WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventing balkan conflict

  1. Report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annemarie, Peen Rodt; Tvilling, Johannes; Zartsdahl, Peter Horne

    Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions.......Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions....

  2. Preventing Balkan Conflict: The Role of Euroatlantic Institutions. Strategic Forum, Number 226, April 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Despite 15 years of international peacekeeping and security assistance, the West Balkans are still beset with major security challenges that will severely test the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO...

  3. Lessons from EU conflict prevention efforts in the Western Balkans and the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Tvilling, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    ’s ambitions and the realities on the ground. Key lessons identified in comparative case studies of CSDP missions The EU supports its strategic approach towards both the Western Balkans and the Horn of Africa through a series of CSDP deployments focused on strengthening security structures through police...... in these or other regions. Key lessons identified through comparative case studies of EULEX Kosovo and EUCAP Nestor/Somalia relate to the importance of (i) clear mission mandates with concrete benchmarks and verifiable indicators of success, (ii) consistency and predictability of political support from Member...

  4. Is the balkanization of the ukrainian-russian conflict probable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Petrovich Koshkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the possibility and probability of Balkanization of the UkrainianRussian intersocietal relations. Methods the need to study the main factors affecting the state of the modern RussianUkrainian conflict in its ethnopolitical dimension with the predominat focus on intersocietal relations determined the use of the historicalgenetic comparativehistorical and typological methods of investigation integrated with the systemic approach. Results the main parallels are shown that occur when comparing the ethnopolitical situation in the Balkans and above all the SerbianCroatian relations with the current RussianUkrainian conflict mainly at the level of relations of Russians and Ukrainians as ethnic groups. The ethnosocial and ethnopolitical differences of the genesis and current state of both conflicts do not provide a sufficient basis for specific predictions about the inevitable Balkanization of the RussianUkrainian conflict. Scientific novelty the article proves the inconsistency of unambiguous similes of the RussianUkrainian conflict and interethnic SerbianCroatian conflict at intersocietal and associated levels it shows the significant differences of the conflict situations that do not lead to dogmatic conclusions about the development of the RussianUkrainian relations by the Yugoslavia scenario. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity in the study of ethnos and ethnicity in the analysis of ethnopolitical processes in modern Ukraine and consideration of the status and prospects of the development of RussianUkrainian relations. nbsp

  5. Learning by Doing: The EU’s Transformative Power and Conflicts in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazerkoska Julija Brsakoska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the European Community/ European Union experience in the Western Balkans in the period from 1990 onwards in different context in order to assess different mechanisms which the European Union has gained with building the Common Foreign and Security Policy and within the Enlargement Policy in the process of conflict prevention and conflict resolution. Additionally, the paper makes an assessment of the EU’s involvement in the conflict prevention and conflict resolution in the Balkans after the Stabilization and Association Process was launched in 1999. The authors argue that in the case of the military conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, when the European Community was confronted with serious and hard security issues at the very beginning of creating its Common Foreign and Security Policy and in a period of time when the region was not part of the enlargement process, the Community and the Union afterwards proved to be extremely ineffective. In the second part, through three case studies, the paper demonstrate that with the combined use of CFSP mechanisms and SAP, positive examples of the EU acting as a provider of peaceful dispute settlement in the Western Balkans have been established.

  6. Reverse effect of Balkan radical Islamists' engagement in the armed conflict in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevčić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an apparent tendency to increase activism among Balkan Muslims (mostly Sunni denomination within Islam and their desire to participate in solving the problems of Muslims globally. As a result of this trend, the involvement of individuals from the ranks of radical Islamist groups in the armed conflict in Syria is not surprising. What characterizes these individuals is going through the complex process of radicalization at the individual level within which strong motivation is formed for taking part in such an extreme form of social conflict such as a civil war. Due to the strong indoctrination, they perceive the participation in this conflict as their duty to the whole community of believers, accepting even the possibility of their own death which they see as martyrdom. The connection of these individuals with the global Islamistic terrorist network may affect the Balkan countries' security. After the end of the Syria conflict or earlier, a number of these individuals will be directed to other crisis areas, while some of them will return to their home countries. Additionally indoctrinated with acquired combat experience and military expertise, these people can play a key role in planning, preparation or commission of terrorist acts in the Balkans and Europe as a whole. Taking adequate and timely measures is a necessary condition for an effective opposition to this kind of religious based terrorism.

  7. Serbia, the Serbo-Albanian conflict and the First Balkan War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the restoration of Serbia in 1830, the areas of medieval Serbia left out of her borders were dubbed Old Serbia - Kosovo, Metohija, Rascia (the former sanjak of Novi Pazar and the neighbouring areas. Old Serbia (from 1877 onwards the vilayet of Kosovo was dominated by local Albanian pashas, whereas the Christian Orthodox Serbs and their villages were attacked and pillaged by Muslim Albanian brigands. The religious antagonism between Muslims and Christians expanded into national conflict after the 1878 Albanian League had claimed the entire “Old Serbia for Greater Albania”. The position of Christian Orthodox Serbs, who accounted for a half of the population at the end of the nineteenth century, was dramatically aggravated due to Muslim Albanians' tribal anarchy, Austria-Hungary's pro-Albanian agitation and, after 1908, frequent Albanian rebellions. All efforts of Serbia to reach a peaceful agreement with Muslim Albanian leaders in Old Serbia before the First Balkan War had ended in failure. The First Balkan War was the most popular war in Serbia’s history as it was seen as avenging the 1389 Battle of Kosovo which had sealed the Ottoman penetration into the Serbian lands. In October 1912, Serbia liberated most of Old Serbia, while Montenegro took possesion of half of the Rascia area and the whole of Metohija. While the decimated and discriminated Serb population greeted the Serbian and Montenegrin troops as liberators, most Albanians, who had sided with the Ottomans, saw the establishment of Serbian rule as occupation.

  8. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  9. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  10. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  11. Orwellian risks in European conflict prevention discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Conflict prevention has been the nomenclature of a non-military type of security policy, but that is changing. During the Cold War, the OSCE was a forum for conflict prevention at an interstate level. After the Cold War, OSCE conflict prevention turned to domestic affairs, comparable to NGO

  12. Regional Conflicts in the Western Balkans and the Caucasus Revisited: Comparison of Kosovo to South Ossetia and Abkhazia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Đorđević

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that the Western Balkans and the Caucasus have in common is an extremely challenging legacy of the past. The dissolution of two multinational states – the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1990s – led to ethno-nationalist conflicts on a large scale. While the Yugoslav crisis ended in 1999 after the FRY was bombed by NATO during its Kosovo campaign, the Caucasus still remains a conflict-ridden region where Russian and Western influences keep colliding. The purpose of this article is to present an analytical comparison of the three respective regional conflicts – Kosovo, Georgia and South Ossetia – by enumerating and analyzing similarities and differences between them, as this proves to be one of current and more intriguing issues of the contemporary international political scene. The article aims at providing answers to two different issues: Did Kosovo’s independence influence the establishment of a specific political pattern applicable to other disputed regions; and to what degree are the cases in question comparable to each other?

  13. Environmental fate of depleted uranium at three sites contaminated during the balkan conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Kovacevic, M.

    2006-01-01

    A study on depleted uranium fate in the sites contaminated during the 1999 war conflict in Serbia was conducted in phases until the clean up activities were completed. The ammunition remains found at the locations in the surface soil were collected in the first phase during the radiation survey of the affected areas. The most of depleted uranium penetrators left buried deep into the ground exposed to the weathering and corrosion processes. The contamination level in the air, water, soil and bio -indicators was controlled all the time by routine gamma and alpha spectrometry measurements. Depleted uranium migration was studied through the soil profile surrounding the penetrator during the 2001 at the Bratoselce location showing the contamination level fall to the 1% of its value at approximately 15 cm distance to the source. The samples taken from the soil layers at different distances in the profile are subjected to a modified Tessiers five-step sequential extraction procedure. The uranium and heavy metals contents were determined in the obtained fractions. Results have specified carbonates and iron hydrous-oxides as the most probable substrates for uranium physical/chemical associations formed in the soil for the time elapsed. A very strong dependence of substrate onto contamination level was found. The correlation of uranium and other heavy metals was obtained. The 234 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U ratios are determined in extracts by alpha spectrometry after appropriate radiochemical separation procedure and thin alpha sources electroplating. The analysis has shown the share of depleted in total uranium content in exchangeable, carbonate, hydrous or crystalline iron/manganese, organic and residue phases indicating the bioavailability of depleted uranium present in the soil. The results are discussed related to detailed geochemical analysis of the particular soil type common for this region. Depleted uranium content in soil samples taken at the locations after the

  14. CONFLICTS PREVENTION IN TEAM- WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de PERSON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building a trust atmosphere and mobilization in a team or an organizationremains the dream of every manager. This article analyses the internalmechanism of a conflict through life positions diagram in which direction anddominance diagrams appear. The first diagonal, the dominance one, revealsan animal behavior, the latter including both positive aspirations (++ quarter,and also deceptions (-- quarter.Passing over crisis situations requires from managers to outrun, through theirstyle and actions the dominance diagonal and pass to a game with reciprocalgaining (++ quarter, based on trust, that color relations between people andrelease their energy.

  15. Gas-particle partitioning of persistent organic pollutants in the Western Balkan countries affected by war conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonic, Jelena; Sekulic, Maja Turk; Miloradov, Mirjana Vojinovic; Cupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Bombing and destruction of the industrial and military targets accompanied by complete or incomplete combustion during the war conflict and NATO operation in former Yugoslavia caused the emission of persistent organic pollutants into the atmosphere, water, and soil. A total of 129 ambient air samples from 24 background, urban, and industrial sites, including hot spots, were collected to assess a gas-particle partitioning behavior of various persistent organic pollutants. High volume sampling technique was applied with quartz filters that collect the atmospheric particles and polyurethane foam filters (PUF) that retain the gaseous compounds. Three to ten samples were taken at each site. GFs and PUFs were analyzed separately for their content of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Gas phase and particle phase concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in all samples were converted into the particle-bound fractions Phi. These fractions were found to be highly variable, but generally highest in Bosnia and Herzegovina due to the elevated levels of total suspended material in ambient air. Experimental values of particle-associated fraction were compared to the Junge-Pankow model. Interestingly, a model for urban/industrial environments provided a better prediction of partitioning behavior than a model for background and rural background sites. That is probably because the total amount of atmospheric particles is higher in the Balkan region than found in the previously published studies. Even though it has been stated in previous studies that less than 5% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are bound to the particles, up to 67% of PCBs were particle associated at several sampling sites in this study. PCB-contaminated soils are probably still one of the strong sources of particles to the atmosphere. Information on the particle-bound fractions of POPs is important not only for prediction of their fate but

  16. The San values of conflict prevention and avoidance in Platfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Mollema

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to identify measures that can prevent violent conflict through the maintenance of traditional cultural values that guide conflict avoidance. Moreover, the article focuses on the concepts of conflict prevention and conflict avoidance as applied by the San community of Platfontein. The causes of the inter-communal tensions between the San community members are also examined. A selected conflict situation, that of superstition and witchcraft, is assessed as factors increasing interpersonal conflict in the Platfontein community. This investigation is made to determine if the San preventive measures have an impact in the community, so as to prevent ongoing conflicts from escalating further.

  17. 50 CFR 622.46 - Prevention of gear conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of gear conflicts. 622.46... Management Measures § 622.46 Prevention of gear conflicts. (a) No person may knowingly place in the Gulf EEZ... zones for shrimp trawling and the use of fixed gear to prevent gear conflicts. Necessary prohibitions or...

  18. 50 CFR 654.25 - Prevention of gear conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prevention of gear conflicts. 654.25... Measures § 654.25 Prevention of gear conflicts. (a) No person may knowingly place in the management area... necessary and appropriate to prevent gear conflicts. Necessary prohibitions or restrictions will be...

  19. (Reconstructing Balkan Identities through Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Cvitanović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the reproduction of stereotypes about the Balkans in the popular music of ex-Yugoslavia. During the last two decades, over a hundred songs in the Serbian and Croatian languages have been released, specifically mentioning the term Balkan and using it as a metaphor – to evoke and explain the atmosphere of war, poverty, conflict and passion, beauty, love and pride. Based on the analysis of these texts and the frequency of appearance of the themes and motifs, four distinct discourses can be identified: 1. the Balkans as an area of wars and conflicts, 2. the Balkans as an area of joy, passion and fatalism, 3. the primitive and aggressive “male” Balkans vs. the beautiful, proud and resistant “female” Balkans, and 4. the Balkans as Europe’s “Other”. The results show that, despite the inherent fluidity and the unclearness of the very definition of the Balkans and its spatial coverage (and therefore the possibility of distancing oneself from it, mostly negative stereotypes about the Balkans are being reproduced. They are not questioned in that process, but accepted and affirmed as a part of one’s own identity.

  20. Ethnicity, Governance and Prevention of Conflict: State of the Issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents the issues of ethnicity, governance, and prevention of conflicts in terms of their political management through the proper exercise of power. Conflict cannot be prevented. It can only be managed. The crucial determining factor is ethnic, gender and class relations in power. The paper traces notion of power ...

  1. Preventing Balkan Conflict: The Role of Euroatlantic Institutions. Strategic Forum, Number 226, April 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    ...) and the European Union (EU) in 2007. Bosnia-Herzegovina still requires the presence of NATO and EU police and peacekeepers and, along with newly independent Montenegro, needs help in building basic institutions...

  2. Improving Effectiveness of Capabilities in EU Conflict Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    The European Union continuously struggles with how to prevent or respond to violent conflicts on its borders. This pressing problem illustrates a European security continuum, which interconnects internal and external security issues and transcends traditional bureaucratic and geographic boundaries...... – severely challenging the Union’s current capabilities as an international security provider. The urgency of improving conflict preventive and crisis management measures is particularly pertinent in Africa, where the numbers affected by conflicts across the continent are staggering. This contribution sets...... out to answer whether – and if so how – EU responses to African conflicts have made a meaningful contribution to preventing (further) conflict. The Union’s efforts in Libya, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo and Central African Republic are critically examined in a comparative case study...

  3. En historia om Balkan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    En anmeldelse af bosnisk-svensk forskers værk om Balkans historie frem til krigsudbruddet i Jugoslavien 1991......En anmeldelse af bosnisk-svensk forskers værk om Balkans historie frem til krigsudbruddet i Jugoslavien 1991...

  4. Street conflict mediation to prevent youth violence: conflict characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S

    2013-06-01

    Mediation of potentially violent conflicts is a key component of CeaseFire, an effective gun violence-prevention programme. To describe conflicts mediated by outreach workers (OW) in Baltimore's CeaseFire replication, examine neighbourhood variation, and measure associations between conflict risk factors and successful nonviolent resolution. A cross-sectional study was conducted using records for 158 conflicts mediated between 2007 and 2009. Involvement of youth, gangs, retaliation, weapons and other risk factors were described. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data-reduction purposes before the relationship between conflict risk components and mediation success was assessed with multivariate logistic regression. Most conflicts involved 2-3 individuals. Youth, persons with a history of violence, gang members and weapons were commonly present. OWs reported immediate, nonviolent resolution for 65% of mediated conflicts; an additional 23% were at least temporarily resolved without violence. PCA identified four dimensions of conflict risk: the risk-level of individuals involved; whether the incident was related to retaliation; the number of people involved; and shooting likelihood. However, these factors were not related to the OW's ability to resolve the conflict. Neighbourhoods with programme-associated reductions in homicides mediated more gang-related conflicts; neighbourhoods without programme-related homicide reductions encountered more retaliatory conflicts and more weapons.

  5. Psychological prevention of parent-child conflict in modern family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Kodzhaspirov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Our research aimed at investigating the influence of personality characteristics of parents on specifics of their relationships with children. We considered different ways of family conflicts correction. The study involved 200 families (about 600 people, with one or two children, aged 11 to 14 years. The subject of the study were family conflicts and their impact on child’s behavior. Our hypotheses based on the following assumptions: 1 personal characteristics of parents determine the style of family relationships and characteristics of educational influences, 2 inadequate educational impact of parents causes family conflict, so prevention and education for parents on family relationships will reduce the negative impact of conflict on the personal development of children. Relevance of the study concerns the need to increase attention to modern family by professional psychologists for psychological prevention of family conflict and for parental education.

  6. 76 FR 27648 - Submission for OMB Review; Preventing Personal Conflicts of Interest for Contractor Employees...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ...; Preventing Personal Conflicts of Interest for Contractor Employees Performing Acquisition Functions AGENCY... approve a new information collection requirement regarding Preventing Personal Conflicts of Interest for... Conflicts of Interest for Contractor Employees Performing Acquisition Functions by any of the following...

  7. Intercultural and Interreligious Communication in the Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  8. New Technology and the Prevention of Violence and Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mancini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs, particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens and when it is integrated into existing civil society initiatives.1 However, new technologies are not a panacea for preventing and reducing violence and conflict. In fact, failure to consider the possible knock-on effects of applying a specific technology can lead to fatal outcomes in violent settings. In addition, employing new technologies for conflict prevention can produce very different results depending on the context in which they are applied and whether or not those using the technology take that context into account. This is particularly true in light of the dramatic changes underway in the landscapes of violence and conflict on a global level. As such, instead of focusing on supply-driven technical fixes, those undertaking prevention initiatives should let the context inform what kind of technology is needed and what kind of approach will work best.

  9. Developing the @MINDSET Conflict Prevention Programme in Schools.

    OpenAIRE

    FLETCHER, Bobbie; EMADI-COFFIN, Barbara; HETHERINGTON, Janet

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines issues of conflict in schools by using a systems approach based on the Hackman and Morris (1975) Input-Process-Output Model of group performance and Granovetter’s multiple level perspective on macro, meso and micro group levels (1973). This analysis informs the understanding of a school as a community in order to further develop the diversity management programme for the @MINDSET Erasmus+ project. The @MINDSET Conflict Prevention Programme is based on the extensive work of...

  10. BALKANS: Building bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    At a time when upheaval and political unrest in some Balkan countries gives cause for concern, it is good to know that physics, once again, is building bridges between nations. The new international mobility in the region was marked by a major activity of the Balkan Physical Union - the first Balkan School of Physics, held on the banks of the Bosphorus during the first two weeks of September

  11. A third Balkan war: France and the allied attempts at creating a new Balkan alliance 1914-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial phase of the First World War in the Balkans 1914-1915 was a natural continuation of the conflicts opened during the Balkan Wars, but national fervor now encompassed all of the Balkans, from Rijeka and Ljubljana to Athens, Sofia and Bucharest, because the role of the Dual Monarchy had changed from that of an arbiter to that of a participant in the conflict. With the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the further survival of the Habsburg Monarchy was challenged by the Serbian government's Yugoslav project, creating conditions for implementing the nationality principle in all of the Balkans. It seemed that, in support of the alliances that were being created in the Balkans and in Europe as a whole, the time had come for the final fulfillment of the national aspirations of the Balkan peoples. The outcome of this third Balkan war no longer depended solely on the balance of power inside the Balkans, but also on the overall course of the war. After the initial victories in 1914, Serbia suffered a defeat in 1915 and her armies were forced to retreat southward to Albania and Greece, but her Yugoslav project was the foundation of her future policies and the basis for materializing the concept of a common South-Slavic state.

  12. Conflict prevention as pragmatic response to a twofold crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Engell, Troels Gauslå

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary conflict prevention depends on information gathering and knowledge production about developments within the borders of a state, whose internal affairs have been deemed precarious by external actors. The international community, especially the United Nations (UN), calls this early...... conflict prevention as an interventionary practice. Through an analysis of the international community's preventive diplomacy vis-à-vis Burundi (2015–2016) we highlight three unintended power effects: privileging the UN's knowledge production created resistance to international involvement from...... warning and early action. However, for governments whose affairs are considered in need of monitoring, preventive endeavours—and the knowledge production they entail—can be seen as ‘early aggression’. In this article, we argue that seeing knowledge production as having power effects reveals contemporary...

  13. Special Operations can make a difference in integrated conflict prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars H. Ehrensvärd

    The fifth brief in the series about special operations highlights the possible strategic role of special operations in connection with Denmark's revitalized vision of integration of the state's instruments to create security through preventive stabilization efforts. The brief offers suggestion...... on tangible operationalization of this vision and provides knowledge on how special operations can be an attractive instrument in comprehensive conflict prevention, including how the special characteristics of special operations make them suitable for supporting the non-military instruments....

  14. A Strategy for Conflict Prevention and Management in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwahad Biad

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The author states that the conflicts in the Mediterranean are put down to interrelated factors –frontier disputes, ethnic-cultural rivalries, low-intensity violence– that make them appear to be “intractable conflicts”, specific to the area, and to which it cannot be automatically applied the model of conflict prevention and management that marked East-West relations during the Cold War. But the author’s analysis goes farther: Biad argues that the initiatives of conflict prevention and management have not done well because of the inadequate definition of objectives (Euro-Arab Dialogue, CSCM,Mediterranean Forum, as well as for the discrimination against some of the southern members and the lack of clearly identified principles and rules for a security dialogue (WEU, NATO, and the OSCE. The Barcelona Process appears to offer a much broader framework as it does underline the need for common action in the prevention of conflicts based on the principles of transparency and sufficiency. Nevertheless, after an analysis of both which focuses on the military dimension of security, the author reminds us that the Barcelona Declaration does not include institutional mechanisms for the application of these principles.

  15. Conflict transformation, stigma, and HIV-preventive structural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin; Reed, Sarah J; Francisco, Vincent T; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2012-06-01

    Over the prior decade, structural change efforts have become an important component of community-based HIV prevention initiatives. However, these efforts may not succeed when structural change initiatives encounter political resistance or invoke conflicting values, which may be likely when changes are intended to benefit a stigmatized population. The current study sought to examine the impact of target population stigma on the ability of 13 community coalitions to achieve structural change objectives. Results indicated that coalitions working on behalf of highly stigmatized populations had to abandon objectives more often than did coalitions working for less stigmatized populations because of external opposition to coalition objectives and resultant internal conflict over goals. Those coalitions that were most successful in meeting external challenges used opposition and conflict as transformative occasions by targeting conflicts directly and attempting to neutralize oppositional groups or turn them into strategic allies; less successful coalitions working on behalf of stigmatized groups struggled to determine an appropriate response to opposition. The role of conflict transformation as a success strategy for working on behalf of stigmatized groups is discussed.

  16. Contributions by the Media to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Becker

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The media neither start wars, nor can they end them. Communicating media can however have an increasingly positive influence on processes of social communication and societal change. The influence of the media is always multi-causal and long-lasting. In terms of crisis prevention and the treatment of conflicts, media influence requires institutional backing in the form of a controversial public presence, the opportunity for variety and pluralism, media rights as a condition of the rule of law and journalistic ethics codices as a regulating factor for responsible activities on an individual level. When dealing with projects to do with media work on crisis prevention and the treatment of conflicts, the following problems and dilemmas must be recognized: (1 the relationship between violence and cultural autonomy, (2 the relationship between inside and outside, (3 the relationship between social learning and technological intervention, (4 the relationship between NGOs and the state and government and (5 the relationship between getting involved and staying clear. As part of what was known as development communication, the discussions in the 1970s and 1980s provide a good starting point for new tasks. The old approach of social work through media should be revitalized and thought through anew along the lines of the prevention of violence by media. New forms of media should be placed alongside radio and video as suitable for the prevention of violence. In order to be successful, but also so as to bring to the forefront a necessary new political moral stance in development cooperation, it is recommended that a new social network with interested NGOs be founded and have these committed to the following four formal project principles: (1 An orientation towards the needs of the target group has overriding priority. (2 Intensive cooperation and coordination on a local basis with all other projects (especially from other countries and "competing" sponsors

  17. Lichens as biomonitors of uranium in the Balkan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loppi, S.; Riccobono, F.; Zhang, Z.H.; Savic, S.; Ivanov, D.; Pirintsos, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    Widespread contamination by depleted uranium was not detected in the Balkan area. - The contribution of the conflict of 1999 to the environmental levels of uranium in the Balkan area was evaluated by means of lichens used as biomonitors. The average U concentration found in lichens in the present study was in line with the values reported for lichens from other countries and well below the levels found in lichens collected in areas with natural or anthropogenic sources of U. Measurement of isotopic ratios 235 U/ 238 U allowed to exclude the presence of depleted uranium. According to these results, we could not detect widespread environmental contamination by depleted uranium in the Balkan area

  18. Balkan - geografi eller politik?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2015-01-01

    Ordet Balkan, der blev opfundet af en tysk geograf i 1808, er ikke en neutral geografisk betegnelse, men for mange synonym med småstater i opløsning, skriver historiker Uffe Østergård, nu da Balkan igen er i fokus med de store flygtningestrømme gennem området.......Ordet Balkan, der blev opfundet af en tysk geograf i 1808, er ikke en neutral geografisk betegnelse, men for mange synonym med småstater i opløsning, skriver historiker Uffe Østergård, nu da Balkan igen er i fokus med de store flygtningestrømme gennem området....

  19. A Mathematical Basis for the Safety Analysis of Conflict Prevention Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Dowek, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    In air traffic management systems, a conflict prevention system examines the traffic and provides ranges of guidance maneuvers that avoid conflicts. This guidance takes the form of ranges of track angles, vertical speeds, or ground speeds. These ranges may be assembled into prevention bands: maneuvers that should not be taken. Unlike conflict resolution systems, which presume that the aircraft already has a conflict, conflict prevention systems show conflicts for all maneuvers. Without conflict prevention information, a pilot might perform a maneuver that causes a near-term conflict. Because near-term conflicts can lead to safety concerns, strong verification of correct operation is required. This paper presents a mathematical framework to analyze the correctness of algorithms that produce conflict prevention information. This paper examines multiple mathematical approaches: iterative, vector algebraic, and trigonometric. The correctness theories are structured first to analyze conflict prevention information for all aircraft. Next, these theories are augmented to consider aircraft which will create a conflict within a given lookahead time. Certain key functions for a candidate algorithm, which satisfy this mathematical basis are presented; however, the proof that a full algorithm using these functions completely satisfies the definition of safety is not provided.

  20. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durakovic, A.; Klimaschewski, F.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  1. Civil society's role in conflict prevention | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... Andrés Serbin: In Latin America, it's key to recognize that conflict is important: we need to change our society and conflict plays a role in this transformation. ... To this end, we have to first of all address the structural causes of why conflicts emerge in the region; second, develop adequate policies regarding ...

  2. Inter-govermental organizations and preventing conflicts : political practice since the end of the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, van K.; Walraven, van K.

    1998-01-01

    This volume is the result of an international symposium on early warning and conflict prevention, held in The Hague in 1996. Two chapters deal with Africa. They investigate the role regional organizations - whether intergovernmental, State or non-State - can play in the prevention of conflicts in

  3. Balkan electro energetic interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnalkovski, Trajche; Grashevska-Shekjerinska, Jelena; Badarovska, Elizabeta; Cherepnalkovski, Nikola

    1998-01-01

    The Balkan Energy Interconnections Task Force was realized in the framework of the Black Sea Regional Energy Center (BSREC); to set up comprehensive inventory of the potential Interconnection projects in the region and with the neighboring systems. In the paper impacts to the region of the strategy for developing the Trans European Networks (TEN) and potential interests for inter regional cooperation are analyzed. The list of accepted projects and applied methodology for definition the priorities are presented. (Author)

  4. Balkon zum Balkan

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Participation in a 5 day artist residence program, a sort of symposium for artists, held in Baden-Baden, Germany. Artists from the Balkan were invited by the Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden to create site specific works of art that were exhibited at the end of the stay. My work was a 3 by 4 meter bread mosaic, exhibited in the Marktplatz, a public square in Baden-Baden.

  5. The main reasons of conflicts between adolescents in the multicultural class and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuhlaeva O.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The conflict interaction in the adolescent environment, mainly in the context of intercultural interaction, is considered in the article on the basis of theoretical analysis. The relationship between conflict in adolescence and the overcoming of adolescent crisis is described, as well as the conflict was correlated with other age characteristics. A special emphasis is placed on intergroup conflicts. An additional specificity of conflicts in school classes with mixed cultural composition is discussed. An analysis of the specifics of the conflict interaction in connection with the measurement of cultures by G. Hofstede was carried out (individualism-collectivism, power distance, masculinity-femininity and avoidance of uncertainty. The conclusion about the greater urgency of potential contradictions is being made if there are teenagers belonging to widely differing cultures in the school class. The role of laughter culture as manifestations of antipodes in game form for the prevention and correction of conflicts in a adolescent multicultural environment is shown.

  6. Shiftwork, work-family conflict among Italian nurses, and prevention efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Donatella; Sandri, Marco; Sartori, Samantha; Conway, Paul Maurice; Campanini, Paolo; Costa, Giovanni

    2010-07-01

    Shiftwork may be a demanding situation because it raises problems for reconciling work and nonwork activities; as such, this conflict may be mitigated by designing and implementing effective preventative actions at the workplace. There is a paucity of research directly examining the impact of work schedules and preventative measures at work on work-family conflict. Hence, the authors posed the following questions in their study: What is the impact of different work schedules on work-family conflict? Is a preventative culture associated with less work-family conflict? Is work-family conflict associated with specific health and well-being indicators and if so, how does work-family conflict affect well-being as compared with other potential determinants? A subset of 750 nurses ( approximately 10% of total workforce) were randomly selected from a larger sample. Nurses completed the Italian version of the NEXT questionnaire plus newly developed items to create an index on occupational safety and health prevention at work. Data were explored using two data mining techniques, Random Forests and Bayesian Networks, and modeled using hierarchical linear regression models. In all, 664 (88.5% of sample) nurses answered the questionnaire. The authors found that different work schedules had a differential impact on work-family conflict. In addition, effective risk communication between workers and people in charge of safety and health, and participation in preventative activities, quantitative workload, performing tasks not belonging to the nursing profession, and the number of weekends/month spent at work were all strongly associated with work-family conflict. The variable "time schedules" also acted as an effect modifier in the relationship between effective communication and participation in preventative activities and work-family conflict. In addition, quantitative demands played a role as a mediator (30% of total effect) in the relationship between effective communication

  7. Psychological prevention of parent-child conflict in modern family

    OpenAIRE

    A. Yu. Kodzhaspirov

    2013-01-01

    Our research aimed at investigating the influence of personality characteristics of parents on specifics of their relationships with children. We considered different ways of family conflicts correction. The study involved 200 families (about 600 people), with one or two children, aged 11 to 14 years. The subject of the study were family conflicts and their impact on child’s behavior. Our hypotheses based on the following assumptions: 1) personal characteristics of parents determine the style...

  8. The Democratization Process in the Western Balkans in the Last 20 Years: Interethnic Relations and Security Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Veljanoska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of democratization in Western Balkans is connected with the process of state-building before and after the reconstruction. After the break-up of Yugoslavia, the region became a brutal battleground as different nation-based groups fought to define the boundaries of a set of new states in the Balkans. One of the key challenges related to the democratization of the Western Balkan countries is resolving the issues with their neighbours. However, political pragmatism and bilateral relations between the countries of the Balkans, including their internal conflicts do not exclude informal alliances, but as a temporary form of exploitation of the current political and security situation or in order to achieve their own national interests. One of the key tools in the achievement of national interests, especially expressed in the Balkan countries is represented by the ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities in the Balkans cannot be overlooked and most of them are seen as a destabilizing factor in the countries in which minorities live. Without overcoming prejudices and differences of the past, the Western Balkans could not continue their independent development. Democratization of the Western Balkans means that improving the peace and coexistence should not be viewed in the past, but in the current process of cooperation. The EU integration process of Western Balkan countries and the democratization process of the region will have to be implemented in the future if the political elites in Western Balkan countries wish to achieve security, stability and prosperity of their societies.

  9. Balkan Print Forum – Dynamic Balkan Print Media Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Velkova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Founded in October 2006, the Balkan Print Forum is gradually becoming an important regional institution. Its main targets are to share experiences and know-how,to initiate and intensify contacts and to support joint projects in the Balkan region.Since drupa 2008 there are 11 member countries of the Balkan Print Forum:Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Partners of BPF are some companies and universities from Russia and Ukraine.

  10. Preventing and De-Escalating Ethical Conflict: A Communication-Training Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tomer T; Parker, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    While ethical conflicts in the provision of healthcare are common, the current third-party mediator model is limited by a lack of expert ethical mediators, who are often not on site when conflict escalates. In order to improve clinical outcomes in situations such as conflicts at the end of life, we suggest that clinicians-physicians, nurses and social workers-be trained to prevent and de-escalate emerging conflicts. This can be achieved using a mediation model framed by a communication-training approach. A case example is presented and the model is discussed. The implication of this preventative/early intervention model for improving clinical outcomes, in particular end-of life conflict, is considered. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  11. Resolving and Prevention of Shared Water Resources Conflicts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning from experiences from other parts of the world, it was recommended to incorporate game theory technique in water resources conflicts and cooperation in the African river basins for equitable and fair utilization and management of shared water. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.1(1) 2004: 51- ...

  12. FARMER-HERDER CONFLICT, LAND REHABILITATION, AND CONFLICT PREVENTION IN THE SAHEL REGION OF WEST AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the human population has led to dramatic consequences in Sahelian countries, including food shortages, farmland expansion, and conflicts over land and natural resources. Currently, more farmers and herders in south-central Nigertry to use the same land, making it very difficult for herders to find suitable grassland for grazing during the rainy season. Fulbe and Tuareg herders graze livestock on the barren plateau to avoid damaging crops, and the farmers plant millet on land w...

  13. Balkans as the cultural subcontinent of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available New world order and rearrangement of Europe transform the position of Balkan region -instead as the "crossroad" between East and West, it is more often included into the area of Western influence. In European relations developed "core" is gradually spreading toward "periphery" removing the traditional Balkan culture. The europeisation of Balkans and spreading of Western European civilization's circle gives the arguments that the term Balkans should be replaced with the term Southeastern Europe. The europeisation or balkanization is not geopolitical but civilization choice in front of all Balkan nations.

  14. [Prevention of medico-legal conflicts in medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minossi, José Guilherme

    2009-02-01

    Generally, medico-legal conflicts which occur in surgical and medical practice are a source of worry for both the medical profession and the society as a whole, because on one hand, they could cause high emotional stress for doctors, and on the other hand, patients could be rejected. Once consolidated, defensive medicine increases treatment costs and the doctor-patient relationship could transform into a tragedy. There are many causes for this, including non-treatment factors, such as an unsupported and disorganized health system, lack of participation from society and the doctor in improving this system, the training machine which launches a large number of young unprepared doctors to practice in this noble profession, along with a lack of continuing training, as there are few public or private institutions providing preparation, or further medical training. The related treatment factors are generally, a deficient doctor-patient relationship, poor work condition, power abuse by the doctor, a lack of clear agreement, and poor medical record keeping. These conflicts cannot be solved by simple creating legislation, or by denying the existence of medical error, which occurs at higher frequency than the actual conflicts. It is very important to improve the doctor-patient relationship because an effective fraternal relationship reduces the chance of a judicial demand. The doctor still needs to fully understand his/her conduct obligations and mainly to avoid power abuse. Doctors must also professionally link themselves with politicians who fight for the individual's rights against the system. Society must also understand that health is not just an issue exclusive for doctors, and people must fight to improve living conditions. Society must seriously show its frustration with the increasing disparity between scientific possibilities and actual wellbeing. The training machine needs immediate profound changes to produce professionals with the highest qualifications equipped

  15. Exporting Integrity: Anti-corruption Programs in the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Sampson, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Society for Applied Anthropology, Vancouver, 30 March 2006, Panel on Timing and Spacing Development, Exporting Integrity: Anti-corruption Programs in the Balkans Steven Sampson Dept of Social Anthropology Lund University, Sweden Contact: Anti-corruption is high on the list of development priorities, and a high level of corruption can actually prevent a government from receiving aid. This paper focuses on Transparency International, ...

  16. The Balkans: Between Economic Crisis And European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans region (also known as the „Powder keg of Europe” has always been an European question, a Western question, as underlined by Arnold Toynbee, in 1922. At present, European Union is confronted with the fifth enlargement, also known as the “post-conflict” enlargement – the integration of Balkan states. Bulgaria joined European Union in 2007. Croatia signed the Accession Treaty in 2011 and is expected to become an EU member in 2013. The other countries encounter in different stages of European integration. However, this process presents several challenges and dilemmas, either for European Union, or for the Balkan enclave. The main challenge in the case of this enlargement is to reconcile the nation-state building and the European integration. From the economic point of view, the Balkans region is underdeveloped. Several factors determined this stance of the region: the poor endowment in terms of natural resources, the political situation over the centuries (the military conflicts – impeding the economic development, the cultural factors. At present, the region is confronted with the consequences of the worst economic and financial crisis o global economy since the end of World War II.

  17. Electric energy sustainability in the Eastern Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroneos, Christopher J.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.

    2007-01-01

    After years of military conflict and economic turmoil, the countries of South East Europe now face major challenges in achieving the market reforms necessary to rebuild their economies. A major driver of economy is the energy sector, although high-energy intensities are a burden for the companies and households. An efficient energy sector not only is vital for an economic recovery but also plays an important role to energy transit. The main goal of this work is a comprehensive assessment of electrical sustainability in some countries of South East Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece) mainly by means of exergy analysis as well as descriptive statistics. Exergy analysis can be used as an energy sustainability indicator and help decision-makers. The concept of exergy, applied to electricity generation efficiency could be a useful tool in the field of energy efficiency. Further implementation of thorough exergy analysis to the countries of Eastern Balkans, would be helpful in improving their electricity generation efficiency

  18. The social, political and economic changes in the Western Balkans: Managing diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sela Ylber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a retrospective of the events in the Balkans in the last 20 years. Hence, it indicates the problems, the progress and the challenges in terms of respecting and promoting diversity. The Western Balkans has always been a very interesting region with many challenges during different historical periods. If we take into consideration all the differences and diversities in this region, then this shouldn’t strike us as surprising. During history the Balkan region has always been a crossroads of many events, conflicts, changes and destructive occurrences. In order to understand the connection between ethnic and the religious diversity, as well as the future of the Western Balkan countries in terms of Euro-Atlantic integration, we need to provide some information about the political, economic and social changes in these countries during the past, especially in the last two decades.

  19. Psychological and Pedagogical Measures of Preventing Conflicts of Interest Among Employees of Law Enforcement Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk N.V.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significant characteristics of the phenomenon of corruption resistance of employees of internal affairs agencies as civil servants. The outlined problem of preventing corruption manifestations and conflicts of interests in operational and service activities is characterized by the fact that it exceeds the limits of legal regulation. The possible solution in this case might be the selection of relevant psychological and pedagogical measures of preventing the conflict of interests and the formation of corruption resistance in the personnel of the internal affairs bodies. The article describes the value basis of law enforcement service and personal meanings in the profession.

  20. Conflict of interest in public health: should there be a law to prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Holla, Radha; Suri, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    "Conflict of interest", now being commonly cited, is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. Conflict of interest situations can be institutional or personal, and can stem from financial or other interests including post-employment opportunities or during public -private partnerships. Conflicts of interest in the creation of public policy, especially health or nutrition related policies such as the vaccine policy, tobacco control, and research related to health, can have negative impact on the lives of millions of people. While the UN Convention Against Corruption, to which India is a signatory, identifies conflict of interest as often being a precursor to corruption, there is no serious action being taken in this direction by the Indian government, in spite of the fact there are instances of serious nature coming to light that affect our peoples lives. If conflict of interest situations are allowed to continue especially in health policy it could be detrimental to millions of people; therefore, it would be in public interest that India enacts a law to prevent conflict of interest in the making of public policies, comprehensive enough to include financial and institutional conflicts of interest.

