrin, Nathan; Weintraub, Noah; Crum, Thomas A.; Murphy, Leah; Silver, N. Clayton
Responses to Life Satisfaction Scale for Problem Youth (LSSPY) items were examined in a sample of 193 substance abusing and conduct disordered adolescents. In responding to the LSSPY, youth endorse their percentage of happiness (0 to 100%) in twelve domains (i.e., friendships, family, school, employment/work, fun activities, appearance, sex…
Pasalich, Dave S; Dadds, Mark R; Hawes, David J
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) symptoms are characterized by problems in empathy; however, these behavioral features are rarely examined together in children with conduct problems. This study investigated additive and interactive effects of CU traits and ASD symptoms in relation to cognitive and affective empathy in a non-ASD clinic-referred sample. Participants were 134 children aged 3 to 9 years (M=5.60; 79% boys) with oppositional defiant/conduct disorder, and their parents. Clinicians, teachers, and parents reported on dimensions of child behavior, and parental reports of family dysfunction and direct observations of parental warmth/responsiveness assessed quality of family relationships. Results from multiple regression analysis showed that, over and above the effects of child conduct problem severity and quality of family relationships, both ASD symptoms and CU traits were uniquely associated with deficits in cognitive empathy. Moreover, CU traits demonstrated an independent association with affective empathy, and this relationship was moderated by ASD symptoms. That is, there was a stronger negative association between CU traits and affective empathy at higher versus lower levels of ASD symptoms. These findings suggest including both CU traits and ASD-related social impairments in models delineating the atypical development of empathy in children with conduct problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
J. Rijlaarsdam (Jolien); C.A.M. Cecil (Charlotte A.M.); E. Walton (Esther); Mesirow, M.S.C. (Maurissa S. C.); C.L. Relton (Caroline); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); Barker, E.D. (Edward D.)
textabstractBackground: Conduct problems (CP) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often comorbid and have each been linked to 'unhealthy diet'. Early-life diet also associates with DNA methylation of the insulin-like growth factor 2 gene (IGF2), involved in fetal and neural
Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah
This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers'…
O'Nions, Elizabeth; Sebastian, Catherine L.; McCrory, Eamon; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Happé, Francesca; Viding, Essi
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty understanding other minds (Theory of Mind; ToM), with atypical processing evident at both behavioural and neural levels. Individuals with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (CP/HCU) exhibit reduced responsiveness to others' emotions and difficulties…
Weis, Robert; Crockett, Thomas E.; Vieth, Sasha
Military-style residential treatment for adolescents with academic and conduct problems is an increasingly popular alternative to traditional school-based services. However, dropout from "boot camp" programs is a primary reason for their high cost. Social-emotional functioning before referral may differentiate adolescents who…
Pierce, John P; James, Lisa E; Messer, Karen; Myers, Mark G; Williams, Rebecca E; Trinidad, Dennis R
There is considerable suggestive evidence that parents can protect their adolescents from developing problem behaviors if they implement recommended best parenting practices. These include providing appropriate limits on adolescent free time, maintaining a close personal relationship with the adolescent, and negotiating and providing incentives for positive behavior patterns. However, retention of the study samples has limited conclusions that can be drawn from published studies. This randomized controlled trial recruited and randomized a national population sample of 1036 families to an intensive parenting intervention using telephone counseling or to a no-contact control group. At enrollment, eligible families had an eldest child between the ages of 10-13 years. The intervention included an initial training program using a self-help manual with telephone counselor support. Implementation of best parenting practices was encouraged using quarterly telephone contacts and a family management check-up questionnaire. A computer-assisted structured counseling protocol was used to aid parents who needed additional assistance to implement best practices. This, along with a centralized service, enabled implementation of quality control procedures. Assessment of problem behavior is undertaken with repeated telephone interviews of the target adolescents. The study is powered to test whether the intervention encouraging parents to maintain best parenting practices is associated with a reduction of 25% in the incidence of problem behaviors prior to age 18 years and will be tested through a maximum likelihood framework.
José Luis GALLEGO ORTEGA
Full Text Available Language is an essential tool for personal and social development of children and it is perceived as the most important learning that children undertake in the early years of their lives. It is generally accepted that from birth to the age of three-four years old, children achieve a basic repertory of skills in different linguistic dimensions which allow them to communicate effectively with their environment. However, research has shown that phonemic disorders, morphosyntactic dysfunctions and semantic poverty figure prominently in the overall oral language disorders in infancy. In this respect, the review of literature informs us of the abundance of work aimed at rehabiliting the conditions already set in childlike expression, but there are significant gaps in regard to systematic prevention programs to prevent such evolutionary disorders which can become operational because of an early intervention in the field of communication. According to the above, it was developed a research project designed to establish the differential impact of a program to develop language skills in preschoolers. We worked with a sample of 32 children (5 years old in a pretest-posttest design. The data analysis shows that the magnitude of change is significant when comparing the results obtained by the experimental and the control group before and after program implementation. The overall effect of the program allowed to determine its effectiveness to increase language skills in the morph syntactic level.
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Full Text Available Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems–ODD/CD-like problems–and the neurodevelopmental disorders–attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (ASD–and to investigate underlying genetic effects.Methods. 17,220 twins aged 9 or 12 were screened using the Autism–Tics, AD/HD and other Comorbidities inventory. The main covariates of ODD- and CD-like problems were investigated, and the relative importance of unique versus shared hereditary and environmental effects was estimated using twin model fitting.Results. Social interaction problems (one of the ASD subdomains was the strongest neurodevelopmental covariate of the behavioural problems in both genders, while ADHD-related hyperactivity/impulsiveness in boys and inattention in girls stood out as important covariates of CD-like problems. Genetic effects accounted for 50%–62% of the variance in behavioural problems, except in CD-like problems in girls (26%. Genetic and environmental effects linked to ADHD and ASD also influenced ODD-like problems in both genders and, to a lesser extent, CD-like problems in boys, but not in girls.Conclusions. The gender-specific patterns should be considered in the assessment and treatment, especially of CD.
Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Batty, G. David
Context Lower IQ individuals have an increased risk of psychological disorders, mental health problems, and suicide; similarly, children with low IQ scores are more likely to have behavioural, emotional and anxiety disorders. However, very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the mental health outcomes of their children. Objective To determine whether maternal and paternal IQ score is associated with offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores. Design Cohort. Setting General population. Participants Members of 1958 National Child Development Study and their offspring. Of 2,984 parent-offspring pairs, with non-adopted children aged 4+ years, 2,202 pairs had complete data on all variables of interest and were included in the analyses. Outcome measure Offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores based on Behavioural Problems Index for children aged 4-6 years or the Rutter A scale for children aged 7 and over. Results There was little evidence of any association of parental IQ with conduct or emotional problems in younger (aged 4-6) children. However, among children aged 7+, there was strong evidence from age- and sex-adjusted models to support a decrease in conduct, emotional and attention problems in those whose parents had higher IQ scores. These associations were linear across the full IQ range. Individual adjustments for socioeconomic status and child’s own IQ had limited impact while adjustments for Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores and parental malaise attenuated associations with mother’s IQ but, again, had little impact on associations with father’s IQ. Strong associations were no longer evident in models that simultaneously adjusted for all four potential mediating variables. Conclusions Children whose parents score poorly on IQ tests may have an increased risk of conduct, emotional and attention problems. Home environment, parental malaise, and child’s own IQ may have a role in explaining these
Rutherford, Merrin E; Hill, Philip C; Triasih, Rina; Sinfield, Rebecca; van Crevel, Reinout; Graham, Stephen M
Young children living with a tuberculosis patient are at high risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and disease. WHO guidelines promote active screening and isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy (PT) for such children under 5 years, yet this well-established intervention is seldom used in endemic countries. We review the literature regarding barriers to implementation of PT and find that they are multifactorial, including difficulties in screening, poor adherence, fear of increasing INH resistance and poor acceptability among primary caregivers and healthcare workers. These barriers are largely resolvable, and proposed solutions such as the adoption of symptom-based screening and shorter drug regimens are discussed. Integrated multicomponent and site-specific solutions need to be developed and evaluated within a public health framework to overcome the policy-practice gap and provide functional PT programmes for children in endemic settings. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.
Jain, Rahul; Sain, Manoj Kumar; Meena, Makkhan Lal; Dangayach, Govind Sharan; Bhardwaj, Awadhesh Kumar
In lower-middle-income countries, most of the work is performed manually using non-ergonomic hand tools which results in work-related health problems. Using hand tools designed in line with ergonomic principles may play an important role in reducing work-related health concerns significantly. Scientific databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost) and e-publishers were searched for articles from 1985 to 2015 using the following keywords: 'hand tool', 'ergonomics', 'usability' and 'design'. After applying selection criteria to 614 articles, 58 articles related to the physical design of hand tools were selected. Seventeen articles were related to hand tool improvement in the manufacturing sector. Musculoskeletal disorders were found to be the most frequently occurring work-related health problems. Most of the articles focused on product and qualitative variables for improvement in hand tools, while few articles considered human and task variables. Literature shows that hand tool improvement studies have been given less importance in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. However, some work of significance is reported in the agriculture sectors of these countries. Hence, it is concluded that ergonomic intervention in hand tools is much needed for those industries which employ traditional methods of working.
Full Text Available At the present stage of social development takes on special urgency the problem of finding new means and methods of crime prevention among youth in the context of strengthening the nation's health. In our opinion, employees of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry must take a decisive role in solving these problems. One of the most effective ways to solve them is to organize youth sports schools and clubs to professionally-applied sports at the bases of relevant departments of higher educational institutions of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the involvement of the best specialists and trainers.
