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Sample records for preventing cigarette smoking

  1. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    Although smoking cessation techniques have been effective, few programs have long term results. To investigate the effectiveness of a tobacco dependence relapse prevention program, 123 adult smokers (51 male, 72 female) voluntarily participated in one of four small group treatment conditions (6 or 30 second aversive smoking plus skill training, or…

  2. Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Neekkan; Das, Archita; Ghosh, Arunava; Chatterjee, Indu B

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100-200 μg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73-80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70- 90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

  3. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. T...

  4. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  5. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesi RT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renata Tiscoski Nesi,1 Priscila Soares de Souza,1 Giulia Pedroso dos Santos,1 Anand Thirupathi,1 Bruno T Menegali,1 Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira,1 Luciano Acordi da Silva,1 Samuel Santos Valença,2 Ricardo Aurino Pinho11Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 2Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS exposure, and physical exercise (Ex is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30–35 g were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks. After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities. Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure.Keywords: exercise

  7. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  8. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Souza, Priscila Soares; Dos Santos, Giulia Pedroso; Thirupathi, Anand; Menegali, Bruno T; Silveira, Paulo Cesar Lock; da Silva, Luciano Acordi; Valença, Samuel Santos; Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, and physical exercise (Ex) is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30-35 g) were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks). After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities). Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with Psystem (SOD and GPx) by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure.

  9. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced myocardial injury: prevention by vitamin C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Das

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD remains one of the major killers in modern society. One strong risk factor of CVD is cigarette smoking that causes myocardial injury and leads to the genesis of pathological cardiovascular events. However, the exact toxic component(s of cigarette smoke (CS and its molecular and cellular mechanisms for causing myocardial injury leading to heart damage and its prevention are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a guinea pig model, here we show that chronic exposure to CS produces myocardial injury that is prevented by vitamin C. Male guinea pigs were fed either vitamin C-deficient (0.5 mg/day or vitamin C-sufficient (15 mg/day diet and subjected to CS exposure from 5 Kentucky Research cigarettes (3R4F/day (6 days/week in a smoke chamber up to 8 weeks. Pair-fed sham controls were subjected to air exposure instead of CS exposure under similar conditions. Myocardial injury was produced in CS-exposed marginal vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs as evidenced by release of cardiac Troponin-T and I in the serum, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, thrombosis and collagen deposition in the myocardium. Treatment of rat cardiomyocyte cells (H9c2 in vitro and guinea pigs in vivo with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ in amounts derived from CS revealed that p-BQ was a major factor responsible for CS-induced myocardial damage. A moderately large dose of vitamin C (15 mg/day prevented CS/p-BQ-induced myocardial injury. Population based studies indicated that plasma vitamin C levels of smokers without disease were significantly lower (p = 0,0000 than that of non-smokers. Vitamin C levels of CS-related cardiovascular patients were further lower (p = 0.0000 than that of smokers without disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results indicate that dietary supplementation of vitamin C may be a novel and simple therapy for the prevention of pathological cardiovascular events in habitual smokers.

  10. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Exercise Prevents Diaphragm Wasting Induced by Cigarette Smoke through Modulation of Antioxidant Genes and Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracielle Vieira Ramos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of physical training on an antioxidant canonical pathway and metalloproteinases activity in diaphragm muscle in a model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods. Male mice were randomized into control, smoke, exercise, and exercise + smoke groups, which were maintained in trial period of 24 weeks. Gene expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2; and heme-oxygenase1 by polymerase chain reaction was performed. Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 activities were analyzed by zymography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by treadmill exercise test before and after the protocol. Results. Aerobic training inhibited diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure. This inhibition was associated with improved aerobic capacity in those animals that were submitted to 24 weeks of aerobic training, when compared to the control and smoke groups, which were not submitted to training. The aerobic training also downregulated the increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 and upregulated antioxidant genes, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2 (NRF2 and heme-oxygenase1 (HMOX1, in exercise + smoke group compared to smoke group. Conclusions. Treadmill aerobic training protects diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure involving upregulation of antioxidant genes and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

  12. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema and Pulmonary Hypertension Can Be Prevented by Phosphodiesterase 4 and 5 Inhibition in Mice.

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    Michael Seimetz

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a widespread disease, with no curative therapies available. Recent findings suggest a key role of NO and sGC-cGMP signaling for the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous data suggest a downregulation/inactivation of the cGMP producing soluble guanylate cyclase, and sGC stimulation prevented cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH in mice. We thus aimed to investigate if the inhibition of the cGMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE5 has similar effects. Results were compared to the effects of a PDE 4 inhibitor (cAMP elevating and a combination of both.C57BL6/J mice were chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and in parallel either treated with Tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitor, Piclamilast (PDE4 inhibitor or both. Functional measurements (lung compliance, hemodynamics and structural investigations (alveolar and vascular morphometry as well as the heart ratio were determined after 6 months of tobacco smoke exposure. In addition, the number of alveolar macrophages in the respective lungs was counted.Preventive treatment with Tadalafil, Piclamilast or a combination of both almost completely prevented the development of emphysema, the increase in lung compliance, tidal volume, structural remodeling of the lung vasculature, right ventricular systolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Single, but not combination treatment prevented or reduced smoke-induced increase in alveolar macrophages.Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and PH could be prevented by inhibition of the phosphodiesterases 4 and 5 in mice.

  13. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Emphysema and Pulmonary Hypertension Can Be Prevented by Phosphodiesterase 4 and 5 Inhibition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichl, Alexandra; Bednorz, Mariola; Ghofrani, Hossein Ardeschir; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Weissmann, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a widespread disease, with no curative therapies available. Recent findings suggest a key role of NO and sGC-cGMP signaling for the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous data suggest a downregulation/inactivation of the cGMP producing soluble guanylate cyclase, and sGC stimulation prevented cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in mice. We thus aimed to investigate if the inhibition of the cGMP degrading phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 has similar effects. Results were compared to the effects of a PDE 4 inhibitor (cAMP elevating) and a combination of both. Methods C57BL6/J mice were chronically exposed to cigarette smoke and in parallel either treated with Tadalafil (PDE5 inhibitor), Piclamilast (PDE4 inhibitor) or both. Functional measurements (lung compliance, hemodynamics) and structural investigations (alveolar and vascular morphometry) as well as the heart ratio were determined after 6 months of tobacco smoke exposure. In addition, the number of alveolar macrophages in the respective lungs was counted. Results Preventive treatment with Tadalafil, Piclamilast or a combination of both almost completely prevented the development of emphysema, the increase in lung compliance, tidal volume, structural remodeling of the lung vasculature, right ventricular systolic pressure, and right ventricular hypertrophy induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Single, but not combination treatment prevented or reduced smoke-induced increase in alveolar macrophages. Conclusion Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema and PH could be prevented by inhibition of the phosphodiesterases 4 and 5 in mice. PMID:26058042

  14. Stimulation of soluble guanylate cyclase prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary hypertension and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissmann, Norbert; Lobo, Borja; Pichl, Alexandra; Parajuli, Nirmal; Seimetz, Michael; Puig-Pey, Raquel; Ferrer, Elisabet; Peinado, Víctor I; Domínguez-Fandos, David; Fysikopoulos, Athanasios; Stasch, Johannes-Peter; Ghofrani, Hossein A; Coll-Bonfill, Núria; Frey, Reiner; Schermuly, Ralph T; García-Lucio, Jéssica; Blanco, Isabel; Bednorz, Mariola; Tura-Ceide, Olga; Tadele, Elsa; Brandes, Ralf P; Grimminger, Jan; Klepetko, Walter; Jaksch, Peter; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Seeger, Werner; Grimminger, Friedrich; Barberà, Joan A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death worldwide. No therapy stopping progress of the disease is available. To investigate the role of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)-cGMP axis in development of lung emphysema and pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to test whether the sGC-cGMP axis is a treatment target for these conditions. Investigations were performed in human lung tissue from patients with COPD, healthy donors, mice, and guinea pigs. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS) for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week for up to 6 months and treated with BAY 63-2521. Guinea pigs were exposed to CS from six cigarettes per day for 3 months, 5 days per week and treated with BAY 41-2272. Both BAY compounds are sGC stimulators. Gene and protein expression analysis were performed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Lung compliance, hemodynamics, right ventricular heart mass alterations, and alveolar and vascular morphometry were performed, as well as inflammatory cell infiltrate assessment. In vitro assays of cell adhesion, proliferation, and apoptosis have been done. The functionally essential sGC β1-subunit was down-regulated in patients with COPD and in CS-exposed mice. sGC stimulators prevented the development of PH and emphysema in the two different CS-exposed animal models. sGC stimulation prevented peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis of alveolar and endothelial cells, reduced CS-induced inflammatory cell infiltrate in lung parenchyma, and inhibited adhesion of CS-stimulated neutrophils. The sGC-cGMP axis is perturbed by chronic exposure to CS. Treatment of COPD animal models with sGC stimulators can prevent CS-induced PH and emphysema.

  15. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  16. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  17. Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Awareness of Health Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A higher proportion of current smokers (52.0%) smoked cigarette on daily basis. One-third of current smokers started smoking cigarette before they were 15 years. More than one-quarter (28.4%) of current smokers had smoked for more than ten years. There is urgent need for incorporation of smoking prevention education ...

  18. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

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    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  19. Cigarette Smoking and Dyspnea Perception

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    Scano Giorgio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms in adults. The relationship of dyspnea with cigarette smoking has been examined in smokers and ex-smokers and the beneficial effects of smoking cessation have been demonstrated. Recent studies reported that in subjects who smoke cigarettes the risk of developing respiratory symptoms is higher in a dose-dependent way. Environmental tobacco smoke heavily influences the incidence of respiratory symptoms in both adults and in children. Up to the present time, the mechanisms whereby cigarette smoking causes dyspnea perception remain to be defined. Abnormalities in sensory nerves might diminish the perception of bronchoconstriction in smokers. In this regard, it has been postulated that prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke may lead to chronic depletion of sensory nerve neurotransmitters. Eosinophil airway inflammation has been proposed as a determinant of breathlessness via mechanisms affecting either the mechanical pathways that control breathlessness or the afferent nerves involved in perception of dyspnea. An increased number of eosinophils in some smokers implies the possibility that smoking may trigger immunological or other reactions associated with eosinophilia. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is by far one of the greatest risk factors for most respiratory symptoms, including dyspnea. Smoking is associated with the development of symptoms in a dose-dependent way and eosinophilia and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR increase the risk of developing dyspnea.

  20. Prevention of cigarette smoke induced lung cancer by low let ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent global cancer, ∼90% of which is caused by cigarette smoking. The LNT hypothesis has been inappropriately applied to estimate lung cancer risk due to ionizing radiation. A threshold of ∼1 Gy for lung cancer has been observed in never smokers. Lung cancer risk among nuclear workers, radiologists and diagnostically exposed patients was typically reduced by ∼40% following exposure to <100 mSv low LET radiation. The consistency and magnitude of reduced lung cancer in nuclear workers and occurrence of reduced lung cancer in exposed non-worker populations could not be explained by the HWE. Ecologic studies of indoor radon showed highly significant reductions in lung cancer risk. A similar reduction in lung cancer was seen in a recent well designed case-control study of indoor radon, indicating that exposure to radon at the EPA action level is associated with a decrease of ∼60% in lung cancer. A cumulative whole-body dose of ∼1 Gy gamma rays is associated with a marked decrease in smoking-induced lung cancer in plutonium workers. Low dose, low LET radiation appears to increase apoptosis mediated removal of α-particle and cigarette smoke transformed pulmonary cells before they can develop into lung cancer

  1. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R...... are small and appear to be explicable. The Prevent model can be used for more general scenarios of effective health promotion, but it requires more data than the Peto et al method, which can be used only to estimate mortality related to smoking........ Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer...

  2. Sex specific trajectories in cigarette smoking behaviors among students participating in the unplugged school-based randomized control trial for substance use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrhelik, Roman; Duncan, Alexandra; Lee, Myong Hwa; Stastna, Lenka; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Miovsky, Michal

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the developmental pathways and sex differences in cigarette smoking behaviors in adolescents has the potential to positively impact substance abuse prevention and to reduce smoking-related health problems. Using data from the Unplugged school-based prevention trial, we investigated different patterns of smoking behavior development among secondary school students in the Czech Republic. Growth mixture modeling was used to examine different trajectories in cigarette smoking behaviors among male and female students (N=1874 6th graders; 50.4% male, mean age 11.8 years at baseline) participating in the Unplugged school-based randomized control trial for substance use prevention. A two-class model characterized cigarette use as a function of sex and Unplugged intervention status. More rapid cigarette use increases were observed in females (OR=1.17, p=0.01 in both rapid/moderate and slow smoking escalator classes) as compared to males. Further, in both classes, more rapid increases in smoking were observed for the control group as compared to the intervention group (OR=1.22, pprevention strategies aimed at adolescent females and early treatment programs for adolescent smokers to prevent increasing cigarette use with age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking

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    Willich, Stefan N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hazardous health effects of smoking and second hand smoke have been confirmed in numerous studies. For Germany, the mortality attributable to smoking is estimated at 110,000 to 140,000 deaths per year, associated with annual smoking-related costs of 17 to 21 billion euro. Because the majority of smokers initiate this habit early in life, behavioural preventive strategies usually tried to prevent the uptake of smoking among children and youths. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to summarise the current literature on behavioural strategies for smoking prevention and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of smoking prevention programs. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the reliability of results in the German context. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI. In addition a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between August 2001 and August 2006 targeting youths up to 18 years old. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: Among 3,580 publications 37 medical studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality was satisfactory but only half the studies reported smoking uptake as an outcome, while the remaining studies reported alternative outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varied between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of prevention programs showed considerable heterogeneity, there was evidence for the long-term effectiveness of behavioural smoking prevention programs. However, the

  4. Bone mineral density, body mass index and cigarette smoking among Iranian women: implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Nguyen D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While risk factors of osteoporosis in Western populations have been extensively documented, such a profile has not been well studied in Caucasians of non-European origin. This study was designed to estimate the modifiable distribution and determinants of bone mineral density (BMD among Iranian women in Australia. Methods Ninety women aged 35 years and older completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN using DXA (GE Lunar, WI, USA, and was expressed in g/cm2 as well as T-score. Results In multiple regression analysis, advancing age, lower body mass index (BMI, and smoking were independently associated with LS and FN BMD, with the 3 factors collectively accounting for 30% and 38% variance of LS and FN BMD, respectively. LS and FN BMD in smokers was 8% lower than that in non-smokers. Further analysis of interaction between BMI and smoking revealed that the effect of smoking was only observed in the obese group (p = 0.029 for LSBMD and p = 0.007 for FNBMD, but not in the overweight and normal groups. Using T-scores from two bone sites the prevalence of osteoporosis (T-scores ≤ -2.5 was 3.8% and 26.3% in pre-and post-menopausal women, respectively. Among current smokers, the prevalence was higher (31.3% than that among ex-smokers (28.6% and non-smokers (7.5%. Conclusion These data, for the first time, indicate that apart from advancing age and lower body mass index, cigarette smoking is an important modifiable determinant of bone mineral density in these Caucasians of non-European origin.

  5. Cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, and perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted among four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, perceived efficacy in oral self-care and preventing gingivodental diseases among them. The result showed that the perceived ...

  6. Alpha radioactivity in cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.; Eisenbud, M.; Harley, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The α activity of cigarette smoke tar deposited onto membrane filters was found to be associated with the relatively insoluble fraction. Perfusion of the tar with physiological saline resulted in no change in the mean measured activity, but there was more variability in the measured values for the perfused tar than for the initial tar samples. Analysis of cigarette smoke condensate shows that radium and thorium are present, but over 99% of the α activity results from 210 Po. Repeat measurements after a time lapse of 2 1/2 years indicate that the initial 210 Pb content of the tar is roughly 30 to 40% of the original 210 Po content for both unprocessed and perfused samples. An increase in the α activity concentration of smoke deposited in lung tissue may result from the lack of solubility of the radioactive material compared with other smoke constituents

  7. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... The objective of this study was to investigate the knowledge and practice of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Ekpoma. A sample of 353 senior secondary students drawn from selected schools in the area was studied in a cross-sectional design using self-administered questionnaires.

  8. Interactions between cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter in the Risk of Lung Cancer Mortality in Cancer Prevention Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C; Cohen, Aaron; Jerrett, Michael; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Pope, C Arden; Krewski, Daniel; Beckerman, Bernardo S; Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-12-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified outdoor air pollution and airborne particulate matter as carcinogenic to humans. However, there are gaps in the epidemiologic literature, including assessment of possible joint effects of cigarette smoking and fine particulate matter (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter) on lung cancer risk. We present estimates of interaction on the additive scale between these risk factors from Cancer Prevention Study II, a large prospective US cohort study of nearly 1.2 million participants recruited in 1982. Estimates of the relative excess risk of lung cancer mortality due to interaction, the attributable proportion due to interaction, and the synergy index were 2.19 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.10, 4.83), 0.14 (95% CI: 0.00, 0.25), and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.37), respectively, using the 25th and 75th percentiles as cutpoints for fine particulate matter. This suggests small increases in lung cancer risk among persons with both exposures beyond what would be expected from the sum of the effects of the individual exposures alone. Although reductions in cigarette smoking will achieve the greatest impact on lung cancer rates, these results suggest that attempted reductions in lung cancer risk through both tobacco control and air quality management may exceed expectations based on reducing exposure to either risk factor alone. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Exposure to School and Community Based Prevention Programs and Reductions in Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in the United States, 2000–08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Ren, Yuanjing; Lin, Feng; MacDonell, Karen; Jiang, Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Smoking remains prevalent among U.S. youth despite decades of antismoking efforts. Effects from exposure to prevention programs at national level may provide informative and compelling data supporting better planning and strategy for tobacco control. A national representative sample of youth 12–17 years of age from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was analyzed. A 3-stage model was devised to estimate smoking behavior transitions using cross-sectional data and the Probabilistic Discrete Event System method. Cigarette smoking measures (prevalence rates and odds ratios) were compared between exposed and non-exposed youth. More than 95% of the sample was exposed to prevention programs. Exposure was negatively associated with lifetime smoking and past 30-day smoking with a dose-response relation. Reduction in smoking was related to increased quitting in 2000–02, to increased quitting and declined initiation in 2003–05, and to initiation, quitting and relapse in 2005–08. Findings of this analysis suggest that intervention programs in the United States can reduce cigarette smoking among youth. Quitting smoking was most responsive to program exposure and relapse was most sensitive to funding cuts since 2003. Health policy and decision makers should consider these factors in planning and revising tobacco control strategies. PMID:22410164

  10. Beta-Cryptoxanthin supplementation prevents cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation, oxidative damage and squamous metaplasia in ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In epidemiologic studies, high intake of beta-cryptoxanthin has been associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer, particularly among current smokers. However, data are not available from well-controlled animal studies to examine the effects of beta-cryptoxanthin on cigarette smoke-induced lung ...

  11. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  12. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  13. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  15. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Bronchial Reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Wright

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of a brief low level exposure to cigarette smoke in rats with known low (Sprague-Dawley and high (Fisher airway responsiveness, to test the hypothesis that airways reactivity influences the severity or duration of pulmonary function alterations after cigarette smoke exposure.

  16. Cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette vaping patterns as a function of e-cigarette flavourings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D; Duffy, Valerie; Oncken, Cheryl

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the influence of flavouring on the smoking and vaping behaviour of cigarette smokers asked to adopt e-cigarettes for a period of 6 weeks. Participants were 88 current male and female smokers with no intention to stop smoking, but who agreed to substitute e-cigarettes for their current cigarettes. On intake, participants were administered tests of taste and smell for e-cigarettes flavoured with tobacco, menthol, cherry and chocolate, and were given a refillable e-cigarette of their preferred flavour or a control flavour. Participants completed daily logs of cigarette and e-cigarette use and were followed each week. Analyses over days indicated that, during the 6-week e-cigarette period, cigarette smoking rates dropped from an average of about 16 to about 7 cigarettes/day. e-Cigarette flavour had a significant effect such that the largest drop in cigarette smoking occurred among those assigned menthol e-cigarettes, and the smallest drop in smoking occurred among those assigned chocolate and cherry flavours. e-Cigarette vaping rates also differed significantly by flavour assigned, with the highest vaping rates for tobacco- and cherry-flavoured e-cigarettes, and the lowest rates for those assigned to chocolate. The findings suggest that adoption of e-cigarettes in smokers may influence smoking rates and that e-cigarette flavourings can moderate this effect. e-Cigarette vaping rates are also influenced by flavourings. These findings may have implications for the utility of e-cigarettes as a nicotine replacement device and for the regulation of flavourings in e-cigarettes for harm reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Characteristics of Smoking Used Cigarettes among an Incarcerated Population

    OpenAIRE

    Lantini, Ryan; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Roberts, Mary B.; Bock, Beth C.; Stein, L.A.R.; Parker, Donna R.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about smoking behaviors involving shared and previously used cigarettes, which we refer to as “smoking used cigarettes.” Examples include: cigarette sharing with strangers, smoking discarded cigarettes (‘butts’), or remaking cigarettes from portions of discarded cigarettes. The current study focuses on the prevalence of and factors associated with smoking used cigarettes prior to incarceration among a US prison population. Questionnaires were administered to 244 male and femal...

  18. Preventive effects of physical exercise on the inhibition of creatine kinase in the cerebral cortex of mice exposed to cigarette smoke. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n2p106

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Bittencourt Fraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown the health benefits of physical exercise, increasing the oxidative response of muscle. However, the effects of exercise on the brain are poorly understood and contradictory. The inhibition of creatine kinase (CK activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of a large number of diseases, especially in the brain. The objective of this study was to determine the preventive effects of physical exercise in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of mice after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Eight to 10-week-old male mice (C57BL-6 were divided into four groups and submitted to an exercise program (swimming, 5 times a week, for 8 weeks. After this period, the animals were passively exposed to cigarette smoke for 60 consecutive days, 3 times a day (4 Marlboro red cigarettes per session, for a total of 12 cigarettes. CK activity was measured in cerebral cortex and hippocampal homogenates. Enzyme activity was inhibited in the cerebral cortex of animals submitted to the inhalation of cigarette smoke. However, exercise prevented this inhibition. In contrast, CK activity remained unchanged in the hippocampus. This inhibition of CK by inhalation of cigarette smoke might be related to the process of cell death. Physical exercise played a preventive role in the inhibition of CK activity caused by exposure to cigarette smoke.

  19. Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in SMP30 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yohei; Sato, Tadashi; Sugimoto, Masataka; Baskoro, Hario; Karasutani, Keiko; Mitsui, Aki; Nurwidya, Fariz; Arano, Naoko; Kodama, Yuzo; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Ishigami, Akihito; Seyama, Kuniaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2017-10-07

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predominantly a cigarette smoke (CS)-triggered disease with features of chronic systemic inflammation. Oxidants derived from CS can induce DNA damage and stress-induced premature cellular senescence in the respiratory system, which play significant roles in COPD. Therefore, antioxidants should provide benefits for the treatment of COPD; however, their therapeutic potential remains limited owing to the complexity of this disease. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has been reported as a preventive and therapeutic antioxidant. Molecular H 2 can selectively reduce hydroxyl radical accumulation with no known side effects, showing potential applications in managing oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. However, there have been no reports on the efficacy of molecular H 2 in COPD patients. In the present study, we used a mouse model of COPD to investigate whether CS-induced histological damage in the lungs could be attenuated by administration of molecular H 2 . We administered H 2 -rich pure water to senescence marker protein 30 knockout (SMP30-KO) mice exposed to CS for 8 weeks. Administration of H 2 -rich water attenuated the CS-induced lung damage in the SMP30-KO mice and reduced the mean linear intercept and destructive index of the lungs. Moreover, H 2 -rich water significantly restored the static lung compliance in the CS-exposed mice compared with that in the CS-exposed H 2 -untreated mice. Moreover, treatment with H 2 -rich water decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage markers such as phosphorylated histone H2AX and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and senescence markers such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1, and β-galactosidase in the CS-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that H 2 -rich pure water attenuated CS-induced emphysema in SMP30-KO mice by reducing CS-induced oxidative DNA damage and premature cell senescence in the lungs. Our

  20. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  1. Global Evidence on the Association between Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Ngo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2011, the courts ruled in favor of tobacco companies in preventing the implementation of graphic warning labels (GWLs in the US, stating that FDA had not established the effectiveness of GWLs in reducing smoking. Methods: Data came from various sources: the WHO MPOWER package (GWLs, MPOWER policy measures, cigarette prices, Euromonitor International (smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and the World Bank database (countries’ demographic characteristics. The datasets were aggregated and linked using country and year identifiers. Fractional logit regressions and OLS regressions were applied to examine the associations between GWLs and smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, controlling for MPOWER policy scores, cigarette prices, GDP per capita, unemployment, population aged 15–64 (%, aged 65 and over (%, year indicators, and country fixed effects. Results: GWLs were associated with a 0.9–3 percentage point decrease in adult smoking prevalence and were significantly associated with a reduction of 230–287 sticks in per capita cigarette consumption, compared to countries without GWLs. However, the association between GWLs and cigarette consumption became statistically insignificant once country indicators were included in the models. Conclusions: The implementation of GWLs may be associated with reduced cigarette smoking.

  2. Global Evidence on the Association between Cigarette Graphic Warning Labels and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Anh; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-02-28

    Background : In 2011, the courts ruled in favor of tobacco companies in preventing the implementation of graphic warning labels (GWLs) in the US, stating that FDA had not established the effectiveness of GWLs in reducing smoking. Methods : Data came from various sources: the WHO MPOWER package (GWLs, MPOWER policy measures, cigarette prices), Euromonitor International (smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption), and the World Bank database (countries' demographic characteristics). The datasets were aggregated and linked using country and year identifiers. Fractional logit regressions and OLS regressions were applied to examine the associations between GWLs and smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption, controlling for MPOWER policy scores, cigarette prices, GDP per capita, unemployment, population aged 15-64 (%), aged 65 and over (%), year indicators, and country fixed effects. Results : GWLs were associated with a 0.9-3 percentage point decrease in adult smoking prevalence and were significantly associated with a reduction of 230-287 sticks in per capita cigarette consumption, compared to countries without GWLs. However, the association between GWLs and cigarette consumption became statistically insignificant once country indicators were included in the models. Conclusions : The implementation of GWLs may be associated with reduced cigarette smoking.

  3. Perceptions of the Harm and Addictiveness of Conventional Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescent E-Cigarette Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotomo, Olusegun; Maslowsky, Julie; Loukas, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Although existing evidence indicates that e-cigarette use is a risk factor for cigarette smoking initiation, mechanisms of this association are not yet known. E-cigarette users perceive e-cigarette use to be less harmful relative to conventional cigarettes, but their absolute perceptions of addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking are unknown. This study examines how e-cigarette users compare with nonusers (non-e-cigarette users/nonconventional cigarette smokers), conventional cigarette smokers, and dual users on perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking and on other known predictors of cigarette smoking such as peer smoking, influence of antismoking ads, and risk-taking propensity. National samples of 8th- and 10th-grade students from 2014 and 2015 (N = 14,151) were obtained from the Monitoring the Future Study. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine relationships between adolescent smoking status and perceptions of harm and the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking while controlling for potential confounders. E-cigarette users had lower perceptions of the addictiveness of conventional cigarette smoking compared with nonusers but higher than cigarette smokers and dual users. E-cigarette users reported lower influence by antismoking ads, more conventional cigarette-smoking peers, and greater risk-taking propensity than nonusers. E-cigarette users and cigarette smokers did not differ in their perceived harm of conventional cigarette smoking or in their risk-taking propensity. E-cigarette users' attitudes and perceptions regarding conventional cigarette smoking may leave them vulnerable to becoming conventional cigarette smokers. Future studies should explore the prospective relationship between smoking-related perceptions of conventional cigarette smoking among e-cigarette users and the onset of cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published

  4. Lack of Preventive Health Behaviors in the Early Forties: The Role of Earlier Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking From Adolescence to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; De La Rosa, Mario; Brook, David W

    2017-10-15

    To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of cigarette smoking from adolescence to the early forties are similar or different in terms of lack of preventive health behaviors (e.g., underuse of preventive health services, unhealthy eating habits) in early midlife. Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in two upstate New York counties (N = 548). Data were collected from adolescence to early midlife (mean age = 43 years, standard deviation [SD] = 2.8) at seven time points. Using growth mixture modeling, we statistically identified the number of smoking trajectories. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the probabilities of participants' smoking trajectory group membership and lack of preventive behaviors in early midlife. Five trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. With controls, as compared with the nonsmoker trajectory group, higher probabilities of belonging to the heavy/continuous smoker trajectory group and the late starter trajectory groups were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of lack of preventive health behaviors (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.49 and 4.02 respectively). In addition, as compared to the quitter/decreaser trajectory group, higher probabilities of belonging to the heavy/continuous smoker trajectory group and the late starter trajectory group were also significantly associated with a higher likelihood of lack of preventive health behaviors (AOR = 3.51 and 4.04 respectively). Intervention programs may consider focusing on heavy/continuous smokers and late starters in programs designed to promote adequate use of preventive health services and healthy general lifestyles in early midlife.

  5. Cigarette taxes and smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, J S; Evans, W N

    2001-11-01

    This study sought to estimate how changes in state cigarette excise taxes affect the smoking behavior of pregnant women. Detailed information about mothers and their pregnancy was used to examine the impact of taxes on the propensity of pregnant women to smoke. The 1989 to 1995 Natality Detail Files were used in conducting analyses to assess the impact of taxes on smoking among different subpopulations. Higher cigarette excise taxes reduced smoking rates among pregnant women. A tax hike of $0.55 per pack would reduce maternal smoking by about 22%. Overall, a 10% increase in price would reduce smoking rates by 7%. Estimates for subpopulations suggested that nearly all would be very responsive to tax changes, including the subpopulations with the highest smoking rates. Smoking rates among pregnant women are responsive to tax hikes.

  6. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  7. State Estimates of Adolescent Cigarette Use and Perceptions of Risk of Smoking: 2012 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Short Report May 18, 2015 STATE ESTIMATES OF ADOLESCENT CIGARETTE USE AND PERCEPTIONS OF RISK OF SMOKING: ... on our nation and its states. 3 Preventing adolescents from starting to smoke may be the most ...

  8. Smoking history, cigarette yield and smoking behavior as determinants of smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, R B; Humble, J W; Turbek, J A; Rehm, S R

    1986-01-01

    This study examines how smoking history, cigarette yield and smoking behavior relate to smoke exposure as determined by smoke constituents and their metabolic products in peripheral blood. Recruited without regard to the nicotine yield of their cigarette, male smokers smoked their own cigarettes ad libitum, including one cigarette five minutes prior to venipuncture. Smokers had significant (p = 0.0001) elevations of serum thiocyanate, blood carboxyhemoglobin, plasma nicotine, and cotinine concentrations each of which was significantly associated with past 24-hour cigarette consumption. The nicotine yield of the cigarette significantly correlated with plasma cotinine concentrations and with the smoking behavior variables. Most notably, smokers consuming lower nicotine yielding cigarettes exhibited an increased total puff volume per cigarette, suggesting that smokers of low nicotine yielding cigarettes compensate for these low yields by their smoking behavior. However, the fact that lower plasma cotinine concentrations are present in smokers of low-nicotine cigarettes suggests that this compensation is incomplete. That smoking behavior variables relate to smoke exposure was demonstrated by a significant linear correlation between plasma nicotine and mean puff interval in the total smoking population and between plasma nicotine and total puff volume per cigarette in a subpopulation smoking a single brand of cigarette. These data suggest that smoking history, nicotine yield of the cigarette and smoking behavior are all determinants of smoke exposure. Further, although smokers of low-yield cigarettes appear to compensate by puffing larger volumes per cigarette, this compensation appears to be inadequate to attain an equivalent smoke exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Authoritative parenting, child competencies, and initiation of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C; Bee-Gates, D J; Henriksen, L

    1994-01-01

    School-based social influence programs to prevent adolescent smoking are having limited success in the long term. Intervening earlier in the process of smoking onset, during the childhood years, may be required to prevent adolescent smoking. Child socialization variables, specifically parenting behaviors and child competencies, may be important to understanding the earliest phase of smoking onset. This study tested hypotheses of association between authoritative parenting behaviors, enhanced child competencies, and relatively low rates of initiation of cigarette smoking. Analyzing cross-sectional survey data from 937 students in Grades 3 to 8, we found general support for the study hypotheses: Authoritative parenting was positively associated with child competencies; children's competency levels were inversely related to their rates of smoking intention, initiation, and experimentation; authoritative parenting was inversely related to rates of child smoking intention and behaviors; and authoritative parenting and parent smoking status had independent associations with child initiation of cigarette smoking. These results indicate that child socialization variables merit further investigation for their potential role in the development of early intervention programs for smoking prevention.

  10. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis ( MS). Methods: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox

  11. Factors Influencing the Onset of Cigarette Smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States; responsible for more than 400,000 deaths annually. There have been few reports in the literature about the association between these diseases and cigarette smoking from African countries, which may indicate that these diseases are not common ...

  12. Association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, S.M.; Ershadian, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the association between cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methodology: In this retrospective study which was carried out in Razi hospital, in Ahvaz a city southwest Iran, medical charts of patients with tuberculosis between 2005 and 2007 were reviewed. Sixty one patients aged 15-96 years with documented pulmonary tuberculosis (smear positive) were selected as cases and 122 age and sex matched persons without tuberculosis(patients hospitalized in surgery and orthopedic wards) were selected randomly as controls. Data on smoking status, quantity of cigarette smoked, and duration of smoking was collected from medical charts. The data in the two groups were statistically compared with SPSS version 16. The chi square test was used to compare the frequency of cigarette smoking in two groups. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated when appropriate. Differences with a P value of <0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of total 61 case, 42 (68.9%) were smoker, while, of total 122 controls 22(18%) were smoker. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the relation between smoking and tuberculosis was 10.1 [(95% confidence interval (CI) 4.3 to 23.5), P<0.001]. The mean of pocket - year of smoked cigarette (20/pocket) in cases and controls were 15.9 +- 13.7 and 13.5 +- 9.1, respectively (P=0.5). Conclusion: This study showed that pulmonary tuberculosis is associated to cigarette smoking. The association is not dose-dependent. Smoking may be a risk factor for TB acquisition. (author)

  13. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  14. Persistent impact of cigarette smoking on asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedoszytko, Marek; Gruchała-Niedoszytko, Marta; Chełminska, Marta; Sieminska, Alicja; Jassem, Ewa

    2008-08-01

    In the present study we assessed the impact of former cigarette smoking on asthma control and treatment effectiveness. A total of 104 patients with uncontrolled asthma were included in the study. The group of former smokers consisted of 33 subjects, whereas the never smokers group consisted of 71 subjects of similar age and gender. Spirometry, classification of asthma severity, and control were assessed according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines. Quality of life was measured with the use of the Saint George Hospital Respiratory Questionnaire (SGHRQ). Asthma was more severe in the group of former smokers both before and after treatment; p 0.05. Cigarette smoking has a persistent, dose-dependent, negative impact on the response to treatment in patients with uncontrolled asthma even after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation should remain the ultimate goal in treatment of asthmatic patients. More efforts should be undertaken to decrease smoking initiation, especially in teenagers.

  15. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Begh, Rachna; Stead, Lindsay F; Hajek, Peter

    2016-09-14

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are electronic devices that heat a liquid into an aerosol for inhalation. The liquid usually comprises propylene glycol and glycerol, with or without nicotine and flavours, and stored in disposable or refillable cartridges or a reservoir. Since ECs appeared on the market in 2006 there has been a steady growth in sales. Smokers report using ECs to reduce risks of smoking, but some healthcare organizations, tobacco control advocacy groups and policy makers have been reluctant to encourage smokers to switch to ECs, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. Smokers, healthcare providers and regulators are interested to know if these devices can help smokers quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. This review is an update of a review first published in 2014. To evaluate the safety and effect of using ECs to help people who smoke achieve long-term smoking abstinence. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO for relevant records from 2004 to January 2016, together with reference checking and contact with study authors. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which current smokers (motivated or unmotivated to quit) were randomized to EC or a control condition, and which measured abstinence rates at six months or longer. As the field of EC research is new, we also included cohort follow-up studies with at least six months follow-up. We included randomized cross-over trials, RCTs and cohort follow-up studies that included at least one week of EC use for assessment of adverse events (AEs). We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up, and we used the most rigorous definition available (continuous, biochemically validated, longest follow-up). We used a fixed-effect Mantel

  16. "Smoking revolution": a content analysis of electronic cigarette retail websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Rachel A; Ling, Pamela M

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%); increased social status (44%); enhanced social activity (32%); romance (31%); and use by celebrities (22%). Health claims and smoking-cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  18. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  19. Examining Demographic Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking among Undergraduate Students at a Turkish University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Erkan; Çelik, Ali Kemal; Akbaba, Ahmet Ilker

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading global preventable health risk, and it is associated with well-known health risks such as morbidity, mortality, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and nicotine addiction. When analyzed by age group, cigarette smoking in Turkey is the most prevalent among younger adult populations. The college years appear to be a time…

  20. E-cigarette use among US adolescents: secondhand smoke at home matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Pu, Jia

    2016-03-01

    To examine the association of family smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home with the use of electronic cigarettes among US adolescents, in particular the medication effect of SHS on the association between family smoking status and electronic cigarette use. Data from the 2013 National Youth Tobacco Survey were used and logistic regressions were conducted to model electronic cigarettes use. The mediation effect of SHS was tested using the Sobel-Goodman mediation test. Overall, 8.1 % of the US adolescents reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among both the overall population and never-cigarette smokers, adolescents living in smoker households were significantly more likely to report ever use of e-cigarettes (p smoke-free home rules may help prevent the uptake of e-cigarettes among teenagers.

  1. Cigarette smoke condensate attenuates phorbol ester-mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... (PMA)-mediated NETosis in vitro. Methods: Isolated human ... Cigarette smoking also recruits macrophages and neutrophils to the lungs and ... neutrophils to cigarette smoke condensate (a surrogate for cigarette smoke) on PMA-induced NET formation in vitro. Methodology. Ethics approval. The study was ...

  2. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The most predominant form of tobacco use is cigarette smoking, and it poses serious threats to maternal and child health. The magnitude of cigarette smoking in pregnancy in our environment is not well.known. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking among pregnant women in ...

  3. Development of nitroxide radicals-containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals-containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV-visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke.

  4. The role of menthol in cigarettes as a reinforcer of smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijevych, Karen; Garrett, Bridgette E

    2010-12-01

    The World Health Organization has identified several additives such as menthol in the manufacturing of cigarettes to specifically reduce smoke harshness. These additives may have important implications for reinforcing smoking behavior and motivation to quit smoking. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize research related to the role of menthol's sensory characteristics in strengthening the reinforcing effects of nicotine in cigarettes and the impact on nicotine addiction and smoking behavior. Research reports from 2002 to 2010 on the addictive potential of menthol cigarettes were reviewed that included qualitative focus groups, self-reports and biomarkers of nicotine dependence, human laboratory, and epidemiological studies. Positive sensory effects of menthol cigarette use were identified via reports of early smoking experiences and as a potential starter product for smoking uptake in youth. Menthol cigarettes may serve as a conditioned stimulus that reinforces the rewarding effects of smoking. Nicotine dependence measured by shorter time-to-first cigarette upon waking was increased with menthol cigarette use in most of the studies reviewed. Smoking quit rates provide additional indicators of nicotine dependence, and the majority of the studies reviewed provided evidence of lower quit rates or higher relapse rates among menthol cigarette smokers. The effects of menthol cigarette use in increasing the reinforcing effects of nicotine on smoking behavior were evidenced in both qualitative and quantitative empirical studies. These findings have implications for enhanced prevention and cessation efforts in menthol smokers.

  5. Development of nitroxide radicals–containing polymer for scavenging reactive oxygen species from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitomi, Toru; Kuramochi, Kazuhiro; Binh Vong, Long; Nagasaki, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    We developed a nitroxide radicals–containing polymer (NRP), which is composed of poly(4-methylstyrene) possessing nitroxide radicals as a side chain via amine linkage, to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) from cigarette smoke. In this study, the NRP was coated onto cigarette filters and its ROS-scavenging activity from streaming cigarette smoke was evaluated. The intensity of electron spin resonance signals of the NRP in the filter decreased after exposure to cigarette smoke, indicating consumption of nitroxide radicals. To evaluate the ROS-scavenging activity of the NRP-coated filter, the amount of peroxy radicals in an extract of cigarette smoke was measured using UV–visible spectrophotometry and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The absorbance of DPPH at 517 nm decreased with exposure to cigarette smoke. When NRP-coated filters were used, the decrease in the absorbance of DPPH was prevented. In contrast, both poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters, which have no nitroxide radical, did not show any effect, indicating that the nitroxide radicals in the NRP scavenge the ROS in cigarette smoke. As a result, the extract of cigarette smoke passed through the NRP-coated filter has a lower cellular toxicity than smoke passed through poly[4-(cyclohexylamino)methylstyrene]- and poly(acrylic acid)-coated filters. Accordingly, NRP is a promising material for ROS scavenging from cigarette smoke. (papers)

  6. Skills methods to prevent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Snow, W H; Bobo, J K

    1986-01-01

    School health educators have devoted much attention to cigarette smoking. Recent years have seen the testing of interventions to prevent smoking. To date, controlled studies have not evaluated the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking. This article describes such an evaluation with sixth-grade students from two schools. Subjects were pretested and randomly assigned to receive conventional health education methods or to receive skills intervention. Both conditions included films, peer testimonials, discussions, and homework. Health education condition subjects additionally participated in oral quizzes, games, and debates. Skills condition subjects additionally learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. At postintervention, skills condition subjects, more than health education condition subjects, had better scores on measures of smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. In addition, reported cigarette use, validated by biochemical data collection, was lower in the skills condition than in the health education condition at all postintervention measurements, including a 24-month follow-up. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention efforts in schools.

  7. EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON SERUM TRANSAMINASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EFFECT OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON SERUM TRANSAMINASES. ... Global Journal of Medical Sciences ... Alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase activity were assessed in 20 mild to moderate smokers, 20 heavy smokers and 20 non smokers, all males, aged between 17 and 35 years in Calabar Cross River ...

  8. Epidemiology of cigarette smoking among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiology of cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Owerri Municipality Imo State, Nigeria. NC Osuchukwu, EC Osuchukwu. Abstract. No Abstract. Mary Slessor Journal of Medicine Vol. 8 (1) 2008: pp. 49-53. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  9. Determination of Hydroxybenzenes in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the results regarding the evaluation of retention efficiency by humans of hydroxybenzenes (phenols from mainstream cigarette smoke. Over twenty phenols were evaluated in the exhaled smoke of a commercial cigarette with 10.6 mg ‘tar’ [U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total particulate matter minus nicotine and water]. The test was performed on ten human subjects. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted technique that avoids strain in exhaling the smoke. The study showed that the phenols were retained with high efficiency from cigarette smoke, typically above 80%. Only 4-ethylresorcinol, and C3-dihydroxybenzenes (C3 indicating any alkyl with three carbon atoms were retained less efficiently with retention values around 70%. The high retention of this class of compounds was expected since phenols are polar compounds with relatively low molecular weights between 94 (for phenol and 152 (for a propyl-dihydroxybenzene.

  10. Depressive Symptoms and Cigarette Smoking in a College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Brent A.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors examined (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking in a college sample and (2) the role of smoking self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to abstain from smoking) in explaining the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking. Methods: Predominantly first-year…

  11. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  12. The Impact of Trying Electronic Cigarettes on Cigarette Smoking by College Students: A Prospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; Reboussin, Beth A; Debinski, Beata; Wagoner, Kimberly G; Spangler, John; Wolfson, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the impact of trying electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) on future cigarette smoking in a sample of smokers enrolled in college. In this longitudinal study, first-semester college students at 7 colleges in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia completed a baseline survey and 5 follow-up surveys between fall 2010 and fall 2013. Current cigarette smoking at wave 6 was the primary outcome. Participants (n = 271) reported current cigarette smoking at baseline and no history of e-cigarette use. We measured trying e-cigarettes at each wave, defined as use in the past 6 months. By wave 5, 43.5% had tried e-cigarettes. Even after controlling for other variables associated with cigarette smoking, trying e-cigarettes was a significant predictor of cigarette smoking at wave 6 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32, 4.66), as were friends' cigarette smoking (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI = 2.22, 7.96) and lifetime use of other tobacco products (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.17). Trying e-cigarettes during college did not deter cigarette smoking and may have contributed to continued smoking.

  13. Hand-rolled cigarette smoking patterns compared with factory-made cigarette smoking in New Zealand men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glover Marewa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Roll-your-own (RYO cigarettes have increased in popularity, yet their comparative potential toxicity is uncertain. This study compares smoking of RYO and factory-made (FM cigarettes on smoking pattern and immediate potential toxicity. Methods At a research clinic, 26 RYO and 22 FM volunteer male cigarette smokers, (addicted and overnight-tobacco-abstinent each smoked 4 filter cigarettes, one half-hourly over 2 hours, either RYO or FM according to usual habit, using the CReSSMicro flowmeter. First cigarette smoked was their own brand. Subsequent cigarettes, all Holiday regular brand, were RYOs (0.5 g tobacco with filter, or FM with filter. Cravings on 100 mm visual analogue scale, and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO were measured before and after each cigarette smoked. Results Smokers reported similar daily cigarette consumption (RYO 19.0, FM 17.4, p = 0.45, and similar time after waking to first cigarette. (RYO 6.1 minutes, FM 8.6 minutes, p = 0.113. First cigarette's RYO tobacco (0.45 g weighed less than for FM (0.7 g, p Conclusion In these smokers, RYO smoking was associated with increased smoke exposure per cigarette, and similar CO breath levels, and even with filters is apparently no less and possibly more dangerous than FM smoking. Specific package warnings should warn of RYO smoking's true risk. RYOs are currently taxed much less than FM cigarettes in most countries; similar harm merits similar excise per cigarette.