  1. Reinventing the political role of health professionals in conflict prevention & reconciliation: the Sudanese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Alaaddin M; Ahmed, Jasim M; Mohamed, Jamal F; Alfaki, Musaab M

    2016-01-01

    Given the persistent recurrence of armed conflict, influential actors owe it to the affected communities to take action. The legitimacy of health professionals to mitigate the effects of conflict relates to their ability to save lives and address the physical and mental consequences of armed conflict during which thousands of lives may be lost. Medical professionals have unique and potentially far-reaching skills. These become crucial during wartime and disasters in terms of providing medical services and humanitarian aid. However, they are insufficiently used in one area: involvement in politics as a tool to foster peace. Despite this, Sudanese individuals from medical backgrounds have participated actively in conflict resolution and peace-building processes. In fact, their political actions throughout the last six decades have aimed to prevent conflict at four different levels, which are described by Yusuf et al. in their article on the political involvement of health professionals in prevention. Their stand against President Nimeiri's Sharia laws was primordial prevention of religious conflict at the national level. Their leading role in the second Sudanese Intifada uprising was a key factor in saving the country from civil war, and another example of primary prevention. Sudanese physicians were also involved in secondary prevention by being influentially involved in almost all national peace agreements. Avoiding disputes at the tertiary level represents the weakest link in their repeated efforts. This paper outlines the different roles Sudanese medical personnel have taken in peacemaking. It also critically evaluates them in order to consider new methods of political involvement that suit future challenges.

  2. Mobile Balkans: Temporality, types, trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasteva Anna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to scrutunize the Balkan migration phenomenon, highlightening the alloy between continuity and discontinuity in the explanation of migrations; the former expressed in the trends, the latter - in breakthroughs, ruptures, changes. Four periods are articulated and characterized through the major trends. The typology of Balkan migrations identifies ten types, classified in three larger categories. The article distinguishes and compares the national migration models and draws a panoramic picture of the major trends during the last quarter of a century.

  3. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  4. Strategies Texas Superintendents Use to Prevent and Resolve Conflicts with School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hector Jose

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the strategies Texas superintendents use to both prevent and resolve conflicts between the school board-superintendent leadership team and to examine the effects of gender, age, ethnicity, level of education, experience in education, tenure as a superintendent, leadership style, and type and…

  5. Impact of School-Based HIV Prevention Program in Post-Conflict Liberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Tegli, Jemee; Garber, Salome; Fahnbulleh, Pearl W.; Korvah, Prince M.; Kolubah, Moses; Mulbah-Kamara, Comfort; Fulton, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a feasibility study to adapt and evaluate the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention on sexual risk behaviors of in-school 6th grade youth in post-conflict Liberia (n = 812). The study used an attention-matched, group randomized controlled trial. Four matched pairs of elementary/middle schools in…

  6. Conflict and HIV: A framework for risk assessment to prevent HIV in conflict-affected settings in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mock Nancy B

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and violent conflict interact to shape population health and development in dramatic ways. HIV/AIDS can create conditions conducive to conflict. Conflict can affect the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Conflict is generally understood to accelerate HIV transmission, but this view is simplistic and disregards complex interrelationships between factors that can inhibit and accelerate the spread of HIV in conflict and post conflict settings, respectively. This paper provides a framework for understanding these factors and discusses their implications for policy formulation and program planning in conflict-affected settings.

  7. Conflict and HIV: A framework for risk assessment to prevent HIV in conflict-affected settings in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Nancy B; Duale, Sambe; Brown, Lisanne F; Mathys, Ellen; O'maonaigh, Heather C; Abul-Husn, Nina Kl; Elliott, Sterling

    2004-10-29

    In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS and violent conflict interact to shape population health and development in dramatic ways. HIV/AIDS can create conditions conducive to conflict. Conflict can affect the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Conflict is generally understood to accelerate HIV transmission, but this view is simplistic and disregards complex interrelationships between factors that can inhibit and accelerate the spread of HIV in conflict and post conflict settings, respectively. This paper provides a framework for understanding these factors and discusses their implications for policy formulation and program planning in conflict-affected settings.

  8. Interrupting violence: how the CeaseFire Program prevents imminent gun violence through conflict mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.

  9. Prevention effects on trajectories of African American adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Stanley, Scott M; Fincham, Frank D; Hurt, Tera R; Brody, Gene H

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or preadolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families program, a newly developed program targeting couple and cocaregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of 2 years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z. S.; Tokonami, S.; Mishra, S.; Arae, H.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Sahoo, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9±0.05 to 449±12 mg kg -1 . Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ( 235 U/ 238 U) shows a natural origin rather than DU. (authors)

  11. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunic, Z S; Tokonami, S; Mishra, S; Arae, H; Kritsananuwat, R; Sahoo, S K

    2012-11-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9 ± 0.05 to 449 ± 12 µg kg(-1). Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ((235)U/(238)U) shows a natural origin rather than DU.

  12. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Conflict risks for access and use of raw materials (report 1); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Konfliktrisiken bei Zugang und Nutzung von Rohstoffen (Teilbericht 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima, Umwelt, Energie GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Inequalities of resources ownership and the consequences of the exploitation of non-renewable resources have always caused violent conflicts of varying intensity. The resulting interdependence between conflicts on the one hand and resources on the other hand - discussed here under the term of conflict-resources nexus - is complex and requires a detailed theoretical and conceptional assessment. The risks of conflict vary as a function of the constellations of actors and the existing political, economic and social boundary conditions. These risks are often globally linked and reflect the flow of resources between consumer countries, transit countries, and producer countries. Conflicts in producer countries may endanger the supply of raw materials to consumer countries. Whether the raw material is an energetic resource like natural gas, petroleum, or coal, or a non-energetic resource like coltane or copper: There are many who demand that Germany should adapt to stronger competition and shorter supply and should also be aware of the possibility of conflicts about raw materials. This part-report of the project 'Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts' presents important theoretical and conceptional considerations on the risk of conflict in the raw materials sector. On this basis, further reports will present case studies, scenarios, and preventive strategies. (orig./RHM)

  13. Geo-Regional Security and Transformation After the Balkan's Wars and Kosova Independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriqi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the '90-ies the wars in the former territories of what was called Yugoslavia marked the end of a century plenty of wars and local armed conflicts. More than 140 million people died because of wars in the XX century. The war of Kosova was the last one in that century. The beginning of the XXI century stressed the necessity for a new way of thinking nationally, regionally and globally. The Balkans were often considered as a gun powder territory. All the Balkans states, someone more and someone less, have problems with each other. History was and remained very passionate within the Balkan countries. The case of Kosova is possibly the most sensitive in all this framework. After the proclamation of independence on February 17 2008, the concerns were high within the region and a new question was questioned: would the map of the Balkan peninsula change again to form another "Kosovo"? This article would give some details about the geopolitical situation in the Balkans focusing on Kosova and would try to establish e new way of making politics and diplomacy though deterrence and not offence. We will try to overpass history but without neglecting it, but by learning from its mistakes in order to bring a better Peace-Building aspect for the Balkan region.

  14. Shiftwork, work-family conflict among Italian nurses, and prevention efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Camerino, Donatella; Sandri, Marco; Sartori, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    of the NEXT questionnaire plus newly developed items to create an index on occupational safety and health prevention at work. Data were explored using two data mining techniques, Random Forests and Bayesian Networks, and modeled using hierarchical linear regression models. In all, 664 (88.5% of sample) nurses...... answered the questionnaire. The authors found that different work schedules had a differential impact on work-family conflict. In addition, effective risk communication between workers and people in charge of safety and health, and participation in preventative activities, quantitative workload, performing......Shiftwork may be a demanding situation because it raises problems for reconciling work and nonwork activities; as such, this conflict may be mitigated by designing and implementing effective preventative actions at the workplace. There is a paucity of research directly examining the impact of work...

  15. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence and strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. The Leadership Program’s (TLP universal Violence Prevention Project (VPP meets this call with a conflict resolution model for students in urban schools. The curriculum is based on a conceptual framework derived from prevention science and positive youth development delivered through the vehicle of the arts. Utilizing an engaging hybrid prevention program, this high quality 12 session model melds fidelity and adaptation to yield effective evaluation outcomes.

  16. THE CULTURE OF COEXISTENCE AND PERCEPTION OF THE OTHER IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 550 year Ottoman rule over the Balkan lands, where even today internal dynamics threaten peace and justice, how and through what means the Ottoman Empire achieved consistency, security and peace is a question to which a number of political scientists, sociologists, communication scientists and history researchers have sought an answer. The most interesting point of the question is that the peoples of the Balkans, a living museum comprising a number of different ethnic groups and religious beliefs, have reached the point where the culture of coexistence has been internalised and dynamics have moved from the conflict of identities to cultural integration. The Balkans are a bridge to the East from Europe and indeed to the West from Turkey, incorporating a patchwork political and cultural geography, the geopolitical location and a richness of culture and civilization, being one of the areas attracting the attention of researchers from different disciplines and capturing the imagination of the peoples of the world throughout history. Balkan studies are almost as difficult as climbing the peaks in the areas and meaningful answers cannot be reached by defining the area on a single parameter such as language, culture or traditions, while the phenomenon of the other can also be observed within the culture of coexistence in this intricate and significant location. Different ethnic groups with different cultures, such as the Southern Slavs (Bosniaks, Montenegrans, Serbs, Croats and Slovenes as well as Turks, Albanians, Bulgarians, Balkan Jews, Balkan Romany and Wallachians (Romanians and Greeks. Although these peoples may have different religious beliefs, in the ethnically rich Balkan region, religion, language, political and cultural differences are vital in the formation of a mosaic, making the discourse of coexistence possible and creating common values and loyalties, breaking down differences. The Serbian and Montenegrin peoples

  17. Reporting of conflicts of interest in guidelines of preventive and therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakakis Ioannis A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines published in major medical journals are very influential in determining clinical practice. It would be essential to evaluate whether conflicts of interests are disclosed in these publications. We evaluated the reporting of conflicts of interest and the factors that may affect such disclosure in a sample of 191 guidelines on therapeutic and/or preventive measures published in 6 major clinical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, Pediatrics in 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994 and 1999. Results Only 7 guidelines (3.7% mentioned conflicts of interest and all were published in 1999 (17.5% (7/40 of guidelines published in 1999 alone. Reporting of conflicts of interest differed significantly by journal (p=0.026, availability of disclosure policy by the journal (p=0.043, source of funding (p Conclusions Despite some recent improvement, reporting of conflicts of interest in clinical guidelines published in influential journals is largely neglected.

  18. An ethical framework for identifying, preventing, and managing conflicts confronting leaders of academic health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2004-11-01

    Leaders of academic health centers (AHCs) hold positions that by their very nature have a high potential for ethical conflict. The authors offer an ethical framework for identifying, preventing, and managing conflicts in the leadership of AHCs. This framework is based on and implements both the ethical concept of AHCs as fiduciary organizations and also the legitimate interests of various stakeholders. The authors describe practical steps that can be tools for the preventive-ethics leadership of AHCs that enable leaders to avoid strategic ambiguity and strategic procrastination and replace these with transparency. The ethical framework is illustrated by applying it to an organizational case study. The major contribution of the ethical framework is that it transforms decision making from simply negotiating power struggles to explicitly identifying and making ethical decisions based on the legitimate interests and fiduciary responsibilities of all stakeholders.

  19. Conflict financing and the recurrence of intra-state armed conflict: what can be done from the perspective of conflict financing to prevent the recurrence of intra-state armed conflict ?

    OpenAIRE

    Wennmann, Achim; Krause, Keith

    2008-01-01

    This thesis develops a better understanding of the relationship between conflict financing and the recurrence of intra-state armed conflict. It contributes to research on armed conflict by analysing conflict recurrence from the perpective of conflict financing and developing a comprehensive approach to conflict financing and an estimation tool for the cost of armed conflict. In addition, it elaborates a framework for the relationship between conflict financing and conflict dynamics which is a...

  20. Easier Said Than Done: Behavioral Conflicts in Following Social-Distancing Recommendations for Influenza Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlowski, Lynn T.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.; Ram, Pavani Kalluri

    2010-01-01

    Preventing transmission of H1N1 and other infectious diseases can require individuals to change behaviors, but recommendations to change behavior can run counter to other powerful influences. For example, instructions to not shake hands or avoid certain public gatherings can run counter to substantial social pressures to shake hands or be in attendance. These behavioral conflicts are illustrated with an experience of the relative ineffectiveness of voluntary recommendations, which highlights ...

  1. THE BALKANS BETWEEN THE EU AND NATO: FOCUSING ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Sadakata

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has wrought extensive political and social changes in the Balkans and Europe more generally. After the collapse of communism and the breakup of Yugoslavia, many Balkan countries have transformed their political system and have begun to forge new foreign and security policy. Some of them have already joined the EU and NATO, and some are about to access these organizations. But the Western Balkan states seem to be farther in the future. In regard to the former Yugoslavia, the United States, European states and international organizations, such as the EU, NATO and UN, have attempted to engage and manage this breakup on an individual and collective basis. They have greatly influenced the process of the post-conflict nation building of this region. From this viewpoint, the paper discusses the political and social transformation of the Balkans after the breakup of the Yugoslav conflict, and the role of the EU and NATO in the process of the democratization and nation building in the former Yugoslavia. Moreover, attention is paid to the features of the involvement of the EU and NATO in the former Yugoslav conflict. In the process of Yugoslav fragmentation one can see the ‘Eastern Question’ revisited and the ‘Powder keg of Europe’ once again rising to its brim.

  2. Condom social marketing program to prevent HIV/AIDS in post-conflict Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A O; Jubwe, S; Kennedy, S B; Taylor, C H; Martin, R B; Bee, E M; Perry, O S; Massaquoi, M T; Woods, D V; Barbu, E M

    2011-08-01

    Youths in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) account for a large burden of the global HIV/STI crises. As such, strategies directed at promoting behavioral modifications would be critical to reducing the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors among high risk adolescents in post-conflict environments. This study describes a condom promotion strategy to prevent HIV/STIs among highly vulnerable urban youth in a post-conflict, resource-constrained environment via the provision of both male and female condoms to nontraditional venues like music and photo shops, ice cream parlors, money exchange centers and beauty salons. Community members in the designated catchment areas volunteered their services and the use of their small businesses to support this endeavor. In this paper, we describe the condom promotion strategy and its implications within the context of a community-based participatory social marketing program to prevent risky sexual behaviors among highly vulnerable urban youth in a post-conflict country. We postulate that this approach may likely increase condom use among urban youth in Monrovia, the capital city of Liberia.

  3. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, R.P.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Grievink, L.; Schouten, L.J.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Schram-Bijkerk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of

  4. Preventive interventions among children exposed to trauma of armed conflict: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, Kirsi; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Increasing research is available on the preconditions for child mental health and optimal development in traumatic conditions, whereas less is known how to translate the findings into effective interventions to help traumatized children. This literature review analyses the effectiveness of psychosocial preventive interventions and treatments and their theoretical bases among children traumatized in the context of armed conflicts (war, military violence, terrorism and refugee). The first aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive interventions in preventing emotional distress and impairment and promoting optimal emotional-cognitive and social development. The second task is to analyze the nature of the underlying mechanisms for the success of preventive interventions, and the theoretical premises of the choice of intervention techniques, procedures and tools. We found 16 relevant published studies, but an examination of them revealed that only four of them had experimental designs strong enough that they could be included in the meta-analysis. While the subjective reports of the researchers suggested that systematic preventive interventions were effective in decreasing PTSD and depressive symptoms among children traumatized due to armed conflict, the more objective results of the meta-analysis and the weaknesses in designs uncovered during the meta-analysis undermine such a conclusion. Additionally, a majority of the reported preventive interventions focused only on children's biased cognitive processes and negative emotions, while only a few aimed at influencing multiple domains of child development and improving developmental functioning on emotional, social and psychophysiological levels. It is concluded that substantial additional work needs to be done in developing effective preventive interventions and treatments for children traumatized by exposure to war and violence. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Mobile radiography units in Balkan Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Magiorkinis, E

    2016-02-01

    It is known that the first radiological units were widely used during war conflicts, whereas the first application of military radiology took place during the Greco-Turkish War in 1897. However, until recently automobile radiology units were assumed to be used for the first time during World War I. Historical archives and reports were researched, and extensive research in available literature was also conducted. The automobile radiology units were purchased from France and were probably constructed under the guidance of Marie Curie (1867-1934). The figure of Dr. Dimitrios Vasilidis (?-1937), a pioneer in Radiology in Greece and the first president of the Hellenic Radiological Society, is highlighted. This short historical note describes the first use of a mobile radiology unit during the Balkan Wars (1912-1913), predating its previously presumed first use in World War I. It also briefly highlights the contributions of some notable figures in 20th Century Greek scientific development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Community engagement as conflict prevention: Understanding the social license to operate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knih, Dejana

    This thesis examines community engagement as a form of conflict prevention in order to obtain the social license to operate (SLO) in Alberta's oil and gas industry. It does this by answering the question: what are the key elements of the Social License to Operate and how can these elements be applied to community engagement/consultation in a way that prevents conflicts in Alberta's oil and gas industry? The underlying assumption of this thesis is that building good relationships and working collaboratively functions as a form of conflict prevention and that this in turn leads to the SLO. This thesis outlines the key features of both successful community engagement and of the SLO, to provide a guideline for what is needed to obtain the SLO. Data was collected from semi-structured interviews and through a literature review. The data analysis concluded that there are direct parallels between the key elements of effective community engagement and the key elements of the SLO as identified in the interviews. These parallels are: knowing the community, addressing community needs, corporate social responsibility, relationship building, follow through and evidence for what has been done, executive buy-in, excellent communication, and open dialogue, all within a process which is principled (there is trust, understanding, transparency and respect), inclusive, dynamic, flexible, ongoing, and long-term. Moreover, the key elements of effective community engagement and of the SLO identified in the interviews also overlapped with those found in the literature review, with only one exception. The literature review explicitly named early involvement as a key element of both effective community engagement and the SLO, whereas the interview participants only explicitly indicated it as a key factor of community engagement and implied it to be a key element of the SLO.

  7. Europe in the Balkan mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the three dominant, Europe-wide, constructions of Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and claims that all three found their proponents in the Balkans in the same period, while no specifically Balkan construction of Europe can be identified. The discourses which constructed Europe were transnational, and every search for national discourses must recognize that they are always fractured and contradictory, composed of various elements originating in Europe-wide discourses on Europe. Throughout this period the dominant discourse of Europe was shaped by the discourse of modernity and modernization, not only in Europe but in other parts of the globe as well. Several commentators have already noted that the current challenge of the interwar construction of Europe - peace, prosperity, democracy and human rights - mirrors the crisis of Yugoslavia, and many examples point to the unsustainability of this construction at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Gadamer’s hermeneutics offers a valuable lesson in humility and defines the oft-repeated phrase of “belonging together” as listening to the other in the belief that the other may be right, which should be taken as a starting point for any future construction of Europe.

  8. Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Guidelines: Update of U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Policies and Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Moyer, Virginia; Grossman, David; Ebell, Mark; Woo, Meghan; Miller, Therese; Brummer, Tana; Chowdhury, Joya; Kato, Elisabeth; Siu, Albert; Phillips, William; Davidson, Karina; Phipps, Maureen; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) provides independent, objective, and scientifically rigorous recommendations for clinical preventive services. A primary concern is to avoid even the appearance of members having special interests that might influence their ability to judge evidence and formulate unbiased recommendations. The conflicts of interest policy for the USPSTF is described, as is the formal process by which best practices were incorporated to update the policy. The USPSTF performed a literature review, conducted key informant interviews, and reviewed conflicts of interest policies of ten similar organizations. Important findings included transparency and public accessibility; full disclosure of financial relationships; disclosure of non-financial relationships (that create the potential for bias and compromise a member's objective judgment); disclosure of family members' conflicts of interests; and establishment of appropriate reporting periods. Controversies in best practices include the threshold of financial disclosures, ease of access to conflicts of interest policies and declarations, vague definition of non-financial biases, and request for family members' conflicts of interests (particularly those that are non-financial in nature). The USPSTF conflicts of interest policy includes disclosures for immediate family members, a clear non-financial conflicts of interest definition, long look-back period and application of the policy to prospective members. Conflicts of interest is solicited from all members every 4 months, formally reviewed, adjudicated, and made publicly available. The USPSTF conflicts of interest policy is publicly available as part of the USPSTF Procedure Manual. A continuous improvement process can be applied to conflicts of interest policies to enhance public trust in members of panels, such as the USPSTF, that produce clinical guidelines and recommendations. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine

  9. Evaluation of a peaceful conflict resolution and violence prevention curriculum for sixth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, R H; Barkin, S; Krowchuk, D P

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate a Social Cognitive Theory-based violence prevention curriculum among sixth-grade students. The evaluation was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design. Students were pretested 2 weeks before the intervention started and were posttested 2 weeks after it ended. The study was conducted in four middle schools serving children and adolescents living in or around public housing in a southeastern city. The participants included all sixth-grade students who were predominantly African-American (88.7%), 41% lived in public housing, and 80% lived in homes with an employed head of household. The intervention schools had 292 students, and the control schools 412 students. The Peaceful Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Curriculum is a 13-module skills-building curriculum based on Social Cognitive Theory. It taught identification of situations that could result in violence; avoidance, confrontation, problem-solving, and communication skills; conflict resolution skills; the conflict cycle; the dynamics of a fight; and how to express anger without fighting. The primary outcome variable was a five-item scale assessing the frequency of fighting and weapon carrying behaviors (alpha =.72) and a scale measuring intentions to use violence in 11 hypothetical situations (alpha = .81). Levels of exposure to violence and victimization (alpha = .82) and depression (alpha = .86) were also assessed. The data were analyzed with general linear modeling with repeated measures. At pretest, the intervention and control groups did not differ in gender, age, depression, exposure to violence, or any other demographic variable. A group x time interaction effect (p = .029) was found in the use of violence scale. From pretest to posttest there was a decrease in the use of violence by students in the intervention group and an increase in the use of violence in the control group. Most of the changes were accounted for by changes in the frequencies of

  10. Hydrological regimes in Balkan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanescu, Viorel Alexandru

    2004-01-01

    Physical considerations of the deemed area are first considered in the paper. Then the regime types around the Balkan rivers are described in terms of the following characteristic features: -Types of the regimes defined by the timing of the high and low flow phases; -Regionalisation of the 'micro-types' -Stability of the river flow regimes. The available mean monthly discharge data of the representative rivers allows characterising the river regime of the Balkan area covered by WOISYDES and BALWOIS projects. The classification of the hydrological regimes (types of regimes) was done by assessing the discriminant periods (descriptors of the regime phases) defined by the first, the second and the third highest and lowest monthly values of flows. As sufficient data has been provided by countries involved in the Woisydes/Balwois Project a hydrological regionalisation is performed all around the considered space. The existence of different zones, which are quasi- homogeneous in terms of physiographical properties, the latter especially being expressed by their mean altitudes and the climatic features, allowed to carry out a hydrological regionalisation of the river flow regime types. The regionalisation of the river flow regimes is presented as hydrological maps both referring to each Balkan country and for the entire region as an overall map. The stability of a certain flow regime is an important descriptor of the ecological state of the river during the year. It may be quantitatively expressed by the stability coefficient determined by Corbus and Stanescu as the product between the frequency of the occurrence of any discriminant value in m subsequent month (m = 1,12) and a distribution coefficient along the period that depend on the length of the considered discriminant period. The advantage of this method stands in the fact that for several combinations of subsequent months, the maximisation of the stability coefficient leads to the assessment of the characteristic

  11. Improving Security Cooperation in the Western Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simonson, Timothy L

    2007-01-01

    ... than it is to allow them to fail. After more than two centuries of ethnic violence and a decade and a half of genocide and civil war, the western Balkans remain at risk of becoming failed states...

  12. Power system deregulation and the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamochanin, Vlastimir; Stojkovska, Biljana; Cherepnalkoski, Trajche

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to show the current state and planned activities of the Power System deregulation and privatization in the following Balkan countries: Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, Greece, Croatia, Slovenia and Turkey

  13. Conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-Markets in Ghana: Early Warning Signals and Preventive Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etornam Kosi Anku

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The source of conflict between Supermarkets and Wet-markets arise from the use of market power and economies of scale by one group against the other. This study explores the tensions that exist between modern retailers and their traditional counterparts as a result of the influx of supermarkets in Ghana. The main objective of the study is to compare attributes related to the control of access to consumers by the Supermarket and the Wet-market. In this study, the dot-survey approach of Rapid Market Assessment Technique was used to elicit information from 438 respondents at the Madina market (wet-market and Melcom (supermarket over a period of two weeks and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW comparison test and descriptive statistics were employed for the analysis. The results revealed that consumers patronise the supermarkets for convenience and the wet-market for freshness of product. Their purchasing decisions were affected by their level of education and product selections of the retailer. The highly educated preferred to shop at the Supermarket instead of the Wet-market; however, over 50% of respondents preferred the wet-market for fresh food products and the supermarket for non-food items. Each retailer receives its fair share of purchases from its loyal customers, therefore the revolution arising from the supermarket influx in Ghana has not yet resulted into conflict between supermarkets and their traditional counterparts, though it is inevitable if nothing is done to prevent it from happening. To avoid the conflict, it is recommended that policies should be instituted to (i improve the market infrastructures and shopping environment in the Wet-markets, (ii give tax concession to modern retailers who source products from local farmers and small-scale processors, (iii enable traditional retailers position themselves on the fringe and co-exist with modern retailers and (iv enforce public standards with regards to food safety laws in the traditional

  14. Participation of the SCO in Peacekeeping Activities, Prevention and Settlement of Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill M. Barskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Shanghai Cooperation Oprganization is a multi-functional interstate regional organizaton. One of the main priorities in the activities of the SCO is a cooperation in providing regional security and stability in the areas of counteraction against terrorism, separatism, extremism, drug tarfficking, other types of trans-border organized crime and against use of information-communication technologies in destructive purposes. There are all grounds to suppose that in forthcoming years the SCO, especially considering broadening the circle of its permanent state-members, will do some steps in direction of practical application of its latent potential in prevention and settlement of conflicts. Development of the SCO own peacekeeping instruments fully corresponds to the character and scales of security threats and tendencies of their evolution on the modern stage. Such a mechanism in arsenal of the SCO could play deterring role regarding latent local conflicts in its zone of responsibility. Obvious «plus» of involving the SCO in the peacekeeping sphere lays in the fact that its key members China and Russia - both are permamnent members of the UN Security Ciuncil, large powers, possessing serious financial capabilities, military and military-technological resources and rich experience of participation in peacekeeping operations. This is exactly Russia and China who would be able to share main responsibility of organization and financing the SCO peacekeeping operations. Emphasis on promoting settlement of conflicts, peacekeeping and strenhthening of confidence in the military sphere could become one of key vectors of converting the SCO into the regional security community and even become a foundation for the new system of security of Eurasia in the future.

  15. The main reasons of conflicts between adolescents in the multicultural class and their prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Khuhlaeva O.V.

    2017-01-01

    The conflict interaction in the adolescent environment, mainly in the context of intercultural interaction, is considered in the article on the basis of theoretical analysis. The relationship between conflict in adolescence and the overcoming of adolescent crisis is described, as well as the conflict was correlated with other age characteristics. A special emphasis is placed on intergroup conflicts. An additional specificity of conflicts in school classes with mixed cultural composition is di...

  16. Modern "don-quixotism" or an emerging norm of international relations? Prevention of armed conflicts in the European Union and the organization for security and cooperation in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Rok

    2015-01-01

    The prevention of armed conflicts is stated as the priority policy of various international organizations, among which the EU and the OSCE. Based on the semi-structured interviews with high bureaucrats and civilian experts, who areengaged in conflict prevention policies within the two international organizations, the article compares the development and implementation of EU and OSCE strategies to prevent armed conflicts. With the support of the secondmethod, the analysis of primary and second...

  17. Light Weapons and Intrastate Conflict, Early Warning Factors and Preventive Action. A Report to the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurance, Edward

    1998-01-01

    It has become very commonplace to note the shift from interstate to intra-state conflict in the world-civil and ethnic wars whose resolution seems to resist the best efforts of the international community...

  18. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weaken...

  19. From temporary protection to transit migration : responses to refugee crises along the Western Balkan route

    OpenAIRE

    SARDELIĆ, Julija

    2017-01-01

    In recent history, the countries along the Western Balkan route faced several refugee crises. In the 1990s refugee crises were the result of the conflicts after the disintegration of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Between the summer of 2015 and early 2016, the European continent faced another refugee crisis due to the ongoing civil war in Syria. During the 2015/16 refugee crisis, different political leaders, especially in the post-Yugoslav space, claimed that t...

  20. Radicalisation of Young Adults in the Balkan States: Counter-Measures, Healthcare Provision, and Community Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Richardson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing the rise of extremism remains a priority for governments worldwide. Motives behind joining an extremist organisation are complex and often unique to the individual, making prevention strategies difficult to design and implement. This article explores several facets of this complex problem, particularly in relation to young adults, including links between extremism, criminality and incarceration, mental health, socioeconomic status and the rise of radicalisation ‘hotspots’ in Muslim majority states in the Western Balkans, where lack of government leadership allows extremist organisations to flourish. Potential counter radicalisation measures are also discussed in various contexts, including healthcare systems, the community, internationally and within the Balkan region.

  1. The Influence of Ethnicity and Displacement on Quality of Antenatal Care: The Case of Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian Communities in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Kristefer; Holla, Alaka; Hoxha, Ilir; Howell, Elizabeth; Janevic, Teresa

    2017-12-01

    The conflict in Kosovo created mass displacement and a fractured health system. Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities are particularly vulnerable to discrimination and exclusion from institutions. We aimed to examine Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian disparities in quantity and quality of antenatal care received. We conducted a cross-sectional study in August 2012 with 603 women aged 15 or older who had given birth in the previous two years. We measured quantity of antenatal care using number of visits and quality of care using antenatal checklists. We used linear regression with interaction terms of displacement and type of health institution (for example, Serbian or Kosovar) to assess ethnic disparities in antenatal care. Women from Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities received poorer quantity and quality of antenatal care compared to Kosovar Albanian and Serbian women. In adjusted models, Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women scored 3.5 points lower [95% CI (-5.2, -1.8)] on the checklists. Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women who were displaced received even poorer quality of care. Ethnic disparities exist in quality of antenatal care. Women from Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities receive the poorest quality of services. As Kosovo strives to build a multiethnic health care system, a focus on equity is important to ensure the right to health for Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women.

  2. 76 FR 68046 - Review of Regulatory Coverage Regarding Prevention of Personal Conflicts of Interest for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... of Personal Conflicts of Interest for Contractor Employees (FAR PCI COMMENT) AGENCY: Department of... the question of whether additional guidance is necessary to address personal conflicts of interest by... to address personal conflicts of interest by contractor employees performing acquisition functions...

  3. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  4. Proceedings of papers. 3. Balkan Metallurgical Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickovski, Jovan

    2003-01-01

    This Conference aims to be a central event in the metallurgy research of Balkan, fulfilling the goals to present the most outstanding relevant developments in modern metallurgy; to inspire high standards of excellence in pure and applied metallurgy research; to attract outstanding scientists to present central lectures on modem metallurgical research, and on the challenges imposed by the needs of society; to inspire the young generation of metallurgists in Balkan and other countries. Following these lines, the 3. Balkan Conference on Metallurgy will provide a unique opportunity for academic and industrial metallurgists from the Balkan countries and wider, to exchange ideas, expertise, and experience on topics related to the theme of the Conference - Balkan Metallurgy in Search for New Ways of Development. The aim of the organizers was to bring together distinguished experts, not only to present their work, but also to discuss the major scientific and technological challenges facing metallurgy in this millennium.The 6 sections of the conference were entitled: Section A: Extractive metallurgy; Section B: Physical metallurgy and materials science - ferrous metals and non ferrous metals; Section C: Management, maintenance control and optimization of metallurgical processes; Section D: New technologies and techniques; Section E: Refractory and powder; Section F: Corrosion and protection of metals. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second half of the 19th century for Albanian and Bulgarian. Comparative analysis of evidential forms in the Balkan languages conducted by Victor Friedman [Friedman 1982, 1986, 1999], Grace Fielder [Fielder 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999], and several other linguists, has answered some questions about what is common among Balkan languages and what is unique for each of them in the domain of grammaticalised evidentiality. There is a great deal of literature on grammatical evidentiality in general and it is scarcely possible to cite it all within a single article, but a recent study [Aikhenvald 2004] contains the main bibliography on the issue.

  6. Prevention and management of conflicts in the field of municipal services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Lobyzenkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is difficult to imagine the existence of people, organizations, societies without conflicts. By themselves, these differences and contradictions can be a positive factor in the development of relations between people and those groups and organizations to which they are united. However, becoming sharp, they can interfere with the successful collaboration and lead to conflict. As many volume categories, the concept of conflict has many definitions and interpretations. One of them defines conflict as a lack of agreement between two or more parties that may be specific individuals or groups. Others invest in the conflict procedure, activity be suitable, considering the conflict active actions of each party sharing of their goals. A colored strong emotional feelings. Summarizing the different points of view, the authors referred to have conflict as a way to interact in the presence of contradictions and incompatible views, positions and interests, as a confrontation between interconnected, but following their purpose two or more parties. Exploring the theoretical side of the conflict, the article notes that it is a meaningful way to determine the object and subject of the conflict. In this regard reveals the content of the object, the subject of the conflict, the issues concerning the process of conflict management in the sphere of municipal service. Based on the analysis of law enforcement practice considers ways to manage and resolve conflicts, noted their negative influence in the power structures, which reduces credibility and confidence in the institution of public service as a whole by society. To improve the efficiency of state and municipal employees, the authors covered technology and ways of conflict management, methods of their overcoming and solutions.

  7. Islam, Etnicity and the State: the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Čičak-Chand

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Muslim identity in the context of interaction between religions and ethnic and national identities within the complex ethnic and religious network of the Balkans, and with a focus on Muslim minority communities in the individual states in the region. Although it proceeds from a historical background, emphasis is placed on contemporary conditions, especially after the fall of communism and the crisis in former Yugoslavia. The paper is based on the book Muslim Identity and the Balkan State, prepared by Hugh Poulton and Suha Taji Farouki and published in London in 1977. Apart from a valuable and interesting introduction in regard to defining the concept of “Muslim” and “Muslim community” in the Balkans, and also an indication of some of the specificities of Islam in this region, the book includes eleven separate studies, the majority of which deal with Muslim minority communities and their status in Balkan countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia and Sandţak. The papers also deal with Turkey, as the country whose communities reside in some of the mentioned countries, as well as with the relations between Turkey and the Balkan countries. Besides analysing the historical causes leading to the formation of the Muslim communities, each author attempted to identify the main socio-economic, political and ethno-religious factors “responsible” for their position in the individual political communities in the Balkans. In this paper, the key aspects of the mentioned themes are reviewed, including particular comments on Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo and Macedonia.

  8. Worse, Not Better?’ Reinvigorating Early Warning For Conflict Prevention In The Post Lisbon European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Franco, Chiara; Meyer, Christoph O.; Brante, John

    embraced the case for conflict prevention in policy documents as well as in the Lisbon Treaty itself, making it a hallmark of its approach to international security and conflict in contrast to conventional foreign policy. Yet, it has fallen significantly short in translating these aspirations...... Representatives to avoid the bottleneck problem; • to lend more financial and intelligence support to regional and local early warning systems/NGOs, particularly those which integrate warning and response under one roof. Our paper also addresses the growing importance of the news media and nongovernmental......-represented in the media or issues the news media tend to overlook....

  9. ROMANIAN BALKANISM OR ABOUT CULTURAL RIFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Gheorghe BÂRLEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “Balkanism” has two meanings, referring to both something objective and strictly geographic, as well as something subjective – a meaning that describes a certain mentality, a certain manner of thinking and behavior embraced in the Balkans. This article sets out to analyse the elements that are considered to define the cultural identity of the communities from the area of the Balkans. Their historical events, their linguistic differences and peculiarities, their art (music, cinematography, etc., their culinary p references and other elements are approached and described from the perspective of the “cultural crevice” theory.

  10. Family conflict, emotional security, and child development: translating research findings into a prevention program for community families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schatz, Julie N

    2012-03-01

    The social problem posed by family conflict to the physical and psychological health and well-being of children, parents, and underlying family relationships is a cause for concern. Inter-parental and parent-child conflict are linked with children's behavioral, emotional, social, academic, and health problems, with children's risk particularly elevated in distressed marriages. Supported by the promise of brief psycho-educational programs (e.g., Halford et al. in Journal of Family Psychology 22:497-505, 2008; Sanders in Journal of Family Psychology 22:506-517, 2008), the present paper presents the development and evaluation of a prevention program for community families with children, concerned with family-wide conflict and relationships, and building on Emotional Security Theory (Davies and Cummings in Psychological Bulletin 116:387-411, 1994). This program uniquely focuses on translating research and theory in this area into brief, engaging programs for community families to improve conflict and emotional security for the sake of the children. Evaluation is based on multi-domain and multi-method assessments of family-wide and child outcomes in the context of a randomized control design. A series of studies are briefly described in the programmatic development of a prevention program for conflict and emotional security for community families, culminating in a program for family-wide conflict and emotional security for families with adolescents. With regard to this ongoing program, evidence is presented at the post-test for improvements in family-wide functioning, consideration of the relative benefits for different groups within the community, and preliminary support for the theoretical bases for program outcomes.

  11. Overview of poverty and social exclusion in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matković Gordana

    2006-01-01

    socially excluded by many indices are the Roma, refugees and IDPs and persons with disabilities. Concurrently undergoing transition, post conflict reconciliation and reconstruction and striving to pursue their European Union future, the Western Balkan countries face many challenges. One of the greatest challenges is to focus on programs and activities that will lead to equitable and sustained economic growth that will also benefit the vulnerable groups. Almost all Western Balkan countries, through their national plans and programs, have marked employment growth and job creation as the most important single mechanism for exiting poverty. The second priority may be an increase of education coverage and improving the quality of education, although reduction of poverty and social exclusion presupposes improvement in the areas of developing appropriate social safety nets, health care systems, securing adequate housing, participation in decision making and protection of human rights. Bearing in mind the commitment of the Western Balkan countries to meet the globally agreed goals manifested in the MDGs, their efforts to proceed with anti-poverty strategies and aspirations in terms of EU accession, it is of the utmost importance to explore the synergies between these agendas to ensure that the processes reinforce each other.

  12. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Policy and research recommendations (report 5); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Forschungs- und Handlungsempfehlungen (Teilbericht 5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Raw material conflict occurs in various forms: in the form of supply bottlenecks and crises, violent disputes, or even war; as well as due to the effects of environmental destruction, whereby the sources of people's livelihood are lost. Raw material conflict is a reality in many instances, but in others is merely postulated. On the one hand, the nature, strategic importance and price of raw materials influence potential conflict constellations. On the other hand, much depends on the management and governance of raw material resources and production, material flows, value creation chains and sources of financing, across a variety of levels. Existing research into raw material conflict in the field of oil, gas and valuable minerals reveals the multi-layered complexity of the issue as well as the necessity and possibilities of avoiding such conflict in a sustainable manner over the long term. This research landscape was the starting point for the study by adelphi and the Wuppertal Institute titled ''Sustainable Prevention of Resource Conflicts: Identifying and reducing international conflict risk relating to access to and use of raw materials''. The project has added to existing research and delivered new perspectives in relation to lithium and rare earths - resources which are of special relevance for future energy supply and planning - with a view to developing renewable energy sources and meeting ambitious climate protection goals. This report summarises the results of the research project and sets out recommendations. The project was sponsored by the German Federal Environmental Agency, and was conducted in the period between July 2008 and September 2010. The results are published in a total of eight reports which are briefly summarised here. (orig.)

  13. Conflict & Gang Violence Prevention Using Peer Leadership: Training Manual for CHAMPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAMPS Peer Leadership, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ.