Liddle, Jeannine L M; Lovarini, Meryl; Clemson, Lindy M; Jang, Haeyoung; Willis, Karen; Lord, Stephen R; Sherrington, Catherine
Research on older men's views regarding fall prevention is limited. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and perspectives of older men regarding fall risk and prevention so that fall prevention programmes can better engage older men. Eleven men who had taken part in a group-based fall prevention programme called Stepping On conducted at Men's Sheds in Sydney, Australia, participated in semi-structured interviews during June and July 2015 which were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were coded and analysed using constant comparative methods. Over-arching theoretical categories were developed into a conceptual framework linking programme context and content with effects of programme participation on men. Men's Sheds facilitated participation in the programme by being inclusive, male-friendly places, where Stepping On was programmed into regular activities and was conducted in an enjoyable, supportive atmosphere. Programme content challenged participants to think differently about themselves and their personal fall risk, and provided practical options to address fall risk. Two major themes were identified: adjusting the mindset where men adopted a more cautious mindset paying greater attention to potential fall risks, being careful, concentrating and slowing down; and changing the ways where men acted purposefully on environmental hazards at home and incorporated fall prevention exercises into their routine schedules. Practitioners can engage and support older men to address falls by better understanding men's perspectives on personal fall risk and motivations for action. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A. E. Khramov
Full Text Available One of the most menacing complications of large joint total endoprosthesis (TE in patients with rheumatic diseases (RD is the development of periprosthetic infection (PI, progression of which may give rise not only to limb loss, but also death. At the same time, early diagnosis and adequate surgical care make it possible not only to arrest the infectious process, but also to preserve an implanted joint.Objective: to define criteria for the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of PI after hip and knee joint (HJ and KJ TE in patients with RD.Subjects and methods. In 2009 to 2013, 654 KJ and 549 HJ TE was performed in the V.A. Nasonova Research Instituteof Rheumatology performed KJ (n = 654 and HJ (n = 549 joint ERs.Results and discussion. PI developed in 12 (3.63% and 8 (2.95% patients after KJ and HJ ER, respectively. Early, delayed, and late PI was seen in 11, 6, and 3 patients, respectively. Eleven patients with early PI underwent joint revision/ debridement with preservation of an endoprosthesis and replacement of HJ endoprosthetic inserts and heads. The operations were completed with the collagen hemobiotics being left in the wound and its drainage. Systemic antibiotic therapy was used for 4–6 weeks. No recurrent infection was observed in 9 cases. Two patients underwentresurgery, by setting suction-irrigation systems. Nine patients with delayed or late PI had the following operations: A single-stage revision operation (the endoprosthesis was removed and a new one was implanted was performed in two cases of stable endoprosthetic components and accurately verified low-virulent microorganisms susceptible to certain antibiotics. It was imperative to use cement with an antibiotic, collagen hemobiotics, and systemic antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks. The other 7 patients with unstable endoprosthetic components underwent two-stage revision: Stage 1, endoprosthetic removal and antibiotic-loaded spacer implantation; 6-12 weeks after
Full Text Available Opioids are indispensable for pain treatment but may cause serious nausea and vomiting. The mechanism leading to these complications is not clear. We investigated whether an opioid effect on the vestibular system resulting in corrupt head motion sensation is causative and, consequently, whether head-rest prevents nausea.Thirty-six healthy men (26.6 ± 4.3 years received an opioid remifentanil infusion (45 min, 0.15 μg/kg/min. Outcome measures were the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain determined by video-head-impulse-testing, and nausea. The first experiment (n = 10 assessed outcome measures at rest and after a series of five 1-Hz forward and backward head-trunk movements during one-time remifentanil administration. The second experiment (n = 10 determined outcome measures on two days in a controlled crossover design: (1 without movement and (2 with a series of five 1-Hz forward and backward head-trunk bends 30 min after remifentanil start. Nausea was psychophysically quantified (scale from 0 to 10. The third controlled crossover experiment (n = 16 assessed nausea (1 without movement and (2 with head movement; isolated head movements consisting of the three axes of rotation (pitch, roll, yaw were imposed 20 times at a frequency of 1 Hz in a random, unpredictable order of each of the three axes. All movements were applied manually, passively with amplitudes of about ± 45 degrees.The VOR gain decreased during remifentanil administration (p<0.001, averaging 0.92 ± 0.05 (mean ± standard deviation before, 0.60 ± 0.12 with, and 0.91 ± 0.05 after infusion. The average half-life of VOR recovery was 5.3 ± 2.4 min. 32/36 subjects had no nausea at rest (nausea scale 0.00/0.00 median/interquartile range. Head-trunk and isolated head movement triggered nausea in 64% (p<0.01 with no difference between head-trunk and isolated head movements (nausea scale 4.00/7.25 and 1.00/4.5, respectively.Remifentanil reversibly decreases VOR gain at a half
Leadbeater, Bonnie J; Thompson, Kara; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena
Testing the theories that form the basis of prevention programs can enhance our understanding of behavioral change and inform the development, coordination, and adaptation of prevention programs. However, theories of change showing the linkages from intervention program components to risk or protective factors to desired outcomes across time are rarely specified or tested. In this 2-year longitudinal study, we test the theory that increases in two protective factors (i.e., children's prosocial leadership and their teachers' expectations of social responsibility) targeted by the WITS Programs (Walk Away, Ignore, Talk it Out, and Seek Help) would be associated with declines in peer victimization, aggression, and emotional problems. Participants included Canadian students, in grades 1-4 at baseline (n = 1329) and their parents and teachers. Consistent with our theory of change, variability in program implementation (adherence and integration) and in children's use of program skills (child responsiveness) are related to increases in both protective factors. Increases in these protective factors are associated with subsequent declines in children's aggression, victimization, and emotional problems. We discuss how enhancement of these protective factors may operate to improve child outcomes and the need for theory-based research to refine and improve the effectiveness of intervention strategies and to improve program scale-up. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra
As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if in...
S. K. Roy-Choudhuri
Full Text Available In the present paper we consider the magneto-thermo-elastic wave produced by a thermal shock in a perfectly conducting elastic half-space. Here the Lord-Shulman theory of thermoelasticity  is used to account for the interaction between the elastic and thermal fields. The solution obtained in analytical form reduces to those of Kaliski and Nowacki  when the coupling between the temperature and strain fields and the relaxation time are neglected. The results also agree with those of Massalas and DaLamangas  in absence of the thermal relaxation time.
Ju. P. Skirdenko
Full Text Available Modern approaches to antiarrhythmic anti-relapse therapy of atrial fibrillation are considered. Advantages and disadvantages of the main therapeutic strategies are discussed from the standpoint of evidence-based medicine. The value of strategies of rhythm control, heart rate control and «upstream therapy» in the management of patients with atrial fibrillation is specified. Results of clinical studies on the efficacy and safety of anti-arrhythmic drugs, the search for such new drugs are presented. The authors state, that possibilities of modern drug therapy are limited, development and efficiency of other methods of anti-relapse therapy are low, new groups of drugs are not effective enough or are far from clinical applications. At that the adherence to treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation is unstudied, and its influence on the treatment outcomes, prevention of complications and long-term prognosis are ignored. Authors concluded that in conditions of limited capacity for drug therapy, evaluation of the effect of adherence to treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation, and elaboration on this basis the principles and tools of therapy, taking into account social and personal characteristics, are the most perspective directions of modern arrhythmology.
The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 2: antipsychotics and traditional mood stabilizers.
Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses in childhood. Aggression and conduct problems are a major source of disability and a risk factor for poor long-term outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antipsychotics, lithium, and anticonvulsants for aggression and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. Each medication was given an overall quality of evidence rating based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Eleven RCTs of antipsychotics and 7 RCTs of lithium and anticonvulsants were included. There is moderate-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate-to-large effect on conduct problems and aggression in youth with subaverage IQ and ODD, CD, or disruptive behaviour disorder not otherwise specified, with and without ADHD, and high-quality evidence that risperidone has a moderate effect on disruptive and aggressive behaviour in youth with average IQ and ODD or CD, with and without ADHD. Evidence supporting the use of haloperidol, thioridazine, quetiapine, and lithium in aggressive youth with CD is of low or very-low quality, and evidence supporting the use of divalproex in aggressive youth with ODD or CD is of low quality. There is very-low-quality evidence that carbamazepine is no different from placebo for the management of aggression in youth with CD. With the exception of risperidone, the evidence to support the use of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers is of low quality.
Amy J. Morgan
Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are common, debilitating, and begin early in life. Early intervention to prevent anxiety disorders in children who are at risk could have long-term impact. The ‘Cool Little Kids’ parenting group program has previously been shown to be efficacious in preventing anxiety disorders in temperamentally inhibited young children. Wider dissemination of the program could be achieved with an internet-based delivery platform, affording greater accessibility and convenience for parents. The aim of this study was to evaluate ‘Cool Little Kids Online’, a newly developed online version of the existing parenting group program. Fifty-one parents of children aged 3–6 years were recruited to evaluate the online program's acceptability and preliminary efficacy in reducing inhibited young children's anxiety problems. Parents were randomized to receive either a clinician-supported version or an unsupported version of the program. Parents had 10 weeks to access the program and completed questionnaires at baseline and post-intervention. Both groups showed medium-to-large reductions in children's anxiety symptoms, emotional symptoms, number of child anxiety diagnoses, and improvements in life interference from anxiety. The effect of clinician support was inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Parents reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. These encouraging results indicate that the online version is acceptable and useful for parents with temperamentally inhibited young children. Cool Little Kids Online may be a promising direction for improving access to an evidence-based prevention and early intervention program for child anxiety problems. A large randomized trial is warranted to further evaluate efficacy.
Gao, Yu; Huang, Yonglin; Li, Xiaobo
Evidence has suggested that neurobiological deficits combine with psychosocial risk factors to impact on the development of antisocial behavior. The current study concentrated on the interplay of prenatal maternal stress and autonomic arousal in predicting antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. Prenatal maternal stress was assessed by caregiver's retrospective report, and resting heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were measured in 295 8- to 10-year-old children. Child and caregiver also reported on child's antisocial behavior and psychopathic traits. Higher prenatal maternal stress was associated with higher caregiver-reported antisocial and psychopathy scores, even after the concurrent measure of social adversity was controlled for. As expected, low heart rate and high RSA were associated with high antisocial and psychopathic traits. More importantly, significant interaction effects were found; prenatal stress was positively associated with multiple dimensions of psychopathic traits only on the conditions of low arousal (e.g., low heart rate or high RSA). Findings provide further support for a biosocial perspective of antisocial and psychopathic traits, and illustrate the importance of integrating biological with psychosocial measures to fully understand the etiology of behavioral problems.
Eskenazi, Brenda; Gladstone, Eleanor A.; Berkowitz, Gertrud S.; Drew, Christina H.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Holland, Nina T.; Lanphear, Bruce; Meisel, Stefanie J.; Perera, Frederica P.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Sweeney, Anne; Whyatt, Robin M.; Yolton, Kimberly
In anticipation of the National Children's Study, lessons can be learned from the smaller birth cohort studies conducted by five Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The populations studied are diverse in ethnicity and social class and reside in urban and rural environments. Although almost all of the centers chose to enroll participants throug...
Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.
Group therapy is the most popular approach in the treatment of adolescent substance use problems. Recently, concerns have mounted about possible iatrogenic effects of group therapy based on studies on adolescents with conduct disorder. This paper reviews three possible contributors to response to group treatment among adolescents, and proposes a model of the relations among these variables, specifically in regard to how they independently and interactively contribute to outcomes among youth w...
Högström, Jens; Enebrink, Pia; Melin, Bo; Ghaderi, Ata
The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if previously reported treatment gains of a parent management training (PMT) program, administered via Internet, were retained from post to the 18-month follow-up. Another aim was to evaluate homework compliance as a predictor of short and long-term outcomes. Participants were parents of 58 children (3-11 years) with conduct problems who received a 10-week self-directed PMT program, with limited therapist support. Parents of 32 children (55.2 %) responded at all measurement point (baseline, post-test and follow-up) and analyses showed that child conduct problems continued to decrease during the 18-month period after the intervention whereas parenting skills deteriorated somewhat from post treatment. Pre- to post-treatment change in child conduct problems was predicted by parental engagement in homework assignments intended to reduce negative child behaviors. The findings provide support for the use of Internet-based PMT and stress the importance of parental compliance to homework training.