  14. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  15. The biology behind the atherothrombotic effects of cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csordas, Adam; Bernhard, David

    2013-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is an aerosol that contains >4,000 chemicals, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, and oxidant compounds. Exposure to cigarette smoke induces multiple pathological effects in the endothelium, several of which are the result of oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and other oxidant constituents of cigarette smoke. Cigarette-smoke exposure interferes adversely with the control of all stages of plaque formation and development and pathological thrombus formation. The reactive oxygen species in cigarette smoke contribute to oxidative stress, upregulation of inflammatory cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction, by reducing the bioavailability of nitric oxide. Plaque formation and the development of vulnerable plaques also result from exposure to cigarette smoke via the enhancement of inflammatory processes and the activation of matrix metalloproteases. Moreover, exposure to cigarette smoke results in platelet activation, stimulation of the coagulation cascade, and impairment of anticoagulative fibrinolysis. Many cigarette-smoke-mediated prothrombotic changes are quickly reversible upon smoking cessation. Public health efforts should urgently promote our understanding of current cigarette-smoke-induced cardiovascular pathology to encourage individuals to reduce their exposure to cigarette smoke and, therefore, the detrimental consequences of associated atherothrombotic disease.

  16. Advice From Former-Smoking E-Cigarette Users to Current Smokers on How to Use E-Cigarettes as Part of an Attempt to Quit Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher; Dickson, Tiffany; McKeganey, Neil

    2017-08-03

    Substitution of e-cigarettes for tobacco smoking has the potential to prevent almost all the harm caused by smoking. Identifying strategies that may increase smokers' capability, opportunity and motivation to use e-cigarettes in place of tobacco cigarettes is vital. Former smokers who have successfully used e-cigarettes to quit smoking may be especially well qualified to increase current smokers' interest in switching and ability to switch to e-cigarettes. A multi-national, self-selected sample of 4192 former smokers who quit smoking by using e-cigarettes were asked, via an online survey, the advice they would offer to smokers who are considering using e-cigarettes to support an attempt to quit smoking. Thematic analysis of participants' qualitative responses identified four emergent themes: (1) Find a combination of vaping device, flavors of e-liquid and nicotine strength that "works for you"; (2) Continuing to smoke for a while after starting to vape is OK; (3) Failure to quit smoking with the use of approved smoking cessation aids before success with e-cigarettes is common; and (4) Awareness of improved health and hygiene since switching to vaping. Experienced vapers who used to smoke appear eager to give smokers advice and practical information about vaping that may assist attempts to switch from smoking to vaping. Encouraging cigarette smokers to interact with experienced vapers in places where vapers themselves once received advice and now give advice about vaping-vape shops and online discussion fora-may have significant potential to help more smokers to switch to e-cigarette use. This study describes the advice that former-smokers who used e-cigarettes to quit smoking would offer to smokers who are considering using an e-cigarette to support an attempt to quit smoking. Vapers advised smokers to find the right combination of device, flavors and nicotine strength, continue to smoke and vape for a while if they wished, not be deterred by past failed attempts

  17. Progression to Traditional Cigarette Smoking After Electronic Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A; Soneji, Samir; Stoolmiller, Michael; Fine, Michael J; Sargent, James D

    2015-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may help smokers reduce the use of traditional combustible cigarettes. However, adolescents and young adults who have never smoked traditional cigarettes are now using e-cigarettes, and these individuals may be at risk for subsequent progression to traditional cigarette smoking. To determine whether baseline use of e-cigarettes among nonsmoking and nonsusceptible adolescents and young adults is associated with subsequent progression along an established trajectory to traditional cigarette smoking. In this longitudinal cohort study, a national US sample of 694 participants aged 16 to 26 years who were never cigarette smokers and were attitudinally nonsusceptible to smoking cigarettes completed baseline surveys from October 1, 2012, to May 1, 2014, regarding smoking in 2012-2013. They were reassessed 1 year later. Analysis was conducted from July 1, 2014, to March 1, 2015. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between baseline e-cigarette use and cigarette smoking, controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational level, sensation-seeking tendency, parental cigarette smoking, and cigarette smoking among friends. Sensitivity analyses were performed, with varying approaches to missing data and recanting. Use of e-cigarettes at baseline. Progression to cigarette smoking, defined using 3 specific states along a trajectory: nonsusceptible nonsmokers, susceptible nonsmokers, and smokers. Individuals who could not rule out smoking in the future were defined as susceptible. Among the 694 respondents, 374 (53.9%) were female and 531 (76.5%) were non-Hispanic white. At baseline, 16 participants (2.3%) used e-cigarettes. Over the 1-year follow-up, 11 of 16 e-cigarette users and 128 of 678 of those who had not used e-cigarettes (18.9%) progressed toward cigarette smoking. In the primary fully adjusted models, baseline e-cigarette use was independently associated with progression to smoking

  18. Epigenetic Signatures of Cigarette Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Joehanes (Roby); Just, A.C. (Allan C.); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); L.C. Pilling (Luke); L.M. Reynolds (Lindsay); Mandaviya, P.R. (Pooja R.); W. Guan (Weihua); Xu, T. (Tao); C.E. Elks (Cathy); Aslibekyan, S. (Stella); H. Moreno-Macías (Hortensia); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); J. Brody (Jennifer); Dhingra, R. (Radhika); P. Yousefi (Paul); J.S. Pankow (James); Kunze, S. (Sonja); Shah, S.H. (Sonia H.); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); K. Lohman (Kurt); Sha, J. (Jin); D. Absher (Devin); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); Zhao, W. (Wei); E.W. Demerath (Ellen); J. Bressler (Jan); M.L. Grove (Megan); T. Huan (Tianxiao); C. Liu (Chunyu); Mendelson, M.M. (Michael M.); C. Yao (Chen); D.P. Kiel (Douglas P.); A. Peters (Annette); R. Wang-Sattler (Rui); P.M. Visscher (Peter); N.R. Wray (Naomi); J.M. Starr (John); Ding, J. (Jingzhong); Rodriguez, C.J. (Carlos J.); N.J. Wareham (Nick); Irvin, M.R. (Marguerite R.); Zhi, D. (Degui); M. Barrdahl (Myrto); P. Vineis (Paolo); Ambatipudi, S. (Srikant); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); Schwartz, J. (Joel); Colicino, E. (Elena); Hou, L. (Lifang); Vokonas, P.S. (Pantel S.); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Singleton (Andrew); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); S.T. Turner (Stephen); E.B. Ware (Erin B.); Smith, A.K. (Alicia K.); T. Klengel (Torsten); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth B.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); K.D. Taylor (Kent); S.A. Gharib (Sina); Swenson, B.R. (Brenton R.); Liang, L. (Liming); D.L. Demeo (Dawn L.); G.T. O'Connor (George); Z. Herceg (Zdenko); Ressler, K.J. (Kerry J.); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); N. Sotoodehnia (Nona); Kardia, S.L.R. (Sharon L. R.); D. Melzer (David); A.A. Baccarelli (Andrea A.); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); I. Romieu (Isabelle); D.K. Arnett (Donna); Ong, K.K. (Ken K.); Y. Liu (YongMei); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Fornage (Myriam); D. Levy (Daniel); S.J. London (Stephanie J.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground-DNA methylation leaves a long-term signature of smoking exposure and is one potential mechanism by which tobacco exposure predisposes to adverse health outcomes, such as cancers, osteoporosis, lung, and cardiovascular disorders. Methods and Results-To comprehensively determine

  19. Another Risk From Cigarette Smoking: Corneal Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hürmeriç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male presented with corneal injury in his left eye after one of his friends had moved his arm backwards and accidentally hit his eye with the lit end of a cigarette. Slit lamp examination revealed epithelial defect and significant stromal edema at the superior temporal quadrant of the cornea. Cigarette ashes were noted in his lashes and inferior conjunctival fornix at the initial examination in the emergency service. 6 weeks after the injury, slit lamp examination revealed stromal thinning and haze in the temporal part of the cornea. His best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a refractive error of -6.75x135 diopters in the left eye. Our case demonstrates that ocular thermal injury due to cigarette smoking can cause serious damage to the ocular tissues. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 484-5

  20. Comparison of Cigarette and Water-Pipe Smoking By Arab and Non–Arab-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Background Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14–18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe–smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non–Arab-American youth in the same community. Methods A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non–Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004–2005 and analyzed in 2007–2008. Results Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non–Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non–Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water

  1. Comparison of cigarette and water-pipe smoking by Arab and non-Arab-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas N; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan

    2008-10-01

    Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14-18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe-smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non-Arab-American youth in the same community. A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non-Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004-2005 and analyzed in 2007-2008. Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non-Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non-Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water-pipe smoking in order to further dispel the myth that

  2. Adolescent cigarette smoking: health-related behavior or normative transgression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbin, M S; Jessor, R; Costa, F M

    2000-09-01

    Relations among measures of adolescent behavior were examined to determine whether cigarette smoking fits into a structure of problem behaviors-behaviors that involve normative transgression-or a structure of health-related behaviors, or both. In an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 1782 male and female high school adolescents, four first-order problem behavior latent variables-sexual intercourse experience, alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and delinquency-were established and together were shown to reflect a second-order latent variable of problem behavior. Four first-order latent variables of health-related behaviors-unhealthy dietary habits, sedentary behavior, unsafe behavior, and poor dental hygiene-were also established and together were shown to reflect a second-order latent variable of health-compromising behavior. The structure of relations among those latent variables was modeled. Cigarette smoking had a significant and substantial loading only on the problem-behavior latent variable; its loading on the health-compromising behavior latent variable was essentially zero. Adolescent cigarette smoking relates strongly and directly to problem behaviors and only indirectly, if at all, to health-compromising behaviors. Interventions to prevent or reduce adolescent smoking should attend more to factors that influence problem behaviors.

  3. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  4. Impact of E-Cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Laws on Current Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Glantz, Stanton A; Arrazola, René A; King, Brian A

    2018-02-03

    The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National Youth Tobacco Surveys [NYTS]) on lagged (laws enacted each year counted for the following year) and unlagged (laws enacted January-June counted for that year) state e-cigarette MLSA laws prohibiting sales to youth aged marijuana legalization, income, and unemployment) covariates. Cigarette smoking was not significantly associated with lagged MLSA laws after adjusting for year (odds ratio [OR] = .87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .73-1.03; p = .10) and covariates (OR = .85, .69-1.03; p = .10). Unlagged laws were significantly and negatively associated with cigarette smoking (OR = .84, .71-.98, p = .02), but not after adjusting for covariates (OR = .84, .70-1.01, p = .07). E-cigarette and other tobacco use, sex, race/ethnicity, age, and smoke-free laws were associated with cigarette smoking (p <.05). Results unadjusted for e-cigarette use and other tobacco use yielded a significant negative association between e-cigarette MLSA laws and cigarette smoking (lagged: OR = .78, .64-.93, p = .01; unlagged: OR = .80, .68-.95, p = .01). After adjusting for covariates, state e-cigarette MLSA laws did not affect youth cigarette smoking. Unadjusted for e-cigarette and other tobacco use, these laws were associated with lower cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  6. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Hui eChen; Hui eChen; Sonia eSaad; Shaun eSandow; Paul eBertrand

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causin...

  7. Cigarette Smoking and Brain Regulation of Energy Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L.; Bertrand, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing...

  8. Exposure to Peers who Smoke Moderates the Association between Sports Participation and Cigarette Smoking Behavior among Non-White Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Mays, Darren; Luta, George; Walker, Leslie R.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent sports participants are less likely to smoke cigarettes, and sports participation may prevent young people from smoking. Research suggests that the relationship between sports participation and smoking may vary by race/ethnicity and is also possibly moderated by exposure to peer smoking. We investigated these relationships in a sample of 311 adolescents ages 13 – 21 presenting for well-visit medical appointments. Participants completed valid assessments of demographics, sports part...

  9. Associations between e-cigarette access and smoking and drinking behaviours in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; Bellis, Mark A; Hardcastle, Katherine A; McHale, Philip; Bennett, Andrew; Ireland, Robin; Pike, Kate

    2015-03-31

    Public health concerns regarding e-cigarettes and debate on appropriate regulatory responses are focusing on the need to prevent child access to these devices. However, little is currently known about the characteristics of those young people that are accessing e-cigarettes. Using a cross-sectional survey of 14-17 year old school students in North West England (n = 16,193) we examined associations between e-cigarette access and demographics, conventional smoking behaviours, alcohol consumption, and methods of accessing cigarettes and alcohol. Access to e-cigarettes was identified through a question asking students if they had ever tried or purchased e-cigarettes. One in five participants reported having accessed e-cigarettes (19.2%). Prevalence was highest among smokers (rising to 75.8% in those smoking >5 per day), although 15.8% of teenagers that had accessed e-cigarettes had never smoked conventional cigarettes (v.13.6% being ex-smokers). E-cigarette access was independently associated with male gender, having parents/guardians that smoke and students' alcohol use. Compared with non-drinkers, teenagers that drank alcohol at least weekly and binge drank were more likely to have accessed e-cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.89, P violence, consumption of spirits; self-purchase of alcohol from shops or supermarkets; and accessing alcohol by recruiting adult proxy purchasers outside shops. There is an urgent need for controls on the promotion and sale of e-cigarettes to children. Findings suggest that e-cigarettes are being accessed by teenagers more for experimentation than smoking cessation. Those most likely to access e-cigarettes may already be familiar with illicit methods of accessing age-restricted substances.

  10. Child physical and sexual abuse and cigarette smoking in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristman-Valente, Allison N; Brown, Eric C; Herrenkohl, Todd I

    2013-10-01

    Analyses used data from an extended longitudinal study to examine the relationship between childhood physical and sexual abuse (CPA and CSA, respectively) and adolescent and adult smoking behavior. Two questions guided the study: (1) Is there an association between childhood abuse and adolescent and adult smoking behavior? (2) Does the relationship between childhood abuse and later cigarette smoking differ for males and females? A censored-inflated path model was used to assess the impact of child abuse on adolescent and adult lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking frequency. Gender differences in significant model paths were assessed using a multiple-group approach. Results show no significant relation between CPA or CSA and risk of having ever smoked cigarettes in adolescence or adulthood. However, for males, both CPA and CSA had direct effects on adolescent smoking frequency. For females, only CSA predicted increased smoking frequency in adolescence. Adolescent smoking frequency predicted adult smoking frequency more strongly for females compared with males. CPA and CSA are risk factors for higher frequency of smoking in adolescence. Higher frequency of cigarette smoking in adolescence increases the risk of higher smoking frequency in adulthood. Results underscore the need for both primary and secondary prevention and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of childhood abuse and to lessen risk for cigarette smoking among those who have been abused. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The fire-safe cigarette: a burn prevention tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillo, D J; Brigham, P A; Kayden, D A; Heck, R T; McManus, A T

    2000-01-01

    Cigarettes are the most common ignition source for fatal house fires, which cause approximately 29% of the fire deaths in the United States. A common scenario is the delayed ignition of a sofa, chair, or mattress by a lit cigarette that is forgotten or dropped by a smoker whose alertness is impaired by alcohol or medication. Cigarettes are designed to continue burning when left unattended. If they are dropped on mattresses, upholstered furniture, or other combustible material while still burning, their propensity to start fires varies depending on the cigarette design and content. The term "fire-safe" has evolved to describe cigarettes designed to have a reduced propensity for igniting mattresses and upholstered furniture. Legislative interest in the development of fire-safe smoking materials has existed for more than 50 years. Studies that showed the technical and economic feasibility of commercial production of fire-safe cigarettes were completed more than 10 years ago. Despite this, commercial production of fire-safe smoking materials has not been undertaken. The current impasse relates to the lack of consensus on a uniform test method on which to base a standard for fire-safe cigarettes. Although the fire-safe cigarette is a potentially important burn prevention tool, commercial production of such cigarettes will not occur until a standard against which fire-starting performance can be measured has been mandated by law at the state or federal level. The burn care community can play a leadership role in such legislative efforts.

  12. Cigarette Smoke Alters the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Siggins

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of tobacco smoke on hematologic derangements have received little attention. This study employed a mouse model of cigarette smoke exposure to explore the effects on bone marrow niche function. While lung cancer is the most widely studied consequence of tobacco smoke exposure, other malignancies, including leukemia, are associated with tobacco smoke exposure. Animals received cigarette smoke exposure for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 9 months. Results reveal that the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC pool size is reduced by cigarette smoke exposure. We next examined the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on one supporting cell type of the niche, the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. Smoke exposure decreased the number of MSCs. Transplantation of naïve HSPCs into irradiated mice with cigarette smoke exposure yielded fewer numbers of engrafted HSPCs. This result suggests that smoke-exposed mice possess dysfunctional niches, resulting in abnormal hematopoiesis. Co-culture experiments using MSCs isolated from control or cigarette smoke-exposed mice with naïve HSPCs in vitro showed that MSCs from cigarette smoke-exposed mice generated marked expansion of naïve HSPCs. These data show that cigarette smoke exposure decreases in vivo MSC and HSC number and also increases pro-proliferative gene expression by cigarette smoke-exposed MSCs, which may stimulate HSPC expansion. These results of this investigation are clinically relevant to both bone marrow donors with a history of smoking and bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients with a history of smoking.

  13. Smoke composition and predicting relationships for international commercial cigarettes smoked with three machine-smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, M E; Morton, M J; Laffoon, S W; Cox, R H; Lipowicz, P J

    2005-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effects of smoking machine puffing parameters on mainstream smoke composition and to express those effects as predicting relationships. Forty-eight commercial Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International cigarettes from international markets and the 1R4F reference cigarette were machine-smoked using smoking conditions defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), and Health Canada (HC). Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and ammonia. Mainstream yields for tar and 44 individual smoke constituents and "smoke pH" were determined. Cigarette constituent yields typically increased in the order ISOrelationships were developed between ISO tar and ISO, MDPH, and HC constituent yields and between MDPH tar and HC tar and respective smoking condition yields. MDPH and HC constituent yields could be predicted with similar reliability using ISO tar or the corresponding smoking-condition tar. The reliability of the relationships varied from strong to weak, depending on particular constituents. Weak predicting relationships for nitrogen oxides and TSNA's, for example, were improved with inclusion of tobacco filler composition factors. "Smoke pH" was similar for all cigarettes at any one smoking condition, and overall marginally lower at HC conditions than at ISO or MDPH conditions.

  14. Effect of reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes on cigarette smoking behavior and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure: 2-year follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Nardone, Natalie; Dains, Katherine M; Hall, Sharon M; Stewart, Susan; Dempsey, Delia; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-10-01

    A broadly mandated reduction of the nicotine content (RNC) of cigarettes has been proposed in the United States to reduce the addictiveness of cigarettes, to prevent new smokers from becoming addicted and to facilitate quitting in established smokers. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether following 7 months of smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes (VLNC), and then returning to their own cigarettes, smokers would demonstrate persistently reduced nicotine intake compared with baseline or quit smoking. In a community-based clinic 135 smokers not interested in quitting were randomized to one of two groups. A research group smoked their usual brand of cigarettes, followed by five types of research cigarettes with progressively lower nicotine content, each for 1 month, followed by 6 months at the lowest nicotine level (0.5 mg/cigarette) (53 subjects) and then 12 months with no intervention (30 subjects completed). A control group smoked their usual brand for the same period of time (50 subjects at 6 months, 38 completed). Smoking behavior, biomarkers of nicotine intake and smoke toxicant exposure were measured. After 7 months smoking VLNC, nicotine intake remained below baseline (plasma cotinine 149 versus 250 ng/ml, Pcigarettes per day or expired carbon monoxide (CO). During the 12-month follow-up, cotinine levels in RNC smokers rose to baseline levels and to those of control smokers. Quit rates among RNC smokers were very low [7.5 versus 2% in controls, not significant). In smokers not interested in quitting, reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes over 12 months does not appear to result in extinction of nicotine dependence, assessed by persistently reduced nicotine intake or quitting smoking over the subsequent 12 months. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Association between electronic cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among US young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Blair N; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Ambrose, Bridget K; Green, Kerry M; Choiniere, Conrad J; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18-29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18-24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  17. Acrolein in cigarette smoke inhibits T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Cherie; McCue, Jesica; Portas, Mary; Ouyang, Yanli; Li, JiMei; Rosano, Thomas G; Lazis, Alexander; Freed, Brian M

    2005-10-01

    Cigarette smoking inhibits T-cell responses in the lungs, but the immunosuppressive compounds have not been fully identified. Cigarette smoke extracts inhibit IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha production in stimulated lymphocytes obtained from peripheral blood, even when the extracts were diluted 100-fold to 1000-fold. The objective of these studies was to identify the immunosuppressive compounds found in cigarette smoke. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and HPLC were used to identify and quantitate volatile compounds found in cigarette smoke extracts. Bioactivity was measured by viability and production of cytokine mRNA and protein levels in treated human lymphocytes. The vapor phase of the cigarette smoke extract inhibited cytokine production, indicating that the immunosuppressive compounds were volatile. Among the volatile compounds identified in cigarette smoke extracts, only the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acrolein (inhibitory concentration of 50% [IC50] = 3 micromol/L) and crotonaldehyde (IC50 = 6 micromol/L), exhibited significant inhibition of cytokine production. Although the levels of aldehydes varied 10-fold between high-tar (Camel) and ultralow-tar (Carlton) extracts, even ultralow-tar cigarettes produced sufficient levels of acrolein (34 micromol/L) to suppress cytokine production by >95%. We determined that the cigarette smoke extract inhibited transcription of cytokine genes. The inhibitory effects of acrolein could be blocked with the thiol compound N-acetylcysteine. The vapor phase from cigarette smoke extracts potently suppresses cytokine production. The compound responsible for this inhibition appears to be acrolein.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among adolescents in secondary schools in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagua, Joyce; Opara, Peace; Alex-Hart, Balafama A

    2016-02-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a major preventable public health problem associated with premature deaths worldwide. Adolescence is a unique developmental stage between childhood and adulthood. Smoking is a lifestyle habit acquired during adolescence and into adulthood, with its associated morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important to determine the factors associated with cigarette smoking in these adolescents in order to institute preventive measures and health policies to protect these adolescents early. This study aims to determine the prevalence of smoking, factors associated with smoking, and knowledge of the harmful effects of smoking in these adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1120 adolescents aged 10-19 years selected from 10 secondary schools in Port Harcourt was conducted using a multistage sampling technique. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) core questionnaire was used to collect data from the subjects. A smoker was defined as one who had ever smoked a cigarette or who had one or two puffs, while a current smoker was defined as one who had taken a puff or smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days preceding the day of the questionnaire's completion. Eighty subjects (7.1%) were smokers. This was significantly (p=smoking was initiated was 12.47±3.0 years. Twenty six (32.5%) of the smokers reported that they were initiated into cigarette smoking by their friends, 36 (45%) just wanted to experiment, 7 (8.8%) were influenced by media advertisements while 5 (6.3%) were due to parental exposure. Parental history of smoking and poor knowledge of cancer of the lungs as a harmful effect of smoking, was significantly (p=smoking. The prevalence of smoking in adolescents in Port Harcourt is high and is associated with parental smoking and poor knowledge of cancer of the lungs as a harmful effect. We recommend that adolescent health education with an emphasis on the harmful effects of smoking be included in the curriculum of all secondary schools.

  19. Effect of roflumilast on inflammatory cells in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Martorana, Piero A; Lunghi, Benedetta; Lucattelli, Monica; De Cunto, Giovanna; Beume, Rolf; Lungarella, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background We reported that roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, given orally at 5 mg/kg to mice prevented the development of emphysema in a chronic model of cigarette smoke exposure, while at 1 mg/kg was ineffective. Here we investigated the effects of roflumilast on the volume density (VV) of the inflammatory cells present in the lungs after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Methods Slides were obtained from blocks of the previous study and VV was assessed immunohistochemi...

  20. Receipt and redemption of cigarette coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Forster, Jean L; Moilanen, Molly

    2013-11-01

    Although it is known that cigarette companies use cigarette coupons to market their products, little is known about the characteristics of those who receive these coupons. The influence of receipt and redemption of these coupons is also unknown. Participants of the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey Cohort Study who were smokers in 2008, completed surveys in 2008 and 2009, and had smoked for at least 6 months between those surveys, were included. In 2009, participants reported whether they had received cigarette coupons in the past 12 months, and whether they had used the coupons. They also reported their perceptions of cigarette companies and their smoking status. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess associations between receiving and redeeming coupons, perceptions of cigarette companies, and smoking status. Overall, 49.4% of the sample reported receiving cigarette coupons, and 39.9% redeemed them (80.1% of those who received these coupons). Female, younger and heavier smokers were more likely to report receiving these coupons (pcompanies care about their health and do the best they can to make cigarettes safe, and less likely to agree that cigarette companies lie (p<0.05). Smokers who used these coupons were less likely to quit smoking (p<0.05). Our findings suggest a negative association between cigarette coupons and smoking cessation. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish whether cigarette coupons influence smoking behaviour to inform the necessity for policies to prohibit the use of these coupons to assist smokers to quit smoking.

  1. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  2. Characterization of the third component of complement (C3) after activation by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kew, R.R.; Ghebrehiwet, B.; Janoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    Activation of lung complement by tobacco smoke may be an important pathogenetic factor in the development of pulmonary emphysema in smokers. We previously showed that cigarette smoke can modify C3 and activate the alternative pathway of complement in vitro. However, the mechanism of C3 activation was not fully delineated in these earlier studies. In the present report, we show that smoke-treated C3 induces cleavage of the alternative pathway protein, Factor B, when added to serum containing Mg-EGTA. This effect of cigarette smoke is specific for C3 since smoke-treated C4, when added to Mg-EGTA-treated serum, fails to activate the alternative pathway and fails to induce Factor B cleavage. Smoke-modified C3 no longer binds significant amounts of [ 14 C]methylamine (as does native C3), and relatively little [ 14 C]methylamine is incorporated into its alpha-chain. Thus, prior internal thiolester bond cleavage appears to have occurred in C3 activated by cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke components also induce formation of noncovalently associated, soluble C3 multimers, with a Mr ranging from 1 to 10 million. However, prior cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 with methylamine prevents the subsequent formation of these smoke-induced aggregates. These data indicate that cigarette smoke activates the alternative pathway of complement by specifically modifying C3 and that these modifications include cleavage of the thiolester bond in C3 and formation of noncovalently linked C3 multimers

  3. Comparing smoking behaviors and exposures from flavored and unflavored cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Ashare, Rebecca L; Cummings, K Michael; Hawk, Larry W

    2007-04-01

    Cigarettes with flavors such as mocha and citrus have been introduced in growing numbers. Besides their potential marketing appeal to nonsmokers, there is concern that flavors might mask smoke harshness, making inhalation easier. This pilot study evaluates differences in puff topography and cigarette ratings among 20 college student smokers smoking Camel Light (10mg Tar, 0.9 mg nicotine, 35% filter ventilation) and Camel Exotic Blend cigarettes (11 mg Tar, 0.9 mg nicotine, 23% filter ventilation). Carbon monoxide boost was measured by assessing alveolar carbon monoxide (CO) levels before and after smoking each cigarette. Participants also rated each cigarette on characteristics such as strength, irritation, and taste. We found that participants took smaller puffs on the Exotic Blend versus Camel Light (42 mL vs. 48 mL, pflavors to cigarettes may not significantly impact how they are smoked by current smokers.

  4. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and concentration of testosterone in the urine. Forty young men age between 23 to 31 years were used for this study. The subjects were ...

  5. Toxicological Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Some Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is believed that while normal people may suffer complications of active and passive cigarette smoking, diabetes patients may suffer more. This study therefore aimed at investigating the toxicological effects of cigarette smoke on some biochemical parameters of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n ...

  6. Differential Effects of Alcoholic Beverages and Cigarette Smoke on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are among social practices of some Nigerian youths. These practices have adverse health consequences but the basis of which is yet to be elucidated. This study was designed to provide information on humoral immune responses in Nigerians that smoke cigarettes, consume ...

  7. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi. We also assessed associations between relevant explanatory variables and current cigarette smoking among the adolescents. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in. Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005. A.S. MUULA1,4, S. SIZIYA2* and E. RUDATSIKIRA3.

  8. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  9. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men. LA Olayaki, EO Edeoja, OR Jimoh, OK Ghazal, A Olawepo, AG Jimoh, SA Biliaminu. Abstract. Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship ...

  10. Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among adolescents in Malawi: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2005. ... Tanzania Journal of Health Research ... Using logistic regression analysis, we estimated the association between current cigarette smoking and potential explanatory variables. Overall ...

  11. The biologic effects of cigarette smoke on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobus, Samantha L; Warren, Graham W

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is one of the largest preventable risk factors for developing cancer, and continued smoking by cancer patients is associated with increased toxicity, recurrence, risk of second primary cancer, and mortality. Cigarette smoke (CS) contains thousands of chemicals, including many known carcinogens. The carcinogenic effects of CS are well established, but relatively little work has been done to evaluate the effects of CS on cancer cells. In this review of the literature, the authors demonstrate that CS induces a more malignant tumor phenotype by increasing proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis and by activating prosurvival cellular pathways. Significant work is needed to understand the biologic effect of CS on cancer biology, including the development of model systems and the identification of critical biologic mediators of CS-induced changes in cancer cell physiology. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  12. The use of planned behavior theory in predicting cigarette smoking among Waterpipe smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Naif H; Lee, Jerry W; Dos Santos, Hildemar; Job, Jayakaran S; Bahjri, Khaled

    2017-01-01

    Waterpipe and cigarette smoking have been found to be associated with each other as cigarette smokers were more likely to be waterpipe users than non-cigarette smokers. Also, waterpipe smokers were likely to be former daily cigarette users. The aim of this study is to examine the likelihood of waterpipe use leading to cigarette use among current waterpipe users using theory of planned behavior. Four hundred six current waterpipe smokers who initially had started tobacco use with the waterpipe were recruited from 15 waterpipe lounges in 2015. From a total of 70 waterpipe lounges in Riyadh, the 15 waterpipe lounges were selected randomly and participants were also selected randomly inside each waterpipe lounge based on the table or section number. The survey was developed using the Qualtrics Online Survey Software and participants completed a survey using iPad tablets. Cigarette smoking and intention to smoke cigarettes were predicted by attitude and perceived behavioral control. There was no direct effect of subjective norm on the cigarette use behavior, yet subjective norm had a statistically significant indirect effect on intentions through attitude and perceived behavioral control. The findings of this study could be useful in prevention/intervention programs aimed at reducing tobacco smoking behaviors among waterpipe users. Intervention programs might be directed at the attitude and perceived behavioral control by targeting underlying behavioral and control beliefs. The theory of planned behavior provided solid explanations of intention to use cigarettes among waterpipe smokers.

  13. Cigarette Initiation Among Chinese Male Teenagers in Early Smoking Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheer, Vivian C; Mao, Chang

    2018-04-01

    To collect in-depth information regarding cigarette initiation interactions in the early smoking experimentation among male youth in China, twenty focus groups with male teenagers (N = 165) were conducted. Focus group discussions indicated a high prevalence of cigarette initiation among peers, and such initiation often translated into immediate smoking. Of the identified cigarette initiation appeals, "face" and normative pressure appeals were the most difficult to reject. Upon first initiation attempts, more teenagers accepted cigarettes than rejected them. The reasons behind both cigarette initiation and acceptance primarily related to facilitating social interaction. Upon being rejected, initiating teenagers (agents) who insisted on offering cigarettes often gained compliance. Profiles of peer agents were constructed in this study. Key practical implications suggest simultaneously prioritizing efforts to reduce cigarette initiation and encouraging cigarette refusal.

  14. Biological effects of inhaled cigarette smoke in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, B.O.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    A group of twenty dogs has received up to 7 yr of daily cigarette smoking (10 cigarettes per day, 5 days per week), using realistic methods of oral inhalation and nose-plus-mouth exhalation. Three dogs that received 20 cigarettes per day over 9 mo developed respiratory tract lesions, including pleural thickening, alveolar septal fibrosis, vesicular emphysema, and chronic bronchitis, more rapidly than dogs receiving 10 cigarettes per day

  15. High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes: United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarcher, A.; Jones, S. E.; Morris, E.; Kann, L.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily…

  16. Cancer burden attributable to cigarette smoking among HIV-infected people in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altekruse, Sean F; Shiels, Meredith S; Modur, Sharada P; Land, Stephanie R; Crothers, Kristina A; Kitahata, Mari M; Thorne, Jennifer E; Mathews, William C; Fernández-Santos, Diana M; Mayor, Angel M; Gill, John M; Horberg, Michael A; Brooks, John T; Moore, Richard D; Silverberg, Michael J; Althoff, Keri N; Engels, Eric A

    2018-02-20

    With combination-antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected individuals live longer with an elevated burden of cancer. Given the high prevalence of smoking among HIV-infected populations, we examined the risk of incident cancers attributable to ever smoking cigarettes. Observational cohort of HIV-infected participants with 270 136 person-years of follow-up in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design consortium. Among 52 441 participants, 2306 were diagnosed with cancer during 2000-2015. Estimated hazard ratios and population-attributable fractions (PAF) associated with ever cigarette smoking for all cancers combined, smoking-related cancers, and cancers that were not attributed to smoking. People with cancer were more frequently ever smokers (79%) compared with people without cancer (73%). Adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, cigarette smoking was associated with increased risk of cancer overall [hazard ratios = 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.18-1.49)]; smoking-related cancers [hazard ratios = 2.31 (1.80-2.98)]; lung cancer [hazard ratios = 17.80 (5.60-56.63)]; but not nonsmoking-related cancers [hazard ratios = 1.12 (0.98-1.28)]. Adjusted PAFs associated with ever cigarette smoking were as follows: all cancers combined, PAF = 19% (95% confidence interval: 13-25%); smoking-related cancers, PAF = 50% (39-59%); lung cancer, PAF = 94% (82-98%); and nonsmoking-related cancers, PAF = 9% (1-16%). Among HIV-infected persons, approximately one-fifth of all incident cancer, including half of smoking-related cancer, and 94% of lung cancer diagnoses could potentially be prevented by eliminating cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking could contribute to some cancers that were classified as nonsmoking-related cancers in this report. Enhanced smoking cessation efforts targeted to HIV-infected individuals are needed.

  17. [Cigarette smoking initiation among Tunisian adolescents: Risk and protective factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhfakh, R; Jaidane, I; Hsairi, M; Ben Hamida, A M

    2015-12-01

    Since smoking is a major public health problem among Tunisian teenagers, it is important to identify the underlying risk and protective factors associated with initiation of this behavior. A cross-sectional, school-based survey of students was conducted by the Tunisian Ministry of Health among a nationally representative sample of 4172 adolescents aged between 12 and 20 years attending public, private, and professional secondary schools across Tunisia who participated in the Survey of the Health of Tunisian adolescents in 2000. For data analysis, we first calculated crude odds ratios (OR) followed by calculating adjusted OR after using multivariate logistic regression models. Almost one-third of respondents had already started smoking at an average age of 13 years, 6.4% among them smoked daily. Demographic vulnerabilities to smoking behavior were gender (boys more than girls), age and residence in urban areas and particularly in Greater Tunis and the North East. Familial and school factors were parental divorce, poor relationship with parents, poor integration into the peer group, and poor school investment. Psychological and behavioral factors were low self-esteem level and the occurrence of stressful life events, risk taking and alcohol consumption when there was no association with the depression, anxiety and body image. Protective factors against the experimental cigarettes were mainly sports and reading. There are many factors associated with smoking behavior among adolescents. All of these predictors need to be considered in smoking prevention among Tunisian teenagers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  19. Information Management Strategies within Conversations about Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations with Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent-adolescent discussion concerning adolescents' cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current…

  20. Exploring the Predictive Validity of the Susceptibility to Smoking Construct for Tobacco Cigarettes, Alternative Tobacco Products, and E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Adam G; Kennedy, Ryan David; Chaurasia, Ashok; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-12-06

    Within tobacco prevention programming, it is useful to identify youth that are at risk for experimenting with various tobacco products and e-cigarettes. The susceptibility to smoking construct is a simple method to identify never-smoking students that are less committed to remaining smoke-free. However, the predictive validity of this construct has not been tested within the Canadian context or for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes. This study used a large, longitudinal sample of secondary school students that reported never using tobacco cigarettes and non-current use of alternative tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline in Ontario, Canada. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the susceptibility construct for predicting tobacco cigarette, e-cigarette, cigarillo or little cigar, cigar, hookah, and smokeless tobacco use one and two years after baseline measurement were calculated. At baseline, 29.4% of the sample was susceptible to future tobacco product or e-cigarette use. The sensitivity of the construct ranged from 43.2% (smokeless tobacco) to 59.5% (tobacco cigarettes), the specificity ranged from 70.9% (smokeless tobacco) to 75.9% (tobacco cigarettes), and the positive predictive value ranged from 2.6% (smokeless tobacco) to 32.2% (tobacco cigarettes). Similar values were calculated for each measure of the susceptibility construct. A significant number of youth that did not currently use tobacco products or e-cigarettes at baseline reported using tobacco products and e-cigarettes over a two-year follow-up period. The predictive validity of the susceptibility construct was high and the construct can be used to predict other tobacco product and e-cigarette use among youth. This study presents the predictive validity of the susceptibility construct for the use of tobacco cigarettes among secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. It also presents a novel use of the susceptibility construct for

  1. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  2. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Polonium ( 210 Po), the most volatile of naturally-occurring radionuclides in plants, was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in cigarettes, on the ashes and butts of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke. 210 Po in tobacco displays concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq g -1 , depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210 Po activity remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied from 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210 Po in the inhaled smoke varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, a large fraction of the 210 Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210 Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210 Po in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210 Po than a non smoker. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to the daily rate of 210 Po absorption into the blood, 0.39 Bq d -1 , and, after systemic circulation it gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210 Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoke are discussed. (author)

  3. Pre-adolescent Receptivity to Tobacco Marketing and Its Relationship to Acquiring Friends Who Smoke and Cigarette Smoking Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, David R; Messer, Karen; Hartman, Sheri J; Nodora, Jesse; Vera, Lisa; White, Martha M; Leas, Eric; Pharris-Ciurej, Nikolas; Borek, Nicolette; Pierce, John P

    2017-10-01

    This study extends research on receptivity to tobacco marketing over a key developmental period for cigarette smoking experimentation. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of receptivity to tobacco marketing and exposure to friends who smoke on smoking experimentation. Participants were 10 to 13 years old who had never tried cigarettes (n = 878), interviewed six times at 8-month intervals. At baseline, 25% percent of the 10 and 11 years old in the sample of never smokers were receptive to tobacco marketing, while less than 5% had friends who smoked. Having a friend who smoked at study baseline and acquiring such friends for the first time during the study were the strongest predictors of smoking experimentation. Initial receptivity to tobacco marketing increased the risk of smoking experimentation independently of having friends who smoke at baseline or acquiring friends who smoke throughout the study period. The high level of receptivity observed even among 10 and 11 years old and its robust relationship with cigarette smoking experimentation independent of the significant risk associated with having friends who smoke suggests that successful prevention of receptivity may require intervention at an early age.

  4. Determinants of cigarette smoking among school adolescents on the island of Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigwanto, Mouhamad; Mongkolcharti, Aroonsri; Peltzer, Karl; Laosee, Orapin

    2017-04-01

    The Integrated Model of Change has successfully explained the behavior change process. Cigarette smoking is a social phenomenon, which needs to be understood for devising effective preventive strategies. The study aims to apply the Integrated Model of Change to determine predictive factors of cigarette smoking behavior among school adolescents in Indonesia. A school-based cross-sectional study was designed to collect data in Banten, Indonesia. A total of 698 students from eight high schools were recruited by multi-stage cluster sampling. The association between cigarette smoking and the independent variables was examined by multiple logistic regressions. The majority of respondents (86.4%) were between the ages of 15 and 17 years (Mean=16.4 years; SD=1.01). Approximately half (48.8%) of the students ever tried a cigarette while 29.6% were current smokers. Curiosity was reported as the main reason for experimenting with cigarettes (32%). The significant factors regarding current cigarette smoking were attitude [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.68], social norms (AOR=12.80), self-efficacy (AOR=15.85), and accessibility (AOR=4.39). The study revealed social influence and self-efficacy that were strongly associated with cigarette smoking can help authorities in guiding possible intervention programs for school adolescents.

  5. Taking a first puff: cigarette smoking experiences among ethnically diverse adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C S; Allen, P; Crawford, M A; McCormick, L K

    1999-11-01

    To study the social contexts and physiological consequences of an initial cigarette smoking experience among adolescents from four ethnic groups (African American, European American, Hispanic, Native American) who vary by gender and locale (e.g. urban vs rural). A qualitative study using individual interviews and focus groups. Results both amplify and reinforce conclusions about peer and family influences on adolescent smoking initiation reported in quantitative studies of teen smoking. Within the broader themes of peers and family, several important sub-themes emerged. The study findings suggest that peer influence can be characterized as social conformity or social acceptance. Males were more likely than females to describe experiences involving peers exerting strong messages to conform to smoking behaviors. Roles played by family members in the initiation process were complex and included those of initiator, prompter, accomplice, and inadvertent source of cigarettes. European American and Hispanic girls provided descriptions of parents/family members as instigators of their first smoking experience. Hispanic adolescents descripted instances in which family members prompted cigarette use at a young age by encouraging the young person to light the adult's cigarette. Finally, ethnic differences in the physiological responses to initial smoking suggest the need to further explore the role of brand preference and variations in inhaling among ethnically diverse adolescents. In order to design effective cigarette smoking prevention programs for adolescents, it is important to understand the meaning of smoking behaviors for adolescents from different ethnic and social backgrounds.

  6. Role of BAFF in pulmonary autoantibody responses induced by chronic cigarette smoke exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Mathieu C; Gao, Yang; Shen, Pamela; Thayaparan, Danya; Bérubé, Jean-Christophe; Paré, Peter D; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Hao, Ke; Bossé, Yohan; Ettinger, Rachel; Herbst, Ronald; Humbles, Alison A; Kolbeck, Roland; Zhong, Nanshan; Chen, Rongchang; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that autoimmune processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we assessed the expression of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) in smokers, and investigated the functional importance of BAFF in the induction and maintenance of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) using a preclinical mouse model. We observed that BAFF levels were elevated in smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke. In mice, BAFF expression was rapidly induced in the lungs following 4 days of cigarette smoke exposure and remained elevated following 8 and 24 weeks of exposure. Alveolar macrophages were the major source of BAFF Blockade of BAFF using a BAFF receptor-Fc (BAFFR-Fc) construct prevented pulmonary ANA and TLT formation when delivered concurrent with cigarette smoke exposure. Under these conditions, no impact on lung inflammation was observed. However, administration of BAFFR-Fc following smoking cessation markedly reduced the number of TLTs and ANA levels and, of note, reduced pulmonary neutrophilia. Altogether, this study shows for the first time a central role of BAFF in the induction and maintenance of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary ANA and suggests that BAFF blockade following smoking cessation could have beneficial effects on persistent inflammatory processes.In this study, we assessed the expression of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) in smokers, and investigated the functional importance of BAFF in the induction and maintenance of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) using a preclinical mouse model. Data presented show that BAFF plays a central role in the induction and maintenance of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary ANA and suggest a therapeutic potential for BAFF blockade in limiting autoimmune processes associated with smoking. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological

  7. A wearable sensor system for monitoring cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Edward; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Tiffany, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Available methods of smoking assessment (e.g., self-report, portable puff-topography instruments) do not permit the collection of accurate measures of smoking behavior while minimizing reactivity to the assessment procedure. This article suggests a new method for monitoring cigarette smoking based on a wearable sensor system (Personal Automatic Cigarette Tracker [PACT]) that is completely transparent to the end user and does not require any conscious effort to achieve reliable monitoring of smoking in free-living individuals. The proposed sensor system consists of a respiratory inductance plethysmograph for monitoring of breathing and a hand gesture sensor for detecting a cigarette at the mouth. The wearable sensor system was tested in a laboratory study of 20 individuals who performed 12 different activities including cigarette smoking. Signal processing was applied to evaluate the uniqueness of breathing patterns and their correlation with hand gestures. The results indicate that smoking manifests unique breathing patterns that are highly correlated with hand-to-mouth cigarette gestures and suggest that these signals can potentially be used to identify and characterize individual smoke inhalations. With the future development of signal processing and pattern-recognition methods, PACT can be used to automatically assess the frequency of smoking and inhalation patterns (such as depth of inhalation and smoke holding) throughout the day and provide an objective method of assessing the effectiveness of behavioral and pharmacological smoking interventions.

  8. Cigarette Smoking and Respiratory System Diseases in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracen, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory system diseases are common in youngsters, smoking being one of the main cause of them. In this article, results are presented of a survey-type study on smoking and respiratory malady conducted in 3108 high school students from the Mazovian Region in Poland. The questionnaire made for this study contained questions concerning the health status, chronic diseases, and the cigarette smoking habit. The subjects were high school student aged 15-19. Overall, 1694 males and 1414 females were enrolled in the study. Regarding males, 66.4 % of them were non-smokers, 18.1 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes daily, and 15.5 % smoked more than 20 cigarettes daily; 12.5 % of all smokers smoked longer than one year. Overall, 38.5 % of males reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis. When stratified by the smoking habit, chronic bronchitis was reported by 21 % of non-smokers and 71 % of all smokers. Regarding females, 77 % of them were non-smokers, 16 % smoked up to 20 cigarettes daily, and 7 % more than 20 cigarettes daily; 8 % of all smokers smoked longer than one year. Overall, 35 % females reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis. When stratified by the smoking habit, chronic bronchitis was reported by 23 % of non-smokers and 75 % of smokers. Bronchial asthma was reported by 22 (0.7 %) subjects, none of them was a smoker. In conclusion, males more often than females smoked cigarettes. The number of persons complaining of symptoms of chronic bronchitis was markedly higher in the group of smokers. The study shows that smoking is a key cause of chronic bronchitis in adolescents. That implies a need for enhanced educational activity on the adverse effects of smoking and undertaking active anti-smoking campaigns at the level of high school.