    Conflict and violence on the part of adolescents and pre-adolescents has been a growing problem. Young people will respond to an "anti-gang message" if that message is delivered from their peer group. This manual describes a peer approach to impact young people about productive ways to handle conflict. Older students are trained to operate puppets…

  14. Specialization or Balkanization: Organizations of Adult Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Gordon R.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the balkanization of adult education and the creation of barriers to communication within the field, suggests a typology of organizations, reviews the functions of a representative selection of organizations, and comments on the strengths and problems in the present arrangement. (JOW)

  15. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...

  16. Cryoseston in Stara Planina (Balkan) Mountains, Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jaromír; Cepák, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 2 (2010), s. 163-171 ISSN 0365-0588 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cryoseston * Stara Planina (Balkan) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.386, year: 2010

  17. Medicine in Balkans during the Roman Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Daniş

    2017-08-04

    The aim of this study is to investigate the archaeological finds to enlighten the medical methods of treatments and operations applied in Balkans during Roman Period. Some independent local and regional find groups, taken from existing publications will be grouped together and a holistic point-of-view will be taken against medicine in Balkan Geography during Roman Period. Due to basic differences it contained, the data before Roman Period are excluded. Most of Greece and Aegean Islands are also excluded since the topic selected is "Medicine of Roman Period." Greece and Aegean Islands should be evaluated in another study in connection with West Anatolia which is closer than the Balkan Geography in terms of social relations. The spread of medical tools in Balkans during Roman Period is concentrated around military garrisons, and in settlements built around military pathways, and in settlements containing an amphitheater associated with gladiators. This spread is verified by the studies on Bulgaria in general. The data is also compatible with the assertion suggesting that the amount of application of pharmaceutical treatment increases when one moves away from the military centres.

  18. Conflict Containment in the Balkans: Testing Extended Deterrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-01

    is either incapable of continuing due to exhaustion --lack of resources, or due to a lack of interest. 336 Robert T. Holt and Robert W. van de Veld ...identified by Holt and van de Veld are essentially equivalent to the traditional three elements of national power: diplomatic, economic and military, with...strategy.52 ൹ Ibid, p. 49. While some critics suggest that a policy of tit for tat is less provocative than a policy of strength, others such as Henry

  19. Thicker than Water? Kin, Religion, and Conflict in the Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liotta, P. H; Simmons, Anna

    1998-01-01

    Listen then, to what you do not know. The three rivers of the ancient world of the dead--the Acheron, the Phlegethon, and the Cocytus--today belong to the underworlds of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity...

  20. Thicker than Water? Kin, Religion, and Conflict in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Christianity; their flow divides the three hells--Gehenna, Hades, and the icy hell of the Mohammedans--beneath the one-time Khazar lands. And there, at the...the next. NOTES 1. Milorad Pavic, The Dictionary of the Khazars : A Lexicon Novel in 100,000 Words (Male Edition), trans. from the Serbo-Croatian

  1. Contributing to Balkan public health: a school for Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2002-04-01

    The absence of social well-being and growing vulnerability are alarming for a large portion of people living in the Balkan countries. The Stability Pact is currently targeting the issue of social cohesion, which holds out promise for as yet unrealized development. Both the World Health Organization and the Council of Europe have called attention to the population vulnerability and growing disparity in health status between that region and Europe. Reversal of present trends demands the support of the international community and the strengthening of all public health institutions, human resource training, and population health research. Given the severity of the problem space of population vulnerability, these actions are more than ever indispensable to the health sector of the region. The paper describes an encouraging dialogue for Balkan health conducted by the National School of Public Health in Athens, Greece over the past decade and emphasizes the work of the newly created Public Health in South Eastern Europe (PH-SEE) Network (www.snz.hr/ph-see), which provides new opportunities for engagement in regional public health through Public Health Schools and Institutes. There is a need for public health curricula development and a closer linkage of all Schools with the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. A curriculum for peace and public health is already under development in institutions in Athens, Greece; Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; and Zagreb, Croatia. Soon to be added to the group of regional institutions is the School of Public Health in Skopje. It is a policy response to considerable need in a country showing pre-conflict conditions in the heart of the South Eastern Europe. Within the general framework of public health development, a School of Public Health in Skopje can be of great national benefit. Suggestions are made for its function under an umbrella of interdisciplinarity and autonomy, and the need to steer a path clear of

  2. National minorities and interethnic relations on the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Raduški Nada M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the earliest times the Balkans is the very complex region where meets, collides and crosses many various civilizations, cultures and religions. Ethnic and confessional pictures of the Balkans is the result of different demographic development (natural increase, migration, changed declaration of nationality) as well as the action of political, historical geographical and other factors. Political changes in the Balkan countries in the last decade of this century, resulted in the formation...

  3. Energy in the western Balkans - the path to reform and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The Western Balkans - composed of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo - is a complex region facing significant energy challenges. The conflicts over the break-up of the former Yugoslavia damaged much of the energy infrastructure and compounded the challenge of providing reliable energy supply. Electricity systems in many parts of the region remain fragile and in need of investment. A priority across the region is to put into place the institutions, infrastructure and policies that can support the provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy. For the Western Balkans as a whole, a key element of the reform effort is the Energy Community Treaty - a regulatory and market framework to which the entire region has now subscribed. This Treaty aims to create an integrated regional market for electricity and gas compatible with the European Union's internal energy market. This Energy Policy Survey is the first comprehensive review of energy policies and strategies in the Western Balkan region, and also covers important cross-cutting topics such as co-operation and energy trade, oil and gas transportation, and the links between energy and poverty. It identifies and assesses the reforms that are still needed to deliver efficient, modernised energy systems that can assist economic development, address energy poverty and reduce the environmental impacts of energy use.

  4. Causes of organized crime in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolё Krasniqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Legal systems are put in jeopardy and social stability wherever there are organized criminal activities. In the Balkans, organized crime is the main obstacle to the European integration of the region. The permanent influence of organized crime in the state structures, the cooperation between different criminal organizations and especially their collaboration with some extremist group’s impacts political stability in an extremely negative way. The states in the Balkans have recognized the dangers for their peoples constituted by organized crime and have already taken a number of required legal, institutional and political measures in order to be able to successfully combat organized crime. However, organized crime still constitutes the main risk in the new democratic states in the Balkans in spite of these measures. For that reason, combating organized crime may not be treated just as the task or responsibility of one single state but it needs to be understood as an obligation and responsibility of all the states in the entire region as well as of the European Union. Therefore, cooperation and coordination of joint activities for combating organized crime have to be based on modern international standards. Besides, a continual perspective is required according to the interest of the people of the region to live together in peace and mutual harmony and to establish a society where human rights are not threatened by criminal violence but protected just like in the European Union.

  5. Western Balkans consumers' attitudes toward food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanov Galjina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to shed light on consumers' attitudes toward food labelling in the Western Balkans. Pioneering in this respect, we present the results obtained from a cross-national consumer survey on a random representative sample of 3085 respondents, i.e. at least 500 respondents per country included. The survey covered six Western Balkans countries (WBC, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. Differences in consumers' attitudes toward food labels as well as in self-perceived level of information about food with health claims were tested according to a number of socio-demographic criteria, including gender, age, education, type of settlement and the country of the Western Balkans where the respondent lives. The variables were also included as independents in a binary logistic model to achieve better understanding of the factors that may influence consumers' confidence in the usefulness of health claims on product labels. The results showed that self-perceived level of information about functional food as well as consumers' attitudes toward food labelling are influencing factors of consumers' confidence in usefulness of health claims on product labels when making food choices. Based on the mentioned, we provide conclusions and implications for marketing managers, decision makers in public health and for further research.

  6. Medicine Availability and Prescribing Policy for Non-Communicable Diseases in the Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekez-Pavlisko, Tanja; Racic, Maja; Kusmuk, Srebrenka

    2017-01-01

    During the transition processes, the Western Balkan countries were affected by conflicts and transition-related changes. Life expectancy in these countries is lower, while the mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is higher in comparison with western and northern parts of Europe. The primary aim of this study was to analyze the treatment possibilities for the most common NCDs in the Western Balkan countries. The secondary aim was to understand and compare the policies regarding prescribing-related competencies of family physicians. In June and July 2017, a document analysis was performed of national positive medicines lists, strategic documents, and clinical guidelines for the treatment of the most frequent NCDs; arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All text phrases that referred to medicines prescribing were extracted and sorted into following domains: medicine availability, prescribing policy, and medication prescribing-related competencies. Possibilities for treatment of arterial hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and COPD vary across the Western Balkan countries. This variance is reflected in the number of registered medicines, number of parallels, and number of different combinations, as well as restrictions placed on family physicians in prescribing insulin, inhaled corticosteroids, statins and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), without consultant's recommendation. Western Balkan countries are capable of providing essential medicines for the treatment of NCDs, with full or partial reimbursement. There are some exceptions, related to statins, newer generation of oral antidiabetic agents and some of the antihypertensive combinations. Prescribing-related competences of family physicians are limited. However, this practice is not compliant to the practices of family medicine, its principles and primary care structures, and may potentially result in increased health

  7. From globalization to Europeanization-and then? Transnational influences in lesbian activism of the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dioli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at transnational dynamics in lesbian activism in the Western Balkans, with particular focus on Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, over the last two decades. Based on 30 interviews with activists from local and international feminist, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT), and queer organizations, the article discusses the role played by transnational contacts in the development of lesbian activism in the region and the related issues arising within the conflicting relationship between the "East" and the "West," with special attention to trends related to international intervention and cooperation, globalization, and Europeanization.

  8. Climate Change, Instability and a Full Spectrum Approach to Conflict Prevention in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change , Instability and a Full Spectrum Approach to...Department of the Navy. 14. ABSTRACT Climate change is an emerging threat to the national security of the United States. It has the potential to...armed forces already engaged in conflicts around the globe. If climate change is the catalyst of crises to come, Africa Command (AFRICOM) must employ

  9. Preparing to Prevent: Conflict-Related Sexual Violence Mitigation Scenario-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-26

    if it encounters a child “ bride ” being kept by an older man? What if the “ bride ” has escaped and says she had been abducted? 2) What should the...areas of deployment, with specific protection for women and children, including through the continued use of Child Protection and Women Protection...armed conflict, including through the deployment of Child Protection Advisors and Women Protection Advisors, and address the needs of victims of

  10. United Nations - African Union Cooperation In Conflict Prevention, Peacekeeping and Peacebuildin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Igorevna Romadan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the cooperation between the United Nations and regional organizations, in particular the African Union in the sphere of security and settlement of conflicts. Over the last decade the role of the AU and sub regional organizations has dramatically increased. Through its agencies of ensuring peace and security the African Union is making significant contribution to strengthening stability and promotion of democracy and human rights in Africa. In the beginning of the article authors make a review of the level of security on the African continent and stress the sharpest conflict zones. According to researches one of the most turbulent regions on continent in terms of security is the North-East Africa. Continuing quarter-century war in Somalia, conflict relations between Somalia and Ethiopia, the border crises between Ethiopia and Eritrea, which in the late 20th century turned into the war between the two countries, finally, the number of armed clashes in Sudan attracted the special attention to the region of the entire world community. Authors pay the main attention to the cooperation between the United Nations and the African Union in the sphere of settling regional conflicts and holding peacekeeping operations. In the article the main mechanisms and methods that are used by the United Nations and the African Union to hold peacekeeping operations are analyzed in details. The situation in Somalia and efforts of the United Nations and the African Union that are making towards stabilization in this country are also studied. Authors reveal the basic elements and make a review of the mixed multicomponent peacekeeping operation of the United Nations and the African Union in Sudan. In the conclusion authors stress the measures that could strengthen the strategic cooperation between the United Nations and the African union. According to the authors the most important task is to solve problems of financing joint peacekeeping operations

  11. Preservation of Scientific and Cultural Heritage in Balkan Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonta, Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The peoples living in the Balkan Peninsula over centuries have created a very rich cultural heritage and the constant political upheavals in the region have affected the development and preservation of their cultures. This paper aims to review the internet infrastructure and networked readiness levels of the Balkan countries, which are…

  12. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  13. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-01-01

    While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence...

  14. Protestantism in the Balkans and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the unity of the Western church at the beginning of the 16th century, the reformation movement of returning to Evangelical ideals of Christian collectiveness arrived inevitably to the area of the Balkans. The spectrum of churches belonging to the reformation heritage with different doctrines, relying upon the agency of the first medieval heretic movements (Waldenses, Bogomils, Hussites, Hutterites, Unitarians, endeavored with varying success to grow in the reformation oriented aristocracy and wider peasantry in the South Slavic countries. The Evangelisation of Slavic population in the Balkans intensified in the middle of the 19th century. Christians and Jews became the focus of missionary activities in the Ottoman Empire, since talking to Muslims was punishable by death. The support of the American consular officers and the sympathy of Turkish authorities toward technologically advanced Western forces on the wave of the first industrial revolution was helpful. The changed social atmosphere for further process of protestantisation among the population loyal to traditional churches and religious communities first led to the end of World Wars and then to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the start of civil wars on the territory of former Yugoslavia at the beginning of the 1990's. Through a meticulous analysis of the collected theological, ethnographic, historical, sociological, and other material, the author here presents the most represented Protestant religious communities in the Balkans, in the ex-republics of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia and contemporary Serbia (Calvinists, Lutherans, Baptists, Methodists, Nazarenes, Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Pentecostals.

  15. Third International Conference of the BSF THE BALKANS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM: FROM BALKANI-ZATION TO EUTOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Pajaziti, Ali

    2014-01-01

    ThirdInternational Conference of the BSFTHE BALKANS IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM: FROM BALKANIZATION TO EUTOPIAJune, 20-22, 2014,Tetovo & SkopjeThe Faculty of Public Administration and Political Science(SEE University - Tetovo)&Institute for Sociological, Political and JuridicalResearch in Skopje(Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje).

  16. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages. _______________________ 1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  17. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages._______________________1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  18. Forensic psychiatry in some Balkan countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tătaru, Nicoleta; Marinov, Petar; Douzenis, Athanassios; Novotni, Antoni; Kecman, Bojana

    2010-09-01

    In Balkan countries, as in all Europe, forensic psychiatry as a subspecialty between psychiatry and legal medicine, an interface between mental health and the law, is focused on assessment and treatment of people with mental disorder who show antisocial or violent behavior. Thus, the authors thought that to show the actual situation of forensic psychiatry in their countries would be more interesting than only to review some articles published in these last 2 years in this part of the world. The article also includes some review about forensic psychiatry in prison in Bulgaria, Serbia and Russia and about a recent book published in Bulgaria. After a brief history of forensic psychiatry in some Balkan countries, the authors describe the services, the high and medium secure units found in forensic hospitals or in general psychiatry hospitals, which are still limited, where mentally disordered offenders are treated. Because of our society's values, individual freedom and civil liberties, questions about the right to treatment (or the right to refuse treatment), involuntary hospitalization, and other legal and ethical issues have no easy answers. Ethical questions remain in dispute, like patient's needs vs. social needs and human rights, legality vs. morality.The quality standards must be improved, especially those concerning elementary care needs and quality of life of forensic psychiatry patients (accommodation, food, sheltered housing, sheltered work places and community involvement). Ways will be found to protect human rights and avoid any abuse of psychiatry.

  19. Forecasting the spatial and seasonal dynamic of Aedes albopictus oviposition activity in Albania and Balkan countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bino, Silvia; Kadriaj, Perparim; Mersini, Kujtim; Shukullari, Ada; Simaku, Artan; Rogozi, Elton; Caputo, Beniamino; Ducheyne, Els; della Torre, Alessandra; Reiter, Paul; Gilbert, Marius

    2018-01-01

    The increasing spread of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, in Europe and US raises public health concern due to the species competence to transmit several exotic human arboviruses, among which dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and urges the development of suitable modeling approach to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of the mosquito. Here we developed a dynamical species distribution modeling approach forecasting Ae. albopictus eggs abundance at high spatial (0.01 degree WGS84) and temporal (weekly) resolution over 10 Balkan countries, using temperature times series of Modis data products and altitude as input predictors. The model was satisfactorily calibrated and validated over Albania based observed eggs abundance data weekly monitored during three years. For a given week of the year, eggs abundance was mainly predicted by the number of eggs and the mean temperature recorded in the preceding weeks. That is, results are in agreement with the biological cycle of the mosquito, reflecting the effect temperature on eggs spawning, maturation and hatching. The model, seeded by initial egg values derived from a second model, was then used to forecast the spatial and temporal distribution of eggs abundance over the selected Balkan countries, weekly in 2011, 2012 and 2013. The present study is a baseline to develop an easy-handling forecasting model able to provide information useful for promoting active surveillance and possibly prevention of Ae. albopictus colonization in presently non-infested areas in the Balkans as well as in other temperate regions. PMID:29432489

  20. [Implications of chilean legal framework in teen pregnancy prevention: conflict and insecurity in health professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttges D, Carolina; Leyton M, Carolina; Leal F, Ingrid; Troncoso E, Paulina; Molina G, Temístocles

    2016-10-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a psychosocial and multifactorial problem described as a lack of exercise of rights in sexual and reproductive health. There are important aspects in the doctor-patient relationship and confidentiality that directly affect the continuity and quality of care. There are controversies in the laws relating to the provision of contraception and confidentiality, and those that protect the sexual indemnity, especially in adolescents under 14 years. To describe the implications of the legal framework for professional midwives in the care of adolescents younger than 14 years in sexual and reproductive health. In-depth interviews were conducted to 13 female and 2 male midwives working at Primary Health Care Centers in the Metropolitan Region. The attention of adolescents younger than 14 years in sexual and reproductive health involves medical-legal issues for health professionals. All professionals recognize that mandatory reporting sexual activity is a complex situation. All professionals notify pregnancies. In relation to the delivery of contraception, clinical care is problematic since professionals should take shelter from a legal standpoint. The medical-legal context of pregnant women under 14 years of age care generates a context of uncertainty and fear for professionals and becomes a source of conflict and insecurity in the exercise of the profession.

  1. Contract network in a balkanized grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    Competition in electricity generation depends critically on access to transmission service at nondiscriminatory prices. Current access and pricing policies in the U.S. do not offer prospective private generators any guarantee of such access. Most proposals for reform, while improvements over current policies, attempt to provide for open access without addressing the underlying problems associated with loop flow and constraints in transmission networks. This paper identifies key design objectives for transmission access and pricing policies and cites critical weakness in one example reform proposal. As alternative proposal, based on contract networks, does address the underlying pricing problems. This paper shows that policies based on contract networks would meet the required objectives and could be feasibly implemented even in the Balkanized grid of U.S. investor-owned utilities. 10 refs

  2. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...... has been reported for other members of the genus. The nuclear DNA content (2C-value) of all three species was determined. The genome size of G. maloi is 29.44 (± 0.47) pg, for G. scipetarum (chromosome number still unknown) 29.55 (± 1.35) pg, and for G. peloponnesiacum (2n = 2x = 16) 31.93 (± 2.38) pg....... These values are the first genome size measurements for the genus. All three species are mapped and fully illustrated. A key to the European species is also presented....

  3. Board Games Reconsidered: Mancala in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two mancala (one of the oldest games in the world boards, which were found in the Lower Town of the Belgrade Fortress in 2006, present so far unique archaeological proof that this game was played in the region of the Balkan peninsula. Considering the fact that the knowledge regarding mancala is still quite modest, in this paper, we have also examined the different aspects of this game: the question of its origin, which is linked to the beginning of the Neolithic Age on the territories of Africa and the Near East; the link with the methods of geomantic divination; the anthropological knowledge regarding playing mancala in traditional communities; the distribution and the directions of its diffusion, as well as the archaeological finds in the area Mediterranean.

  4. The history of the study of Balkan Languages Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н В Новоспасская

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article represents the historical analysis of the apportionment and typological description some modern literary languages of Balkan Peninsula: the Bulgarian, Romanian, Serbian, and Albanian languages in works of Russian and European linguists.

  5. Balkanization versus europeanization - expressing ideological concepts (in Czech and Bulgarian)

    OpenAIRE

    Kačmarčíková Bakajsová, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Author's name: Petra Kačmarčíková Bakajsová School: Charles University, Prague Tha Faculty of Art Institut of Slavic and Eastern European Studies Nám. Jana Palacha 2, Praha 1, 116 38 Program: Bulgarian Studies Title: Balkanization versus Europeanization. Expressing Ideological Concepts (in Czech and Bulgarian) Consultant: Prof. PhDr. Hana Gladkova, CSc. Number of pages: 106 + attachments Number of attachments: 1 (from page 107 to page 184) Year: 2010 Key words: Europeanization, Balkanization,...

  6. Cross-Border Cooperation of the Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Mitko; Totev, Stoyan

    2009-01-01

    The article examines the role, prospects and policies of the cross-border cooperation in the Balkan countries border regions. The main goal is to define the reasons, due to which the cross-border cooperation between the enterprises can be considered as an "optimal" policy for the Balkan countries. The opportunities for development of mutually beneficial cross-border relations are presented based on information obtained by different studies. The potential and the barriers for the development o...

  7. Effectiveness and cost of car front end design for pedestrian injury prevention and the problem of conflicting requirements : a literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1991-01-01

    SWOV carried out a literature review on the subject of car front end design for pedestrian injury prevention. The review is aimed at effectiveness and cost of such a design and at the problem of conflicting requirements. Such requirements are existing safety standards and common design rules on the

  8. The Chronicle Of The First World War And Its Impact On The Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Progonati, Erjada

    2015-01-01

    The process of the two Balkan Wars remained incomplete until the First World War started. The aim of this study is to give some informations about The First World War and the role that Balkan region played to this war when the national consciousness of Balkan peoples began to crystallize. After the two Balkan Wars, all the Balkan states continued their efforts to gather their co-nationals into their national states. It’s concluded that the Balkan Wars leaded to the internationalization of th...

  9. Strategic Interests of Germany in the Balkans at the Turn of 20-21 Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Latkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the reunification of Germany and the transition of some countries of central and Eastern Europe under the control of the West, radical changes in the European political system have occurred. Germany turned into a powerful state and began to provide the strategy for independent foreign policy, in which the regional policy in the Balkans, Caucasus and Middle East took the significant place. Germany tried to expand its influence to the countries of Balkan Peninsula, in alliance with Austria-Hungary against Russia, as well as in the beginning of 21st century. However, in the end of 20th century, after several failures in the foreign policy, Germany turned to Russia. Despite its expansionist policy, Germany had to coordinate every step with international organizations or even transfer them issues of conflict resolution in the region. Constantly competing with its allies (mainly the U.S. and UK, Germany was trying to build its foreign policy strategy in the way of increasing its influence in the strategically important region.

  10. The Role of the EU as a Peacebuilder in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentjan Skara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Cold War, the Western Balkan countries have become an important laboratory for the EU, able to exert its EU crises management and transformative power. Through restoring stability in the region, overcoming ethno–territorial and inter–ethnic conflicts, improving regional cooperation, consolidating democracy, building democratic institutions and promoting market economy, EU’s goal was to make war unthinkable in this region. Referring to the definition of peacebuilding as ‘action to identify and support structures which tend to strengthen and solidify peace to avoid a relapse into conflicts’, this paper tries to explore whether, how and to what extent, EU has contributed as a peacebuilder in the Western Balkans, using crises management operations and mission and enlargement policy. It argues that both these instruments can be considered equally relevant as, on the one hand they create favourable conditions for lasting peace, security and stability in the region and on the other hand, through enlargement policy they push this region towards political and institutional reform, economic reforms and regional cooperation.

  11. Greece and the idea of the Balkan Union according to the materials of magazine Les Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lubotskaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El primer tercio del siglo XX fue un punto de inversión en la historia del desarrollo del Estado griego. El reemplazo de la Idea Griega (en general, una idea de conquista, por la idea de paz se reflejó de forma resplandeciente en la política exterior del nuevo gobierno, encabezado por el líder del Partido Liberal, Elefterios Vénselos. En la agenda de su política se encontraba la cuestión del mantenimiento de la posición griega en los Balcanes y el Mediterráneo. La vitalidad política del tema escogido es la importancia del problema de la paz en la región balcánica incluso a día de hoy. Este objeto de estudio tiene además un gran interés científico, puesto que ni en la historiografía rusa ni internacional se ha analizado desde el punto de vista periodístico. El estudio del semanario Les Balkans permitió reproducir en detalle la atmósfera de la vida política y social griega a comienzos de la tercera década del siglo XX y la propia existencia de esta publicación.____________________ABSTRACT:The end of the 20th – begining of the 30th of the XXth centuary was a turning-point in the history of development of the Greek state. Replacement of the Great Idea (in general the idea of the conquest by the idea of peace brightly reflected in the foreign policy of new-formed government, headed by the leader of the Liberal party, Elefterios Venizelos. On the agenda of its policy there was set a question of the maintenance of Greek position in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions. The political vitality of the theme chosen is in the importance of the question of peace in the Balkan region even in time beings. This theme moreover has a scientific vitality – neither in foreign nor in the russian historography it hasn’t been investigated from the journal’s point of view. Study of Les Balkans allowed to reproduce in detail the atmosphere of the greek social and political life at the begining of the 1930th and the history of journal

  12. Prevention of demoralization in prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction: the role of cultural receptors I - description of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M

    2013-08-01

    This article examines how symbols and sentiments are exchanged to produce a synthesis of two cultures in the context of prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction, thereby minimizing or preventing sociocultural disintegration and the resulting demoralization. This process will be shown to be anchored on the discovery of certain thematic areas (cultural receptors) in which social roles or cultural mandates are missing, unclear, ambiguous or congruent. The setting of this research is the history of Goa, a former Portuguese state on the western coast of India, where the exchange between the Portuguese and Indian cultures lasted longer than four centuries (1510-1961). Both published and unpublished sources were studied. From 1510, the year of the beginning of the Portuguese rule, until 1540, the local traditions and leadership patterns were respected. This was followed by a period of religious intolerance during which attempts were made to encourage Hindus to convert to Christianity and to wipe out the bicultural interaction. Finally a new era of tolerance and cultural integration started around 1773 and continued until 1961. The bicultural interaction persisted and a hybrid culture developed around cultural receptors. The history of Portuguese Goa is a natural experiment that allows us to examine the role played by cultural receptors in the adaptation to acculturative stress.

  13. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Approaches to minimize risk (Report 4); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Ansaetze zur Risikominimierung (Teilbericht 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Conflicting constellations and the resulting risk of conflict over raw materials are highly complex. This report investigates approaches of various groups of actors and various fields of politics to minimize this risk, with the intention of identifying and analyzing relevant and innovative approaches and to outline their potential and shortcomings in solving risky constellations. The approaches presented here were selected for their relevance and actuality. This includes, on the one hand, approaches that investigate violent conflicts in the producer countries. On the other hand, approaches are considered that attempt to influence the risk of conflict by governmental or private environmental, climate and resources policies. (orig./RHM)

  14. Neurosteroids, immunosteroids, and the Balkanization of endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kim L; Pradhan, Devaleena S; Shah, Amit H; Charlier, Thierry D; Chin, Eunice H; Soma, Kiran K

    2008-07-01

    Traditionally, the production and regulation of steroid hormones has been viewed as a multi-organ process involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis for sex steroids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for glucocorticoids. However, active steroids can also be synthesized locally in target tissues, either from circulating inactive precursors or de novo from cholesterol. Here, we review recent work demonstrating local steroid synthesis, with an emphasis on steroids synthesized in the brain (neurosteroids) and steroids synthesized in the immune system (immunosteroids). Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that other components of the HPG axis (luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and HPA axis (adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone) are expressed locally in target tissues, potentially providing a mechanism for local regulation of neurosteroid and immunosteroid synthesis. The balance between systemic and local steroid signals depends critically on life history stage, species adaptations, and the costs of systemic signals. During particular life history stages, there can be a shift from systemic to local steroid signals. We propose that the shift to local synthesis and regulation of steroids within target tissues represents a "Balkanization" of the endocrine system, whereby individual tissues and organs may become capable of autonomously synthesizing and modulating local steroid signals, perhaps independently of the HPG and HPA axes.

  15. Timing Variations in Two Balkan Percussion Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Goldberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many songs and dance pieces from the Balkan Peninsula employ aksak meter, in which two categorically different durations, long and short, coexist in the sequence of beats that performers emphasize and listeners move to. This paper analyzes the durations of aksak beats and measures in two recorded percussion performances that use a particular aksak beat sequence, long-short-short. The results suggest that the timing of beats varies in conjunction with factors including melodic grouping and interaction among members of a performing ensemble and audience. Timing variation linked to melodic groups occurs on a solo recording of a Macedonian Romani folk song. The performer, Muzafer Bizlim, taps an ostinato while singing, and the timing of his taps seems to mark some local and large-scale group boundaries. Melodic organization also seems relevant to the timing of beats and measures on a recording of Bulgarian percussionist Mitko Popov playing the tŭpan, a double-headed bass drum, in a small folk music ensemble. In Popov’s performance, however, timing differences might be related to characteristics of the ensemble dynamic, such as the coordination of multiple musical participants. These interpretations generate possibilities for future study of timing variations in relation to rhythm and meter.

  16. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, religious, scientific, military, intellectual and institutional models.Four millennia of civilization before Christian era did not pass without leaving a trace.Trade, currency, law, diplomacy, technology applied to works in time of war or peace, the profit based economy and the bureaucratized economy, popular and absolutist government, nationalist and universal spirit, tolerance and fanaticism – all these are not inventions of the modern world, but have their origins and methods of implementation, often even sophisticated methods, in this region.

  17. Impact of the Non-Slavic Balkan Languages on Speech and Folk Poetry of Gora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik Idrizi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on its many structural features, the Gorani dialect belongs to Balkan linguistic association. Some features have joined this dialect as a result of linguistic and ethnic mixtures present in the southeastern part of Balkan pen­insula. Romanic, Turkish and Greek languages have influenced a lot the creation of the Balkan linguistic associa­tion. Balkan languages show a lot of parallel features in phonetics, morphology, syntax and vocabulary.

  18. CONFLICTING ROLE OF LAND OFFICE AND FORESTRY DEPARTMENT: A COMPARATIVE DISCUSSION REGARDING TO FOREST OFFENCES PREVENTION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Uzair Azizan

    2017-05-01

    , forest, forest offences, penalties, monitoring, enforcement, overlapping of power Citation: Azizan, M.U., Bing, T.S., Raid, M.M., Mohammad, M.T.S, Hussin, K., Rahman, M.M.G.A., and Nadzri, M.I. (2017. Conflicting Role of Land Office and Forestry Department: A Comparative Discussion Regarding to Forest Offences Prevention in Malaysia. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan, 15(1, 11-19, doi:10.14710/jil.15.1.11-19

  19. Anglophiles in Balkan Christian states (1862-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The life stories of five Balkan Anglophiles emerging in the nineteenth century - two Serbs, Vladimir Jovanović (Yovanovich and Čedomilj Mijatović (Chedomille Mijatovich; two Greeks, Ioannes (John Gennadios and Eleutherios Venizelos; and one Bulgarian, Ivan Evstratiev Geshov - reflect, each in its own way, major episodes in relations between Britain and three Balkan Christian states (Serbia, the Hellenic Kingdom and Bulgaria between the 1860s and 1920. Their education, cultural patterns, relations and models inspired by Britain are looked at, showing that they acted as intermediaries between British culture and their own and played a part in the best and worst moments in the history of mutual relations, such as the Serbian-Ottoman crisis of 1862, the Anglo-Hellenic crisis following the Dilessi murders, Bulgarian atrocities and the Eastern Crisis, unification of Bulgaria and the Serbo-Bulgarian War of 1885, the Balkan Wars 1912-13, the National Schism in Greece. Their biographies are therefore essential for understanding Anglo-Balkan relations in the period under study. The roles of two British Balkanophiles (a Bulgarophile, James David Bourchier, and a Hellenophile, Ronald Burrows are looked at as well. In conclusion, a comparison of the Balkan Anglophiles is offered, and their Britain-inspired cultural and institutional legacy to their countries is shown in the form of a table.

  20. Family Conflict, Emotional Security, and Child Development: Translating Research Findings into a Prevention Program for Community Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Schatz, Julie N.

    2012-01-01

    The social problem posed by family conflict to the physical and psychological health and well-being of children, parents, and underlying family relationships is a cause for concern. Inter-parental and parent-child conflict are linked with children's behavioral, emotional, social, academic, and health problems, with children's risk particularly…

  1. Androsace septentrionalis (Primulaceae), a new species for the Balkan flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, V.; Vukojicic, S.; Tan, Kit

    2005-01-01

    Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks the southernm......Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks...... the southernmost limit of the species' range in Europe. The existence of A. septentrionalis in the Balkans may be the result of migration of the tundra-steppe flora from central and East Europe towards the mountains of the peninsula during the Ice Age....

  2. SECURING FRAGILE DEMOCRACIES IN THE BALKANS: THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Pridham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union faces unprecedented difficulties in its integration of the Western Balkans in terms of the requirements for change by countries in that region wishing to join. In order to meet this challenge, the EU’s political conditionality has moved significantly beyond its demands made on the post-Communist entrants of 2004 and 2007. But its effort to bridge the gap between the ability or political will of Balkan countries to adapt to European modernisation and uncertainties about EU commitment created by “enlargement fatigue” among Member States is vulnerable to weak consensus on both sides. Accordingly, the dynamic behind further enlargement is not comparable with the historic drive that impelled the enlargement of 2004. At the same time, there are strong geopolitical arguments on grounds of stabilising the Balkans for going ahead with integrating the Western half of this region.

  3. Preventing Deadly Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    field staff.20 Episodes of kid - napped or murdered aid workers send a chilling message that they are no longer immune from the very violence they seek...Affairs ( DHA ) Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) The delivery of emergency relief is dominated by about 15 to 20 major international NGOs or federations...Weapons Convention DHA Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UN) DPKO Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UN) ECOMOG ECOWAS Monitoring Group

  4. The future path of lignite production in the Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussios, E.; Koikouzas, N.K.

    1997-01-01

    The future development of the European Union and Balkan lignite industry is examined in this paper. Lignite in some countries represents for the last decade by far the most important fuel for electricity generation. The economically recoverable lignite reserves of the Balkans (21.36 x 10 9 t) and Greece (4.0 x 10 9 t) are sufficient to meet their energy demand for the next decades (50-100 years). The Balkan countries intended to increase their lignite production, in the near future, as result of the increase of their primary energy demand and their efforts to meet their energy requirements by using domestic resources. Greece also plans to increase lignite production. On the contrary, the remaining of the European Union countries intend to decrease their lignite production. Nevertheless, the countries of Balkan region which are presently in a transition period to the market economy, have to deal with a decrease of people employed in the lignite mining industry. However, Balkan region seems to be the most promising area for the future development of the lignite industry in the enlarged EU, after making the following alterations in the lignite sector: Rehabilitation of the lignite open-pit mines, closure of the most underground mines, privatization of the most prosperous mines, modification of the existing technology, introduction of the 'clean' coal technology, etc. New opportunities for the development and modernization of the lignite industry in Balkan countries arise, after their possible entrance into the European Union, considering also that lignite is one of their most important indigenous energy source. For the necessary modernization of the lignite industry, development of collaborations for the capital and know-how transferring is required. (Author)

  5. Balkan – Pestens første udbrud?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen behandler den religiøst farvede nationalismes udvikling i Jugoslavien efter præsident Titos død i 1980 og dens virkninger på Balkan-landene, samt EU's muligheder for at danne modvægt mod aggressiv nationalistisk-religiøs chauvinisme......Artiklen behandler den religiøst farvede nationalismes udvikling i Jugoslavien efter præsident Titos død i 1980 og dens virkninger på Balkan-landene, samt EU's muligheder for at danne modvægt mod aggressiv nationalistisk-religiøs chauvinisme...

  6. History of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Ljubomir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Some of the main activities of the Balkan Stomatological Society (BaSS over a rich 19-year history are presented. These activities have been aimed at improving oral health care provided by the dentists throughout the Balkans, and to establish ties of friendship and collaboration between researchers and clinicians in this region, creating a foundation for mutual understanding and peace. To accomplish these goals, the BaSS annually organizes congresses and publishes a scientific journal, beside many other activities, such as public oral health promotion, bringing into accordance study programmes and curricula, supporting student exchange programmes, etc.

  7. 'Western Balkans': Political context and the media usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By accessing the content analysis of media archives, available both on the Internet presentations of the most significant and most influential media, press agencies, web search engines, and official public institutions, international government and non-government organizations, we will make an attempt to point to political conditioning, appearances and uses, as well as political etymology of the term Western Balkans. The attention will also be called to the fact that the term has its origin in Anglo-Saxon political and historiographical tradition, through the examples of its use, as well as to the similarities of political relations which bring to its applicability. By analyzing the content of media inscriptions, reports, documents, official announcements, authorial reviews and analyses, it came to a conclusion that Western Balkans occurs as a regional reference in particular historical and political circumstances and that geographical frames it is being used within, could be located outside the time frames and there are specified the particularities of its use. We will demonstrate that through the analysis of the political context and media usage, Western Balkans could be interpreted on more than one level. Western Balkans can at the same time represent both a terminological construction and a regional reference which expresses the indecisiveness of the West on social and cultural properties of the Balkans and the founding of Balkan cultures as immanently European, but at the same time the means of measurement, which is not only the determination of regionalism, but the determination of historical and political moment likewise. Besides, Western Balkans could also be interpreted as a mean of practical methodology and classification of naming the societies on the Balkans, which are the only outside the European Union frames, but also stand for the synchronization of the Balkanistic discourse with current political and historical circumstances and

  8. „Pseudo-yat“ in Dalmato-Romance and Balkan Latin (On Balkan Latin VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligorio Orsat L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article discusses the origins and the development of the so-called pseudo-yat in Dalmatian Romance and Balkan Latin. (E.g. SCr. mrčela-murtila-murtela from Lat. *MYRTICELLA or tovijerna-tovirna-toverna from TABERNA. Pseudo-yat is derived from -ECC-, in short syllables, and in long syllables from -ERR-, -ERC-. This suggestion is tried on 58 Dalmatian loans in Serbo-Croatian. The fact that pseudo-yat is found only in a part of these is of particular significance for the stratification of Dalmatian loans in Serbo-Croatian since loans with pseudo-yat are ostensibly older than the ones without it. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178007

  9. The Chronicle Of The First World War And Its Impact On The Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjada Progonati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the two Balkan Wars (1912-1913 remained incomplete until the First World War started. The aim of this study is to give some informations about The First World War and the role that Balkan region played to this war when the national consciousness of Balkan peoples began to crystallize. After the two Balkan Wars, all the Balkan states continued their efforts to gather their co-nationals into their national states. It’s concluded that the Balkan Wars leaded to the internationalization of this crisis spreading it to an ample area while many other crises at the same region were resolved without a general war in Europe. It appears that the First World War that began in 1914 in the Balkan region was a continuation of the wars that started in 1912-1913 period in the same are.

  10. Balkanized Secondary Schools and the Malaise of Modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Andy; Macmillan, Robert

    Findings of a study that examined teaching culture patterns in two Ontario secondary schools are presented in this paper, with attention given to the outcomes of "balkanization." In this form of the teachers' organizational culture, teachers work in smaller subgroups within the school community. The two schools were drawn from a study of…

  11. Terfezia terfezioides - a new hypogeous fungus for Balkan Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Ławrynowicz; Mirosłav Markowić; Miroljub Milenković; Boris Ivanćević

    2014-01-01

    Terfezia terfezioides (Matt.) Trappe was found for the first time in FR Yugoslavia in 1991. Description of the specimens, its mycorrhizal association with Robinta pseudoacacia and distribution in Europe are discussed in the paper. This is the first locality of T. terfezioides on Balkan Peninsula.

  12. Terfezia terfezioides - a new hypogeous fungus for Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ławrynowicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Terfezia terfezioides (Matt. Trappe was found for the first time in FR Yugoslavia in 1991. Description of the specimens, its mycorrhizal association with Robinta pseudoacacia and distribution in Europe are discussed in the paper. This is the first locality of T. terfezioides on Balkan Peninsula.