Mise, Takaya; Ishikawa, Makishi; Nishimoto, Kensaku; Meguro, Takashi
Dynamic secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis of soft materials such as polymer or biomaterial is one of challenging subjects due to the charge up effect brought from the irradiation of a primary ion beam, hampering the collection of secondary ions. Conventional methods against the charging up are the electron beam irradiation for charge compensation and surface coating with metal, normally gold. Those methods require a compromise analytical condition, reducing the primary ion beam current to suppress the range of the charging, which degrading the performances of the SIMS analyses. We have proposed that a thicker conductive layer, capable of delocalizing the charge onto the surface, should be put on a soft insulator sample to avoid charging up. The depth profile of the hair sample coated wholly with a polythiophen-based conducting polymer was successfully measured in longer time without any charging up even in the maximum current of the oxygen primary ion beam (O 2 + : 7.5 keV, 400 nA) or using an electron beam compensation system. Thus, the proposed method coating with a conductive organic polymer against the charging issue would be expected as a breakthrough on SIMS analysis.
The promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies are becoming an increasingly hot topic among healthcare workers and the general public. There are many studies in the literature claiming that drug promotion may lead to ethical problems, irrational use of medication, and increased costs, as well as negative effects on the patient-physician relationship and the medical profession. When considering that healthcare workers generally acquire their knowledge from the pharmaceutical industry, the problems mentioned, which are indeed of paramount importance, and the need for effective and sustainable interventions are clearly revealed. Many kinds of interventions have been recommended by various authorities and studies in order to prevent the kinds of problems mentioned above, including training healthcare workers, publishing professional codes to serve as guidelines about which professional values should be protected and how to cope with different situations in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry, or applying the business ethics codes of the pharmaceutical companies. Studies that assessed the effectiveness of different interventions, however, revealed that educating healthcare workers about marketing methods and state regulations are the only effective interventions. In this article, after defining the problem, a proposed national network for drug information is to decrease the negative effects of drug promotion and to promote the rational choice of medicines is described. According to the World Health Organization, rational use of medicine is the most effective, safe, applicable/suitable, and, lastly, the most cost effective option. A national network that will gather drug information by compiling evidence-based knowledge and taking rational use of medicine measures into account should be established. It should transmit information to all healthcare workers in a fast, equal, up to date, easily accessible, and free way. The network should also support
Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred
Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…
Aline Maira da Silva
the effects of a preventive intervention program, based on the principles of the Collaborative Consultation in Schools and the Positive Behavior Support models, designed to prevent and minimize behavior problems. The study was conducted in three 1st grade classrooms in a public elementary school located in the state of São Paulo, involving participation of three teachers of these classrooms and their fifty-five pupils. The study was carried out in four phases. In Phase 1, the ethical procedures were carried out. In Phase 2, teachers were requested to complete the Child and Youth Behavior Inventory (6-18 years/Teacher Report Form (TRF. In Phase 3, the preventive intervention program was implemented, targeting and focusing on teachers and pupils. Finally, in Phase 4, the TRF instrument was repeated. In order to assess the impact of the intervention, the MANOVA test was applied to the results. Regarding student behavior, there was a statistically significant decrease in internalizing, externalizing problems, and in total problems. Besides indicating that the implementation of the Collaborative Consultation in Schools and the Positive Behavior Support models can be effective, this result points to the fact that these models can be used by educational psychologists in preventive interventions that target preventing and minimizing behavior problems in school.
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Maffli, Etienne; Kuntsche, Sandra; Delgrande Jordan, Marina
The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history, the current status and the future of substance use research at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Although founded originally by the temperance movement in 1901, its policy has shifted over time towards one which accepts an alcohol-consuming culture made up of self-determined but well-informed consumers, while still supporting those who choose to live an abstinent life. In the beginning, SIPA was involved primarily in collecting alcohol-related information and making it available to professionals and the general public. From the late 1960s SIPA began conducting its own research projects; by the mid-1970s it had set up its own in-house research department. In 2001, SIPA was appointed a World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Substance Abuse, Research, Prevention and Documentation. As a private non-governmental organization, most of its funding comes from external research commissions. SIPA participates in a variety of international projects [e.g. Gender Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GenACIS), European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs (ESPAD) and Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)] and contributes to numerous national research projects dealing with substance use. It has also forged close links with more than 50 other research institutions in Switzerland and world-wide. Thanks to its work over the last 30 years, SIPA has become a chief port of call for alcohol use research in Switzerland. In the future, SIPA will continue to monitor substance use, while stepping up its prevention research activities and ensuring that it is able to react more promptly to emerging phenomena.
Morgan, Amy J; Rapee, Ronald M; Salim, Agus; Goharpey, Nahal; Tamir, Elli; McLellan, Lauren F; Bayer, Jordana K
The Cool Little Kids parenting group program is an effective intervention for preventing anxiety disorders in young children who are at risk because of inhibited temperament. The program has six group sessions delivered by trained psychologists to parents of 3- to 6-year-old children. An online adaptation (Cool Little Kids Online) has been developed to overcome barriers to its wide dissemination in the community. This study tested the efficacy of Cool Little Kids Online in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 433 parents of a child aged 3 to 6 years with an inhibited temperament were randomized to the online parenting program or to a 24-week waitlist. The online program has 8 interactive modules providing strategies that parents can implement with their child to manage their child's avoidant coping, reduce parental overprotection, and encourage child independence. Parents were provided telephone consultation support with a psychologist when requested. Parents completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks after baseline. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvement over time in child anxiety symptoms compared to the control group (d = 0.38). The intervention group also showed greater reductions in anxiety life interference (ds = 0.33-0.35) and lower rates of anxiety disorders than the control group (40% versus 54%), but there were minimal effects on broader internalizing symptoms or overprotective parenting. Results provide empirical support for the efficacy of online delivery of the Cool Little Kids program. Online dissemination may improve access to an evidence-based prevention program for child anxiety disorders. Clinical trial registration information-Randomised Controlled Trial of Cool Little Kids Online: A Parenting Program to Prevent Anxiety Problems in Young Children; http://www.anzctr.org.au/; 12615000217505. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc
Full Text Available In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14–19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12–14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.
Hohman-Billmeier, Kathryn; Nye, Margaret; Martin, Stephanie
In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b) difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c) the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.
Lovato, V; Roesli, C; Ahlskog, J; Scheuermann, J; Neri, D
The homozygous deletion of the phenylalanine at position 508 (DeltaPhe508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the most common CF-causing genetic defect. It has been proposed that the propensity of NBD1 to aggregate may lead to a lower display of the CFTR chloride channel to the cell membrane and to the disease, thus opening an avenue for the pharmacological development of CFTR folding correctors. Here, we show that a human monoclonal antibody fragment specific to the folded conformation of NBD1 inhibits the aggregation of NBD1 in vitro. However, in contrast to the previously published observations, we proved experimentally that NBD1 of wild-type and DeltaPhe508 version of CFTR display comparable propensities to aggregate in vitro and that the corresponding full-length CFTR protein reaches the cell membrane with comparable efficiency in mammalian cell expression systems. On the basis of our results, the 'folding defect' hypothesis seems unlikely to represent the causal mechanism for the pathogenesis of CF. A solid understanding of how the DeltaPhe508 deletion leads to the disease represents an absolute requirement for the development of effective drugs against CF.
Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Banerjee, Anwesha; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Bringas, María Elena; Kilgard, Michael P; Flores, Gonzalo; Atzori, Marco
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases of growing incidence characterized by repetitive conduct and impaired social behavior and communication for which effective pharmacological treatment is still unavailable. While the mechanisms and etiology of ASD are still unknown, a consensus is emerging about the synaptic nature of the syndrome, suggesting a possible avenue for pharmacological treatment with synaptogenic compounds. The peptidic mixture cerebrolysin (CBL) has been successfully used during the last three decades in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Animal experiments indicate that at least one possible mechanism of action of CBL is through neuroprotection and/or synaptogenesis. In the present study, we tested the effect of CBL treatment (daily injection of 2.5 mL/Kg i.p. during 15 days) on a rat model of ASD. This was based on the offspring (43 male and 51 female pups) of a pregnant female rat injected with valproic acid (VPA, 600 mg/Kg) at the embryonic day 12.5, which previous work has shown to display extensive behavioral, as well as synaptic impairment. Comparison between saline vs. CBL-injected VPA animals shows that CBL treatment improves behavioral as well as synaptic impairments, measured by behavioral performance (social interaction, Y-maze, plus-maze), maximal response of inhibitory γ-amino butyric acid type A receptor (GABA A R)-mediated synaptic currents, as well as their kinetic properties and adrenergic and muscarinic modulation. We speculate that CBL might be a viable and effective candidate for pharmacological treatment or co-treatment of ASD patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Furlong, Mairead; McGilloway, Sinead; Bywater, Tracey; Hutchings, Judy; Smith, Susan M; Donnelly, Michael
Early-onset child conduct problems are common and costly. A large number of studies and some previous reviews have focused on behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions, but methodological limitations are commonplace and evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these programmes has been unclear. To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for improving child conduct problems, parental mental health and parenting skills. We searched the following databases between 23 and 31 January 2011: CENTRAL (2011, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to current), EMBASE (1980 to current), CINAHL (1982 to current), PsycINFO (1872 to current), Social Science Citation Index (1956 to current), ASSIA (1987 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1963 to current), Academic Search Premier (1970 to current), Econlit (1969 to current), PEDE (1980 to current), Dissertations and Theses Abstracts (1980 to present), NHS EED (searched 31 January 2011), HEED (searched 31 January 2011), DARE (searched 31 January 2011), HTA (searched 31 January 2011), mRCT (searched 29 January 2011). We searched the following parent training websites on 31 January 2011: Triple P Library, Incredible Years Library and Parent Management Training. We also searched the reference lists of studies and reviews. We included studies if: (1) they involved randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-randomised controlled trials of behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting interventions for parents of children aged 3 to 12 years with conduct problems, and (2) incorporated an intervention group versus a waiting list, no treatment or standard treatment control group. We only included studies that used at least one standardised instrument to measure child conduct problems. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias in the trials and the methodological quality of
This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as: Furlong M, McGilloway S, Bywater T, Hutchings J, Smith SM, Donnelly M. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural group-based parenting programmes for early-onset conduct problems in children aged 3 to 12 years. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008225. DoI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008225.pub2. Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stocks, Jennifer Dugan; Taneja, Baldeo K; Baroldi, Paolo; Findling, Robert L
To evaluate safety and tolerability of four doses of immediate-release molindone hydrochloride in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and serious conduct problems. This open-label, parallel-group, dose-ranging, multicenter trial randomized children, aged 6-12 years, with ADHD and persistent, serious conduct problems to receive oral molindone thrice daily for 9-12 weeks in four treatment groups: Group 1-10 mg (5 mg if weight conduct problems. Secondary outcome measures included change in Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form-Typical Intelligence Quotient (NCBRF-TIQ) Conduct Problem subscale scores, change in Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I) subscale scores from baseline to end point, and Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham rating scale-revised (SNAP-IV) ADHD-related subscale scores. The study randomized 78 children; 55 completed the study. Treatment with molindone was generally well tolerated, with no clinically meaningful changes in laboratory or physical examination findings. The most common treatment-related adverse events (AEs) included somnolence (n=9), weight increase (n=8), akathisia (n=4), sedation (n=4), and abdominal pain (n=4). Mean weight increased by 0.54 kg, and mean body mass index by 0.24 kg/m(2). The incidence of AEs and treatment-related AEs increased with increasing dose. NCBRF-TIQ subscale scores improved in all four treatment groups, with 34%, 34%, 32%, and 55% decreases from baseline in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. CGI-S and SNAP-IV scores improved over time in all treatment groups, and CGI-I scores improved to the greatest degree in group 4. Molindone at doses of 5-20 mg/day (children weighing <30 kg) and 20-40 mg (≥ 30 kg) was well tolerated, and preliminary efficacy results suggest that molindone produces dose-related behavioral improvements over 9-12 weeks. Additional double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are needed to further investigate molindone in this pediatric population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though depression and anxiety are highly prevalent in adolescence, youngsters are not inclined to seek help in regular healthcare. Therapy through the Internet, however, has been found to appeal strongly to young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine the efficacy of preventive Internet-based guided self-help problem-solving therapy with adolescents reporting depressive and anxiety symptoms. A secondary objective is to test potential mediating and moderating variables in order to gain insight into how the intervention works and for whom it works best. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial with an intervention condition group and a wait-list control group. The intervention condition group receives Internet-based self-help problem-solving therapy. Support is provided by a professional and delivered through email. Participants in the wait-list control group receive the intervention four months later. The study population consists of adolescents (12-18-year-olds from the general population who report mild to moderate depressive and/or anxiety symptoms and are willing to complete a self-help course. Primary outcomes are symptoms of depression and anxiety. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, social anxiety, and cost-effectiveness. The following variables are examined for their moderating role: demographics, motivation, treatment credibility and expectancy, externalizing behaviour, perceived social support from parents and friends, substance use, the experience of important life events, physical activity, the quality of the therapeutic alliance, and satisfaction. Mediator variables include problem-solving skills, worrying, mastery, and self-esteem. Data are collected at baseline and at 3 weeks, 5 weeks, 4 months, 8 months, and 12 months after baseline. Both intention-to-treat and completer analyses will be conducted. Discussion This study evaluates the efficacy and mechanisms of
Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth
The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. © The Author(s) 2015.