  9. Influence of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yong; Hao Enzhu; Ni Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of cigarette smoke and green tea on radiation-induced bone marrow cell mutation, and to provide scientific information for prevention and treatment of radiation damage. Methods: There were 8 groups in the factorial experiment design with 3 factors at 2 levels. Mice were randomly divided into each group. There were 8 mice in each group. Mice in seven experimental groups were exposed to cigarette smoke, green tea, radiation or their mixtures respectively. One group was treated as the blank control group. The frequencies of micrnucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) were scored by single blinded method. The data were analyzed with factorial experiments analysis of variance using SAS 8.0. Results: Analysis of variance showed that radiation, cigarette smoke and green tea were independently significant factors (P<0.01). Interactions between cigarette smoke and radiation or between green tea and radiation were statistically significant (P<0.01). Conclusion: Radiation and cigarette smoke can cause bone marrow cell mutations independently. There is synergistic effect between cigarette smoke and radiation. Green tea can inhibit radiation-induced cell mutation. (authors)

  10. Determinants of cigarette smoking among senior secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Smoking remains an increasing high-risk behaviour among the youth, despite its harmful effects on health. This study sought to find out the determinants of cigarette smoking among youth of a rural Nigerian community and suggested intervention measures which have potential for the control of smoking among ...

  11. Deposition of radionuclide-labeled cigarette smoke in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, A.P.; Bair, W.J.; Haller, W.A.; Case, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Cigarettes labeled with 82 Br, 24 Na, and 42 K by exposure to 8 X 10 16 neutrons/cm 2 were smoked by dogs in an exposure system facilitating oral inhalation of the cigarette smoke. Deposition of the labeled cigarette smoke in the dogs was measured by whole-body counting and analysis of blood and excreta. Bromine 82 was the best suited tracer. It could be detected by whole-body counting for up to 9 days as compared to 3 and 4 days for 42 K and 24 Na, respectively. Blood levels of 82 Br could be monitored for 4 days. Excreta also showed detectable levels of 82 Br for 4 days. Between 30 and 70 percent of the 82 Br body burden occurred in the blood where it was retained for an appreciable period of time. The 82 Br blood level was a linear function of the number of cigarettes smoked whereas whole-body counts showed a decrease in Br, K, and Na deposited per cigarette as more cigarettes were smoked. The maximum total body radiation dose received by a dog smoking one neutron-activated cigarette was less than 5 X 10 -4 rads which makes this technique applicable to studies with human subjects. (U.S.)

  12. Self-reported smoking effects and comparative value between cigarettes and high dose e-cigarettes in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Sterling; Howell, Donelle; Lewis, Jennifer; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Bertotti Metoyer, Patrick; Roll, John

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the comparative value of cigarettes versus high dose e-cigarettes among nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers when compared with money or use of their usual cigarette brand. The experiment used a within-subject design with four sessions. After baseline assessment, participants attended two 15-min unrestricted smoking sessions: one cigarette smoking session and one e-cigarette smoking session. Participants then attended two multiple-choice procedure (MCP) sessions: a session comparing cigarettes and money and a session comparing e-cigarettes and money. Participants (n=27) had used cigarettes regularly, had never used e-cigarettes, and were not currently attempting to quit smoking. The sample consisted primarily of males (72%), with a mean age of 34 years. When given the opportunity to choose between smoking a cigarette or an e-cigarette, participants chose the cigarette 73.9% of the time. Findings from the MCP demonstrated that after the first e-cigarette exposure sessions, the crossover value for cigarettes ($3.45) was significantly higher compared with the crossover value for e-cigarettes ($2.73). The higher participant preference, self-reported smoking effects, and higher MCP crossover points indicate that cigarettes have a higher comparative value than high dose e-cigarettes among e-cigarette naive smokers.

  13. Bronchodilator effects of antiasthmatic cigarette smoke (Datura stramonium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpin, D; Orehek, J; Velardocchio, J M

    1979-01-01

    In 12 asthmatic patients with mild airway obstruction we have measured the effect on specific airway resistance (sRaw) of inhaling the smoke of one Datura stramonium cigarette. In 11 patients sRaw decreased substantially after the cigarette, the mean maximal decrease being 40% at the 30th minute. In seven patients the subsequent inhalation of 200 micrograms salbutamol caused no further decrease in sRaw. In the remaining four patients salbutamol induced a larger decrease in sRaw than the cigarette smoke. The inhalation, however, of a synthetic anticholinergic agent (SCH 1000, 600 micrograms) proved as effective as salbutamol in these patients. In one patient the cigarette smoke and SCH 1000 produced only a negligible amount of bronchodilatation whereas the bronchial obstruction was reversible with salbutamol. Minor side effects were observed in six patients after the cigarette. PMID:483196

  14. Smoking behaviours, access to cigarettes and relationships with alcohol in 15- and 16-year-old schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sara K; Hughes, Karen; Atkinson, Amanda M; Bellis, Mark A; Smallthwaite, Linda

    2011-02-01

    Adolescent smoking is a significant public health concern in the UK and across Europe. This study examines smoking behaviours, methods of accessing cigarettes and use of non-commercial (fake, foreign and single) cigarettes across a sample of schoolchildren. Relationships with alcohol consumption, deprivation, personal income and extra-curricular activities are also explored. A cross-sectional survey of 9833 15- and 16-year-old schoolchildren in the North West of England. Cigarettes were most commonly accessed from off-licences and newsagents, but pupils also reported non-commercial access through friends, family and street sellers/neighbours. A high percentage of smokers had bought foreign (57%), fake (28%) and single (54%) cigarettes. Frequent binge drinking, not participating in extra-curricular activities, receiving greater personal income, and having parents that smoked were significantly associated with being a regular and heavier smoker. Frequent binge drinking was also significantly associated with buying foreign/fake or single cigarettes. A higher percentage of those living in deprived areas were current smokers, although deprivation was not an independent predictor of cigarette use. Strategies that restrict commercial access to cigarettes among adolescents may increase their reliance on social methods of access, and use of fake, foreign and single cigarettes. Interventions to reduce adolescent smoking must recognize the critical role of parents and communities in discouraging smoking and preventing social access to cigarettes in children. A joint approach to prevention is required that targets children at risk of smoking, heavy alcohol use and associated health-damaging behaviours.

  15. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rambali B; Andel I van; Schenk E; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Stevenson H; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; LVM; PZO

    2003-01-01

    In this report the effect of these compounds on the addiction to cigarette smoking was assessed, using currently available information in the literature on psychoactive compounds of cocoa. The investigated psychoactive cocoa compounds were theobromine, caffeine, serotonin, histamine, tryptophan,

  17. Experimental animal studies of radon and cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.; Dagle, G.E.; Gies, R.A.; Smith, L.G.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette-smoking is a dominant cause of lung cancer and confounds risk assessment of exposure to radon decay products. Evidence in humans on the interaction between cigarette-smoking and exposure to radon decay products, although limited, indicates a possible synergy. Experimental animal data, in addition to showing synergy, also show a decrease or no change in risk with added cigarette-smoke exposures. This article reviews previous animal data developed at Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on mixed exposures to radon and cigarette smoke, and highlights new initiation-promotion-initiation (IPI) studies at PNL that were designed within the framework of a two-mutation carcinogenesis model. Also presented are the PNL exposure system, experimental protocols, dosimetry, and biological data observed to date in IPI animals

  18. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takvorian, S U; Merola, J F; Costenbader, K H

    2014-05-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex multisystem autoimmune disease whose pathogenesis is thought to involve both genetic and environmental factors. It is possible that common environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption, might modify risk of disease development in certain individuals. Here we aim to review the epidemiologic evidence related to the association of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and the risk of developing SLE. A growing body of evidence suggests that cigarette smoking confers a short-term increased risk of SLE in genetically susceptible individuals. On the other hand, alcohol consumption in moderate doses may have a protective effect against the development of SLE, although this is still debated. We also have reviewed proposed mechanistic explanations underlying the role of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in SLE pathogenesis.

  19. Explaining Cigarette Smoking: An Endogenous-Exogenous Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, Jack

    Kruglanski's endogenous-exogenous partition, when applied to reasons given by smokers for smoking cigarettes, distinguishes two types of actions: (1) endogenous reasons implying that the behavior of consuming the cigarette is the goal of the action and the actor is positive toward the behavior, and (2) exogenous reasons implying that the behavior…

  20. Cigarette smoking and Khat chewing among college students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The study revealed 13.1 % life time prevalence rate of cigarette smoking and 26.7 % life time prevalence rate of khat chewing. ... Teachers in the high schools and colleges, parents, mass media and other concerned people should teach students about the health and social problems associated with cigarette ...

  1. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...

  2. Psychological problems and psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking behavior among undergraduate students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Heidhy, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.

  3. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Lennart

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS and sidestream (SS smoke of some popular US cigarettes. Methods We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US. University of Kentucky reference cigarettes were also included for comparison. Results The cigarette tobacco of the different brands contained 6.88-16.17 (mean 10.64 pmol LPS and 8.27-21.00 (mean 14.05 ng ergosterol/mg. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in cigarette tobacco and in MS smoke collected using continuous suction; the MS smoke contained 3.65-8.23% (ergosterol and 10.02-20.13% (LPS of the amounts in the tobacco. Corresponding percentages were 0.30-0.82% (ergosterol and 0.42-1.10% (LPS for SS smoke collected without any ongoing suction, and 2.18% and 2.56% for MS smoke collected from eight two-second puffs. Conclusions Tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol likely to contain a wide range of potentially harmful bacterial and fungal components.

  4. Polonium in cigarette smoke and radiation exposure of lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, F.P.; Oliveira, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    210 Po was analysed in three common brands of cigarettes produced in Portugal. The analyses of polonium were performed using 209 Po as an internal isotopic tracer. Samples were dissolved with acids, polonium plated on a silver disc and measured by alpha spectrometry using silicon surface barrier detectors. The analyses were carried out on the unburned tobacco contained in the cigarettes, on the ashes of smoked cigarettes and on the mainstream smoke inhaled by the smoker. 210 Po in the tobacco display concentrations ranging from 3 to 37 mBq/g, depending upon the cigarette brand. The 210 Po remaining in the solid residue of a smoked cigarette varied between 0.3 to 4.9 mBq per cigarette, and the 210 Po in the inhaled smoke from one cigarette varied from 2.6 to 28.9 mBq. In all brands of cigarettes tested, about 50 % of the 210 Po content is not inhaled by the smoker and it is released into the atmosphere. Part of it may be inhaled by passive smokers. Depending upon the commercial brand and upon the presence or absence of a filter in the cigarette, 5 to 37 % of the 210 Po in the cigarette can be inhaled by the smoker. Taking into account the average 210 Po and 210 Pb in surface air, the smoker of one pack of twenty cigarettes per day may inhale 50 times more 210 Po than a non smoker. The average absorption of 210 Po into the blood taking all pathways into account is 0.39 Bq d -1 . This includes, namely, the ingestion of water and beverages, the ingestion of food, the inhalation of air and cigarette smoke. Cigarette smoke contributes with 1.5 % to this rate of 210 Po absorption into the blood and, after circulating in all organs, gives rise to a whole body radiation dose in the same proportion. However, in the smoker the deposition of 210 Po in the lungs is much more elevated than normal and may originate an enhanced radiation exposure of this organ. Estimated dose to the lungs is presented and radiobiological effects of cigarette smoking are discussed. (author)

  5. Cigarette brand-switching: effects on smoke exposure and smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, J P; Stitzer, M L

    1988-08-01

    This study examined the effects of cigarette yield (Federal Trade Commission-determined deliveries of nicotine, tar and CO) on both biological exposure to smoke constituents and smoking behaviors. Smokers (N = 10) of high-yield cigarettes were switched in random order among five different commercially available cigarette brands with nicotine yields of 0.1, 0.4, 0.7, 1.1 (altered brand) and 1.0 (usual brand) mg and smoked each cigarette type for 5 days while a wide variety of assessments were performed. Steady-state cotinine and CO levels were substantially lower after 5 days of smoking ultra-low yield cigarettes (cotinine, 152 ng/ml; CO, 25 ppm) than when smoking usual-brand high-yield cigarettes (cotinine, 252 ng/ml; CO, 38 ppm). Both CO and nicotine boost (acute exposure) were related to yield. However, relative between-yield differences in all nicotine and CO exposure measures were smaller than predicted from Federal Trade Commission yield ratings. Substantial yield-related alterations were observed in smoking behavior. Subjects smoked more cigarettes and took larger and more closely spaced puffs when smoking low- as compared with high-yield cigarettes. The amount of tobacco burned per day was similar across all yield conditions. However, filter vent-blocking of ultra-low yield cigarettes did not appear to occur on a consistent basis. Subjective reports indicated poor acceptability of lower-yield cigarettes. We conclude that switching to lower-yield cigarettes brings about substantial alterations in smoking behavior which are at least partially responsible for the observed biological compensation associated with these cigarettes.

  6. Cigarette smoke causes rapid lipid peroxidation of rat tracheal epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Churg, A.; Cherukupalli, K.

    1993-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced lipid peroxidation may be an important mechanism of smoke toxicity, but attempts to demonstrate peroxidation of pulmonary tissues after smoke exposure have yielded conflicting results. To examine this question, we exposed rat tracheal explants to whole smoke for 10 minutes followed by air recovery for periods up to 50 minutes (test), or to air alone (controls) and measured conjugated diene levels in the tissue. A dose-related increase in conjugated diene levels was see...

  7. Differential relationships between religiosity, cigarette smoking, and waterpipe use: implications for college student health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Brian J; Smith, Kathryn Z; Grekin, Emily R

    2013-01-01

    Using a framework informed by problem behavior theory, the authors examined differential relationships between religiosity and the frequency of cigarette and waterpipe tobacco smoking. Six hundred fourteen individuals beginning their freshman year at a large, public, midwestern university. Paper-and-pencil surveys were administered to students who attended freshman orientation. Electronic surveys were sent to students who did not attend orientation. Although a latent, generalized religiosity factor was negatively associated with frequency of cigarette smoking, there was no such relationship for frequency of waterpipe use. Conceptualizing waterpipe tobacco smoking in terms of problem behavior theory may be inappropriate, given its lack of association with religiosity. These results may reflect the perception that waterpipe use is a more socially acceptable form of tobacco use that is less harmful to health than cigarette smoking, despite medical evidence to the contrary. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.

  8. Exposure to School and Community Based Prevention Programs and Reductions in Cigarette Smoking among Adolescents in the United States, 2000-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Ren, Yuanjing; Lin, Feng; MacDonell, Karen; Jiang, Yifan

    2012-01-01

    Smoking remains prevalent among US youth despite decades of antismoking efforts. Effects from exposure to prevention programs at national level may provide informative and compelling data supporting better planning and strategy for tobacco control. A national representative sample of youth 12-17 years of age from the National Survey on Drug Use…

  9. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  10. Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of active cigarettes smoking, water-pipe smoking and snuff (naffa) inhalation on BMI, lipid profile, and plasma glucose. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Methods: The study was conducted on 200 healthy male subjects, including, 50 non-smokers aged 40.98±8.07, 50 cigarette smokers aged 41.32±7.39, ...

  11. Does switching to reduced ignition propensity cigarettes alter smoking behavior or exposure to tobacco smoke constituents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Rees, Vaughan W; Norton, Kaila J; Cummings, K Michael; Connolly, Gregory N; Alpert, Hillel R; Sjödin, Andreas; Romanoff, Lovisa; Li, Zheng; June, Kristie M; Giovino, Gary A

    2010-10-01

    Since 2004, several jurisdictions have mandated that cigarettes show reduced ignition propensity (RIP) in laboratory testing. RIP cigarettes may limit fires caused by smoldering cigarettes, reducing fire-related deaths and injury. However, some evidence suggests that RIP cigarettes emit more carbon monoxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and smokers may alter their smoking patterns in response to RIP cigarettes. Both of these could increase smokers' exposures to harmful constituents in cigarettes. An 18-day switching study with a comparison group was conducted in Boston, MA (N = 77), and Buffalo, NY (N = 83), in 2006-2007. Current daily smokers completed 4 laboratory visits and two 48-hr field data collections. After a 4-day baseline, Boston participants switched to RIP cigarettes for 14 days, whereas Buffalo participants smoked RIP cigarettes throughout. Outcome measures included cigarettes smoked per day; smoking topography; salivary cotinine; breath CO; and hydroxylated metabolites of pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene. Because the groups differed demographically, analyses adjusted for race, age, and sex. We observed no significant changes in smoking topography or CO exposure among participants who switched to RIP cigarettes. Cigarette use decreased significantly in the switched group (37.7 cigarettes/48 hr vs. 32.6 cigarettes/48 hr, p = .031), while hydroxyphenanthrenes increased significantly (555 ng/g creatinine vs. 669 ng/g creatinine, p = .007). No other biomarkers were significantly affected. Small increases in exposure to phenanthrene among smokers who switched to RIP versions were observed, while other exposures and smoking topography were not significantly affected. Toxicological implications of these findings are unclear. These findings should be weighed against the potential public health benefits of adopting RIP design standards for cigarette products.

  12. Cigarette Smoking and Anti-Smoking Counseling Practices among Physicians in Wuhan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhang, Zhifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyang; Wan, Jun; Yang, Niannian; Li, Fang; Sun, Huiling; Li, Weiping; Xia, Jiang; Zhou, Dunjin; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper seeks to report data on cigarette smoking, anti-smoking practices, physicians' receipt of anti-smoking training, and the association between receipt of the training and anti-smoking practice among physicians in Wuhan, China. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were selected through the stratified random sampling method.…

  13. Effect of exclusive cigarette smoking and in combination with waterpipe smoking on lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souheil Hallit

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, LDL levels increased relative to nonsmokers, consistent with findings in other populations. In addition, among Lebanese current cigarette smokers, current waterpipe smoking might increase adverse lipid profiles associated with adverse coronary effects more than cigarette smoking alone. The direct cause responsible for these observed variations in our study remains unidentified, with the hope that future research will reveal it.

  14. Ad lib smoking of Black & Mild cigarillos and cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Lacy A; Canlas, Lauren L; Potts, Jennifer; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2012-03-01

    Over the past 20 years, there has been a tripling in the consumption of small cigars and cigarillos, with further increases expected because cigar products are not subject to Food and Drug Administration regulations. Acute toxin exposure from cigar smoking is difficult to assess because unlike cigarettes, cigars vary widely in size, design, composition, and in the smoking behavior of their consumers. For example, a recent practice among urban youth is to remove the paper liner (i.e., "freaking") of a small cigar in the belief that it is this paper liner that leads to addiction and cancer. We examined acute exposure (CO and nicotine boosts) and puffing behavior in 12 participants (10 men) who smoked (ad lib) their usual conventional cigarette, a Black & Mild cigar (B&M) and a B&M without the paper liner (i.e., "freaked" [B&Mf]). All products (cigarettes, B&M, and B&Mf) significantly increased heart rate and CO with a trend for plasma nicotine. Nicotine boost was significantly higher after cigarette smoking than both B&M and B&Mf, while CO boost was significantly greater after B&M and B&Mf than cigarettes. The CO boost after B&M was larger than after B&Mf. These findings suggest that small cigar smoking is associated with smoke inhalation that leads to significant exposure to nicotine, CO, and presumably other components of tobacco smoke and that removing the inner liner does not substantially reduce toxin exposure.

  15. Posttraumatic Symptom Reporting and Reported Cigarette Smoking During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfield, Sara L; Moseley, Marian; Appleby, Dina; McMickens, Courtney L; Sammel, Mary D; Epperson, C Neill

    2017-06-01

    Increased prevalence of nicotine dependence among individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, there are limited studies on the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in relation to prepregnancy history of trauma exposures and active PTSD symptoms during pregnancy. Prenatal smoking has been implicated in a host of negative outcomes for mother and baby. Given maternal and fetal risk, it is critical to define predictors of continued cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Pregnant women from an urban perinatal clinic completed an anonymous survey of trauma history using a modified Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ), PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Symptom Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and current and past smoking behavior. Those who smoked any number of cigarettes per day after pregnancy confirmation were considered to be "pregnant smokers." Of 218 women who completed the survey, 34 (15.6%) reported smoking cigarettes after confirmation of pregnancy. In unadjusted models, trauma exposure that resulted in fear, helplessness, or horror (FHH), as well as current PTSD symptom severity and probable PTSD diagnosis showed statistical significance as predictors of smoking during pregnancy. After adjusting for age only, PTSD symptoms retained their significant association with smoking during pregnancy. When history of smoking at least five cigarettes per day was added to our models, none of the associations remained significant. These findings emphasize the importance of the behavioral response to past traumatic exposures in influencing cigarette smoking behavior before pregnancy. Given such behaviors enhance risk for continued tobacco use during pregnancy, a trauma-informed approach to smoking cessation in preconception care may ultimately reduce the likelihood of smoking during pregnancy and requires further study.

  16. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  17. Electronic Cigarette: Role in the Primary Prevention of Oral Cavity Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Franco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Cigarette smoke has been identified as the main cause of oral cavity carcinoma. Recently, the electronic cigarette, a battery-operated device, was developed to help smokers stop their tobacco addiction. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of electronic cigarettes and to establish the possible role of such device in the primary prevention of oral cavity cancer. Subjects and Methods This study included 65 subjects who were divided into three groups (smokers, e-cigarette smokers, and nonsmokers. All subjects were submitted to cytologic examination by scraping of oral mucosa. The slides were microscopically evaluated through a micronucleus assay test. Results The prevalence of micronuclei was significantly decreased in the e-cigarette smoker group. There were no statistically significant differences in micronuclei distribution according to the type of cigarette, gender, and age. Conclusions The use of electronic cigarettes seems to be safe for oral cells and should be suggested as an aid to smoking cessation.

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Teenagers Who Smoke Different Cigarette Brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Carl E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes and compares the survey responses of teenagers who smoke different cigarette brands, specifically Marlboro, Camel, and Newport. Differences were seen across brands but teen smokers had similar opinions about quitting. Given the differences across brands, more flexible approaches may be needed to address teenage smoking. (Author/MKA)

  19. Psychosocial Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Rong; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Wang, Jing; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Hongshia; Chen, Xinguang

    2009-01-01

    The objectives are to examine the smoking practice and intention among Chinese college students and to explore the association between cigarette smoking and individual and psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1874 students from 19 college campuses in Jiangsu province, China. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were…

  20. Counseling Chinese Patients about Cigarette Smoking: The Role of Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han Zao; Zhang, Yu; MacDonell, Karen; Li, Xiao Ping; Chen, Xinguang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to determine the cigarette smoking rate and smoking cessation counseling frequency in a sample of Chinese nurses. Design/methodology/approach: At the time of data collection, the hospital had 260 nurses, 255 females and five males. The 200 nurses working on the two daytime shifts were given the…

  1. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking among Commercial Bus Drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking remains a major social development concern in the world today! This is regardless of the fact that many anti-smoking policies have been put in place and they appear to be achieving mixed results. However, much of what is documented in the literature today is on developed societies with established ...

  2. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 853 soldiers ...

  3. Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking, snuff use and alcohol drinking: the associated risk behaviour for oral health in young Indian males. ... Nigerian Dental Journal ... Method: The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning tobacco smoking habits, snuffing habits, consumption of alcohol and subjective evaluation of periodontal health ...

  4. Cigarette Smoking And Oral Health Among Healthcare Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal ... Objective: To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of cigarette smoking and oral health risks among healthcare professional students. ... Results: Thirty four (12.1%) of the students were current smokers, 174 (61.95%) had never smoked, while 73 (26%) were former smokers.

  5. Prevalence of cigarette smoking and the knowledge of its health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Several studies have reported a negative relationship between smoking and military performance. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and knowledge of its health implications among Nigerian Army personnel. Materials and Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of ...

  6. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Drugs and life style choices such as alcohol consumption and smoking are capable of independently altering levels of essential trace elements as well as tissue or organ function. The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter ...

  7. Social Network Characteristics, Social Support, and Cigarette Smoking among Asian/Pacific Islander Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2016-06-01

    Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  8. Effects of exposure to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damasceno Débora C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cigarette smoke exposure before pregnancy on diabetic rats and their offspring development. Methods Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and cigarette smoke exposure was conducted by mainstream smoke generated by a mechanical smoking device and delivered into a chamber. Diabetic female Wistar rats were randomly distributed in four experimental groups (n minimum = 13/group: nondiabetic (ND and diabetic rats exposed to filtered air (D, diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and into the pregnancy period (DS and diabetic rats exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy period (DSPP. At day 21 of pregnancy, rats were killed for maternal biochemical determination and reproductive outcomes. Results The association of diabetes and cigarette smoke in DSPP group caused altered glycemia at term, reduced number of implantation and live fetuses, decreased litter and maternal weight, increased pre and postimplantation loss rates, reduced triglyceride and VLDL-c concentrations, increased levels of thiol groups and MDA. Besides, these dams presented increased SOD and GSH-Px activities. However, the increased antioxidant status was not sufficient to prevent the lipid peroxidation observed in these animals. Conclusion Despite the benefits stemming from smoking interruption during the pregnancy of diabetic rats, such improvement was insufficient to avoid metabolic alterations and provide an adequate intrauterine environment for embryofetal development. Therefore, these results suggest that it is necessary to cease smoking extensive time before planning pregnancy, since stopping smoking only when pregnancy is detected may not contribute effectively to fully adequate embryofetal development.

  9. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings on a quantitative evaluation of carbonyl levels in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The cigarettes evaluated include products with 5.0 mg ‘tar’, 10.6 mg ‘tar’ and 16.2 mg ‘tar’, where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water, and the cigarettes are smoked following U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendations. The measured levels of carbonyls in the exhaled smoke were compared with calculated yields of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke and a retention efficiency was obtained. The number of human subjects included a total of ten smokers for the 10.6 mg ‘tar’, five for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’, and five for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, each subject smoking three cigarettes. The analyzed carbonyl compounds included several aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde, and two ketones (acetone and 2-butanone. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. Exhaled smoke was collected on Cambridge pads pretreated with a solution of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the dinitrophenylhydrazones of the carbonyl compounds. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke, based on calibration curves. These were generated separately by analyzing the carbonyls in smoke and the nicotine in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. The comparison of the level of carbonyl compounds in exhaled smoke with that from the inhaled smoke showed high retention of all the carbonyls. The retention of aldehydes was above 95% for all three different ‘tar’ levels cigarettes. The ketones were retained with a

  10. I (should) need a cigarette: adolescent social anxiety and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Shayna L; Jamner, Larry D; Whalen, Carol K

    2012-06-01

    Approximately half of high school students in the USA have used tobacco. Social anxiety can put adolescents at increased risk for smoking. This study aims to determine whether adolescents high in trait social anxiety report more cigarette use and greater urge to smoke before, during, and after friend interactions than do teens low in trait social anxiety. Four hundred two students who reported smoking more than once during high school were assessed approximately every 30 min during up to 84-day monitoring sessions. Controlling for momentary anxiety, high socially anxious teens were equally or less likely to smoke, but more likely to report urge to smoke, surrounding friend interactions than low socially anxious teens. Although high socially anxious adolescents do not smoke more than low socially anxious peers, they may believe that they should need a cigarette in anxiety-provoking situations. Such urges may later develop into smoking behaviors.

  11. Overtime work, cigarette consumption, and addiction to cigarette among workers subject to mild smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoue, Tetsuya; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Shoji; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Reijula, Kari

    2006-04-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation of hours of overtime work to cigarette consumption and addiction to cigarette, which was measured by the heaviness of smoking index. The subjects were 571 male daily smokers who responded to a cross-sectional survey of municipal employees of a Japanese city office, in which smoking was permitted in designated areas. Those who engaged in moderate overtime work (10-29 h per month) consumed less number of cigarettes per day and had lower levels of heaviness of smoking index, compared with those who worked either shorter or longer hours of overtime, although the differences were not statistically significant. In the workplace, men who worked 50 h or longer overtime last month consumed, on average, 4 cigarettes more than men who worked less than 30 h of overtime. Home cigarette consumption decreased as hours of overtime work increased. In stratified analysis, there was a significant difference in daily cigarette consumption according to hours of overtime work among smokers in staff position or under low psychological work stress; showing reduced consumption associated with medium levels of overtime work, compared to either no overtime work or extended overtime hours. The U-shaped relations of hours of overtime work to overall cigarette consumption and addiction to smoking deserve further investigations.

  12. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals

  13. Acceptability and Appeal of a Web-Based Smoking Prevention Intervention for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlove, Amy E.; Cowdery, Joan E.; Hoerauf, Sarah L.

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has been identified as the most important source of preventable morbidity and premature mortality worldwide (American Lung Association, 2002). Statistics show that youth who do smoke report having their first cigarette while in middle school, thus this is a critical opportunity for prevention (Eissenburg & Balster, 2000). This…

  14. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease course is modulated by nicotine and other cigarette smoke components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gao

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that cigarette smoking increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS and accelerates its progression. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unsettled. We have investigated here the effects of the nicotine and the non-nicotine components in cigarette smoke on MS using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model, and have explored their underlying mechanism of action. Our results show that nicotine ameliorates the severity of EAE, as shown by reduced demyelination, increased body weight, and attenuated microglial activation. Nicotine administration after the development of EAE symptoms prevented further disease exacerbation, suggesting that it might be useful as an EAE/MS therapeutic. In contrast, the remaining components of cigarette smoke, delivered as cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, accelerated and increased adverse clinical symptoms during the early stages of EAE, and we identify a particular cigarette smoke compound, acrolein, as one of the potential mediators. We also show that the mechanisms underlying the opposing effects of nicotine and CSC on EAE are likely due to distinct effects on microglial viability, activation, and function.

  15. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults - United States, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Ahmed; Phillips, Elyse; Gentzke, Andrea S; Homa, David M; Babb, Stephen D; King, Brian A; Neff, Linda J

    2018-01-19

    The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that the burden of death and disease from tobacco use in the United States is overwhelmingly caused by cigarettes and other combusted tobacco products (1). Cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. adults, and about 480,000 U.S. deaths per year are caused by cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (1). To assess progress toward the Healthy People 2020 target of reducing the proportion of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years who smoke cigarettes to ≤12.0% (objective TU-1.1),* CDC analyzed data from the 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). In 2016, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking among adults was 15.5%, which was a significant decline from 2005 (20.9%); however, no significant change has occurred since 2015 (15.1%). In 2016, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher among adults who were male, aged 25-64 years, American Indian/Alaska Native or multiracial, had a General Education Development (GED) certificate, lived below the federal poverty level, lived in the Midwest or South, were uninsured or insured through Medicaid, had a disability/limitation, were lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), or had serious psychological distress. During 2005-2016, the percentage of ever smokers who quit smoking increased from 50.8% to 59.0%. Proven population-based interventions are critical to reducing the health and economic burden of smoking-related diseases among U.S. adults, particularly among subpopulations with the highest smoking prevalences (1,2).

  16. Intimate partner violence victimization and cigarette smoking: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Cory A; Hawes, Samuel W; Weinberger, Andrea H

    2013-10-01

    The current meta-analytic review represents the first comprehensive empirical evaluation of the strength of the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and cigarette smoking. Thirty-nine effect sizes, drawn from 31 peer-reviewed publications, determined the existence of a small to medium composite effect size for the victimization-smoking relationship (d = .41, 95% confidence interval = [.35, .47]). Results indicate that victims of IPV are at greater smoking risk than nonvictims. Subsequent moderator analyses indicated that the association between victimization and smoking is moderately stronger among pregnant compared to nonpregnant victims. The strength of the victimization-smoking relationship did not differ by relationship type or ethnicity. More research is needed on the smoking behavior of male victims, victims of psychological violence, and victims who identify as Latino/Latina. It would be useful for professionals working with IPV victims to assess for smoking and incorporate smoking prevention and cessation skills in intervention settings.

  17. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in An Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Al Hariri

    2016-11-01

    hypertrophy in cigarette smoke exposed animals.Conclusion Findings from this work showed that cigarette smoking exposure is associated with significant cardiovascular pathology such as cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, pro-fibrotic and atherogenic markers and aortic calcification in an animal model as assessed 1 month post exposure. Antioxidant supplementation prevented cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated indicators of atherosclerosis markers associated with cigarette smoke exposure.Key words: Cigarette smoking, pomegranate Juice, inflammation, hypertrophy, calcification, reactive oxygen species, cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  19. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  20. Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: implications for human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Martins-Green

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered - Thirdhand smoke (THS - the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health threat to children, spouses of smokers and workers in environments where smoking is or has been allowed. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of THS on liver, lung, skin healing, and behavior, using an animal model exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans. THS-exposed mice show alterations in multiple organ systems and excrete levels of NNAL (a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker similar to those found in children exposed to SHS (and consequently to THS. In liver, THS leads to increased lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a precursor to cirrhosis and cancer and a potential contributor to cardiovascular disease. In lung, THS stimulates excess collagen production and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting propensity for fibrosis with implications for inflammation-induced diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In wounded skin, healing in THS-exposed mice has many characteristics of the poor healing of surgical incisions observed in human smokers. Lastly, behavioral tests show that THS-exposed mice become hyperactive. The latter data, combined with emerging associated behavioral problems in children exposed to SHS/THS, suggest that, with prolonged exposure, they may be at significant risk for developing more severe neurological disorders. These results provide a basis for studies on the toxic effects of THS in humans and inform potential regulatory policies to prevent involuntary exposure to THS.

  1. Propolis reversed cigarette smoke-induced emphysema through macrophage alternative activation independent of Nrf2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barroso, Marina Valente; Cattani-Cavalieri, Isabella; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia; Fautrel, Alain; Lagente, Vincent; Schmidt, Martina; Porto, Luís Cristóvão; Romana-Souza, Bruna; Valença, Samuel Santos; Lanzetti, Manuella

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an incurable and progressive disease. Emphysema is the principal manifestation of COPD, and the main cause of this condition is cigarette smoke (CS). Natural products have shown antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that can prevent acute lung

  2. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  3. Cigarette smoking among medical college students in Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, H; Wang, Z; Stallones, L; Yu, S; Gimbel, H W; Yang, P

    1999-09-01

    This study examined cigarette smoking among a sample of medical college students in Wuhan, People's Republic of China. Specific cultural factors associated with cigarette smoking in China were discussed and issues which need to be studied in the future are presented. A self-administrated questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1,611 medical students in 1995. Smoking status was based on self-reported use of cigarettes within the preceding 180 days. Information about demographic characteristics, home residence, annual family income, and smoking status of family members was also obtained. A total of 1,540 (1,201 males and 339 females) completed and returned the questionnaires (response rate 95.6%). None of the 339 female students surveyed reported cigarette smoking. A total of 37.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 35.0-40.5%) of the male medical students were current smokers, and 5. 3% (95% CI = 4.0-6.6%) were former smokers. The mean age of beginning to smoke was 16.5 years (95% CI = 8.7-24.3 years). The major reasons for first smoking were stress (42.8%, 95% CI = 38.2-47. 4%), curiosity (34.4%, 95% CI = 29.6-38.4%), and loneliness (33.7%, 95% CI = 28.7-37.4%). Multivariate analyses suggested that age, college year, and having a family member who smoked were significantly associated with cigarette smoking. The results indicated a need to provide comprehensive tobacco use prevention programs among medical students. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  4. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Donal

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  5. Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal O'Shea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg/m(2 and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008. NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +/- 13% vs 42% +/-12%, p = 0.04. Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001. NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01. Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002 and lean controls (p = 0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

  6. Current manufactured cigarette smoking and roll-your-own cigarette smoking in Thailand: findings from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, Sarunya; Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Hsia, Jason; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Puckcharern, Hataichanok; Touchchai, Chitrlada; Lohtongmongkol, Areerat; Andes, Linda; Asma, Samira

    2013-03-27

    Current smoking prevalence in Thailand decreased from 1991 to 2004 and since that time the prevalence has remained flat. It has been suggested that one of the reasons that the prevalence of current smoking in Thailand has stopped decreasing is due to the use of RYO cigarettes. The aim of this study was to examine characteristics of users of manufactured and RYO cigarettes and dual users in Thailand, in order to determine whether there are differences in the characteristics of users of the different products. The 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS Thailand) provides detailed information on current smoking patterns. GATS Thailand used a nationally and regionally representative probability sample of 20,566 adults (ages 15 years and above) who were chosen through stratified three-stage cluster sampling and then interviewed face-to-face. The prevalence of current smoking among Thai adults was 45.6% for men and 3.1% for women. In all, 18.4% of men and 1.0% of women were current users of manufactured cigarettes only, while 15.8% of men and 1.7% of women were current users of RYO cigarettes only. 11.2% of men and 0.1% of women used both RYO and manufactured cigarettes. Users of manufactured cigarettes were younger and users of RYO were older. RYO smokers were more likely to live in rural areas. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes appeared to be more knowledgeable about the health risks of tobacco use. However, the difference was confounded with age and education; when demographic variables were controlled, the knowledge differences no longer remained. Smokers of manufactured cigarettes were more likely than dual users and those who used only RYO to report that they were planning on quitting in the next month. Users of RYO only appeared to be more addicted than the other two groups as measured by time to first cigarette. There appears to be a need for product targeted cessation and prevention efforts that are directed toward specific population subgroups in Thailand and

  7. Multilevel analysis of school anti-smoking education and current cigarette use among South African students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Brandon; Masyn, Katherine; Chandora, Rachna; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana

    2017-01-01

    South Africa (SA) implemented the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) four times between 1999 and 2011. Data from the four surveys indicated that downward trends in cigarette use among students may have stalled. Understanding the effect of school anti-smoking education on current smoking among students within schools and variability across schools may provide important insights into policies aimed at preventing or reducing tobacco use among students. The objective was to assess the student- and school-level effects of students' exposure to school anti-smoking education on current cigarette use among the study population using the most recent wave of GYTS data in SA (2011). An analytic sample of students 13-15 years of age was selected (n=3,068) from the SA GYTS 2011. A taxonomy of two-level logistic regression models was fit to assess the relationship of various tobacco use, control, and exposure predictor variables on current cigarette smoking among the study population. At the student-level in the full model, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, peer smoking, and ownership of a promotional item were significantly associated with higher risk of current smoking. At the school-level in the full model, average exposure to peer smoking was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of current cigarette use, while average family anti-smoking education was significantly associated with decreases in the outcome variable. School anti-smoking education was not a statistically significant predictor at the student- or school-levels. in this study, exposure to school anti-smoking education had no association with current cigarette smoking among the study population. Consistent with previous studies, having peers that smoked was highly associated with a student being a current smoker. Interestingly, at the school-level in the multilevel analysis, schools with higher rates of average family anti-smoking education had lower prevalence of current smoking. This finding has

  8. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  9. Receptivity to protobacco media and its impact on cigarette smoking among ethnic minority youth in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Cruz, Tess Boley; Schuster, Darleen V; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, Carl Anderson

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents from different ethnic groups show different cigarette smoking prevalence rates, suggesting potential differences in receptivity to and influences from protobacco media. Understanding these differences will be helpful in tailoring smoking prevention and cessation programs for diverse adolescent populations in the United States. Data from cross-sectional surveys of 20,332 randomly sampled California boys and girls, 12-17 years of age, were analyzed. Results indicate that receptivity to protobacco media was lower among African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics than among White youth. There was a consistent dose-response relationship between receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking across ethnic groups. Having a cigarette brand preference was associated with the highest risk for cigarette smoking, having a favorite tobacco ad showed the lowest risk, while having received or being willing to use tobacco promotional items was associated with a moderate risk. After controlling for 13 covariates, the odds ratio for receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking was significant for Whites (RR = 1.38, p 0.05) and Asian American (RR = 1.17, p > 0.05) youth. African American, Asian American, and Hispanic adolescents have a lower level of receptivity to protobacco media than do Whites. The association between media receptivity and 30-day cigarette smoking exists for all four ethnic groups without controlling for other smoking predictor variables, but only for Hispanics and Whites when other variables are controlled. Protecting adolescents from protobacco advertising influences is an important element in tobacco control among ethnic minority youth.

  10. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2015-08-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths' intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (141 girls, 160 boys; 153 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 3 time-points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, individualistic values), smoking related health risk attitudes, perceived subjective norms regarding smoking, and intentions to use cigarettes. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values were associated with more perceived disapproval of smoking, which in turn was negatively associated with intentions to smoke. Collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from intending to smoke. Thus, educational smoking prevention efforts could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of smoking on interpersonal relationships.

  11. Latino/a Youth Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes: Exploring the Roles of Culture and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for cigarette smoking. This risk seems to increase as youth navigate the U.S. cultural context, especially for girls. To investigate how acculturation may influence Latino/a youths’ intentions to use cigarettes, this study combines a bidimensional/multidomain model of acculturation and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Our sample consisted of 303 recent Latino/a immigrant youth who had resided in the United States for five years or less at baseline (141 girls, 160 boys; 153 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 3 time-points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, individualistic values), smoking related health risk attitudes, perceived subjective norms regarding smoking, and intentions to use cigarettes. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values were associated with more perceived disapproval of smoking, which in turn was negatively associated with intentions to smoke. Collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from intending to smoke. Thus, educational smoking prevention efforts could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of smoking on interpersonal relationships. PMID:28042523

  12. Coffee drinking enhances the analgesic effect of cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastase, Anca; Ioan, Silvia; Braga, Radu I

    2007-01-01

    Nicotine (from cigarette smoke) and caffeine (from coffee) have analgesic effects in humans and experimental animals. We investigated the combined effects of coffee drinking and cigarette smoking on pain experience in a group of moderate nicotine-dependent, coffee drinking, young smokers. Pain...... threshold and pain tolerance were measured during cold pressor test following the habitual nocturnal deprivation of smoking and coffee drinking. Smoking increased pain threshold and pain tolerance in both men and women. Coffee drinking, at a dose that had no independent effect, doubled the increase in pain...... threshold induced by smoking. The effect could not be explained by a cumulative raise in blood pressure. Our data suggest that caffeine enhances the analgesic effect of nicotine....

  13. Exposure to cigarette smoke altered the cytoarchitecture and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of cigarette smoke on the body weights of Wistar rats, anti-oxidant activity and the histology of the frontal cortex. Sixteen Wistar rats with mean weight of 131.40 ± 4.43 g were used. They were grouped into four. Group A had a stick of cigarette (Pall Mall brand ®) daily, group B ...

  14. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul G Sangani

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rahul G Sangani, Andrew J GhioEnvironmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1 injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2 the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 µg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.Keywords: particulate matter, smoking, oxidants, oxidative stress, air pollution

  15. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jui-Ting; Lee, I-Hui; Wang, Chieh-Hui; Chen, Kao-Chin; Lee, Chien-I; Yang, Yen-Kuang

    2013-05-01

    Although nicotine can enhance some cognitive functions, cigarette smoking may impair memory and sleep quality. Our aim was to investigate the impact of cigarette smoking on memory and sleep quality in healthy smokers. Sixty-eight healthy participants (34 smokers and 34 controls) completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and a Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was performed, and Hochberg's Sharpened Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. The results show that current smokers had a worse visual memory compared to nonsmokers. There was no significant correlation between the index of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Moreover, smokers had poorer sleep quality. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and adversely influence sleep quality. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and sleep quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Ting Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although nicotine can enhance some cognitive functions, cigarette smoking may impair memory and sleep quality. Our aim was to investigate the impact of cigarette smoking on memory and sleep quality in healthy smokers. Sixty-eight healthy participants (34 smokers and 34 controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and a Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Wilcoxon signed ranks test was performed, and Hochberg’s Sharpened Bonferroni correction was applied for multiple comparisons. The results show that current smokers had a worse visual memory compared to nonsmokers. There was no significant correlation between the index of Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Fagerström test for nicotine dependence. Moreover, smokers had poorer sleep quality. Cigarette smoking might impair memory and adversely influence sleep quality.

  17. A longitudinal study of risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation among college students: Interactions with smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Case, Kathleen R; Marti, C Nathan; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-05-01

    Recent data suggest that lower perceived risks of e-cigarettes are associated with e-cigarette use in young adults; however, the temporality of this relationship is not well-understood. We explore how perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness of e-cigarettes influence e-cigarette initiation, and specifically whether this association varies by cigarette smoking status, in a longitudinal study of tobacco use on college campuses. Data are from a 5-wave 24-college study in Texas. Only students who reported never using e-cigarettes at wave 1 were included (n = 2565). Multilevel discrete-time hazard models, accounting for school clustering, were used. The dependent variable, ever e-cigarette use, was assessed at each wave. Both time-varying (e-cigarette perceptions of harmfulness and addictiveness, age, use of cigarettes, use of other tobacco products, and use of other substances) and time-invariant demographic covariates were included. Two-way interactions between each e-cigarette perception variable and current conventional cigarette use were tested to determine if the hypothesized relationship differed among smokers and non-smokers. 21% of all never e-cigarette users at baseline had initiated e-cigarette ever use by wave 5. Significant two-way interactions qualified the relationship between risk perceptions and e-cigarette initiation. Specifically, perceptions of a lower degree of harmfulness (OR = 1.13, p = .047) and addictiveness (OR = 1.34, p risk of e-cigarettes contributes to subsequent e-cigarette initiation among non-smokers, but not among current smokers. have implications for prevention campaigns focusing on the potential harm of e-cigarettes for non-smoking college students. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Alleviation of Severe Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Symptoms by Cigarette Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Oksenberg, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is in general considered an aggravating factor for restless legs syndrome (RLS). The author presents a case in which cigarette smoking has produced for many years a consistent and effective alleviation of RLS symptoms.

  19. Prevalence of and factors associated with cigarette smoking among university students: a study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhaee, Nouzar; Divsalar, Kouros; Bahreinifar, Sareh

    2011-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of cigarette use among college students and to identify correlates of cigarette smoking, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 1750 college students in the city of Kerman, located in southern Iran. The average age of college students was 21.2 ± 2.1 years. A total of 52% participants were female, 92% were single, and 11% (184) were smokers (22% of men and 2.4% of women). The average age of smoking initiation was 15.9 ± 4.5 years. A high association was shown with the use of cigarettes among close friends (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3), alcohol use (OR = 2.95), and being a male (OR = 2.81). Less cigarette use was shown among participants who prayed (OR = 0.52) and those with better academic standing (OR = 0.68). Based up the high prevalence of cigarette use among college students and also taking into account the correlates of cigarette use, gender-specific programs need to be tailored for cigarette use prevention among college students.