  13. Tough love : the European Union's relations with the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, Steven

    2007-01-01

    As part of the international presence in the Western Balkans, the European Union has adopted sanctions, brokered political agreements, launched its first-ever police and military missions and directed economic, legal and administrative reforms to eradicate the root causes of instability. Yet,

  14. Balkan – Pestens første udbrud?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen behandler den religiøst farvede nationalismes udvikling i Jugoslavien efter præsident Titos død i 1980 og dens virkninger på Balkan-landene, samt EU's muligheder for at danne modvægt mod aggressiv nationalistisk-religiøs chauvinisme...

  15. Low altitudinal distribution of Salamandra salamandra from the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Balej, P.; Jůna, F.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2013), s. 563-566 ISSN 2071-5773 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : fire salamander * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.herpetologynotes.seh-herpetology.org/Volume6_PDFs/Jablonski_HerpetologyNotes_volume6_pages563-566.pdf

  16. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950-2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans.

  17. Anti-vaccinationists and their arguments in the Balkan countries that share the same language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been an analysis of anti-vaccination situation in the language-related Balkan countries. Mass and organized opposition to vaccination in this part of the world is a relatively recent phenomenon. It has been an offshoot of the respective ideas from the West, associated with New Ageism, postmodernism, and similar worldviews, but particularly beefed up by MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine fear in the late 1990s. The four key local leaders from four countries have been selected to represent the whole diversity of the Balkan anti-vaccination scene. Each of them exerts his/her influence throughout the region. The result is that vaccination coverage has substantially decreased in many areas. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases that have to follow sooner or later would eventually, at least temporarily, bring a blow to the credibility of anti-vaccinationists. We already witnessed such a trend in Bosnia and Herzegovina where vaccines were not readily available during the Bosnian wars in 1990s. As a result, major epidemics of measles, mumps, and rubella recently took place all over the country. A dynamic balance between the influence of anti-vaccination movement and the incidence of diseases, characterized by an inverse relationship (the more damaging impact of vaccine opponents on public health, the more cases of diseases, and vice versa has been a pattern that health services have to deal with.

  18. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  19. The Balkans and Syria’s Civil War: Realities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Perparim Gutaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of this research paper is to look at the realities and challenges confronting the Balkan states and societies in light of Syria’s civil war. By examining the mobilization process of Balkan militants who are joining Syria’s rebel cause, especially the Islamic radical groups linked to al-Qaeda, this paper proposes a model that explains why and how Balkan militants are joining the fight in Syria. Drawing upon reliable media reports, personal observations, academic accounts, and other consistent sources, this paper argues that Balkan militants are joining Syria’s rebel cause because foreign Islamic radical groups (that have been operating in the Balkans since the early 1990s have successfully indoctrinated them. This paper challenges the argument that Islam in the Balkans is a threat to the region, and the claim that Balkan Islam and Muslims in the region are becoming an increasing threat to the West. The central findings of this paper exemplify that the future of Balkan militants is bleak and that they will be confronted with a massive modern and democratic resistance that offers them nothing but reintegration into Balkan Islam, their natural “religious nest.” Notwithstanding the trends related to Syria’s civil war, Balkan Muslims belong to the West, culturally and mentally.

  20. Wealth Sharing for Conflict Prevention and Economic Growth : Botswana Case Study of Natural Resource Utilization for Peace and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Sebudubudu, David

    2011-01-01

    There are countries in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and even a few such countries in Africa that are using non-renewable resources to drive development and have not experienced conflict. South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, and Zambia are such typical cases in Africa. Instead, the presence of significant minerals in Botswana is associated with economic development and democracy as well as peace. ...

  1. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  2. Potential conflict between TRIPS and GATT concerning parallel importation of drugs and possible solution to prevent undesirable market segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-Fa

    2011-01-01

    From international perspective, parallel importation, especially with respect to drugs, has to do with the exhaustion principle in Article 6 of the TRIPS Agreement and the general exception in Article XX of the GATT 1994. Issues concerning the TRIPS Agreement have been constant topics of discussion. However, parallel importation in relation to the general rules of the GATT 1994 as well as to its exceptions provided in Article XX was not seriously discussed. In the view of the paper, there is a conflict between the provisions in these two agreements. The paper explains such conflict and tries to propose a method of interpretation to resolve the conflict between GATT Article XX and TRIPS Article 6 concerning parallel importation for the purpose of reducing the possible undesirable market segmentation in pharmaceutical sector. The method suggested in the paper is a proper application of good faith principle in the Vienna Convention to interpret GATT Article XX, so that there could be some flexibility for those prohibitions of parallel importation which have positive effect on international trade.

  3. Hydrological preview on water resources and water quantity in the Central Balkan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stdiov, Vasko

    2004-01-01

    In the Hydrological Preview on Water Resources and Water Quantity in the Central Balkan Region, will be presented water resources on the one Balkan country where exist network of hydrological and meteorological stations with hydro meteorological database. Considering water resources, hydrological and meteorological data on separated catchments areas will be determined water quantity and specific water discharges on main rivers in that part of the Balkan Region.(Author)

  4. "Balkanism" as discourse(s) of power(lessness): towards the questionability of narrativism

    OpenAIRE

    Koprivitsa, Chaslav D.

    2016-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to review the historical presuppositions of the absence of the indigenous self-naming of the Balkans, and to illuminate the consequences of external practices, mainly western of "producing" of Balkan identity - through Balkanist discourse of power. But to achieve this it is not enough to point out that the external construction of the narrative of the Balkans is often motivated by the domination interests, which is why we try to understand, and partly to bring i...

  5. A typology of subjunctive complements in Balkan languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Hill

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a comparative approach to the subjunctive complements to verbs and nouns in two language groups: Romance Balkan (i.e. Standard Romanian, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian and Slavic Balkan (mostly Serbian, Croatian, and Macedonian. There are many analyses of V-subjunctive complement selection in these languages but, to our knowledge, none that zooms in on the group differences in the composition of the left periphery of subjunctive clauses. In these configurations, our analysis finds a micro-variation that has implications for the understanding of other cross-linguistic variations among these languages, in particular, in the subjunctive complementation to nouns. In other words, we argue that the typology of verb complementation is the key to the understanding of the typology of noun complementation in these languages.

  6. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  7. LATEST CHALLENGES IN EFFICIENCY CONVERGENCE IN BALKAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihăiță-Cosmin M. POPOVICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of banks has been widely and extensively studied in the past few decades. Using a sample of Balkan and Baltic countries and by employing a Data Envelopment Analysis model, we want to highlight the main challenges for the highly concentrated banking system. Over the period 2007 - 2011, these countries have coped with the worst financial crisis from the Great Depression, which has severe effects on the banking systems. Our sample includes the least developed countries in the EU and for reference purpose, Luxembourg, with the highest GDP per capita. We expect to find similarities between Balkan countries and Baltic countries and we can draw lessons from Luxembourg`s results.

  8. Balkan war in picture and words: Kosovo avengers

    OpenAIRE

    Ženarju, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the illustrations in the magazine The Balkan War in Picture and Words published in Belgrade during 1913. The paper processed the pictures that had related to the territory of Kosovo and Metohia, most of them are the portraits of soldiers, so-called Kosovo Avengers. The portraits of priests were published as well, which pointed out their importance in the liberation activities. Also, it published the photos of military graves, Kosovo towns and areas. The m...

  9. From Boston to the Balkans: Olmsted’s Emerald Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Luke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the legacy of landscape architect Fredrick Law Olmsted on modern cultural tourism policies. The author explains the involvement of Olmsted in the founding of Yosemite National Park, and describes the influence of this experience on his later work on the Emerald Necklace parks project in Boston. This became a model for natural and cultural corridors worldwide, including those in the Balkans and Turkey.

  10. Phylogeny of European Bullhead (Cottus sp. in Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Bravničar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available European bullhead sensus lato is a species complex, in which lineage determination based on morphology has proven to be extremely difficult, probably due to low interspecific and high intraspeciefic morphological variation. Therefore, major evolutionary lineages across Europe have been determined based on molecular data, which also to some extent corresponds to known morphological variation. Cottus populations on the Balkan Peninsula have not yet been thoroughly studied. Thus we used molecular genetic approach (mtDNA-CR and nu-LSU to evaluate evolutionary distinctive units of Cottus in the Western Balkans and compare them to other European lineages. We found presence of five distinct lineages. Populations corresponding to Cottus gobio clade inhabit tributaries of Danube River in southern Serbia, rivers of Adriatic drainage and Drava River. Interestingly, we found three additional Cottus linages in Sava River and its tributaries, differing considerably from “main” C. gobio. First, we confirmed morphologically determined Cottus meate from Upper Sava, with species range from the source of Sava River, including tributaries, to the inflow of Kolpa River. Second, we found a new lineage inhabiting the Kolpa and Una river systems. Third, lineage was found inhabiting Bosna and Vrbas rivers. High density of evolutionary distinctive lineages in such a small area is according to our knowledge exceptional for European bullhead and lines up with the general notion of the Balkans as major refuge and present day biodiversity hotspot. Our results correspond with two wave colonization theory of Europe by Cottus genus probosed by Volckaert, first possibly being in Pliocene and second during the Pleistocene, with Balkan Peninsula as starting point for both of them.

  11. European Enlargement and the Integration of the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    4, McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1995 and Pollo , S. and Puto, A., The History of Albania from its Origins to the Present Day, p. 1...160-193, Assidon-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979. 13 Pollo , p. 146 and Jelavich, B, pp 100-103. 14 In 1913 the Conference of Ambassadors in...5). 17 Zickel, pp 28-32. 18 Pollo , p. 227. 8 The frequent invasions of the Balkan Peninsula are largely responsible for the political

  12. 78 FR 37097 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... engaged in, or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of Macedonia... of persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans...

  13. SOME ASPECTS OF THE REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Gospodinova Grozeva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 21st century, the political role of the state borders in the Balkans has changed. Gradually they began to transform from barriers into zones of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The common European integration includes the creation and development of Euro-regions. Within the context of reorganization of the new European space, geopolitical importance of South-East Europe has significantly upgraded. This fact reflects on the interests of the international community in security and development of this region. Despite that the Balkans constitute an indispensable part of the European continent, their incorporation into the new European architecture has been particularly difficult and problematic. They emerge as the most volatile and least integrated European region. There are significant variations among the countries concerning their territory, number of population, as well as the rate of the economic changes. The main forms of regional cooperation should be concentrated on the domains of transport, energy and communication infrastructure, trade and economic cooperation, environment and security. From this point of view, the economic growth and increase of living standard are the most important problems for all Balkan countries.

  14. Fighting over forest : toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  15. Fighting over forest: toward a shared analysis of livelihood conflicts and conflict management in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkyi, M.A.A.; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F.; Kyereh, B.; Dietz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts undermine forest-based livelihoods for the rural poor. Conflict management is key to preventing such conflicts. This article analyzes actor perceptions of forest- and tree-related conflicts and conflict management in Ghana's high forest zone. It also assesses a phased methodology that

  16. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici") and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000-300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  17. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trajanovski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici" and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000–300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000–140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000–70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental

  18. Risk of Intimate Partner Violence and Relationship Conflict Following Couple-Based HIV Prevention Counseling: Results From the Harlem River Couples Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, James M; Chimenti, Ruth; Trabold, Nicole; Fedor, Theresa; Mittal, Mona; Tortu, Stephanie

    2015-08-27

    Heterosexual transmission of HIV often occurs in the context of intimate sexual partnerships. There is mounting evidence that couple-based HIV prevention interventions may be more effective than individual-based interventions for promoting risk reduction within such relationships. Yet, concerns have been raised about the safety of couple-based prevention approaches, especially with regard to the risk of intimate partner violence against women. Although several international studies have examined the potential for adverse consequences associated with couple-based interventions, with inconsistent results, there is little data from U.S. studies to shed light on this issue. The current study analyzed data from a randomized trial conducted in New York City with 330 heterosexual couples to examine whether participation in couple-based or relationship-focused HIV counseling and testing (HIV-CT) interventions resulted in an increased likelihood of post-intervention breakups, relationship conflicts, or emotional, physical, or sexual abuse, compared with standard individual HIV-CT. Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the odds of experiencing change in partner violence from baseline to follow-up by treatment condition. A high prevalence of partner-perpetrated violence was reported by both male and female partners across treatment conditions, but there was no conclusive evidence of an increase in relationship dissolution or partner violence subsequent to participation in either the couple-based HIV-CT intervention or relationship-focused HIV-CT intervention compared with controls. Qualitative data collected from the same participants support this interpretation. HIV prevention interventions involving persons in primary sexual partnerships should be sensitive to relationship dynamics and the potential for conflict, and take precautions to protect the safety of both male and female participants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Hate crimes: American and Balkan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Jovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the nineties of the last century it was noticed in the U.S.A. that suddenly the number of crimes with violence in the inter-racial and inter-ethnical conflicts rose. Also the phenomenon of ignition of churches, religious and sacral objects, especially in the south of the U.S.A., objects which were used by black people, was recorded. Directly in relation to that - the term „hate crimes“ then arose in science and became outspread very quickly, primarily in criminology. Several events, and above all the murder of a young homosexual in Wyoming influenced for both the violence and the crimes commited towards the homosexuals and all due to the prejudices towards this sexual minority to be included in this term. Today, this term is used not only in the U.S.A. and not only in a criminological sense, but also in a purely legal sense to denote the crimes which were carried out under the influence of hate towards a correspondent racial, ethnical or sexual minority. This term is linked also to the terminology and thus the problems which are related to the „hate speech“. The author of this paper writes about how this term arose in the first place and which problems emerge related to hate crimes and primarily in relation to the issues of expansion of democracy and tolerance, and also education, primarily among the police force and the young population. The author also ascertains that only with the law, no great effects in the battle against this phenomenon can be achieved and that before the criminal-legal intervention some other measures have to be approached, like the creation of an atmosphere of tolerance and the education of the citizens about the phenomenon of hate crimes.

  20. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  1. Helianthemum marmoreum (Cistaceae), a new species from the Central Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Helianthemum marmoreum is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula (R. Macedonia). It inhabits rocky marble and limestone slopes and pastures at moderate altitudes of 240-1400 m. The closes...

  2. Lost in scales: Balkan folk music research and the ottoman legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennanen Risto Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan folk music researchers have articulated various views on what they have considered Oriental or Turkish musical legacy. The discourses the article analyses are nationalism, Orientalism, Occidentalism and Balkanism. Scholars have handled the awkward Ottoman issue in several manners: They have represented 'Oriental' musical characteristics as domestic, claimed that Ottoman Turks merely imitated Arab and Persian culture, and viewed Indian classical raga scales as sources for Oriental scales in the Balkans. In addition, some scholars have viewed the 'Oriental' characteristics as stemming from ancient Greece. The treatment of the Segâh family of Ottoman makams in theories and analyses reveals several features of folk music research in the Balkans, the most important of which are the use of Western concepts and the exclusive dependence on printed sources. The strategies for handling the Orient within have meandered between Occidentalism and Orientalism, creating an ambiguity which is called Balkanism.

  3. The identification, management, and prevention of conflict with faculty and fellows: A practical ethical guide for department chairs and division chiefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2007-12-01

    The relationship between chairs and divisions chiefs with faculty colleagues in departments of obstetrics and gynecology has important but heretofore unexplored ethical dimensions. Based on the ethical concept of fiduciary responsibility and contractual obligations, this paper provides ethically justified practical guidance for academic physician leaders in the identification, management, and prevention of conflicts in their relationships with faculty colleagues. The framework is developed in contrast with the fiduciary-contractual dimensions of the physician-patient relationship and is articulated in terms of the ethical principles of beneficence, respect for autonomy, and justice. The distinctive nature of the academic physician leader-colleague relationship is that beneficence-based obligations and justice-based obligations to colleagues can often justifiably override autonomy-based obligations to colleagues, about which it is crucial for academic leaders to be transparent in making and implementing leadership decisions.

  4. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weakened international competitiveness. An unattractive environment for productive entrepreneurship has created barriers to the entry of SMEs, and at the same time large informal economies. Several countries have become labour-export economies, with significant outflows of skilled labour. Economic development follows a low-skill growth path. The current global economic crisis is having a further deleterious effect as export revenues, foreign direct investment, and labour remittances all diminish. Furthermore, as transition has proceeded, disparities between capital cities and rural areas have increased, while weak administrative capacities have hindered the implementation of effective local development policies to counteract these effects. Endogenous local development cannot provide an alternative to greater engagement with the global economy. The conclusion is that the countries of the region have been left out of the most beneficial elements of the globalisation process, while simultaneously suffering from its main defects. Without a faster process of accession to the EU, local disparities are likely to widen, and the region may remain within the European super-periphery for the foreseeable future.

  5. Climate variability and change and related drought on Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, Vesselin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, results on climate variability including variations of air temperature and precipitation in Bulgaria during the 20th century are presented. There has been an increase of air temperature during the last two decades. The years 1994 and 2000 were the warmest years on record in the country. Annual precipitation in Bulgaria varied considerably from year to year during the 20th century. In some years, very low annual precipitation caused droughts of different intensities. The country has experienced severe drought episodes in the 1940s, 1980s and 1990s. There was a decreasing trend in precipitation during the period April-September from the end of 1970s. Precipitation was below the 1961-1990 average for 14 of the last 20 years of investigation. A winter precipitation deficit was observed during the last decade. Both spring and summer as well as autumn precipitation had a tendency to decrease at the end of the 20th century. The anomalies of annual air temperature and precipitation as well as related drought occurrence on the Balkan Peninsula were also analyzed. For this purpose, different weather sources (such as the CRU climate dataset, ATEAM weather dataset for Europe, etc.) were used. Several climate change scenarios for the Balkan Peninsula were developed and analyzed. These scenarios were based on GCM (global circulation model) weather outputs. Both GCM outputs with coarse spatial resolution (e.g. MAGICC/SCENGEN scenarios: 500 km x 500 km) as well as with high resolution (e.g. HadCM3 scenarios: 10'x 10' (less than 20 km x 20 km)) were used. The GCM climate change scenarios created by the Tyndall Centre (UK) for the Balkan countries were also considered and discussed. (Author)

  6. Some traces of interlinguistic contacts in the central Balkan mountains

    OpenAIRE

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    The etymology of three Balkan tree names, S.-Cr. munika ‘Pinus leucodermis' molika ‘Pinus peuce' and omorika ‘Picea omorika' is discussed. The latter is supposed to go back, together with Bulg. morika ‘spruce', to Slavic *mъxorъ ‘fringe' describing here the hanging branches of spruce. The Bosnian pine munika, munjika growing in high and rocky places exposed to the thunder, the relation to S.-Cr. munja < Common Slavic *mъlnja seems probable, and molika may be explained as a re-borrowing fro...

  7. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  8. Taking snapshots of preventive interventions : On the effectiveness of preventive interventions for youth and how it relates to implementation and conflict of interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, F.X.

    2017-01-01

    Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and

  9. Global action to prevent war: a programme for government and grassroots efforts to stop war, genocide and other forms of deadly conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S

    2000-01-01

    At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed

  10. Controlling Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for teaching students basic conflict resolution techniques. Calls upon students to identify issues that can lead to interpersonal confrontation, use active listening techniques, and analyze and select alternatives to conflict. Includes handouts, discussion topics, and an explanation of methods of conflict resolution. (SG)

  11. A comprehensive review of HIV/STI prevention and sexual and reproductive health services among sex Workers in Conflict-Affected Settings: call for an evidence- and rights-based approach in the humanitarian response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Alyssa; Shannon, Kate; Butler, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Shira M

    2017-01-01

    While the conditions in emergency humanitarian and conflict-affected settings often result in significant sex work economies, there is limited information on the social and structural conditions of sex work in these settings, and the impacts on HIV/STI prevention and access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for sex workers. Our objective was to comprehensively review existing evidence on HIV/STI prevention and access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings globally. We conducted a comprehensive review of all peer review (both epidemiological and qualitative) and grey literature published in the last 15 years (2000-2015), focusing on 1) HIV/STI vulnerability or prevention, and/or 2) access to SRH services for sex workers in conflict-affected settings. Five databases were searched, using combinations of sex work, conflict/mobility, HIV/STI, and SRH service terms. Relevant peer-reviewed and grey literature were also hand-searched, and key papers were cross-referenced for additional material. Five hundred fifty one records were screened and 416 records reviewed. Of 33 records describing HIV/STI prevention and/or access to SRH services among sex workers in conflict-affected settings, 24 were from sub-Saharan Africa; 18 studies described the results of primary research (13 quantitative, 3 qualitative, 2 mixed-methods) and 15 were non-primary research (e.g., commentaries, policy reports, programmatic manuals). Available evidence indicated that within conflict-affected settings, SWs' capacity to engage in HIV/STI prevention and access SRH services is severely undermined by social and structural determinants including widespread violence and human rights violations, the collapse of livelihoods and traditional social structures, high levels of displacement, and difficulties accessing already scant health services due to stigma, discrimination and criminalization. This review identified significant gaps in HIV/STI and SRH research, policy

  12. Taking snapshots of preventive interventions : On the effectiveness of preventive interventions for youth and how it relates to implementation and conflict of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, F.X.

    2017-01-01

    Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and mental health problems in students in secondary education (Preventure), and empower adolescent second generation migrants (POWER). The results revealed no effectiveness of the PATHS intervention, w...

  13. Searching for late neolithic spinning bowls in the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svilar Marija M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, research on textile has received increasing attention in archaeology worldwide, providing new insights into one of the most important crafts in human history. In contrast, activities related to spinning and weaving in the Late Neolithic settlements in the Central Balkans have only be treated with cursory attention, which has resulted in nothing more than a set of general assumptions in archaeological literature. Though some progress has recently been made, investigations of textile in prehistoric contexts are still far from their full potential. The quest for spinning bowls in ceramic assemblages constitutes an important part of the given research, providing new evidence on the production of both textiles and pottery. Therefore, the focus of this paper is on the available evidence for those activities related to textile production in the Late Neolithic, primarily to spinning, with special emphasis on the earliest occurrence of spinning bowls in the Central Balkans i.e. the technology of wetting and tightening plant fibres in ceramic vessels.

  14. The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Orem, William H.; Pavlovic MD PhD, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and insidious progression that typically occurs between the 4th and 6th decade in long‐resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 – 5% of the population. Though it does not follow typical Mendelian genetics, there is a familial pattern of occurrence. Although residents may live only a few kilometers apart, certain locations are highly affected while others close by, even as close as across the road, remain unscathed. Because of this geographic selectivity scientists have searched for an environmental cause. It is thought that exposure to the toxic plant Aristolochia clematitis is to blame. Genotoxic N‐heterocyclic or polycyclic aromatic containing coal water leachates entering cultivated soil and drinking water are also a possible cause due to the proximity and predictive power of endemic foci to coal deposits. Evidence for Ochratoxin A fungal poisoning also exists. High levels of phthalates have been measured in BEN‐endemic drinking water. BEN is a probably a multifactorial disease that may result from exposure through some of above‐mentioned environmental sources, with genetic factors contributing. This review will discuss recent research concerning the etiology, potential therapies for the treatment of nephropathy, and unexplored research directions for this chronic kidney disease.

  15. Product mix of recreational tourism in the Balkan scout center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocevski Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is tourist offer of a camp which would satisfy the needs of tourists who want an active recreation, with changeable and attractive facilities in the Balkan Scout Center (BSC of Jovac. The goal is to define a model for recreational tourism product mix of the Balkan Scout Center, based on the analysis and evaluation of the elements of supply and identifying the demand for a certain program content. The research was conducted from April to August 2012, as a part of activities implemented in BSC events: Easter camp, Summer camp and Volunteer camp. The sample consisted of 100 visitors (respondents; the administered instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and the methods on which the analysis of the modeling was based were: frequency of occurrence, comparative analysis (Benchmarking, SWOT and PEST. The research results confirm the existence of necessary resources for the implementation of the contents in the field of recreational tourism in the BSC, and the possibility of implementation of the product mix that includes day trips and a variety of outdoor recreational activities.

  16. Is quality of higher educational institutions in Western Balkan real?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živaljević Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey conducted in November of 2013 in 120 higher education institutions in the Western Balkans Countries, with purpose to determine which models are used for quality improvement in Western Balkans higher educational institutions, and whether critical conditions for continuous quality improvement have been met by applying those models. Data were obtained by using questionnaire which consisted of 24 questions related to 2 previously defined hypotheses. Gathered data were tested with Student's t test to determine if there is a significant difference between the groups of higher educational institutions which use different quality models, as well as between private and public higher educational institutions. Authors argue that the rules imposed by Governments do not provide sufficient incentive for meeting the critical conditions for the continuous quality improvement. Legal framework and mandatory accreditation conducted by government bodies lead higher educational institutions to fulfil the formal requirements, distancing them from the essence of quality management, i.e. from self-criticism and motivation to consistently deliver better results than the previous ones and giving them the illusion of achieving quality through compliance with formal criteria.

  17. Prospective thermal power generation in the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasović Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the expansion of the thermal generation in the long-term for the Western Balkan region. This paper concentrates on the estimation of long-term energy data for the (Western Balkan countries. The process was implemented by the use of the PRIMES model in order to perform simulations for the future growth of electricity supply and demand in the region. Two scenarios were applied. The first (Baseline scenario was based on the current energy path of each country and on the absence of any specific energy policy like tax emissions or renewable subsidies. The second (Reference scenario was practically a series of “environmental” sub-scenarios, based on specific energy subsidy policy applied to the electricity generated by renewable sources. Results were given for the period between 2015 and 2050 in 5-year steps and conclusions were made for the whole region. As such, the results can feed up trials of energy planning referring to the future energy condition.

  18. Can individuals who are specialists in death, dying, and bereavement contribute to the prevention and/or mitigation of armed conflicts and cycles of violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Colin Murray; Attig, Thomas; Bendiksen, Robert; Cabrera, Fernando; Corr, Charles; Cox, Gerry; Faust, Susanna; Fulton, Robert; Jupp, Peter; Kallenberg, Kjell; Lamers, Elizabeth; Lamers, William; Long, Scott; McKissock, Diane; McKissock, Mal; Morgan, Mary Ann; Papadatou, Danai; Stevenson, Robert; Stoddard, Sandol; Weiss, Robert; Wrenn, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    Specialists in death, dying, and bereavement and their consequences for individuals, families, and communities have experience and research findings that are relevant to an understanding of the reactions of individuals faced by deadly violence. At such times, powerful emotions and ingrained patterns of thought and behavior can given rise to disproportionate responses that may feed into cycles of violence. An extended table shows how professionals helping individuals and families faced with violent death share common aims with those aiming to help larger social units faced with armed attacks. It follows that these professionals should work together to improve death education, to prepare people for possible deadly violence and, where possible, to suggest alternatives, to create secure places and relationships in which communication becomes possible, bad news can be broken and understood, feelings examined, differences reconciled, and people can redirect anger into the prevention of escalation rather than its perpetuation. All of these activities hold out hope that cycles of deadly violence can be broken as well as mitigating the consequences when they are not. The undoubted success of the worldwide palliative care movement resulted from the recognition of serious deficiencies in existing services, the provision of an inclusive, holistic, program that extends across medical, social psychological, and spiritual realms of discourse, providing care for patients and their families, irrespective of wealth, race, religion, and political persuasion, by dedicated leaders and teams backed by education and information services and organized across geographical boundaries. It is argued here that the time is ripe for a similar commitment to bring to an end the scandal of armed conflict by a similarly multidisciplinary, multicultural effort to relieve the suffering that both causes and results from armed conflict. This must remain independent of race, religion, political

  19. Tendances et différences démographiques dans les Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parant, Alain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans, which had long been characterized by higher fertility and earlier mortality than the more western and northern parts of the European continent, have become demographically modern. They are not for that reason any less diverse. This is witnessed, for example, by the gap that separates Bulgaria, which has long made the demographic transition, and Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, or Kosovo, where the natural population growth exceeds by far the migratory deficit. It is also witnessed by the very large spectrum of degrees of aging. Political and economic changes in the Balkans, the crises that accompanied them, the doubts that they have caused concerning the collective future, have reinforced the general tendencies toward delayed marriage and fertility, as well as toward reduced marriage and fertility rates. This has de facto consolidated the tendency toward demographic aging. Migrations, especially the migrations directly or indirectly related to the conflicts in former Yugoslavia, have also contributed to the modification of the demographic landscape and to the altering of the dynamic of the affected populations. They have also had an effect on the ethnic distribution of these populations. In the Balkans, whose bases have been strongly shaken in the past twenty years, heavy fertility and mortality tendencies limit the spectrum of possible mid-to-long term futures. There are also important consequences on the socioeconomic plan. All this in a political context, internal and external, that is the source of many questions.

    Los Balcanes, que se caracterizaron durante mucho tiempo por una fecundidad más elevada y una mortalidad más precoz que en las partes oeste y norte del continente europeo, están a partir de ahora inscritos en la modernidad demográfica. A pesar de ello son extremadamente diversos. Así lo confirma la distancia que separa, por ejemplo, Bulgaria, tierra de transición demográfica antigua

  20. Preventing conflicts among bid curves used with transactive controllers in a market-based resource allocation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Hauer, Matthew; Tuffner, Francis K.

    2017-03-07

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for distributing a resource (such as electricity) using a resource allocation system. One of the disclosed embodiments is a method for operating a transactive thermostatic controller configured to submit bids to a market-based resource allocation system. According to the exemplary method, a first bid curve is determined, the first bid curve indicating a first set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a cooling mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. A second bid curve is also determined, the second bid curve indicating a second set of bid prices for corresponding temperatures and being associated with a heating mode of operation for a heating and cooling system. In this embodiment, the first bid curve, the second bid curve, or both the first bid curve and the second bid curve are modified to prevent overlap of any portion of the first bid curve and the second bid curve.

  1. Prevention of demoralization in prolonged bicultural conflict and interaction: the role of cultural receptors II - genesis of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, John M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this article is to show that bicultural hybridization for the prevention of demoralization is anchored on the discovery of certain thematic areas (cultural receptors) in which social roles or cultural mandates are missing, unclear, ambiguous or congruent. The specific setting is the history of Goa, a former Portuguese territory on the western coast of India. Both published and unpublished sources of information were studied. Education, occupation and income, the three dimensions of social class, were less dominant than other aspects of the Hindu caste system, such as birth into a group viewed as a caste, observance of marriage circles, regulations of kinship and inheritance, and identification with a location. These other aspects were preserved as much as possible. The result was the conversion of the caste system into a system more akin to social class. Other examples of cultural receptors were found. A key step in the adaptation to acculturative stress is the discovery of cultural receptors in both cultures and the development of meaningful interconnections among those receptors. Psychotherapy attempts the restoration of morale. To be effective, therapists should consider the hierarchical organization of symbols and sentiments in the patient's culture.

  2. Ethnic Conflict in Central Europe and the Balkans: A Framework and U.S. Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    transforming the heterogeneous French, Celtic , Germanic, Flemish, Basque, Spanish, and Italian-speaking people inhabiting France at the end of the...34inalienable" lands of an ethnic group; for example, Kosovo has special nationalist mythologi - cal associations for Serbs, while Transylvania holds

  3. Some traces of interlinguistic contacts in the central Balkan mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The etymology of three Balkan tree names, S.-Cr. munika ‘Pinus leucodermis' molika ‘Pinus peuce' and omorika ‘Picea omorika' is discussed. The latter is supposed to go back, together with Bulg. morika ‘spruce', to Slavic *mъxorъ ‘fringe' describing here the hanging branches of spruce. The Bosnian pine munika, munjika growing in high and rocky places exposed to the thunder, the relation to S.-Cr. munja < Common Slavic *mъlnja seems probable, and molika may be explained as a re-borrowing from Alb. molikë traceable to the same Slavic prototype *mъlnika.

  4. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the North Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of seismic hazard maps, expressed as horizontal peak ground acceleration, have been computed for a large area of Central and Eastern Europe covering the North Balkan area (Former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania. These are based on: a a compound earthquake catalogue for the region; b a seismic source model of 50 zones compiled on the basis of tectonic divisions and seismicity, and c a probabilistic methodology using stochastic (Monte Carlo modelling. It is found that the highest hazard in the region comes from intermediate focus earthquakes occurring in the Vrancea seismic zone; here the hazard exceeds 0.4 g at return periods of 475 years. Special account has been taken of the directional nature of attenuation from this source.

  5. 76 FR 37239 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... engaged in, or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of Macedonia... persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to...

  6. 77 FR 37993 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of Macedonia and... threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to pose an...

  7. 75 FR 32843 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... engaged in, or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of Macedonia... persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to...

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... persons engaged in, or assisting, sponsoring, or supporting (i) extremist violence in the Republic of... persons threatening the peace and international stabilization efforts in the Western Balkans continue to...

  9. ASSESSING RUSSIAN IMPACT ON THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES’ EU ACCESSION: CASES OF CROATIA AND SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Zoric

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The matter of EU enlargement to the Western Balkans has become overshadowed by pressing issues such as Brexit, the rise of the radical right and international terrorism. Notwithstanding the pressure to address these issues accordingly, increasing tensions and ethnic outbursts across the Western Balkan region are reason enough for the European Union to devote significant attention to accession talks. This article addresses the Western Balkan countries’ Europeanization process with consideration of Russia as an external actor. By assessing the candidate countries’ progress amid EU negotiations, the article suggests that the countries’ bilateral ties with Russia have an impact on the Europeanization process which is particularly visible in Chapter 31 Foreign, security, and defense policy of the acquis communautaire. The broader geopolitical framework that comprises the multifaceted relationship between the EU and Russia is crucial for understanding the dynamics of EU-Western Balkans-Russia triangle.

  10. Internet Governance 2.0.1.4: The internet balkanization fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    The text addresses some of the definitions and origins of the term "Internet Balkanization." Drawing upon U.S. constitutional law and interstate commerce regulations, it argues that the term also carries strong connotations on the realms of jurisdiction and commerce. The text adds examples of how this effect affects the businesses of creative companies that are exploring innovative markets in the United States, and suggests that the term "Internet Balkanization" should not be used in the cont...

  11. Regional Approach to Luxury Market Segmentation: The Case Of Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Melika Husic-Mehmedovic; Emir Agic

    2015-01-01

    Nature of the luxury brand requires limited market in order to maintain exclusivity. Individual countries in the Western Balkans are not lucrative per se, therefore, regional segmentation is needed in the case of luxury brands. Countries of Western Balkan, i.e. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Slovenia are all post-socialist, post-war countries currently going through major transitions. Â Rather small markets are yet to be established in its final form politically, economically, so...

  12. What Strategy Should Bulgaria Pursue to Track and Disrupt Terror Networks in the Balkans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    GDP gross domestic product GIA Armed Islamic Group of Algeria GTD Global Terrorist Database IRA Irish Republican Army KLA Kosovo Liberation...number of terror activities compared with other Balkan countries. The hot 156. Global Terrorism Database, http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/. 29...given that the Balkans have been typically used as a “ spring board” for jihadists to venture into other countries to stage operations (e.g

  13. Intralocus sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, G. Sander; Schlichting, CD; Mousseau, TA

    2009-01-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict arises when there are sex-specific optima for a trait that is expressed in both sexes and when the constraint of a shared gene pool prevents males and females from reaching their optima independently. This situation may result in a negative intersexual correlation for

  14. Use of depleted uranium in military conflicts and possible impact on health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.; Aakerblom, G.

    2000-01-01

    There has been concern regarding the possible environmental impacts of depleted uranium (DU) and its possible health effects on both military personnel and on civilians following the Gulf War 1991. These issues have been raised by several non-governmental organizations, some scientists and by a number of press reports. Since DU could also have been used in the Balkan conflict 1999, there has been a concern about the possible consequences of its use for the people and for the environment of this region. Because of this concern it was considered necessary to review existing information on DU and give appropriate recommendations in the aftermath of the Balkans conflict. This was made in October 1999. In November 2000 a Mission to Kosovo was undertaken on basis of new information from NATO

  15. Characteristics of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Strains in the West Balkans: A First Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovac, Sanja; Bojić, Elma Ferić; Ibrišimović, Monia Avdić; Tutiš, Borka; Ostojić, Maja; Hukić, Mirsada

    2017-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are among the major causes of nosocomial infections and represent a growing problem in many European countries. Among the most common enterococcal isolates, Enterococcus faecium is considered to be the reservoir of VanA and VanB-mediated resistance to glycopeptides. Enterococci with VanA-mediated resistance can transfer resistance genes to other enterococci and gram-positive bacteria. Hence, monitoring and surveillance of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VREs) are crucial for the prevention of the spread of glycopeptide resistance. No reports have yet been published that document the resistance rates and typization of VREs in the region of Bosnia and Herzegovina as well as Croatia. In this study, 64 clinical enterococcal strains that were isolated in clinical centers, Mostar, Sarajevo, and Zagreb, were studied and findings regarding characteristics of vancomycin-resistant strains found in the West Balkan region are reported for the first time. All of the strains were identified using conventional phenotypic methods, and the resistance to glycopeptides was determined using the disk diffusion method, Vitek 2, and genotypic Enterococcus assay. The results of genotyping showed that 40 strains were identified as VREs (30% Enterococcus faecalis and 70% E. faecium), while the sensitivity of the phenotypic methods was 87.5%. Furthermore, VanA and VanB resistance types were found in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, with slightly higher prevalence of the latter (72.5%) over the former (27.5%).

  16. Conflict management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M

    1988-01-01

    This case study illustrates alternative approaches to conflict resolution. Although the case is fictitious, it describes a situation that is common in the workplace, i.e., the attempt of a coworker to undermine the respect, power, and authority of another staff member. The purpose of this case is to not only identify several approaches to conflict resolution but also to illustrate why some approaches can be more effective than others. Clearly, conflict that is ignored and unresolved does not usually go away. It festers and eventually becomes an even more serious problem.

  17. Ethnic conflicts in the former Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V A Annikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the XXth century the communist regimes in the Central and Eastern Europe collapsed, as well as the socialist system and the Warsaw Treaty’s Organization. New countries appeared in the international arena: instead of the former Yugoslavia, six new independent countries emerged. The disintegration of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia was followed by ethnic conflicts with tens of thousands victims. International sanctions and bombing of Serbia and Montenegro by the NATO aviation were the results of these conflicts. In 2006 disintegration continued: Serbia and Montenegro became independent countries, and in 2008, after many years of the armed conflict, Kosovo seceded from Serbia. The separation and disintegration processes seem to be typical for the Balkans, because for centuries the region has been home for several South Slavic ethnic groups with different religions, cultural and political traditions. Serbs used to dominate in the region, which provoked a constant latent confrontation with other ethnic groups. The collapse of the authoritarian system and the death of the powerful communist leader B. Tito gave impetus to nationalist movements. Various ethnic conflicts in the former Yugoslavia brought the region to the deep social and economic crisis and pose a threat to the whole Europe due to the criminal groups’ activities in the “hot spots”. In particular, Kosovo is the center of drug trafficking to the Western countries. There are also numerous facts of kidnapping and murders of civilians in the areas, including foreigners, as well as sale of human organs, etc.

  18. Balkans as a cultural symbol in the Serbian music of the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on the internalization of Western images in the Balkans has special significance in researching Serbian art. The functioning of Balkanism as it overlapped and intersected with Orientalism is indicated in the text by an examination of the cases of Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević and Josip Slavenski, the three significant composers working in Serbia during the first half of the twentieth century. Their modernistic projects present different metaphors of the Balkans. Nevertheless each of them is marked by desire to change the Balkan image into a 'positive' one and thus stands as a special voice for Serbian and regional placing in European competition for musical spaces.

  19. Balkan Wars in Social Studies and History Course Books Instructed at Primary and Secondary Education between 1997 and 2012 Years

    OpenAIRE

    KÖSE, Meliha

    2014-01-01

    1912-1913 Balkan Wars ended with important social, economical, cultural and political results for both Southeast Europe and Ottoman Empire. It is a significant turning point for the history of Turkey as well as World History. Balkan Wars had important effects on from dawn of Modern Turkey to starting of national struggle war and coming fore of national identity wars. That’s why It is a point to be emphasized how Balkan Wars are taught in both Turkish and Balkan history books. Primary educatio...