Fisher, Celia B.; Yuko, Elizabeth
The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. PMID:26564944
Karol l. Kumpfer
Full Text Available Introduction. There is a need forwide-scale dissemination of effective family-focused skills trainingprograms for the prevention of multiple developmental problems and later substance misuse amonghigh-risk children. Independent reviews have found the author’s Strengthening Families Program (SFP tobe the most effective substance abuse prevention intervention. Cultural adaptations have resulted in successful SFP outcomes in many countries, including in Spain as detailed in the Orte article. This article reviews 30 year history of implementation and outcomes of SFP in different cultures with cultural adaptations. Methods: The SEM-tested Social Ecology Model (Kumpfer, Alvarado, &Whiteside, 2003 is presented and reveals that family factors (bonding, supervision, and communication are the most protective of later substanceuse.Hence, this causal theory served as the etiological theory behind the design of the 14-session SFP.Social cognitive behavior theory (Bandura, 1989 is the intervention theory. The Strengthening Families Program(SFP was the first family skills training program developed and found effective in a randomized control trial (RCT to improve outcomes for children of dug abusers.Many countries requested to replicate SFP; hence, staff training systems were developed and a cultural adaptation process. Results: Eight RCTs, four conducted by independent research teams, and hundreds of quasi-experimental studies in different countrieshave demonstrated SFP’s effectiveness in reducing substance use in adolescents with up to 10-yearfollow-ups. Comparative effectiveness reviews including ones using statistical meta-analysis by theOxford University Cochrane Collaboration Reviews, found SFP to be the most effective alcohol and drug prevention program (Foxcroft, et al., 2003. A cost-benefit analysis by Miller and Hendrie (2008 found SFP prevented the highest percentage of youth from using alcohol and drugs. Cultural adaptation is a mandated
Danforth, Jeffrey S
Behavioral parent training is an evidence-based treatment for problem behavior described as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder. However, adherence to treatment fidelity and parent performance of the management skills remains an obstacle to optimum outcome. One variable that may limit the effectiveness of the parent training is that demanding behavior management procedures can be deceptively complicated and difficult to perform. Based on outcome research for families of children with co-occurring ADHD and conduct problem behavior, an example of a visual behavior management flow chart is presented. The flow chart may be used to help teach specific behavior management skills to parents. The flow chart depicts a chain of behavior management strategies taught with explanation, modeling, and role-play with parents. The chained steps in the flow chart are elements common to well-known evidence-based behavior management strategies, and perhaps, this depiction well serve as a setting event for other behavior analysts to create flow charts for their own parent training, Details of the flow chart steps, as well as examples of specific applications and program modifications conclude.
Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Willoughby, Michael T; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Wagner, Nicholas; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Child conduct problems (CP) reflect a heterogeneous collection of oppositional, aggressive, norm-violating, and sometimes violent behaviors, whereas child callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors reflect interpersonal styles of interactions reflecting a lack of guilt and empathy as well as uncaring and shallow emotional responses to others. Taken together, high levels of child CP and CU behaviors are thought to identify a relatively homogenous group of children at elevated risk for persistent and more severe problem behaviors across childhood and into adulthood. Although a large body of research has examined the developmental etiology of CP behaviors, only recently has a developmental psychopathology approach been applied to early CU behaviors. The current study examines multiple levels of contextual influences during the first years of life, including family socioeconomic status, household chaos, and parenting behaviors, on CP and CU behaviors assessed during the first-grade year. Whereas previous studies found associations between parenting behaviors and child problem behaviors moderated by household chaos, the current study found no evidence of moderation. However, path analyses suggest that the associations between child CP and CU behaviors and the contextual variables of socioeconomic status (family income and parental education) and household chaos (disorganization and instability) were mediated by maternal sensitive and harsh-intrusive parenting behavior. Analyses are presented, interpreted, and discussed with respect to both bioecological and family stress models of development.
Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Rhule, Dana; Kolawole, Bukky; Petkova, Eva; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Minority children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at high risk for school dropout, delinquency, and poor health, largely due to the negative impact of poverty and stress on parenting and child development. This study evaluated a population-level, family-centered, school-based intervention designed to promote learning, behavior, and health by strengthening parenting, classroom quality, and child self-regulation during early childhood. Ten schools in urban districts serving primarily low-income Black students were randomly assigned to intervention or a "pre-kindergarten education as usual" control condition. Intervention included a family program (a 13-week behavioral parenting intervention and concurrent group for children) and professional development for early childhood teachers. The majority (88 %) of the pre-kindergarten population (N = 1,050; age 4) enrolled in the trial, and nearly 60 % of parents in intervention schools participated in the family program. This study evaluated intervention impact on parenting (knowledge, positive behavior support, behavior management, involvement in early learning) and child conduct problems over a 2-year period (end of kindergarten). Intent-to-treat analyses found intervention effects on parenting knowledge, positive behavior support, and teacher-rated parent involvement. For the highest-risk families, intervention also resulted in increased parent-rated involvement in early learning and decreased harsh and inconsistent behavior management. Among boys at high risk for problems based on baseline behavioral dysregulation (age 4, 23 % of sample), intervention led to lower rates of conduct problems at age 6. Family-centered intervention at the transition to school has potential to improve population health and break the cycle of disadvantage for low-income, minority families.
Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans
Wearing of occlusive gloves during the whole working shift is considered a risk factor for developing hand eczema, similar to wet work. Moreover, the increased hydration due to glove occlusion may lead to brittle nails. Two hundred and seventy clean room workers, wearing occlusive gloves for prolonged periods, and 135 administrative employees not using gloves were investigated. This included a dermatological examination of the nails and the hands, using the Hand Eczema ScoRe for Occupational Screening (HEROS), measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and a standardized interview. Of the clean room workers, 39%, mainly women, reported nail problems, mostly brittle nails with onychoschisis. Skin score values showed no significant differences between HEROS values of both groups. TEWL values of exposed subjects were similar to TEWL values of controls 40 min after taking off the occlusive gloves. In a multiple linear regression analysis, male gender and duration of employment in the clean room were associated with a significant increase in TEWL values. The effect of occlusion on TEWL seems to be predominantly transient and not be indicative of a damaged skin barrier. This study confirmed the results of a previous investigation showing no serious adverse effect of wearing of occlusive gloves on skin condition without exposure to additional hazardous substances. However, occlusion leads to softened nails prone to mechanical injury. Therefore, specific prevention instructions are required to pay attention to this side effect of occlusion.
Larsen, Kristian; Weidich, Flemming; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
Shock-absorbing and biomechanic shoe orthoses are frequently used in the prevention and treatment of back and lower extremity problems. One review concludes that the former is clinically effective in relation to prevention, whereas the latter has been tested in only 1 randomized clinical trial, concluding that stress fractures could be prevented. To investigate if biomechanic shoe orthoses can prevent problems in the back and lower extremities and if reducing the number of days off-duty because of back or lower extremity problems is possible. Prospective, randomized, controlled intervention trial. One female and 145 male military conscripts (aged 18 to 24 years), representing 25% of all new conscripts in a Danish regiment. Health data were collected by questionnaires at initiation of the study and 3 months later. Custom-made biomechanic shoe orthoses to be worn in military boots were provided to all in the study group during the 3-month intervention period. No intervention was provided for the control group. Differences between the 2 groups were tested with the chi-square test, and statistical significance was accepted at P biomechanic shoe orthoses. However, because care-seeking for lower extremity problems is rare, using this method of prevention in military conscripts would be too costly. We also noted that the choice of statistical approach determined the outcome.
Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Rinkel, Rico N P M; Aalders, Ijke J; de Goede, Cees J T; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H F; Langendijk, Johannes A; Witte, Birgit I; Leemans, C Rene; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M
During a 6-week course of (chemo)radiation many head and neck cancer patients have to endure radiotherapy-induced toxicity, negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Pretreatment counseling combined with self-help exercises could be provided to inform patients and possibly prevent them from having speech, swallowing, and shoulder problems during and after treatment. Our goal was to investigate the feasibility of a multimodal guided self-help exercise program entitled Head Matters during (chemo)radiation in head and neck cancer patients. Head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiation or after surgery were asked to perform Head Matters at home. This prophylactic exercise program, offered in three different formats, aims to reduce the risk of developing speech, swallowing, shoulder problems, and a stiff neck. Weekly coaching was provided by a speech and swallowing therapist. Patients filled out a diary to keep track of their exercise activity. To gain insight into possible barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence, reports of weekly coaching sessions were analyzed by 2 coders independently. Of 41 eligible patients, 34 patients were willing to participate (83% uptake). Of participating patients, 21 patients completed the program (64% adherence rate). The majority of participants (58%) had a moderate to high level of exercise performance. Exercise performance level was not significantly associated with age (P=.50), gender (P=.42), tumor subsite (P=1.00) or tumor stage (P=.20), treatment modality (P=.72), or Head Matters format (Web-based or paper) (P=1.00). Based on patients' diaries and weekly coaching sessions, patients' perceived barriers to exercise were a decreased physical condition, treatment-related barriers, emotional problems, lack of motivation, social barriers, and technical problems. Patients' perceived facilitators included an increased physical condition, feeling motivated, and social and technical facilitators. Head
Eskenazi, Brenda; Gladstone, Eleanor A; Berkowitz, Gertrud S; Drew, Christina H; Faustman, Elaine M; Holland, Nina T; Lanphear, Bruce; Meisel, Stefanie J; Perera, Frederica P; Rauh, Virginia A; Sweeney, Anne; Whyatt, Robin M; Yolton, Kimberly
In anticipation of the National Children's Study, lessons can be learned from the smaller birth cohort studies conducted by five Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The populations studied are diverse in ethnicity and social class and reside in urban and rural environments. Although almost all of the centers chose to enroll participants through medical care facilities, they had to develop independent staffs and structures because of the overburdened medical care system. Some of the lessons learned by the centers include the importance of continuous funding, building community partnerships to conduct culturally appropriate research, hiring bilingual and bicultural staff from the community, prioritizing research goals, developing biorepositories to ensure future utility of samples, instituting quality control procedures for all aspects of specimen and data collection, maintaining frequent contact with study participants, ensuring ethical conduct of the research in a changing medical-legal climate, and communicating results in a timely and appropriate manner to participants and the wider community. All centers underestimated the necessary start-up time, staff, and costs in conducting these birth cohort studies. Despite the logistical complexity and added expenses, all centers emphasize the importance of studying the impact of environmental exposures on those children most at risk, those living in minority and low-income communities. These centers present barriers encountered, solutions found, and considerations for future research, with the hope that the lessons learned can help inform the planning and conduct of the National Children's Study.