  20. Cigarette smoking among Korean international college students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F; Lohrmann, David K

    2013-01-01

    This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States An online survey was completed by 1,201 students at 52 4-year US universities (34% response rate). The overall smoking prevalence was 43.5%. The smoking rate (29.0%) of female students was higher than that (4%) of female college students in South Korea. Sex, living place, living situation, length of stay as a student in the United States, home smoking rules, campus-wide tobacco-free policies, and levels of acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression were significantly associated with an increase in smoking (p students on US college campuses, targeted prevention efforts for these students may be warranted.

  1. Cigarette smoke enhances Th-2 driven airway inflammation and delays inhalational tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Guy F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active smoking increases asthma severity and is related to diminished treatment efficacy. Animal models in which inhalation of both allergen and mainstream cigarette smoke are combined can help us to understand the complex interaction between both agents. We have recently shown that, in allergic mice, the airway inflammation can be cleared by repeated allergen challenge, resulting in the establishment of a state of inhalational tolerance. Methods In this study, we assessed in vivo the impact of cigarette smoke on the efficacy and time course of this form of tolerance induction. We exposed sensitized mice to concurrent mainstream cigarette smoke and allergen (Ovalbumin- OVA and measured the airway inflammation at different time points. Results We first confirmed that aerosolized OVA administered for a prolonged time period (4–8 weeks resulted in the establishment of tolerance. Concurrent OVA and smoke exposure for 2 weeks showed that tobacco smoke enhanced the Th-2 driven airway inflammation in the acute phase. In addition, the induction of the tolerance by repeated inhalational OVA challenge was delayed significantly by the tobacco smoke, since 4 weeks of concurrent exposure resulted in a more persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation, paralleled by a more mature dendritic cell phenotype. However, smoke exposure could not prevent the establishment of tolerance after 8 weeks of antigen exposure as shown by both histopathology (disappearance of the Th-2 driven inflammation and by in vivo functional experiments. In these tolerized mice, some of the inflammatory responses to the smoke were even attenuated. Conclusion Cigarette smoke enhances acute allergic inflammation and delays, but does not abrogate the development of tolerance due to prolonged challenge with inhaled antigen in experimental asthma.

  2. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  3. Cigarette Smoking-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy, Vascular Inflammation and Injury Are Attenuated by Antioxidant Supplementation in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hariri, Moustafa; Zibara, Kazem; Farhat, Wissam; Hashem, Yasmine; Soudani, Nadia; Al Ibrahim, Farah; Hamade, Eva; Zeidan, Asad; Husari, Ahmad; Kobeissy, Firas

    2016-01-01

    smoke exposed animals. Conclusion: Findings from this work showed that cigarette smoking exposure is associated with significant cardiovascular pathology such as cardiac hypertrophy, inflammation, pro-fibrotic, and atherogenic markers and aortic calcification in an animal model as assessed 1 month post exposure. Antioxidant supplementation prevented cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated indicators of atherosclerosis markers associated with cigarette smoke exposure.

  4. The Effect of Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhong-kai; Cao, Yang; Lv, Gang; Wang, Yan-song; Guo, Zhan-peng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether cigarette smoke has neuroprotective or toxic effects on spinal cord injury (SCI). Male Sprague–Dawley rats were included in the study and received either cigarette smoke exposure or fresh air exposure. Twenty-four hours after the last cigarette smoke or fresh air exposure, all rats were injured at thoracic level 12 (T12), using an established static compression model. Our data showed that the cigarette smoke group had higher water content; higher permeabilit...

  5. Induction of pulmonary antibodies against oxidized lipids in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Thayaparan, Danya; Shen, Pamela; St?mpfli, Martin R.; Morissette, Mathieu C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic cigarette smoke exposure is known to activate the adaptive immune system; however, the functional role of these processes is currently unknown. Given the role of oxidized lipids in driving innate inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke, we investigated whether an adaptive immune response against damaged lipids was induced following chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Methods and results Using a well-established mouse model, we showed that cigarette smoke exposure led to a p...

  6. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Nicotine levels, withdrawal symptoms, and smoking reduction success in real world use: A comparison of cigarette smokers and dual users of both cigarettes and E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorenby, Douglas E; Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate how experienced dual users used cigarettes and e-cigarettes in real-world use and under different levels of cigarette availability. Dual users (cigarettes+e-cigarettes; n=74) and a smoke-only group (just cigarettes; n=74) engaged in a 26-day study with two ad lib use intervals, a week of 75% cigarette reduction and three days of 100% cigarette reduction. After a week of ad lib use of products, all participants were asked to reduce smoking by 75% (dual users were free to use their e-cigarettes as they wished), followed by another week of ad lib use. All participants were then asked to reduce smoking by 100% (cessation) for three days. Primary outcomes were biological samples (carbon monoxide, urinary nicotine and cotinine). Participants also provided real-time reports of product use, craving, and withdrawal symptoms using a smartphone app. Dual users did not smoke fewer cigarettes than smoke-only participants during ad lib periods, but quadrupled their use of e-cigarettes during smoking reduction periods. Dual users were significantly more likely to maintain 100% reduction (97.1% vs. 81.2%). Amongst women, dual use was associated with higher nicotine levels and withdrawal suppression. Among a group of experienced dual users, e-cigarettes helped maintain smoking reduction and reduced some withdrawal symptoms, although both withdrawal symptoms and nicotine levels varied as a function of gender. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use: a prospective study of smoking behaviors among first-year college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Robyn L; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2013-11-01

    Better understanding of the temporal sequence of hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use will help to inform smoking prevention efforts. To address this gap in the literature, we assessed all three of these smoking behaviors in a sample of 424 first-year college women. Using a longitudinal design, we investigated whether hookah use predicts initiating/resuming cigarette and/or initiating marijuana use, and whether cigarette and/or marijuana use predicts initiating hookah use. Participants (67% White, M age = 18.1 years) completed nine monthly surveys. The initial (i.e., baseline) survey assessed demographics, sensation-seeking, impulsivity, and pre-college substance use. Follow-up surveys assessed past-month substance use; outcomes were initiating/resuming cigarette use, initiating marijuana use, and initiating hookah use during the first year of college. We controlled for sensation-seeking, impulsivity, binge drinking, and other smoking behaviors in our multivariate logistic regression models. The results showed that (a) pre-college hookah use predicted initiating/resuming cigarette use; (b) pre-college marijuana use predicted initiation of hookah tobacco smoking; and (c) pre-college cigarette use predicted neither hookah nor marijuana initiation. The findings highlight the co-occurrence of smoking behaviors as well as the need for bundling preventive interventions so that they address hookah, cigarette, and marijuana use. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking and Associated Risk Factors amongst Middle-School Students in Ongkharak District, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana; Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak

    2015-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a common tobacco use which is the leading preventable cause of death in Thailand. Prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking are varied amongst communities. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of cigarette smoking amongst middle-school students studying in the Ongkharak district, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with students of the public schools in Ongkharak district, central Thailand, in 2013. Of 677 middle-school students (grade 7-9) who currently enrolled in the classes, 130 were randomly selected. Data on smoking as well as demographic characteristics were collected using an anonymous self- administered questionnaire which was modified from the 2013 Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and translated into Thai. The prevalence of children who smoked or had smoked before was 24.6% (38.9% amongst males and 6.9% amongst females, p-value coffee or tea consumption (OR = 2.95, 95% CI 1.08-8.05) and sharing a household with a smoker (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.09-8.06). Those who have smoked reported higher prevalence of asthma compared to those who have never smoked (25.0% vs. 9.2%, p-value = 0.033). About a quarter ofmiddle-school students in Ongkharak district smoked cigarettes. Anti-smoking and prevention policies should be encouraged to tackle this rising major public health problem.

  10. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections Enhance Cigarette Smoke Induced COPD in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronjy, Robert F.; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Taggart, Clifford C.; Weldon, Sinead; Geraghty, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infections are a frequent cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, which are a major factor in disease progression and mortality. RSV is able to evade antiviral defenses to persist in the lungs of COPD patients. Though RSV infection has been identified in COPD, its contribution to cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation and lung tissue destruction has not been established. Here we examine the long-term effects of cigarette smoke exposure, in combination with monthly RSV infections, on pulmonary inflammation, protease production and remodeling in mice. RSV exposures enhanced the influx of macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes to the airways of cigarette smoke exposed C57BL/6J mice. This infiltration of cells was most pronounced around the vasculature and bronchial airways. By itself, RSV caused significant airspace enlargement and fibrosis in mice and these effects were accentuated with concomitant smoke exposure. Combined stimulation with both smoke and RSV synergistically induced cytokine (IL-1α, IL-17, IFN-γ, KC, IL-13, CXCL9, RANTES, MIF and GM-CSF) and protease (MMP-2, -8, -12, -13, -16 and cathepsins E, S, W and Z) expression. In addition, RSV exposure caused marked apoptosis within the airways of infected mice, which was augmented by cigarette smoke exposure. RSV and smoke exposure also reduced protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and protein tyrosine phosphates (PTP1B) expression and activity. This is significant as these phosphatases counter smoke-induced inflammation and protease expression. Together, these findings show for the first time that recurrent RSV infection markedly enhances inflammation, apoptosis and tissue destruction in smoke-exposed mice. Indeed, these results indicate that preventing RSV transmission and infection has the potential to significantly impact on COPD severity and progression. PMID:24587397

  11. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by cigarette smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled, A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO), uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, N...

  12. Effects of Opium Addiction and Cigarette Smoking on Hematological Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabinejad, Gholamabbas; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Kazemi-Arababadi, Mohammad; Nabati, Saeideh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of opium addiction and cigarette smoking on the complete blood count (CBC). Eighty-six male subjects, including 31 opium-addicted cigarette smokers (OACS), 19 opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (OANCS), 17 non-opium-addicted cigarette smokers (NOACS), and 19 non-opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (NOANCS) participated in this study. The CBC test was measured in all individuals. The OACS had significantly higher white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, and red blood cell (RBC) count but lower in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) compared to NOANCS. The OANCS had significantly higher lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. Our results demonstrated that the number of WBC, lymphocytes, and RBC were significantly higher, while, MCV was lower in OANCS subjects when compared to NOACS. The OACS had significantly higher level of lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. The mean number of lymphocyte in OANCS was found significantly higher than NOACS. The smokers were shown to have significantly higher levels of WBC compared to NOANCS. Our results showed that opium-addiction, especially when associated with cigarette smoking, has intensive effects on hematological factors and these alteration might leads to greater risk for developing atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and imbalance in immune system.

  13. Number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in the saliva of non-smokers and smokers considering the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. The number of SM and LB was analysed in relation to the frequency of oral health check-ups. The investigated group comprised 124 people aged 20-54. 58 (46.8%) reported cigarette smoking; 66 (53.2%) reported they had never smoked cigarettes and had never attempted to smoke. Cotinine concentration in the saliva was assayed using the Cotinine test (Calbiotech), and the number of SM and LB with the use of the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Test values of pSM and LB and the status of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers who reported having dental check-ups at least once a year significantly more frequently had a small number of LB stated in relation to people who had dental check-ups to control their oral health less frequently than once a year. The number of SM and LB in saliva does not depend on the smoking status, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of smoking.

  14. Behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alberto Rupp de Paiva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the behavior of cardiac variables in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. METHODS: Two groups of Wistar rats were studied as follows: control group (C, comprising 28 animals; and smoking group (S, comprising 23 animals exposed to cigarette smoke for 30 days. Left ventricular cardiac function was assessed in vivo with transthoracic echocardiography, and myocardial performance was analyzed in vitro in preparations of isolated left ventricular papillary muscle. The cardiac muscle was assessed in isometric contractions with an extracellular calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L. RESULTS: No statistical difference was observed in the values of the body variables of the rats and in the mechanical data obtained from the papillary muscle between the control and smoking groups. The values of left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly greater in the smoking animals than in the control animals (C= 3.39 ± 0.4 mm and S= 3.71 ± 0.51 mm, P=0.02. A significant reduction was observed in systolic shortening fraction (C= 56.7 ± 4.2% and S= 53.5 ± 5.3%, P=0.02 and in ejection fraction (C= 0.92 ± 0.02 and S= 0.89 ± 0.04, P=0.01. CONCLUSION: The rats exposed to cigarette smoke had a reduction in left ventricular systolic function, although their myocardial function was preserved.

  15. Associations of Electronic Cigarette Nicotine Concentration With Subsequent Cigarette Smoking and Vaping Levels in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, Nicholas I; Leventhal, Adam M; Stone, Matthew D; McConnell, Rob S; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L

    2017-12-01

    Research indicates that electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use (vaping) among adolescents is associated with the initiation and progression of combustible cigarette smoking. The reasons for this association are unknown. To evaluate whether use of e-cigarettes with higher nicotine concentrations is associated with subsequent increases in the frequency and intensity of combustible cigarette smoking and vaping. In this prospective cohort study involving students from 10 high schools in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area, surveys were administered during 10th grade in the spring (baseline) and 11th grade in the fall (6-month follow-up) of 2015 to students who reported using e-cigarettes within the past 30 days and the nicotine concentration level they used at baseline. Self-report of baseline e-cigarette nicotine concentration of none (0 mg/mL), low (1-5 mg/mL), medium (6-17 mg/mL), or high (≥18 mg/mL) typically used during the past 30 days. Frequency of combustible cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use within the past 30 days (0 days [none], 1-2 days [infrequent], or ≥3 days [frequent]) and daily intensity of smoking and vaping (number of cigarettes smoked per day, number of vaping episodes per day, and number of puffs per vaping episode) at the 6-month follow-up. The analytic sample included 181 students (96 boys [53.0%] and 85 girls [47.0%]; mean [SD] age, 16.1 [0.4] years). Each successive increase in nicotine concentration (none to low, low to medium, and medium to high) vaped was associated with a 2.26 (95% CI, 1.28-3.98) increase in the odds of frequent (vs no) smoking and a 1.65 (95% CI, 1.09-2.51) increase in the odds of frequent (vs no) vaping at follow-up after adjustment for baseline frequency of smoking and vaping and other relevant covariates. Use of e-cigarettes with high (vs no) nicotine concentration was associated with a greater number of cigarettes smoked per day at follow-up (adjusted rate ratio [RR], 7.03; 95% CI, 6.11-7.95). An

  16. Electronic Cigarette Use and Uptake of Cigarette Smoking: A Longitudinal Examination of U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindle, Tory R.; Hiler, Marzena M.; Cooke, Megan; Eissenberg, Thomas; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Dick, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use prevalence is increasing among U.S. adolescents and adults but recent longitudinal data for college/university students are scarce. Furthermore, the extent that e-cigarette use is associated with the onset of cigarette smoking and the factors that lead to the uptake of e-cigarettes in college students has not been explored. Methods 3,757 participants from a Mid-Atlantic university (women: 66%; White: 45%; Black: 21%; Asian: 19%; Hispanic/Latino: 6%) were surveyed in 2014 and again in 2015. Results Among participants reporting never smoking at time 1, those who had ever tried e-cigarettes or were currently using e-cigarettes (at least one use in past 30 days) were more likely to have ever tried cigarettes by time 2 relative to individuals who had not used e-cigarettes. Ever use of e-cigarettes (but not current use) also increased participants’ likelihood of being current cigarette smokers at time 2. Among initial never users of e-cigarettes or cigarettes, males and ever marijuana users had an increased probability of trying e-cigarettes by time 2. Furthermore, less perseverance (an index of impulsivity) and ever use of other tobacco products increased initial never users’ chances of trying both cigarettes and e-cigarettes by time 2. Conclusions Given that never-smoking participants who had tried e-cigarettes were more likely to initiate cigarette use later, limiting young adults’ access to these products may be beneficial. As the long-term health implications of e-cigarette use become clearer, predictors of e-cigarette use could help identify future populations likely to use and abuse these products. PMID:28038364

  17. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  18. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  19. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes

  20. Association between Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome as defined by using the modified NCEP/ATP III criteria [modified the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria] and cigarette smoking in Thai subjects. Methods: This study was carried out among 254 ...

  1. The Relationship between College Class and Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppel, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relation between college class and cigarette-smoking behavior in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) data were employed. Five binary and two cumulative logit equations are estimated to explore the impact of college class on: having ever…

  2. Impact of alcohol consumption and cigarette smoke on renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to determine how differences in degree of exposure to cigarette smoke and alcohol consumption will alter serum magnesium (Mg), Cobalt (Co) and Manganese (Mn) levels in female subjects using combined oral contraceptives. Thirty female subjects who have used combined oral contraceptive ...

  3. Cigarette smoking and perception of its advertisement among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... adverse health condition such as lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, oral cancer. This justifies the global campaign against its use. Unfortunately, the ..... Cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults in Enugu,. Nigeria. Niger Med J 2008;49:27‑30. 14.

  4. Cigarette smoking and habits (1): Some studies on gender and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is an intense growing habit among today's youth. A survey using a structured questionnaire was carried out among 100 randomly picked second year students of University of Brighton, approved by a University of Brighton Ethical Committee. It was tested for reliability to ensure consistency using the Test ...

  5. Teenage Cigarette Smoking Self Test and Discussion Leader's Guide. Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Health Service (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This self test was designed to help teenagers understand their feelings about cigarette smoking. The book contains a leader's guide which describes how the test can be used as a self-administered, self-scored tool; as a basis for group discussion; or for research purposes. Also included are six duplicating masters which are perforated for easy…

  6. Computer Simulation of the Impact of Cigarette Smoking On Humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... Abstract. In this edition, emphasis has been laid on computer simulation of the impact of cigarette smoking on the population between now and the next 50 years, if no government intervention is exercised to control the behaviour of smokers. The statistical indices derived from the previous article (WAJIAR ...

  7. Cigarette smoke pollution promotes oxidative stress imbalance and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on several health parameters due to pollution of air is of international concern. How these affect all living organisms and their wellbeing is a major research area. The development of oxidative stress, alteration in lipid peroxidation, thyroid and pregnancy hormone pattern ...

  8. Computer Simulation of the Impact of Cigarette Smoking On Humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this edition, emphasis has been laid on computer simulation of the impact of cigarette smoking on the population between now and the next 50 years, if no government intervention is exercised to control the behaviour of smokers. The statistical indices derived from the previous article (WAJIAR Volume 4) in the series ...

  9. Association between Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between Cigarette Smoking and Metabolic Syndrome in Thais. ... International Journal of Health Research ... Results: The anthropometric variables, biochemical parameters, blood pressures and resting heart rate were not significantly different between smokers and nonsmokers, except for white blood cell count ...

  10. The effects of cigarette smoking on intraocular pressure and arterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the effects of cigarette Smoking on intra ocular pressure and arterial blood pressure of normotensive young male adults. Fifty male students (who met the screening conditions and devoid of obvious ocular pathology and systemic diseases and nonsmokers) had their intra ocular ...

  11. Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking and use of smokeless tobacco in Moshi rural district of Kilimanjaro region, northern Tanzania. KS Mnyika, E Klouman, K-I Klepp. Abstract. No Abstract. East African Journal of Public Health Vol. 3 (1) April 2006: 24-27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  12. Cigarette smoking and khat chewing among University instructors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high schools and colleges should inform their students about the health and socioeconomic problems associated with cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Additionally, college students need counseling service on ways of coping with their problems. (East African Medical Journal: 2002 79(5): 274-278) ...

  13. Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons In Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The retention by humans of 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs from mainstream cigarette smoke was evaluated. The analysis was done by a new technique using solid phase extraction (SPE for the cleanup and the concenration of PAHs. The new technique has excellent sensitivity and accuracy, which were necessary for the analysis of the very low levels of PAHs present in the exhaled cigarette smoke. The study was done on a common commercial cigarette with 10.6 mg ‘tar’ by U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendation. The results were obtained from ten human subjects, each smoking three cigarettes. The exhaled smoke was collected using a vacuum assisted procedure that avoids strain in exhaling. The study showed that the PAHs with a molecular weight lower than about 170 Daltons are retained with high efficiency. The heavier molecules are less retained, but even compounds such as indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, and benzoperylene are retained with efficiencies around 50%. The dependence of retention efficiency for PAHs (in % on their octanol-water partition coefficient (LogPow was found to be nonlinear and showed considerable variability for several compounds that have very close LogPow values. Better correlation was obtained between the retention efficiency and PAHs vapor pressure (Log VP.

  14. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  15. Ventilatory Function and Cigarette Smoking in Cement Handlers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional study, 90 male cement handlers and 90 age and sex matched controls were interviewed using the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire to assess for respiratory symptoms, dust exposure and cigarette smoking. Spirometry was carried out using ATS/ERS criteria.

  16. Not all COPD is caused by cigarette smoking | Lalloo | Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Not all COPD is caused by cigarette smoking. U Lalloo, A Ambaram. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  17. The influence of cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determin if cigarette smoking influences the cardiovascular response to direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation under general anaesthesia. Method: This was a prospective study of haemodynamic changes in response to tracheal intubation in 50 ASA 1 (ASA = American Society of Anesthesiologists) men ...

  18. Retail Food Availability, Obesity, and Cigarette Smoking in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler, Akiko S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Disparities in the availability of nutritionally important foods and their influence on health have been studied in US urban communities. Purpose: To assess the availability of selected retail foods and cigarettes, and explore ecologic relationships of the availability with obesity and smoking in rural communities. Methods: Inventories of…

  19. Exposure to Point-of-Sale Marketing of Cigarettes and E-Cigarettes as Predictors of Smoking Cessation Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Pasch, Keryn E; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-06

    Cue-reactivity theory suggests smoking-related visual cues such as point-of-sale (POS) marketing (e.g., advertising, product displays) may undermine cessation attempts by causing an increase in nicotine cravings among users. This study examined the relationship between recall of exposure to POS marketing and subsequent cessation behaviors among young adult cigarette smokers. Participants included 813 18-29 year old (m=21.1, sd=2.70) current cigarette smokers attending 24 Texas colleges. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the impact of baseline self-reported exposure to cigarette and e-cigarette advertising and product displays, on using e-cigarettes for cessation and successful cigarette cessation at 6-month follow-up. Two-way interactions between product-specific advertising and between product-specific displays were examined to determine if the marketing of one product strengthened the cue-reactivity of the other. Baseline covariates included socio-demographic factors, past quit attempts, intentions to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence. Exposure to e-cigarette displays was associated with lower odds of cigarette smoking cessation, controlling for covariates and conventional cigarette display exposure. E-cigarette advertising was positively associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation among participants exposed to low (i.e., at least one standard deviation below the mean) levels of cigarette advertising. Cigarette advertising was associated with use of e-cigarettes for cigarette cessation only among those exposed to low levels of e-cigarette advertising. Exposure to cigarette displays was not associated with either outcome. Smoking-related cues at POS may undermine successful cigarette cessation. Exposure to product displays decrease odds of cessation. Advertising exposure increased odds for using e-cigarettes for cessation attempts, but may have guided smokers towards an unproven cessation aid. By examining the interaction of

  20. Chronic Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Neurocognition and Brain Neurobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jo Nixon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the substantial volume of research on the general health consequences associated with chronic smoking, little research has been specifically devoted to the investigation of its effects on human neurobiology and neurocognition. This review summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the neurocognitive and neurobiological implications of chronic cigarette smoking in cohorts that were not seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorders. Studies that specifically assessed the neurocognitive or neurobiological (with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance-based neuroimaging studies consequences of chronic smoking are highlighted. Chronic cigarette smoking appears to be associated with deficiencies in executive functions, cognitive flexibility, general intellectual abilities, learning and/or memory processing speed, and working memory. Chronic smoking is related to global brain atrophy and to structural and biochemical abnormalities in anterior frontal regions, subcortical nuclei and commissural white matter. Chronic smoking may also be associated with an increased risk for various forms of neurodegenerative diseases. The existing literature is limited by inconsistent accounting for potentially confounding biomedical and psychiatric conditions, focus on cross-sectional studies with middle aged and older adults and the absence of studies concurrently assessing neurocognitive, neurobiological and genetic factors in the same cohort. Consequently, the mechanisms promoting the neurocognitive and neurobiological abnormalities reported in chronic smokers are unclear. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if the smoking-related neurobiological and neurocognitive abnormalities increase over time and/or show recovery with sustained smoking cessation.

  1. Cigarette Smoke Cadmium Breakthrough from Traditional Filters: Implications for Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, R. Steven; Fresquez, Mark R.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium, a carcinogenic metal, is highly toxic to renal, skeletal, nervous, respiratory, and cardiovascular systems. Accurate and precise quantification of mainstream smoke cadmium levels in cigarette smoke is important because of exposure concerns. The two most common trapping techniques for collecting mainstream tobacco smoke particulate for analysis are glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitators. We observed that a significant portion of total cadmium passed through standard glass fiber filters that are used to trap particulate matter. We therefore developed platinum traps to collect the cadmium that passed through the filters and tested a variety of cigarettes with different physical parameters for quantities of cadmium that passed though the filters. We found less than 1% cadmium passed through electrostatic precipitators. In contrast, cadmium that passed through 92 mm glass fiber filters on a rotary smoking machine was significantly higher, ranging from 3.5% to 22.9% of total smoke cadmium deliveries. Cadmium passed through 44 mm filters typically used on linear smoking machines to an even greater degree, ranging from 13.6% to 30.4% of the total smoke cadmium deliveries. Differences in the cadmium that passed through from the glass fiber filters and electrostatic precipitator could be explained in part if cadmium resides in the smaller mainstream smoke aerosol particle sizes. Differences in particle size distribution could have toxicological implications and could help explain the pulmonary and cardiovascular cadmium uptake in smokers. PMID:25313385

  2. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  3. Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D; Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Chorti, Maria S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Owolabi, Emmanuel O; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2012-10-01

    The World Health Organisation called for research assessing the safety of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). We evaluated the acute effect of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on complete blood count (CBC) markers in 15 smokers and 15 never-smokers, respectively. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session, and an active e-cigarette smoking session. Never-smokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session, and a passive e-cigarette smoking session. The results demonstrated that CBC indices remained unchanged during the control session and the active and passive e-cigarette smoking sessions (P>0.05). Active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increased white blood cell, lymphocyte, and granulocyte counts for at least one hour in smokers and never smokers (Pactive and passive smoking using the e-cigarettes tested in the current study does not influence CBC indices in smokers and never smokers, respectively. In contrast, acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking increase the secondary proteins of acute inflammatory load for at least one hour. More research is needed to evaluate chemical safety issues and other areas of consumer product safety of e-cigarettes, because the nicotine content in the liquids used may vary considerably. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jodie B; Ameringer, Katherine J; Trujillo, Michael A; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve; Brightman, Molly; Pitts, Stephanie R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2012-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cigarette smoking has been difficult because of PTSD's symptomatic heterogeneity. This study examined common and unique lifetime cross-sectional relationships between PTSD symptom clusters [Re-experiencing (intrusive thoughts and nightmares about the trauma), Avoidance (avoidance of trauma-associated memories or stimuli), Emotional Numbing (loss of interest, interpersonal detachment, restricted positive affect), and Hyperarousal (irritability, difficulty concentrating, hypervigilance, insomnia)] and three indicators of smoking behavior: (1) smoking status; (2) cigarettes per day; and (3) nicotine dependence. Participants were adult respondents in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions with a trauma history (n = 23,635). All four symptom clusters associated with each smoking outcome in single-predictor models (ps Emotional Numbing was the only cluster to retain a significant association with lifetime smoking over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.30, p dependence in multivariate models, these relations fell below significance after adjusting for demographics and comorbidity. No clusters uniquely associated with cigarettes per day. Hyperarousal uniquely related with nicotine dependence over and above the other clusters, demographics, and Axis-I comorbidity (OR = 1.51, p < .001). These results suggest the following: (a) common variance across PTSD symptom clusters contribute to PTSD's linkage with smoking in the American population; and (b) certain PTSD symptom clusters may uniquely associate with particular indicators of smoking behavior. These findings may clarify the underpinnings of PTSD-smoking comorbidity and inform smoking interventions for trauma-exposed individuals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and determinants of cigarette smoking among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases such as ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive airways disease and several cancers. There is little data about the prevalence and determinants of smoking among adolescents in southern Africa. This study aimed to determine the ...

  6. Looks like smoking, is it smoking?: Children’s perceptions of cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems, smoking and cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Faletau, Julienne; Glover, Marewa; Nosa, Vili; Pienaar, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternative cigarette-like nicotine delivery systems have been met with diverse opinions. One concern has been for the effect on children. We investigate whether children can differentiate tobacco cigarette smoking from use of a nicotine inhaler and electronic cigarette. Their opinions on these devices was also of interest. Methods Two structured focus groups and twelve individual interviews were conducted with twenty Māori and Pacific children (6–10 years old) in low socioeconomic...

  7. Formation of Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Part 1, FTC Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu SC

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report evaluates the formation of nitrosonornicotine (NNN and of 4-(methyl-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK from nicotine, and of NNN from nornicotine in the mainstream smoke of a burning cigarette. The cigarettes analyzed in the study were Kentucky reference cigarettes 1R4F and 2R4F, and five other cigarettes, three of them having tobaccos with low levels of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs. All cigarettes had ‘tar’ levels around 10 mg [where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water]. Cigarettes were smoked according to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC puffing regimen, using a 35 mL puff volume, 2 sec puff duration and 60 sec puff intervals. Three separate experiments were performed in this study to evaluate the proportion of TSNAs transferred from preexistent tobacco TSNAs and the proportion formed during smoking (pyrosynthesized. In one experiment, the results were obtained by GC/MS analysis of 13C3-TSNAs formed in smoke when 13C3-nicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes. Another experiment used GC analysis with chemiluminescence detection of TSNAs from smoke before and after an excess of nornicotine was intentionally added to cigarettes, and another experiment consisted of LC/MS/MS analysis of 2H4-TSNAs formed in the smoke when 2H4-nicotine and when 2H4-nornicotine were intentionally added to cigarettes. The use of different analytical methods for the study of TSNA formation conveyed an additional level of confidence regarding the reliability of the results obtained. It was found that NNK was generated during smoking from nicotine with 3 × 10-5% to 8 × 10-5% conversion (0.3 ppm to 0.8 ppm conversion of the nicotine while the result for NNN generation was not conclusive. One experiment demonstrated the formation of NNN from nicotine between 4 × 10-5% and 1.5 × 10-4% (0.4 ppm to 1.5 ppm reported to nicotine, but another experiment did not

  8. Determination of the elemental distribution in cigarette components and smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, D.; Landsberger, S.; Larson, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major source of particle released in indoor environments. A comprehensive study of the elemental distribution in cigarettes and cigarette smoke has been completed. Specifically, concentrations of thirty elements have been determined for the components of 15 types of cigarettes. Components include tobacco, ash, butts, filters, and cigarette paper. In addition, particulate matter from mainstream smoke (MS) and sidesstream smoke (SS) were analyzed. The technique of elemental determination used in the study is instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that certain heavy metals, such as As, Cd, K, Sb and Zn, are released into the MS and SS. These metals may then be part of the health risk of exposure to smoke. Other elements are retained, for the most part, in cigarette ash and butts. The elemental distribution among the cigarette components and smoke changes for different smoking conditions. (author)

  9. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Reduces Vitamin D3 in the Blood Stream and Respiratory Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Published Online: April 2, 2014 Cigarette smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke have long been known to exacerbate respiratory diseases ... the inflammatory effects of cigarette smoke. In conclusion, exposure to ... exposed to secondhand smoke, or who have chronic sinusitis with nasal ...

  10. Lung glutathione adaptive responses to cigarette smoke exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier Steve

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking tobacco is a leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, but although the majority of COPD cases can be directly related to smoking, only a quarter of smokers actually develop the disease. A potential reason for the disparity between smoking and COPD may involve an individual's ability to mount a protective adaptive response to cigarette smoke (CS. Glutathione (GSH is highly concentrated in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF and protects against many inhaled oxidants. The changes in GSH that occur with CS are not well investigated; therefore the GSH adaptive response that occurs with a commonly utilized CS exposure was examined in mice. Methods Mice were exposed to CS for 5 h after which they were rested in filtered air for up to 16 h. GSH levels were measured in the ELF, bronchoalveolar lavage cells, plasma, and tissues. GSH synthesis was assessed by measuring γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL activity in lung and liver tissue. Results GSH levels in the ELF, plasma, and liver were decreased by as much as 50% during the 5 h CS exposure period whereas the lung GSH levels were unchanged. Next, the time course of rebound in GSH levels after the CS exposure was examined. CS exposure initially decreased ELF GSH levels by 50% but within 2 h GSH levels rebound to about 3 times basal levels and peaked at 16 h with a 6-fold increase and over repeat exposures were maintained at a 3-fold elevation for up to 2 months. Similar changes were observed in tissue GCL activity which is the rate limiting step in GSH synthesis. Furthermore, elevation in ELF GSH levels was not arbitrary since the CS induced GSH adaptive response after a 3d exposure period prevented GSH levels from dropping below basal levels. Conclusions CS exposures evoke a powerful GSH adaptive response in the lung and systemically. These data suggests there may be a sensor that sets the ELF GSH adaptive response to prevent GSH levels from dipping

  11. Influences of mood variability, negative moods, and depression on adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sally M; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the emotional risk factors for cigarette smoking in adolescence can greatly inform prevention efforts. The current study examined prospective relationships between 3 affective dimensions--negative mood variability, overall negative mood, and depression---affect-related smoking motives, and future smoking patterns among adolescents. The current study expands on prior research by using real-time methods to assess mood and by focusing on a key developmental transition in smoking behavior: the progression from experimentation or low level, infrequent use to higher use. Ninth- and 10th-grade students (N = 461; 55% girls) provided data on cigarette use at a baseline and follow-up 15-month wave, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for 1 week at each wave. Negative mood was examined via the means of negative mood reports at each wave, and mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. Depressive symptoms and smoking motives were also assessed. Findings supported a complex self-medication model of smoking escalation in adolescence whereby mood-smoking relationships differed by affect dimension and gender. For girls, greater negative mood variability at baseline significantly predicted rapid escalation in smoking over time, whereas depressive symptoms and overall negative mood were unrelated to girls' smoking patterns. In contrast, overall negative mood significantly predicted boys' smoking escalation among those with affect-related motives for smoking. Results thus suggest that inconsistent mood-smoking relations in past work may be driven by the complex interrelationships among affect vulnerabilities, gender, and smoking patterns. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Influences of Mood Variability, Negative Moods, and Depression on Adolescent Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Sally M.; Mermelstein, Robin J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the emotional risk factors for cigarette smoking in adolescence can greatly inform prevention efforts. The current study examined prospective relationships between three affective dimensions – negative mood variability, overall negative mood, and depression, affect-related smoking motives, and future smoking patterns among adolescents. The current study expands on prior research by using real-time methods to assess mood and by focusing on a key developmental transition in smoking behavior: the progression from experimentation or low level, infrequent use to higher use. Ninth and 10th grade students (N = 461; 55% girls) provided data on cigarette use at a baseline and follow-up 15-month wave, and also provided ecological momentary assessments of negative moods via palmtop computers for one week at each wave. Negative mood was examined via the means of negative mood reports at each wave, and mood variability was examined via the intraindividual standard deviations of negative mood reports at each wave. Depressive symptoms and smoking motives were also assessed. Findings supported a complex self-medication model of smoking escalation in adolescence whereby mood-smoking relationships differed by affect dimension and gender. For girls, greater negative mood variability at baseline significantly predicted rapid escalation in smoking over time, whereas depressive symptoms and overall negative mood were unrelated to girls’ smoking patterns. In contrast, overall negative mood significantly predicted boys’ smoking escalation among those with affect-related motives for smoking. Results thus suggest that inconsistent mood-smoking relations in past work may be driven by the complex interrelationships among affect vulnerabilities, gender, and smoking patterns. PMID:23438244

  13. An examination of ethnic differences in cigarette smoking intention among female teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mary Jane S

    2005-04-01

    To describe and compare predictors of cigarette smoking intention, as defined by the theory of planned behavior, among African American, Puerto Rican, and non-Hispanic white female teenagers. A convenience sample of 430 English-speaking female teenagers (141 African American, 146 Puerto Rican, and 143 non-Hispanic white teenagers), aged 13-19 years, who were patients at family planning clinics in eastern Pennsylvania. The data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Regression analyses demonstrated attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control predicted 70% of the variance in smoking intention in African American, 69% in Puerto Rican, and 88% in non-Hispanic white teenagers. In addition, ethnic group differences were identified. For African Americans, smoking intention was mediated principally by perceived behavioral control, whereas for Puerto Rican and non-Hispanic white teenagers, attitudes were the greatest predictor of intention to smoke. Moreover, non-Hispanic white smokers had a stronger intention to smoke than either the African American or Puerto Rican smokers. Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, with the majority of smokers initiating the habit in their teen years. Nurse practitioners are in key positions to counsel young women about the dangers of smoking. The identification of cultural-specific predictors of smoking will assist in the development of tailored antismoking messages.

  14. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, ∼10 -6 cm 3 /s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols

  15. Attachment of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A.H.; Sawyer, S.R.

    1995-05-01

    The daughter products of radon gas are now recognized as a significant contributor to radiation exposure to the general public. It is also suspected that a synergistic effect exists with the combination cigarette smoking and radon exposure. We have conducted an experimental investigation to determine the physical nature of radon progeny interactions with cigarette smoke aerosols. The size distributions of the aerosols are characterized and attachment rates of radon progeny to cigarette-smoke aerosols are determined. Both the mainstream and sidestream portions of the smoke aerosol are investigated. Unattached radon progeny are very mobile and, in the presence of aerosols, readily attach to the particle surfaces. In this study, an aerosol chamber is used to contain the radon gas, progeny and aerosol mixture while allowing the attachment process to occur. The rate of attachment is dependent on the size distribution, or diffusion coefficient, of the radon progeny as well as the aerosol size distribution. The size distribution of the radon daughter products is monitored using a graded-screen diffusion battery. The diffusion battery also enables separation of the unattached radon progeny from those attached to the aerosol particles. Analysis of the radon decay products is accomplished using alpha spectrometry. The aerosols of interest are size fractionated with the aid of a differential mobility analyzer and cascade impactor. The measured attachment rates of progeny to the cigarette smoke are compared to those found in similar experiments using an ambient aerosol. The lowest attachment coefficients observed, {approximately}10{sup {minus}6} cm{sup 3}/s, occurred for the ambient aerosol. The sidestream and mainstream smoke aerosols exhibited higher attachment rates in that order. The results compared favorably with theories describing the coagulation process of aerosols.

  16. Impacts of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation on cigarette smoke-induced exacerbated response to bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Mathieu C; Shen, Pamela; Thayaparan, Danya; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by a state of chronic pulmonary inflammation punctuated by microbial exacerbations. Despite advances in treatment options, COPD remains difficult to manage. In this study, we investigated the potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ activation as a new therapy against cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and its associated bacterial exacerbation. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to room air or cigarette smoke for either 4 days or 4 weeks and treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with rosiglitazone. The impact of rosiglitazone on cigarette smoke-induced exacerbated response to the bacterial pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) was studied using the therapeutic treatment protocol. We found that rosiglitazone was able to reduce cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia both when administered prophylactically or therapeutically. Therapeutic intervention with rosiglitazone was also effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia exacerbation following NTHi infection. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of rosiglitazone did not lead to an increase in the pulmonary bacterial burden, unlike dexamethasone. Altogether, our data suggest that pharmacological activation of PPARγ may be an effective therapeutic approach to improve COPD management, as it is able to reduce cigarette smoke-induced inflammation and decrease the magnitude of bacterial exacerbations, without compromising the ability of the immune system to control the infection. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  17. Sex differences in the brain's dopamine signature of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Kelly P; Wang, Shuo; Kim, Su-Jin; McGovern, Erin; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gao, Hong; Labaree, David; Tagare, Hemant D; Sullivan, Jenna M; Morris, Evan D

    2014-12-10

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health danger. Women and men smoke for different reasons and cessation treatments, such as the nicotine patch, are preferentially beneficial to men. The biological substrates of these sex differences are unknown. Earlier PET studies reported conflicting findings but were each hampered by experimental and/or analytical limitations. Our new image analysis technique, lp-ntPET (Normandin et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014), has been optimized for capturing brief (lasting only minutes) and highly localized dopaminergic events in dynamic PET data. We coupled our analysis technique with high-resolution brain scanning and high-frequency motion correction to create the optimal experiment for capturing and characterizing the effects of smoking on the mesolimbic dopamine system in humans. Our main finding is that male smokers smoking in the PET scanner activate dopamine in the right ventral striatum during smoking but female smokers do not. This finding-men activating more ventrally than women-is consistent with the established notion that men smoke for the reinforcing drug effect of cigarettes whereas women smoke for other reasons, such as mood regulation and cue reactivity. lp-ntPET analysis produces a novel multidimensional endpoint: voxel-level temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release ("DA movies") in individual subjects. By examining these endpoints quantitatively, we demonstrate that the timing of dopaminergic responses to cigarette smoking differs between men and women. Men respond consistently and rapidly in the ventral striatum whereas women respond faster in a discrete subregion of the dorsal putamen. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416851-05$15.00/0.

  18. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Saad, Sonia; Sandow, Shaun L; Bertrand, Paul P

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an addictive behavior, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases). Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance) are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother's metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction) and other behavioral disorders in the offspring.

  19. Cigarette smoking and brain regulation of energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui eChen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is an addictive behaviour, and is the primary cause of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, and cancer (among other diseases. Cigarette smoke contains thousands of components that may affect caloric intake and energy expenditure, although nicotine is the major addictive substance present, and has the best described actions. Nicotine exposure from cigarette smoke can change brain feeding regulation to reduce appetite via both energy homeostatic and reward mechanisms, causing a negative energy state which is characterized by reduced energy intake and increased energy expenditure that are linked to low body weight. These findings have led to the public perception that smoking is associated with weight loss. However, its effects at reducing abdominal fat mass (a predisposing factor for glucose intolerance and insulin resistance are marginal, and its promotion of lean body mass loss in animal studies suggests a limited potential for treatment in obesity. Smoking during pregnancy puts pressure on the mother’s metabolic system and is a significant contributor to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking is a predictor of future risk for respiratory dysfunction, social behavioral problems, cardiovascular disease, obesity and type-2 diabetes. Catch-up growth is normally observed in children exposed to intrauterine smoke, which has been linked to subsequent childhood obesity. Nicotine can have a profound impact on the developing fetal brain, via its ability to rapidly and fully pass the placenta. In animal studies this has been linked with abnormal hypothalamic gene expression of appetite regulators such as downregulation of NPY and POMC in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Maternal smoking or nicotine replacement leads to unhealthy eating habits (such as junk food addiction and other behavioral disorders in the offspring.

  20. Determination of trace elements in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many trace elements hazardous for human body. Tobacco samples were analyzed for their trace element contents and the results were reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Cigarette Smoking Attitudes and Behaviors among Students of a State High School in İstanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Aka Aktürk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to evaluate smoking habits of students, reasons of smoking and students’ level of knowledge on the adverse effects of smoking in a state high school in İstanbul. Methods: A 15-item questionnaire was administered to the students attending a state high school in İstanbul to evaluate their attitudes and behaviors towards cigarette smoking. The questionnaire was completed by each class of students at the same class period under the supervision of their teachers. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 415 students at the respective school. While 349 students (84% never smoke, 66 (15.9% students were either current smokers or quitters. Fifty five of the students (13.2% were active smokers. When we looked at the reasons of smoking, they reported that 63.6% smoked cigarettes because their friends did; 47.2% smoked cigarettes due to exam-related stress; and 40% smoked cigarettes due to family problems. The rate of smoking friends in the smoker group was significantly higher than in the non-smoker group (p=0.0001. A logistic regression analysis showed that having smoking friends was associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of smoking compared to having no smoking friends. Conclusion: The most common reasons of smoking at the school were friends who were smokers, exam-related stress and family problems. Having friends who smoke was associated with an 8-fold increase in the risk of smoking. We believe that counselling services’ close engagement with family problems of students and exam-related stress issues and helping them to cope with these problems may prevent their vulnerability to toxic substances.

  2. Association between high school students’ cigarette smoking, asthma and related beliefs: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resa M. Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking has a detrimental effect on the symptoms and severity of asthma, a common chronic disease among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between asthma and smoking among high school students and assess provider-patient communication with asthmatic adolescents regarding smoking and adolescents’ beliefs about the harms of smoking. Methods In fall 2014, data from high school students, ages 14–18 years, completing the 2009-2010 Virginia Youth Tobacco Survey (N = 1796 were used in descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for model-specific confounders as appropriate. Results Overall, an estimated 19 % of high school students in Virginia smoked and 16 % had asthma. Odds of smoking did not differ by asthma status; however, asthmatics had 1.5 times higher odds of being asked if they smoke (95 % CI 1.06–2.13 and being advised not to smoke by a health professional (95 % CI 1.10–2.14 compared to non-asthmatics. Asthmatics who believed second-hand smoke or smoking 1–5 cigarettes/day was not harmful had respectively 4.2 and 2.8 times higher odds of smoking than those who thought each was harmful. Further, asthmatics who thought smoking 1−2 years is safe had 3.4 times higher odds of smoking than those who did not (95 % CI 1.57–10.1. Conclusions While asthmatic adolescents are just as likely to smoke as non-asthmatics, less healthy beliefs about the risks of smoking increase the odds of smoking among asthmatics. Thus, targeted asthma-specific smoking prevention and education to change attitudes and beliefs could be an effective tool for adolescents.

  3. Neutron activation analysis of an iranian cigarette and its smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, Z.; Razeghi, M.; Parsa, B.

    1977-01-01

    Non-destructive neutron activation analysis, employing a high-resolution Ge(Li)detector, was applied to determine the concentration of 24 trace elements in the tobacco of the Zarrin cigarette which is commercially made in Iran. These elements are: Na, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Au, Hg and Th. The smokes from the combustion of this tobacco and of the cigarette paper were also analysed for these elements and the percentage transference values were calculated. The concentration of some of the trace elements in Zarrin cigarette tobacco obtained in this work from the pooled tobacco sample have significantly changed in comparison with the results obtained in the earlier observations based on individual cigarettes. Aside from the differences which may occur due to different sampling methods, this may be attributed to the variations in specific brands of commercial cigarettes over a period of time. The fact of particular importance is that the concentrations of Se, Hg and Sb in Zarrin cigarette tobacco have almost increased by a factor of 2,3 and 10, respectively. However, the levels of some elements such as K, Fe, Rb, Cs, Ce, Sm, Tb, Hf and Th have remained fairly constant during the two observation periods. (T.G.)