  20. Trablusgarb ve Balkan Savaşları’nın Osmanlı Devleti’nin Ticaret-i Hariciyesi Üzerindeki Etkileri The Impacts Of Tripolitanian And Balkan Wars On The Ottoman Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ÇOLAK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years of the Ottoman State witnessed successivewars. These ten years began with the Tripolitanian War, which was aTurkish-Italian war, and ended with the Balkan Wars, World War I andTurkish War of Independence. These wars led to deterioration ofpolitical and economic conditions of the state and eventually to its fall.The Tripoli and Balkan Wars deeply influenced foreign policy andtrade of the Ottoman State. The Tripolitanian War began in 1911 whenItaly invaded Tripolitania and caused tension in the Ottoman-Italianeconomic relations even for a while. The same boycott, previouslyimplemented by the Ottoman State against Austrian goods as a result ofBosnia and Herzegovina invasion of Austria-Hungary in 1908, wasimplemented against Italian goods in 1911. The idea of boycott initiallycame up in the press, because the government was late to declare waragainst Italy. However Babıâli could not prevent Italian goods enteringthe country due to capitulations, therefore resorted to increase thecustoms duties taken from Italian goods. This policy continued until thepeace treaty in 1912.In 1912 the Ottoman State found itself at war with the BalkanLeague, an alliance formed by the Balkan States (Bulgaria, Greece,Montenegro, Serbia led by Bulgaria. Babıâli entered this war withoutany preparation and during the war Babıâli on the one hand tried tomeet army’s needs and on the other hand tried to take precautions byreviewing its economic relations with these countries. As a first step,like in the Tripolitanian War, Babıâli increased the customs dutiesapplied during trade activities with these Balkan countries and laterboycott was implemented against them by the Ottoman State. Thispolicy continued until the peace treaties in 1913 and ended after thepeace.In this study we will try to answer how these wars affected theforeign trade of the Ottoman State. The impact of these wars on theimport and export relations between Italy/Balkan States and

  1. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  2. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    term Nakba literally means catastrophe and usually refers to the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though, the concept of Nakba is used in two additional ways. Namely to embrace...... to a specific place of origin and that movement of conflicts or peace can be described as relations between homeland and diaspora. Based on 16 months of fieldwork among Palestinians in Denmark this paper challenges this assumption and offers a different conceptualization of conflicts on the move. The Arabic......Within the field of ‘transnational conflicts’ a wide range of studies have explored how diasporas may contribute to or diminish conflicts within their homeland by sending remittances or weapons or by partaking in NGOs. A common assumption in this literature is that conflicts are linked...

  3. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... the characteristics of organizational conflict by appealing to the concept of natural selection: all forms of organizational behavior, including conflictual relations, stem from the effects of heritable traits associated with a universal human nature. Finally, this article proposes a neo-Machiavellian view...

  4. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... say, "You can't watch TV until your homework is finished"; but when she's away, Dad may ... difference Taking each other's feelings seriously Generating alternative solutions together Negotiating Remember, the way you handle conflict ...

  5. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Bramsen, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Isabel Bramsen & Poul Poder 2018. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.

  6. The Present Situation and the Future Perspectives of Foreign Direct Investment in Balkan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Qefalia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed increased globalization of the world economy as result of technological changes, trade liberalization and privatization policies. Balkan countries as developing nations are in the realization process of the globalization changes of the world economy. Being in the process for entry into the EU, many changes are being done to integrate with the global economic trends. The research has shown that after the fall of communism in the 1990s the Balkan Region brought significant political and economic changes. The change in attitude led to a removal of direct blockage for FDI. As a result, continued deregulation and privatization has been widespread. However, history of FDI is relatively short for Balkan Region in comparison with other countries. The economy opened up capital inflows only at the beginning of 1990s, and is still showing low shares in the total of Central and Eastern European flow. Despite Balkans competitive advantage due to its geographical location and its resources, it is still far from other Central European countries in achieving the same level of FDI. This situation came as a result of: political instability, low intraregional trade, the small size of national markets, huge institutional corruption and weak judiciary system. Among the more successful Balkan recipients of FDI has been Bulgaria and Romania, while Greece has been a major source of FDI for the transition economies of the Balkan region. Greek investment is driven in part by the availability of low cost labor in the nearby transition economies. The focus of this article is to analyze and evaluate the current performance of FDI in Balkan Region and how the governments can improve this performance.

  7. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  8. Women in migration: Some notes from the west Balkan route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivnik Tina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender is often overlooked, but important factor in research on migration. Women enter into migration experience as active individuals, but also encounter different difficulties than men do. Although it cannot be claimed that these differences are experienced by all women in the same way, we can conclude that they are the consequences of the gendered reality we live in. The article is discussing the gender specific experiences that female migrants encounter on their travel. It focuses on different forms of violence they are facing and on experiences of pregnant women. Furthermore, it deals with the legislation concerning refugees and tries to show how this legislation indirectly creates threats to women migrants while at the same time it is depriving them of power and victimizes them. It is based on understanding the legislature as man-centred, which means that it is mainly shaped by experiences of men while often not examining the specific experiences and needs of women. The data for the interpretations is non-structured and semi-structured interviews collected during field work in three refugee centers in Serbia. The interviews were mostly focused on experiences of women while traveling on the West Balkan route. They were further analyzed with anthropological and related literature.

  9. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  10. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geoculture world system, access to Balkan and Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilirjan Çukaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If culture as a term covers a broad range of relations and social behavior, mutually implicated in influential and economic cycles of the global system, then it becomes wordy geoculture. Geoculture system is used as a term by Wallerstein (2004 who had treated it as a concept largely unused and under a theory of geoculture which plays an important role in the present world system. The theses that is presented in this article is that the global trajectory in the Balkan region is increasing from culture and that, it is imperative to establish a strategic culture direction and management, which, in turn, should be formed not only as a principal need, but also as an obligation of social state institutions to find the viable solutions of the global market policy, economy and culture. And in response to the challenging question the culture of integration becomes imperative now facing nationalism. Albania will have to manage perceptions, fears and realities arising from the above mentioned phenomenon, to establish a balance between the “inside” and “outside” views. In this sense main challenge of Albania is the management of cultural globalization to get the most of opportunities despite the risk of losing ground globally

  12. Apprehensive-epistemic Da-Constructions in Balkan Slavic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Mitkovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research in this paper is focused on the apprehensive function of the particles da ne in Macedonian and da ne bi in Bulgarian as part of South Slavic subjunctive da-constructions. These clusters of particles are considered to be markers of a wider apprehensive-epistemic category. They are assumed to have undergone grammaticalization due to their morphosyntactic and prosodic unity. Even though there may be some contextual differences, these particles in both Balkan Slavic languages share a common semantic component: an undesirable “fear-causing” possibility of some potential situation. In terms of distribution, they may occur in both dependent and main clauses expressing related, gradient apprehensive-epistemic meanings. The goal of the paper is to categorize the apprehensive-epistemic types, determine their specific structural and functional properties, and establish the conceptual links between them. The paper takes a functional approach to the analysis of the apprehensive-epistemic semantic category, thus the categorization of its subtypes is determined on the basis of their functions in context. The analysis of the collected examples instantiating these functions testifies to an existing gradience within this category in both dependent and independent use. The conclusions of the paper have typological relevance in view of the fact that they may contribute to a better understanding of this crosslinguistic category from both semantic and grammatical perspective.

  13. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  14. Patterns of national identity development among the Balkan orthodox Christians during the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the development of national identities among Balkan Orthodox Christians from the 1780s to 1914. It points to pre-modern political subsystems in which many Balkan Orthodox peasants lived in the Ottoman Empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Serbian and Greek uprisings/revolutions are analyzed in the context of the intellectual climate of the Enlightenment. Various modes of penetration of the ideas of the Age of Revolution are analyzed as well as the ways in which new concepts influenced proto-national identities of Serbs and Romans/Greeks. The author accepts Hobsbawm’s concept of proto-national identities and identifies their ethno-religious identity as the main element of Balkan Christian Orthodox proto-nations. The role of the Orthodox Church in the formation of ethno-religious proto-national identity and in its development into national identity during the nineteenth century is analyzed in the cases of Serbs, Romans/ Greeks, Vlachs/Romanians and Bulgarians. Three of the four Balkan national movements fully developed their respective national identities through their own ethnic states, and the fourth (Bulgarian developed partially through its ethnic state. All four analyzed identities reached the stage of mass nationalism by the time of the Balkan Wars. By the beginning of the twentieth century, only Macedonian Slavs kept their proto-national ethno-religious identity to a substantial degree. Various analyzed patterns indicate that nascent national identities coexisted with fluid and shifting protonational identities within the same religious background. Occasional supremacy of social over ethnic identities has also been identified. Ethnification of the Orthodox Church, in the period 1831-1872, is viewed as very important for the development of national movements of Balkan Orthodox Christians. A new three-stage model of national identity development among Balkan Orthodox Christians has been proposed. It is

  15. A Comparison of Stereotypes of German and Turkish Students towards Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürcan Ültanır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective emotional thoughts like attitudes, stereotyped judgments and preconceptions are dependent on both collective and individual experiences. Experiences like reading an article or watching a movie that is based on a context determined by the curriculum might cause individual or collective discrimination towards different ethnic or cultural groups among students in a country. This study aims to explore the difference between two nations which are the Turkish nation that has many cultural and political bonds with Balkans in the history and the German nation, which is a nation that has little or no bonds with the Balkans. The main aim of the study is to figure out if the stereotypes towards Balkans can change according to the country in which an individual has grown up. MANOVA was used to figure out the difference between two capitals with regard to stereotypes towards Balkans. Findings of the study indicated that negative stereotype scores of students significantly changed according to the country in which students grew up, whereas no significant difference was found for positive stereotype scores. Moreover, it was found that Turkish students have more negative stereotypes towards Balkans than German students

  16. BALKAN TARİHİ KARŞISINDA YAHYA KEMAL BEYATLI'NIN ŞİİRİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan TOPDEMİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poets, writers, artists, music lovers, artists, nation, nation, state, and future carry the state makes. Works of national and moral values of society form. Poets of the founders of the national identity, and spiritual architects. Beyatlı Yahya Kemal, the most important is a cornerstone of our identity. Turks in the Balkans to develop and spread of civilization and culture is based on deep slate. Turks in the Balkans, the struggles, victories, defeats, is treated to a wide range of social relations literature. Beyatlı poets of the birth of Yahya Kemal Balkan cities Skopje and the lyrical poems dealt with the moral and material direction. The poet spent his childhood and youth years in Skopje and the Balkans, sorrows, joys, aspirations takes a sensitive manner. Yahya Kemal, established Turkish architecture, with different perspectives on the history of the Balkan cities in Turkey by telling us yesterday, far from the shaft, and spiritual values, recalling the necessity to determine whether we're having our values gives the message. Yahya Kemal Balkan cities, especially focusing on the poetry of the social, cultural, and lyrical themes literature, Balkans brought the rich archive. Yahya Kemal and the Balkans drawing the attention of new generations, our history, our civilization in poetry in a different way to learn by.

  17. Confronting conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika

    in public policy conflicts? And how do they incorporate principles such as fairness, inclusive representation and autonomy? - How do public administrators balance between the demands of public authorities and the needs of multiple stakeholders involved in collaborative governance processes? Based...... practices of spatial planning and urban policy in order to answer questions such as: - What dilemmas, challenges and conflicts do public administrators experience in new forms of competing rationalities of governance processes and how do they cope with it? - How do they mediate between different interests...

  18. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    The Arabic term al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and is used in Palestinian national discourse to designate the outcome of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though, the co...... off what is at hand within a specific milieu at a given time, such as contemporary conflicts, artefacts and people. It is this plasticity that enables the conflict to be recreated anew and to become meaningful in new settings and at different times....

  19. GENDER CONFLICTS OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Moskalyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Actuality of work. Student age has the most favourable conditions for psychological, biological and social development; however, there are reasons why such natural advantages over other social groups can be completely or partially levelled. One of them is the presence of conflicts in the life of a student, a special group, among which there are women. The causes of the emergence of gender conflicts in individual social groups and the strategies for their solution have not been sufficiently explored and require further study and, therefore, are relevant. Purpose of the article is to investigate the causes of gender conflicts among students as a separate social group and to develop measures to address them and prevent them. Methodology. The research conducted in the work is based on the analysis and generalization of the causes of the emergence of gender conflicts among students, the identification of the main sources of information that form the consciousness of children and adolescents, and also influence their attitude to gender equality. Originality. The nature of gender conflicts has been quite effectively studied for a long time. However, the scope of research is limited to the most numerous social groups, such as the family, labour collective, political and public organizations, etc. Being a dynamic and socio-demographic formation, the students perform an important function in society – it takes a direct part in the transformation of all spheres of the life activity of the society. Based on the study of the objective conditions of the social environment with certain models of socialization that form the consciousness of students from early childhood, a three-component system of influence was first proposed, which is aimed at overcoming gender inequality and preventing gender conflicts among students. At the same time, the interaction of the components of the system will allow to minimize the gender inequality index in our country

  20. Anticipating mediated talks : Predicting the timing of mediation with disaggregated conflict dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhe, Constantin

    2015-01-01

    Research on mediation has shown that mediation can be an effective conflict management tool to contain intrastate conflicts, prevent escalation of low intensity conflicts, and foster de-escalation. But can ripe moments for conflict prevention effectively be anticipated? This article argues that the short-term conflict history provides a good predictor of the probability of mediation onset in low-intensity conflicts. It builds on an expected utility theory of mediation and states that conflict...

  1. Collaborative investigations on thoron and radon in some rural communities of Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z. S.; Celikovic, I.; Tokonami, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Ujic, P.; Onischenko, A.; Zhukovsky, M.; Milic, G.; Jakupi, B.; Cuknic, O.; Veselinovic, N.; Fujimoto, K.; Sahoo, S. K.; Yarmoshenko, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of the first-field use in the Balkans, i.e. Serbia and Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina), of a passive polycarbonate Mark II type and poli-allyl-diglycol carbonate (Cr-39) alpha track detectors sensitive to thoron as well as to radon. Both types of solid state nuclear track detectors were designed and supplied by National Inst. of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan). The commercial names for these detectors which all have been field tested in Balkan rural communities are known as: UFO and RADUET passive discriminative radon/thoron detectors. No database of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings in Serbia or Balkans region exist, and as a result, the level of exposure of the Serbian population to thoron and its progeny is unknown so far. (authors)

  2. Paul Garde, Les Balkans, héritages et évolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Krawczykowska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Les Balkans, ce territoire montagneux (balkan signifiant « Montagne » en turc aussi appelé « Europe du sud », est plus que jamais au cœur de l'actualité. Or il semblerait que la géographie soit un paramètre bien insuffisant à sa définition. Menaçante pour les uns, prometteuse pour les autres, l'ex-Yougoslavie laisse apparaître de nombreux enjeux stratégiques, aussi bien politiques qu'économiques ou encore historiques. Ces dernières années ont remis les pays des Balkans sur le devant de la sc...

  3. Turkey Entering the European Union Through the Balkan Doors: in the Style of a Great Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronting an increasing EU opposition from a number of influential member states to its membership the AKP government adopted a multilateral approach to its foreign policy making resulting in dynamic economic and diplomatic policies with the countries from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Balkans region. In this article we analyzed the effects and consequences of a paradigmatic shift in Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in relation to the country's EU membership prospects. Through its pro-active economic and diplomatic initiatives in the region Turkey has been proving itself as indispensable country for the European Union membership. Thus, if the Turkish government concentrates more on solving its internal problems and continues its pro-active diplomacy in Western Balkans, among other regions, it could become not only a regional but also a global power.

  4. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  5. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    the characteristics of organizational conflict by appealing to the concept of natural selection: all forms of organizational behavior, including conflictual relations, stem from the effects of heritable traits associated with a universal human nature. Finally, this article proposes a neo-Machiavellian view...

  6. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  7. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  8. [Neuroethics and bioethics--implications of Balkanization controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Chiaki

    2009-01-01

    There have been considerable disputes the positioning of neuroethics as a new field since its emergence in 2002. It is the novelty of the neuroethical issues and the necessity for updated moral approaches to them that leading exponents of neuroethics have emphasized; advances in neurosciences have created an entirely new field of moral inquiries that the conventional bioethics had never noticed. Futher, as neuroethics embraces the subdivision of ethics in neuroscience, it should take precedence over bioethics, which depends on the fundamental moral concepts without questioning their bases. Many bioethicists have squarely opposed these insistences and thereby detected the claim of neuroethics exceptionalism: the asserted newness of issues comes mainly from the ignorance of exponents of this new field regarding accumulated bioethical inquiries, so that the overlapping concerns between bioethics and neuroethics are passed on to the future by them. Moreover, bioethicists point out that the recent tendency of Balkanization in the field of bioethics could endanger the integrity of moral investigations. Subfields of bioethics, such as geneethics, neuroethics, nanoethics and so on, originate consecutively, entail wastage of valuable time and money, and increase the risk of fragmentizing moral considerations in an inconsistent way. By reviewing this controversy between neuroethics and bioethics, I argue that the relevant scientific investigations and technologies, which have appeared to promote the proliferation of bioethical sub-disciplines to date, are beginning to converge into 1 complex that demands not the division into subspecialities but the novel integration of bioethical inquiries: it is time to attempt the unification of bioethical applied ethics for moral considerations regarding nano-bio-info-cogno convergent technologies.

  9. STUDY OF Salmo GENUS (PISCES, SALMONIDAE ON THE BALKAN PENINSULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simo Georgijev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Author disputes the position of the authors K o t t e l a t (1997 and K o t t e l a t & F r e y h o f (2007 about the existence of several species belonging to the Salmo genus in some parts of Balkan Peninsula: Salmo aphelios Kottelat, 1997; Salmo balcanicus (Karaman, 1927; Salmo farioides (Karaman, 1938; Salmo labrax Pallas, 1814; Salmo letnica (Karaman, 1924; Salmo lumi Poljakov, Filipi & Basho, 1958; Salmo macedonicus (Karaman, 1924; Salmo montenigrinus (Karaman, 1933; Salmo pelagonicus Karaman, 1938; Salmo peristericus Karaman, 1938; Salmo taleri (Karaman, 1932. Majority of those species were described by dr. Stanko Karaman, the author who is, regarding the number of described species of European freshwater fishes, on the second place, just behind Carl Linnaeus. It is hardly believable that four trout species were formed in a small and oligotrophic microhabitat like Ohrid Lake, or three species in the Vardar River, knowing that the factor of geographic isolation doesn’t exist in either of the habitats. The author’s position is that all of these species are actually just types of one, highly plastic regarding the micro ecological conditions and phenotypic manifestations, species: Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1785. The author supports his opinion by his own results, as well the results of other scientists, obtained through studies of ecology and taxonomy of the brown trout in fluent and still water microhabitats. Also the author suggests that it is unacceptable to apply the terminology immanent to the anthropogenic factor in a sphere of another scientific area where such factor doesn't exist (agronomy-race and biology-natural selection.

  10. Prosecutorial councils and guarantees of prosecutors autonomy in Western Balkans states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić-Bošković Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More than five years ago judicial and prosecutorial councils were established in the Western Balkans countries. Newly established institutions took over jurisdiction related to the election, promotion and dismissal of public prosecutors in line with the international standards of judicial independence. It is necessary to assess whether the prosecutorial councils fulfilled professional public expectations. In the paper author analysed European standards and good practices of prosecutorial councils' regulations, as well as comparative law models in Western Balkans countries and their compliance with standards.

  11. The status of Albanian in relation to the other Balkan languages

    OpenAIRE

    Bardh Rugova

    2015-01-01

    The status of Albanian in relation to the other Balkan languages Albanian has been in contact with other languages almost in all areas in which it is spoken, whereas the relationship with each of them differs from place to place. This study aims at describing the status of Albanian depending on its place of use and on the contacts it has with other Balkan languages.   Status języka albańskiego w porównaniu z innymi językami bałkańskimi Język albański pozostaje w stałym kontakcie ...

  12. THE MYSTERIOUS WORLD OF LORD BYRON’S “THE GIAOUR”: BALKANS

    OpenAIRE

    OKUMUŞ, Salih; KRASNIQI, Seniha

    2016-01-01

    Lord Byron was one of many English writers who chose the East as the subject of their writings. However, his uniqueness stands in truly experiencing the region. Lord Byron, in his Grand Tour through Portugal, Spain, Malta, Albania and Greece, found a non-drying source for his writings. Above all, Balkan was the place where his muse dwelled. Sources that Balkan offered fascinated him and made him become a bridge between The East and the West. This study aims to reveal Byron’s depiction of this...

  13. Facilitators and Constraints of Policy Learning for Administrative Capacity in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karini Artan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the policy-transfer literature, where processes such as Europeanization accentuate the role of policy networks as facilitators or constraints in the implementation of acquis, in addition to the familiar mechanism of “conditionality”, the principal objective of this article is to explore the challenges of policy learning toward administrative-capacity building and, more specifically, the role of what I refer to here as “donor-bureaucrat-contractor” networks in the Western Balkans. By employing a qualitative methodology consisting of forty semi-structured interviews and focus groups with policymakers, donor officers, civil-society experts and consultants in the region during the period of January 2011 to December 2016, a critical analysis of aid-supported policy learning via training as a conduit to administrative capacity-building reveals a series of context-specific dimensions, such as the informality of such networks, overreliance on local NGOs as “capacitybuilding” implementation partners and the ability of the context to affect donor behaviour - all ultimately contributing to the (non- occurrence of policy transfer. Th e overarching conclusion this article draws is that potential answers to problems with aid-supported policy learning in the region may probably lie in the invisible workings of the aforementioned networks rather than solely in the official channels of communication between Brussels and regional governments. From a policymaking standpoint, this conclusion in itself may as well be construed as a recommendation to mobilize future research surrounding the impact of such networks on European Union (EU accession processes in the region. Th is may encourage research organizations both in the EU and the region to (re orient future endeavors towards this dimension of administrative capacity-building - a core requirement for EU accession - especially as the EU itself faces its own enlargement dilemmas following

  14. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    The Arabic term al-Nakba literally means the catastrophe and is used in Palestinian national discourse to designate the outcome of the Arab-Israeli war of 1948, when the state of Israel was declared and more than 700,000 Palestinians became stateless. Among Palestinians in Denmark, though......, the concept of Nakba is used in two additional ways. Namely, to embrace their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events, like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad in 2005, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasions of Lebanon...... off what is at hand within a specific milieu at a given time, such as contemporary conflicts, artefacts and people. It is this plasticity that enables the conflict to be recreated anew and to become meaningful in new settings and at different times....

  15. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  16. Global nursing management. Avoiding conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, the healthcare industry has been no stranger to some conflicts of interest. However, as healthcare responds to demands to contain costs and adapts business models that resemble those of the corporate world, new conflicts of interest arise. Nurse executives operating in healthcare systems today must have an understanding of conflicts of interest in order to promptly identify actual as well as potential conflicts. It is imperative that strategies are set in place to prevent or handle conflicts of interest as they occur in order to build trusting relationships with patients, suppliers, and communities.

  17. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    from a more reflexive approach and advance our understanding of conflict. In this essay, we emphasize how philosophical and political assumptions about conflict frame knowledge production within the field and we encourage future theory development to build on different notions of conflict to become......Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research....... In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit...

  18. Penser les Balkans aujourd'hui : l’orientalisme, le balkanisme, et la question de la modernité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Milisavljević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the positions of the Balkans in ourcontemporary world in its continuous change – for instance the rapidEuropeanization for the protection of a common inheritance of Balkancountries. Moreover, this historical heritage is sometimes presented as a simple burden that should be overcome: the name Balkan has negative connotations, being associated with violence or primitivism. The criticism of this type of derogatory discourse called « Balkanism » is built on the deconstruction of Orientalism as initiated in the 70’s by Edward Said. In this paper, we will analyze the various types of possible objections to this Balkan approach (the absence of a colonial past, the non-existence of a « Balkan » academic tradition, the Balkan preciseness as opposed to the Oriental vagueness, as well as their not purely « oriental », yet undetermined character. Furthermore I will present the arguments in favour of another way of interpreting the Balkans which consists in the understanding of thenarrower relation between European modernity and history.

  19. Petrographic and mineral characterization of Balkan coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yossifova, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is part of a complex petrographic, mineralogical and chemical investigation on Balkan bituminous coals and their solid waste products from coal preparation. The petrographic and phase-mineralogical composition in ten composite samples and four water extracts have been studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  20. Project for study of seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in Balkan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matova, M.; Frangov, G.; Ivanov, P.

    2007-01-01

    The International Project of UNESCO - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences has the title 'Seismic - hydrogeological vulnerability of the geoenvironment and the population in the Balkan area'. The Project has a responsible task to make a study of the seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in seven Balkan countries. The study includes the collection of information for these phenomena, its analysis, documentation and comparison. The primary information will contribute also to solving several transboundary problems in the area. The obtained data will be applied for the creation of a database about the studied seismic-hydrogeological phenomena. It will be used for the primary mapping of established seismic-hydrogeological manifestations and supposed ones. On the basis of the obtained information we will go to the assessment of the seismic-hydrogeological vulnerability of the geological environment and the population in the investigated territories. The Project investigations could be used also for several recommendations related to the reduction of negative effects of the seismic-hydrogeological phenomena in seven Balkan countries. The Balkan experts will try to propose also more rational exploration of the rare positive effects of the seismic-hydrogeological manifestations. (authors)

  1. About the Terms "Yugoslavia" “Balkanization” and “Third Balkan War”

    OpenAIRE

    Marolov, Dejan; Stojanovski, Strasko

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the terms “Yugoslavia”, “Balkanization” and “Third Balkan War” in correlation with the Yugoslav wars and their character. The general aim of the paper is to make an attempt to analyze and explain these terms in historical and present patterns and see if they are applicable in the former Yugoslavia context.

  2. Comparing post-deployment mental health services utilization in soldiers deployed to Balkan, Iraq and Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T; Sadowa Vedtofte, M; Nordentoft, M

    2017-01-01

    of psychotropics. RESULTS: Utilizing of psychiatric outpatient services and psychotropics was significantly higher in first-time deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan compared with deployed to Balkan. However, the rate of postdeployment admission to psychiatric hospital did not differ between missions. Postdeployment...

  3. Distribution and diversity of Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vukojicic, Snezana; Sinzar-Sekulic, Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    The distributions of 77 Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans are mapped and the centers of their richness and diversity presented. Within the Dinaric Alps these are Mts Vranica, Durmitor, and Prokletije; in the Scardo-Pindhic mountains, Šarplanina-Rudoka-Korab form a continuous chain; in the Rhod......The distributions of 77 Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans are mapped and the centers of their richness and diversity presented. Within the Dinaric Alps these are Mts Vranica, Durmitor, and Prokletije; in the Scardo-Pindhic mountains, Šarplanina-Rudoka-Korab form a continuous chain......; in the Rhodope-Rila mountain system there are Mts Vitoša, Rila, and Pirin; while in the Balkan mountain system there are the West and Central part of Stara planina. A comparison of floristic richness and distribution of Arctic-Alpine flora in relation to altitude, geographical location, and geological substrate...... is made. Correlations between floristic richness and geographical distance of the Balkan mountains from the two main centers of Arctic-Alpine flora in Central Europe are also provided....

  4. Agenda-Setting for VET Policy in the Western Balkans: Employability versus Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Will; Pagliarello, Marina Cino

    2016-01-01

    For the last decade, the Western Balkan countries have sought to modernise their vocational education and training (VET) systems, adapting them to the needs of their emerging market economies. Within the framework of the EU accession process, the policy agenda for VET policies has been strongly influenced by a range of international and domestic…

  5. Competitiveness, Trade with the EU and Labour Markets: Challenges for the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botrić Valerija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between exporting and the labour markets of the Western Balkan economies within a macroeconomic and microeconomic framework. Within the macroeconomic framework we investigate the Western Balkan countries’ evolution of the bilateral intra-industry trade share with European Monetary Union members and compare this with the differences in bilateral unit labour cost dynamics. The microeconomic analysis rests on enterprise-level cross section data collected during the crisis period and investigates whether exporters help to create additional jobs in the region in comparison to entrepreneurs oriented towards national market. The results show that trade patterns between Western Balkan economies and EMU trading partners did not exhibit any significant changes in trend. On the other hand, it seems that during the recession period most Western Balkan economies adjusted their unit labour costs, probably in order to boost competitiveness. Microeconomic analysis revealed that, although there are some positive differences between exporters and non-exporters, exporters do not create additional employment.

  6. Influence of climatic changes on pollution levels in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Georgiev, K.; Dimov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the influence of future climatic changes on some high pollution levels that can cause damages on plants, animals and human beings. The particular area of interest is the Balkan Peninsula. Four important quantities have been selected: (a) annual concentrations, (b...

  7. Modelling Factors of Students' Work in Western Balkan Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Mirko; Kresoja, Milena

    2018-01-01

    The positive side of employment during studies is the increase of net investments in human capital. The main objective of this paper is to discover factors influencing the work of students in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro and to compare students' employment in these three Western Balkan countries. Quantitative analysis based on…

  8. A new GPS velocity field in the south-western Balkans: insights for continental dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Duni, L.; Ganas, A.; Georgiev, I.; Jouanne, F.; Koci, R.; Kuka, N.; Metois, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Balkans peninsula is an area of active distributed deformation located at the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate. Relatively low strain rates and logistical reasons have so far limited the characterization and definition of the active tectonics and crustal kinematics. The increasing number of GNSS stations belonging to national networks deployed for scientific and cadastral purposes, now provides the opportunity to improve the knowledge of the crustal kinematics in this area and to define a cross-national velocity field that illuminates the active tectonic deformation. In this work we homogeneously processed the data from the south western Balkans and neighbouring regions using available rinex files from scientific and cadastral networks (ALBPOS, EUREF, HemusNET, ITALPOS, KOPOS, MAKPOS, METRICA, NETGEO, RING, TGREF). In order to analyze and interpret station velocities relative to the Eurasia plate and to reduce the common mode signal, we updated the Eurasian terrestrial reference frame described in Métois et al. 2015. Starting from this dataset we present a new GPS velocity field covering the south western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Using this new velocity field, we derive the strain rate tensor to analyze the regional style of the deformation. Our results (1) improve the picture of the general southward flow of the crust characterizing the south western Balkans behind the contractional belt at the boundary with Adriatic and (2) provide new key elements for the understanding of continental dynamics in this part of the Eurasian plate boundary.

  9. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 20: The Balkan States (Serbia and Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkovic, Ana; Rožić, Anamarija; Turk, Nana

    2016-12-01

    This is the 20th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan region (Serbia and Slovenia). The next regular feature will look at Russia and the Ukraine. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  10. Genetic structure and demographic history of brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations from the southern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, A.P.; Madeira, M.J.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2008-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to characterize the genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the southern Balkans and to assess the spread of non-native strains and their introgression into native trout gene pools. We analysed polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci in ...

  11. Mapping the potential for decentralized energy generation based on RES in Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the countries of the Western Balkans are mostly electrified, there are still regions which do not have access to the electricity network or where the network capacity is insufficient. For the most part such areas are under special care of the state (i. e. underdeveloped, devastated by war, depopulated, on islands or in mountainous regions. Since the decentralized energy generation covers a broad range of technologies, including many renewable energy technologies that provide small-scale power at sites close to the users, such concept could be of interest for these locations. This paper identifies the areas in Western Balkans where such systems could be applied. Consideration is given to geographical locations as well as possible applications. Wind, hydro, solar photovoltaic, and biomass conversion systems were taken into consideration. Since the renewable energy sources data for Western Balkans region are rather scarce, the intention was to give a survey of the present situation and an estimate of future potential for decentralized energy generation based on renewable energy sources. The decentralized energy generation based on renewable energy sources in Western Balkans will find its niche easier for the users that will produce electricity for their own needs and for the users located in remote rural areas (off-grid applications.

  12. Consumption and perception of processed fruits in the Western Balkan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Cvetkovic, M.; Stojanovic, Z.; Spiroski, I.; Milosevic, J.; Mora, C.; Butigan, R.; Mugosa, B.; Esteve, M.; Pohar, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of the consumption and perception of processed fruits in Western Balkan countries in order to support consumer-oriented product development. In-depth interviews (n = 183) were used to explore the consumption of processed fruits, the motives to

  13. Public Regulatory Arrangements for Private Higher Education in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni; Levy, Daniel C.; Stensaker, Bjørn; Kanazir, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the developments of higher education laws and regulations in the Western Balkans for the period 1990-2015, with the aim of mapping the regulatory arrangements for the private higher education sector and to explore the relationship between public and private higher education in the region. Based on a conceptual…

  14. Sustainable prevention of resource conflicts. Raw materials supply and demand (Report 2); Rohstoffkonflikte nachhaltig vermeiden. Rohstoffe zwischen Angebot und Nachfrage (Teilbericht 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taenzler, Dennis; Westerkamp, Meike [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Supersberger, Nikolaus; Ritthoff, Michael; Bleischwitz, Raimund [Wuppertal Institut (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The demand for both energetic and non-energetic raw materials has been increasing continuously during the past few decades. Especially during the last few years, the threat of structural shortages of supply or availability came into focus. The discussion is highly controversial, especially in the case of petroleum. This sub-report presents an analysis of the supply situation of energetic and non-energetic raw materials, i.e. petroleum, coal and nuclear fuels on the one hand as well as iron and steel, chromium, nickel, cobalt, aluminium, magnesium, copper, platinum and platinum metals, industrial minerals, boron salts, phosphate, zirconium and zirconium oxide on the other hand. It is important to discuss also regional availability patterns in order to arrive at a regional picture of potential supply risks and resulting conflicts over raw materials as this is the best way to assess the danger of impending conflicts. (orig.)

  15. Local Political Conflict and Pela Gandong Amidst the Religious Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny SB Hoedodo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pela Gandong which is believed by Ambonese for its propitiational value is in fact failed to prevent horizontal conflict that victimized a big number of life and financial damages. However, Wayame villagem is found to survive from those conflicts, and the community of this village, comprising of Islam and Christian religious group, succeeds to maintain harmonious relation. The research aims at, first, describing the perception of Wayamae village community to Pela Gandong in the post-conflict period; second, analyzing the cultural competence of pela Gandong in conflict resolution in the era of technology. This research employed qualitative method, involving in-field data gathering based on official report, digging out information from the resource persons who were directly witnessing the conflict when it occured and other references obtained through Forum Group Discussion (FGD. An analysis was performed to seek answer concerning on how the community of Wayame village viewed Pela Gandong in post-conflict period, how it is – as a local wisdom – maintained in the middle of changing and how Pela Gandong was revitalized. Research showed that Pela Gandong was maintained by involving all elements such as customary community and the government. Pela Gandong grew as the icon of Ambonese society in settling conflicts by raising awareness that they are Eastern people, collectivistic in nature, and place kinship into priority.

  16. Characteristics of geopolitical position of Serbia and Serbian areas within the context of actual processes of balkanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Ljubiša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article author have aim to disclosure influences of the processes of balkanization on quality and characteristics of geopolitical position of Serbia and Serbian areas in the space of Balkans. Also, analysis of geopolitical doctrines and interests of great powers that traditionally have had impact on shaping of nationalities' relations on Balkans Peninsula and Middle Europe space, in historical dimension and in actual unfolding. Additional analysis is devoted to regional factors i.e. of neighboring countries and regional powers that influenced on quality of geopolitical and geostrategic position of Serbia and Serbian areas.

  17. Knowledge economy readiness, innovativeness and competitiveness of the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries have set themselves the goal to join the European Union as soon as possible. Accordingly, they must adjust the key components of their development policies to the Europe 2020 strategy, focusing on key priorities such as smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. This paper explores the relationship among knowledge economy readiness, innovativeness, and competitiveness of six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, and Montenegro and the group of six selected neighboring EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, and Slovenia. The paper relies on the data obtained from the Knowledge Economy Index of the World Bank Institute, INSEAD's Global Innovation Index and the Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum for 2013. Obtained data from all three sources indicated significantly lower readiness for the development of economy based on knowledge, innovation and competitiveness in the Western Balkans countries in comparison to the selected EU countries. The analysis of the interdependence of the aforementioned variables points to: a statistically significant correlation between the indicator knowledge economy index and the global innovation index for both groups of countries; b statistically significant linear correlation between innovativeness and innovation efficiency ratio for the Western Balkan countries. Conversely, no respective correlation has been registered for the group of selected EU countries; c no statistically significant correlation between the global innovation index and the global competitiveness index in the Western Balkan countries, while in respect of the group of selected EU countries, the existence of significant linear correlation between these variables has been revealed.

  18. Inner Otherness as a Source of Fear: Elements of Horror in Balkan Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lazarević-Radak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Travel fiction has created numerous Others, assigning them an ontologically unstable status, while the traditional travelogue spread a fear of the dark interior of Europe, presenting images of daily political strife, assassinations, wars and uprisings. Just like the Gothic novel, which entertained its readers with images of ruins and gloomy structures in Eastern Europe, the travelogue spread a fear of the Balkans through Europe, depicting the Balkans as a place that could pose a threat to the entire continent. While enjoying the mysterious terror of the Gothic novel, Europe also derived a kind of pleasure from the shocking images that were to be found in travelogues from the Balkans. The paper re-examines the elasticity of the boundaries of the travelogue genre, and identifies convenient transformations of certain parts of the travelogue into text aimed at inspiring terror, shocking and appalling its readers. The transformations show that it is impossible to draw a strict boundary between travel fiction and travelogues, and at the same time reveal the hidden discourse used by both genres. The parallel presence of awareness of the geographic identity of the Balkans as European, and of the aspiration to depict them as the strange inner Otherness of Europe, is accompanied by the production of terrifying images. Although these images cannot be viewed solely as a threat of "reverse colonization", the assumption that hybridity is the basis on which the terrifying nature of the Balkans is produced is re-examined. The travelogue chapters, sections and illustrations assume the features of horror, particularly body horror, revealing Europe’s fear of the possibility of the Orient infiltrating the "body of the Occident", or of the possibility of the latter being infected by elements of "alien" i.e. Oriental culture.

  19. A crisis of protection and safe passage: violence experienced by migrants/refugees travelling along the Western Balkan corridor to Northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenijević, Jovana; Schillberg, Erin; Ponthieu, Aurelie; Malvisi, Lucio; Ahmed, Waeil A Elrahman; Argenziano, Stefano; Zamatto, Federica; Burroughs, Simon; Severy, Natalie; Hebting, Christophe; de Vingne, Brice; Harries, Anthony D; Zachariah, Rony

    2017-01-01

    Pushed by ongoing conflicts and pulled by the desire for a better life, over one million migrants/refugees transited Balkan countries and arrived in Europe during 2015 and early 2016. To curb this influx, European countries instituted restrictive migration policies often characterized by building of razor-wire border fences and border closures. Among migrants/refugees who received mental health care in Serbia while travelling through Balkan countries to Northern Europe, we assessed the prevalence and patterns of violent events experienced including physical trauma. A mixed methods study among migrants/refugees attending mobile mental health clinics run by Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) between July 2015 and June 2016, in Serbia - a main transit hub to European countries. Clinics were conducted according to MSF guidelines by experienced psychologists who were supported by cultural mediators. The main outcome measures were violent events and associated physical trauma. Of 992 migrants/refugees attending MSF mental health clinics, the majority (72%) were from Syria and Afghanistan and included vulnerable groups (14%) such as unaccompanied minors and pregnant women. The most frequent mental health symptoms/signs were anxiety (29%) and adjustment reactions (26%). Of the 992 migrants/refugees, 270 (27%) had experienced violent events during their journey. Signs of physical trauma due to acts of violence were seen in 223(22%) of the 992 individuals, 144 (65%) being perpetrated by State authorities and involving women (11%) and children (13%). Border closures along the Balkan route were associated with a dramatic decrease in registered migrants/refugee arrivals in Serbia. Conversely, among those that made it across the borders, an increasing linear trend in reported violent events was observed at MSF mental health clinics ( X 2 for linear trend, P refugees seen in MSF clinics experienced violent events including physical trauma along their journey. State authorities

  20. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište, Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers, and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9. Recognizable among the glass vessels are bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska Mitrovica (fig. 10/3, Brestovik (fig. 13/3, Mirijevo (fig. 4/1, Vinča (figs. 4/2; 10/4, Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2 and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7. The available descriptions of vessels and archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1. Among

  1. USE OF FORCE: CONFLICT BETWEEN THE PROHIBITION OF ITS USE AND THE VALIDITY OF PREVENTIVE SELF-DEFENSE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE FIGHT AGAINST ORGANIZED TERRORISM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS DUTRA CETUSIC

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the prevailing regulation on the use of force, from the perspective of Article 51 of the UN Charter related to the general prohibition of Article 2.4 UN Charter, with special emphasis on the existing doctrinal conflict due to the interpretive duality of the above-mentioned Article 51 C, offering an approach to the problem. In that regard, the theories that justify unilateral anticipatory modalities in the fightagainst organized terrorism are confronted, in order to eventually findsupport in the customary law of the inherent right to self-defense.