Verweij, Karin J H; Creemers, Hanneke E; Korhonen, Tellervo; Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M; Rose, Richard J; Huizink, Anja C; Kaprio, Jaakko
To determine (1) the prospective associations of conduct problems during early adolescence with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis use in young adulthood and (2) to what extent these associations are due to overlapping genetic versus environmental influences. A prospective twin study using biometric twin modelling. Finland. A total of 1847 Finnish twins (943 males and 904 females) were interviewed in early adolescence, 73% of whom (n = 1353, 640 males and 713 females) were retained in young adulthood. Symptom counts of conduct disorder (CD) criteria were obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in early adolescence [age 14-15 years, mean = 14.2, standard deviation (SD) = 0.15]. Frequency of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use was obtained from a semi-structured clinical interview in young adulthood (age 19.9-26.6 years, mean = 22.4, SD = 0.7). We found modest to moderate phenotypical correlations (r = 0.16-0.35) between early adolescent CD symptoms and substance use in young adulthood. In males, the phenotypical correlations of CD symptoms with all three substance use variables are explained largely by overlapping genetic influences. In females, overlapping shared environmental influences predominantly explain the phenotypical correlation between CD symptoms and tobacco and cannabis use. Conduct disorder symptoms in early adolescence appear to moderately predict substance use in early adulthood. In males, genetic influences seem to be most important in explaining the relationship between conduct disorder symptoms and substance use whereas in females, shared environmental influences seem to be most important. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Kuntsche, E.N.; Maffli, E.; Kuntsche, S.; Delgrande Jordan, M.
The aim of this paper is to offer an account of the history, the current status and the future of substance use research at the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Although founded originally by the temperance movement in 1901, its policy has shifted over time
Kampen, L.T.B. van
SWOV carried out a literature review on the subject of car front end design for pedestrian injury prevention. The review is aimed at effectiveness and cost of such a design and at the problem of conflicting requirements. Such requirements are existing safety standards and common design rules on the
Babinski, Dara E; Neely, Kristina A; Kunselman, Allen; Waschbusch, Daniel A
This study examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits as moderators of the association between conduct problems (CP) and young adult functioning. Young adults (n = 283; M age = 20.82 years; 53.4% female), oversampled for attention and behavior problems, provided self-ratings of ADHD, CP, and CU, and adaptive functioning and psychopathology. ADHD and CU simultaneously moderated relationships between CP and family functioning, tobacco use, and internalizing symptoms. In addition, ADHD moderated the relation between CP and job functioning, and main effects of ADHD in the expected direction were found for educational performance and drug use. CU was associated with poorer educational outcomes. Interestingly, no ADHD, CU, or CP effects were observed for reported alcohol use. Our results highlight the importance of considering ADHD and CU in understanding the impact of CP on young adult functioning and psychopathology, and point to the importance of continued work on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aper, Leen; Veldhuijzen, Wemke; Dornan, Tim; van de Ridder, Monica; Koole, Sebastiaan; Derese, Anselme; Reniers, Jan
Communication skills can be trained alongside clinical reasoning, history taking or clinical examination skills. This is advocated as a solution to the low transfer of communication skills. Still, students have to integrate the knowledge/skills acquired during different curriculum parts in patient consultations at some point. How do medical students experience these integrated consultations within a simulated environment and in real practice when dealing with responsibility? Six focus groups were conducted with (pre-)/clerkship students. Students were motivated to practice integrated consultations with simulated patients and felt like 'real physicians'. However, their focus on medical problem solving drew attention away from improving their communication skills. Responsibility for real patients triggered students' identity development. This identity formation guided the development of an own consultation style, a process that was hampered by conflicting demands of role models. Practicing complete consultations results in the dilemma of prioritizing medical problem solving above attention for patient communication. Integrated consultation training advances this dilemma to the pre-clerkship period. During clerkships this dilemma is heightened because real patients trigger empathy and responsibility, which invites students to define their role as doctor. When training integrated consultations, educators should pay attention to students' learning priorities and support the development of students' professional identity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recently, there has been increased research into the etiology of the comorbidity between hyperactivity/inattention problems (HIP) and conduct problems (CP). However, the nature of the etiology of the comorbidity has remained unclear. Mothers of 507 pairs of twins, comprised of 221 monozygotic (MZ) and 286 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs aged from 6 to 13 years (mean = 9.6 years; SD = 2.0 years), completed the HIP and the CP scale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) via a telephone interview. The phenotypic correlation between HIP and CP was 0.43 (p environmental correlation (r e = 0.37) between HIP and CP. CP was additionally influenced by shared family environmental influences. While the results of the present study are generally consistent with the findings from Western twin studies of the relationship between HIP and CP, they add a new finding to the extant literature by showing that it is additive rather than non-additive genetic factors that are responsible for the co-occurrence of HIP and CP.
Belyaev, Igor; Dean, Amy; Eger, Horst; Hubmann, Gerhard; Jandrisovits, Reinhold; Kern, Markus; Kundi, Michael; Moshammer, Hanns; Lercher, Piero; Müller, Kurt; Oberfeld, Gerd; Ohnsorge, Peter; Pelzmann, Peter; Scheingraber, Claus; Thill, Roby
, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law. We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleep problems, depression, a lack of energy, fatigue, and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to making the diagnosis. The EMF exposure is usually assessed by EMF measurements at home and at work. Certain types of EMF exposure can be assessed by asking about common EMF sources. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of high EMF exposure at home and at the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a
Belyaev, Igor; Dean, Amy; Eger, Horst; Hubmann, Gerhard; Jandrisovits, Reinhold; Johansson, Olle; Kern, Markus; Kundi, Michael; Lercher, Piero; Mosgöller, Wilhelm; Moshammer, Hanns; Müller, Kurt; Oberfeld, Gerd; Ohnsorge, Peter; Pelzmann, Peter; Scheingraber, Claus; Thill, Roby
environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms often occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleeping problems, depression, lack of energy, fatigue and flu-like symptoms. A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to the diagnosis. The EMF exposure can be assessed by asking for typical sources like Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones and measurements at home and at work. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account. The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of EMF at home and in the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. Also the survival rate of children with leukemia depends on ELF magnetic field exposure at home. To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports a balanced homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the number of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is
Dijkman, Marieke A. M.; Harting, Janneke; van der Wal, Marcel F.
Background and objective: The Good Behaviour Game (GBG) has been shown to be effective in preventing childhood disruptive behaviours and their long-term unfavourable health-related outcomes. Like many other evidence-based preventive health programmes, however, its current use in Dutch primary
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant crying and sleep problems (e.g. frequent night waking, difficulties settling to sleep each affect up to 30% of infants and often co-exist. They are costly to manage and associated with adverse outcomes including postnatal depression symptoms, early weaning from breast milk, and later child behaviour problems. Preventing such problems could improve these adverse outcomes and reduce costs to families and the health care system. Anticipatory guidance-i.e. providing parents with information about normal infant sleep and cry patterns, ways to encourage self-settling in infants, and ways to develop feeding and settling routines before the onset of problems-could prevent such problems. This paper outlines the protocol for our study which aims to test an anticipatory guidance approach. Methods/Design 750 families from four Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia have been randomised to receive the Baby Business program (intervention group or usual care (control group offered by health services. The Baby Business program provides parents with information about infant sleep and crying via a DVD and booklet (mailed soon after birth, telephone consultation (at infant age 6-8 weeks and parent group session (at infant age 12 weeks. All English speaking parents of healthy newborn infants born at > 32 weeks gestation and referred by their maternal and child health nurse at their first post partum home visit (day 7-10 postpartum, are eligible. The primary outcome is parent report of infant night time sleep as a problem at four months of age and secondary outcomes include parent report of infant daytime sleep or crying as a problem, mean duration of infant sleep and crying/24 hours, parental depression symptoms, parent sleep quality and quantity and health service use. Data will be collected at two weeks (baseline, four months and six months of age. An economic evaluation using a cost-consequences approach will, from a societal
Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Waller, Rebecca; Fish, Ari M; Hyde, Luke W
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, conduct problems (CP), and deficits in executive control are all linked to the development of more severe antisocial behavior, including violence and substance use. Though previous research has examined the impact of these factors on antisocial outcomes, little work has examined trajectories of CU traits across adolescence and how these trajectories predict greater antisocial behavior in adulthood. Moreover, no study has assessed how severity of early CP and executive control may exacerbate these pathways and increase risk for later violence and substance use. The current study (a) identified trajectories of CU traits among a large, high-risk sample of adolescent males, (b) examined the relationship between CU traits trajectories and future violence and substance use, and (c) examined whether early CP and executive control moderated the effects of a high CU traits trajectory membership and high CP on violence and substance use. Results indicated that: (a) CU traits could be grouped into three stable trajectories across adolescence, (b) the 'high' CU traits trajectory, particularly in the presence of 'elevated' CP, was related to higher violence and substance use, over and above a variety of environmental risk factors, and (c) the effects the 'high' CU traits trajectory on both violence and substance and in the presence of 'elevated' CP was stronger among youth with high executive control. These findings highlight the utility of identifying subgroups of youth who differ on trajectories of CU traits for understanding the development and maintenance of severe antisocial behavior.