  4. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke: Problems with Lists of Tumorigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1960s, various investigators, agencies, and institutions have disseminated lists of cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS components reported to be tumorigenic on the basis of laboratory bioassays conducted under conditions significantly different from those encountered by the smoker during exposure to the components in the cigarette MSS aerosol. Since 1990, numerous lists of cigarette MSS components, defined as significant tumorigens, have been compiled by American Health Foundation personnel, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, Fowles and Bates, and R.J. Reynolds R&D personnel. The purpose of most of the reports was to define human risk assessment and to dissuade smokers from smoking. Various investigators and agencies have frequently cited the earlier and/or the more recent lists of tumorigenic entities. The recent compilations, involving nearly 80 MSS components, suffer from serious deficiencies including: a Use of per cigarette delivery ranges for specified components which often include analytical data from cigarettes manufactured in the 1950s and 1960s which are not comparable to lower-'tar’ yield cigarettes manufactured since the mid-1970s. b Absence of standard analytical procedures for most of the listed components. c Methodological considerations regarding bioassays used to determine tumorigenicity of the listed MSS components. d Difficulty in extrapolating in vivo bioassay data obtained by non-inhalation modes of administration of a single compound to the human smoking situation involving inhalation of a complex aerosol containing that compound. e Inhalation data inadequacies regarding the tumorigenicity of many of the components. f Several tobacco smoke components are listed despite the fact their presence has not been confirmed, their MSS level has not been defined, or their MSS level is no longer relevant. g Insufficient consideration of inhibitors of tumorigenesis and mutagenesis found in MSS. h

  5. Cigarette smoke facilitates allergen penetration across respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, K; Reininger, R; Bernhard, D; Campana, R; Pree, I; Reisinger, J; Kneidinger, M; Kundi, M; Dolznig, H; Thurnher, D; Valent, P; Chen, K-W; Vrtala, S; Spitzauer, S; Valenta, R; Niederberger, V

    2009-03-01

    The association between cigarette smoke exposure and allergic airway disease is a matter for debate. We sought to investigate in an in vitro system whether active smoking reduces the integrity and barrier function of the respiratory epithelium and thus facilitates allergen penetration. We cultured the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o- in a transwell culture system as a surrogate for the intact respiratory epithelium. The cell monolayer was exposed to standardized cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The extent and effects of trans-epithelial allergen penetration were measured using 125I-labelled purified major respiratory allergens (rBet v 1, rPhl p 5 and rDer p 2) and histamine release experiments. Exposure of cells to concentrations of CSE similar to those found in smokers induced the development of para-cellular gaps and a decrease in trans-epithelial resistance. CSE exposure induced a more than threefold increase in allergen penetration. Increased subepithelial allergen concentrations provoked a substantial augmentation of histamine release from sensitized basophils. Our results indicate that cigarette smoke is a potent factor capable of reducing the barrier function of the respiratory epithelium for allergens and may contribute to increased allergic inflammation, exacerbation of allergic disease and boosting of IgE memory.

  6. Perceived sex discrimination amplifies the effect of antagonism on cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; English, Devin; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-06-01

    Compared to men, the decline in smoking during the past few decades has been slower for women, and smoking-related morbidity and mortality has increased substantially. Identifying sex-specific risk factors will inform more targeted intervention/prevention efforts. The purpose of this research is to examine the interactive effect of psychological (trait antagonism) and social (perceived sex discrimination) factors on current cigarette smoking and whether these effects differ by sex. Participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (HANDLS; N = 454) and participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; N = 8,155) completed measures of antagonism, perceived sex discrimination, and reported whether they smoked currently. Logistic regressions were used to predict smoking from antagonism, discrimination, and their interaction. Antagonism was associated with an increased risk of smoking. For women, there was an interaction between antagonism and discrimination: among women who perceived sex discrimination, every standard deviation increase in antagonism was associated with a 2.5 increased risk of current smoking in HANDLS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.46-4.39) and an almost 1.5 increased risk in HRS (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.18-1.73). This interaction was not significant for men in either sample. In 2 independent samples, perceived sex discrimination amplified the effect of antagonism on cigarette smoking for women but not men. A hostile disposition and a perceived hostile social environment have a synergistic effect on current cigarette smoking for women.

  7. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onor, IfeanyiChukwu O.; Stirling, Daniel L.; Williams, Shandrika R.; Bediako, Daniel; Borghol, Amne; Harris, Martha B.; Darensburg, Tiernisha B.; Clay, Sharde D.; Okpechi, Samuel C.; Sarpong, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. PMID:28956852

  8. Clinical Effects of Cigarette Smoking: Epidemiologic Impact and Review of Pharmacotherapy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IfeanyiChukwu O. Onor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking—a crucial modifiable risk factor for organ system diseases and cancer—remains prevalent in the United States and globally. In this literature review, we aim to summarize the epidemiology of cigarette smoking and tobacco use in the United States, pharmacology of nicotine—the active constituent of tobacco, and health consequence of cigarette smoking. This article also reviews behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for cigarette smokers and provides cost estimates for approved pharmacologic interventions in the United States. A literature search was conducted on Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, ClinicalKey, and PubMed databases using the following headings in combination or separately: cigarette smoking, tobacco smoking, epidemiology in the United States, health consequences of cigarette smoking, pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking, and non-pharmacologic therapy for cigarette smoking. This review found that efficacious non-pharmacologic interventions and pharmacologic therapy are available for cessation of cigarette smoking. Given the availability of efficacious interventions for cigarette smoking cessation, concerted efforts should be made by healthcare providers and public health professionals to promote smoking cessation as a valuable approach for reducing non-smokers’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

  9. Influence of cigarette smoking on human autonomic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermaier, O. N.; Smith, M. L.; Beightol, L. A.; Zukowska-Grojec, Z.; Goldstein, D. S.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Although cigarette smoking is known to lead to widespread augmentation of sympathetic nervous system activity, little is known about the effects of smoking on directly measured human sympathetic activity and its reflex control. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied the acute effects of smoking two research-grade cigarettes on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and on arterial baroreflex-mediated changes of sympathetic and vagal neural cardiovascular outflows in eight healthy habitual smokers. Measurements were made during frequency-controlled breathing, graded Valsalva maneuvers, and carotid baroreceptor stimulation with ramped sequences of neck pressure and suction. Smoking provoked the following changes: Arterial pressure increased significantly, and RR intervals, RR interval spectral power at the respiratory frequency, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity decreased. Plasma nicotine levels increased significantly, but plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and neuropeptide Y levels did not change. Peak sympathetic nerve activity during and systolic pressure overshoots after Valsalva straining increased significantly in proportion to increases of plasma nicotine levels. The average carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex relation shifted rightward and downward on arterial pressure and RR interval axes; average gain, operational point, and response range did not change. CONCLUSIONS. In habitual smokers, smoking acutely reduces baseline levels of vagal-cardiac nerve activity and completely resets vagally mediated arterial baroreceptor-cardiac reflex responses. Smoking also reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity but augments increases of sympathetic activity triggered by brief arterial pressure reductions. This pattern of autonomic changes is likely to influence smokers' responses to acute arterial pressure reductions importantly.

  10. Acute effects of cigarette smoking on pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverdorben, M; Mostert, A; Munjal, S; van der Bijl, A; Potgieter, L; Venter, C; Liang, Q; Meyer, B; Roethig, H-J

    2010-01-01

    Chronic smoking related changes in pulmonary function are reflected as accelerated decrease in FEV1 although histologic changes occur in the peripheral bronchi earlier. More sensitive pulmonary function parameters might mirror those early changes and might show a dose response. In a randomized three-period cross-over design 57 male adult conventional cigarette (CC)-smokers (age: 45.1+/-7.1 years) smoked either CC (tar:11 mg, nicotine:0.8 mg, carbon monoxide:11 mg [Federal Trade Commission (FTC)]), or used as a potential reduced-exposure product the electrically heated smoking system (EHCSS) (tar:5 mg, nicotine:0.3 mg, carbon monoxide:0.45 mg (FTC)) or did not smoke (NS). After each 3-day exposure period, hematology and exposure parameters were determined preceding body plethysmography. Cigarette smoke exposure was significantly (psmoke exposures and no-smoking on mid to small size pulmonary airways in a dose dependent manner. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. School bullying and susceptibility to smoking among never-tried cigarette smoking students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday

    2016-04-01

    Bullying involvement has been linked with substance use; however, less is known about its relationship with pre-initiation stages of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior. This study examined the association between bullying involvement and smoking susceptibility among never tried or experimented with cigarette smoking students. Susceptibility to cigarette smoking in adolescence is a strong predictor of subsequent smoking initiation. A cross-sectional data on Canadian adolescent and youth were drawn from the 2012/2013 Youth Smoking Survey (n=28,843). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility among never-smoking students. About 21% self-reported involvement in bullying (as a bully, victim or both). Middle school students (grades 6-8) reported more involvement in bullying (24%) than those in grades 9-12 (16%). The multivariable analyses showed that the association between bullying and smoking susceptibility was significantly different by grade level. Middle school students involved in bullying had higher odds of smoking susceptibility compared to uninvolved students (bully, adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=2.54, 95% CI=1.73-3.74; victim, AOR=1.29, 95% CI=1.11-1.48; bully-victim, AOR=2.19, 95% CI=1.75-2.74). There were no significant associations between all subgroups of bullying and smoking susceptibility for grades 9-12 students. Students involved in bullying were more susceptible to smoking, although patterns of association varied by grade level. In particular, the findings highlight that non-smoking middle school students involved in bullying were susceptible to future smoking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Problems with cigarette smoking and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, W W; Ma, W; Zhu, Q; Chen, H; Tang, L

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitudes towards the ban of smoking in Shantou, China, as causes for failure to control smoking. Environmental monitoring and population survey. Particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements were conducted in randomly selected public places (restaurants, non-alcoholic drink shops and internet bars) and exposure-related health hazards were evaluated. University students and adult citizens were randomly selected to determine their extent of cigarette smoking, knowledge of health hazards and attitude towards the ban of smoking in public places. The collected data were used to evaluate possible causes and solutions to the smoking problem. From PM2.5 measurements, the average indoor to outdoor concentrations in non-smoking restaurants were 33.4 vs. 30.6 μg/m(3), P > 0.05; average indoor of smoking restaurants was 350.0% higher, P  0.001. From our survey of 1100 university students: 1) 17.5% and 7.5% were active male and female smokers, respectively; and 2) 57.5% of students would accept a smoke-ban policy. From 502 adult citizens: 1) 27.5% were active male smokers; 2) Approximately 40 and 60% had inadequate knowledge of health hazards from smoking and second-hand smoke exposure; and 3) >90% of them would accept a smoke-ban policy. Our data indicate that failure to ban smoking was not caused by resistance from smokers but inadequate (national and local) government effort to educate the public and to enforce existing policy. The data suggest that development of a citizen-based approach, in collaboration with willing officials, may be highly successful in the control of cigarette smoking in China. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Burden of smoking-related disease and potential impact of cigarette price increase in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardach, Ariel E; Caporale, Joaquín E; Alcaraz, Andrea; Augustovski, Federico; Huayanay-Falconí, Leandro; Loza-Munarriz, Cesar; Hernández-Vásquez, Akram; Pichon-Riviere, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    . To calculate the burden of smoking-related disease and evaluate the potential economic and health impact of tax-induced cigarette price increase in Peru. A microsimulation model was used to estimate smoking-attributable impact on mortality, quality of life, and costs associated with heart and cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia, lung cancer, and another nine cancers. Three scenarios, involving increased taxes, were evaluated. . A yearly total of 16,719 deaths, 6,926 cancer diagnoses, 7,936 strokes, and 7,548 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular disease can be attributed to smoking in Peru. Similarly, 396,069 years of life are lost each year from premature death and disability, and the cost of treating smoking-attributable health issues rises to 2,500 million soles (PEN 2015). Currently, taxes on tobacco cover only 9.1% of this expense. If cigarette prices were to increase by 50% over the next 10 years, 13,391 deaths, 6,210 cardiovascular events, and 5,361 new cancers could be prevented, representing an economic benefit of 3,145 million (PEN) in savings in health costs and increases in tax revenues. . Smoking-attributable burden of disease and costs to the health system are very high in Peru. Higher cigarette taxes could have substantial health and economic benefits for the country.

  14. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults --- United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    The health consequences of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use both have been well documented, including increased risk for lung, throat, oral, and other types of cancers. To assess state-specific current cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use among adults, CDC analyzed data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated wide variation in self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence (range: 6.4% [U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI)] to 25.6% [Kentucky and West Virginia]) and smokeless tobacco use (range: 0.8% [USVI] to 9.1% [Wyoming]). For 15 of the states, Puerto Rico, and Guam, smoking prevalence was significantly higher among men than among women. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use was higher among men than women in all states and territories. Smokeless tobacco use was highest among persons aged 18--24 years and those with a high school education or less. From 0.9% (Puerto Rico) to 13.7% (Wyoming) of current smokers reported also using smokeless tobacco. Clinicians should identify all tobacco use in their patients and advise those who use any tobacco product to quit. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends implementing this approach in combination with other measures, including raising excise taxes on tobacco and strengthening smoke-free policies to prevent tobacco-related deaths.

  15. Information Management Strategies Within Conversations About Cigarette Smoking: Parenting Correlates and Longitudinal Associations With Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Aaron; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Anderson, Ryan; Darfler, Anne; Price, Juliette; Flores, Zujeil; Mermelstein, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined smoking-specific and general parenting predictors of in vivo observed patterns of parent–adolescent discussion concerning adolescents’ cigarette smoking experiences and associations between these observed patterns and 24-month longitudinal trajectories of teen cigarette smoking behavior (nonsmokers, current experimenters, escalators). Parental solicitation, adolescent disclosure, and adolescent information management were coded from direct observations of 528 video-recorded parent–adolescent discussions about cigarette smoking with 344 teens (M age = 15.62 years) with a history of smoking experimentation (321 interactions with mothers, 207 interactions with fathers). Adolescent initiation of discussions concerning their own smoking behavior (21% of interactions) was predicted by lower levels of maternal observed disapproval of cigarette smoking and fewer teen-reported communication problems with mothers. Maternal initiation in discussions (35% of interactions) was associated with higher levels of family rules about illicit substance use. Three categories of adolescent information management (full disclosure, active secrecy, incomplete strategies) were coded by matching adolescents’ confidential self-reported smoking status with their observed spontaneous disclosures and responses to parental solicitations. Fully disclosing teens reported higher quality communication with their mothers (more open, less problematic). Teens engaged in active secrecy with their mothers when families had high levels of parental rules about illicit substance use and when mothers expressed lower levels of expectancies that their teen would smoke in the future. Adolescents were more likely to escalate their smoking over 2 years if their parents initiated the discussion of adolescent smoking behavior (solicited) and if adolescents engaged in active secrecy. PMID:23148939

  16. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS AMONG ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The particulate fraction of cigarette smoke, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC), is genotoxic in many short-term in vitro tests and carcinogenic in rodents. However, no study has evaluatedd a set of CSCs prepared from a diverse set of cigarettes in a variety of short-term genotoxic...

  17. GENOTOXICITY OF TEN CIGARETTE SMOKE CONDENSATES IN FOUR TEST SYSTEMS: COMPARISONS BETWEEN ASSAYS AND CONDENSATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is the study? This the first assessment of a set of cigarette smoke condensates from a range of cigarette types in a variety (4) of short-term genotoxicity assays. Why was it done? No such comparative study of cigarette smoke condensates has been reported. H...

  18. Association of media literacy with cigarette smoking among youth in Jujuy, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, M Victoria; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Primack, Brian A; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Mejia, Raul M; Gregorich, Steven E; Alderete, Ethel

    2012-05-01

    Latin America has the highest prevalence of tobacco use by youth. Higher media literacy, defined as the ability to analyze and evaluate media messages, has been associated with lower smoking among youth in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine whether media literacy related to smoking is independently associated with current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of mostly indigenous youth in Jujuy, Argentina. In 2006, a self-administered survey was conducted among 10th grade students sampled from 27 randomly selected urban and rural schools in Jujuy. Survey items measured smoking behavior (ever, never, and current), susceptibility to future smoking among never-smokers (definitely not accept a cigarette from a friend or to smoke in the future), 5 items assessing smoking media literacy (SML), and risk factors for smoking. Of the 3,470 respondents, 1,170 (34%) reported having smoked in the previous 30 days (current). Of the 1,430 students who had never smoked, 912 (64%) were susceptible to future smoking. High media literacy was present in 38%. Using multiple logistic regression, fully adjusted models showed that high media literacy was significantly associated as a protective factor of being a current smoker (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.67-0.97) and of being susceptible to future smoking (OR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.58-0.92) among those who had never smoked. Among youth in Jujuy, higher SML was significantly associated with both lower current smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Teaching SML may be a valuable component in a prevention intervention in this population.

  19. The prospective relationship between distress tolerance and cigarette smoking expectancies in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadur, Julia M; Ninnemann, Andrew L; Lim, Aaron; Lejuez, Carl W; MacPherson, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The current study examined the prospective relationship between distress tolerance (DT) and positive and negative cigarette smoking outcome expectancies, which are reliable predictors of the onset and maintenance of smoking behaviors. Data from a longitudinal study (N = 204) examining risk behaviors in adolescence were used to assess whether DT predicts individual differences in rate of change in smoking outcome expectancies over 4 annual assessment waves through adolescence. Adolescents (mean age at first wave: 13.03 years; SD = 0.88 years) completed a behavioral task assessing DT at baseline and a self-report measure of adolescent smoking expectancies annually across 4 years. Latent growth curve models were estimated to test our hypotheses. Results showed that DT at baseline did not significantly predict initial levels of negative affect reduction (NAR) expectancies, but NAR expectancies increased more quickly over time for adolescents with lower DT. Moreover, as hypothesized, DT did not prospectively predict significant changes in smoking expectancies outside of the domain of NAR, including negative physical feelings, negative social impression, and boredom reduction expectancies. These findings suggest that DT is a useful indicator of adolescent expectancies about the consequences of cigarette smoking, particularly those focused on reducing negative affect. Thus, DT may be an important target for preventing smoking initiation among adolescents via this putative mechanism. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed within the context of observed effect sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  1. Cigarette smoking among healthcare professional students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is aknown fact that health professionals can play a critical role in reducing tobacco use. In fact, it has been shown that even brief and simple advice from health care professionals can substantially increase smoking cessation rates. Students in healthcare professions are future healthcare professionals ...

  2. The Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Nicotine on Periodontal Tissue in a Periodontitis Model Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikiko Kubota

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle-related risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of cigarette smoking in periodontal disease has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we report that the systemic administration of cigarette smoke condensate or nicotine, which is the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, augmented alveolar bone loss. Concomitantly, the number of osteoclasts in periodontal tissues increased and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand was upregulated at the ligated side in mice with periodontitis. Nicotine also attenuated alveolar bone repair after ligature removal. These observations highlight the destruction of periodontal tissue by smoking and the unfavorable clinical course of periodontal disease in patients with a cigarette smoking habit. The present study demonstrates that periodontal disease models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-related periodontal diseases.

  3. The Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate and Nicotine on Periodontal Tissue in a Periodontitis Model Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Mikiko; Yanagita, Manabu; Mori, Kenta; Hasegawa, Shiori; Yamashita, Motozo; Yamada, Satoru; Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major lifestyle-related risk factor for periodontal diseases. However, the pathophysiological role of cigarette smoking in periodontal disease has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we report that the systemic administration of cigarette smoke condensate or nicotine, which is the major ingredient of cigarette smoke, augmented alveolar bone loss. Concomitantly, the number of osteoclasts in periodontal tissues increased and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand was upregulated at the ligated side in mice with periodontitis. Nicotine also attenuated alveolar bone repair after ligature removal. These observations highlight the destruction of periodontal tissue by smoking and the unfavorable clinical course of periodontal disease in patients with a cigarette smoking habit. The present study demonstrates that periodontal disease models are useful for elucidating the pathogenesis of cigarette smoking-related periodontal diseases.

  4. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking and Susceptibility to Cigarette Smoking Among Young Adults in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Haider, M Rifat; Barnett, Tracey E; Guo, Yi; Getz, Kayla R; Thrasher, James F; Maziak, Wasim

    2016-02-18

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking, also known as hookah and shisha, has surged in popularity among young people in the United States. Waterpipe is also increasingly becoming the first tobacco product that young people try. Given the limited access to and limited portability of waterpipes, waterpipe smokers who become more nicotine dependent over time may be more likely to turn to cigarettes. This study examined the relationship between waterpipe tobacco smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Using data from the 2012-2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of US adults, we reported rates of current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking by demographic characteristics and by use of other tobacco products among survey participants aged 18 to 24 years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between current waterpipe smoking and susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or within the next year. Of 2,528 young adults who had never established cigarette smoking, 15.7% (n = 398) reported being waterpipe smokers (every day or some days [n = 97; 3.8%] or rarely [n = 301; 11.9%]); 44.2% (176/398) of waterpipe smokers reported being susceptible to cigarette smoking. Those who smoked waterpipe rarely were 2.3 times as susceptible to cigarette smoking as those who were not current waterpipe smokers (OR = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6-3.4). Current waterpipe smoking is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among young adults in the United States. Longitudinal studies are needed to demonstrate causality between waterpipe smoking and initiation of cigarette smoking.

  5. Attitudes toward E-Cigarettes, Reasons for Initiating E-Cigarette Use, and Changes in Smoking Behavior after Initiation: A Pilot Longitudinal Study of Regular Cigarette Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Stratton, Erin; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined 1) changes in smoking and vaping behavior and associated cotinine levels and health status among regular smokers who were first-time e-cigarette purchasers and 2) attitudes, intentions, and restrictions regarding e-cigarettes. Methods We conducted a pilot longitudinal study with assessments of the aforementioned factors and salivary cotinine at weeks 0, 4, and 8. Eligibility criteria included being ≥18 years old, smoking ≥25 of the last 30 days, smoking ≥5 cigarettes per day (cpd), smoking regularly ≥1 year, and not having started using e-cigarettes. Of 72 individuals screened, 40 consented, 36 completed the baseline survey, and 83.3% and 72.2% were retained at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. Results Participants reduced cigarette consumption from baseline to week 4 and 8 (p’s < 0.001); 23.1% reported no cigarette use in the past month at week 8. There was no significant decrease in cotinine from baseline to week 4 or 8 (p’s = ns). At week 8, the majority reported improved health (65.4%), reduced smoker’s cough (57.7%), and improved sense of smell (53.8%) and taste (50.0%). The majority believed that e-cigarettes versus regular cigarettes have fewer health risks (97.2%) and that e-cigarettes have been shown to help smokers quit (80.6%) and reduce cigarette consumption (97.2%). In addition, the majority intended to use e-cigarettes as a complete replacement for regular cigarettes (69.4%) and reported no restriction on e-cigarette use in the home (63.9%) or car (80.6%). Conclusions Future research is needed to document the long-term impact on smoking behavior and health among cigarette smokers who initiate use of e-cigarettes. PMID:25621193

  6. Mortality in relation to oral contraceptive use and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Martin; Painter, Rosemary; Yeates, David

    2003-07-19

    As part of the Oxford Family Planning Association study, we compared mortality in relation to oral contraceptive use and smoking to highlight the differences between them from the perspective of public health. The study consisted of 17032 women, aged 25-39 years at entry, recruited between May 1, 1968, and July 31, 1974, who had used oral contraceptives, a diaphragm, or an intrauterine device. We assessed mortality from follow-up data recorded until Dec 31, 2000. The analysis is based on woman-years of observation. We analysed 889 deaths. Women who had ever used oral contraceptives had increased mortality from cervical cancer (rate ratio 7.2, 95% CI 1.1-303), and decreased mortality from other uterine (0.2, 0.0-0.8) and ovarian cancers (0.4, 0.2-0.7). Oral contraceptives had some adverse effect on deaths from ischaemic heart disease in women who smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day. For all causes of mortality, the rate ratio for death in women who ever used oral contraceptives was 0.89 (95% CI 0.77-1.02). By contrast, this rate ratio was 1.24 (1.03-1.49) in those who smoked one to 14 cigarettes per day, and 2.14 (1.81-2.53) in those who smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day. There was no harmful effect of oral contraceptive use on overall mortality. By contrast, death from all causes was more than twice as high in smokers of 15 or more cigarettes a day as in non-smokers. The harmful effect was already apparent in women aged 35-44 years.

  7. Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K E

    1985-02-07

    In the US, media coverage of the health hazards of cigarette smoking is consored by the tobacco industry. Tobacco companies, which in 1983 alone spent US$2.5 billion on smoking promtion, are a major source of advertising revenue for many media organizations. As a result media organizations frequently refuse to publish antismoking information, tent to tone down coverage of antismoking news events, and often refuse to accept antismoking advertisements. In a 1983 "Newsweek" supplement on personal health, prepared by the American Medical Association, only 4 sentences were devoted to the negative effects of smoking. A spokesman for the association reported that "Newsweek" editors refused to allow the association to use the forum to present a strong antismoking message. In 1984 a similar type of health supplement, published by "Time," failed to mention smoking at all. An examination of 10 major women's magazines revealed that between 1967-79, 4 of the magazines published no articles about the hazards of smoking and only 8 such articles appeared in the other 6 magazines. All of these magazines carried smoking advertisements. During the same time period, 2 magazines, which refused to publish cigarette ads, published a total of 16 articles on the hazards of smoking. Small magazines which publish antismoking articles are especially vulnerable to pressure from the tobacco industry. For example, the tobacco industry canceled all its ads in "Mother Jones" after the magazine printed 2 antismoking articles. 22 out of 36 magazines refused to run antismoking advertisements when they were requested to do so. Due to poor media coverage, th public's knowledge of the hazards of smoking is deficient. Recent surveys found that 2/3 of the public did not know that smoking could cause heart attacks, and 1/2 of the respondents did not know that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking

  8. The effects of a rise in cigarette price on cigarette consumption, tobacco taxation revenues, and of smoking-related deaths in 28 EU countries-- applying threshold regression modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yuan Yeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background European Union public healthcare expenditure on treating smoking and attributable diseases is estimated at over €25bn annually. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies of the EU. This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and smoking-caused deaths in 28 EU countries. Methods Employing panel data for the years 2005 to 2014 from Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we used income as a threshold variable and applied threshold regression modelling to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and to simulate the effect of price fluctuations. Results The results showed that there was an income threshold effect on cigarette prices in the 28 EU countries that had a gross national income (GNI per capita lower than US$5418, with a maximum cigarette price elasticity of −1.227. The results of the simulated analysis showed that a rise of 10% in cigarette price would significantly reduce cigarette consumption as well the total death toll caused by smoking in all the observed countries, but would be most effective in Bulgaria and Romania, followed by Latvia and Poland. Additionally, an increase in the number of MPOWER tobacco control policies at the highest level of achievment would help reduce cigarette consumption. Conclusions It is recommended that all EU countries levy higher tobacco taxes to increase cigarette prices, and thus in effect reduce cigarette consumption. The subsequent increase in tobacco tax revenues would be instrumental in covering expenditures related to tobacco prevention and control programs.

  9. The effects of a rise in cigarette price on cigarette consumption, tobacco taxation revenues, and of smoking-related deaths in 28 EU countries-- applying threshold regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chun-Yuan; Schafferer, Christian; Lee, Jie-Min; Ho, Li-Ming; Hsieh, Chi-Jung

    2017-09-21

    European Union public healthcare expenditure on treating smoking and attributable diseases is estimated at over €25bn annually. The reduction of tobacco consumption has thus become one of the major social policies of the EU. This study investigates the effects of price hikes on cigarette consumption, tobacco tax revenues and smoking-caused deaths in 28 EU countries. Employing panel data for the years 2005 to 2014 from Euromonitor International, the World Bank and the World Health Organization, we used income as a threshold variable and applied threshold regression modelling to estimate the elasticity of cigarette prices and to simulate the effect of price fluctuations. The results showed that there was an income threshold effect on cigarette prices in the 28 EU countries that had a gross national income (GNI) per capita lower than US$5418, with a maximum cigarette price elasticity of -1.227. The results of the simulated analysis showed that a rise of 10% in cigarette price would significantly reduce cigarette consumption as well the total death toll caused by smoking in all the observed countries, but would be most effective in Bulgaria and Romania, followed by Latvia and Poland. Additionally, an increase in the number of MPOWER tobacco control policies at the highest level of achievment would help reduce cigarette consumption. It is recommended that all EU countries levy higher tobacco taxes to increase cigarette prices, and thus in effect reduce cigarette consumption. The subsequent increase in tobacco tax revenues would be instrumental in covering expenditures related to tobacco prevention and control programs.

  10. Smoke and mirrors: Magnified beliefs that cigarette smoking suppresses weight

    OpenAIRE

    White, Marney A.; McKee, Sherry A.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that for some smokers, weight concerns interfere with smoking cessation. Studies with individuals with eating disorders and weight concerns have indicated that weight-concerned individuals place undue faith in the effectiveness of certain weight control strategies; i.e., adopt a brand of magical thinking pertaining to food rules and dieting behaviors. The current study investigated whether weight-concerned smokers endorsed exaggerated beliefs in the ability of smoking to sup...

  11. Smoking, epidemiology and e-cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raschke RA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. “The true face of smoking is disease, death and horror - not the glamour and sophistication the pushers in the tobacco industry try to portray.” - David Byrne In our fellows’ conference we recently reviewed the evolution of the science of clinical epidemiology as it relates to the association of smoking and lung cancer and the concurrent history of tobacco marketing in the United States. This story begins in 1950, when Richard Doll and Austin Bradford Hill published their landmark case control study demonstrating the association between smoking and lung cancer (1. This study was performed with methodological standards that have rarely been matched in the 63 years since. Exhaustive analysis of possible confounders, a multi-stage evaluation of study blinding, determination of dose-effect, and the use of multiple analyses to establish consistency are among many examples of superb attention to detail exercised by Doll and Hill in this study. The …

  12. Discontinuous Patterns of Cigarette Smoking From Ages 18 to 50 in the United States: A Repeated-Measures Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2017-12-13

    Effective cigarette smoking prevention and intervention programming is enhanced by accurate understanding of developmental smoking pathways across the life span. This study investigated within-person patterns of cigarette smoking from ages 18 to 50 among a US national sample of high school graduates, focusing on identifying ages of particular importance for smoking involvement change. Using data from approximately 15,000 individuals participating in the longitudinal Monitoring the Future study, trichotomous measures of past 30-day smoking obtained at 11 time points were modeled using repeated-measures latent class analyses. Sex differences in latent class structure and membership were examined. Twelve latent classes were identified: three characterized by consistent smoking patterns across age (no smoking; smoking developing effective smoking prevention and intervention programming. This study examined cigarette smoking among a national longitudinal US sample of high school graduates from ages 18 to 50 and identified distinct latent classes characterized by patterns of movement between no cigarette use, light-to-moderate smoking, and the conventional definition of heavy smoking at 11 time points via repeated-measures latent class analysis. Membership probabilities for each smoking class were estimated, and critical ages of susceptibility to change in smoking behaviors were identified. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effective Message Elements for Disclosures about Chemicals in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Dannielle E; Boynton, Marcella H; Noar, Seth M; Morgan, Jennifer C; Mendel, Jennifer R; Ribisl, Kurt M; Stepanov, Irina; Nylander-French, Leena A; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-05-17

    Cigarette smoke contains at least 93 chemicals or "constituents" that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified as harmful or potentially harmful to human health. Our study sought to identify which constituent disclosure message elements are most effective in discouraging people from smoking. Three hundred eighty-eight current smokers ages 18 and older completed an online survey in February 2015. We randomized participants to respond to one of two sets of 13 toxic products that contain cigarette constituents and 25 health effects associated with cigarette constituents. Products that elicited the most discouragement were those with lower chances of exposure (e.g., explosives), followed by products with possible exposure (e.g., rat poison) and products with a high likelihood of exposure (e.g., floor cleaner). Awareness of toxic products that constituents are found in (pelements. Our study identified health effects and toxic products, especially cancers and rarely encountered toxic products, that may discourage smoking when included in disclosure messages. By constructing messages that communicate the harms associated with tobacco use by contextualizing those harms in terms of specific constituents, tobacco education messaging efforts may be increasingly successful.

  14. 210Po radiation dose due to cigarette smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, Wesley S.; Subha, Vincila R.; Feroz, Khan M.

    2010-01-01

    The level of 210 Po in eight brands of cigarettes and four brands of bidis popular in and around Nagercoil town was determined to evaluate the annual effective dose. The 210 Po activity in a full cigarette ranged from 32.8±3.6 to 68.4±5.9 mBq and from 34.3±3.5 to 62.9±5.8 mBq in a bidi. In tobacco, the highest 210 Po content was recorded in the brand C4 (23.0±1.2 mBq) whereas for bidis it was the highest in the brand B2 (21.1±1.1 mBq). The activity in mainstream varied from 15.2±0.75 to 36.8±2.1 mBq in a cigarette and from 20.7±3.1 to 39.8±4.0 mBq in a bidi. With regard to 210 Po activity concentration, not much specificity was noted with respect to the tobacco brand. The data showed a relatively wide range of activity concentration of 210 Po in the different cigarette/bidi brands and even within the same brand. The bidis showed a higher activity when compared to cigarettes. The popular brands concentrated more activity than the fine brands. Smokers who smoke one pack (10 cigarettes/bidis) per day may inhale about 100-300 mBq d -1 (0.1-0.3 Bq d -1 ) of 210 Po. In this study, radiation dose values in the range of 153.5-372.9 μSv Y - '1 from cigarettes and from 209.2 to 402.7 μSvY -1 from bidis was estimated for the whole body. (author)

  15. Beyond experimentation: Five trajectories of cigarette smoking in a longitudinal sample of youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Dutra

    Full Text Available The first goal of this study was to identify the most appropriate measure of cigarette smoking for identifying unique smoking trajectories among adolescents; the second goal was to describe the resulting trajectories and their characteristics. Using 15 annual waves of smoking data in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97, we conducted an exploratory latent class growth analysis to determine the best of four outcome variables for yearly smoking (cigarettes per day on days smoked, days smoked per month, mean cigarettes per day, and total cigarettes per month among individuals aged 12 to 30 (n = 8,791. Days smoked per month was the best outcome variable for identifying unique longitudinal trajectories of smoking and characteristics of these trajectories that could be used to target different types of smokers for prevention and cessation. Objective statistics were used to identify four trajectories in addition to never smokers (34.1%: experimenters (13.6%, quitters (8.1%, early established smokers (39.0%, and late escalators (5.2%. We identified a quitter and late escalator class not identified in the only other comparable latent class growth analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify the characteristics of individuals in each trajectory. Compared with never smokers, all trajectories except late escalators were less likely to be black; experimenters were more likely to be out of school and unemployed and drink alcohol in adolescence; quitters were more likely to have a mother with a high school degree/GED or higher (versus none and to use substances in adolescence and less likely to have ever married as a young adult; early established smokers were more likely to have a mother with a high school diploma or GED, be out of school and unemployed, not live with both parents, have used substances, be depressed, and have peers who smoked in adolescence and to have children as young adults and less likely to be Hispanic and to

  16. Nanoparticles in cigarette smoke; real-time undiluted measurements by a scanning mobility particle sizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, W.D. van; Gopal, S.R.; Scheepers, P.T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex mixture of smoke constituents, often characterised by size-resolved particle distributions. Since descriptions of ultrafine particles <50 nm are absent, our aim was to explore the existence of these nanoparticles in fresh and undiluted cigarette smoke. We measured

  17. Plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking behavior: study protocol for a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Olivia M; Leonards, Ute; Attwood, Angela S; Bauld, Linda; Hogarth, Lee; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-06-25

    Previous research on the effects of plain packaging has largely relied on self-report measures. Here we describe the protocol of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of the plain packaging of cigarettes on smoking behavior in a real-world setting. In a parallel group randomization design, 128 daily cigarette smokers (50% male, 50% female) will attend an initial screening session and be assigned plain or branded packs of cigarettes to smoke for a full day. Plain packs will be those currently used in Australia where plain packaging has been introduced, while branded packs will be those currently used in the United Kingdom. Our primary study outcomes will be smoking behavior (self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette as measured using a smoking topography device). Secondary outcomes measured pre- and post-intervention will be smoking urges, motivation to quit smoking, and perceived taste of the cigarettes. Secondary outcomes measured post-intervention only will be experience of smoking from the cigarette pack, overall experience of smoking, attributes of the cigarette pack, perceptions of the on-packet health warnings, behavior changes, views on plain packaging, and the rewarding value of smoking. Sex differences will be explored for all analyses. This study is novel in its approach to assessing the impact of plain packaging on actual smoking behavior. This research will help inform policymakers about the effectiveness of plain packaging as a tobacco control measure. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308 (registered 27 June 2013).

  18. Smoking expectancies for flavored and non-flavored cigarettes among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Hawk, Larry W; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J; Fix, Brian V; Schmidt, William C

    2007-06-01

    Several tobacco companies have introduced specially flavored cigarettes, yet little is known about their appeal among college student nonsmokers, regular smokers, and those susceptible to smoking. Undergraduates (N=424) rated 12 brands of cigarettes on multiple attributes based on manufacturer advertisements. This paper focused on two brands with flavored and non-flavored versions (Camel and Salem). Despite brand, regular smokers and those susceptible to smoking initiation had higher positive expectancies and lower negative expectancies about smoking than nonsmokers. Flavored cigarettes elicited higher positive expectancies than non-flavored counterparts across all groups, including nonsmokers. Indeed, the degree to which flavored Camels had higher positive expectancies than Camel Lights was at least as large in a group of susceptible nonsmokers and experimenters (susceptible/experimenters). Despite being present in nonsmokers and susceptible/experimenters, negative expectancies were significantly lower for flavored versus non-flavored brands. Logistic regressions revealed that positive expectancies predicted "intention to try" each brand for regular smokers and susceptible/experimenters. These findings suggest that targeting the marketing of positive attributes may be useful in preventing smoking behavior.

  19. Effect of Intensity of Cigarette Smoking on Leukocytes among Adult Men and Women Smokers in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahena Shipa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the preventable causes of disease in middle and low-income countries. This study was conducted in smokers and non-smokers to observe the changes in total count of leukocytes in cigarette smokers in relation to body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP. Methods:The study populations were from different sources including diagnostic center and general hospital, and consisted of 58 smokers and 77 non-smokers, with a broad range of age groups. The variables considered for this study were the smoking status of current smokers and non-smokers, and blood samples of the subject, anthropometric data and also blood pressure data. Results: Total leukocytes in smokers were found to be higher than the non-smokers along with the increasing of lymphocytes. Leukocytes were also found to be increased with intensity of smoking in adult men and women. The BMI of the smokers showed decreasing trend compared to non-smokers. The relation between blood pressure and smoking was not well established, as there were only little changes on systolic blood pressure (SBP of smokers found according to smoking intensity. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking has negative effects on leukocytes both in men and women smokers in terms of certain anthropometric parameters.

  20. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. Cigarette smoke chemistry market maps under Massachusetts Department of Public Health smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Michael J; Laffoon, Susan W

    2008-06-01

    This study extends the market mapping concept introduced by Counts et al. (Counts, M.E., Hsu, F.S., Tewes, F.J., 2006. Development of a commercial cigarette "market map" comparison methodology for evaluating new or non-conventional cigarettes. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 46, 225-242) to include both temporal cigarette and testing variation and also machine smoking with more intense puffing parameters, as defined by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH). The study was conducted over a two year period and involved a total of 23 different commercial cigarette brands from the U.S. marketplace. Market mapping prediction intervals were developed for 40 mainstream cigarette smoke constituents and the potential utility of the market map as a comparison tool for new brands was demonstrated. The over-time character of the data allowed for the variance structure of the smoke constituents to be more completely characterized than is possible with one-time sample data. The variance was partitioned among brand-to-brand differences, temporal differences, and the remaining residual variation using a mixed random and fixed effects model. It was shown that a conventional weighted least squares model typically gave similar prediction intervals to those of the more complicated mixed model. For most constituents there was less difference in the prediction intervals calculated from over-time samples and those calculated from one-time samples than had been anticipated. One-time sample maps may be adequate for many purposes if the user is aware of their limitations. Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, ammonia, chlorogenic acid, and reducing sugars. The filler information was used to improve predicting relationships for several of the smoke constituents, and it was concluded that the effects of filler chemistry on smoke chemistry were partial explanations of the observed brand-to-brand variation.

  2. Comparison of three methods of exposing rats to cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.L.; Bechtold, W.E.; Bond, J.A.; Brooks, A.L.; Chen, B.T.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Johnson, N.F.; Ritchideh, K.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    We compared smoke composition and biological effects resulting from exposures of rats for 5 wk to cigarette smoke by nose-only intermittent (NOI), nose-only continuous (NOC) and whole-body continuous (WBC) exposure methods. Exposure concentrations and times were adjusted to achieve the same daily concentration x time product for particulate matter. There were few differences in smoke composition or biological effects among exposure modes. WBC smoke was lower in particle-borne nicotine and higher in some organic vapors and carbon monoxide than smoke in nose-only modes. Body weight was depressed less by WBC than by NOI or NOC exposures. Plasma and urine nicotine levels were higher for WBC than for NOI or NOC, suggesting greater absorption from body surfaces or by grooming. Smoke exposures increased nasal epithelial proliferation, tracheal epithelial cell transformation, chromosomal aberrations in alveolar macrophages, and lung DNA adduct levels, and caused inflammatory changes in airway fluid and slight alterations of respiratory function, but there were no significant differences among exposure modes. The results indicate that WBC exposures should produce long-term effects similar to those of nose-only exposures, but might allow increased delivery of smoke to lungs while reducing stress, acute toxicity and the manpower requirements associated with performing these experiments. (author)

  3. The effects of cigarette smoke and nicotine on platelet thrombus formation in stenosed dog coronary arteries: inhibition with phentolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folts, J D; Bonebrake, F C

    1982-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine in vivo the effects of cigarette smoke on cyclic reductions in coronary flow due to platelet thrombus formation in the stenosed coronary arteries of anesthetized dogs. The circumflex coronary artery of 21 mongrel dogs was stenosed 60 - 80%, with blood flow measured with an electromagnetic flow probe. After the administration of cigarette smoke, plasma epinephrine was elevated nine times the control level (p less than 0.001) and peak mean blood pressure was elevated one and one-half times control (p less than 0.01). The hematocrit increased several percent (p less than 0.01) with cigarette smoke, although blood gases and pH remained unchanged. In all 21 dogs, spontaneous reductions in coronary blood flow were greatly exacerbated in the stenosed circumflex artery as evidenced by the number of flow reductions, the increased size of the reductions and the rate of flow reduction. Nicotine administered intravenously in doses comparable to those achieved through absorption of cigarette smoke by the lungs provoked similar responses of alpha-adrenergic stimulation and potentiation of the platelet thrombus formation. An alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine, was given (3 mg/kg) intravenously to inhibit the exacerbated platelet thrombus formation due to cigarette smoke or infused nicotine. In 18 of 21 dogs, an acute occlusive platelet thrombus was prevented 15 minutes after phentolamine and after phentolamine and after a cigarette smoke or nicotine challenge. This study confirms a link between cigarette smoking, platelet formation, and the potential for humans to develop an acute occlusive platelet thrombus in a diseased and stenotic coronary artery.

  4. Comparing the Effects of Electronic Cigarette Vapor and Cigarette Smoke in a Novel In Vivo Exposure System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Anthony N; Krause, Will; Mathues, Angela; Krasner, Luke; Kasten, Seth; Eliason, Jonathan L; Ghosh, Abhijit

    2017-05-24

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are being widely used, and growing in popularity. It is estimated that more than 9 million adults use them regularly. The potential adverse health effects of electronic cigarette vapor (E-vapor) exposure are poorly defined. While several animal models of E-vapor exposure have been developed, few models expose rodents to clinically relevant quantities of nicotine and make direct comparisons to cigarette smoke within the same exposure system. Here, we present a method for constructing and operating an E-vapor chamber and cigarette smoke chamber. The chambers are constructed by outfitting anesthesia chambers with a computer controlled pumping system that delivers consistent amounts of E-vapor or cigarette smoke to rodents. Nicotine exposure is measured indirectly by quantifying pre and post-exposure serum cotinine levels. This exposure system can be modified to accommodate various types of E-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes, and can be used to compare the effects of E-vapor and cigarette smoke in vivo.

  5. Cigarette smoke exposure facilitates allergic sensitization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brusselle Guy G

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active and passive smoking are considered as risk factors for asthma development. The mechanisms involved are currently unexplained. Objective The aim of this study was to determine if cigarette smoke exposure could facilitate primary allergic sensitization. Methods BALB/c mice were exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin (OVA combined with air or tobacco smoke (4 exposures/day daily for three weeks. Serology, lung cytopathology, cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and on mediastinal lymph node cultures as well as lung function tests were performed after the last exposure. The natural history and the immune memory of allergic sensitization were studied with in vivo recall experiments. Results Exposure to OVA induced a small increase in OVA-specific serum IgE as compared with exposure to PBS (P + T-lymphocytes along with a marked increase in IL-5 measured in the supernatant of lymph node cell cultures. Immune memory experiments evidenced the transient nature of these phenomena. Conclusion In this study we show that mainstream cigarette smoke temporary disrupts the normal lung homeostatic tolerance to innocuous inhaled allergens, thereby inducing primary allergic sensitization. This is characterized not only by the development of persistent IgE, but also by the emergence of an eosinophil rich pulmonary inflammatory reaction.

  6. Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse survival among women with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstegaard, Camilla; Jensen, Allan; Jensen, Signe M

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk of developing mucinous ovarian tumors but whether it is associated with ovarian cancer survival overall or for the different histotypes is unestablished. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the association between cigarette smoking and surviva...... with localized than disseminated disease. The identification of cigarette smoking as a modifiable factor associated with survival has potential clinical importance as a focus area to improve ovarian cancer prognosis....