  2. İtalya'nın Milli Birlik Sonrasında Osmanlı Devleti ve Balkan Siyaseti / Italy's Politics in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire after National Unity

    OpenAIRE

    Suat Zeyrek; Metin İlhan

    2016-01-01

    Italy's Politics in the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire after National Unity Abstract Italy frequently had obliged to change its policy against Ottoman Empire after setting up the national unity until the Balkan War. The setting up of Italy's political unity in a very late date like 1870 caused to be late in colonialism. But United Italy was emerging as a new global power. Even if this power was not sufficient, it accelerated the developments changing the balances. In a short time, Ita...

  3. Intergroup Conflicts and Customary Mediation: Experiences from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently scholars around the globe have given attention to conflict prevention, management and resolution. A considerable body of literature has been added to our academic libraries mostly by scholars from the Western societies. Conflicts in the developing areas by contrast are only minimally researched. For quite some ...

  4. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as ‘brown complex’ of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n

  5. Sideritis scardica Griseb., an endemic species of Balkan peninsula: traditional uses, cultivation, chemical composition, biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Milka; Trendafilova, Antoaneta

    2014-03-14

    Sideritis scardica Griseb. is an endemic species in the Balkan Peninsula. It is used in traditional medicine as a loosening agent in bronchitis and bronchial asthma; against the common cold and lung emphysema; in the treatment of inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders and coughs; and as an active constituent of dietary supplements for the prevention of anemia. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, biological activity, cultivation, and extraction of Sideritis scardica and to highlight the gaps in our knowledge which deserves further research. The present review is based on information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic search. These sources include Scopus, Pubmed, Web of Science, and Google scholar as well as local books on ethnopharmacology and botany of this plant. The reported data on phytochemical studies, biological activity, cultivation, extraction, and traditional uses have been reviewed. Variability in essential oil composition of wild growing and cultivated taxa depending on ecological conditions was discussed. Flavonoids, phenylethanoids, diterpenoids, aliphatic compounds, etc. identified so far have been summarized. A comparative study on the effectiveness of different methods, solvents, and parameters of extraction has also been discussed. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antioxidant, gastroprotective, antiglioma, and triple monoamine reuptake inhibition as well as cultivation of the species as an approach for conservation of the natural habitats and provision of herb with high and permanent quality has also been presented. Sideritis scardica has become very popular and widely advertised herb in Europe. Although some of ethnobotanical uses have been proved through in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical class of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects

  6. First data on canids depredation on livestock in an area of recent recolonization by wolf in central Italy : considerations on conflict survey and prevention methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrini Caterina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolf and dog depredation on livestock in the province of Rieti, central Italy, in 2007-2008, was studied. The study area was characterized by a high degree of human disturbance, widespread presence of free ranging dogs and a recent wolf recolonization. Because of the ineffectiveness of compensation programmes, it was not possible to use the official statistics to investigate the extent of the conflict, but sample interviews and surveys of farmers were used. Also, the farming protection tecniques adopted for different livestock species were analysed; the most utilized husbandry method was stabling for cattle and pigs, annual fenced grazing for horses and sheeps, and annual open grazing only for goats. Although sheep farms were the most attacked because of their availability (33.6% of the whole farms, goat farms were the most selected by predators because of their accessibility (40% of farms kept goats in annual open grazing. Management implications to mitigate livestock depredation were discussed.

  7. [Scientific conflicts. Conflict over water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Scientific progress results from conflicts about the existence of new phenomena. Two theorems are formulated: Whatever is predicted by a sufficiently famous theorist will be discovered independently of whether it exists or not. Thus the criterion for existence of a phenomenon is not its discovery but rather its reproducibility! Whatever is "discovered" by a sufficiently famous experimentalist will be explained independently of its existence. Thus the criterion for understanding a phenomenon is not an explanation but rather the unanimous acceptance of one single explanation. It is argued that the optimal intention of scientists is to be critical but not rigid and at the same time open but not credulous. Since the intentions "open" and "critical" are in opposition, the historical path of science often oscillates between the two extremes "credulous" and "rigid". This is demonstrated by historical examples and applied to the special case of water.

  8. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  9. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  10. Conflict Resolution at Work for Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    A practical workplace guide to handling conflict effectively. Managing employees and encouraging them to work together toward a common goal is an essential skill that all leaders should possess. Conflict Resolution at Work For Dummies provides the tools and advice you need to restore peace, train your colleagues to get along better with others, prevent conflicts from ever starting, and maintain better productivity while boosting morale.: One of the only trade publications that takes the manager's perspective on how to address conflicts, resolve disputes, and restore peace and productivity to t

  11. Managing Organizational Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Mitali PATHAK

    2010-01-01

    The concept of conflict, being an outcome of behaviours, is an integral part of human life. Wherever there is a difference of opinion there are chances of conflict. Managing conflict effectively demands multifarious professional abilities and acumen. To resolve and manage conflict, the organisations must understand the causes, theories, approaches and strategies of conflict management. Conflict and stress are interlinked as they are dependent on each other. It is a psychological phenomenon th...

  12. 1st International Symposium and 10th Balkan Conference on Operational Research

    CERN Document Server

    Sifaleras, Angelo; Georgiadis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Jason; Stiakakis, Emmanuil

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Balkan Conference on Operational Research (BALCOR) has facilitated the exchange of scientific and technical information on the subject of Operations Research and related fields such as Mathematical Programming, Game Theory, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Information Systems, Data Mining, and more, in order to promote international scientific cooperation.  The contributed papers contained in this volume consist of 25 selected research papers based on results presented at the 10th Balkan Conference & 1st International Symposium on Operational Research in Thessalonike, Greece. Subjects include, but do not restrict to, the development of theory and mathematical models for Operations Research, theory and applications of Combinatorial Optimization, Supply Chain Optimization, and Military Operations Research.  These carefully selected papers present important recent developments and modern applications, and will serve as excellent reference for students, researchers, and pr...

  13. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The Case of Western Balkan Countries / BKT Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulzim Rashiti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, etc., banking industry is o" en almost the most important area in the financial system. Therefore, this paper will focus on the way the acquisitions and mergers occurred in the banking system, by assuming that many of the conclusions are applicable to the entire financial system in the Western Balkans. This paper will elaborate on this aspect a case study that deals with the acquisition of Banka Kombetare Tregtare (National Commercial Bank in Albania by the Turkish company Calik Holding (Akif Bank.

  14. Does NATO Enlargement Spread Democracy? The Democratic Stabilization of Western Balkan Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Kříž

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with NATO enlargement toward Western Balkan countries and tries to answer the question of whether NATO enlargement has contributed to the democratic stabilization of the Western Balkans. The authors conclude that NATO has truly contributed to the democratic stabilization of candidate countries. Nevertheless, we have no evidence supporting the thesis that the democratic stabilization of Albania, Croatia, or Macedonia is progressing solely due to the NATO enlargement policy; it is not clear that NATO is viewed as one of the Western institutions into which these countries want to join. On the one hand, this study shows that NATO enlargement may not have as significant an impact on democratization as has been hoped for by its proponents, who started this process in the mid-90s. On the other hand, the impact of NATO on the consolidation of democratic regimes in candidate countries is by no means zero or even marginal.

  15. An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Economic Growth in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetai Besnik Taip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the main determinants and the policies that affect economic growth in the Western Balkan over the period 1994 to 2015. It employs techniques such as pooled OLS, fixed and random effects model, and Hausman-Taylor model with instrumental variables (IV. The study shows evidence of conditional convergence, indicating the need for an upward move in the steady state level. The results show that foreign direct investments, gross savings and domestic credit to the private sector have a positive effect on per capita growth. On the other hand, initial level of per capita growth, corruption, unemployment, and general government final consumption, have a negative relationship with per capita growth. The study also shows a puzzling result, that schooling is not a significant factor for growth in Western Balkans. The study also highlights the relevance of attracting more foreign direct investments and reduction in corruption.

  16. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Informal payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, although these payments negatively affect public health and health care. To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare......, of greater magnitude and more problematic than informal payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal payments and corruption. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing...... mentalities and involving the media and the EU or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal payments. Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying...

  17. Import Tariffs of Trading Partners: Evidence from Three West Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtović Safet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the effect of reducing the import tariffs of trading partners on total and individual exports of products from three countries of the Western Balkans and individually observed for each country. In order to investigate the potential effect, this paper applied the gravity equation and the GMM model system dynamic data estimation. The research is based on aggregate and non‑aggregate approach. Within the aggregate approach for the three countries of the Western Balkans, the reduction of import simple average tariff rate (SAT and weighted average tariff (WAT rate have a positive effect on the growth of total and individual exports of products. Within the non‑aggregate approach for each country individually, the reduction in imports of SAT and WAT rates also have a positive effect on the growth of total and individual exports of products from Albania and Serbia, while this effect is weak for FYR Macedonia.

  18. The invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, gray – an update of its distribution on the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Elitsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The raccoon dog, which lives especially near water and is rare in areas with low humidity, has been spreading throughout Europe since its introduction to Western Russia in the beginning of the 20th century. Official accounts of its distribution in Europe are often inaccurate due to scarce data. A literature search was conducted to identify records of the raccoon dog in the Balkans. More than 60 records were identified, including ones unlisted by the cited source from central and western Bulgaria, southern Serbia, Macedonia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Greece. The raccoon dog can be found on the Balkans either along the Danube (which is a major corridor for its invasion or along its tributaries, which might represent secondary invasion pathways.

  19. Language of globalized media as a hate generator on the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostadinović Maja R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Language of hatred in its basic war inciting sense has almost disappeared from media. However, its mutants still may come out into public though intolerance or political settlements. There is no community insensitive to some kinds of hatred. Neither developed democratic nor, even less communities in new Balkan states. Members of minority groups are specially under impact - from ethnic via religious to those specially vulnerable community groups such as handicapped, with specific diseases and juveniles and alike. This paper is about that tolerance and hatred which still exists in media on Balkan. The writer points to the relationship of journalists to those minority groups and offers some of possible ways for improving the relationship between them.

  20. Bulgaria as an electric power exchange center in the Balkans and in South-East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Shushulov, K.; Vasileva, V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a study on the electricity market in the Balkans and South-East Europe emphasizing the key role of Bulgaria on this market. Information about installed capacities and energy consumption in Bulgaria is given. The author concludes that the national and international grids strengthening will be based on: improvement of the existing corridors and their operation; establishment of new ones; implementation of the current telecommunication, information and automation systems ect

  1. Corruption as an Obstacle for Doing Business in the Western Balkans: A Business Sector Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Budak; Edo Rajh

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates business people’s perceptions of corruption as an obstacle for doing business and their attitudes towards corruption. It is based on a survey conducted on the sample of over 1800 business owners and managers in the Western Balkans region. Using the original survey data collected in 2010 for seven countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia – the paper explores business people’s views on the ways in which the busine...

  2. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-01-01

    "This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia), Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan). The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlli...

  3. Evolution and dynamics of the Cenozoic tectonics of the South Balkan extensional system

    OpenAIRE

    Burchfiel, Clark B.; Nakov, R.; Dumurdzanov, Nikola; Papanikolaou, D.; Tzankov, Tzanko; Serafimovski, Todor; King, Robert W.; Kotzev, Valentin; Todosov, Angel; Nurce, Bilbil

    2008-01-01

    The South Balkan extensional system consists of normal faults and associated sedimentary basins within southern Bulgaria, Macedonia, eastern Albania, northern Greece, and northwestern Turkey. Extensional tectonism began during the final convergence across the Vardar, Intra-Pontide, and Izmir-Ankara suture zones, where oceanic regions closed between continental Europe and continental fragments that make up the Pelagonian, Sakar, and western Anatolian tectonic units. Earliest extension of lates...

  4. Labour Market Institutions in the Western Balkan Countries and their Economic Implications: Evidence for Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Anera Alishani

    2013-12-01

    To address this issue, this paper provides a literature review of the notion of flexicurity and then investigates the relevance of flexicurity for the countries of the Western Balkans through its found components (flexible and reliable contractual arrangements, lifelong learning, active employment policies and social security system. Even though flexicurity can be a way out for low performed economies it is considered as highly costly.

  5. First record of Triaenodes bicolor (Curtis, 1834) (Insecta: Trichoptera) from the Ecoregion Hellenic Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahimi, Halil; Kuçi, Ruzhdi; Bilalli, Astrit; Gashi, Ermira

    2017-01-01

    We collected adult caddisfly specimens with entomological nets and ultraviolet light traps monthly from May to November 2012 in Brezne Lake situated in Dragash Municipality. During this investigation we found the Leptocerid species Triaenodes bicolor for the first time in Kosovo; it is also the first record for Ecoregion 6, Hellenic Western Balkans. Additionally, this is the first record of the genus Triaenodes from Kosovo. In total seven males and three females of this species were found. Tr...

  6. Firm productivity in the Western Balkans: the impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones, Peter; Hölscher, Jens; Radicic, Dragana

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as ...

  7. Firm productivity in the Western Balkans: the impact of European Union membership and access to finance.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones, P.; Holscher, Jens; Radicic, D.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as ...

  8. Firm productivity in the western Balkans: The impact of European Union membership and access to finance

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Jones P.; Hцlscher J.; Radicic D.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU), including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of...

  9. Book Review: Searching for Peace in Africa: An Overview of Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Searching for Peace in Africa: An Overview of Conflict Prevention and Management Activities (1999). Book Authors: Monique Mekenkamp, Paul van Tongeren and Hans van de Veen (eds). Utrecht: European Platform for Conflict Prevention and Transformation. 528 pp.

  10. The Balkan balneotherapy product – an approach from the destination marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Felicia STĂNCIOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the common features in the resources field, but especially the way in which they have been managed at the level of each individual country, it can be stated that a destination such as the Balkan peninsula represents a culturally homogeneous space, which has been crystallized over centuries of common history and which has imprinted a “common” destiny to the member countries, regarding the economic and cultural development. Regarding natural resources, the main similarity resides in the existence of balneotherapy resources, with particular therapeutic properties, nowadays’ development being pressured by the deterioration of one’s conception about its own health (from the demand perspective, on the one hand, and extending the concept of health (from the supply perspective, on the other hand. In the context of a less-controlled development of certain methods/techniques/procedures by the stakeholders of wellness industry, it is necessary to maintain the authenticity of the balneotherapy product whose essence is the treatment. The purpose of the paper relies in establishing the common elements which could form the essence of the balneotherapy product (sui generis and, in the same time, the differentiation elements which form the developed product of each Balkan country, alongside with the establishment of joint actions, in order to set the coordinates of the regional balneotherapy marketing strategy for the Balkan peninsula.

  11. Heterogeneity of growth in the west Balkans and emerging Europe: A dynamic panel data model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the heterogeneity of growth in the Western Balkan and Emerging European economies. For that purpose, growth determinants are estimated in the period 1997-2009 by dynamic panel data models. The chosen period provides a comparison for the model results with those estimated for the period up to 2007 in order to analyze changes caused by the global instability. According to the main findings of the paper, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reforms still matter in determining economic growth, but foreign direct investments and economic integrations seem to have the most important role in stimulating growth in the observed countries. Moreover, significant positive effects of foreign direct investments and economic integrations produce differences in growth paths between Emerging European and Western Balkan economies. Sharp decrease of foreign inflows in 2008 determined contractions of growth rates firstly in Emerging European economies with subsequent spill-over on the Western Balkan economies during 2009. Consequently, in the period of global instability, differences between two groups of economies become even more obvious.

  12. The renewable energy and economic growth nexus in Black Sea and Balkan countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koçak, Emrah; Şarkgüneşi, Aykut

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth within the framework of traditional production function for the period of 1990–2012 in 9 Black Sea and Balkan countries. For this purpose, we use panel cointegration, co-integration estimate methods and heterogeneous panel causality estimation techniques. The study has concluded that there is a long term balance relationship between renewable energy consumption and economic growth and renewable energy consumption has a positive impact on economic growth. Heterogeneous panel causality analysis results support growth hypothesis in Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Russia and Ukraine; feedback hypothesis in Albania, Georgia and Romania; neutrality hypothesis in Turkey and according to the panel data set including all nine countries the results support feedback hypothesis. With the findings, it was concluded that there is a significant impact of renewable energy consumption on economic growth in Balkan and Black Sea Countries. - Highlights: • Explores the impact of renewable energy on economic growth in Black Sea and Balkan countries. • Employs panel cointegration and heterogeneous causality analyses. • Finds significant effect of renewable energy consumption on economic growth. • Finds bidirectional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth for the whole panel.

  13. Evaluating Weight of Evidence in the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, progressive wasting disease of the kidneys, endemic in certain rural regions of the Balkan nations Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania. It is irreversible, and ultimately fatal. Though this disease was first described in the 1920s, its causes have been a mystery and a source of much academic and clinical contention. Possible etiologic agents that have been explored include exposure to metals and metalloids, viruses and bacteria, and the environmental toxins aristolochic acid (AA) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Aristolochic acid is a toxin produced by weeds of the genus Aristolochia, common in Balkan wheat fields. Aristolochia seeds may intermingle with harvested grains and thus inadvertently enter human diets. Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin (fungal toxin) common in many foods, including cereal grains. In this study, we analyzed the weight of evidence for each of the suspected causes of BEN using the Bradford Hill Criteria (BHC): nine conditions that determine weight of evidence for a causal relationship between an agent and a disease. Each agent postulated to cause BEN was evaluated using the nine criteria, and for each criterion was given a rating based on the strength of the association between exposure to the substance and BEN. From the overall available scientific evidence for each of these suspected risk factors, aristolochic acid is the agent with the greatest weight of evidence in causing BEN. We describe other methods for testing causality from epidemiological studies, which support this conclusion of AA causing BEN. PMID:24954501

  14. The determinants of intra-regional trade in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Trivić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify factors that have an influence on bilateral trade among the Western Balkan countries for the period from 1995 to 2012. Unlike a majority of works that have dealt with the subject of trade in the Balkans or the SEEs, not only geographical, economic or political factors are taken into account, but also factors constituting cultural, communicational and historical types of the so-called “distance” between countries. In order to assess their influence on trade values, an augmented version of the gravity model is employed. It was estimated threefold: as pooled data by OLS, as a random effects model and as a fixed effects model with an additional estimation of time-invariant variables following the method of Cheng and Wall (2005. The results of the research are surprising, as the strongest influence on trade values were exhibited by variables representing ease of a direct communication and similarity of religious structures. In addition, war and one-year-post-war effect showed a strong and statistically important influence. Thus, the main conclusion is that non-economic factors in the region of the Western Balkans play the most important role in determining trade values between countries.

  15. The Balkans as European Otherness. On Shaping Italian Public Opinion about the War in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škevin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the political changes involving most of Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s included a war fought between 1991 and 1995. This paper aims, by examining the press releases and newspaper articles published in the Italian daily La Stampa in 1995, to show how this influential newspaper worked on shaping Italian public opinion about the war in Croatia, and to examine the extent to which well-rooted stereotypes about the Balkans played a role in the process. The application of the methods of Critical Discourse Analysis on the material has confirmed the occurrence of stereotypes expressed through several types of polarized representations, for example, the one between the good (Italy/Europe/West and the bad (Croatia/the Balkans – associated with “primitive” nationalism and chaos. It has also shown that Italy (as part of Europe, largely saw itself as the “appointed” Western civilized neighbour towards one of its Balkan neighbours, Croatia, and worked on trying, as Todorova would put it, “to normalise” it.

  16. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 13 CFR 302.17 - Conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflicts of interest. 302.17... GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.17 Conflicts of interest. (a) General. It is EDA's and the Department's policy to maintain the highest standards of conduct to prevent conflicts of...

  18. Joke as a means of conflict settling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana A. Sadovnikova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the use of jokes as one of the verbal means of deintensification of confrontation. The examples from modern English works of art illustrating the use of jokes at different stages of the conflict are presented. As a rule, a joke can be used in open and post-conflict phases, the latent phase of the conflict is not expressed. The use of jokes on the open stage of the conflict can create a kind of tipping point to change the course of the conflict, and thereby help to resolve it. On the post-conflict stage, a joke helps to build relationships that can be important preventing renewed conflict. The article draws attention to the combination of other means of deintensification confrontation with a joke to achieve the best result in the conflict settlement process. The verbal means can be referred to the apology and change of subject, non-verbal gestures and kisses, para-verbal — soothing tone. All of these funds, if used in conjunction with a joke, contribute to a successful resolution of the conflict. They can also enhance the effect of the joke, which is especially important in the case of non-verbal means. The author notes that the effectiveness of the joke depends on both sides — how well one of the interviewees apply the tool and how the second would take it. In the case of a failed joke, the conflict is likely to increase.

  19. Sport and training of teachers on the prevention of violence and school conflicts mediation - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v34i1.14704

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Christina Madrid Finck

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the partnership between the Group of Studies and Research in School Physical Education and Teacher Training (Gepefe/UEPG/CNPq affiliated with the Graduate Program in Education (UEPG/PR, and the Nucleus of Studies and Teacher Training in Peace and Coexistence Education (NEP/UEPG. This partnership has contributed to the creation of the research line ‘Physical Education, Sport and Education for Peace: conceptual, methodological and teacher training dimensions’ in Gepefe. The goal of this article is to present more specific ideas for a convergence between the educational perspectives in sport and school physical education, mediated by the issue of teacher training. When considering aspects present in the discussion on the education for peace (coexistence, conflict, violence and peace, we find specifics to consider actions in teacher training. This process emerges as Brazil is experiencing a special moment in sports, with international events planned for the coming years, thereby expanding the need for thematic reflections regarding violence and coexistence in sports. This leads to reflections on the fundamental role of sports education in forming values of coexistence and debating teacher training in physical education for that reality. 

  20. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prenzel, Paula V., E-mail: p.v.prenzel@student.rug.nl; Vanclay, Frank, E-mail: frank.vanclay@rug.nl

    2014-02-15

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution.

  1. How social impact assessment can contribute to conflict management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenzel, Paula V.; Vanclay, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The potential for conflict is omnipresent in all projects, and even in all human interactions, and conflict itself leads to many second-order social impacts. This article examines the contribution of the methodological approach used in social impact assessment (SIA) to conflict management. We view conflict as a process that has its own dynamic, and is to be expected in all situations. By using game theory (prisoner's dilemma), we describe and conceptualize this process and highlight the importance of communication in managing conflict. We demonstrate the potential use of SIA in preventing, managing and resolving conflict. Emphasis is placed on the participatory character of SIA and the role of public media. In contrast to existing literature, our focus is not restricted to the typical fields of study of SIA (e.g. environmental conflicts), but understands conflict itself as a field of application. In this sense, conflict-sensitive SIA can be understood both as an extension to the SIA tool kit and a broadening of the scope of SIA application. -- Highlights: • Conflict is omnipresent and creates both positive and negative social impacts. • Conflict itself represents a possible field of application for SIA. • Conflict escalation is a process that can be modeled in a game-theoretic framework. • There needs to be concerted effort to prevent escalation to avoid harmful outcomes. • Conflict-sensitive SIA can support conflict management and sustainable resolution

  2. Microevolution of the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) in the Southern Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggis, Anastasia; Baxevanis, Athanasios D; Charalampidou, Alexandra; Maniatsi, Stefania; Triantafyllidis, Alexander; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2017-05-30

    The noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) displays a complex historical and contemporary genetic status in Europe. The species divergence has been shaped by geological events (i.e. Pleistocene glaciations) and humanly induced impacts (i.e. translocations, pollution, etc.) on its populations due to species commercial value and its niche degradation. Until now, limited genetic information has been procured for the Balkan area and especially for the southernmost distribution of this species (i.e. Greece). It is well known that the rich habitat diversity of the Balkan Peninsula offers suitable conditions for genetically diversified populations. Thus, the present manuscript revisits the phylogenetic relationships of the noble crayfish in Europe and identifies the genetic make-up and the biogeographical patterns of the species in its southern range limit. Mitochondrial markers (i.e. COI and 16S) were used in order to elucidate the genetic structure and diversity of the noble crayfish in Europe. Two of the six European haplotypic lineages, were found exclusively in Greece. These two lineages exhibited greater haplotypic richness when compared with the rest four (of "Central European" origin) while they showed high genetic diversity. Divergence time analysis identified that the majority of this divergence was captured through Pleistocene, suggesting a southern glacial refugium (Greece, southern Balkans). Furthermore, six microsatellite markers were used in order to define the factors affecting the genetic structure and demographic history of the species in Greece. The population structure analysis revealed six to nine genetic clusters and eight putative genetic barriers. Evidence of bottleneck effects in the last ~5000 years (due to climatic and geological events and human activities) is also afforded. Findings from several other research fields (e.g. life sciences, geology or even archaeology) have been utilized to perceive the genetic make-up of the noble crayfish. The

  3. Evaluation of a program to prevent political violence in the Basque conflict: effects on the capacity of empathy, anger management and the definition of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of a program for the prevention of political violence on empathy, expression of feelings of anger, and the capacity to define peace-violence. This study used a quasi-experimental design with pretest-posttest repeated measures and a control group. The sample comprised 276 adolescents aged between 15 and 17 years (191 in the experimental group, 85 in the control group; 127 boys and 149 girls). A battery of three assessment instruments was administered before and after the intervention. The aim of the program was to increase sensitivity to the victims of political violence, promote respect for human rights, and prevent violence. The intervention consisted of 10 sessions over 3 months. MANOVA analyses revealed that the program increased participants' capacity of empathy (perspective-taking), anger control in annoying situations, and capacity to define peace-violence. This study has practical educational implications and provides an intervention tool that enhances the development of personality during adolescence and may have a preventive effect on violent behavior. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Pedagogical and conflict situations of teacher of physical training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pechko O.M.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of pedagogical and conflict situations between teacher and student. Considered ways of solving and preventing pedagogical and conflict situations in school. Principal reasons of conflict situations are selected, situations of activity, conduct and relations. The receptions of influence of teacher of physical culture are separated on personality of schoolchildren. It is well-proven that the profession of teacher of physical culture supposes possibility of conflict situations.

  5. Understanding Conflict?...Maybe!

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony P. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    The premise of this paper is the study in the field of conflict andconflict resolution and that conflict and conflict resolution are usefulareas of focus in order to better understand human behavior. Additionally,I will present data that will highlight the notion that conflict is not in itselfa bad thing and that conflict has the capability to be utilized as a vehiclefor understanding the many contradictions that are necessarily present inour efforts to be social beings.

  6. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  7. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  8. International conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, P.

    1984-01-01

    The gravest danger facing mankind is that the superpowers have built a complex technological apparatus of nuclear weaponry without thinking through its purpose or control. In a time of crisis nuclear command systems in both the United States and the USSR are likely to pass rapidly from political to highly fragmented military control, making political direction of a nuclear war virtually impossible. The organization and management of nuclear command systems in both peace and war are analyzed, and potential wartime interactions of the Soviet and American control structures are described. Wartime information gathering is identified as the key problem of command and control because the havoc created in communications and data processing by a nuclear war would result in strong decentralizing tendencies with pathological strategy implications. By focusing on how military organizations actually carry out nuclear strategy, the uncertainty and chaos of nuclear war is shown. While there are no absolute guarantees of security in this perilous age, a full understanding of the opportunities and problems of managing nuclear forces may be the best way to prevent disaster

  9. Does EU law resolve or create conflicts between shareholders?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders.......The contribution discuss how the harmonisation in the EU has been directed at either preventing or solving conflicts between shareholders....

  10. An Examination of Long-Term Environmental-Social Dynamics in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, C.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the interactions of environmental and social dynamics in Central Balkans over the past millennium, a period that experienced three major climatic phases (Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and the warm 20th century). Meanwhile, the same period witnessed a complex human history with the emergence-rise-decline of the Ottoman Empire and subsequent socio-political events (e.g. wars, famines, migrations). Environmental datasets for the analysis include biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating of two western and central Serbian lakes while social datasets include historic population data, land use, settlement patterns, and critical historic events derived from a review of the literature and local archives. Among the environmental datasets, indigenous tree and herbaceous pollen from these Central Balkans records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics whereas potassium and titanium counts obtained through XRF act as a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes. Microscopic charcoal, cereal pollen and subordinate anthropogenic pollen (e.g. cultivated fruits and vegetables) are used to distinguish strong human impact over the landscape. These key anthropogenic indicators create a more thorough social component of the analysis in association with the social datasets. After reconstructing the individual time series for each environmental and social dataset, the two Central Balkan records are correlated in order to identify the environmental and social homogeneity and heterogeneity patterns occurring at shorter and longer timescales during the period. Results provide insights on how a region responds to social and environmental stressors and our approach demonstrates ways to integrate natural and social science system research.

  11. Lessons learnt from a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopoulou, E.; Mirasgedis, S.; Sarafidis, Y.; 3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" data-affiliation=" (FACE3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" >Gakis, N.; 3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" data-affiliation=" (FACE3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" >Hontou, V.; 3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" data-affiliation=" (FACE3TS S.A., Agiou Isidorou 1, Athens GR-11471 (Greece))" >Lalas, D.P.; Steiner, D.; Tuerk, A.; Fruhmann, C.; Pucker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Balkan countries in the process of joining the European Union shall adopt greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets and implement appropriate mitigation policies and measures. This paper presents a simplified methodological framework based on marginal abatement cost curves for estimating the technical and economic mitigation potential at sectoral level (buildings and road transport) in selected Balkan countries. The results of the analysis provide to decision makers useful information regarding the availability of background data, the potential for setting ambitious mitigation targets, and detailed tools for assisting the selection of policies and measures to meet these targets. The analysis performed shows that a significant part of the greenhouse gas emissions abatement potential can be achieved through win–win measures. The incorporation of environmental externalities associated with these interventions, estimated through benefits transfer, further improves the economic performance of these measures, especially in the buildings sector. Moreover, the implementation of these measures is shown to result in positive macroeconomic effects through increases in GDP (gross domestic product) and creation of new jobs. Finally, the rebound effect may restrict the estimated greenhouse gas emission reductions in the buildings of the countries examined due to the low energy performance of the existing building stock. - Highlights: • Analysis of the technical and economic GHG mitigation potential in western Balkans. • Marginal abatement cost curves highlight several win–win interventions. • Incorporation of environmental benefits improves the performance of measures. • Mitigation measures result in significant positive macroeconomic effects. • The investment costs and the rebound effect may influence measures' effectiveness.

  12. THE EU APPROACH TO THE WESTERN BALKANS: A SECURITY OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth FERERRO-TURRIÓN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the policies developed by the European Union towards the Western Balkans, especially those related to human mobility and visa liberalization. The main target of the paper will be to show how the conditionality policies towards these countries have been developed related to security, geopolitical needs and interests, instead of the objective/technical criteria stated in the communitarian official documents. We will see how the last enlargements of the Union have affected considerably the different positions adopted by member states in their approach toward the Balkan countries, especially in relation to chapters 23 and 24 of the negotiation agreements, dealing with issues of Justice and Home Affairs. Since then, the pragmatic approach of the Union has been reinforced, so that the accession of candidates has been delayed in time. However, some things might change, if we take into consideration the current refugee and Ukraine crises, the new relationships that have been developed with Russia (especially by Serbia, and Greece’s approach towards Moscow on the verge of the economic crisis. If the European Union has, until now, followed a stick-and-carrot approach towards the Balkans in order to maintain a security belt on its southeast border, this approach might change within a new geopolitical context. In this paper we will analyse the visa liberalization process and its developments since Thessaloniki 2003, to show how the decisions taken by the Union have been more linked to political matters related to security than to technical reasons related to passport design.

  13. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans – A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Buch Mejsner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. Aim To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. Methods After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. Results The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Conclusion Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a

  14. The Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth in the Western Balkan Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Nasir Selimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to empirically analyse the effects of tourism on economic growth in Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYROM, Montenegro and Serbia. Design/Methodology/Approach: The empirical analysis consists of 17-year panel data of 6 countries over the period 1998 to 2014. Several models are analysed using the panel regression econometric techniques. The study investigates the random and fixed effects, as well as individual heterogeneity across those countries. Also, the Hausman Taylor IV estimator is used as the most appropriate model for this analysis. The real income per capita of the sample countries is modelled as dependent on the lagged income per capita, tourist arrivals, tourism receipts, FDI stock, exports and government expenditures. Findings: The estimation results in all types of models, and indicate that tourism has a positive and significant impact on economic growth in the Western Balkan countries. The Hausman Taylor IV model suggests that for every 1% increase of tourist arrivals, the output will increase approximately by 0.08%. Research limitations/implications: Although the Hausman Taylor IV model performs well, the results should be interpreted with caution. The analysis has its limitations; firstly, the total number of observations is relatively small for a panel regression analysis; secondly, the problem of endogenity is not completely avoided. However, the study implies that these countries should enhance efforts for joint tourism sector policies to engender economic sustainability. Originality/Value: To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt of estimating the effects of tourism on economic growth in the Western Balkan countries using the Hausman Taylor IV model.

  15. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans – A Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. Aim: To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. Methods: After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. Results: The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU) or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Conclusion: Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a complex phenomenon

  16. Patterns of Abundance and Host Specificity of Bat Ectoparasites in the Central Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazerovic, J; Orlova, M; Obradovic, M; Cirovic, D; Tomanovic, S

    2018-01-10

    Bats are hosts to a number of ectoparasites-acarines (ticks, chiggers, other mites), bat flies, and fleas. Bat ectoparasites might have significant ecological and public health importance as they may be potential vectors of zoonotic agents. It is important to identify their distribution, diversity, and host-parasite associations. Bat ectoparasites in the central Balkans have been largely understudied. The present research was conducted in 45 localities at the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia. In total, 1,143 individuals of 18 species of bats have been examined for the presence and abundance of ectoparasite species during 3 yr of research. In total, 21 ectoparasite species have been identified: three species of ticks, seven species of mites (including one species of chigger), eight species of bat flies, and three species of fleas. In total, 80 host-parasite associations have been identified. The largest number of ectoparasites parasitized primarily only one host species. The highest total number of hosts was identified for ectoparasite species Ixodes vespertilionis Koch, Nycteribia schmidlii Schiner, and Spinturnix myoti Kolenati. The spinturnicid mite Spinturnix psi Kolenati was the most abundant ectoparasite species and together with Penicilidia dufouri Westwood the most widely distributed species of bat ectoparasite, being present at 21 localities in the central Balkans. The presented data include the first systematic records of patterns of prevalence, mean intensity, mean abundance, and host specificity for bat ectoparasites in the central Balkans. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  18. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A SPRINGBOARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organisational conflict manifests in various forms and has differing causative factors. Social factors like inadequate motivation, political interference in labour issues and undue pressure exerted on the organisational structure by employers of labour often cause conflicts in organisations. No wonder Odoh (2006) detailed the.

  19. Natural radionuclides content and radioactive series disequilibrium in drinking waters from Balkans region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.B.; Joksic, J.D.; Jovan Kovacevic

    2015-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of drinking water with various geological origin in Balkans region has been studied. Collected water samples are analyzed for total alpha and total beta activities and specific alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides content using low-background proportional counting and alpha and gamma-spectrometry techniques. Obtained activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in water samples and radioactive disequilibrium between members of the natural radioactive series, based on the isotopic ratios, has been discussed. (author)

  20. Gamma radiation measurements and dose rate in the region of Central Balkan National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobilarov, Roumen

    2008-01-01

    The natural gamma radiation and 137 Cs deposition in the soils in the region of Central Balkan National Park was measured, using high-resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The resulting annual effective dose was estimated to be 0,73 mSv, that not exceed the level of 1 mSv adopted as the upper annual dose limit for the population in Bulgaria. The study area is frequented by many tourists of the whole Bulgaria during week-ends and summer and winter holidays

  1. Neolithic anthropocentrism: the principles of imagery and symbolic manifestation of corporeality in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goce Naumov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The body in the Neolithic was used as adequate symbolic medium which on the one hand strengthened the crucial features of individuals, while on the other was capable to explicate the essential function of particular objects and constructions. As result to this also the concept of imagery hybridism was deployed which incorporate human body within more complex segments of visual culture and symbolic communication. Considering the variety of human representations it can be deduced that anthropocentrism was one of the main visual principles in the Neolithic Balkans which established corporality as major cognitive reference in explication of human agency and its role in understanding the fundamental symbolic processes.

  2. Building Capacity for Structural Reform in Higher Education of Western Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Barbareev, Kiril

    2011-01-01

    Core Experts’ Group under the scheme of STREW Project The inaugural meeting of the Core Experts’ Group in the Tempus-funded project, ‘Building Capacity for Structural Reform in Higher Education of Western Balkan Countries’ (STREW), was hosted by the HEA on 16 February 2011. The purpose of the meeting was to progress the first of the key activities comprising the first work package of the project, namely to draft a guidelines/questionnaire for self-evaluation reporting by stakeholders in hi...

  3. Labour Market Institutions in the Western Balkan Countries and their Economic Implications: Evidence for Kosova

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Anera Alishani; BA. Ariana Shabani; Dr.Sc. Muje Gjonbalaj

    2013-01-01

    Flexicurity as one of the most important priorities of employment policies in the EU and its Member States is considered to be also important for the other states of Central and Eastern Europe, including the Western Balkans. According to European Commission (2007, p.7), flexicurity as a combination of flexibility and security in working arrangements can be suggested as an answer to dynamic changes happening in today’s national and international economies; it is an answer to the EU’s dilemma o...

  4. Comparison of the protein and fatty acid fraction of Balkan donkey and human milk

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Gubić; Ivan Milovanović; Mirela Iličić; Jelena Tomić; Aleksandra Torbica; Ljubiša Šarić; Nebojša Ilić

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the protein and fatty acid fractions of Balkan donkey and human milk in the early lactation stage (40 and 90 day). This study revealed that donkey milk contains αs1-casein (1.38-1.89 g/L) and higher concentration of β-casein (0.1-0.55 g/L) in comparison to human milk. The concentration of α-lactalbumin increased during the lactation phases from 40 to 90 days in both types of milk. Donkey milk contained β-lactoglobulin in low concentrations which decreased ...

  5. Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and chickens: complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan endemic nephropathy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stoev, SD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available , 1–17, iFirst Mycotoxic nephropathy in Bulgarian pigs and chickens: complex aetiology and similarity to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy S.D. Stoeva*, M.F. Duttonb, P.B. Njobehb, J.S. Mosonikb and P.A. Steenkampc aDepartment of General and Clinical... of fungi was done using the keys of Klich and Pitt (1988) and Klich (2002) for Aspergillus spp. and Pitt and Hocking (1997) for Penicillium and Nelson et al. (1983) for Fusarium spp. This was done by observing both macroscopic characteristics...