O'Nions, Elizabeth; Sebastian, Catherine L; McCrory, Eamon; Chantiluke, Kaylita; Happé, Francesca; Viding, Essi
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have difficulty understanding other minds (Theory of Mind; ToM), with atypical processing evident at both behavioural and neural levels. Individuals with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (CP/HCU) exhibit reduced responsiveness to others' emotions and difficulties interacting with others, but nonetheless perform normally in experimental tests of ToM. The present study aimed to examine the neural underpinnings of ToM in children (aged 10-16) with ASD (N = 16), CP/HCU (N = 16) and typically developing (TD) controls (N = 16) using a non-verbal cartoon vignette task. Whilst individuals with ASD were predicted to show reduced fMRI responses across regions involved in ToM processing, CP/HCU individuals were predicted to show no differences compared with TD controls. The analyses indicated that neural responses did not differ between TD and CP/HCU groups during ToM. TD and CP/HCU children exhibited significantly greater medial prefrontal cortex responses during ToM than did the ASD group. Within the ASD group, responses in medial prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) correlated with symptom severity as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Findings suggest that although both ASD and CP/HCU are characterized by social difficulties, only children with ASD display atypical neural processing associated with ToM. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new
Sánchez-Carracedo, David; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Fauquet, Jordi; Barrada, Juan Ramón; Pàmias, Montserrat; Puntí, Joaquim; Querol, Mireia; Trepat, Esther
The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government's Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new contributions in this transition from efficacy
Protocol for economic evaluation alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial of a psychoeducational intervention for the primary prevention of postnatal mental health problems in first-time mothers
Ride, Jemimah; Rowe, Heather; Wynter, Karen; Fisher, Jane; Lorgelly, Paula
Introduction Postnatal mental health problems, which are an international public health priority, are a suitable target for preventive approaches. The financial burden of these disorders is borne across sectors in society, including health, early childhood, education, justice and the workforce. This paper describes the planned economic evaluation of What Were We Thinking, a psychoeducational intervention for the prevention of postnatal mental health problems in first-time mothers. Methods and analysis The evaluation will be conducted alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial of its clinical effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness and costs-utility analyses will be conducted, resulting in estimates of cost per percentage point reduction in combined 30-day prevalence of depression, anxiety and adjustment disorders and cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Uncertainty surrounding these estimates will be addressed using non-parametric bootstrapping and represented using cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Additional cost analyses relevant for implementation will also be conducted. Modelling will be employed to estimate longer term cost-effectiveness if the intervention is found to be clinically effective during the period of the trial. Ethics and dissemination Approval to conduct the study was granted by the Southern Health (now Monash Health) Human Research Ethics Committee (24 April 2013; 11388B). The study was registered with the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (30 April 2013; CF12/1022-2012000474). The Education and Policy Research Committee, Victorian Government Department of Education and Early Childhood Development approved the study (22 March 2012; 2012_001472). Use of the EuroQol was registered with the EuroQol Group; 16 August 2012. Trial registration number The trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on 7 May 2012 (registration number ACTRN12613000506796). PMID:25280810
Schaper, N C; Van Netten, J J; Apelqvist, J; Lipsky, B A; Bakker, K
Foot problems complicating diabetes are a source of major patient suffering and societal costs. To prevent, or at least reduce, the adverse effects of foot problems in diabetes, the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF; www.iwgdf.org) was founded in 1996, consisting of experts from almost all the disciplines involved in the care of patients with diabetes and foot problems. An important output of the IWGDF is the international consensus guidance, continuously updated since 1999. To date, the publications have been translated into 26 languages, and more than 100,000 copies have been distributed globally. The "Summary Guidance for Daily Practice" summarises the essentials of prevention and management of foot problems in persons with diabetes for clinicians who work with these patients on a daily basis. This guidance is the result of a long and careful process that started with the empaneling in 2013 of five working groups consisting of 49 international experts. These experts performed seven targeted systematic reviews to provide the evidence supporting the five chapters of the IWGDF Guidance on prevention; footwear and offloading; diagnosis, prognosis and management of peripheral artery disease; diagnosis and management of foot infections; interventions to enhance healing. In total almost 80,000 studies were detected by our literature review. After review of the title and abstract the reviewers of the different working groups selected only studies that fulfilled a minimal set of quality criteria and ended up with 429 articles for complete quality analysis. The GRADE system was used to translate the evidence from the studies into recommendations for daily clinical practice. The rating of each recommendation takes into account both the strength and the quality of the evidence. The IWGDF Guidance 2015 makes a total of 77 recommendations on prevention and management of foot problems in diabetes. These recommendations were condensed by the editorial
Helseth, Sarah A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Onyango, Adia N.; Burrows-MacLean, Lisa; Fabiano, Gregory A.; Coles, Erika K.; Chacko, Anil; Wymbs, Brian T.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Wymbs, Frances A.; Garefino, Allison; Massetti, Greta M.; Mazzant, Jessica Robb; Hoffman, Martin T.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin; Pelham, William E.
Objective This study compared the unique and combined effects of evidence-based treatments for ADHD —stimulant medication and behavior modification—on children’s rates of reinforcement for deviant peer behavior (RDPB). Method Using a within-subjects design, 222 elementary school-age children attending a summer treatment program, including 151 children with ADHD (127 male), with and without comorbid conduct problems, and 71 control children (57 male), received varying combinations of behavior modification (no, low-intensity, and high-intensity) and methylphenidate (placebo, 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg). RDPB was measured through direct observation and compared across all behavior modification and medication conditions. Results Children with ADHD reinforced the deviant behavior of their peers at a significantly higher rate than control children in the absence of either intervention. However, that difference largely disappeared in the presence of both behavior modification and medication. Both low and high-intensity behavior modification, as well as medium (0.30 mg/kg) and high (0.60 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate, significantly reduced the rate of ADHD children’s RDPB to levels similar to the control group. Conclusions Results indicate that although untreated children with ADHD do engage in RDPB at a greater rate than their non-ADHD peers, existing evidence-based interventions can substantially decrease the presence of RDPB, thereby limiting potential iatrogenic effects in group-based treatment settings. Public Health Significance Statement This study found that children with behavior disorders reinforced their peers' deviant behaviors much more than typically developing children. However, behavior modification and medication treatments both reduced reinforcement rates, indicating that peer contagion can easily be managed in group-based treatments for children PMID:25495357
Schwenck, Christina; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Selivanova, Marina; Tournay, Jennifer; Freitag, Christine M; Siniatchkin, Michael
Conduct problems (CP) comprise abnormal behaviors associated with aberrant aspects of affective empathy as well as learning. However, behavioral measures for affective empathy are challenging, and previous results concerning learning in patients with CP are inconsistent. Nineteen boys with CP and 24 typically developing (TD) boys aged 11-17 years (M=14.34, SD=1.93) participated in the study. An ultimatum-game was applied in order to elicit the feeling of like or dislike towards the opponent for a subsequent gambling task, which was played by the opponents (OTHER-condition) and by the participants themselves (SELF-condition). Functional MRI data were recorded throughout the experiment. In accordance with the model of insensitivity to punishment, hypo-activation of the left amygdala, left anterior insula, ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) was observed as a response to losing in participants with CP during the SELF-condition. Callous-unemotional (CU)-traits correlated negatively with activation of amygdala and right TPJ. During the OTHER-condition, TD participants showed activation in brain areas associated with theory of mind (right TPJ, left IFG), and affect regulation (right DLPFC) rather than areas associated with affective empathy. This pattern was not found in adolescents with CP. Moreover, and independently of individual characteristics of their opponents, adolescents with CP demonstrated reward-associated activation (ventral striatum) observing others win, which was positively correlated with CU-traits. This may be interpreted in line with the theory of reward dominance. The current study provides support for the theory of abnormal learning processing in adolescents with CP which yields implications for further research as well as clinical practice. The gambling task did not activate affective empathy networks, but was specific for cognitive empathy, inhibition, and affect regulation. Copyright © 2016
Trimble, Joseph E.; Beauvais, Fred
This chapter reviews the literature on substance abuse and prevention efforts in Native communities. The first section describes demographic characteristics of America's indigenous people, including tribal and government definitions, interaction and validation styles, and rural-urban differences. It concludes by warning that use of broad ethnic…
Kasckow, J; Brown, C; Morse, J; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F
This study examined the rates of syndromal and subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptom scores in participants with symptoms of emotional distress, subsyndromal depression, and a history of traumatic exposure. Participants had been referred to a study of an indicated depression prevention intervention using problem-solving therapy in primary care. We hypothesized that higher severity of PTSD symptom scores would predict poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, some reports have suggested that there are higher rates of PTSD in minority populations relative to Caucasians; thus we hypothesized that race would also predict problem-solving skills in these individuals. We examined the rates of traumatic exposure, syndromal, and subthreshold PTSD. In those exposed to trauma, we performed a multiple linear regression to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, race, age, and gender on social problem-solving skills. Of the 244 participants, 64 (26.2%) reported a traumatic event; 6/234 (2.6%) had syndromal PTSD, and 14/234 (6.0%) had subthreshold PTSD. By way of regression analysis, higher PTSD symptom scores predicted poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, racial status (Caucasian vs. African American) predicted problem-solving skills; Caucasians exhibited lower levels of problem-solving skills. Individuals presenting with subsyndromal depressive symptoms may also have a history of traumatic exposure, subthreshold and syndromal PTSD. Thus, screening these individuals for PTSD symptoms is important and may inform clinical management decisions because problem-solving skills are lower in those with more severe PTSD symptoms (even after adjusting for race, age, gender, and depressive symptoms). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thorley, Helen; Porter, Katie; Fleming, Clare; Jones, Tim; Kesten, Joanna; Marques, Elsa; Richards, Alison; Savović, Jelena
Background Problem alcohol drinking in homeless and vulnerably housed people can lead to malnutrition, which is associated with complications such as alcohol-related brain damage. Homeless alcohol drinkers are likely to have worse health outcomes and different nutritional needs compared with housed alcohol-drinking persons. It is not clear whether interventions to improve nutritional status in this population have been effective. The purpose of this review is to assess the effectiveness and c...
Cataldo, S; Stuart, A G
There are a wide variety of coronary artery anomalies and disease in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). In fact, the increasing burden of acquired coronary artery disease (CAD) has to be considered in addition to congenital abnormalities of the coronary arteries, isolated or associated to other congenital diseases. This is largely a consequence of the increasing number of patients reaching older age. Due to complex underlying cardiac anatomy, previous surgery and comorbidities, treatment can be challenging. Individualized and multidisciplinary management involving congenital heart cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, coronary interventionists and imaging specialists is essential. This review gives an overview of coronary artery involvement in adults with CHD, summarizes the current literature and focuses on prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The potential role of cardiovascular risk factors for CAD is also discussed.
Legaie, D; Pron, H; Bissieux, C [Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne Laboratoire de Thermophysique (URCA/GRESPI/LTP) UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Integral transforms (Laplace, Fourier, Hankel) are widely used to solve the heat diffusion equation. Moreover, it often appears relevant to realize the estimation of thermophysical properties in the transformed space. Here, an analytical model has been developed, leading to a well-posed inverse problem of parameter identification. Two black coatings, a thin black paint layer and an amorphous carbon film, were studied by photothermal infrared thermography. A Hankel transform has been applied on both thermal model and data and the estimation of thermal diffusivity has been achieved in the Hankel space. The inverse problem is formulated as a non-linear least square problem and a Gauss-Newton algorithm is used for the parameter identification.
Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Coffman, Donna; Hawkins, J David
Earlier intention-to-treat (ITT) findings from a community-randomized trial demonstrated effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on reducing problem behaviors among youth. In ITT analyses, youth were analyzed according to their original study community's randomized condition even if they moved away from the community over the course of follow-up and received little to no exposure to intervention activities. Using inverse probability weights (IPWs), this study estimated effects of CTC in the same randomized trial among youth who remained in their original study communities throughout follow-up. Data were from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized trial of 24 small towns in the United States. A cohort of 4,407 youth was followed from fifth grade (prior to CTC implementation) to eighth grade. IPWs for one's own moving status were calculated using fifth- and sixth-grade covariates. Results from inverse probability weighted multilevel models indicated larger effects for youth who remained in their study community for the first 2 years of CTC intervention implementation compared to ITT estimates. These effects included reduced likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, smokeless tobacco use, and delinquent behavior. These findings strengthen support for CTC as an efficacious system for preventing youth problem behaviors.
Sellers, Ruth; Maughan, Barbara; Pickles, Andrew; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan
Background: Evidence from Western countries indicates marked increases in diagnosis and treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders in recent years. These could reflect changes in prevalence of mental health problems, changes in their impact or increased clinical recognition and help-seeking. Epidemiological cross-cohort comparisons are required…
The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Galland, Barbara C; Sayers, Rachel M; Cameron, Sonya L; Gray, Andrew R; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Lawrence, Julie A; Newlands, Alana; Taylor, Barry J; Taylor, Rachael W
To evaluate the effectiveness of sleep education delivered antenatally and at 3 weeks postpartum to prevent infant sleep problems at 6 months of age. Sleep intervention within a randomised controlled trial for the Prevention of Overweight in Infancy (POI) study. 802 families were randomly allocated to one of four groups: usual care (control), sleep intervention (sleep), food, activity and breastfeeding intervention (FAB), and combined group receiving both interventions (combination). All groups received standard Well Child care. The sleep intervention groups (sleep and combination) received an antenatal group education session (all mothers and most partners) emphasising infant self-settling and safe sleeping, and a home visit at 3 weeks reinforcing the antenatal sleep education. FAB and combination groups received four contacts providing education and support on breast feeding, food and activity up to 4 months postpartum. Here we report secondary sleep outcomes from the POI study: the prevalence of parent-reported infant sleep problems and night waking, and differences in sleep duration. Additional outcomes reported include differences in infant self-settling, safe sleep practices, and maternal and partner reports of their own sleep, fatigue and depression symptoms. Linear or mixed linear regression models found no significant intervention effects on sleep outcomes, with 19.1% of mothers and 16.6% of partners reporting their infant's sleep a problem at 6 months. Actigraphy estimated the number of night wakings to be significantly reduced (8%) and the duration of daytime sleep increased (6 min) in those groups receiving the sleep intervention compared with those who did not. However, these small differences were not clinically significant and not observed in 24 hours infant sleep diary data. No other differences were observed. A strategy delivering infant sleep education antenatally and at 3 weeks postpartum was not effective in preventing the development
Wilen, C. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland)
New directives and laws will increase the utilization of wastes in the near future. At the same time the number of people employed in waste handling will increase. The aim of this study is to compare manual sorting in demolition waste handling facility to automatic sorting system in commercial and industrial waste facility. Many studies have shown, for example Danish, Dutch and German investigations that waste handling workers have problems especially in occupational health issues. Symptoms like headache, tiredness, joint pain, chest tightens, fever, diarrhea have been reported. Diseases reported are respiratory (asthma, ODTS), muscular, gastroinsteal diseases. Accident risk among waste workers is six times more common that among occupations usually. Finnish Institute of Occupational health carried out the occupational measurements together with VTT Processes. The EU directive accepted in 1999 requires for new waste handling facilities a work space and equipment hazardous classification until 2003 and based on it, an explosion protection document. An example for required actions and documents has been prepared in this project, which can be used as a tool and model in waste management companies and REF production facilities. A dust explosion risks analyse, a work space and equipment classifications and explosion protection document have been done for the Lohja REF-production facility. (orig.)
Wilen, C.; Ajanko, S.; Rautalin, A. [VTT Processes, Espoo (Finland); Liesivuori, J.; Kallunki, H. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Kuopio (Finland)
New directives and laws will increase the utilization of wastes in the near future. At the same time the number of people employed in waste handling will increase. The aim of this study is to compare manual sorting in demolition waste handling facility to automatic sorting system in commercial and industrial waste facility. Many studies have shown, for example Danish, Dutch and German researches, that waste handling workers have problems especially in occupational health issues. Symptoms like headache, tiredness, joint pain, chest tightens, fever, diarrhea have been reported. Diseases reported are respiratory (asthma, ODTS), muscular, gastroinsteal diseases. Accident risk among waste workers is six times more common that among occupations usually. Finnish Institute of Occupational health carried out the occupational measurements together with VTT Processes. The EU direcitive accepted in 1999 requires for new waste handling facilities a work space and equipment hazardous classification until 2003 and based on it, an explosion protection document. An example for required actions and documents has been prepared in this project, which can be used as a tool and model in waste management companies and REF production facilities. A dust explosion risks analyse, a work space and equipment classifications and explosion protection document have been done for the Lohja REF-production facility. (orig.)
Satake, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keiko
We investigated whether the correlates of family psychosocial characteristics among Japanese children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ according to the comorbid condition of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Three groups of children (12 ADHD, 15 ADHD + ODD/ CD, and 14 control) were compared on…
Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R.; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate
Background: Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. Method: The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8…
Baker, Sabine; Sanders, Matthew R; Turner, Karen M T; Morawska, Alina
This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of Triple P Online Brief, a low-intensity online positive parenting program for parents of children with early onset disruptive behavior problems. Two hundred parents with 2-9-year-old children displaying early onset disruptive behavior difficulties were randomly assigned to either the intervention condition (n = 100) or a Waitlist Control group (n = 100). At 8-week post-assessment, parents in the intervention group displayed significantly less use of ineffective parenting strategies and significantly more confidence in dealing with a range of behavior concerns. These effects were maintained at 9-month follow-up assessment. A delayed effect was found for child behavior problems, with parents in the intervention group reporting significantly fewer and less frequent child behavior problems at follow-up, but not at post-assessment. All effect sizes were in the small to medium range. There were no significant improvements in observed negative parent and child behavior. No change was seen for parents' adjustment, anger, or conflict over parenting. Consumer satisfaction ratings for the program were high. A brief, low-intensity parenting program delivered via the Internet can bring about significant improvements in parenting and child behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delfabbro, Paul; King, Daniel
Background and aims The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence and arguments in favor of prevention paradox (PP) logic in the context of problem gambling. Evidence from recent studies of gambling and the distribution of harm across lower and higher risk gamblers is reviewed to examine the contention that the absolute burden of harm is greater in low-risk (LR) gamblers than the problem gamblers. Methods The review examines a number of methodological and conceptual concerns about existing evidence in support of the PP. Results The principal problems identified include the misclassification of LR gamblers; the use of binary scoring method that understates the frequency of harms in high-risk populations; a tendency to confuse behavior and harm; and the use of potentially overly inclusive definitions of harm with low thresholds of severity. Discussion and conclusions This paper makes a number of recommendations for enhancement of this area of research, including the use of clear definitions of harm and LR behavior and a greater focus on harm with material impacts on people's quality of life.
Linton, Steven J; Boersma, Katja; Traczyk, Michal; Shaw, William; Nicholas, Michael
Purpose There is a clear need for interventions that successfully prevent the development of disability due to back pain. We hypothesized that an intervention aimed at both the worker and the workplace could be effective. Hence, we tested the effects of a new early intervention, based on the misdirected problem solving model, aimed at both workers at risk of long-term impairments and their workplace. Methods Supervisors of volunteers with back pain, no red flags, and a high score on a screen (Örebro Musculoskeletal Screening Questionnaire) were randomized to either an evidence based treatment as usual (TAU) or to a worker and workplace package (WWP). The WWP intervention included communication and problem solving skills for the patient and their immediate supervisor. The key outcome variables of work absence due to pain, health-care utilization, perceived health, and pain intensity were collected before, after and at a 6 month follow up. Results The WWP showed significantly larger improvements relative to the TAU for work absence due to pain, perceived health, and health-care utilization. Both groups improved on pain ratings but there was no significant difference between the groups. The WWP not only had significantly fewer participants utilizing health care and work absence due to pain, but the number of health care visits and days absent were also significantly lower than the TAU. Conclusions The WWP with problem solving and communication skills resulted in fewer days off work, fewer health care visits and better perceived health. This supports the misdirected problem solving model and indicates that screening combined with an active intervention to enhance skills is quite successful and likely cost-effective. Future research should replicate and extend these findings with health-economic analyses.
Charles, Joanna M; Bywater, Tracey J; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Hutchings, Judy; Zou, Lu
There is co-morbidity between parental depression and childhood conduct disorder. The Incredible Years (IY) parenting programmes reduce both conduct disorder in children and depression in their parents. Recent U.K. and Ireland trials of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IY parenting programmes have assessed children's health and social care service use, but little is known about the programme's impact on parental service use. This paper explores whether an above clinical cut-off score on the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI II) is associated with high or low parental health and social care service use in high-risk families receiving the IY Basic Programme. This is a secondary analysis of a subsample (N = 119) from the first U.K. community-based randomised controlled trial of the 12-week IY Basic Programme (N = 153). Parents with children at risk of developing conduct disorder were randomised to receive the programme or to a waiting-list control group. BDI II total and BDI II clinical depression cut-off scores were compared to frequencies and costs of parents' service use, at baseline, six, twelve and eighteen months post-baseline for the intervention group and at baseline and six months post-baseline for the control group. Intervention group parents who scored above the clinical cut-off on the BDI II at baseline used more health and social care services than those who scored below at baseline, six and eighteen months. Significant reductions in service use frequencies were found for the intervention group only. Parents with higher levels or depression used more health and social care service and parenting programmes have been shown to reduce parental depression and also health and social service use. However, further exploration of depressed parents' service use and the cost implications for publically funded health and social care services is needed.
Herpers, Pierre C M; Klip, Helen; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Taylor, Mark J; Greven, Corina U; Buitelaar, Jan K
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits have mainly been studied in relation to conduct disorder (CD), but can also occur in other disorder groups. However, it is unclear whether there is a clinically relevant cut-off value of levels of CU traits in predicting reduced quality of life (QoL) and clinical symptoms, and whether CU traits better fit a categorical (taxonic) or dimensional model. Parents of 979 youths referred to a child and adolescent psychiatric clinic rated their child's CU traits on the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional traits (ICU), QoL on the Kidscreen-27, and clinical symptoms on the Child Behavior Checklist. Experienced clinicians conferred DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of ADHD, ASD, anxiety/mood disorders and DBD-NOS/ODD. The ICU was also used to score the DSM-5 specifier 'with limited prosocial emotions' (LPE) of Conduct Disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses revealed that the predictive accuracy of the ICU and LPE regarding QoL and clinical symptoms was poor to fair, and similar across diagnoses. A clinical cut-off point could not be defined. Taxometric analyses suggested that callous-unemotional traits on the ICU best reflect a dimension rather than taxon. More research is needed on the impact of CU traits on the functional adaptation, course, and response to treatment of non-CD conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burns, G L
Content validity requires a clear definition of the construct of interest and the delineation of the construct from similar constructs. Content validity also requires that the items be representative of the construct as well as specific to the construct. An examination of the items on the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD), a parent- and teacher-rating scale of childhood psychopathy, indicates significant overlap with the symptoms and associated features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). The failure of the PSD to have unique items results in poor discriminant validity with ADHD, ODD, and CD rating scales. More careful attention to content validation guidelines is required to develop a more useful measure of childhood psychopathy.