  7. Absorption of cholesterol and β-sitosterol from cigarette smoke in Macaca mulatta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinow, M.R.; McLaughlin, Phyllis; Aigner-Held, Rosemarie; Upson, Barbara; Isabelle, L.M.; Connor, W.E.; Lin, Don

    1986-01-01

    When smoke from single cigarettes containing (4- 14 C) chloresterol or β-(4- 14 C) sitosterol was delivered to the lungs of Rhesus macaques, plasma contained radiolabeled sterols up to 50 days later. Since chloresterol, as well as plant sterols (campesterol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol), are normally present in cigarette smoke, our observations suggest that protracted absorption of sterols occurs after cigarette smoking. (author)

  8. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  9. Potential Consequences of E-Cigarette Use: Is Youth Health Going Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    questionnaire explores exposure to various tobacco products, either indirectly (i.e., through secondhand smoke or advertising) or directly...use and traditional tobacco use, and that e-cigarettes have no causal effect on smoking and/or chewing behavior. Our results suggest that e... effect that e-cigarette use has on one’s chance of being a smoker. However, another possibility is that e- cigarette use and smoking both are driven

  10. Association of cigarette smoking with drug use and risk taking behaviour in Irish teenagers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Cathail, S M

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette smoking has been shown to act as a \\'gateway\\' to cannabis use and further risk taking behaviours. This study aims to (1) establish the prevalence of cigarette smoking and cannabis use in Irish teenagers, (2) to quantify the strength and significance of the association of cigarette smoking and cannabis use and other high risk behaviours and (3) examine whether the above associations are independent of the extent of social networking.

  11. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  12. Cigarette smoke causes caspase-independent apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bucchieri

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated important links between air pollution and asthma. Amongst these pollutants, environmental cigarette smoke is a risk factor both for asthma pathogenesis and exacerbation. As the barrier to the inhaled environment, the bronchial epithelium is a key structure that is exposed to cigarette smoke.Since primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to oxidant-induced apoptosis, we hypothesized that they would be susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced cell death.PBECs from normal and asthmatic donors were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE; cell survival and apoptosis were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and protective effects of antioxidants evaluated. The mechanism of cell death was evaluated using caspase inhibitors and immunofluorescent staining for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF.Exposure of PBEC cultures to CSE resulted in a dose-dependent increase in cell death. At 20% CSE, PBECs from asthmatic donors exhibited significantly more apoptosis than cells from non-asthmatic controls. Reduced glutathione (GSH, but not ascorbic acid (AA, protected against CSE-induced apoptosis. To investigate mechanisms of CSE-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 or -9 inhibitors were tested, but these failed to prevent apoptosis; in contrast, CSE promoted nuclear translocation of AIF from the mitochondria. GSH reduced the number of nuclear-AIF positive cells whereas AA was ineffective.Our results show that PBECs from asthmatic donors are more susceptible to CSE-induced apoptosis. This response involves AIF, which has been implicated in DNA damage and ROS-mediated cell-death. Epithelial susceptibility to CSE may contribute to the impact of environmental tobacco smoke in asthma.

  13. Correlates of Cigarette Smoking among Male Chinese College Students in China--A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaigang; Kay, Noy S.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the association between four constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) (i.e. perceived severity of smoking-related health problems, perceived susceptibility to smoking-health related problems, perceived barriers to non-smoking and perceived benefits of non-smoking) and cigarette smoking

  14. Cigarette smoke extract increases albumin flux across pulmonary endothelium in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, W.E.; Maier, J.M.; Malinow, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Cigarette smoking causes lung inflammation, and a characteristic of inflammation is an increase in vascular permeability. To determine if cigarette smoke could alter endothelial permeability, we studied flux of radiolabeled albumin across monolayers of porcine pulmonary artery endothelium grown in culture on microporous membranes. Extracts (in either dimethylsulfoxide or phosphate-buffered saline) of cigarette smoke in a range estimate of concentrations simulating cigarette smoke exposure to the lungs in vivo caused a dose-dependent increase in albumin flux that was dependent on extracellular divalent cations and associated with polymerization of cellular actin. The effect was reversible, independent of the surface of endothelial cells exposed (either luminal or abluminal), and due primarily to components of the vapor phase of smoke. The effects occurred without evidence of cell damage, but subtle morphological changes were produced by exposure to the smoke extracts. These findings suggest that cigarette smoke can alter permeability of the lung endothelium through effects on cytoskeletal elements

  15. Cigarette Smoking as a Risk Factor of Coronary Artery Disease and its Effects on Platelet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Teruo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been well established that cigarette smoking is a powerful risk factor for coronary artery disease. A number of epidemiologic studies have shown a strong association between cigarette smoking and atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and death from coronary artery disease. In addition to active smoking, passive smoking can also carry a risk of coronary artery disease. Although the detailed mechanism through which cigarette smoking is associated with cardiovascular disease has not yet been clarified, it is suggested that cigarette smoking is related to thrombogenesis, as well as atherogenesis, and blood platelet behavior is thought to be prominent among the proposed mechanisms involved in atherogenesis and thrombogenesis. The following is a review of evidence that cigarette smoking affects platelet function.

  16. Cigarette Smoking Practice and Attitudes, and Proposed Effective Smoking Cessation Measures among College Student Smokers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanping; Ying, Mao; Fan, Hongqi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the average daily consumption of cigarettes and its correlates, attitudes toward smoking, and suggestions for anti-smoking measures in a sample of Chinese college student smokers. Design/methodology/approach: A sample of 150 college student cigarette smokers in Baoding, a city near Beijing, filled out a…

  17. Cigarette Smoking, Tooth Loss, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Findings From the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Eke, Paul I; Ford, Earl S; Agaku, Israel T; Wheaton, Anne G; Croft, Janet B

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoking and tooth loss are seldom considered concurrently as determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study examines the multiplicative effect of self-reported tooth loss and cigarette smoking on COPD among United States adults aged ≥18 years. Data were taken from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n = 439,637). Log-linear regression-estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) are reported for the interaction of combinations of tooth loss (0, 1 to 5, 6 to 31, or all) and cigarettes smoking status (never, former, or current) with COPD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, health insurance coverage, dental care utilization, and diabetes. Overall, 45.7% respondents reported having ≥1 teeth removed from tooth decay or gum disease, 18.9% reported being current cigarette smokers, and 6.3% reported having COPD. Smoking and tooth loss from tooth decay or gum disease were associated with an increased likelihood of COPD. Compared with never smokers with no teeth removed, all combinations of smoking status categories and tooth loss had a higher likelihood of COPD, with adjusted PRs ranging from 1.5 (never smoker with 1 to 5 teeth removed) to 6.5 (current smoker with all teeth removed) (all P smoking and COPD. An increased understanding of causal mechanisms linking cigarette smoking, oral health, and COPD, particularly the role of tooth loss, infection, and subsequent inflammation, is essential to reduce the burden of COPD. Health providers should counsel their patients about cigarette smoking, preventive dental care, and COPD risk.

  18. Carboxyhemoglobin Levels Induced by Cigarette Smoking Outdoors in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Jonathan; George, Naomi; Schwarz, John; Yousif, Sami; Suner, Selim; Hack, Jason B

    2018-03-01

    Non-invasive screening of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) in the emergency department to detect occult exposure is increasingly common. The SpCO threshold to consider exposure in smokers is up to 9%. The literature supporting this cutoff is inadequate, and the impact of active smoking on SpCO saturation remains unclear. The primary objective was to characterize baseline SpCO in a cohort of smokers outdoors. Secondary objectives were to explore the impact of active smoking on SpCO and to compare SpCO between smokers and non-smokers. This was a prospective cohort pilot study in two outdoor urban public areas in the USA, in a convenience sample of adult smokers. SpCO saturations were assessed non-invasively before, during, and 2 min after cigarette smoking with pulse CO-oximetry. Analyses included descriptive statistics, correlations, and a generalized estimating equation model. Eighty-five smokers had mean baseline SpCO of 2.7% (SD 2.6) and peak of 3.1% (SD 2.9), while 15 controls had SpCO 1.3% (SD 1.3). This was a significant difference. Time since last cigarette was associated with baseline SpCO, and active smoking increased mean SpCO. There was correlation among individual smokers' SpCO levels before, during, and 2 min after smoking, indicating smokers tended to maintain their baseline SpCO level. This study is the first to measure SpCO during active smoking in an uncontrolled environment. It suggests 80% of smokers have SpCO ≤ 5%, but potentially lends support for the current 9% as a threshold, depending on clinical context.

  19. Cigarette smoking among Thai Buddhist monks, central and eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2005-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December, 2003 among Thai Buddhist monks in 4 provinces of the central region (Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Saraburi and Chai Nat) and in 4 provinces of the eastern region (Chachoengsao, Rayong, Trat, and Sa Kaeo) of Thailand. Data were collected using face to face interviews, questionnaires, and physical examination reports (weight, height, heart rate, blood pressure, etc) as the research tools. This study focused on sociodemographics, history of illness, and smoking behavior. The proportion of the cigarette smoking was 47.6% of the total of 920 Buddhist monks. The age group 20-34 years, Maha Nikaya section and Public temple were the majority of the study subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that only four factors were related to smoking consumption: dharma education, Naktharm To (grade 2) (OR = 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4-0.9), Naktharm Aek (grade 3) or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.6); Lay education, secondary school (OR = 0.7, 95% Cl: 0.5-0.9), bachelor degree or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.8); systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg (OR = 1.8, 95% Cl: 1.1-2.8) and history of respiratory illness (OR = 3.2, 95% Cl: 1.5-6.9). As a result, dharma education and well educated persons were the crucial factors which led to success in decreasing cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation campaigns and education of the consequences of smoking are strongly recommended among risk groups.

  20. A social contextual analysis of youth cigarette smoking development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennett, Susan T; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauman, Karl E; Hussong, Andrea; Faris, Robert; Hipp, John R; Cai, Li

    2010-09-01

    We apply a social contextual perspective based on Bronfenbrenner's ecology of human development theory to understanding development of youth cigarette smoking. We examine the contributions of family, peer, school, and neighborhood contexts. Context attributes examined were derived from social learning and social control theories. Data are from 6,544 youth who participated in at least one of five waves of data collection between Spring 2002 and Spring 2004, 1,663 randomly selected parents who participated in one or more of three waves of data collection in the same time period; and the U.S. Census. Three-level hierarchical growth models were used to examine the contributions of time-varying measures of the four social contexts to development of smoking from age 11-17 years. Interactions between variables were examined within and between social contexts. Attributes of each social context made independent contributions to adolescent smoking development; there also were significant interactions between variables from different contexts indicating joint contextual effects. Attributes of the social bond moderated exposure to models of smoking within and between the family and peer contexts. Results suggest the value of a social contextual perspective in research on the etiology of youth smoking development as well as the utility of guidance by social learning and social control theories. While all contexts were implicated in adolescent smoking, the family and peer contexts were primarily implicated, with findings suggesting the need for consideration of interactive effects between social learning and social control variables within and between these contexts.

  1. [The phenomenon of spreading smoking cigarettes among the students in Institute of Cosmetology and Heath Care in Bialystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the principal public Heath problems. The Word Heath Organization declared the addiction of tobacco smoking as a separate disease, International Classification of Diseases, ICD number F17. The health service workers play a huge part in establishing pro-health attitudes. They are expected to participate in campaigns promoting a tobacco-free lifestyle. It is important that the persons mentioned were nonsmokers. The main goal of the study was to estimate the phenomenon of spreading smoking cigarettes among the students and accomplishing their knowledge and awareness about threats resulting from tobacco smoking. The study was performed among 501 students. They answered questions concerning smoking and knowledge about nicotine dependence. The research touched such questions as conviction about damage caused by smoking, the source of information, causes and effects of smoking, about environment whether they are, the interviewee's smoking preventive activities.

  2. Young adults who smoke cigarettes and marijuana: analysis of thoughts and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Delucchi, Kevin L; Liu, Howard; Hall, Sharon M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2014-01-01

    Smoking both cigarettes and marijuana is increasingly common among young adults, yet little is known about use patterns, motivations, or thoughts about abstinence. In a U.S. sample, this study explored young adults' severity of cigarette and marijuana co-use, quit attempts, and thoughts about use. Young adults age 18-to-25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days completed an anonymous online survey. Of 1987 completed surveys, 972 participants reported both past-month cigarette and marijuana use (68% male, 71% Caucasian, mean age 20.4 years [SD=2.0]). Frequency of use, temptations to use, measures of dependence, decisional balance, and past-year quit attempts were associated across the two substances (all ppros/cons of using were related in this young adult sample. Differences in motivation and thoughts about abstinence, however, suggest that young adults may be more receptive to interventions for tobacco than marijuana use. Use patterns and cognitions for both substances should be considered in prevention and intervention efforts. © 2013.

  3. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G.; Sutherland, J.M.; McCluskey, A.; Hansbro, P.M.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  4. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Sutherland, J.M. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McCluskey, A. [Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Hansbro, P.M. [Centre for Asthma and Respiratory Disease, The University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Priority Research Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte

  5. Electronic cigarettes in North America: history, use, and implications for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Budlovsky, Talia; Windle, Sarah B; Filion, Kristian B; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2014-05-13

    Designed to mimic the look and feel of tobacco cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) may facilitate smoking cessation. However, the efficacy and safety of e-cigarette use for this purpose remain poorly understood. Our objectives were to review the available data on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation and to consider issues relevant to the context in which they are used, including product awareness and regulatory and ethical concerns. We systematically searched PubMed for randomized controlled trials and uncontrolled, experimental studies involving e-cigarettes. Included studies were limited to English or French language reports. Quality assessment was performed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. We identified 169 publications, of which 7 studies were included. Studies have concluded that e-cigarettes can help reduce the number of cigarettes smoked and may be as effective for smoking cessation as the nicotine patch. Although there is a lack of data concerning the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation therapy, available evidence showed no significant difference in adverse event rates between e-cigarettes and the nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are widely used among smokers attempting to quit. However, significant international variation remains in the regulatory mechanisms governing the sale and distribution of e-cigarettes. Ethical concerns surround the use of e-cigarettes among minors and their potential to undermine efforts to reduce cigarette smoking. Given the limited available evidence on the risks and benefits of e-cigarette use, large, randomized, controlled trials are urgently needed to definitively establish their potential for smoking cessation.

  6. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  7. Effectiveness of levodropropizine against cigarette smoke-induced airway hyperreactivity: possible mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffonchio, L; Hernandez, A; Melillo, G; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1993-04-01

    We verified the possible effect of the new antitussive drug levodropropizine on airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation induced by cigarette smoke exposure in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Levodropropizine, administered by aerosol at 25 mg/ml for 30 s completely prevented smoke induced airway hyperreactivity. The protective effect was early in onset (3 min) and lasted up to 30 min. The same dose of codeine, administered in the form of an aerosol, decreased the increase in airway responsiveness induced by smoke inhalation slightly but not significantly. In parallel with the functional results, levodropropizine also inhibited the recruitment of inflammatory cells triggered by smoke exposure within the airway lumen. When levodropropizine was administered i.v. to anaesthetized guinea-pigs, it reduced the bronchocontractile effect of capsaicin dose-dependently, whereas it was without effect against substance P-induced bronchoconstriction. These data demonstrate the ability of levodropropizine to counteract the hyperreactive phenomenon and the associated inflammatory event induced by cigarette smoke exposure, an effect which might depend on its capacity to modulate the activation of the peptidergic system.

  8. Deposition of cigarette smoke particles in the rat respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Weber, R.E.; Yeh, H.C.; Lundgren, D.L.; Snipes, M.B.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Male and female rats were exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke to determine the fractional deposition. Deposition studies were conducted by placing the rats in plethysmography tubes for respiratory minute volume measurements and exposing them to 14 C-dotriacontane-labeled cigarette smoke at mass concentrations of 202 or 624 mg/m 3 for 25 min. Immediately after the exposure, the rats were sacrificed and the 14 C contents in various tissues and organs were analyzed. Results showed that the GI tract contained 16-31% of the total activity, indicating significant clearance from the large airways and nose to the GI tract during the exposure and during the 10-15 min between cessation of the exposure and the removal of the organs. Total deposition of the inhaled activity was 20.1 ± 1.6% for both exposure concentrations. The intrapulmonary deposition fractions (lung lobes plus airways below the lobar bronchi) were 12.4 ± 0.9% and 15.9 ± 1.4% for high and low concentrations, respectively, suggesting a slight enhancement in upper airway deposition for animals exposed to the higher smoke concentration. (author)

  9. Comparison of cigarette smoke exposure atmospheres in different puffing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.T.; Bechtold, W.E.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Mainstream cigarette smoke generated using different puffing profiles was characterized for particle size distribution, vapor/gas concentration, and chemical composition. Three puffing profiles were compared: (1) a standard, 2-sec, 35 ml puff (SP), once per minute; (2) a puff of double the standard volume (70 mL), once per minute (DP); and (3) a double puff, twice per minute (2-DP). Results from samples collected with a multijet Mercer impactor indicated that the mass median aerodynamic diameter of smoke particles decreased with puff volume. The concentrations of specific chemicals from gas samples (CO, CO 2 , nitrogen oxides, and small molecular weight hydrocarbons), organic vapor samples (acetone, 2-methylfuran, benzene, meta- and para-xylene, ortho-xylene, and limonene), and particulate samples (nicotine, glycerol, hydroquinone, and palmitic acid) showed good agreement among the three puffing profiles. They support a prediction that the health effects of cigarette smoke generated from 2-DP or DP profiles would not be different from those resulting from SP profiles. (author)

  10. History of childhood candy cigarette use is associated with tobacco smoking by adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jonathan D; Thomas, Randall K; Sutter, Erika J

    2007-07-01

    We examined whether childhood candy cigarette use was associated with adult tobacco smoking. 25,887 U.S. adults from the Harris Poll Online (HPOL) were surveyed about current smoking status from November 2005 to May 2006. Respondents were randomly assigned to a yes/no item or a dose-response scale to assess candy cigarette use. Data were weighted to reflect the U.S. adult population. 26.4% of respondents reported current smoking and 29.4% reported former smoking. Candy cigarette use was reported by 88% of both current and former smokers and 78% of never smokers (pcandy cigarettes was 1.98 (95% CI: 1.77, 2.21) for ever (current plus former) smokers and 1.83 (1.59, 2.10) for current smokers, compared to those who had not used candy cigarettes. Odds for current and ever smoking increased with increasing candy cigarette use. History of candy cigarette use was associated with increased risk of ever and current smoking among this nationally representative online sample of adults. Odds of smoking increased as candy cigarette use increased; these relationships persisted when controlled for sociodemographics. Elimination of candy cigarettes may protect children from products that promote the social acceptability of smoking.

  11. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai A

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke.

  12. Is youth smoking responsive to cigarette prices? Evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, Deliana; Ross, Hana; Blecher, Evan; Markowitz, Sara

    2011-11-01

    To estimate the price elasticity of cigarette demand among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was used to obtain data on the smoking behaviour of 315,353 adolescents from 17 LMIC. Two-part model of cigarette demand with country fixed effects. The first part estimates the impact of prices on smoking participation while the second part estimates the impact of prices on the number of cigarettes smoked among current smokers. Besides controlling for individual characteristics such as Age, Gender, Parental Smoking and availability of Pocket Money, the authors control for confounding environmental factors such as anti-smoking sentiment, the prevalence of cigarette advertising and anti-tobacco media messAges, and ease of purchasing cigarettes. All countries in this study are represented with at least two observations over time, which allows us to control for unobserved country characteristics and/or policies that may influence smoking patterns within countries. Cigarette price is an important determinant of smoking. The estimated price elasticity of smoking participation is -0.74, and the estimated price elasticity of conditional cigarette demand is approximately -1.37. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand is -2.11, implying that an increase in price of 10% would reduce youth cigarette consumption by 21.1% at the mean.

  13. Smoking and reproduction: The oviduct as a target of cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riveles Karen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The oviduct is an exquisitely designed organ that functions in picking-up ovulated oocytes, transporting gametes in opposite directions to the site of fertilization, providing a suitable environment for fertilization and early development, and transporting preimplantation embryos to the uterus. A variety of biological processes can be studied in oviducts making them an excellent model for toxicological studies. This review considers the role of the oviduct in oocyte pick-up and embryo transport and the evidence that chemicals in both mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke impair these oviductal functions. Epidemiological data have repeatedly shown that women who smoke are at increased risk for a variety of reproductive problems, including ectopic pregnancy, delay to conception, and infertility. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate the oviduct is targeted by smoke components in a manner that could explain some of the epidemiological data. Comparisons between the toxicity of smoke from different types of cigarettes, including harm reduction cigarettes, are discussed, and the chemicals in smoke that impair oviductal functioning are reviewed.

  14. Passive and active exposure to cigarette smoke in a smoking experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsa, M; Einistö, P; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, K; Järventaus, H; Kivistö, H; Peltonen, Y; Tuomi, T; Valkonen, S; Pelkonen, O

    1985-01-01

    Six volunteer female habitual smokers were exposed during a 2-wk experimental period to cigarette smoke, both actively and passively, in an exposure chamber (volume 10 m3, average air exchange rate 6.8 times/h), where the ambient carbon monoxide, particle, and aldehyde concentrations were monitored. Three of the six subjects were smoking at the time, 2 cigarettes (filtered, self-burning low tar brand) per person per hour, 30 cigarettes altogether during each of the 5-h experimental days in the chamber. Samples of blood and urine were taken from each subject after 3 nonsmoking days and after each day of active or passive smoking. Among the parameters tested, blood carboxyhemoglobin, plasma cotinine, and urinary mutagenicity were higher in samples taken after active smoking than after nonsmoking periods. Although the exposure conditions were similar for all subjects, the parameters measured showed quite high interindividual variation. Thioethers and thiocyanates were not significantly elevated in the active smoking samples; neither were there any differences during this short experimental period in the sister chromatid exchange frequencies. The only parameters showing an increasing trend after passive exposure, as compared with nonsmoking samples, were urinary mutagenicity and plasma cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine.

  15. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco Tobacco Marketing and Products Youth Tobacco Use Get Email Updates ... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  16. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  17. A Qualitative Examination of Smoke-Free Policies and Electronic Cigarettes Among Sheltered Homeless Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Hurst, Samantha; Pierce, John P

    2017-05-01

    To examine attitudes toward smoke-free policies and perceptions of e-cigarette use among homeless adults. A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted. Study setting comprised seven transitional homeless shelters with indoor smoke-free policies in San Diego County; facilities differed in outdoor restrictions on smoking. Sixty-six current or former smokers were the study participants. Participants completed a questionnaire on smoking behaviors, perceived antitobacco norms, and attitudes toward smoke-free policies, and attended a focus group interview that explored these topics. We used a directed content analysis approach to analyze the focus group transcripts. Clients in facilities with outdoor restrictions on smoking had stronger perceived antitobacco norms than those in facilities without such restrictions. We identified the following major themes: attitudes toward smoke-free policies, the use of e-cigarettes, the addictive potential of cigarettes, vulnerability to tobacco industry marketing, and interest in smoking cessation. The consensus was that smoke-free policies were important because they limited secondhand smoke exposure to nonsmokers and children. All were curious about e-cigarettes, particularly if they could be smoked in areas where smoking was prohibited and/or used as a cessation aid. In this study of homeless adults, there was strong support for indoor and outdoor smoke-free policies. However, misperceptions that e-cigarettes could be used indoors could threaten antitobacco norms, highlighting opportunities to educate about the potential risks of e-cigarette use among homeless individuals.

  18. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camlin, Nicole J. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, Eileen A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holt, Janet E. [School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  19. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function

  20. Insomnia in adults: the impact of earlier cigarette smoking from adolescence to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S; Zhang, Chenshu; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Brook, David W

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of cigarette smoking beginning in adolescence and extending to the fifth decade of life on insomnia at an average age of 43 years in the Children and Adults in the Community Study. Participants were originally assessed in 1983 and came from a community-based random sample of individuals living in 2 upstate New York counties. Participants were assessed over 7 waves of data collection that spanned approximately 29 years, from mean ages 14.1 years (T2) to 42.9 years (T8). We classified the longitudinal trajectories of cigarette use. Five cigarette use trajectory groups were identified: heavy/continuous smokers, late starters, occasional smokers, quitters/decreasers, and nonsmokers. The result of the logistic regression analysis of adult insomnia for the Bayesian posterior probability of the heavy/continuous smokers when compared with the Bayesian posterior probability of nonsmokers was statistically significant-adjusted odds ratio of 3.35 [95% confidence interval (1.06-10.56; P The findings highlight the importance of heavy chronic smoking as contributing to insomnia. Clinicians should focus their efforts on smoking prevention and treatment of younger individuals, as well as promoting cessation among older adult smokers to decrease the likelihood of insomnia.

  1. A protocol for detecting and scavenging gas-phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Dzikovski, Boris G; Freed, Jack H

    2012-01-02

    Cigarette smoking is associated with human cancers. It has been reported that most of the lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking (5,6,7,12). Although tobacco tars and related products in the particle phase of cigarette smoke are major causes of carcinogenic and mutagenic related diseases, cigarette smoke contains significant amounts of free radicals that are also considered as an important group of carcinogens(9,10). Free radicals attack cell constituents by damaging protein structure, lipids and DNA sequences and increase the risks of developing various types of cancers. Inhaled radicals produce adducts that contribute to many of the negative health effects of tobacco smoke in the lung(3). Studies have been conducted to reduce free radicals in cigarette smoke to decrease risks of the smoking-induced damage. It has been reported that haemoglobin and heme-containing compounds could partially scavenge nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke(4). A 'bio-filter' consisted of haemoglobin and activated carbon was used to scavenge the free radicals and to remove up to 90% of the free radicals from cigarette smoke(14). However, due to the cost-ineffectiveness, it has not been successfully commercialized. Another study showed good scavenging efficiency of shikonin, a component of Chinese herbal medicine(8). In the present study, we report a protocol for introducing common natural antioxidant extracts into the cigarette filter for scavenging gas phase free radicals in cigarette smoke and measurement of the scavenge effect on gas phase free radicals in mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) using spin-trapping Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy(1,2,14). We showed high scavenging capacity of lycopene and grape seed extract which could point to their future application in cigarette filters. An important advantage of these prospective scavengers is that they can be obtained in large quantities from byproducts of

  2. Obesity and Cigarette Smoking: Extending the Link to E-cigarette/Vaping Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H Isabella; Pittman, Patricia; Batshoun, Jennifer

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, electronic tobacco (e-cigarette/vaping) use among young adults has grown exponentially. Given past research linking obesity and cigarette smoking, assessing whether this relationship extends to electronic tobacco use is warranted. The current study examined weight status as a correlate of substance use patterns reflecting electronic tobacco use. Survey data were collected from a convenience sample of 452 (59% female) undergraduates attending a large, public university during the 2015-2016 academic year. Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify substance use classes and examine weight status as a covariate of class membership. LCA analyses identified 4 classes: High Substance Use (19%), Risky Alcohol Use (14%), Cigarette/Electronic Tobacco Use (17%), and Low Substance Use (50%). Both obesity status and greater deviation from one's group body mass index (BMI) norm were associated with a higher likelihood of belonging to the Cigarette/Electronic Tobacco Use class. Findings suggest that electronic tobacco use may fit well into previously established relationships between higher weight status and tobacco use. Future research should examine the longitudinal processes and pathways underlying the relationship between weight status and electronic tobacco use.

  3. Second-hand cigarette smoke inhibits wound healing of the cornea by stimulating inflammation that delays corneal reepithelialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chongze; Martins-Green, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Corneal reepithelialization is a key process in preventing abnormal cornea healing and impaired vision. To gain insight into the mechanisms of cigarette smoke-induced corneal epithelial damage, we injured the cornea of mice and exposed the wounds during the healing process to cigarette smoke in a system that mimics second-hand cigarette smoking by humans. Immunolabeling studies showed that in the mice exposed to smoke, fibronectin, an extracellular matrix molecule critical for epithelial cell migration, is not present in the wounded area and that there is an accumulation of neutrophils in the stroma beneath the wound. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1alpha, increase after injury in the second-hand-smoke-exposed mice. Localized treatment of the wounds with dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory agent, resulted in improved healing and infiltration of fewer neutrophils into the wounded area. Depletion of neutrophils with nitrogen mustard or treatment of the wounds with proteinase inhibitors have similar effects to those of dexamethasone. In conclusion, the work presented here shows that second-hand cigarette smoke delays corneal reepithelialization and healing by stimulating both neutrophil attraction to the wound site and degradation of extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules that are important for corneal epithelial cell adhesion and migration.

  4. Cigarette smoke deposition in the tracheobronchial tree: evidence for colligative effects

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, RF; Oldham, MJ; Mannix, RC; Schum, GM

    1994-01-01

    A series of cigarette smoke deposition studies was performed that used hollow models designed to represent the upper airways of adults and children. A major objective of the studies was to look for evidence of the influence of the colligative behavior of concentrated smoke on deposition in the hollow models. Another objective was to identify possible body-size—related factors in cigarette smoke deposition. The concentrated sidestream smoke from 1R3 University of Kentucky unfiltered research c...

  5. Cigarette smoking initiation during college predicts future alcohol involvement: A matched-samples study

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, MG; Doran, NM; Edland, SD; Amanda Schweizer, C; Wall, TL

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking initiation and subsequent alcohol involvement. To address this question, the present study compared alcohol use between students who initiated smoking during college and a matched sample of never-smoking students. We hypothesized greater increases in alcohol involvement among smoking initiators, mediated by exposure to cigarette use situations. Method: Included in the present study were 104 Chinese American and Korean...

  6. Cadmium Isotope Fractionation in Cigarette Smoke and in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.; Shafer, M. M.; Adams, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cadmium is a documented carcinogen, linked to several human cancers, including breast cancer, where its estrogenic properties are the suspected mode of action. An improved understanding of exposure pathways is critical to reducing the public health impacts of Cd exposure. Cigarette smoking is likely the major exposure vector for smokers, with dietary contributions also a major factor, however the specific apportionment of these sources, as well as possible occupational components has been difficult to characterize. We are exploring the use of cadmium stable isotope fractionation as a tool to help improve source attribution for this toxic environmental contaminant. The general lack of fractionation in the bulk silicate earth allows for Cd isotopes to act as an excellent tool for tracking anthropogenic sources of Cd as well as potential biochemical fractionation during incorporation into plant and animal food sources. Tobacco leaves are naturally enriched in Cd and cigarettes are a very efficient delivery mechanism for Cd to the body. Importantly, the combustion process provides a mechanism for further fractionation of Cd stable isotopes. Particulates in main stream and side stream cigarette smoke were collected onto quartz filters. The necessary mass of Cd (>50 ng) was collected by optimization of the mechanical smoking instrument to collect smoke aerosols from up to three cigarettes onto one filter, and thus also minimizing filter matrix biases. We modified existing geochemical methods for the isolation of the Cd fraction: the particulates were acid digested and the Cd fraction separated by passing through an anion exchange resin. The Cd fractions were analyzed by multicollector ICP-MS (Neptune Plus), and it was demonstrated that the main stream particulates are isotopically heavy and side stream particulates are light relative to NIST 3108, mass-difference-normalized: average δ112Cd/110Cd, δ112Cd/111Cd, δ114Cd/111Cd, and δ116Cd/112Cd values of 0.801, 1.58, 1

  7. Inflammatory changes in the airways of mice caused by cigarette smoke exposure are only partially reversed after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraneveld Aletta D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking irritates and damages the respiratory tract and contributes to a higher risk of developing lung emphysema. At present, smoking cessation is the only effective treatment for reducing the progression of lung emphysema, however, there is hardly anything known about the effects of smoking cessation on cytokine and chemokine levels in the airways. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported in vivo study in which cytokine profiles were determined after cessation of cigarette smoke exposure. Methods The severity of airway remodeling and inflammation was studied by analyzing alveolar enlargement, heart hypertrophy, inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissue and by determining the cytokine and chemokine profiles in the BALF of A/J mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 weeks and 8 weeks after smoking cessation. Results The alveolar enlargement and right ventricle heart hypertrophy found in smoke-exposed mice remained unchanged after smoking cessation. Although the neutrophilic inflammation in the BALF of cigarette smoke-exposed animals was reduced after smoking cessation, a sustained inflammation in the lung tissue was observed. The elevated cytokine (IL-1α and TNF-α and chemokine (CCL2 and CCL3 levels in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice returned to basal levels after smoking cessation, while the increased IL-12 levels did not return to its basal level. The cigarette smoke-enhanced VEGF levels did not significantly change after smoking cessation. Moreover, IL-10 levels were reduced in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice and these levels were still significantly decreased after smoking cessation compared to the control animals. Conclusion The inflammatory changes in the airways caused by cigarette smoke exposure were only partially reversed after smoking cessation. Although smoking cessation should be the first step in reducing the progression of lung emphysema, additional

  8. Longitudinal Associations of Local Cigarette Prices and Smoking Bans with Smoking Behavior in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Stephanie L; Auchincloss, Amy H; Stehr, Mark F; Kern, David M; Navas-Acien, Ana; Kaufman, Joel D; Michael, Yvonne L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-11-01

    Few studies have examined associations of geographically proximal cigarette prices with within-person changes in smoking outcomes or assessed interactions between cigarette prices and smoking bans. We linked neighborhood cigarette prices (inflation-adjusted) at chain supermarkets and drug stores and bar/restaurant smoking ban policies to cohort participants (632 smokers from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, 2001-2012, baseline mean age 58 years) using geocoded retailer and participant addresses. We used fixed-effects models to investigate associations of within-person changes in price and ban exposures with within-person changes in five smoking outcomes: current smoking, heavy (≥10 cigarettes) smoking, cessation, relapse, and intensity (average number of cigarettes smoked per day, natural log transformed). We assessed intensity associations among all smokers, and heavy (≥10 cigarettes per day) and light (price and bans. A $1 increase in price was associated with a 3% reduction in risk of current smoking (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]: 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93, 1.0), a 7% reduction in risk of heavy smoking (aRR: 0.93; CI = 0.87, 0.99), a 20% increase in risk of smoking cessation (aRR: 1.2; CI = 0.99, 1.4), and a 35% reduction in the average number of cigarettes smoked per day by heavy baseline smokers (ratio of geometric means: 0.65; CI = 0.45, 0.93). We found no association between smoking bans and outcomes, and no evidence that price effects were modified by the presence of bans. Results underscore the importance of local prices, but not hospitality smoking bans, in influencing older adults' smoking behaviors.

  9. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes"): review of safety and smoking cessation efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul Truman; Simmons, Vani Nath; Correa, John Bernard; Padhya, Tapan Ashvin; Brandon, Thomas Henry

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among cancer patients and is associated with negative outcomes. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes") are rapidly growing in popularity and use, but there is limited information on their safety or effectiveness in helping individuals quit smoking. The authors searched PubMed, Web of Science, and additional sources for published empirical data on safety and use of electronic cigarettes as an aid to quit smoking. We conducted a structured search of the current literature up to and including November 2013. E-cigarettes currently vary widely in their contents and are sometimes inconsistent with labeling. Compared to tobacco cigarettes, available evidence suggests that e-cigarettes are often substantially lower in toxic content, cytotoxicity, associated adverse effects, and secondhand toxicity exposure. Data on the use of e-cigarettes for quitting smoking are suggestive but ultimately inconclusive. Clinicians are advised to be aware that the use of e-cigarettes, especially among cigarette smokers, is growing rapidly. These devices are unregulated, of unknown safety, and of uncertain benefit in quitting smoking. In the absence of further data or regulation, oncologists are advised to discuss the known and unknown safety and efficacy information on e-cigarettes with interested patients and to encourage patients to first try FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  10. Differential Effects between Cigarette Total Particulate Matter and Cigarette Smoke Extract on Blood and Blood Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Chang, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Kwang-Hoon; Choi, Seong-Jin; Lee, Kyuhong; Lee, Jin-Yong; Satoh, Masahiko; Song, Seong-Yu; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The generation and collection of cigarette smoke (CS) is a prerequisite for any toxicology study on smoking, especially an in vitro CS exposure study. In this study, the effects on blood and vascular function were tested with two widely used CS preparations to compare the biological effects of CS with respect to the CS preparation used. CS was prepared in the form of total particulate matter (TPM), which is CS trapped in a Cambridge filter pad, and cigarette smoke extract (CSE), which is CS trapped in phosphate-buffered saline. TPM potentiated platelet reactivity to thrombin and thus increased aggregation at a concentration of 25~100 μg/mL, whereas 2.5~10% CSE decreased platelet aggregation by thrombin. Both TPM and CSE inhibited vascular contraction by phenylephrine at 50~100 μg/mL and 10%, respectively. TPM inhibited acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation at 10~100 μg/mL, but CSE exhibited a minimal effect on relaxation at the concentration that affects vasoconstriction. Neither TPM nor CSE induced hemolysis of erythrocytes or influenced plasma coagulation, as assessed by prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Taken together, CS affects platelet activity and deteriorates vasomotor functions in vitro. However, the effect on blood and blood vessels may vary depending on the CS preparation. Therefore, the results of experiments conducted with CS preparations should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27818738

  11. Cigarette smoking and appendectomy: effect on clinical course of diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usai, Paolo; Ibba, Ivan; Lai, Mariantonia; Boi, Maria Francesca; Savarese, Maria Flavia; Cuomo, Rosario; D'Alia, Giuseppe; Gemini, Sergio; Diaz, Giacomo; Contu, Paolo

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effect of appendectomy and cigarette smoking on the clinical course of diverticulosis. A retrospective case-control study of 207 consecutive patients (45.8% male mean age 64.0 years), 150 with asymptomatic diverticulosis, and 57 with acute diverticulitis. Diagnosis of diverticulosis was defined on the basis of clinical and colonoscopic criteria, diverticulitis was defined by means of clinical, colonoscopic and computerised tomography criteria. Logistic regression function was used to define the relationship between the dependent variable (diverticulitis) and several covariates: sex, age, body mass index, smoking habit, and history of appendectomy. According to the final model, the risk of diverticulitis was 4.94-fold higher (95% confidence interval: 1.98-12.37) in patients with a history of appendectomy with emergency resection, compared to patients not submitted to appendectomy or with a history of elective resection (P diverticulosis. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pleural plaques and cigarette smoking in asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Levin, R; Goodman, L

    1981-06-01

    In a survey of 45 men aged 40 or over who had worked five years or more in an asbestos manufacturing plant, the prevalence of pleural plaques was studied with respect to age, duration of asbestos exposure, estimated cumulative asbestos dose, and smoking habit. Plaques were found in 38 to 53% of the men, depending on the interpretation of the chest film reader. Cigarette habit appeared to be the most important factor; the prevalence was lowest in non-smokers, intermediate in current smokers, and particularly high in exsmokers. There was some confounding of this relationship by estimated cumulative asbestos dose but such confounding did not seem to be sufficient to explain fully the relationship between the prevalence of plaques and smoking habit. Both factors must be considered in studies of the risk of pleural plaques in asbestos workers.

  13. Cigarette Nicotine Content as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Negative Affect and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D; Kypriotakis, George; Karam-Hage, Maher; Green, Charles E; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Cinciripini, Paul M; Donny, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    Research suggests a strong association between negative affect (NA) and smoking. However, little is known about the association between NA and smoking among individuals who switch to reduced-nicotine cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which cigarette nicotine content moderates the relationship between NA and smoking over time. Seven hundred and seventeen participants, 237 in the normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g and usual brand) cigarette group and 480 in the very low nicotine content (VLNC; 2.4 mg/g nicotine or less) cigarette group, participated in a randomized trial that examined the effects of cigarette nicotine content on smoking behavior over 6 weeks. We used parallel process latent growth curve modeling to estimate the relationship between changes in NA and changes in the numbers of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), from baseline to 6 weeks, as a function of cigarette nicotine content. The relationship between NA and investigational CPD reduced over time for those in the VLNC group, but not for those in the NNC group. There was no significant relationship between change in PA and CPD over time for either cigarette group. Smoking VLNC cigarettes disrupts the relationship between smoking and negative affect, which may help reduce nicotine dependence. This study suggests that the association between NA and smoking behavior is reduced over time among those that smoked reduced-nicotine content cigarettes. This provides additional evidence that smoking reduced-nicotine content cigarettes may help reduce nicotine dependence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern Release from Necrotic Neutrophils Triggers Proinflammatory Mediator Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, Hilde; Pouwels, Simon D.; Leijendekker, Carin; de Bruin, Harold G.; Zijlstra, G. Jan; van der Vaart, Hester; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.; van der Toorn, Marco

    Cigarette smoking, the major causative factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is associated with neutrophilic airway inflammation. Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure can induce a switch from apoptotic to necrotic cell death in airway epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized

  15. Redistribution of 210Po in cigarettes during smoking and estimation of inhaled dose to smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lianping

    1991-01-01

    The contents of 210 Po in nine brands of filter-tipped cigarettes and their redistribution during smoking are reported. The average content of 210 Po in a cigarette is 11.6 mBq. About 10% of 210 Po in a cigarette transfers into the main-stream of smoke during standard smoking process. A one-pack-a-day smoker inhales 8,8 Bq of 210 Po per year and the accumulated dose equivalent is 4.5 mSv for 30 consecutive years. The risk of death from lung cancer due to 210 Po in cigarette is 9 x 10 -6 for the smoker

  16. Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.R.; Browse, N.L.; Rutt, D.L.; Butler, L.; Fletcher, C.

    1988-01-01

    The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to 125 I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine

  17. Atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent after heavy smoking of contraband cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Ozyilmaz, Sinem; Tosun, Oyku; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Saygi, Murat; Ergul, Yakup

    2015-08-01

    The use of contraband cigarettes is a serious public health problem. We present a case of atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent suspected to be caused by smoking contraband cigarettes. A 15-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department experiencing syncope and palpitations. He was a cigarette smoker, but he had never smoked any illicit tobacco products before. He had finished a pack of counterfeit cigarettes (20 pieces) in 1.5 h. His electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response and irregular RR intervals. The patient had no history of alcohol use, surgery, palpitations, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, or any infectious diseases. His atrial fibrillation was converted to a normal sinus rhythm after the cardioversion treatment. Our patient was discharged from the pediatric cardiology service and advised to quit smoking cigarettes, strictly warning against illicit tobacco products. In conclusion, intensive smoking of counterfeit cigarettes may lead to occurrences of atrial fibrillation.

  18. Cigarette Smoke and Estrogen Signaling in Human Airway Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalem Sathish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Cigarette smoke (CS in active smokers and second-hand smoke exposure exacerbate respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic bronchitis. While women are known to experience a more asthmatic response to CS than emphysema in men, there is limited information on the mechanisms of CS-induced airway dysfunction. We hypothesize that CS interferes with a normal (protective bronchodilatory role of estrogens, thus worsening airway contractility. Methods: We tested effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE on 17β-estradiol (E2 signaling in enzymatically-dissociated bronchial airway smooth muscle (ASM obtained from lung samples of non-smoking female patients undergoing thoracic surgery. Results: In fura-2 loaded ASM cells, CSE increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i responses to 10µM histamine. Acute exposure to physiological concentrations of E2 decreased [Ca2+]i responses. However, in 24h exposed CSE cells, although expression of estrogen receptors was increased, the effect of E2 on [Ca2+]i was blunted. Acute E2 exposure also decreased store-operated Ca2+ entry and inhibited stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1 phosphorylation: effects blunted by CSE. Acute exposure to E2 increased cAMP, but less so in 24h CSE-exposed cells. 24h CSE exposure increased S-nitrosylation of ERα. Furthermore, 24h CSE-exposed bronchial rings showed increased bronchoconstrictor agonist responses that were not reduced as effectively by E2 compared to non-CSE controls. Conclusion: These data suggest that CS induces dysregulation of estrogen signaling in ASM, which could contribute to increased airway contractility in women exposed to CS.