  6. Corporate governance in Balkan financial institution, case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezart Dibra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance has at its backbone a set of transparent relationships between an institution’s management, its board, shareholders and other stakeholders. In this article, in the first part, the nature and purpose of corporate governance has been discussed with special emphasis on the problems of banks in the field of corporate governance. Corporate governance involves regulatory and market mechanisms, and the roles and relationships between a company’s management, its board, its shareholders and other stakeholders, and the goals for which the corporation is governed. Lately, corporate governance has been comprehensively defined as "a system of law and sound approaches by which corporations are directed and controlled focusing on the internal and external corporate structures with the intention of monitoring the actions of management and directors and thereby mitigating agency risks which may stem from the misdeeds of corporate officers. The financial crisis exposed flaws throughout financial markets and prompted much investigation into the way banks work. The ‘2008 crisis in the financial industry, among other causes, brought to light the conflict of interest between achieving aggressive results by the executives in order to obtain bonuses and the long-term risk associated with the commercial company in its business. This paper focuses on one line of investigation—the corporate governance of banks. It examines why governance of banks differs from governance of nonfinancial firms and where the governance of banks failed during the crisis; it also offers recommendations for improving the governance system. Bank governance has been the topic of much recent academic work and policy discussion (Senior Supervisors Group 2008, 2009; Walker Report 2009; Committee of European Banking Supervisors 2010. Because of their contemporaneous nature, there has been little connection between the academic approach and policy analysis. The purpose of

  7. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  8. Depleted uranium in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Post-conflict environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Depleted Uranium (DU) ammunition was used in 1994-95 during the conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This third DU field study from the Balkans, following UNEP's earlier DU studies in Kosovo (2001) and Serbia and Montenegro (2002), increases the scientific knowledge of the behaviour of DU in the environment. The mission investigated 14 sites. DU could be easily found at three of these sites more than seven years after the conflict and was confirmed by the physical presence of penetrators and jackets, as well as by soil, bio-indicator, water and air samples. For the first time in UNEP's DU studies in the Balkans, DU was found in drinking water samples, albeit at extremely low levels. DU was also measured in air samples, both outside as well as inside certain buildings currently in use. The report recommends precautionary steps in the form of decontamination and clean-up. Given the remaining scientific uncertainties on the long-term behaviour of DU in the natural environment, UNEP recommends further studies to be done in other regions where DU ammunition has been used. (author)

  9. Intervenciones preventivas de la violencia interna en el trabajo: políticas de buenas prácticas y gestión de conflictos Internal violence at work preventive interventions: good practice policies and conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Bernat Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    that which happens between coworkers, including middle management and high command. It includes physical violence and sexual and psychological harassment, as well as other psychological violent conducts different from that. It must be considered as a psychosocial risk which involves important danger for people's health and safety as well as organizational repercussions through direct and indirect costs. Considering internal violence from the "work risk" point of view means that it should be approached using the preventive action principles while it also allows the adoption of active strategies directed to prevent the phenomenon. Main national and international organizations propose to implement policies to prevent violence in the workplace. This article deals with the convenience of the development and implementation in organizations of an internal violence prevention policy, which involves all the organization, orientated to achieve healthy workplace environments focused on organizational and psychosocial factors. This article approaches the essential premises of internal violence prevention policies, dealing as well with the basic moments of the preventive strategy: - psychosocial risks evaluation - good practice policy - procedures for management of conflicts and psychological harassment at work - organizational communication strategies and formative actions To accomplish actual effectiveness, the internal violence prevention policies must be incorporated to the organization's Prevention Management System, which will at the same time, be integrated in all the rest of the management systems of the company.

  10. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  11. Mensenrechten in Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirine Eijkman; M. Parlevliet

    2016-01-01

    Hoofdstuk 13 in Handboek Conflict. Titel: Mensenrechten in conflict. Inhoudsopgave: 13.1 Mensenrechten 13.2 Mensenrechtenschendingen als gevolg en oorzaak van conflict 13.3 Mensenrechten in conflictoplossing 13.4 Dilemmas in de praktijk 13.5 Conclusie

  12. Creative Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prutzman, Priscilla

    1994-01-01

    The article presents several activities designed to sharpen students' listening and observation skills and help them practice finding and evaluating alternatives to classroom conflicts and conflicts they may encounter elsewhere. Activities include solution skits, role playing, reading and writing conflict stories, and making comic strips. (SM)

  13. A conflict model for the international hazardous waste disposal dispute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Kaixian; Hipel, Keith W.; Fang, Liping

    2009-01-01

    A multi-stage conflict model is developed to analyze international hazardous waste disposal disputes. More specifically, the ongoing toxic waste conflicts are divided into two stages consisting of the dumping prevention and dispute resolution stages. The modeling and analyses, based on the methodology of graph model for conflict resolution (GMCR), are used in both stages in order to grasp the structure and implications of a given conflict from a strategic viewpoint. Furthermore, a specific case study is investigated for the Ivory Coast hazardous waste conflict. In addition to the stability analysis, sensitivity and attitude analyses are conducted to capture various strategic features of this type of complicated dispute.

  14. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P.; Voice, Thomas C.; Long, David T.; Petropoulos, Evangelos A.; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-01-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination. - Water in villages affected and unaffected by Balkan Endemic Nephropathy had no significant differences in nitrogen compounds

  15. Comparison of Satellite NO2 Observations with High Resolution Model Simulations over the Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyrichidou, I.; Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Katragkou, E.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Markakis, K.; Melas, D.; van der A., R.; Boersma, F. K.; Roozendael, M. van

    2010-01-01

    High resolution model estimations of tropospheric NO 2 column amounts from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) were simulated for the Balkan Peninsula and were compared with satellite data for a period of one year, in order to study the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of pollution in the area. The Balkan area is considered a crossroad of different pollution sources and therefore has been divided in urban, industrial and rural regions, aiming to investigate the consistency of satellite retrievals and model predictions at high spatial resolution. Satellite measurements of tropospheric NO 2 are available daily at 13:30 LT since 2004 from OMI/Aura with a resolution of 13x24 km. The anthropogenic emissions used in CAMx for the domain under study, was compiled employing bottom-up approaches (road transport sector, off-road machinery) as well as other national registries and international databases. High resolution GIS maps (road network, landuses, population) were also used in order to achieve high spatial resolution. In most of the cases the model reveals similar spatial patterns with the satellite data, while over certain areas discrepancies were found and investigated.

  16. The Determinants of Capital Structure: Evidence from Listed Companies in Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Ngjeliu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As most of the empirical literature regarding the determinants of capital structure relies on developed economies, this study contributes to the existing literature by looking at listed companies in the Balkan region. It investigates 760 companies over a 6-year period from 2007 to 2013 using a random effect model. The leverage is specified as a function of firm-specific characteristics, and the results are in line with previous empirical studies. Respectively, it is seen that a positive correlation is significant for size, while a negative one is found for profitability. Observing the decomposition of leverage, it can be assessed that the Balkan companies rely mostly on short-term debt. Furthermore, this study aims and finds significant differences between the determinants of capital structure of the companies established in EU and those in non-EU countries. The z-score indicated that when looking at the total debt ratio there is only one determinant which is statically significant.

  17. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Using Natural Sciences for Cultural Expansion: The National Socialist Agenda for the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zarifi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the political merit natural sciences were awarded under the totalitarian regime of Nazi Germany and their propagandistic role in Hitler's foreign policy agenda for the Balkans, a region which was expected to replace Germany's colonies lost in World War I. It accounts further for the policies and strategies National Socialists used to exert cultural influence on the countries of South-East Europe, namely through a number of institutions with which natural sciences were in one way or another involved in order to promote German culture abroad. The promotion of the German language and, to a certain degree, the Nazi ideology was a precondition for familiarising the Balkan countries with German scientific achievements, which would pave the way for an economic and political infiltration in that region. Therefore, natural sciences, as part of the German intellect, acquired political and economic connotations hidden behind the euphemistic term of cultural policy, designed for this region of geopolitical importance. The article is based almost exclusively on unpublished German records.

  19. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities.

  20. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  1. Antecedents and consequences of intra-group conflict among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Doran, Diane M; McGillis Hall, Linda; Spence Laschinger, Heather K

    2010-11-01

    To test a theoretical model linking selected antecedent variables to intra-group conflict among nurses, and subsequently conflict management style, job stress and job satisfaction. A contributing factor to the nursing shortage is job dissatisfaction as a result of conflict among nurses. To develop strategies to reduce conflict, research is needed to understand the causes and outcomes of conflict in nursing work environments. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 277 acute care nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesised model. Nurses' core self-evaluations, complexity of care and relationships with managers and nursing colleagues influenced their perceived level of conflict. Conflict management style partially mediated the relationship between conflict and job satisfaction. Job stress had a direct effect on job satisfaction and core self-evaluation had a direct effect on job stress. Conflict and its associated outcomes is a complex process, affected by dispositional, contextual and interpersonal factors. How nurses manage conflict may not prevent the negative effects of conflict, however, learning to manage conflict using collaboration and accommodation may help nurses experience greater job satisfaction. Strategies to manage and reduce conflict include building interactional justice practices and positive interpersonal relationships. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play.......The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...

  3. The influence of climate change to European Lakes, with a special emphasis in the Balkan Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusisto, Esko

    2004-01-01

    There are almost one and half million lakes in Europe, if small water bodies with an area down to 0.001 km 2 are included. The total area of lakes is over 200.000 km 2 , in addition the man-made reservoirs cover almost 100.000 km 2 . The largest lakes are located in the zone extending from southwestern Sweden through Finland to Russia, but there are many important lakes also in central and southern Europe. The Balkan countries have altogether about ten thousand lakes with a total area of over 4000 km 2 and total volume of almost loo km 3 . Over half of the total volume is in Lake Ohrid, which ranks the seventh in Europe both as to the volume and as to the maximum depth. However, there are around thirty lakes in Europe with their surface area larger than that of Lake Ohrid. In addition to the lakes, the Balkan countries also have thousands of reservoirs with a total water storage capacity of over 50 km 3 . The response of European lakes to climate change can be discussed by dividing the lakes into five categories: 1) deep temperate lakes, 2) shallow temperate lakes, 3) mountain lakes, 4) boreal lakes and 5) arctic lakes. The lakes in the Balkan region fall belong into the first three categories. Most of the deep temperate lakes are warm monomictic; convective overturn occurs in winter or early spring. The future climate change may suppress this overturn, giving these lakes the classification of oligomictic. This implies the enhancement of anoxic bottom conditions and an increased risk of eutrophication. The oxygen conditions can also be expected to deteriorate due to increased bacterial activity in deep waters and superficial bottom sediment. In shallow temperate lakes, higher water temperatures in the future will induce intensified primary production and bacterial decomposition. The probability of harmful extreme events, e.g. the mass production of algae, will increase. The impacts may extend to fishing and recreational use. In lakes with relatively long water

  4. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  5. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... the literature of deliberative democracy claims that consensus is most often the result of rational deliberative processes, the claim of this paper is that conflicts is more likely a natural and integrated part of such deliberative acts. Conflicts are, thus, seen as inevitable. Also conflicts may function...

  6. Enhancing conflict competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Professional nurses are taking on leadership roles of diverse healthcare teams. Development of conflict competence is essential, yet requires self-awareness and deliberate effort. Heightened awareness of one's preferred conflict style and cognizance of the implications of overuse and/or underuse of these styles is important. DESIGN/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: A pre-post survey design (N = 14) used paired sample T-test. Paired sample correlations and an overview of the paired sample test are reported. Students gained self-awareness about their preferred conflict style, recognized that each conflict style has its utility depending on any given situation, and demonstrated a difference in their most frequently used style. Limited data conveys conflict behavior styles among pre-licensure nursing; however, students can influence their own environments (either causing or fueling situations) by their personal conflict-handling styles. Early development of these skills can raise awareness and cultivate ease in the management of conflict within varied settings.

  7. Groundhog Day: Expectation Management by Examining Warfare in the Early Twentieth Century Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Athey, John R

    2007-01-01

    .... History leading up to the Twentieth century contained numerous conflicts between nations on the peninsula and the first 50 years of the Twentieth century contained four additional major conflicts...

  8. The Balkan endemic Picris hispidissima (Compositae): morphology, nuclear DNA content and relationship to the polymorphic P. hieracioides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slovák, M.; Urfus, Tomáš; Vít, Petr; Marhold, K.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 278, 3-4 (2009), s. 187-201 ISSN 0378-2697 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Balkan Peninsula * genome size * multivariate morphometrics Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2009

  9. Population densities and habitat use of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) in farmlands across the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Červinka, J.; Banea, O. C.; Krofel, M.; Ćirović, D.; Selanec, I.; Penezić, A.; Grill, S.; Riegert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2014), s. 193-200 ISSN 1612-4642 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Golden jackal * Acoustic monitoring * Population density * Habitat use * GIS * Farmland * Balkan Peninsula Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.634, year: 2014

  10. Contrasting evolutionary histories of the legless lizards slow worms (Anguis) shaped by the topography of the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Jandzik, D.; Mikulíček, P.; Džukić, G.; Ljubisavljević, K.; Tzankov, N.; Jelić, D.; Thanou, E.; Moravec, J.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 99. ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anguidae * Squamata * phylogeography * biogeography * speciation * contact zones * microrefugia * Balkan mountains Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  11. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  12. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European ground squirrel, Spermophilus citellus, yields evidence on refugia for steppic taxa in the southern Balkans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštufek, B.; Bryja, Josef; Bužan, E. V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 2 (2009), s. 129-135 ISSN 0018-067X R&D Projects: GA MŠk MEB090802; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Balkan Peninsula * cytochrome b * divergence time * glacial cycles Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.122, year: 2009

  13. First thermochronological constraints on the Cenozoic extension along the Balkan fold-thrust belt (Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounov, Alexandre; Gerdjikov, Ianko; Vangelov, Dian; Balkanska, Eleonora; Lazarova, Anna; Georgiev, Stoyan; Blunt, Edward; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The Balkan fold-thrust belt, exposed in Bulgaria and north-east Serbia, is part of the north-east vergent segment of the bi-vergent Eastern Mediterranean Alpine orogen. It was formed during two distinct compressional stages; the first one lasted from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous and the second from Late Cretaceous to the Paleogene. Although the compressional tectonic evolution of the Balkan fold-thrust belt since the Middle Jurassic and during most of the Mesozoic is relatively well studied, the final exhumation of the rocks of the belt during the Cenozoic has remained poorly understood. Here, we present the first thermochronological constraints, based on fission-track and [U-Th-(Sm)]/He analysis, showing that along the central part of the belt syn- to post-orogenic extension could have started as early as the middle Eocene. Low-temperature thermochronological analysis of samples collected from three areas reveals at least two phases of increased cooling and exhumation during the Cenozoic. The first exhumation phase took place between 44 and 30 Ma and appears to be related to the syn- to post-orogenic collapse coeval with the earliest Cenozoic extensional stage observed across the southern Balkan Peninsula. A period of relative quiescence (between 30 and 25 Ma) is followed by the next cooling stage, between 25 and 20 Ma, which appears to be related to late Oligocene to early Miocene crustal extension across the Balkan Peninsula. Extension accommodated by the late Miocene to Recent age Sub-Balkan Graben System does not appear to have produced exhumation of rocks from beneath 2-4 km depth, as it was not detected by the low-temperature thermochronological methods applied in this study.

  14. Conflict Resolution in Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Mojarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A conflict situation in computer systems CS is the phenomenon arising when the processes have multi-access to the shared resources and none of the involved processes can proceed because of their waiting for the certain resources locked by the other processes which, in turn, are in a similar position. The conflict situation is also called a deadlock that has quite clear impact on the CS state.To find the reduced to practice algorithms to resolve the impasses is of significant applied importance for ensuring information security of computing process and thereupon the presented article is aimed at solving a relevant problem.The gravity of situation depends on the types of processes in a deadlock, types of used resources, number of processes, and a lot of other factors.A disadvantage of the method for preventing the impasses used in many modern operating systems and based on the preliminary planning resources required for the process is obvious - waiting time can be overlong. The preventing method with the process interruption and deallocation of its resources is very specific and a little effective, when there is a set of the polytypic resources requested dynamically. The drawback of another method, to prevent a deadlock by ordering resources, consists in restriction of possible sequences of resource requests.A different way of "struggle" against deadlocks is a prevention of impasses. In the future a prediction of appearing impasses is supposed. There are known methods [1,4,5] to define and prevent conditions under which deadlocks may occur. Thus the preliminary information on what resources a running process can request is used. Before allocating a free resource to the process, a test for a state “safety” condition is provided. The state is "safe" if in the future impasses cannot occur as a result of resource allocation to the process. Otherwise the state is considered to be " hazardous ", and resource allocation is postponed. The obvious

  15. Partners in conflict prevention and peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, Hylke; Mahr, Ewa; Petrov, Petar

    This report analyses how the EU, UN and OSCE exchange civilian capabilities during crisis missions in Kosovo, Mali and Armenia.......This report analyses how the EU, UN and OSCE exchange civilian capabilities during crisis missions in Kosovo, Mali and Armenia....

  16. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans - A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-07-03

    Informal patient payments for healthcare are common in the Western Balkans, negatively affecting public health and healthcare. To identify literature from the Western Balkans on what is known about informal patient payments and bought and brought goods, to examine their effects on healthcare and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle these payments. After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach that identified key concepts, types of evidence, and research gaps. The number of studies of informal patient payments increased between 2002 and 2015, but evidence regarding the issues of concern is scattered across various countries. Research has reported incidents of informal patient payments on a wide scale and has described various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small - particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine - evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common, of greater magnitude and perhaps more problematic than informal patient payments. Only scant research has examined the measures that are used to tackle informal patient payments. The evidence indicates that legalizing informal patient payments, introducing performance-based payment systems, strengthening reporting, changing mentalities and involving the media and the European Union (EU) or religious organizations in anti-corruption campaigns are understood as some of the possible remedies that might help reduce informal patient payments. Despite comprehensive evidence regarding informal patient payments, data remain scattered and contradictory, implying that informal patient payments are a complex phenomenon. Additionally, the data on bought and brought goods

  17. Resolving conflicts within organization

    OpenAIRE

    Augulytė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between individuals, whether it would be with colleagues, business partners or supervisors, is inevitable in every organisation. Collaborative work and aim for common goals encourages idea, experience and insight exchange. From time to time differences in opinions might arise, which result in value- related or intellectual clash, also known as a conflict. Therefore, it is paramount to know how to manage conflicts. In order to successfully overcome the conflicts, organisations shou...

  18. Committees and Conflict: Developing a Conflict Resolution Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of conflict-resolution framework to address committee conflict. Describes several conflict-resolution strategies. Matches appropriate strategies with different types of committee conflict. For example, compromise is listed at the appropriate strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  19. Mineral deposits related to tertiary magmatism in the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimovski, Todor; Jelenkovic, Rade; Tasev, Goran; Lazarov, Pande

    2003-01-01

    Neogene volcanism in the southern parts of the Balkan Peninsula is distributed in wide area, mainly in the terraines of the Vardar zone and Serbo-Macedonian massif. They are, mostly volcano-intrusive complexes, partly with emphasized extrusive-effusive character manifested in area of almost 1200 km 2 (Kratovo-Zletovo volcanic area, eastern Macedonia). From the geo tectonic point of view they are part of Vardar zone and Serbo-Macedonian massif, often they are located at the contact parts between these two geo tectonic units. With these volcano-intrusive magmatic complexes with Tertiary age, there are connected numerous deposits and occurrences of Pb-Zn, Cu, Mo, Au, Ag, Sb±W, Sn etc. (Original)

  20. Range of engineering-geological properties for some carbonate rock complexes for Balkan peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovski, Milorad; Shpago, Azra; Peshevski, Igor

    2010-01-01

    The Carbonate Rock masses are a geological media with extremely complex states and properties, which has a certain influences on the mechanical and hydraulic behavior during construction and exploitation of engineering structures. Practical aspects of the problem analysis arise from the fact that the areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and the entire Balkans is characterized by presence of wide areas covered with carbonate complexes, where large number of complex engineering structures have been, or shall be constructed in the future. In this context, their engineering-geological modeling is still a practical and scientific challenge. The analysis of engineering- geological properties is one of the main steps in forming of analytical and geotechnical models for complex rock structures. This article gives a data about the range for these properties, according to the results from an extensive investigation program. Some original correlations and testing results are given and they are compared with some published relations from the world. (Author)

  1. Renal function studies by radioisotope methods in patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanchev, J.; Tancheva, D.

    1977-01-01

    The renal function in 80 patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) was studied by radioisotope clearance and isotope nephrogram. The examinations revealed that radioisotope clearance provide significant information about renal function with various stages of nitrogen decompensation. EDTA clearance can detect the changes in glomerul filtration of patients with BEN at an early compensated stage. Comparison of the results obtained from the investigation of the glomerul filtration by creatinine and EDTA clearance found the radioisotope clearance more accurate. The effective renal plasma flow in patients with BEN at the early stage of the disease was established not to be disturbed. This provides grounds to admit that in BEN glomeruli are very likely damaged earlier as compared with the tubules. Isotope nephrogram is not changed at the early BEN stages. The changes are most frequently bilateral in the advanced stages of the disease. (author)

  2. Chromosome aberration analysis in peripheral lymphocytes of Gulf war and Balkans war veterans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.; Heimers, A.; Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Schott, A.; Hoffmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) were determined in standard peripheral lymphocyte metaphase preparations of 13 British Gulf War veterans, two veterans of the recent war in the Balkans, and one veteran of both wars. All 16 volunteers suspect exposures to depleted uranium while deployed at the two different theatres of war in 1990 and later on. The Bremen laboratory control served as a reference in this study. Compared with this control there was a statistically significant increase in the frequency of dicentric chromosomes (dic) and centric ring chromosomes (cR) in the veterans' group, indicating a previous exposure to ionising radiation. The statistically significant overdispersion of dic and cR indicates non-uniform irradiation as would be expected after non-uniform exposure and/or exposure to radiation with a high linear energy transfer. The frequency of SCEs was decreased when compared with the laboratory control. (author)

  3. On operational safety of nuclear power plants in Balkans and surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic, D.; Jovic, V.; Milivojevic, S.

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of nuclear power plants operational safety in Balkan Peninsula and surrounding in this paper is presented. The nuclear power plants: Kozloduy (Bulgaria), Bohunice (Slovak Republic), Krsko (Slovenia), PAKS (Hungary) and Cernavoda (Romania) in this analysis are considered. The approaches, methods and criteria used in operational safety analyses are quite different from that which are used by nuclear power plant proprietors. As the input data for the analysis presented in this paper, the originally developed computer program BOGRAP and the nuclear power plants operating experience published by International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) were used. The results show that considered nuclear power experienced outages, failures, and operator errors, but none of them ever released significantly increased quantities of radioactive effluents into the environment.(author)

  4. Relationship between weathered coal deposits and the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, G.L.; Radovanovic, Z.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Field studies in epidemiology and environmental geochemistry in areas in Yugoslavia containing villages with a high incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), indicate a possible relationship between the presence of low-rank coal deposits and the etiology of BEN. Preliminary results from qualitative chemical analyses of drinking water from shallow farm wells indicate the presence of soluble polar aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be derived from weathering of low-rank coals occurring in the vicinity of the endemic villages. All of the endemic villages are in alluvial valleys of tributaries to the Danube River. All except one of the clusters of endemic villages are located in the vicinity of known Pliocene age coals. Detailed sampling of the drinking waters and the nearby coals are being undertaken to identify a possible etiologic factor

  5. Discourse of simulacra in Kovacević's drama Balkan Spy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Snežana J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a reading of the famous Dušan Kovačević's drama Balkan Spy, contextualized by postulates of simulacra. The starting point for finding symbols that corresponded to the system of the non-referent world (and each such system creates its own reality, and proceeds from its own frame in which it must be interpreted is a book of Jean Baudrillard 'Simulacrum and Simulation'. Through chapters that accentuate simulacrum-like phenomena for proving the actual through imaginary and cloned, as well as defining the world of literary text as a kind of Disneyland, it becomes evident soundness of this idea that confirms the quality of this drama.

  6. Sexual size and shape dimorphism in Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is one of the key evolutionary features that has been studied in many organisms. On the other hand, sexual shape dimorphism has not been examined as well despite being as important as size dimorphism. Therefore, we analyzed the sexual size and shape dimorphism (SSSD of Salamandra salamandra from the territory of the central Balkans. In addition, we wanted to reconsider if there is some regularity in the geographical distribution of SSSD in the investigated area. Significant differences in size and shape between the sexes were found for the whole sample and among the analyzed groups. Females were larger than males and had bigger heads, interlimb distances and a parotid gland, while males had bigger tails, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and forefoot and hindfoot length. Our results reveal a strong effect of locality on trait variation. This variation from the general pattern of SSSD is not substantial but still has to be considered.

  7. Population genetic studies in the Balkans. II. DNA-STR-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckenbeck, W; Scheil, H G; Schmidt, H D; Efremovska, L; Xirotiris, N

    2001-09-01

    Within a study of the genetics of Southeastern European populations four DNA-STR-systems (D21S11, FGA, TH01, VWA) were examined in seven samples (samples of three Aromuns and four other Balkan populations). The results have been compared to data from four samples from literature (Austrians, Germans, Hungarians, Slovenians). The results show three clusters: a) the Aromuns from Albania (Andon Poci) and Macedonia (Stip region), b) the Romanian Aromuns (Kogalniceanu), Romanians (Constanta, Ploiesti) and Albanians (Tirana) und c) the data from literature. A sample of Northeastern Greece clearly differs from these three clusters. Including seven serum protein polymorphisms (without the populations from literature) results in two clusters: a) the three Aromun populations and b) Albanians and Romanians. Again the sample of Northeastern Greece clearly differs from these clusters.

  8. Antibacterial activity of domestic Balkan donkey milk toward Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Ljubiša Ć.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of raw milk from Domestic Balkan donkey breed toward Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Examination of antibacterial activity was performed in artificially contaminated milk samples by monitoring the changes of count of viable cells of tested bacteria during 8 hours of incubation at 38°C. Lysozyme and fatty acids contents were also determined in donkey milk. The obtained results indicated inhibitory effect of donkey milk toward both tested bacteria. The lysozyme content in the analyzed milk samples was ranged from 0.67 to 3.54 g/L. The most abundant fatty acids with known antibacterial activity toward Gram positive bacteria were linoleic, lauric and oleic acid.

  9. Product availability from delivery aspect: Evidence from retailers in selected Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that it represents one of the main preconditions of sales, product availability is the key task of retail companies and their delivery systems. This paper analyses its levels from the aspect of centralized and DSD systems. The research is conducted in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, including 84 stores and more than 70 FMCG products per each store. Thereby, the comparisons in product availability levels between alternative delivery systems are carried out within different trading formats and within different product categories. Unlike the results of similar studies and ongoing changes on retail markets, this research shows that at retailers in these Western Balkan countries, availability levels are higher in the case of DSD system.

  10. Croatia’s police and security community building in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro KNEZOVIĆ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the eventual existence of a security community within the Western Balkans region by exploring the contribution of police as a profession/epistemic community in Croatia to the security community building process. In order to do so, two theoretical concepts have been applied: first, the one of security community which, according to Deutsch, as well as Adler and Barnett, is something that is leading IR and humanity out of the era of nation-state; secondly, the one of professions as exclusive occupational groups in Abbott’s interpretation (wherein the police is considered to be a profession. Our approach builds on a combination of the aforementioned theories, while the study itself has been based on the developments in the field of policing in Croatia since 1990 and its implications for the creation of a security community in the region.

  11. Fertility and union formation during crisis and societal consolidation in the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Mathias

    2018-01-23

    Fertility decline in central and eastern Europe (CEE) since the fall of the communist regimes has been driven by both stopping and postponement of childbearing: two processes that have been related to crisis and economic development, respectively. In the Western Balkans these economic and political contexts followed each other in the form of a biphasic transition. I examine whether this sequence triggered fertility responses like those observed elsewhere. Relying on three independent data sources, I cross-validate the levels of, and describe the trends in, union formation and fertility (by birth order) between 1980 and 2010. Results do not reveal widespread declines in fertility to lowest-low levels during the most acute period of crisis. The subsequent postponement of marriage and first birth was also limited, and the two-child family remains the norm. This relative resilience of childbearing patterns compared with other CEE countries is discussed with reference to the institutional context.

  12. On problems related to the deployment of depleted uranium weapons in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mietelski, J. W.; Waligorski, M.P.R.; Zunic, Z.S.

    2002-01-01

    The likely long-term environmental and health effects of the deployment of weapons containing depleted uranium (DU) in the Balkans are discussed. To determine whether depleted uranium or spent reactor fuel was used in the weapons, knowledge is required of the 235 U to 238 U activity (or concentration) ratio in the measured samples. To this end, and to distinguish between uranium originating from natural and man-made sources, we discuss some of the methodology and metrology issues involved in performing alpha- and gamma- spectrometry of uranium in environmental and human samples. We present results of nuclear spectrometry performed on DU core deposits from the aluminium jacket of a PGU-14 bullet found in South Serbia. We draw attention to aspects involving ionising radiation, which are likely to be of importance when formulating a prognosis of the possible environmental and health impact of the deployment of DU weapons, indicating the importance of the inhalation pathway in children. (author)

  13. Remembrance, Public Narratives, and Obstacles to Justice in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Subotic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years since the onset of the traumatic wars of Yugoslav secession, the countries of the Western Balkans continue to nurture narratives of the past that are mutually exclusive, contradictory, and irreconcilable. The troubling ways in which states in the region remember their pasts provide continuing obstacles in the search for acknowledgment and justice. In this essay, I develop an argument for understanding the relationship between justice and remembrance of the past. To illustrate this relationship, I explore ways in which education and memorialization projects contribute to justice efforts. I critically analyze a few ongoing education and memory projects in the region, and then present alternative ideas on mechanisms of public memory that would be more conducive to building the foundational blocks of justice based on trust, respect, and dignity.

  14. David Mitrany and South-East Europe: The Balkan Key to World Peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian M. Ashworth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Today David Mitrany is best known for his work on international functionalism, which influenced the development of European integration and the organisation of United Nations specialised agencies. What is often ignored in the West is his work on South-East Europe. During the inter-war period Mitrany studied both the operation of war government and the subsequent peasant revolution in the Balkans. War government demonstrated that political organisation could bridge the gap between social action and private property, while the peasant social revolution showed that the abstract economics associated with both capitalist and Marxist economics was not applicable outside of urban industrial production. It was through his studies of South-East Europe that Mitrany drew many of the lessons and concepts that were to form the foundations of his international theory.

  15. The contribution of tourism industry on the GDP growth of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry records various economic, social, political and others influences and provides itself important position in the overall economic development of many countries. The analysis of the available data of tourist arrivals and number of tourist overnight stays in observed countries of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro led us to conduct research in order to determine tourism contribution to the overall economic growth. Based on the modified methodology used by Brida et al. (2008 for calculating real GDP growth rates and tourism contribution to the overall economic growth, the paper indicates that tourism makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth in the examined countries, regardless of the continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals. The level of tourism contribution to the overall economic growth varies and it is primarily related to diversity and quality of supply (the highest contribution is recorded in Montenegro, while lowest contribution is observed in Macedonia.

  16. Contractors on the Battlefield: When and How? Using the US Military's Risk Management Framework to Learn from the Balkans Support Contract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenfield, Victoria A; Camm, Frank

    2007-01-01

    .... To illustrate, this paper applies the framework to the Army's Balkans Support Contract (BSC); the contract covers a variety of life support, transportation, and maintenance services and has registered...

  17. Das Problem der sogenannten zusammengesetzten Bezirke auf dem Balkan im 11. Jahrhundert: Zwei fallbeispiele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsmanović Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Charakteristika der sogenannten zusammengesetzten militärisch-zivilen Bezirke behandelt, die aus zwei oder drei Untereinheiten bestanden. Diese Untereinheiten der zusammengesetzten Bezirke hatten in der Regel feste zivile und militärische Verwaltungsstrukturen, d.h. sie hatten eine gewisse Unabhängigkeit. Ein zusammengesetzter Bezirk konnte in den Quellen als ein 'thema' (im Singular bezeichnet werden oder auch im Plural als 'themata'. An seiner Spitze befand sich ein Dux/katepano oder gelegentlich auch ein Stratege. Der zivilen Verwaltung stand ein Richter/Prätor vor, welcher häufig das Amt eines anagrapheus innehatte. Weiterhin wurde der zusammengesetzte Bezirk Voleron-Strymon-Thessalonike naher untersucht sowie die Probleme, die mit dem Status seiner Unterheiten, insbesondere mit Voleron, zusammenhängen. Es ist möglich, dass aus denjenigen Gebieten des Balkans, die nach dem Jahr 1018 unter byzantinische Herrschaft gefallen waren, ein zusammengesetzter Bezirk gebildet wurde. Die Rede ist von dem Thema Bulgaria-Sirmium-Paradounavon. Es wird vermutet, dass die demographischen Umstände sowie die ethnische Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung der Region Einfluss auf die Charakteristika des zusammengesetzten Bezirks hatten. Die zivile Verwaltungsstruktur war hier nicht derart beständig wie in den anderen Gebieten des Balkans, die bereits vor dem Krieg von 976-1018 unter byzantinischer Herrschaft standen. Sirmium und Paradounavon scheinen im zivilen Bereich der Verwaltung von Amtsträgern aus Bulgarien geleitet worden zu sein, wahrend die militärische Führung anscheinend unabhängig von Bulgarien war.

  18. Greek Death-Cult, Modern and Ancient: A Comparison of a Mediterranean and Balkan Cultural Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Håland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death-cult in an attempt to clarify certain contemporary political phenomena in the Mediterranean and Balkan area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death-cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several fieldworks. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death-cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death-rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death-cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean and Balkan cultural meaning of emotion is central.

  19. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  20. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  1. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814) in the City of Plovdiv

    OpenAIRE

    Ivelin A. Mollov; Miglena V. Valkanova

    2009-01-01

    The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814)) from Nature Monument (NM) “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria). In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous fo...

  2. Brazil and International Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Yuryevna Borzova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers features of Brazilian participation in peacekeeping missions under the auspices of the United Nations related to the commitment to preventive diplomacy in resolving the conflict, the combination of diplomacy and peace-building efforts and rehabilitation of the economies of countries-participants of the conflict. Brazil put forward the initiative “Supporters of mediation”, that adds the concept of the United Nations “Responsibility to Protect” (R2P with the concept “Responsibility while protecting” (RwhileP. Brazil advocates for human rights. It marked Brazil's position on the rejection of humanitarian intervention, since the use of force leads to increased violence and instability, which manifested itself in the situation in the Middle East, and mass migration. For the country is characterized the analysis of the sources of conflict, adherence to international law, and understanding of the relationship between security and sustainable development, which is reflected in Brazil's foreign policy strategy, national security strategy.

  3. Learning Skills of Peace through Every Day Conflicts: Practical Activities and Resources for Families, Teachers and Other Caregivers. [Loose-Leaf Pages and Pack of Cards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Commission on Dispute Resolution and Conflict Management, Columbus.

    Noting that the conflicts arising daily for young children provide an opportunity for adults to model and teach skills for handling conflict peacefully, this guide provides tips for preventing unnecessary conflict, offers "first aid" for conflict moments, and provides resources for addressing common situations that can cause conflict.…

  4. Why Follow the Leader? Collective Action, Credible Commitment and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Most analyses of conflict assume that conflicting groups act in a unitary fashion. This assumption is often violated: to reduce their risk of replacement, group leaders prevent both group members and soldiers from acting collectively, making it difficult for leaders to make credible commitments to them. Lifting the assumption that groups are unitary shifts the analysis of a wide range of c...

  5. Managing Conflict in The Nigerian Construction Industry: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results also show that the management strategies mostly adopted in conflict resolution within the study area is “Negotiation and Re-negotiation” which is rated highest with 53%. Furthermore, the most important technique employed in conflict prevention is “Definition of roles and responsibilities” with percentage rating of ...

  6. Multicultural team conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  7. Multicultural team conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Heinz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the potential problems related to conflict resolution while cooperating in multicultural teams. Special attention is paid to specific character of such teams as well as to the concept of productive conflict and the ways of resolving it. The experiences gained in the Erasmus Intenstive Programme - Effective Working in Multicultural Teams were used.

  8. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  9. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...

  10. tive conflict resolution mechanism in eastern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the participants, the indigenous institutions can play a major role in preventing and resolving intra-ethnic conflicts. * Zigale Tamir Tenaw is assistant professor in the Department of Gender and Development. Studies, College of Social Sciences and Humanities, Haramaya University, Dire. Dawa, Ethiopia.

  11. Armed conflict under international humanitarian law | Nwachukwu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essence, fulcrum or goal of International Humanitarian Law is to limit, for humanitarian reasons, the effect of armed conflict. It seeks to do so by means of rules that protect persons who do not or are no longer participating in the hostilities, that restrict the means and methods of conducting hostilities and that prevent the ...

  12. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  13. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social......In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  14. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  15. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  16. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of crop farmers and nomads respectively had less than 20 years of farming experience Also the results showed that problems encountered by the crop farmers were crop destruction (22.89 %) and sexual harassment (20.65 %) while cattle theft (69.57 %) and language barrier (30.43 %) were those of the nomads. Conflicts ...

  17. The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations' post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal on Conflict Resolution ... The United Nations Organisation (UN) is best endowed to conduct preventive diplomacy (PD) by preventing disputes and conflicts arising from interstate and ... The UN has the means to prevent such conflicts and disputes from emerging and escalating into armed confrontation.

  18. Conflicts in the ICU: perspectives of administrators and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjoux Meth, Nathalie; Lawless, Bernard; Hawryluck, Laura

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand conflicts in the ICU setting as experienced by clinicians and administrators and explore methods currently used to resolve such conflicts when there may be discordance between clinicians and families, caregivers or administration. Qualitative case study methodology using semi-structured interviews was used. The sample included community and academic health science centres in 16 hospitals from across the province of Ontario, Canada. A total of 42 participants including hospital administrators and ICU clinicians were interviewed. Participants were sampled purposively to ensure representation. The most common source of conflict in the ICU is a result of disagreement about the goals of treatment. Such conflicts arise between the ICU and referring teams (inter-team), among members of the ICU team (intra-team), and between the ICU team and patients' family/substitute decision-maker (SDM). Inter- and intra-team conflicts often contribute to conflicts between the ICU team and families. Various themes were identified as contributing factors that may influence conflict resolution practices as well as the various consequences and challenges of conflict situations. Limitations of current conflict resolution policies were revealed as well as suggested strategies to improve practice. There is considerable variability in dealing with conflicts in the ICU. Greater attention is needed at a systems level to support a culture aimed at prevention and resolution of conflicts to avoid increased sources of anxiety, stress and burnout.

  19. The “rise and fall” of the corridor: Some reflections on the changes in the Balkans migratory route after the summer of 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lunaček Brumen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the summer of 2015, the status quo of the European migration policy has been thoroughly shaken up. The unprecedented size and strength of the movement of migrants – daily arriving from Turkey to the Greek islands, and from there along the so-called Balkans migratory route – put pressure on Fortress Europe and finally achieved, in September 2015, the opening of a corridor for a (relatively quicker and safer passage from Greece to Austria. This article is an attempt to reflect the events of the last year – the establishment, the characteristics and transformations, as well as the final closure of this corridor. In the first part we propose a conceptual framework for the understanding of the difference between the Balkans migratory route and the corridor and present the timeline of the »rise and fall« of the corridor. In the second part, we try to shed light on the changes which the corridor brought to migration politics and praxis from the perspective of the autonomy of migration, and suggest that the establishment of the corridor should be understood as a victory of the liberatory movement of migrants, and the nature of the corridor as being anchored in an attempt to control the movement of people: when the control cannot be ensured through repression, it needs to be ensured through humanitarianism. In the third part, we reflect on the role of the corridor, and especially of its closure, in the affirmation of the global apartheid and thus attempt to place the corridor in the context of neoliberal capitalism. The global apartheid, reinforced through borders, produces different categories of people with differential access to rights. Through the isolation and the prevention of contact (by physical and discursive means between citizens and those, who have been excluded from citizenship, the corridor and its closure participate in the establishment of a parallel inner apartheid, which endangers solidarity and the recognition of

  20. [The Austrian Red Cross and Austrian bacteriologists in the Balkan wars 1912/13 - Centenary of the first application of the bacteriology in theatres of war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2012-04-01

    When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.