Tate Maltby, Maryanne; Gaszczyk, David
To re-evaluate the current BSA recommendation that the test ear should be occluded during the bone-conduction procedure at frequencies above 2 kHz to prevent audible air-borne radiation. Pure-tone audiometry was undertaken during routine hearing tests. The audiograms of fifty-two ears met the criteria for the study and were included. Bone conduction at 4 kHz was tested in three different conditions: test ear open/occluded by earplug and occluded by circumaural earphone. Forty-four adults aged 41-77 years with average hearing levels from normal to severe loss. All complied fully with the test procedure. No audiogram had a significant conductive element. There was no significant difference in each of the three test situations. Only two audiograms showed any (5 dB) difference at 4 kHz when bone conduction was retested with the ear occluded. The errors that result in a false air-bone gap at 4 kHz would not appear to be due to air-borne radiation. Failure to occlude the ear canal at 4 kHz, where air-borne radiation is greatest, makes no significant difference to the audiometric results. It is therefore suggested that it is unnecessary to block the test ear during routine pure-tone bone-conduction testing to prevent audible air-borne radiation, and that this should no longer form part of normal clinical practice.
Luciani, S.; LeNiliot, C.
Two-phase and boiling flow instabilities are complex, due to phase change and the existence of several interfaces. To fully understand the high heat transfer potential of boiling flows in microscale's geometry, it is vital to quantify these transfers. To perform this task, an experimental device has been designed to observe flow patterns. Analysis is made up by using an inverse method which allows us to estimate the local heat transfers while boiling occurs inside a microchannel. In our configuration, the direct measurement would impair the accuracy of the searched heat transfer coefficient because thermocouples implanted on the surface minichannels would disturb the established flow. In this communication, we are solving a 3D IHCP which consists in estimating using experimental data measurements the surface temperature and the surface heat flux in a minichannel during convective boiling under several gravity levels (g, 1g, 1.8g). The considered IHCP is formulated as a mathematical optimization problem and solved using the boundary element method (BEM).
Rumbach, Anna F
To determine the prevalence and nature of both acute and chronic voice problems experienced by group fitness instructors (GFIs) and gather information about the level of education currently being received by fitness professionals, the source of their education, and their opinion on mandatory voice training to highlight potential training needs. Prospective self-completion questionnaire design. A total of 361 GFIs (81 males and 280 females), aged between 18 and 67 years currently active in the Australian fitness industry completed a self-report questionnaire distributed via SurveyMonkey. The prevalence of self-reported acute and chronic voice symptoms was high at 78.95% and 70.91%, respectively. Partial voice loss and hoarseness while instructing was experienced most often (57.62%), followed by partial voice loss and hoarseness immediately after instructing (46.81%). Aphonia after teaching was less frequently reported (9.97%). Over 25% of the total cohort reported chronic voice symptoms of increased hoarseness (39.61%), difficulty with high notes (31.58%), strained voice (32.13%), and limited singing range (27.7%). Only 30% of GFIs reported having received any voice education, with even fewer respondents (10%) receiving any practical voice training, despite 98.06% agreeing that formal voice education should be covered as a standard topic in all official GFI training. The results of this study confirm that voice problems represent a significant occupational hazard for GFIs. Speech-language pathologists and other voice professionals should consider taking a proactive stance in understanding the vocal demands of the profession and engage in training for instructors to prevent both acute and chronic voice problems. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine.
Pringsheim, Tamara; Hirsch, Lauren; Gardner, David; Gorman, Daniel A
Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression. These symptoms vary in severity, and may be related to a comorbid diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Critical evaluation of the efficacy of ADHD medications may guide the clinician regarding the usefulness of medications for these symptoms. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. The quality of evidence for medications was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Two systematic reviews and 20 randomized controlled trials were included. There is high-quality evidence that psychostimulants have a moderate-to-large effect on oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is very-low-quality evidence that clonidine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour and conduct problems in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. There is moderate-quality evidence that guanfacine has a small-to-moderate effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD. There is high-quality evidence that atomoxetine has a small effect on oppositional behaviour in youth with ADHD, with and without ODD or CD. Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine can be beneficial for disruptive and aggressive behaviours in addition to core ADHD symptoms; however, psychostimulants generally provide the most benefit.
would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.
The development of innovative products meeting the customer's needs is getting increasingly complex. The production cost and the time to market must be reduced constantly. Modern methods of preventive quality management like QFD, FMEA and Target Costing offer help but they tend to be complex and costly. The author attempted a modularisation of the methods, with the possibility of linking modules as desired using a commercially available software. [German] Die Entwicklung innovativer, den Kundenbeduerfnissen entsprechender Produkte wird zunehmend komplexer. Die Unternehmen sind gezwungen, die Kosten der Produkterstellung stetig zu reduzieren und den Time-to-Market zu verkuerzen. Moderne Methoden des praeventiven Qualitaetsmanagements wie das QFD, die FMEA und das Target Costing bieten Unterstuetzungsmoeglichkeiten zur Loesung der damit zusammenhaengenden Probleme. Doch ist der Einsatz der oft komplizierten Methoden sehr aufwendig. Gruende hierfuer sind die oft starren Anwendungsschemata, die einem situationsspezifischen Einsatz der Methoden entgegenstehen, und die fehlende Verknuepfung der Methoden. Ergebnis der Arbeit ist eine Modularisierung der Methoden und eine Verknuepfung der einzelnen Methodenmodule. Hierdurch koennen die Methoden an die jeweilige Problemsituation angepasst eingesetzt und dadurch der gesamte Produktentwicklungsprozess durchgaengig unterstuetzt werden. Die Anwendung der Methoden wird mittels einer auf dem Markt erhaeltlichen Software unterstuetzt. (orig.)
Muellmann, S; Landgraf-Rauf, K; Brand, T; Zeeb, H; Pischke, C R
Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results: 6 reviews covering 331 primary studies were included in this review of reviews. Findings of three reviews with a focus on the maintenance and/or promotion of mental health and general well-being suggested that interventions aimed at changes in the social and the school environment were more effective than those that only targeted individual behavior change among pupils. Interventions for the reduction of mobbing/bullying were most effective if they comprised organizational changes at schools, such as playground and schoolyard supervision, and disciplinary measures. One review suggested strong evidence for the effectiveness of classroom management to reduce violent behavior among pupils. Conclusions: Participation in interventions promoting changes in the school environment, in addition to individual behavior change, appears to be associated with improved mental health among pupils and reductions in mobbing/bullying and violent behavior at schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Karen Fontes Luchesi
Full Text Available Dentre os trabalhadores, a categoria mais numerosa que faz uso profissional da voz é a dos professores. Este artigo teve por objetivo discutir, sob a óptica do professor, o uso da voz na prática docente e a prevenção de problemas vocais. Trata-se de um estudo de caso qualitativo-descritivo com 25 professores. Com base num roteiro semiestruturado foram realizadas entrevistas a fim de conhecer a relação dos sujeitos com suas vozes, a relação dos sujeitos com o trabalho docente e obter sugestões de ações preventivas. Os resultados indicaram que a alteração vocal era percebida, mas geralmente atribuída maior importância ao fato de fazer-se compreender e de exercer controle sobre os alunos em sala de aula. Os professores que ainda não tinham problemas vocais conheciam colegas que tinham, reconheciam o risco ao qual estavam expostos e, aparentemente, consideravam-no uma consequência natural e esperada da prática docente. Acreditavam que as intervenções com os alunos, o apoio da entidade empregadora, a presença de especialistas na escola e o trabalho com as necessidades específicas que enfrentam em sala de aula, poderiam ajudar a preservar suas vozes.Among workers, the largest category that makes professional use of the voice is that of teachers. This article aims to discuss, from the teacher's perspective, the use of the voice in the teaching practice and the prevention of vocal problems. It is a qualitative-descriptive case study carried out with 25 teachers. Based on a semi-structured script, interviews were conducted to ascertain the subjects' relationship with their voice and with the teaching work, and also to receive suggestions for preventive actions. Results indicated that the voice alteration was perceived, but the teachers usually gave more importance to making sure they were being understood and to exerting control over the students. The teachers who had not had vocal problems yet knew colleagues who had; they knew
... do not receive early and comprehensive treatment . Without treatment, many youngsters with conduct disorder are unable to adapt to the demands of ... break laws or behave in an antisocial manner. Treatment of children with conduct disorder can be complex and challenging. Treatment can be ...
EXPRESIÓN SEMI-ANALÍTICA PARA EL CÁLCULO DE MATRICES DE CONDUCTIVIDAD DE ELEMENTOS FINITOS EN PROBLEMAS DE CONDUCCIÓN DE CALOR //\tA SEMI-ANALYTICAL EXPRESSION FOR CALCULATING FINITE ELEMENT CONDUCTIVITY MATRICES IN HEAT CONDUCTION PROBLEMS
Full Text Available The heat transfer equation by conduction is not more than a mathematical expression of the energy conservation law for a given solid. Solving the equation which model this problem is generally very dificult or impossible in an analytical way, so it is necessary to make a discrete approximation of the continuous problem. In this paper, we present a methodology applied to the quadrilateral finite elements in problems of heat transfer by conduction, where the components of the thermal conductivity matrix are obtained by a semi-analytical expression and simple algebraic manipulations. This technique has been used successfully in stiness arrays' integrations of bidimensional and tridimensional finite elements, reporting substantial improvements of CPU times compared with the Gaussian integration. // RESUMEN: La ecuación para la transferencia de calor por conducción no es más que una expresión matemática de la ley de conservación de la energía para un sólido dado. La resolución de la ecuación que modela este problema generalmente es muy difícil o imposible de obtener de forma analítica, por ello es necesario efectuar una aproximación discreta del problema continuo. En este trabajo, se presenta una metodología aplicada a elementos finitos cuadriláteros en problemas de transferencia de calor por conducción, donde las componentes de la matriz de conductividad térmica son obtenidas mediante una expresión semi-analítica y manipulaciones algebraicas sencillas. Esta técnica ha sido utilizada exitosamente en integraciones de matrices de rigidez de elementos finitos bidimensionales y tridimensionales,reportando mejoras sustanciales de tiempos de CPU en comparación con la integración Gaussiana.
Power, Thomas G.; Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Daratha, Kenneth B.
Background: Obesity is a significant health problem among today's youth; however, most school-based prevention programs in this area have had limited success. Focus groups were conducted with seventh- to eighth-grade students, parents, and teachers to provide insight into the development of a comprehensive program for the prevention of adolescent…
Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan
Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)
Smaby, Marlow H.; Downing, Jerry
The purpose of this paper is twofold: it reviews current national research on adolescent suicide and successful intervention/prevention programs and it surveys the 17 Nevada school districts to determine the presence of successful suicide intervention/prevention programs in the state. Findings include the following: (1) the popular…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
A central feature of the U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention is the promotion of multiple prevention strategies that affect campus and surrounding community environments as a whole and can, thereby, have a large-scale effect on the entire campus community. In outlining the…