  19. Effect of roflumilast on inflammatory cells in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cunto Giovanna

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported that roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, given orally at 5 mg/kg to mice prevented the development of emphysema in a chronic model of cigarette smoke exposure, while at 1 mg/kg was ineffective. Here we investigated the effects of roflumilast on the volume density (VV of the inflammatory cells present in the lungs after chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Methods Slides were obtained from blocks of the previous study and VV was assessed immunohistochemically and by point counting using a grid with 48 points, a 20× objective and a computer screen for a final magnification of 580×. Neutrophils were marked with myeloperoxidase antibody, macrophages with Mac-3, dendritic cells with fascin, B-lymphocytes with B220, CD4+ T-cells with CD4+ antibody, and CD8+T-cells with CD8-α. The significance of the differences was calculated using one-way analysis of variance. Results Chronic smoke exposure increased neutrophil VV by 97%, macrophage by 107%, dendritic cell by 217%, B-lymphocyte by 436%, CD4+ by 524%, and CD8+ by 417%. The higher dose of roflumilast prevented the increase in neutrophil VV by 78%, macrophage by 82%, dendritic cell by 48%, B-lymphocyte by 100%, CD4+ by 98% and CD8+ VV by 88%. The lower dose of roflumilast did not prevent the increase in neutrophil, macrophage and B-cell VV but prevented dendritic cells by 42%, CD4+ by 55%, and CD8+ by 91%. Conclusion These results indicate (i chronic exposure to cigarette smoke in mice results in a significant recruitment into the lung of inflammatory cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system; (ii roflumilast at the higher dose exerts a protective effect against the recruitment of all these cells and at the lower dose against the recruitment of dendritic cells and T-lymphocytes; (iii these findings underline the role of innate immunity in the development of pulmonary emphysema and (iiii support previous results indicating that the inflammatory cells of

  20. Impact of Cigarette Smoke on the Human and Mouse Lungs : A Gene-Expression Comparison Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morissette, Mathieu C.; Lamontagne, Maxime; Berube, Jean-Christophe; Gaschler, Gordon; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Couture, Christian; Laviolette, Michel; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Halappanavar, Sabina; Stampfli, Martin R.; Bosse, Yohan

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is well known for its adverse effects on human health, especially on the lungs. Basic research is essential to identify the mechanisms involved in the development of cigarette smoke-related diseases, but translation of new findings from pre-clinical models to the clinic remains

  1. Metabolic Effects of Nicotine Gum and Cigarette Smoking: Potential Implications for Postcessation Weight Gain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Twenty smoking women participated in nicotine gum and smoking administration, after which resting energy expenditures (REEs) were measured. Results indicated acute increase in REE for both nicotine gum and cigarettes. Metabolic rates for nicotine gum slowly returned to baseline; rates for cigarettes quickly fell significantly below baseline.…

  2. Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior: A Sociological Case Study in Ankara, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasapoglu, Aytul; Ozerkmen, Necmettin

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss important predictors of adolescent cigarette smoking behavior, such as their sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, mother's and father's educational level, and school type), health-promoting behavior (healthy nutrition, physical activities), risk behavior (cigarette smoking and alcohol…

  3. An Integrated Framework for the Analysis of Adolescent Cigarette Smoking in Middle School Latino Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Holloway, Ian; Bouris, Alida; Crossett, Linda

    2011-01-01

    A framework based on five major theories of health behavior was used to identify the correlates of adolescent cigarette smoking. The framework emphasizes intentions to smoke cigarettes, factors that influence these intentions, and factors that moderate the intention-behavior relationship. Five hundred sixteen randomly selected Latino middle school…

  4. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  5. Effect of cigarette smoke on the measured equivalent volume activity of 222Rn in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuckova, S.; Tykva, R.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of cigarette smoke in air on the increase of the measured equivalent volume activity of 222 Rn is demonstrated. After introduction of the smoke from one cigarette into 1 m 3 of air, this value increased up to ten times as shown be the method of sucking air through a filter. (author) 5 refs.; 1 fig

  6. Cigarette Smoking Causes Hearing Impairment among Bangladeshi Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumit, Ahmed Faisal; Das, Anindya; Sharmin, Zinat; Ahsan, Nazmul; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kato, Masashi; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle including smoking, noise exposure with MP3 player and drinking alcohol are considered as risk factors for affecting hearing synergistically. However, little is known about the association of cigarette smoking with hearing impairment among subjects who carry a lifestyle without using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. We showed here the influence of smoking on hearing among Bangladeshi subjects who maintain a lifestyle devoid of using MP3 player and drinking alcohol. A total of 184 subjects (smokers: 90; non-smokers: 94) were included considering their duration and frequency of smoking for conducting this study. The mean hearing thresholds of non-smoker subjects at 1, 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were 5.63±2.10, 8.56±5.75, 21.06±11.06, 40.79±20.36 decibel (dB), respectively and that of the smokers were 7±3.8, 13.27±8.4, 30.66±12.50 and 56.88±21.58 dB, respectively. The hearing thresholds of the smokers at 4, 8 and 12 kHz frequencies were significantly (p5 years) showed higher level of auditory threshold (62.16±19.87 dB) at 12 kHz frequency compared with that (41.52±19.21 dB) of the subjects smoked for 1-5 years and the difference in auditory thresholds was statistically significant (p<0.0002). In this study, the Brinkman Index (BI) of smokers was from 6 to 440 and the adjusted odds ratio showed a positive correlation between hearing loss and smoking when adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI). In addition, age, but not BMI, also played positive role on hearing impairment at all frequencies. Thus, these findings suggested that cigarette smoking affects hearing level at all the frequencies tested but most significantly at extra higher frequencies. PMID:25781179

  7. The content of cigarette counter-advertising: are perceived functions of smoking addressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nancy; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David; Eno, Cassie A; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    Media campaigns can be an effective tool in reducing adolescent smoking. To better understand the types of ads that have been used in campaigns in the United States, a content analysis was conducted of ads available at the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Media Campaign Resource Center (MCRC; Waves 1 through 7). A total of 487 ads were coded. Ads were coded for target audience, primary theme present in the ad, and sensation value-production techniques that have been demonstrated to attract attention and increase arousal. Primary themes extended earlier studies by focusing on the perceived functions of smoking (weight lose, stress management, controlling negative affect) as well as the traditional themes of industry attack, the health consequences of smoking, secondhand smoke, quitting, and the social image of smokers. A majority of ads were rated as having moderate sensation value, and ads targeted at teens and children were, on the average, higher in sensation value than those targeting general audiences. Changes across time suggest that campaigns are focusing more on adolescent smoking and relying more on attacking the tobacco industry. Research indicates that the functions of stress relief, mood regulation, and weight loss are strong reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke cigarettes; however, none of the 487 ads addressed these functional themes. Implications for developing campaigns that more closely relate to the functions of smoking are discussed.

  8. Cigarette smoking and the influencing factors among adolescents in a secondary school in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhna, L P; Khalid, Z; Selamat, S; Ho, S E; Mat, S

    2013-01-01

    Smoking has always been a huge problem in Malaysia and its surrounding nations. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking and to identify the influencing factors associated with smoking habits among adolescents. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 226 respondents, using a questionnaire which had 4 sections: socio-demographic data, personal information, family information and social information. Data was analyzed using SPSS® version 16. For categorical variables, comparisons were made using Chi-square and for numerical variables a t-test was performed. The current smoker prevalence rate was 20.8% which showed a significant association between smoking and individual factors: level of knowledge on the effects of smoking (p < 0.05), significant association was seen between smoking and marital status of parents, smoking status of male siblings and various other aspects of the individuals themselves. Concerted efforts involving various parties should be taken to curb or prevent this problem or the number of teenage smokers in the country will increase. This in the long run will invite problems to the well being of the adolescents themselves, their families, community and the nation as a whole.

  9. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Siziya, Seter; Muula, Adamson S; Rudatsikira, Emmanuel

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Many adult cigarette smokers initiated the habit as adolescents. Adolescent tobacco use may be a marker of other unhealthy behaviours. There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Iraq. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, and assess the socio-demographic correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Methods Secondary data analysis of the Global Youth Tobacc...

  10. Respiratory immunohistochemical study in rats exposed to cigarette smoke and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Magnani,Karla Luciana; Cataneo,Daniele Cristina; Domingues,Maria Aparecida Custódio; Hasimoto,Erica Nishida; Evaristo,Thaiane Cristine; Cataneo,Antônio José Maria

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of exposure to cigarette and alcohol on immunohistochemical disorders caused by these attacks to respiratory system of rats.METHODS:Sixty male Wistar rats in four groups: control, cigarette smoke, alcohol and cigarette smoke + alcohol during 260 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed by researching survivin and protein P53 expressions and apoptotic index in parenchymal lung and trachea using TUNEL technique.RESULTS: There was body growth impairment in all...

  11. The effects of physical exercise on the cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegali, Bruno T; Nesi, Renata T; Souza, Priscila S; Silva, Luciano A; Silveira, Paulo C L; Valença, Samuel S; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2009-12-01

    Studies have shown that the oxidative power of cigarettes is related to the pathogenesis of several pulmonary diseases and that regular physical exercise contributes significantly to reducing the deleterious effects of cigarettes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of physical exercise on histological and oxidative stress markers in animals exposed to cigarette smoke. Thirty-six male, eight-week-old C57BL-6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 9 for each group): control, exercise, cigarette smoke, and cigarette smoke plus exercise. The cigarette smoke (CS) groups were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times/day (4 cigarettes/session) for 60 consecutive days. The exercise groups were submitted to swimming physical training 5 days/week for eight weeks. Forty-eight hours after the last exercise and cigarette exposure, the animals were sacrificed using cervical traction. The right lung was removed, processed, and stored for future analysis. In addition to the analysis of collagen content (hydroxyproline), oxidant production (anion superoxide), antioxidant enzyme activity (SOD and CAT), and lipid and protein oxidative damage (TBARS and Carbonylation), histological and morphological studies were performed. The results revealed that the animals exposed to cigarette smoke showed enlargement and destruction of the alveolar septum and increases in the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, as well as in the amount of collagen. Our results also showed a decrease in the volume density of elastic fibers and an increase in the volume density of airspaces. However, physical exercise partially improved these markers. Additionally, physical exercise decreased oxidant production and increased the activity of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system, but did not reverse lipid and protein oxidative damage induced by cigarette smoke. These results suggest that physical training partially improves histological and oxidative stress parameters in

  12. Vertical Equity Consequences of Very High Cigarette Tax Increases: If the Poor Are the Ones Smoking, How Could Cigarette Tax Increases Be Progressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory J.; Remler, Dahlia K.

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is concentrated among low-income groups. Consequently, cigarette taxes are considered regressive. However, if poorer individuals are much more price sensitive than richer individuals, then tax increases would reduce smoking much more among the poor and their cigarette tax expenditures as a share of income would rise by much less…

  13. Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Dysfunctions Induced by Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Sater Khaled A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO•, uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, NO• and uric acid in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking- induced cardiovascular diseases.40 apparently healthy subjects were studied. Depending on their previous physical conditioning status subjects were divided into equal four groups (n=10, physically active nonsmokers, physically active smokers, sedentary nonsmokers and sedentary smokers. Exercise tolerance was evaluated for each subject by using a running race (3 kilometers after a worming up period of 5 minutes.The obtained data revealed that regular exercise significantly decreased the plasma malonaldehyde, total cholesterol, LDL and uric acid levels below sedentary levels. Pre and post race plasma level of malonaldehyde and uric acid levels were significantly increased, while, plasma glutathione and NO• were decreased in sedentary smokers than the sedentary non smokers, physically active smokers and physically active non smokers.These findings point to the role of NO•, uric acid and lipid peroxide in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Sedentary smokers may be at an even greater risk of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases. Finally, every body should include in a regular exercise.

  14. Big five personality factors and cigarette smoking: a 10-year study among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Taha, Farah; Bono, Amanda; Goodwin, Renee D

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between the big five personality traits and any lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence among adults in the United States (US) over a ten-year period. Data were drawn from the Midlife Development in the US (MIDUS) I and II (N = 2101). Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between continuously measured personality factors and any lifetime cigarette use, smoking progression, and smoking persistence at baseline (1995-1996) and at follow-up (2004-2006). The results revealed that higher levels of openness to experience and neuroticism were each significantly associated with increased risk of any lifetime cigarette use. Neuroticism also was associated with increased risk of progression from ever smoking to daily smoking and persistent daily smoking over a ten-year period. In contrast, conscientiousness was associated with decreased risk of lifetime cigarette use, progression to daily smoking, and smoking persistence. Most, but not all, associations between smoking and personality persisted after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance use problems. The findings suggest that openness to experience and neuroticism may be involved in any lifetime cigarette use and smoking progression, and that conscientiousness appears to protect against smoking progression and persistence. These data add to a growing literature suggesting that certain personality factors--most consistently neuroticism--are important to assess and perhaps target during intervention programs for smoking behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. No effect of cigarette smoking on attention or mood in non-deprived smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, M; Foulds, J; Fife-Schaw, C

    2001-09-01

    This study aimed (a) to assess whether smoking reduces anxiety when paired with a pleasant distractor and (b) to investigate the effect of smoking a cigarette on cognitive performance in non-deprived smokers. Participants were allocated randomly to four conditions in a 2 x 2 factorial design: 1, Smoke + Distractor; 2, Smoke + No Distractor; 3, No Smoke + Distractor; 4, No Smoke + No Distractor. University psychology department (University of Surrey, UK). Forty-five volunteer cigarette smokers (mean consumption = 16 cigarettes per day) allowed to smoke normally prior to the study. Participants were either allowed to smoke a cigarette of their choice in a manner of their choosing or not allowed to smoke, either with or without a concurrent distractor (a music video). Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) performance was measured via computer before and after a 10-minute break (during which the interventions took place). Mood was measured by (a) State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) and (b) Feeling State Questionnaire (FSQ), before and after the first RVIP task and then immediately after the break/cigarette. The RVIP task produced a significant increase in both measures of anxiety (SAI and FSQ stress subscale). Smoking, when paired with a distractor, did not decrease anxiety compared with when no distractor was present. Furthermore, smoking did not decrease anxiety or increase attentional (RVIP) performance compared with not smoking. The findings of this study failed to support the idea that smoking has anxiety-reducing or attention-enhancing properties in non-abstinent smokers.

  16. Cigarette smoking and advice to quit in a national sample of homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2010-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among homeless people, but its characteristics in this vulnerable population have not been studied at a national level. Whether homeless smokers receive advice to quit from healthcare providers is also unknown. To determine the prevalence and predictors of current cigarette smoking, smoking cessation, and receipt of clinician advice to quit in a national sample of homeless adults. This study analyzed data from 966 adult respondents to the 2003 Health Care for the Homeless User Survey, representing more than 436,000 people nationally. Using multivariable logistic regression, the independent predictors of smoking, quitting, and receiving advice to quit were identified. Analyses were conducted in 2008-2009. The prevalence of current smoking was 73%. The lifetime quit rate among ever smokers was 9%. Among past-year smokers, 54% reported receiving clinician advice to quit. Factors independently associated with current smoking included out-of-home placement in childhood (AOR=2.79, 95% CI=1.03, 7.52); victimization while homeless (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.15, 4.83); past-year employment (AOR=2.52, 95% CI=1.13, 5.58); and prior illicit drug use (AOR=7.21, 95% CI=3.11, 16.7) or problem alcohol use (AOR=7.42, 95% CI=2.51, 21.9). Respondents with multiple homeless episodes had higher odds of receiving quit advice (AOR=2.51, 95% CI=1.30, 4.83) but lower odds of quitting (AOR=0.47, 95% CI=0.29, 0.78). Compared to the general population, homeless people are far more likely to smoke and much less likely to quit, even though more than half of smokers received quit advice in the past year. Interventions for homeless smokers should address the unique comorbidities and vulnerabilities of this population. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Laser-acupuncture reduces cigarette smoking: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskiy, V N; Belousova, I A; Frolov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The stop-smoking campaign constitutes a component of the cardiovascular and oncology disease-prevention programme. In the study, laser-acupuncture was used in heavy smoking elderly patients with peripheral vascular diseases, as well as in those with lung cancer, to relieve the nicotine abstinence symptoms at the preoperational management stage. To produce a stable negative response to nicotine there was additionally applied steel needle (Seirlin-Kasei & Co., F.R.G.) insertion at cavity of concha, tragus and antitragus areas. In each of 85 patients there were noted positive trends, vegetative and somatic manifestations of abstinence were eliminated, desire to smoke was reduced. Most of them (71%) stopped smoking completely. The results have proven the high therapeutic value of laser-acupuncture in treating for chronic smoking.

  18. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and incidence of aortic valve stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, S C; Wolk, A; Bäck, M

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are modifiable lifestyle factors with important impact on public health. It is unclear whether these factors influence the risk of aortic valve stenosis (AVS). To investigate the associations of alcohol consumption and smoking, including smoking intensity and time since cessation, with AVS incidence in two prospective cohorts. This analysis was based on data from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men, comprising 69 365 adults without cardiovascular disease at baseline. Participants were followed for AVS incidence and death by linkage to the Swedish National Patient and Causes of Death Registers. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression. Over a mean follow-up of 15.3 years, 1249 cases of AVS (494 in women and 755 in men) were recorded. Compared with never drinkers of alcohol (lifelong abstainers), the risk of AVS was significantly lower in current light drinkers (1-6 drinks per week [1 drink = 12 g alcohol]; multivariable HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.68-0.99). The risk of AVS increased with increasing smoking intensity. Compared with never smokers, the HR was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.85) in current smokers of ≥30 pack-years. Former smokers who had quit smoking 10 or more years previously had similar risk for AVS as never smokers. This study suggests that current light alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of AVS, and indicates that the association between smoking and AVS risk is reversible. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Inhalation of 210Po and 210Pb from cigarette smoking in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skwarzec, B.; Ulatowski, J.; Struminska, D.I.; Borylo, A.

    2001-01-01

    The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Poland has one of the highest consumptions of cigarettes in the world. The results of 210 Po determination on the 14 most frequently smoked brands of cigarettes which constitute over 70% of the total cigarette consumption in Poland are presented and discussed. Moreover, the polonium content in cigarette smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobaccos, ash, fresh filters and post-smoking filters. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of 210 Po and 210 Pb inhalation with the cigarette smoke. The results of this work indicate that Polish smokers who smoke one pack (20 cigarettes) per day inhale from 20 to 215 mBq of 210 Po and 210 Pb each. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers were estimated to be 35 and 70 μSv from 210 Po and 210 Pb, respectively. For persons who smoke two packs of cigarettes with higher radionuclide concentrations, the effective dose is much higher (471 μSv yr -1 ) in comparison with the intake in diet. Therefore, cigarettes and the absorption through the respiratory system are the main sources and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake of smokers in Poland

  20. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of 239PuO2 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.; Pappin, J.L.; Stevens, D.L.; Irby, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    Groups of rats were exposed or sham exposed to cigarette smoke for 7 mo, at which time they were exposed to an aerosol of 239 PuO 2 . Rats were then subjected to whole-body counting (17-keV X-rays) periodically, beginning at day 4 after plutonium exposure, and smoke exposures or sham exposures were resumed on day 7. Clearance of plutonium from the lungs of cigarette-smoke-exposed rats was significantly slower than that from the sham-exposed rats' lungs. The difference between the two groups became significant 7 days after the resumption of cigarette-smoke exposures

  1. The effect of cigarette smoking on semen quality of infertile men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrannia, T.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on semen quality of infertile men. Two hundred fourteen infertile men who had been smoking cigarette and one hundred thirty infertile non smokers men participated in this study. Seminal volume, sperm concentration, motility, viability, and morphology were examined. The quality of spermatozoa obtained from smokers were much lower than non-smokers (P<0.01). The sperm concentration, viability and forward progression were negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (P<0.01). Smoking does affect the semen quality of infertile men. (author)

  2. Mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke-induced DNA adducts in C7Bl and DBA mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Gairola, C G; Wu, H; Gupta, R C; Diana, J N

    1993-01-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), which is largely composed of the sidestream cigarette smoke, has been implicated in increased incidence of cancer among nonsmokers. The present study was conducted to compare the potential of mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke to induce DNA adducts in mice. Groups of female C57Bl and DBA mice were exposed twice daily for 65-70 weeks to mainstream or sidestream smoke from the University of Kentucky reference cigarettes (2R1) in a nose-only ...

  3. Influence of filter ventilation on the chemical composition of cigarette mainstream smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Thomas, E-mail: dr-thomas-adam@gmx.net [Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany); Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); McAughey, John [British American Tobacco, Group R and D, Southampton SO15 8TL (United Kingdom); Mocker, Christoph [Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); McGrath, Conor [British American Tobacco, Group R and D, Southampton SO15 8TL (United Kingdom); Zimmermann, Ralf [Institute of Ecological Chemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); BIfA-Umweltinstitut - Bavarian Institute of Applied Environmental Research and Technology GmbH, Environmental Chemistry, 86167 Augsburg (Germany); Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2010-01-04

    Total yields of cigarette smoke constituents are greatly influenced by smoking behaviour, the tobacco blend as well as a variety of cigarette design parameters. Thereby, filter ventilation, i.e. diluting the smoke by providing a zone of microscopic holes around the circumference of the filter is one method to reduce the yield of 'tar' and other smoke compounds. However, little is known how these design variations influence the combustion conditions, and therefore, the overall chemical pattern of the smoke. In this paper single photon ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SPI-TOFMS) is used to characterize and compare cigarettes on a puff-by-puff basis, which differ only in filter ventilation magnitude. The research cigarettes investigated were made from Virginia tobacco and featured filter ventilations of 0% (no ventilation), 35%, and 70%. The cigarettes were smoked under two different puffing regimes, one using the puffing parameters of the conventional International Organization for Standardization (ISO) smoking regime and a more intense smoking condition. Results show that every variation entails a change of the chemical pattern, whereby, in general, cigarettes with 0% filter ventilation as well as the intense smoking regime lead to a more complete combustion compared to the ISO smoking conditions and the high ventilated cigarettes. Changes in the overall patterns can also be observed during the smoking for individual puffs. Some substances dominate the first puff, some species are more pronounced in the middle puffs, whereas others are preferably formed in the last puffs. This demonstrates the high complexity of the occurring processes. Results might help to understand the formation and decomposition reactions taking place when a cigarette is smoked and offer scope for targeted reduction strategies for specific toxicants or groups of toxicants in the smoke.

  4. Pattern of shisha and cigarette smoking in the general population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V; Anil, Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a primary risk factor for cancer development. While most research has focused on smoking cigarettes, the increasing popularity of shisha or water pipe smoking has received less attention. This study measured the prevalence and risk factors for shisha and cigarette smoking and related knowledge. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in Shah Alam, Malaysia. Participants aged ≥ 18 years were selected from restaurants. Data regarding demographic variables, smoking patterns, and knowledge about shisha smoking were collected in local languages. Logistic regression was performed to assess risk factors. Of 239 participants, 61.9 % were male and 99.2% revealed their smoking status. Some 57.4% were smokers: 50.7% only cigarettes, 5.9% only shisha and 42% both. Mean age of starting cigarette smoking was 17.5 ± 2.4 years and for shisha smoking 18.7 ± 2.0 years. In a univariate model, male gender, age 33-52 years and monthly income > MYR 4,000 increased the risk and unemployment and being a student decreased the risk. In a multivariate model, male gender increased the risk of smoking, while being a student decreased the risk, adjusting for age and income. The perception of shisha being less harmful than cigarettes was present in 14.6% and 7.5% had the opinion that shisha is not harmful at all, while 21.7% said that it is less addictive than cigarettes, 39.7% said that shisha did not contain tar and nicotine, 34.3% said that it did not contain carbon monoxide and 24.3% thought that shisha did not cause health problems. Prevalence of shisha and cigarette smoking is high in the general population in Malaysia and knowledge about shisha smoking is relatively low. The findings of our study might have implications for understanding similarities and differences in incidence of shisha and cigarette smoking in other cultural/geographic regions.

  5. Gender differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether established risk factors for initiating cigarette smoking during adolescence (parents, siblings, friends smoke; home smoking rules, smokers at home, exposure to smoking in cars, academic performance, susceptibility to smoking, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, school connectedness, use of other tobacco products) are associated with initiation in preadolescents, and whether the effects of these factors differ by gender. In spring 2005, baseline data were collected in self-report questionnaires from 1801 5th grade students including 1553 never-smokers (mean age=10.7years), in the longitudinal AdoQuest I Study in Montréal, Canada. Follow-up data were collected in the fall and spring of 6th grade (2005-2006). Poisson regression analyses with robust variance estimated the effects of each risk factor on initiation and additive interactions with gender were computed to assess the excess risk of each risk factor in girls compared to boys. 101 of 1399 participants in the analytic sample (6.7% of boys; 7.7% of girls) initiated smoking during follow-up. After adjustment for age, gender and maternal education, all risk factors except academic performance and school connectedness were statistically significantly associated with initiation. Paternal and sibling smoking were associated with initiation in girls only, and girls with lower self-esteem had a significant excess risk of initiating smoking in 6th grade. Risk factors for smoking initiation in preadolescents mirror those in adolescents; their effects do not differ markedly by gender. Preventive programs targeting children should focus on reducing smoking in the social environment and the dangers of poly-tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistent cigarette smoking and other tobacco use after a tobacco-related cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Julie S.; Tai, Eric; White, Arica; Davis, Shane P.; Fairley, Temeika L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction People who continue to smoke after a cancer diagnosis have an increased risk for recurrences or development of new malignancies. These risks may be even higher among tobacco-related cancer survivors (TRCS). We describe tobacco use behaviors among TRCS, other cancer survivors, and people without a history of cancer. Methods We used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to describe demographic characteristics, smoking history, current smoking prevalence, and smokeless tobacco use among TRCS, other cancer survivors, and people without a history of cancer (cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use were calculated after adjusting for age, sex, race, and insurance status). Tobacco-related cancers were defined as lung/bronchial, pharyngeal, laryngeal, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, kidney/renal, urinary bladder, cervical, and acute myeloid leukemia. Results A total of 20 % of all cancer survivors were TRCS. TRCS were primarily female (68 %) and white (78 %). Smoking prevalence was higher among TRCS (27 %) compared with other cancer survivors (16 %) and respondents without a history of cancer (18 %). Smokeless tobacco use was higher among respondents without a history of cancer (4 %) compared with TRCS (3 %) and other cancer survivors (3 %). Conclusions The self-reported smoking prevalence among TRCS is higher than among other cancer survivors and people without a history of cancer. Targeted smoking prevention and cessation interventions are needed for cancer survivors, especially those diagnosed with a tobacco-related cancer. Implications for cancer survivors We recommend all cancer survivors be made aware of the health risks associated with smoking after a cancer diagnosis, and smoking cessation services be offered to those who currently smoke. Condensed abstract We provide the first population-based report on demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviors among self-reported tobacco-related cancer survivors. PMID:22706885

  7. Intimate partner violence and maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana; Salimi, Shabnam; Terplan, Mishka; Chisolm, Margaret S

    2015-02-01

    To determine the association of intimate partner violence with maternal cigarette smoking before and during pregnancy. Data were obtained for 196,391 U.S. mothers who delivered live neonates from 2004-2008 and completed the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey 2-9 months postpartum. Intimate partner violence was defined as being physically hurt by a current or expartner in the year before or during pregnancy. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. Compared with nonphysically abused women, those who experienced physical abuse were 2.1 times more likely to smoke before pregnancy (44.0% compared with 21.0%, P<.001) and 2.6 times more likely to smoke during pregnancy (29.6% compared with 11.4%, P<.001). Smoking prevalence during pregnancy was highest for abused women who were non-Hispanic white (42.3% smoked) and lowest for nonabused college graduates (2.2% smoked). Smoking rates more than tripled for college graduates in abusive relationships (2.2% compared with 7.1%). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, abused women were significantly more likely to smoke during pregnancy than nonabused women (adjusted odds ratio 1.95, P<.001, 95% confidence interval 1.80-2.12). Women who experienced intimate partner violence had significantly higher rates of smoking before pregnancy and were less likely to quit during pregnancy than women who did not experience intimate partner violence. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the U.S. Public Services Task Force recommend routine intimate partner violence screening with appropriate interventions to prevent violence against women, optimize safety, and improve health. Additional and targeted intimate partner violence assessment of women who smoke during pregnancy may prove especially beneficial.

  8. Continuous and Discontinuous Cigarette Smoke Exposure Differentially Affects Protective Th1 Immunity against Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaler, Christopher R.; Horvath, Carly N.; McCormick, Sarah; Jeyanathan, Mangalakumari; Khera, Amandeep; Zganiacz, Anna; Kasinska, Joanna; Stampfli, Martin R.; Xing, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the leading cause of death due to a bacterial pathogen. Emerging epidemiologic evidence suggests that the leading risk factor associated with TB mortality is cigarette smoke exposure. Despite this, it remains poorly understood what is the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on anti-TB immunity and whether its potential detrimental effect can be reversed by cigarette smoking cessation. In our current study, we have investigated the impact of both continuous and discontinuous cigarette smoke exposure on the development of anti-mycobacterial type 1 immunity in murine models. We find that while continuous cigarette smoke exposure severely impairs type 1 immunity in the lung, a short-term smoking cessation allows rapid restoration of anti-mycobacterial immunity. The ability of continuous cigarette smoke exposure to dampen type 1 protective immunity is attributed locally to its affects on innate immune cells in the lung. Continuous cigarette smoke exposure locally, by not systemically, impairs APC accumulation and their production of TNF, IL-12, and RANTES, blunts the recruitment of CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells to the lung, and weakens the formation of granuloma. On the other hand, smoking cessation was found to help restore type 1 immunity by rapidly improving the functionality of lung APCs, enhancing the recruitment of CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells to the lung, and promoting the formation of granuloma. Our study for the first time demonstrates that continuous, but not discontinuous, cigarette smoke exposure severely impedes the lung expression of anti-TB Th1 immunity via inhibiting innate immune activation and lung T cell recruitment. Our findings thus suggest cigarette smoking cessation to be beneficial to the control of pulmonary TB. PMID:23527127

  9. Prevention of smoking behaviors in middle school students: student nurse interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M P; Gillespie, J; Billian, A; Davel, S

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the use of the Tar Wars curriculum with the public health problem of preteen smoking and outlines interventions with a middle school population by community health student nurses from a state university. Smoking is the single most preventable cause of death and disability. Three million people die worldwide each year as a result of smoking. Cigarette smoking has now been labeled a pediatric disease. Estimates are that 3,000 children will begin a lifelong addiction to cigarettes every day. They will face a life of poor quality based on the medical consequences of smoking cigarettes. Mortality from tobacco use is annually greater than that from drug abuse, AIDS, suicide, homicide, and motor vehicle accidents combined. Preteen and teenage smoking is now a public health problem, therefore implications for service learning, nursing advocacy, and interventions with this health problem are discussed.

  10. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feifei; Liang, Chun-Ling; Liu, Huazhen; Zeng, Yu-Qun; Hou, Shaozhen; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiaoping; Dai, Zhenhua

    2017-01-03

    Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells. Complex roles of cigarette smoke have resulted in numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers and transplant rejection etc. Although previous reviews have described the effects of smoking on various diseases and regional immunity associated with specific diseases, a comprehensive and updated review is rarely seen to demonstrate impacts of smoking on general immunity and, especially on major components of immune cells. Here, we aim to systematically and objectively review the influence of smoking on major components of both innate and adaptive immune cells, and summarize cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. The molecular pathways impacted by cigarette smoking involve NFκB, MAP kinases and histone modification. Further investigations are warranted to understand the exact mechanisms responsible for smoking-mediated immunopathology and to answer lingering questions over why cigarette smoking is always harmful rather than beneficial even though it exerts dual effects on immune responses.

  11. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  12. Red Wine Prevents the Acute Negative Vascular Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Viktoria; Bachelier, Katrin; Schirmer, Stephan H; Werner, Christian; Laufs, Ulrich; Böhm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine is associated with fewer cardiovascular events. We investigated whether red wine consumption counteracts the adverse vascular effects of cigarette smoking. Participants smoked 3 cigarettes alone or after drinking a titrated volume of red wine. Clinical chemistry, blood counts, plasma cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, immunomagnetic separation of CD14 + monocytes for gene expression analysis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting for microparticles, and isolation of circulating mononuclear cells to measure telomerase activity were performed, and urine cotinine levels were quantified. Compared with baseline, leukocytosis (P = .019), neutrophilia (P <.001), lymphopenia (P <.001), and eosinopenia (P = .008) were observed after only smoking. Endothelial and platelet-, monocyte-, and leukocyte-derived microparticles (P <.001 each) were elevated. In monocytes, messenger RNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (2.6- ± 0.57-fold), tumor necrosis factor alpha (2.2- ± 0.62-fold), and IL-1b (2.3- ± 0.44-fold) were upregulated, as was IL-6 (1.2 ± 0.12-fold) protein concentration in plasma. Smoking acutely inhibited mononuclear cell telomerase activity. Markers of endothelial damage, inflammation, and cellular aging were completely attenuated by red wine consumption. Cigarette smoke results in acute endothelial damage, vascular and systemic inflammation, and indicators of the cellular aging processes in otherwise healthy nonsmokers. Pretreatment with red wine was preventive. The findings underscore the magnitude of acute damage exerted by cigarette smoking in "occasional lifestyle smokers" and demonstrate the potential of red wine as a protective strategy to avert markers of vascular injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...

  14. The Effects of a Minimum Cigarette Purchase Age of 21 on Prenatal Smoking and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ji Yan

    2014-01-01

    A key goal of US public health policies is to reduce costly adverse birth outcomes to which prenatal smoking is a crucial contributor. This study is the first to evaluate the impacts of a minimum cigarette purchase age of 21 implemented in the state of Pennsylvania on prenatal smoking and infant health. Using a regression discontinuity method, it shows this smoking age of 21 reduces the prenatal daily cigarette consumption by 15 percent and lowers the incidence of low birth weight infants by ...

  15. Mediators and moderators of magazine advertisement effects on adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Slater, Michael D; Cruickshank, Courtney C

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the relation between magazine advertising for cigarettes and adolescent cigarette smoking. Participants (242 adolescents) reported their frequency of reading 46 magazines and their attention to cigarette ads. Recognition of cigarette ads, passive peer pressure (i.e., normative beliefs), and the smoker image also were assessed. Results indicate that exposure to cigarette advertising and recognition of ads augment the effect of passive peer pressure on smoking. In addition, a positive smoker image was associated with attention to advertising and mediated the relation between attention and smoking. It is suggested that the effect of magazine ads on adolescents should be considered in policymaking on cigarette advertising.

  16. Impact of an Outdoor Smoking Ban at Secondary Schools on Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes and Water Pipe Use among Adolescents: An 18-Month Follow-Up.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, Andrea D; Hiemstra, Marieke; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; Jansen, Maria W J; van Oers, Hans J A M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The effectiveness of outdoor smoking bans on smoking behavior among adolescents remains inconclusive. This study evaluates the long-term impact of outdoor school ground smoking bans among adolescents at secondary schools on the use of conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes (with/without

  17. Impact of an outdoor smoking ban at secondary schools on cigarettes, e-cigarettes and water pipe use among adolescents : An 18-Month Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, A.D.; Hiemstra, J.M.; Mathijssen, J.J.P.; Jansen, M.W.J.; Van Oers, J.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    The effectiveness of outdoor smoking bans on smoking behavior among adolescents remains inconclusive. This study evaluates the long-term impact of outdoor school ground smoking bans among adolescents at secondary schools on the use of conventional cigarettes, e-cigarettes (with/without nicotine) and

  18. Individual- and community-level correlates of cigarette-smoking trajectories from age 13 to 32 in a U.S. population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuemmeler, Bernard; Lee, Chien-Ti; Ranby, Krista W; Clark, Trenette; McClernon, F Joseph; Yang, Chongming; Kollins, Scott H

    2013-09-01

    Characterizing smoking behavior is important for informing etiologic models and targeting prevention efforts. This study explored the effects of both individual- and community-level variables in predicting cigarette use vs. non-use and level of use among adolescents as they transition into adulthood. Data on 14,779 youths (53% female) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health); a nationally representative longitudinal cohort. A cohort sequential design allowed for examining trajectories of smoking typologies from age 13 to 32 years. Smoking trajectories were evaluated by using a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth analysis and latent class growth analysis modeling approach. Significant relationships emerged between both individual- and community-level variables and smoking outcomes. Maternal and peer smoking predicted increases in smoking over development and were associated with a greater likelihood of belonging to any of the four identified smoking groups versus Non-Users. Conduct problems and depressive symptoms during adolescence were related to cigarette use versus non-use. State-level prevalence of adolescent smoking was related to greater cigarette use during adolescence. Individual- and community-level variables that distinguish smoking patterns within the population aid in understanding cigarette use versus non-use and the quantity of cigarette use into adulthood. Our findings suggest that efforts to prevent cigarette use would benefit from attention to both parental and peer smoking and individual well-being. Future work is needed to better understand the role of variables in the context of multiple levels (individual and community-level) on smoking trajectories. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiratory effects in children from passive smoking of cigarettes and narghile: ISAAC Phase Three in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Y; Shaaban, R; Hassan, M; Yassine, F; Mohammad, S; Tessier, J F; Ellwood, P

    2014-11-01

    The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and asthma symptoms is well documented, but a causal relationship is inconclusive. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three was the first to report a dose-response relationship between current wheezing and exposure to parental cigarette smoke. As exposure of children to water pipe (narghile) smoke is of concern in Syria, in the ISAAC Phase Three Tartous Centre we also examined the role of parental smoking of the narghile. Parents of children aged 6-7 years completed core written questionnaires about the prevalence of symptoms, and an environmental questionnaire for other risk factors, including parental cigarette smoking. We added questions about narghile to the questionnaire. Among 2 734 pupils (49% females) surveyed, we found an association between exposure to ETS of the mother smoking cigarette or narghile and ever wheezing, nocturnal cough and severe wheeze; however, the strongest association was found when the mother smoked narghile. Mother smoking narghile was also associated with exercise wheeze. Father smoking narghile, but not cigarettes, was associated with nocturnal cough, severe wheeze and exercise wheeze. The association with current wheeze became significant when mother smoked both cigarettes and narghile; however, the effect was addititive and not synergic. We recommend that international studies investigating ETS include questions on narghile smoking.

  20. Association Between Initial Use of e-Cigarettes and Subsequent Cigarette Smoking Among Adolescents and Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Wills, Thomas A; Leventhal, Adam M; Unger, Jennifer B; Gibson, Laura A; Yang, JaeWon; Primack, Brian A; Andrews, Judy A; Miech, Richard A; Spindle, Tory R; Dick, Danielle M; Eissenberg, Thomas; Hornik, Robert C; Dang, Rui; Sargent, James D

    2017-08-01

    The public health implications of e-cigarettes depend, in part, on whether e-cigarette use affects the risk of cigarette smoking. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies that assessed initial use of e-cigarettes and subsequent cigarette smoking. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the 2016 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 22nd Annual Meeting abstracts, the 2016 Society of Behavioral Medicine 37th Annual Meeting & Scientific Sessions abstracts, and the 2016 National Institutes of Health Tobacco Regulatory Science Program Conference were searched between February 7 and February 17, 2017. The search included indexed terms and text words to capture concepts associated with e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes in articles published from database inception to the date of the search. Longitudinal studies reporting odds ratios for cigarette smoking initiation associated with ever use of e-cigarettes or past 30-day cigarette smoking associated with past 30-day e-cigarette use. Searches yielded 6959 unique studies, of which 9 met inclusion criteria (comprising 17 389 adolescents and young adults). Study quality and risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and the Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool, respectively. Data and estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Among baseline never cigarette smokers, cigarette smoking initiation between baseline and follow-up. Among baseline non-past 30-day cigarette smokers who were past 30-day e-cigarette users, past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among 17 389 adolescents and young adults, the ages ranged between 14 and 30 years at baseline, and 56.0% were female. The pooled probabilities of cigarette smoking initiation were 30.4% for baseline ever e-cigarette users and 7.9% for baseline never e-cigarette users. The pooled probabilities of past 30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up were 21.5% for baseline

  1. Correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in the Kurdistan region of Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adult cigarette smokers initiated the habit as adolescents. Adolescent tobacco use may be a marker of other unhealthy behaviours. There are limited data on the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Iraq. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of, and assess the socio-demographic correlates of current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Methods Secondary data analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey, conducted in the region of Kurdistan, Iraq in 2006. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between current cigarette smoking and explanatory variables. Results One thousand nine hundred eighty-nine adolescents participated in the Kurdistan-Iraq Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Of these, 58.1% and 41.9% were boys and girls respectively. The overall prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 15.3%; 25.1% and 2.7% in boys and girls respectively. The factors associated with adolescent smoking were: parents' smoking, smoking in closest friends, male gender, having pocket money and perceptions that boys or girls who smoked were attractive. Conclusion We suggest that public health interventions aimed to curb adolescent cigarette smoking should be designed, implemented and evaluated with due recognition to the factors that are associated with the habit.

  2. Assessment of an in vitro whole cigarette smoke exposure system: The Borgwaldt RM20S 8-syringe smoking machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAughey John

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many recent developments of in vitro cigarette smoke systems closely replicating in vivo exposures. The Borgwaldt RM20S smoking machine (RM20S enables the serial dilution and delivery of cigarette smoke to exposure chambers for in vitro analyses. In this study we have demonstrated reliability and robustness testing of the RM20S in delivering smoke to in vitro cultures using an in-house designed whole smoke exposure chamber. Results The syringe precision and accuracy of smoke dose generated by the RM20S was assessed using a methane gas standard and resulted in a repeatability error of ≤9%. Differential electrical mobility particle spectrometry (DMS measured smoke particles generated from reference 3R4F cigarettes at points along the RM20S. 53% ± 5.9% of particles by mass reached the chamber, the remainder deposited in the syringe or connecting tubing and ~16% deposited in the chamber. Spectrofluorometric quantification of particle deposition within chambers indicated a positive correlation between smoke concentration and particle deposition. In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI cultures (H292 lung epithelial cells, exposed to whole smoke (1:60 dilution (smoke:air, equivalent to ~5 μg/cm2 demonstrated uniform smoke delivery within the chamber. Conclusions These results suggest this smoke exposure system is a reliable and repeatable method of generating and exposing ALI in vitro cultures to cigarette smoke. This system will enable the evaluation of future tobacco products and individual components of cigarette smoke and may be used as an alternative in vitro tool for evaluating other aerosols and gaseous mixtures such as air pollutants, inhaled pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

  3. A Model To Estimate the Sources of Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamines in Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Peter J; Seeman, Jeffrey I

    2017-08-21

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are one of the most extensively and continually studied classes of compounds found in tobacco and cigarette smoke.1-5 The TSNAs N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) have been characterized by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products,6 and cigarette manufacturers report their levels in cigarette tobacco filler and cigarette smoke to the FDA. NNN and NNK are classified by IARC as carcinogenic to humans.7 TSNAs transfer from tobacco to smoke by evaporation driven by heat and the flow of gases down the cigarette rod. Other TSNA sources in smoke include pyrorelease, where room temperature-unextractable TSNAs are released by smoking, and pyrosynthesis, where TSNAs are formed by reactions during smoking. We propose the first model that quantifies these three sources of TSNA in smoke. In our model, evaporative transfer efficiency of a TSNA is equated to the evaporative transfer efficiency of nicotine. Smoke TSNA measured in excess of what is transferred by evaporation is termed "pyrogeneration," which is the net sum of pyrorelease and pyrosynthesis minus pyrodegredation. This model requires no internal standard, is applicable to commercial cigarettes "as is," and uses existing analytical methods. This model was applied to archived Philip Morris USA data. For commercial blended cigarettes, NNN pyrogeneration appears to be unimportant, but NNK pyrogeneration contributes roughly 30-70% of NNK in smoke with the greater contribution at lower tobacco NNK levels. This means there is an opportunity to significantly reduce smoke NNK by up to 70% if pyrogeneration can be decreased or eliminated, perhaps by finding a way to grow and cure tobacco with reduced matrix-bound NNK. For burley research cigarettes, pyrogeneration may account for 90% or more of both NNN and NNK in smoke.

  4. Cigarette smoke combined with staining beverages decreases luminosity and increases pigmentation in composite resin restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Paula; Rossi, Thais Aranha; Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega; Lima, Max José Pimenta; Fontes, Céres Mendonça; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio da Rocha

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of cigarette smoke combined or not with colored beverages on the color change of a composite resin before and after repolishing procedures. Composite specimens were allocated into six groups (N = 10): 1) control (no colorant); 2) cigarette smoke; 3) coffee; 4) coffee and cigarette smoke; 5) red wine; and 6) red wine and cigarette smoke. During 21 days, groups 2, 4, and 6 were exposed daily to the smoke from 20 cigarettes, and groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 were immersed in coffee or red wine for 4 minutes each day. Color measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer at baseline, after 21 days, and after repolishing procedures. Statistical analysis indicated the exposure to cigarette smoke and staining beverages resulted in decreased luminosity (P = .0001) and increased red pigmentation in most experimental groups (P 7.5). Repolishing resulted in greater luminosity, as well as decreased yellow pigmentation (P < .05). It could be concluded that combined staining agents such as cigarette smoke and red wine irreversibly change resin color regardless of the use of repolishing procedures.

  5. Racial Differences in Cigarette Smoking Among Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have reported pronounced racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior among homeless youth. Better understanding the factors underlying racial/ethnic differences in daily smoking among homeless youth may help inform programs to reduce smoking in this population. Data come from a probability sample of homeless youth in Los Angeles County collected between 2008 and 2009. The sample includes 116 African American, 99 Hispanic, and 119 White youth with ages ranging from 13 to 24 years. Chi-square tests were used to test the differences in daily smoking among African American, Hispanic, and White youth. Propensity score and doubly robust methods were used to produce a less biased estimate of the association between daily smoking and race/ethnicity after having removed the effect of potential confounders. The daily smoking rate for White youth was 70.1%, more than 31 percentage points than the rates for either African American or Hispanic youth. Propensity score analysis revealed that the majority of the racial/ethnic differences in smoking rates could be explained by differences in homelessness severity, although background characteristics and comorbidity were relevant as well. As programs are developed to reduce smoking among homeless youth, results suggest that additional outreach may be needed to engage White youth in services. Also, smoking prevention programs may benefit from incorporating a social network-based approach that assists youth in fostering relationships with lower-risk peers, as well as addressing other forms of substance use. Incorporating these elements may help reduce the large racial/ethnic disparities in daily smoking among homeless youth. This report extends the small existing literature on racial/ethnic differences in smoking among homeless youth in two important respects. First, it confirms differences in daily smoking, an important indicator of dependence, across racial/ethnic groups. Second, it seeks to understand the extent

  6. Genomic impact of cigarette smoke, with application to three smoking-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talikka, M; Sierro, N; Ivanov, N V; Chaudhary, N; Peck, M J; Hoeng, J; Coggins, C R E; Peitsch, M C

    2012-11-01

    There is considerable evidence that inhaled toxicants such as cigarette smoke can cause both irreversible changes to the genetic material (DNA mutations) and putatively reversible changes to the epigenetic landscape (changes in the DNA methylation and chromatin modification state). The diseases that are believed to involve genetic and epigenetic perturbations include lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), all of which are strongly linked epidemiologically to cigarette smoking. In this review, we highlight the significance of genomics and epigenomics in these major smoking-related diseases. We also summarize the in vitro and in vivo findings on the specific perturbations that smoke and its constituent compounds can inflict upon the genome, particularly on the pulmonary system. Finally, we review state-of-the-art genomics and new techniques such as high-throughput sequencing and genome-wide chromatin assays, rapidly evolving techniques which have allowed epigenetic changes to be characterized at the genome level. These techniques have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of the specific mechanisms by which exposure to environmental chemicals causes disease. Such mechanistic knowledge provides a variety of opportunities for enhanced product safety assessment and the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions.