  1. Changing what it means to 'become a man': participants' reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity.

  2. Changing what it means to ‘become a man’: participants’ reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  3. Impact of Origin and Biological Source on Chemical Composition, Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Properties of Some St. John’s Wort Species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae from the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Božin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John’s wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum. All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer’s disease.

  4. Impact of origin and biological source on chemical composition, anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of some St. John's wort species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae) from the Central Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božin, Biljana; Kladar, Nebojša; Grujić, Nevena; Anačkov, Goran; Samojlik, Isidora; Gavarić, Neda; Conić, Branislava Srđenović

    2013-09-25

    The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John's wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum). All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. The Balkans in Search of a New Breath: South-east Europe Revealed by the Energy Stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorlhiac, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    In the coming years, the fact that Western Europe has no choice but to equip itself with new ways of energy supply will confer a strategic place on the Balkans. The countries concerned by the projects promoted within the framework of the 'southern corridor' intend to take advantage of this transit role to boost economies hardly affected by the financial crisis, and lighten their energy dependence, while waiting to develop their own potential, still under-exploited, in particular in the renewable energies field. But the Balkans States intend also to seize this opportunity to raise their weight on the international scene and to assert their regional supremacy. Those political stakes drive most of them to settle (or minimize) some bilateral issues with their neighbors. It also drives them to broaden their partnerships beyond the European continent in order to free themselves from relations more and more tense between Russia and the European Union

  6. 20 years since the establishment of the BANTAO association (Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Nenov, Dimitar; Basci, Ali; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Tsakiris, Dimitris; Nesic, Vida; Schiller, Adalbert; Spasovski, Goce; Klinkmann, Horst; Vienken, Joerg; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Ivanovich, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO) was born in Ohrid on October 9, 1993. The war in former Yugoslavia negatively affected the development of nephrology and also the connections among the nephrologists from the Balkans. However, there was willingness for further mutual collaboration between the nephrologists from the Balkans. The war in Yugoslavia created hate among people, between the newly established countries, and there were problems with the recognition of the names of the new countries, and so, the nephrologists decided to apply the ancient principle of using the names of the cities, instead of the countries, as the founders of the Association. The main goal of BANTAO is to promote scientific and technical cooperation in the fields of renal disease and artificial organs between the regions on the Balkan Peninsula and the world, to give an opportunity for exchange of experience and knowledge among the experts in the area and to engage in collaborative projects in order to demonstrate that cooperation is possible even on the turbulent Balkan Peninsula. The I BANTAO congress was held in Varna from September 22 to 24th, 1995 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The II congress of BANTAO was held from September 6th to 10th, 1997 in Struga, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The III BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade from September 18th to 20th, 1998 (President--Lj. Djukanović, Belgrade). The IV congress of BANTAO was held in Izmir from 14th to 16th November 1999 (President--A. Akcicek, Izmir). The V Congress of BANTAO was held in Thessaloniki from September 30th to October 3rd, 2001 (President--P. Stathakis, Athens). The VI Congress of BANTAO was held for the second time in Varna from 6th to 9th October 2003 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The VII congress of BANTAO was held from September 8th to 11th, 2005 in Ohrid, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The VIII BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade, 16

  7. Distribution and variability of n-alkanes in epicuticular waxes of sedum species from the central Balkan Peninsula: chemotaxonomic importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Snežana Č; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, the n-alkane distribution and variability of the epicuticular waxes within 22 Sedum taxa was reported with focus on the chemotaxonomy of native Sedum representatives from the central Balkan Peninsula, compared to their relations with four other species of the Crassulaceae family. By GC/MS and GC-FID identification and quantification, it was established that n-alkanes C27 , C29 , C31 , C33 , and C35 were the dominant constituents of the examined epicuticular wax samples. Applying multivariate statistical analyses including agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA), the relation according to the n-alkane composition between the examined samples was established. It was shown that the n-alkane variability of the central Balkan Sedum species was considerable and that n-alkanes might not be very reliable taxonomic markers for these species. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Conflict management for managers resolving workplace, client, and policy disputes

    CERN Document Server

    Raines, Susan S

    2013-01-01

    "Raines masterfully blends the latest empirical research on workplace conflict with practical knowledge, skills, and tools to effectively manage and prevent a wide range of conflict episodes. This is a highly applicable 'top shelf book' that will assist anyone from the aspiring manager to top level management and leadership in the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. It will also be a fast favorite of professors, trainers, and students of business and conflict management."- Brian Polkinghorn, Distinguished Professor, Center for Conflict Resolution, Salisbury University. "With her broad dis

  9. The effects of German Military Commission and Balkan wars on the reorganization and modernization of the Ottoman Army

    OpenAIRE

    Topal, Ali E.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis investigates the consequences of the Ottoman Army reform initiatives from the establishment of German Military Commission (18821918) to the outbreak of World War I (19141918). The Ottoman Army undertook huge change, supported by the German Military Commission, for the survival of the Empire. During this period, the results of the Balkan Wars (19121913) provided a critical impetus to accomplish these reforms efforts. The ef...

  10. Managing Water Sustainability: Virtual Water Flows and Economic Water Productivity Assessment of the Wine Trade between Italy and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of natural resources in economic activities has become a fundamental issue when considering the perspective of sustainable development. It is necessary to rethink every process in order to reach efficiency from different points of view, not only environmentally but also economically. Water scarcity is growing because of economic and population growth, climate change, and the increasing water demand. Currently, agri-food represents the most water consumptive sector, and the increasing importance of international trade in this industry puts freshwater issues in a global context that should be analyzed and regulated by sustainable policies. This analysis is focused on virtual water flows and economic water productivity related to the wine trade, and aims to evaluate water loss/savings achieved through bilateral trade relations. The choice fell on Italy, the first wine producer in the world, and the Balkan countries. The latter are new markets for wine production/consumption, in which Italian wines are strongly positioned for different reasons. The results show that, from a national point of view and considering wine trade, Italy exports water in virtual form to the Balkan countries, more than it imports, so that in effect it partially uses its own water resources for the wine supply of the Balkans. The latter, on the other hand, being a net importer of wine, partially depends on Italian water resources and exerts less pressure on their own water basins in the supporting wine supply. We also observed that the wine trade between Italy and the Balkans implies global water savings.

  11. The New Environment of EU Enlargement: The Impact of Economic Crisis on the Western Balkans and their EU Accession Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ritsa Panagiotou

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two...

  12. MULTICULTURALISM AND RELIGIOUS-BASED CONFLICT: EVENTS OF CONFLICT BASED ON ETHNICITY, RELIGION, RACE, AND INTER-GROUP RELATIONS (SARA IN THE CITY OF PONTIANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailial Muhtifah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency of similar idea that caught the conflict prevention and management efforts nowadays to the articles of the Charter of Medina which was religious-based and containing the theory of civil society. It I mostly on the handling of conflict which tends to take preventive measures and to stop the conflict directly, as well as making a comprehensive synergistic effort to mange conflict. Conflict prevention is a core component of a comprehensive Conflict Management Program. This paper explores the conflict that occurred in Ponianak between a group of people from ethnic Dayak and members of an Islamic organization in 2012 which includes an important lesson for the people of West Kalimantan, both for the government and the community elements especially in dealing with a dispute between different groups of people. An integrative prevention has been proven to be able to answer the question of handling a conflict that has a potential to escalate into a full-scale riot. This work concludes that an integrative conflict handling model may become a viable alternative model to be adopted by the community of West Kalimantan in particular and other societies in general. A synergic integrative conflict handling model that reflects local wisdom of the people of Pontianak is expected to inspire real peace for various communities with a multicultural background. Key words: multicultural, religious-based conflict, ethnicity, religion

  13. Secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field in the Balkan region during the last eight millennia based on archaeomagnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tema, E.; Kondopoulou, D.

    2011-08-01

    The first archaeomagnetic secular variation (SV) curves for the whole Southern Balkan Peninsula are presented. These are based on all data within a 700 km circle centred at Thessaloniki (40.60oN, 23.00oE). This data set consists of 325 directional and 625 intensity data mainly from Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and southern Hungary. Some data from southern Italy are also included. The sliding moving window technique, was used to calculate a continuous SV curve for intensity while the directional SV curves were calculated using the bivariate extension of the Fisher statistics. These curves are well constrained and clearly show the main features of the geomagnetic field variation in this region during the last eight millennia. Comparisons with the predictions of the SCHA.DIF.3K and SCHA.DIF.8K regional and the CALS7K.2 and ARCH3K.1 global geomagnetic field models show a good agreement for the last 3000 years but differences for older times. The Balkan SV curves identify several rapid changes of the geomagnetic field in eastern Europe and can be used as reference curves for archaeomagnetic dating in the Balkan Peninsula.

  14. The Impact of Ethno Marketing Activities on Consumer Buying Behavior in the Balkans: The Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jusuf Zeqiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethno marketing defines as marketing segmentation approach that groups consumers on the basis of ethnicity. Ethno marketing starts with recognizing the elements of culture as crucial and essential for driving contemporary marketing strategies. Ethno marketing is slowly gaining traction in marketing in multicultural environments, particularly in countries or regions inhabited by consumers from different ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to find whether such marketing activities based on cultural elements practice has any effect on consumers’ buying behavior in the Balkans.  It focuses on consumers in Kosova with the understanding that this is a preliminary exploratory study whose results will form basis for a large study on the Balkan region. The study used a structured questionnaire with the Likert Scale. One hundred, forty-eight responses were received and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The results of the analysis show that Albanian consumers in Kosova agree that ethno marketing is important and company marketing activities such as a company’s advertisement and promotion in the language of the ethnic is considered very important during consumers purchase decisions. Furthermore, results reveal that symbols, cultural elements as well as the information dissemination inside the stores and outside seem to be very important for consumers. On the basis of this study, a larger study that covers the different countries in the Balkan region to determine how consumers in the different countries in the region relate to ethno marketing is strongly recommended.

  15. Characterization of several milk proteins in Domestic Balkan donkey breed during lactation, using lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic Balkan donkey (Equus asinus asinus is a native donkey breed, primarily found in the northern and eastern regions of Serbia. The objective of the study was to analyze proteins of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period (from the 45th to the 280th day by applying Lab-on-a-Chip electrophoresis. The chip-based separations were performed on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer in combination with the Protein 80 Plus Lab Chip kit. The protein content of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period of 280 days ranged from 1.40 % to 1.92 % and the content of αs1-casein, αs2-casein, b-casein, α-, β- lactoglobulin, lysozyme, lactoferrin and serum albumin was relatively quantified. Lysozyme (1040-2970 mg/L, α-lactalbumin 12 kDa (1990-2730 mg/L and α-lactalbumin 17.7 kDa (2240-3090 mg/L were found to be the proteins with the highest relative concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  16. Ethnic Conflicts and Governmental Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    sacrifices that she has made all these years. I would like to thank my parents and my little sister (Fikret, Nermin, and Nurgul) for their continuing...enthusiastic political speeches. It needs to go trough stages: infancy, adolescence , and adulthood.11 Thus, in Chapter IV, I discuss the value of...imminent conflict. In Sri Lanka, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam—one of the most violent movements in the world, which seeks a Tamil state in northern

  17. Resolving Marital Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  18. The Role of Teachers in Peer Conflict: Implications for Teacher Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunk, Elizabeth M.; Russell, Elizabeth Morgan; Armga, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore early childhood teachers' interventions during peer conflict. Fifteen ethnically diverse teachers in central Texas were asked to reflect on videotaped peer conflict situations. Using thematic analysis, five strategy themes were identified: prevent aggression, consider timing, stop conflict,…

  19. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  20. Playing With Conflict: Teaching Conflict Resolution through Simulations and Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Richard B.; Kirkpatrick, Kat

    2013-01-01

    Playing With Conflict is a weekend course for graduate students in Portland State University's Conflict Resolution program and undergraduates in all majors. Students participate in simulations, games, and experiential exercises to learn and practice conflict resolution skills. Graduate students create a guided role-play of a conflict. In addition…

  1. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  2. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article tries to show the impacts of conflict on women, the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social institutions and ceremonies among the Issa and Gurgura clans of the Somali ethnic group. It explores the system of conflict resolution in these clans, and ...

  3. The Quality of Governance and EU Regional Policy as a key determinant in the process of the integration of the Western Balkans into the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demush Bajrami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of governance and financial assistance as key determinants for successful functioning of the process of integration within the European Union (EU. Moreover, the paper develops a comparison of the Western Balkans with current EU members and the forthcoming, on the basis of the selected indicators of governance (rule of law, democracy, corruption, political stability, and effectiveness of state with the experience of the implementation of the reforms of public administration. Various surveys show that the Western Balkans, by all quality of governance indicators, especially in the rule of law, lags behind 28 (twenty eight of the current EU countries (without taking in account the Great Britain. The low level of the functioning of rule of law, combined with inadequate and unreformed public administration is potentially the biggest obstacle in the association agreement of the Western Balkans with EU, but also as challenge in achieving sustainable social and economic development. Whereas in the case of the Western Balkan countries, there is an obvious difference between proclaiming and internal reality, which is further compounded by a difficult political and economic transition, as well as in social domain - where poverty and corruption are the most worrying. The research data obtained from independent bodies - academic and research institutions, civil society and international organizations - confirm this controversial picture of the Western Balkans. Negative attitudes still prevail in Western Balkans political elites and if given the chance to political manipulation, may behave unpredictably. All this makes it obligatory to make a comparative overview, for depicting in particular the quality of governance as sine qua non for the Western Balkans countries‘ integration in EU.

  4. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  5. Of the importance of a leaf: the ethnobotany of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yunus; Nedelcheva, Anely; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Drăgulescu, Constantin; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Maglajlić, Aida; Ferrier, Jonathan; Papp, Nora; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Pieroni, Andrea

    2015-04-03

    Sarma - cooked leaves rolled around a filling made from rice and/or minced meat, possibly vegetables and seasoning plants - represents one of the most widespread feasting dishes of the Middle Eastern and South-Eastern European cuisines. Although cabbage and grape vine sarma is well-known worldwide, the use of alternative plant leaves remains largely unexplored. The aim of this research was to document all of the botanical taxa whose leaves are used for preparing sarma in the folk cuisines of Turkey and the Balkans. Field studies were conducted during broader ethnobotanical surveys, as well as during ad-hoc investigations between the years 2011 and 2014 that included diverse rural communities in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Kosovo, Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Primary ethnobotanical and folkloric literatures in each country were also considered. Eighty-seven botanical taxa, mainly wild, belonging to 50 genera and 27 families, were found to represent the bio-cultural heritage of sarma in Turkey and the Balkans. The greatest plant biodiversity in sarma was found in Turkey and, to less extent, in Bulgaria and Romania. The most commonly used leaves for preparing sarma were those of cabbage (both fresh and lacto-fermented), grape vine, beet, dock, sorrel, horseradish, lime tree, bean, and spinach. In a few cases, the leaves of endemic species (Centaurea haradjianii, Rumex gracilescens, and R. olympicus in Turkey) were recorded. Other uncommon sarma preparations were based on lightly toxic taxa, such as potato leaves in NE Albania, leaves of Arum, Convolvulus, and Smilax species in Turkey, of Phytolacca americana in Macedonia, and of Tussilago farfara in diverse countries. Moreover, the use of leaves of the introduced species Reynoutria japonica in Romania, Colocasia esculenta in Turkey, and Phytolacca americana in Macedonia shows the dynamic nature of folk cuisines. The rich ethnobotanical diversity of sarma confirms the urgent need to

  6. Balkan Türk Ağızlarının Tasnifleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme An Assessment On Classification Of Balkan Turkish Dialects

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    Ahmet GÜNŞEN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan Turkish dialects are the dialects established in varioushistorical, geographical, social and cultural conditions by the Turks,who had been moved from Anatolian and settled in the Balkans fromthe mid 14th century.Balkan Turkish dialects, just like Anatolian dialects, have hadnumber of branches due to the fact that they belonged to differentTurkish tribes and lived within various political, social, cultural andgeographical conditions on the one hand and interacted with differentlanguages and cultures, mainly like Slavic ones, on the other.The ultimate objective of the researches on dialects, which havegained great significance nowadays, is to classify the existing dialects ina certain geography of language upon certain criteria within themselvesand even within the sub-dialects and eventually to form the atlases ofthe dialects. While the Western countries and some Turkish states havetaken great steps in this field, unfortunately it is hard to say the samefor the dialects of Turkey Turkish yet. Although the classificationproblem of the dialects of Turkey Turkish has widely been solved afterquite a long process, it is yet not possible to argue the same for BalkanTurkish dialects. The researches on Balkan Turkish dialects startedwith compilations of I. Kunos and the researches of T. Kowalski andthere have been some classification attempts later by mainly J. Németh,D. Gacanov, G. Hazai, M. Mollava and I. Dryga. However it is too earlyto claim that the last word has been spoken out on this matter yet.There are still a lot to do with Balkan Turkish dialects which are lessresearchescompared to Anatolian dialects.In this paper the researches on Balkan Turkish dialects up thepresent day is going to be introduced, the basic criteria and thecommon and differing criteria used by the researchers who made theclassification is going to be assessed and finally it is going to bediscussed whether some other criteria can be used for the mainstreamdialect

  7. Conflict, Space and Architecture

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    Marc Schoonderbeek

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Footprint 19 focuses on the more recent roles of architecture in the contemporary spaces of conflict. Departing from a spatial understanding of geopolitical, climatological and economical conflicts, the various contributions highlight the large scale and phenomenal transitions in the physical world and in society by extrapolating, through examples, the abundance of relations that can be traced between conflict, territory and architecture. Conflict areas often prove to be fertile grounds for innovation and for the emergence of new spatial forms. The issue reports on the state of perpetual global unrest in architecture through a series of articles and case studies that highlight the consequences of conflicts in the places and spaces that we inhabit. In the introduction, these are discussed as an interlinked global reality rather than as isolated incidents. In doing so, the contemporary spaces of conflict are positioned in the context of emerging global trends, conditions, and discourses in the attempt to address their indicative symptoms while reflecting on their underlying causes.

  8. Folk food and medicinal botanical knowledge among the last remaining Yörüks of the Balkans

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    Anely Nedelcheva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the current lifestyle of the last remaining Balkan Yörüks, a small and isolated group found within the Republic of Macedonia, and the modern representatives of an important portion of the Balkan nomads. The aim of this study was to document knowledge concerning local wild food plants and wild and cultivated medicinal plants, and to compare the Yörük ethnobotany with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups occurring in the Balkan region (Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, and Turkey in order to assess how cultural adaptation processes may have affected Yörük plant folklore. We conducted this study by means of detailed, semi-structured interviews with 48 key informants. Sixty-seven plant taxa were recorded from 55 genera, based on the compilation of more than 150 reports relating to medicinal, food, forage, ornamental, and dye plants, as well as some elements relating to animals and minerals. Our field study data show several major ethnic boundary markers that contribute to the homogeneity of the community and also distinguish it sufficiently from the surrounding society: (i well-isolated locality; (ii local dialect and endogamy; (iii casual clothing worn by women; (iv ceremonial jewelry: a necklace of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum; (v Sempervivum marmoreum as an only ornamental plant which also has a medicinal use; and (vi Mentha spicata as the dominant culinary herb, which has a medicinal use too. Comparison of the collected ethnobotanical data with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups in the Balkan region shows that overlapping taxa include mainly plants whose fresh fruit are used; both nuts as well as edible greens. These plants are simultaneously used for medicinal purposes too, as home remedies, but in very different ways to other ethnic groups. Yörüks represent a remarkable cultural group in the Balkans. This community has nomadic traditions, but nowadays the people have a settled

  9. Misconceptions about Classroom Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchowski, Mary Anne

    1994-01-01

    Faced with the frustration of refereeing when they would rather teach, many educators are looking for alternative ways to deal with conflict in the classroom. This articles discusses the Children's Creative Response to Conflict (CCRC) conflict resolution approach and seeks to dispel some of the prevailing misconceptions about conflict resolution.…

  10. Foreign direct investment in the western Balkans: Privatization, institutional change, and banking sector dominance

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    Botrić Valerija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides analysis of foreign direct investment (FDI dynamics and its determinants for the group of countries lately referred to as Western Balkans (non- EU ex-Yugoslavia countries plus Albania. Due to vulnerable external positions and enhanced funding requirements related to the EU accession and catching-up, FDI is often highly welcomed by government officials in the South East European (SEE countries. The notion that FDI is frequently accompanied by knowledge and know-how transfer makes this source of capital growth even more desirable than simple capital accumulation from frequently inadequate domestic savings. The analysis of the FDI determinants on the overall economy level conducted within the panel data framework aims to provide the answer whether the same factors as in Central and Eastern European countries, now new EU member states, are relevant for the sampled countries. Due to data limitations and the frequent emergence of new countries in the region, the analysis does not extend to the early transition period. Since it entails the beginning of the financial crisis, the comparison of the results obtained with those of previous studies will enable the discussion of internal versus external factors of FDI attraction in the region.

  11. Geoecological characteristics of plant endemism in the Balkan part of Serbia

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    Gavrilović Bojan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex and heterogeneous geographical characteristics, Serbia is represented by a diverse flora with many endemic taxa of vascular plants. Investigation of plant endemics stored in the national herbaria and perusal of extensive literature sources indicate that 46 taxa occur exclusively within the political borders of the Republic of Serbia, while 104 taxa can also be found in adjacent countries of the Balkan Peninsula. These national and subendemics are presented in the form of a list together with their ecological and geographical characteristics. Centres of endemism are located in the southern and eastern regions of Serbia and on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. The majority of taxa are associated with mountainous regions of Kosovo, Metohija, and Central Serbia, at medium elevations between 500 and 1500 m. Most of the national endemics occur on limestones and dolomites and on soils such as cambisols, lithosols, and rankers. They are mainly under the influence of a modified mountain and moderately continental climate.

  12. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

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    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia, Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan. The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlling for settlement type, human capital and employment status in multivariate settings, the paper tests the hypothesis of the continuous importance of occupational social class and the emerging role of diff erent life phases in individuals’ welfare outcomes. The results reveal that all specifi ed social classes and most of the defi ned life phases have diverse and statistically signifi cant eff ects on the constructed deprivation index and the likelihood of being under 70 per cent of the median deprivation threshold. Belonging to non-skilled manual, farmers and skilled manual social class as well as being a child or lone parent were revealed to have the highest risk of material deprivation. These fi ndings are in line with the conclusions made for the Western welfare democracies on the complementary nature of social class and life course dimensions in explaining social hardship.

  13. The Balkans and the Polish cause. Radosław Kobierski’s “Mitrovica”

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    Dariusz Pawelec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the interpretation of the poem Mitrovica written by Radosław Kobierski is a quest for the ”peculiarity” and “singularity” of the literature” as it is viewed by Derek Attridge. The way the eponymous word sounds leads to a formulation of the question on what “semantic relations” are established between the title word and the remaining text. The journalistic character of the poem relates to the geography of the Balkan War of the 1990s. But the singularity and uniqueness of the poem Mitrovica stems rather from the tension that arises from its journalistic-style narration, reporting citation and a specific place name and what is metaphorical and symbolic. The Kobierski’s poem, creating its own, unique “singularity” comes also to grips with the media discourse related to the post-Yugoslav crisis. The interpretation shows how important is the application of the rule of myth-making poetical reversal in stripping the poetical discourse of stereotypes and cliches, but not of the relevance to reality.

  14. Phenolic and mineral profile of Balkan indigenous apple and pear cultivars

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    Živković Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was chemical analysis of phenolic compounds, as well as mineral nutrients in pulp and peel obtained from Balkan indigenous apple and pear cultivars. Phenolic composition assesed by means of HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods varied significantly between the cultivars for both peel and pulp. Among apples Mekica cultivar had the highest total phenolic content while Šećerlija and Zlatna Parmenka had the lowest. In the case of pear samples the principal source of total phenolic content was Crna Takiša while their minimum was recorded for Bela Arapka. In most of the investigated samples chlorogenic acid in apples and arbutin in pears were major detected polyphenolic compounds. With regard to mineral analysis K was the most abundant followed by P, Mg, Ca and S. Iron was the dominant microelement in apple peel and pulp samples, while in pear samples the principal microelement was B. Obtained results provide detailed information on chemical composition of tested apple and pear cultivars and therby could encourage their wider cultivation and consumption. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013

  15. Detection of Leishmania infantum and a Novel Phlebovirus (Balkan Virus) from Sand Flies in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Nazli; Velo, Enkelejda; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Kota, Majlinda; Kadriaj, Perparim; Ozbel, Yusuf; Charrel, Remi N; Bino, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    To organize entomological campaigns to trap sand flies in selected regions of Albania and to test them for the presence of existing or new phleboviruses and for leishmania DNA. Sand flies were collected in 14 locations from May to October 2014 using three different types of traps. Pools with a maximum of 30 individuals were prepared according to gender, trapping site, and trapping date; they were tested for the presence of (1) phlebovirus RNA with three different PCR systems (2) and Leishmania DNA using two different real-time PCR assays. A total of 972 sand flies (568 females, 404 males) were aliquoted to 55 pools. Three pools (in two different regions) were positive for Leishmania infantum. Two pools (Kruje region) were positive for phlebovirus RNA and a 575-nucleotide (nt) colinearized sequence of a novel virus most closely related to but clearly distinct from Tehran virus (16% and 3% divergence at nt and amino acid levels). Next generation sequencing analysis indicated that this virus might be transmitted by either Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus tobbi, or both vectors. Visceral leishmaniasis has been clinically recognized in Albania for at least 80 years; however, this is the first time that L. infantum, detected by molecular means, has been reported in sand flies in Albania. At the outset of this study, only Adria virus (Salehabad species) was recognized in Albania. A novel virus, Balkan virus, was identified and genetic analysis revealed that it belongs to the Sandfly fever Naples virus group containing human pathogens.

  16. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

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    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  17. Strontium isotopes document greater human mobility at the start of the Balkan Neolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borić, Dušan; Price, T Douglas

    2013-02-26

    Questions about how farming and the Neolithic way of life spread across Europe have been hotly debated topics in archaeology for decades. For a very long time, two models have dominated the discussion: migrations of farming groups from southwestern Asia versus diffusion of domesticates and new ideas through the existing networks of local forager populations. New strontium isotope data from the Danube Gorges in the north-central Balkans, an area characterized by a rich burial record spanning the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition, show a significant increase in nonlocal individuals from ∼6200 calibrated B.C., with several waves of migrants into this region. These results are further enhanced by dietary evidence based on carbon and nitrogen isotopes and an increasingly high chronological resolution obtained on a large sample of directly dated individuals. This dataset provides robust evidence for a brief period of coexistence between indigenous groups and early farmers before farming communities absorbed the foragers completely in the first half of the sixth millennium B.C.

  18. Size-segregated concentration of heavy metals in an urban aerosol of the Balkans region (Belgrade

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    Đorđević D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the heavy metals contents of the size-segregated urban aerosol of the continental area of Balkans. The distribution of nano/micron heavy metals in the size-segregated urban aerosol of Belgrade center was studied during the summer–autumn of 2008. The particle size distribution in the size ranges Dp ≤ 0.49 μm, 0.49 ≤ Dp ≤ 0.95 μm, 0.95 ≤ Dp ≤ 1.5 μm, 1.5 ≤ Dp ≤ 3.0 μm, 3.0 ≤ Dp ≤ 7.2 μm and Dp ≥ 7.2 μm was measured. The aerosol samples were submitted to gravimetric and chemical analyses. The obtained mean mass concentration of the PM fractions was in accordance with an urban aerosol distribution. The aerosol mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric measurements (mGM and, for heavy metals analyzed by ICP/MS.

  19. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

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    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  20. The real aims of the USA and the EU in the Balkans

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    Čavoški Kosta S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the real aims of the so-called international community which is usually understood as the USA, as the only remaining super power and the European Union, particularly France. Great Britain and Germany. The author argues that the real and particularly long-term aims of these powers should be primarily inferred from their real deeds and only subsequently from public statements of their officials. By analyzing a number of examples in the Balkans and in other parts of the world the author comes to unexpected conclusions. While in words big Western powers supported multi-ethnicity and preservation of multi-ethnic states, in deeds they not only instigated nationalism and separatism but also hastened and recognized the dissolution of three European federations into 22 more or less national states. And while in words they apparently supported so-called democratization, in practice they not only supported authoritarian regimes but also identified democracy with occupation in Republika Srpska.

  1. Firm productivity in the western Balkans: The impact of European Union membership and access to finance

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    Howard-Jones P.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the productivity performance of Balkan firms within and outside the European Union (EU, including the influence of loans. A multiple treatment model is used to compare the effects on productivity of membership and loans both separately and collectively, which in the case of loans allows a separate analysis of their influence on firms in non-member states. The use of conditional quantile regressions measures the effect on productivity of membership and loans separately as treatment variables. This provides an analysis of where the treatment influence is greatest across the distribution curve and identifies the significance of selected control variables on the outcome. In the full sample, the findings indicate that EU membership and loans have a positive effect on productivity, with membership being more important than loans. Outside the EU, firms in receipt of loans are more productive than those without. However, the significance of both membership and loans is restricted to the lower end of the productivity distribution curve. The manufacturing sample shows that EU membership has a significant positive effect across 70% of the deciles measured, whilst the influence of loans is restricted to the lower deciles, with rental capital (leasing also positively significant in the lower four deciles. In the services sector, however, membership is significant up to 90% of the distribution, with loans at 60%.

  2. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Polenakovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, Nish (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite broad investigations into the possible role of genetic factors, environmental agents and immune mechanisms, the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is only partially understood. An increased incidence of upper urothelial cancer in patients with BEN and in populations from endemic settlements has been demonstrated. Genetic studies have landed support for genetic predisposition to BEN. The similarity of the morphological and clinical pattern of BEN and Chinese herbs nephropathy has raised the possibility of a common etiologic agent, aristolochic acid (AA), described in 1969 by Ivic and confirmed by a recent study of AA-DNA adducts. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is studied extensively as the etiologic agent of BEN. Weathering of low-rank coals nearby the endemic villages produces water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines, similar to metabolic products of acetaminophen, which has a causal relationship with analgesic nephropathy. AA is confirmed as the etiologic agent of BEN; however, it may not be the sole risk factor. More research is needed on the patterns of BEN over time and between different endemic places. Therefore, it is important to test etiological hypotheses in different endemic foci, preferably as a multicentric research. An international approach to solving the etiology of BEN is needed in the coming years. The geographic correlation and presence of AA-DNA adducts in both BEN and associated urothelial cancer support the hypothesis that these diseases share a common etiology.

  3. CONFLICTS IN THE STRATEGIC BUSINESS NETWORK OPERATING IN THE FOREIGN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Hauke-Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Conflicts are an integral part of every business-to-business co-operation. Enterprise’s activities in the international markets require from the company to take measures to resolve the conflict so as to prevent the negative impact on relationships and further cooperation. This article adopts the strategic network approach to analyze the conflicts and their impact on relationships in a network operating in a foreign market. Conflicts that occur between the two parties involved in a strategic b...

  4. [Conflict resolution: a new perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, S B

    1991-03-01

    The field of conflict resolution has been focusing on certain implicit postulates related to the nature of three central concepts, namely: communication, conflict, and change. The present paper "undermines" so to speak, these three concepts by demonstrating the positivistic basis the field of conflict resolution features, even though recent contributions challenge such basis. A poststructural perspective on communication, conflict, and change is proposed as an alternative able to generate new tools and techniques for research as well as intervention in conflicts.

  5. [Conflict management in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mola Sanna, Bruna; Igual Ayerbe, Blanca

    2010-02-01

    Our sanitary system and our health organizations have to confront the conflicts which have derived from the successive social and sanitary changes which have developed over the most recent decades. These new realities in the health fields oblige the professionals dedicated to them, the administrators of our organizations, the politicians, and society in general, as those who make use of the health services provided, to search for strategies and resources for the prevention, and transformation of those conflicts which can develop due to these situations, having as their final objective to preserve the basic principle of universal health care which is included in our Constitution. For this reason, the authors propose a profile for mediators in the health field, understanding that for mediation to really be useful, and to avoid or reduce improper litigation in our health system, values which belong to the culture of peace should be introduced into the culture of our health organizations. To that end, it is essential to count on not only professional mediators but also on an elenchus of natural mediators and informal mediators.

  6. Conflict, Memory, and Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basq...... with a discussion on the role of history teaching in promoting a more critical, reflexive, and pluralistic way of dealing with memory, and hence with conflict.......The aim of this paper was to bring the dialogical and multivoiced dimension of conflict to the fore in the study of how people remember a particular event in the past. Drawing from different case studies, it contains analyses of how subjects identifying with different political actors in the Basque...... conflict adopted their respective positions, and interpretation of the conflict, and how, in light of same, they reconstruct the failed peace process that took place in 2006 between the terrorist group ETA (Euzkadi ta Azcatasuna, or Basque Country and Freedom in English) and the Spanish government. Results...

  7. Floodplain conflicts: regulation and negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pardoe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the continuing shift from engineered solutions towards more holistic methods of managing flood risk, spatial planning has become the primary focus of a conflict between land and water, water and people. In attempting to strike a balance between making space for water and making space for people, compromises are required. Through five case studies in the UK, this paper analyses the effectiveness of Planning Policy Statement 25 (PPS 25 and the processes of negotiation that it promotes. This assessment allows us to draw conclusions on the nature of the compromises this kind of negotiation can achieve and the implications of this for flood risk management. What emerges is that the beneficial impacts of decisions to develop floodplain areas are given a proper hearing and sensible conditions imposed, rather than arguments to prevent such development remaining unchallenged.

  8. Education in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, I

    1999-11-01

    The provision of education is affected in many different ways by political and civil unrest and armed conflict. During armed conflict, the lack of adequate financial support for the maintenance of school buildings, supplies and teacher's salaries becomes particularly acute. Other factors include the destruction of school buildings and other infrastructures in time of war, and the targeting of teachers by acts of violence. This paper explores the impact of conflict on the educational opportunities of men and women. Interventions to address the educational needs of children are also discussed. Among these programs are the Oxfam programs in Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Nicaragua, Bosnia, and Eritrea which have provided psychosocial support and human rights education to refugee and displaced women and children through the provision of educational material and by training teachers.

  9. Identities in Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Ahuja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kashmir has witnessed violent conflict for many years, and India has been one of the main players in this conflict. This study used the method of drawings to assess how this ongoing conflict has shaped the identities of young Muslims in Kashmir. The identities they expressed were compared with those expressed by young Muslims in Delhi. At each location, one group of participants was asked to draw on the theme “Me and my country” while the other group was asked to draw whatever they desired. When allowed to draw what they wished, adolescents in Kashmir drew symbols of regional identity more often and symbols of India less often than adolescents in Delhi. “I dominant” identities were depicted only by the Delhi-based sample. Drawings from Kashmir did not represent high levels of violence or a fractured relationship with the Indian state. Possible reasons have been discussed.

  10. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team......The complexities of new product development (NPD) teams present both opportunities and challenges to organizations. Very few researches have examined the combined effect of culture and geographical dispersion on teams. Especially, the role of distance still remains an open question. This paper...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  11. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    hostility from theoretical, political, strategic and legal perspectives. In doing so, and in contrast to current literature, cyber-security is analysed through a multidimensional lens, as opposed to being treated solely as a military or criminal issues, for example. The individual chapters map out...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  12. Environmental Systems Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipel, K. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is applied to a real-life groundwater contamination dispute to demonstrate how one can realistically model and analyze the controversy in order to obtain an enhanced understanding and strategic insights for permitting one to make informed decisions. This highly divisive conflict is utilized to explain a rich range of inherent capabilities of GMCR, as well as worthwhile avenues for extensions, which make GMCR a truly powerful decision technology for addressing challenging conflict situations. For instance, a flexible preference elicitation method called option prioritization can be employed to obtain the relative preferences of each decision maker (DM) in the dispute over the states or scenarios which can occur, based upon preference statements regarding the options or courses of actions available to the DMs. Solution concepts, reflecting the way a chess player thinks in terms of moves and counter-moves, are defined to mirror the ways humans may behave under conflict, varying from short to long term thinking. After ascertaining the best outcome that a DM can achieve on his or her own in a conflict, coalition analysis algorithms are available to check if a DM can fare even better via cooperating with others. The ability of GMCR to take into account emotions, strength of preference, attitudes, misunderstandings (referred to as hypergames), and uncertain preferences (unknown, fuzzy, grey and probabilistic) greatly broadens its scope of applicability. Techniques for tracing how a conflict can evolve over time from a status quo state to a final specified outcome, as well as how to handle hierarchical structures, such as when a central government interacts with its provinces or states, further enforces the comprehensive nature of GMCR. Within ongoing conflict research mimicking how physical systems are analyzed, methods for inverse engineering of preferences are explained for determining the preferences required by one or

  13. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  14. Paleo-Balkan and Slavic contributions to the genetic pool of Moldavians: insights from the Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzari, Alexander; Kharkov, Vladimir; Nikitin, Alexey G; Raicu, Florina; Simonova, Kseniya; Stephan, Wolfgang; Weiss, Elisabeth H; Stepanov, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Moldova has a rich historical and cultural heritage, which may be reflected in the current genetic makeup of its population. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. To bridge this gap with respect to paternal lineages, we analyzed 37 binary and 17 multiallelic (STRs) polymorphisms on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in 125 Moldavian males. In addition, 53 Ukrainians from eastern Moldova and 54 Romanians from the neighboring eastern Romania were typed using the same set of markers. In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%), R-M17* (17.6%), R-M458 (12.8%), E-v13 (8.8%), R-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%). In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%), R-M17* (16.7%), R-M405 (7.4%), E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%). In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%), I-M423 (20.8%), R-M269* (9.4%), N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%). Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations. The data correlate well with historical accounts and geographical location of the region and thus allow to hypothesize that extant Moldavian paternal genetic lineages arose from extensive recent admixture between genetically autochthonous populations of the Balkan-Carpathian zone and neighboring Slavic groups.

  15. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  16. [Types of conflicts and conflict management among Hungarian healthcare workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Éva; Kuna, Ágnes; Pintér, Judit Nóra; Kaló, Zsuzsa; Csabai, Márta

    2017-04-01

    Efficient communication, conflict management and cooperation are the key factors of a successful patient care. This study is part of an international comparative research. The aim of this study is to unfold conflicts among healthcare workers. 73 healthcare workers were interviewed using a standardized interview protocol. The in-person interviews used the critical incident method. 30 interviews (15 doctors, 15 nurses) were analysed with the Atlas.ti 7 content analysis software. The sources, types, effects of conflicts and conflict management strategies were investigated. The content analysis unfolded the specificities of conflicts in healthcare based on personal experiences. Organizational hierarchy was a substantial source of conflict, especially among physicians, which originates from implicit rules. As a result of the avoiding conflict management the conflicts remain partly unresolved which has negative individual and group effect. Our conceptual framework helps to develop a proper intervention specific to healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 625-632.

  17. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    : the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...

  18. Models of Conflict Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 social interaction, conflict strategy, machine learning REPORT DOCUMENTATION...community. [Hocker and Wilmot, 2013] We fight with our peers over cubicle spaces, with our relatives over what career path to take, with our partners on

  19. Sexual conflict in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, among the very large diversity of reproductive systems of plants, dioecy gathers all the. *For correspondence. E-mail: prasad@biology.queensu.ca, bedhomme@biology.queensu.ca conditions to give rise to sexual conflict: separate sexes, dif- ferent fitness optima for males and females, and a common genome.

  20. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a