  7. Acrolein Yields in Mainstream Smoke From Commercial Cigarette and Little Cigar Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Todd L; Brewer, Tim M; Young, Mimy; Holman, Matthew R

    2017-07-01

    Many carbonyls are produced from the combustion of tobacco products and many of these carbonyls are harmful or potentially harmful constituents of mainstream cigarette smoke. One carbonyl of particular interest is acrolein, which is formed from the incomplete combustion of organic matter and the most significant contributor to non-cancer respiratory effects from cigarette smoke. Sheet-wrapped cigars, also known as "little cigars," are a type of tobacco products that have not been extensively investigated in literature. This study uses standard cigarette testing protocols to determine the acrolein yields from sheet-wrapped cigars. Sheet-wrapped cigar and cigarette products were tested by derivatizing the mainstream smoke with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) solution and then quantifying the derivatives using conventional analytical systems. The results demonstrate that sheet-wrapped cigars can be tested for acrolein yields in mainstream smoke using the same methods used for the evaluation of cigarettes. The variability in the sheet-wrapped cigars and cigarettes under the International Organization for Standardization smoking regimen is statistically similar at the 95% confidence interval; however, increased variability is observed for sheet-wrapped cigar products under the Health Canada Intense (CI) smoking regimen. The amount of acrolein released by smoking sheet-wrapped cigars can be measured using standard smoking regimen currently used for cigarettes. The sheet-wrapped cigars were determined to yield similar quantity of acrolein from commercial cigarette products using two standard smoking regimens. This article reports on the measured quantity of acrolein from 15 commercial sheet-wrapped cigars using a validated standard smoking test method that derivatizes acrolein in the mainstream smoke with DNPH solution, and uses Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Detection (LC/UV) for separation and detection. These acrolein yields were similar to the levels found in

  8. A Concise History of School-Based Smoking Prevention Research: A Pendulum Effect Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…

  9. Cigarette prices, cigarette expenditure and smoking-induced deprivation: findings from the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua H; Cummings, K Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T; de Miera, Belén Saenz; Borland, Ron

    2013-07-01

    Mexico implemented annual tax increases between 2009 and 2011. We examined among current smokers the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with smoking-induced deprivation (SID) and whether the association of price or expenditure with SID varies by income. We used data (n=2410) from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Mexico survey (ie, 2008, 2010, 2011) and employed logistic regression to estimate the association of price paid per cigarette and daily cigarette expenditure with the probability of SID ('In the last 6 months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?'). Price paid per cigarette increased from Mex$1.24 in 2008, to Mex$1.36 in 2010, to Mex$1.64 in 2011. Daily cigarette expenditure increased from Mex$6.9, to Mex$7.6 and to Mex$8.4 in the 3 years. There was no evidence of an association between price and SID. However, higher expenditure was associated with a higher probability of SID. There was no evidence that the association of price or expenditure with SID varied by income. Tax increases in Mexico have resulted in smokers paying more and spending more for their cigarettes. Those with higher cigarette expenditure experience more SID, with no evidence that poorer smokers are more affected.

  10. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Metabolic profile and genotoxicity in obese rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora C; Sinzato, Yuri K; Bueno, Aline; Dallaqua, Bruna; Lima, Paula H; Calderon, Iracema M P; Rudge, Marilza V C; Campos, Kleber E

    2013-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that exposure to cigarette smoke has negative effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress status. Cigarette smoke exposure in nonpregnant and pregnant rats causes significant genotoxicity (DNA damage). However, no previous studies have directly evaluated the effects of obesity or the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure on genotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate DNA damage levels, oxidative stress status and lipid profiles in obese Wistar rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Female rats subcutaneously (s.c.) received a monosodium glutamate solution or vehicle (control) during the neonatal period to induce obesity. The rats were randomly distributed into three experimental groups: control, obese exposed to filtered air, and obese exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke. After a 2-month exposure period, the rats were anesthetized and killed to obtain blood samples for genotoxicity, lipid profile, and oxidative stress status analyses. The obese rats exposed to tobacco cigarette smoke presented higher DNA damage, triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, VLDL-c, HDL-c, and LDL-c levels compared to control and obese rats exposed to filtered air. Both obese groups showed reduced SOD activity. These results showed that cigarette smoke enhanced the effects of obesity. In conclusion, the association between obesity and cigarette smoke exposure exacerbated the genotoxicity, negatively impacted the biochemical profile and antioxidant defenses and caused early glucose intolerance. Thus, the changes caused by cigarette smoke exposure can trigger the earlier onset of metabolic disorders associated with obesity, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. Cigarette smoke exposure-associated alterations to noncoding RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Alan Maccani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental exposures vary by timing, severity, and frequency and may have a number of deleterious effects throughout the life course. The period of in utero development, for example, is one of the most crucial stages of development during which adverse environmental exposures can both alter the growth and development of the fetus as well as lead to aberrant fetal programming, increasing disease risk. During fetal development and beyond, the plethora of exposures, including nutrients, drugs, stress, and trauma, influence health, development, and survival. Recent research in environmental epigenetics has investigated the roles of environmental exposures in influencing epigenetic modes of gene regulation during pregnancy and at various stages of life. Many relatively common environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use, may have consequences for the expression and function of noncoding RNA (ncRNA, important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. A number of ncRNA have been discovered, including microRNA (miRNA, Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA, and long noncoding RNA (long ncRNA. The best-characterized species of ncRNA are miRNA, the mature forms of which are ~22 nucleotides in length and capable of post-transcriptionally regulating target mRNA utilizing mechanisms based largely on the degree of complementarity between miRNA and target mRNA. Because miRNA can still negatively regulate gene expression when imperfectly base-paired with a target mRNA, a single miRNA can have a large number of potential mRNA targets and can regulate many different biological processes critical for health and development. The following review analyzes the current literature detailing links between cigarette smoke exposure and aberrant expression and function of noncoding RNA, assesses how such alterations may have consequences throughout the life course, and proposes future directions for this intriguing field of

  13. Cigarette smoking among school-going adolescents in Kafue, Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adolescents elsewhere are also associated with smoking among adolescents in Kafue, Zambia. ... factors. This information is important in the design, implementation of public health interventions aimed to prevent adolescents' tobacco use in particular and overall ..... Sexual activity and other risk-taking behaviours among ...

  14. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether perceived discrimination explained the associations of acculturation with depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking among 1,124 Hispanic youth (54% fema...

  15. Smoking among construction workers: the nonlinear influence of the economy, cigarette prices, and antismoking sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bacic, Janine; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Catalano, Ralph

    2012-10-01

    Little research has been conducted on the influence of macroeconomic environments on smoking among blue-collar workers, a group with high smoking prevalence and that is especially vulnerable to the effects of changing economic circumstances. Using data from 52,418 construction workers in the Tobacco Use Supplement to the United States Current Population Survey, we examined the association of labor market shock, cigarette prices, and state antismoking sentiments with smoking status and average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Data analysis included the use of multiple linear and logistic regressions, which employed the sampling and replicate weights to account for sampling design. Unemployed, American-Indian, lower-educated and lower-income workers had higher smoking rates. Labor market shock had a quadratic association, which was non-significant for smoking status and significant for number of cigarettes. The association of cigarette prices with smoking status became non-significant after adjusting for state-level antismoking sentiment. State-level antismoking sentiment had significant quadratic association with smoking status among employed workers and significant quadratic association with number of cigarettes for all smokers. The study highlights how both workplace-based smoking cessation interventions and antismoking sentiments could further contribute to disparities in smoking by employment status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane Concentrations in Cigarette Smoke by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, T. L.; Lebron, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated absorbance areas of vibrational bands of CO[subscript 2], CO, and CH[subscript 4] gases in cigarette smoke were measured from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to derive the partial pressures of these gases at different smoke times. The quantity of the three gas-phase components of cigarette smoke at different smoke times…

  17. Behaviours and opinions towards outdoor smoking bans and cigarette littering in Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Christine, Paul J; Zepeda-Tello, Rodrigo; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Aguilar Duque, Julian I; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz M; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2016-04-01

    Outdoor smoking bans have been implemented to reduce secondhand smoke exposure and cigarette littering. We aimed to explore outdoor smoking behaviours, cigarette littering, and support towards a recently enacted outdoor smoking ban in Baja California, Mexico. From October 2013 to April 2014 a representative sample of 800 adults from urban areas of Baja California was surveyed to obtain information on demographics, smoking status, opinion towards outdoor smoking bans in general and in specific locations, and perceptions and habits regarding cigarette littering. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression analyses were conducted to estimate prevalence ratios and corresponding 95% CI taking into account the complex survey design. Outdoor smoking was frequently observed, as 86.8% of the population reported having seen people smoking in parks and beaches and 94.4% in open venues such as concerts or stadiums. A smoking ban in all outdoor areas was supported by 71.8% of Baja California residents. Site-specific support ranged from 80% (stadiums) to 89% (public parks). Support for the ban was higher among never and ex-smokers than in current smokers. Cigarette littering was negatively perceived by 98% of the participants, yet 45% of all cigarettes smoked were thrown on the ground. Based on cigarette consumption and butt littering reported in the survey, we estimated that 27 million cigarette butts become litter every month in urban areas of Baja California. Outdoor smoking is still frequent in outdoor areas where people gather, and an important source of littering. We found substantial public support towards the outdoor smoking ban, which should translate into easier implementation and compliance in Baja California, Mexico. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Waterpipes and e-cigarettes: Impact of alternative smoking techniques on indoor air quality and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer. E-cigarettes are marketed as a smokeless and safe way to inhale nicotine without being exposed to the many toxic components of tobacco cigarettes, and as an aid to smoking cessation. In fact, consumers (vapers) and secondhand vapers can be exposed to substantial amounts of VOC, PAH or other potentially harmful substances. Of major health concern is the inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor. Such particles can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung and may harm the respiratory system or increase the risk of acquiring asthma. More research on the safety of e-cigarettes needs to be conducted to ensure a high level of public health protection in the long-term.

  19. Induction of pulmonary antibodies against oxidized lipids in mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayaparan, Danya; Shen, Pamela; Stämpfli, Martin R; Morissette, Mathieu C

    2016-08-04

    Chronic cigarette smoke exposure is known to activate the adaptive immune system; however, the functional role of these processes is currently unknown. Given the role of oxidized lipids in driving innate inflammatory responses to cigarette smoke, we investigated whether an adaptive immune response against damaged lipids was induced following chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Using a well-established mouse model, we showed that cigarette smoke exposure led to a progressive increase in pulmonary antibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL). Functionally, we found that intranasal delivery of an antibody against oxidized phosphatidylcholine (anti-OxPC; clone E06) increased lipid and particle uptake by pulmonary macrophages without exacerbating cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia. We also found that anti-OxPC treatment increased particle uptake following smoking cessation. Finally, the frequency of pulmonary macrophages with internalized particles was increased after prolonged smoke exposure, at which time lung anti-OxPC responses were highest. Altogether, this is the first report to demonstrate a non-pathogenic, and possibly protective, function of a newly identified autoantibody induced by chronic cigarette smoke exposure.

  20. Factors Related to Cigarette Smoking Initiation and Use among College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert Sheryl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, cognitive factors (sense of coherence and self-efficacy, coping resources (family and friend social support and demographic factors (gender and ethnicity on cigarette smoking behaviors (initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students. A total of 161 U.S. college students, aged 18–26, who enrolled in an introductory psychology course completed self-report questionnaires. The majority of the students had tried smoking (55%; among those who had tried, 42% were current smokers. The majority (77% who had smoked a whole cigarette did so at age 16 years or younger. Students who reported lower levels of conscientiousness and self-efficacy had a greater likelihood to had tried cigarette smoking. Also, students who had lower levels of self-efficacy reported smoking more frequently and greater quantities of cigarettes than students with higher levels of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was the most significant predictor of smoking behaviors. Health promotion programs focused on self-efficacy may be an effective tool for reducing the initiation, frequency, and amount of cigarette smoking among college students.

  1. Modulation of cigarette smoke-related end-points in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Flora, Silvio; D'Agostini, Francesco; Balansky, Roumen; Camoirano, Anna; Bennicelli, Carlo; Bagnasco, Maria; Cartiglia, Cristina; Tampa, Elena; Longobardi, Maria Grazia; Lubet, Ronald A.; Izzotti, Alberto

    2003-01-01

    The epidemic of lung cancer and the increase of other tumours and chronic degenerative diseases associated with tobacco smoking have represented one of the most dramatic catastrophes of the 20th century. The control of this plague is one of the major challenges of preventive medicine for the next decades. The imperative goal is to refrain from smoking. However, chemoprevention by dietary and/or pharmacological agents provides a complementary strategy, which can be targeted not only to current smokers but also to former smokers and passive smokers. This article summarises the results of studies performed in our laboratories during the last 10 years, and provides new data generated in vitro, in experimental animals and in humans. We compared the ability of 63 putative chemopreventive agents to inhibit the bacterial mutagenicity of mainstream cigarette smoke. Modulation by ethanol and the mechanisms involved were also investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Several studies evaluated the effects of dietary chemopreventive agents towards smoke-related intermediate biomarkers in various cells, tissues and organs of rodents. The investigated end-points included metabolic parameters, adducts to haemoglobin, bulky adducts to nuclear DNA, oxidative DNA damage, adducts to mitochondrial DNA, apoptosis, cytogenetic damage in alveolar macrophages, bone marrow and peripheral blood erytrocytes, proliferation markers, and histopathological alterations. The agents tested in vivo included N-acetyl-L-cysteine, 1,2-dithiole-3-thione, oltipraz, phenethyl isothiocyanate, 5,6-benzoflavone, and sulindac. We started applying multigene expression analysis to chemoprevention research, and postulated that an optimal agent should not excessively alter per se the physiological background of gene expression but should be able to attenuate the alterations produced by cigarette smoke or other carcinogens. We are working to develop an animal model for the induction of lung tumours following exposure

  2. Selenium contents in tobacco and main stream cigarette smoke determined using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marica Sorak-Pokrajac; Dermelj, M.; Zdenka Slejkovec; Eskinja, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the domain of the essential trace elements, the role of selenium is extermely important. As one of the volatile elements is can be partly absorbed through the pulmonary system during smoking and transported to different organs of the body. Thus a knowledge of its concentration levels in various sorts of tobacco and in the smoke of commercial cigarettes, as well as in the same type of cigarettes from plants treated with selenium, is of interest for various research fields. The purpose of this contribution is to present reliable quantitative data on selenium contents in tobacco, soil, and main stream cigarette smoke, obtained by destructive neutron activation analysis

  3. Smoking Topography Characteristics of Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes, With and Without Nicotine Replacement, in Smokers With Schizophrenia and Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N; Miller, Mollie E

    2016-09-01

    Reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes to a minimally addictive level has been proposed as a regulatory strategy for reducing tobacco dependence. However, smokers with schizophrenia (SS) may be prone to changing their smoking topography in efforts to compensate for the reduction in nicotine content. The aims of this study were to compare smoking topography characteristics of usual-brand and very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes in SS and control smokers without psychiatric illness (CS), and to determine whether nicotine replacement reversed any changes in topography produced by VLNC cigarettes. Using a within-subjects, counter-balanced design, SS (n = 27) and CS (n = 23) smoked usual brand cigarettes, VLNC cigarettes while wearing placebo patches (VLNC + PLA), or VLNC cigarettes while wearing transdermal nicotine patches totaling 42mg (VLNC + NIC) during 5-hour ad libitum smoking sessions. Cigarettes were smoked through topography measurement devices. Across conditions, SS smoked more puffs per session and per cigarette, had higher cigarette volumes, and had shorter inter-puff intervals than CS (Ps topography of usual brand versus VLNC cigarettes, combined with placebo or transdermal nicotine patches, in SS and controls. Although some changes in topography were indicative of compensatory smoking, total puffs and total cigarette volume were reduced with VLNC cigarettes, indicating that acute VLNC cigarette use does not increase smoking in SS. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, H; Postma, DS; Timens, W; Ten Hacken, NHT

    Compared with the effects of chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are few data on the acute effects of smoking. A review of the literature identified 123 studies investigating the acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation and oxidative stress in human,

  5. Addressing a Threat to the Healthfulness of Tomorrow's Generation: The Case of Cigarette Smoking in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Catherine O.; Petersen, Inge; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has widely received the attention of international and local health bodies. Efforts are being made towards curbing smoking prevalence globally with a view to reduce the health, economic and social effects of smoking in the society. While some developed countries are recording success in this effort mainly through stringent…

  6. In-utero cigarette smoke exposure and the risk of earlier menopause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honorato, Talita C; Haadsma, Maaike L; Land, Jolande A; Boezen, Marike H; Hoek, Annemieke; Groen, Henk

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for earlier menopause. Animal studies show that in-utero smoke exposure is toxic to developing ovaries. Our aim was to evaluate whether in-utero smoke exposed women reach menopause earlier compared with nonexposed women. METHODS: This is a cohort study

  7. Cigarette Smoking among Korean International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Jaesin; Seo, Dong-Chul; Nelson, Toben F.; Lohrmann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective and Participants: This study explored (1) the prevalence of cigarette smoking among South Korean international college students in the United States, (2) differences in smoking between on- and off-campus living arrangements, and (3) predictors of an increase in smoking over time in the United States Methods: An online survey was…

  8. Some Comments on the Failure of Behavior Therapy as a Technique for Modifying Cigarette Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    Data from a role playing experiment are interpreted to signify that positive reinforcements for refraining from smoking might be more successful than aversive controls in changing smoking behavior. It was proposed that cutting down by eliminating undesired cigarettes might strengthen rather than weaken smoking, since its rewards are if anything,…

  9. The Expansion of Tobacco and Its Effect on Cigarette Mainstream Smoke Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For nearly four decades, the expansion of tobacco has been recognized as one of eight technologies significant in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette. The data previously presented at scientific conferences and/or published in several scientific monographs and journals on the effect of the expansion of tobacco on the composition and biological properties of the mainstream smoke from cigarettes containing it are summarized. In addition, previously unpublished data on the same subjects are presented in considerable detail. Included are 1 the effect of tobacco expansion on the yields of total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, and several hundred components of cigarette mainstream smoke from control tobacco cigarettes vs. expanded tobacco cigarettes; 2 the changes in mainstream smoke yields of total particulate matter, nicotine, and specific smoke components produced by inclusion of various levels of expanded tobacco in a cigarette blend; and 3 the changes in composition of expanded tobacco. In the latter study, the decrease in levels of numerous significant flavorful components of the tobacco produced by expansion provides the need for inclusion of such compounds in flavor formulations. In study 2, the reductions in per cigarette yields of total particulate matter, nicotine, and several components of concern were determined and confirmed the significance of tobacco expansion as a cigarette design technology to produce what was originally defined as a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette but more recently as a ‘potential reduced exposure product’ (PREP.

  10. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, N L; Jacob, P; Yu, L; Talcott, R; Hall, S; Jones, R T

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than others and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. We studied "tar" (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite cotinine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. Our data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposures are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  11. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p's<0.001 and 0.011), and decreased the belief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p's<0.001), however, indicated that among smokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential trends in cigarette smoking in the USA: is menthol slowing progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Villanti, Andrea C; Mowery, Paul D; Sevilimedu, Varadan; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M; Abrams, David B

    2015-01-01

    Mentholated cigarettes are at least as dangerous to an individual's health as non-mentholated varieties. The addition of menthol to cigarettes reduces perceived harshness of smoke, which can facilitate initiation. Here, we examine correlates of menthol use, national trends in smoking menthol and non-menthol cigarettes, and brand preferences over time. We estimated menthol cigarette use during 2004-2010 using annual data on persons ≥12 years old from the National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We adjusted self-reported menthol status for selected brands that were either exclusively menthol or non-menthol, based on sales data. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. Among cigarette smokers, menthol cigarette use was more common among 12-17 year olds (56.7%) and 18-25 year olds (45.0%) than among older persons (range 30.5% to 34.7%). In a multivariable analysis, menthol use was associated with being younger, female and of non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Among all adolescents, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes decreased from 2004-2010, while menthol smoking rates remained constant; among all young adults, the percentage who smoked non-menthol cigarettes also declined, while menthol smoking rates increased. The use of Camel menthol and Marlboro menthol increased among adolescent and young adult smokers, particularly non-Hispanic Caucasians, during the study period. Young people are heavy consumers of mentholated cigarettes. Progress in reducing youth smoking has likely been attenuated by the sale and marketing of mentholated cigarettes, including emerging varieties of established youth brands. This study should inform the Food and Drug Administration regarding the potential public health impact of a menthol ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Interrelated role of cigarette smoking, oxidative stress, and immune response in COPD and corresponding treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Sergakis, Georgianna G; Koozehchian, Majid S; Stimpfl, Julia N; Rong, Yi; Diaz, Philip T; Best, Thomas M

    2014-08-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) can impact the immune system and induce pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is currently the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accordingly, the most significant risk factor associated with COPD is exposure to cigarette smoke. The purpose of the present study is to provide an updated overview of the literature regarding the effect of CS on the immune system and lungs, the mechanism of CS-induced COPD and oxidative stress, as well as the available and potential treatment options for CS-induced COPD. An extensive literature search was conducted on the PubMed/Medline databases to review current COPD treatment research, available in the English language, dating from 1976 to 2014. Studies have investigated the mechanism by which CS elicits detrimental effects on the immune system and pulmonary function through the use of human and animal subjects. A strong relationship among continued tobacco use, oxidative stress, and exacerbation of COPD symptoms is frequently observed in COPD subjects. In addition, therapeutic approaches emphasizing smoking cessation have been developed, incorporating counseling and nicotine replacement therapy. However, the inability to reverse COPD progression establishes the need for improved preventative and therapeutic strategies, such as a combination of intensive smoking cessation treatment and pharmaceutical therapy, focusing on immune homeostasis and redox balance. CS initiates a complex interplay between oxidative stress and the immune response in COPD. Therefore, multiple approaches such as smoking cessation, counseling, and pharmaceutical therapies targeting inflammation and oxidative stress are recommended for COPD treatment. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

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    Luca Pieroni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  15. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco

    2015-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  16. A programmable smoke delivery device for PET imaging with cigarettes containing 11C-nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yantao; Garg, Pradeep K; Nazih, Rachid; Garg, Sudha; Rose, Jed E; Murugesan, Thangaraju; Mukhin, Alexey G

    2017-05-01

    PET imaging with 11 C-nicotine-loaded cigarettes is a valuable tool to directly assess fast nicotine kinetics and its neuropharmacological role in tobacco dependence. To eliminate variations among puffs inhaled by subjects, this work aimed to develop a programmable smoke delivery device (SDD) to produce highly reproducible and adjustable puffs of cigarette smoke for PET experiments. The SDD was built around a programmable syringe pump as a smoking machine to draw a puff of smoke from a 11 C-nicotine-loaded cigarette and make it available for a subject to take the smoke into the mouth and then inhale it during PET data acquisition. Brain nicotine time activity curves and total body absorbed 11 C-nicotine doses (TAD) were measured in smokers who inhaled a single puff of smoke via the SDD from a 11 C-nicotine-loaded cigarette. Nearly identical brain nicotine kinetics were observed between participants who inhaled a puff of smoke through the SDD and those who inhaled directly from a cigarette. This new device minimizes puff variations that exist with earlier smoke delivery apparatuses which could introduce confounding factors. The SDD is effective in delivering 11 C-nicotine from the study cigarettes. Despite a 2-s increase in aging of smoke delivered through the SDD versus smoke taken directly from a cigarette, the difference in brain nicotine kinetics after 11 C-nicotine delivery with and without use of the SDD is negligible. This refined device may be useful for future research on the deposition and pharmacokinetics of nicotine inhaled with tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reasons and Motivations for Cigarette Smoking and Barriers against Quitting Among a Sample of Young People in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Bakarman, Marwan A; Gazzaz, Zohair J; Khabaz, Mohamad N; Ahmed, Tahir J; Qureshi, Imtiaz A; Hussain, Muhammad B; Alzahrani, Ali H; AlShehri, Ali A; Basendwah, Mohammad A; Altherwi, Fahd B; AlShehri, Fahd M

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Tobacco consumption has grave negative consequences for health so that it is important to understand the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking among the young generation for developing effective policies to control this widespread problem. This crosssectional survey was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 438 young smokers participated from the University and the general population. Data were collected through anonymous, selfadministered questionnaires in the Arabic language that contained questions about the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking. The questionnaire also contained several questions regarding knowledge and attitude of the participants towards cigarette smoking. The data was analyzed on SPSS16. The mean age of the respondents was 22.9±3.48, out of 438 subjects 87 (19.9%) were married, and 351 (80.1%) were unmarried, and 331 (75.6%) belonged to urban areas while 107 (24.5%) were from the rural areas. Responding to a question about a number of cigarettes smoked per day, 31% answered 1120, 29% answered 2130, and 25% answered 110. Questioned about smokers in the family, 34.5% responded more than one, with 19% for brother and 13% for father. About the reasons for not quitting smoking, 26% described lack of willpower, 25% had no reason, 22% said that people around me smoke, and 15.3% responded stress at home/work. The major motivation for smokers was smoker friends (42%), for 33.8% others, for 12% father/brother and 7.8% media. There are several avoidable and preventable reasons and barriers against quitting smoking. However, knowledge and attitude about smoking were good, and the majority of the smokers were well aware of the associated hazards. Therefore, there is a need to search out ways and means to help them to

  18. α1-Antitrypsin reduces rhinovirus infection in primary human airway epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman R

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Reena Berman, Di Jiang, Qun Wu, Hong Wei Chu Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Human rhinovirus (HRV infections target airway epithelium and are the leading cause of acute exacerbations of COPD. Cigarette smoke (CS increases the severity of viral infections, but there is no effective therapy for HRV infection. We determined whether α1-antitrypsin (A1AT reduces HRV-16 infection in CS-exposed primary human airway epithelial cells. Brushed bronchial epithelial cells from normal subjects and patients diagnosed with COPD were cultured at air–liquid interface to induce mucociliary differentiation. These cells were treated with A1AT or bovine serum albumin for 2 hours and then exposed to air or whole cigarette smoke (WCS with or without HRV-16 (5×104 50% Tissue Culture Infective Dose [TCID50]/transwell infection for 24 hours. WCS exposure significantly increased viral load by an average of fivefold and decreased the expression of antiviral genes interferon-λ1, OAS1, and MX1. When A1AT was added to WCS-exposed cells, viral load significantly decreased by an average of 29-fold. HRV-16 infection significantly increased HRV-16 receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 messenger RNA expression in air-exposed cells, which was decreased by A1AT. A1AT-mediated reduction of viral load was not accompanied by increased epithelial antiviral gene expression or by inhibiting the activity of 3C protease involved in viral replication or maturation. Our findings demonstrate that A1AT treatment prevents a WCS-induced increase in viral load and for the first time suggest a therapeutic effect of A1AT on HRV infection. Keywords: α1-antitrypsin, rhinovirus, COPD, cigarette smoke, ICAM-1

  19. Relationships of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption to metabolic syndrome in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashita, Yumiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important, aggravating factor in metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some studies have reported that MetS is related to alcohol consumption irrespective of the amount consumed. However, the relationship of the combination of the 2 habits to MetS has not been fully described. In this cross-sectional survey, a questionnaire was used to collect information on cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption from 3904 Japanese men aged 20 years or older. MetS was defined according to Japanese criteria. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze relationships of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with MetS, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among the subjects, 581 (14.9%) had MetS. Daily cigarette and alcohol consumption were significantly associated with the prevalence of MetS (P smoked ≥30 cigarettes/day, as compared with nonsmokers; 1.54 (1.06-2.23) for those who consumed ≥69 grams of ethanol/day, as compared with nondrinkers; and 3.63 (1.91-6.90) for those who smoked ≥30 cigarettes/day and consumed ≥69 grams of ethanol/day, as compared with those who neither smoked nor drank. The interaction of smoking ≥30 cigarettes/day with drinking ≥69 grams/day was 2.03 (1.02-4.01, P = 0.043). Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking had independent relations to the prevalence of MetS. In addition, the prevalence of MetS was higher among Japanese men who smoked and drank heavily.

  20. Dioxin Levels in Mainstream Smoke from Cigarettes with Different TPM Deliveries

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    Smith CJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dioxin-like compounds, such as chlorinated dibenzodioxins, chlorinated dibenzofurans and chlorinated biphenyls, in mainstream cigarette smoke has been investigated for seven cigarette brands covering a range of ‘tar’ deliveries from 1 mg to 14 mg. Adjusted per milligram of total particulate matter (TPM, ultra-light cigarettes had the highest concentrations of toxic equivalents (TEQ of 10 fg/mg TPM. As the ‘tar’ delivery increased, lower concentration values were found in lights and full-flavor cigarettes. Calculated on the basis of a pack of twenty cigarettes, mainstream smoke from the ultra-lights and lights products produced values around 200 fg TEQ, and the full-flavor brand produced 575 fg TEQ per pack. Levels of TEQ from dioxin-like compounds in the tobacco section of four cigarette brands did not show significant differences and were similar to previous literature findings.

  1. Low-Dose Oxygen Enhances Macrophage-Derived Bacterial Clearance following Cigarette Smoke Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Bain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a common, smoking-related lung disease. Patients with COPD frequently suffer disease exacerbations induced by bacterial respiratory infections, suggestive of impaired innate immunity. Low-dose oxygen is a mainstay of therapy during COPD exacerbations; yet we understand little about whether oxygen can modulate the effects of cigarette smoke on lung immunity. Methods. Wild-type mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 5 weeks, followed by intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1 and 21% or 35–40% oxygen. After two days, lungs were harvested for PAO1 CFUs, and bronchoalveolar fluid was sampled for inflammatory markers. In culture, macrophages were exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen (40% for 24 hours and then incubated with PAO1, followed by quantification of bacterial phagocytosis and inflammatory markers. Results. Mice exposed to 35–40% oxygen after cigarette smoke and PAO1 had improved survival and reduced lung CFUs and inflammation. Macrophages from these mice expressed less TNF-α and more scavenger receptors. In culture, macrophages exposed to cigarette smoke and oxygen also demonstrated decreased TNF-α secretion and enhanced phagocytosis of PAO1 bacteria. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate a novel, protective role for low-dose oxygen following cigarette smoke and bacteria exposure that may be mediated by enhanced macrophage phagocytosis.

  2. E-Cigarettes and Smoking Cessation: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Mnatzaganian, George; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation. Objectives To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation. Data Sources A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Methods Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated. Results Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used. Limitations Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis. Conclusions Use of e-cigarettes

  3. Beyond cigarette smoking: smoke-free home rules and use of alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Kuo, Daphne; Piper, Megan

    2016-01-01

    A smoke-free home rule has been associated with reduced cigarette consumption; however, it is unknown whether a home rule is associated with the use of alternative tobacco products (ATP) such as smokeless tobacco products, regular and water pipes, and cigars. This study examined the association between the smoke-free home rules and ever and current use of ATP. Data from the 2010-2011 US Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were analysed using multivariable logistic regressions, including variables related to smoke-free home rules. Overall, 83.9% respondents reported a smoke-free home rule inside their homes; 20.6% of respondents had tried at least one type of ATP, and 3.9% were current users in 2010-2011. Having a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower likelihood of current versus never use of any ATP (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-0.83). Among ever users of any ATP, the existence of a smoke-free home rule was associated with lower odds of being a current user (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.43-0.56). Similar associations were observed for each type of ATP examined (p < 0.05). Smoke-free home rules are associated with lower current ATP use among the US population. Future research should examine whether promoting smoke-free home rules could help to reduce ATP use and related diseases. © Royal Society for Public Health 2015.

  4. Human cigarette smoking: effects of puff and inhalation parameters on smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, J P; Stitzer, M L; Brown, F J; Yingling, J E; Griffiths, R R

    1987-02-01

    This study determined effects of three smoking behavior components: puff volume, inhalation volume and lung exposure duration on biological measures of smoke exposure. A microcomputer-based auditory feedback system allowed subjects (N = 9 or 10 per experiment) to control puff and inhalation parameters as they smoked usual brand cigarettes. In each of four experiments, one smoking parameter was manipulated across sessions while two other parameters were held constant. Biological samples were obtained before and after each 8-puff smoking session conducted under a given set of behavioral parameters for analysis of plasma nicotine and expired air carbon monoxide (CO) levels. In Experiment I, both nicotine and CO levels were influenced systematically as puff volume was varied from 15 to 60 ml (inhalation volume = 50% of vital capacity, lung exposure time = about 9 sec). Nicotine boost (post- minus presession levels) increased 4-fold and CO boost increased 9-fold over this range of puff volume values. In Experiment II, nicotine levels were unaffected when average lung exposure times varied from 5 to 21 sec (puff volume = 50 ml, inhalation volume = 50% of vital capacity), suggesting that all the nicotine available may be absorbed during a normal smoking inhalation cycle with no breathholding. CO levels increased systematically with longer breathholds. In Experiments III and IV, inhalation volumes from 10% and 20% to 60% of vital capacity had no effect on either nicotine or CO levels, and this was true whether lung exposure time was about 8 sec (Experiment III) or about 4 sec (Experiment IV). This series of studies has shown that puff volume is an important determinant of tobacco smoke exposure, but that inhalation components of smoking behavior, at least within the range of parameters tested, have no effect on nicotine exposure levels.

  5. A Simple Technique for Determining the pH of Whole Cigarette Smoke

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    Dong J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique has been developed to determine the pH of whole cigarette smoke. In this technique, whole smoke from ten cigarettes was trapped in 300 mL water containing 1% (w/v sodium chloride and the pH was determined on the resulting aqueous suspension of cigarette smoke. Two impingers with an extra coarse porosity fritted disc were used to dispense the smoke in the aqueous trapping medium. Cigarettes were smoked on a 20-port Borgwaldt RM 20/CS smoking machine using modified FTC (Federal Trade Commission conditions. The puff volume was adjusted to take a 35 mL puff as measured through the cigarette and the collection traps. This new technique accounts for the contributions to smoke pH from both the vapor phase and the particulate phase of smoke. The repeatability of this new technique was determined on eighteen replicates of a commercially available non-menthol, filter cigarette. Each measurement was done on a different day to check for a possible drift in pH with time. The mean pH value for the chosen sample was found to be 4.97 with a standard deviation of 0.07 pH units. The smoke pH values for over 150 commercially available cigarette brands with a variety of “tar” levels were determined. The smoke pH values had a range from 4.6 to 5.5, with an average of 4.79 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.10 pH units. An experimental flue cured cigarette had a smoke pH of around 5.0, while an experimental Burley cigarette had a smoke pH of 5.4. No correlation between smoke pH and “tar” or total particulate matter (TPM and between pH and nicotine levels was found. The purpose of the present study was to develop a practical, relatively simple laboratory method to measure the pH of a water solution of whole smoke, and was not intended to reflect, or have direct relevance for any biochemical or biological phenomena such as inhalability of smoke, flavor perception, nicotine ab-sorption, etc.”

  6. Cigarette smoking and pulmonary tuberculosis in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geneé S; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Baxter, Roger; Shan, Jun; Van Rie, Annelies; Herring, Amy H; Richardson, David B; Emch, Michael; Gammon, Marilie D

    2015-06-01

    A positive association between smoking and increased risk of tuberculosis disease is well documented for populations outside the USA. However, it is unclear whether smoking increases risk of tuberculosis in the USA, where both smoking prevalence and disease rates are much lower than in the countries where previous studies have been conducted. To explore the tuberculosis-smoking association in a more generalisable US population-based sample, we conducted a nested case-control study among members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We identified all newly diagnosed cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) disease between 1996 and 2010. Each of the 2380 cases were individually matched to two controls by age, gender and race/ethnicity. ORs and 95% CIs for the association between smoking status and PTB were calculated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for all matching factors. Increased PTB risk was observed among ever-smokers (OR=1.35; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.53), as well as current (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.48) and past (OR=1.43; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.67) smokers, compared with never-smokers. Increased intensity and duration of smoking were also positively associated with PTB risk. Our findings among a more generalisable US population support the hypothesis that smoking increases risk of PTB, underscoring the importance of tobacco cessation and prevention programmes in eliminating tuberculosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Acculturation, Gender, Depression, and Cigarette Smoking among U.S. Hispanic Youth: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic youth are at risk for experiencing depressive symptoms and smoking cigarettes, and risk for depressive symptoms and cigarette use increase as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. culture. The mechanism by which acculturation leads to symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking is not well understood. The present study examined whether…

  8. Acrylamide content in cigarette mainstream smoke and estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mojska

    2016-07-01

    Our results demonstrate that tobacco smoke is a significant source of acrylamide and total exposure to acrylamide in the population of smokers, on average, is higher by more than 50% in comparison with non-smokers. Our estimation of exposure to acrylamide from tobacco smoke is the first estimation taking into account the actual determined acrylamide content in the cigarettes available on the market.

  9. Cigarette smoking and health care professionals at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.K.; Chaudhry, A.; Karamat, A.; Arif, N.; Cheema, M.A.; Rauf, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the frequency of cigarette smoking in doctors and paramedics and study various variables associated with it. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was given to randomly selected 250 Doctors and 250 Paramedics at Mayo Hospital in 2009. Information about demographic characteristics, smoking status in family, number of cigarettes smoked per day, influence for starting smoking, reason for continuation of smoking and use of nicotine replacement therapy was obtained. Results: A total of 234 questionnaires from doctors and 207 from paramedics were received back (88.2% response rate). There were 280 males (163 Doctors; 117 Paramedics) and 161 females (71 Doctors; 90 Paramedics). Eighty seven (37.18%) Doctors and 74 (35.74%) Paramedics were smokers with 82 (50.31%) male doctors and 5 (7.04%) females. Similar results were obtained in Paramedics 72 (61.53%) males and 2 (2.22%) females. Of the smokers, majority started smoking between 11-20 years age with 39 (44.83%) Doctors and 48 (64.86%) Paramedics. Twenty three (26.44%) Doctors and 31 (41.89%) Paramedics smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day. Smoking was initiated due to the influence of friends by 48 (55.17%) Doctors and 56 (75.68%) Paramedics. Most smokers, 29 (33.33%) Doctors and 33 (44.59%) Paramedics found use of cigarette smoking as 'Relaxing'. Addiction was the main reason for difficulty in quitting cigarette smoking as reported by 33 (37.93%) Doctors and 31 (41.89%) Paramedics. Of the smokers, 61(70.11%) doctors and 50 (32.43%) paramedics had no intention to quit smoking in the next 6 months. Conclusion: A significant number of doctors and paramedics, especially males, in Pakistan smoke cigarettes, which requires proper attention. (author)

  10. Synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, S.C.; Bretthauer, E.W.

    1975-06-01

    An experimental procedure was devised to test the possible synergistic effect of polonium-210 and cigarette smoke in rats. Appropriate techniques were developed to expose the rats to cigarette smoke through mouth-breathing and to add known amounts of polonium-210 to the cigarette smoke. The findings from this experiment included: (1) lung deposition of polonium-210 was 31 plus or minus 2%, (2) early retention of polonium was two-phased with half-times of 4 and 84 hours, and (3) bronchitis, emphysema and lung tumors were observed in the experimental animals. Though the spontaneous occurrence of two lung tumors in the number of animals at risk was highly improbable, any conclusion that this resulted from the exposure to cigarette smoke must be highly qualified

  11. Assessment of global DNA methylation in the first trimester fetal tissues exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fa, Svetlana; Larsen, Trine Vilsbøll; Bilde, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of negative health consequences for the exposed child. Epigenetic mechanisms constitute a likely link between the prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and the increased risk in later life for diverse pathologies...... to exposures with an epigenetic impact. We have assessed the influence of maternal cigarette smoking during the first trimester for fetal global DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the human fetal intestines and livers as well as the placentas from the first trimester pregnancies. Global DNA...... changes in exposure responses to the first trimester maternal cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging that only examining subsets of global DNA methylation markers and fetal sample availability represents possible limitations for the analyses, our presented results indicate that the first trimester...

  12. The Effect of Cigarette Design on the Content of Phenols in Mainstream Tobacco Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnon S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cigarette design on the content of phenols in mainstream tobacco smoke was studied. The most abundant phenols - catechol, hydroquinone, phenol, o-, m-, and p-cresol, and resorcinol - were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Hydroquinone and catechol made the most significant contribution to the total content of phenols with maximum values of 135.0 µg/cig and 95.7 µg/cig, respectively. The highest total content of phenols (330.9 µg/cig was measured in the smoke of a Virginia tobacco cigarette. The total content of phenols (µg/cig in cigarette mainstream smoke decreased linearly with increased filter ventilation, R2 = 0.9536. The results obtained indicate that filtration and ventilation can strongly influence the mainstream tobacco smoke content of phenol and its less polar derivatives, o-, m-, and p-cresol, which were reduced by up to 85%. Hydroquinone and catechol are less affected and only cigarettes with the special “recessed charcoal filter system” and cigarettes with filter ventilation over 50% showed significant reductions. On a per mg ‘tar’ basis the largest contributor to phenols in cigarette mainstream smoke was the selection of the tobacco type. The use of any standard commercial filter on an unfiltered cigarette can substantially reduce the yield of phenols in cigarette mainstream smoke. The use of special filters (e.g., the “recessed charcoal filter system” or high levels of cigarette ventilation does not reduce the amount of phenols in tobacco smoke considerably when normalized on a per mg ‘tar’ basis.

  13. A single serving of blueberry (V. corymbosum) modulates peripheral arterial dysfunction induced by acute cigarette smoking in young volunteers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bo', Cristian; Porrini, Marisa; Fracassetti, Daniela; Campolo, Jonica; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Riso, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes oxidative stress, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may prevent these conditions. We investigated the effect of a single serving of fresh-frozen blueberry intake on peripheral arterial function and arterial stiffness in young smokers. Sixteen male smokers were recruited for a 3-armed randomized-controlled study with the following experimental conditions: smoking treatment (one cigarette); blueberry treatment (300 g of blueberry) + smoking; control treatment (300 mL of water with sugar) + smoking. Each treatment was separated by one week of wash-out period. The blood pressure, heart rate, peripheral arterial function (reactive hyperemia and Framingham reactive hyperemia), and arterial stiffness (digital augmentation index, digital augmentation index normalized for a heart rate of 75 bpm) were measured before and 20 min after smoking with Endo-PAT2000. Smoking impaired the blood pressure, heart rate and peripheral arterial function, but did not affect the arterial stiffness. Blueberry consumption counteracted the impairment of the reactive hyperemia index induced by smoking (-4.4 ± 0.8% blueberry treatment vs. -22.0 ± 1.1% smoking treatment, p blueberry treatment vs. -42.8 ± 20.0% smoking treatment, p blueberry treatment vs. +13.1 ± 0.02% smoking treatment, mmHg, p blueberry on reactive hyperemia, Framingham reactive hyperemia, and systolic blood pressure in subjects exposed to smoke of one cigarette. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  14. The Relationship of Cigarette Smoking and Other Substance Use among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nancy L.

    1993-01-01

    Administered questionnaire relating to cigarette smoking and substance use to 863 college students. Results indicated no significant difference between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with regard to use of smokeless tobacco, alcohol consumption, or marijuana use. There was significant difference in use of other illicit substances such that…

  15. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika B Fulmer

    Full Text Available Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students.By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use.In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation.These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising.

  16. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. James

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT or electronic cigarettes (EC. Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31, as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001. The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption.

  17. E-Cigarettes for Immediate Smoking Substitution in Women Diagnosed with Cervical Dysplasia and Associated Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Shirley A.; Meier, Ellen M.; Wagener, Theodore L.; Smith, Katherine M.; Neas, Barbara R.; Beebe, Laura A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if 31 women with cervical dysplasia and associated conditions exacerbated by smoking would be successful substituting cigarettes with their choice of either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or electronic cigarettes (EC). Women received motivational interviewing and tried both NRT and ECs, choosing one method to use during a six-week intervention period. Daily cigarette consumption was measured at baseline, six, and 12 weeks, with differences analyzed by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Study analysis consisted only of women choosing to use ECs (29/31), as only two chose NRT. At the 12-week follow-up, the seven day point prevalence abstinence from smoking was 28.6%, and the median number of cigarettes smoked daily decreased from 18.5 to 5.5 (p < 0.0001). The median number of e-cigarette cartridges used dropped from 21 at the six-week follow-up to 12.5 at the 12-week follow-up. After initiating EC use, women at risk for cervical cancer were able to either quit smoking or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Although a controlled trial with a larger sample size is needed to confirm these initial results, this study suggests that using ECs during quit attempts may reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:26959042

  18. New interpretation of arterial stiffening due to cigarette smoking using a structurally motivated constitutive model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Majken; Henneberg, K-A; Jensen, J A

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading self-inflicted risk factor for cardiovascular diseases; it causes arterial stiffening with serious sequelea including atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. This work presents a new interpretation of arterial stiffening caused by smoking based on data...... by smoking was reflected by consistent increase in an elastin-associated parameter and moreover by marked increase in the collagen-associated parameters. That is, we suggest that arterial stiffening due to cigarette smoking appears to be isotropic, which may allow simpler phenomenological models to capture...

  19. Differences in cadmium transfer from tobacco to cigarette smoke, compared to arsenic or lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-J. Piadé

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead levels in tobacco filler and cigarette smoke were determined in a 568-sample worldwide survey. Median tobacco levels for arsenic, cadmium and lead were 237, 769 and 397 ng/g respectively, comparable to those previously reported albeit somewhat lower for lead and cadmium. Median mainstream smoke yields for arsenic, cadmium and lead were <3.75, 18.2, and <12.8 ng/cig. under ISO, and <8.71, 75.1 and <45.7 ng/cig. under Health Canada Intense (HCI smoking regime respectively. In the case of cigarettes with activated carbon, a selective retention of cadmium but not lead or arsenic was observed. This effect was more pronounced under ISO than under HCI smoking regimes. Cadmium selective retention by activated carbon was confirmed by testing specially designed prototype cigarettes and the causes for this selective filtration were investigated. The differences between cadmium, arsenic and lead in terms of their speciation in tobaccos and in cigarette smoke could be related to their distribution in the ash, butt, mainstream (in gas-phase and particulate-phase and sidestream smoke of a smoked cigarette. The possible formation of organometallic cadmium derivatives in the smoke gas-phase is discussed, the presence of which could adequately explain the observed cadmium selective filtration.

  20. Adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements: links between exposure, liking, and the appeal of smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, J. J.; Terhanian, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements for different brands.
DESIGN—Adolescents were shown one print advertisement for each of five cigarette brands (Camel, Marlboro, Kool, Benson & Hedges, and Lucky Strike). They indicated on a structured questionnaire how many times they had seen the advertisement (or one almost like it), how much they liked it, whether or not they thought it made smoking more appealing, and whether or not it made them want to smoke cigaret...