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Sample records for preventing adolescent runaway

  1. Needs and Self-Concept of Runaway Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Phyllis; McCoard, Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Developed Needs of Adolescent Runaways to assess needs of runaway adolescents housed in runaway shelter. Findings from 76 adolescent runaways revealed that greatest needs were concerned with living arrangements, family relationships, and communication with parents. Respondents perceived information about sex, drugs, and alcohol as least important.…

  2. Parents, Teachers, and Peers and Early Adolescent Runaway in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chan-Kiu; Liu, Suk-Ching; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2005-01-01

    Parental monitoring, teacher support, classmate support, and friend relationship presumably affect adolescents' runaway from home. According to social control theory, social control based on conventional social norms would prevent adolescent runaway, but association with friends may erode such control. This expectation appears to hold true in a…

  3. Predictors of Social Network Composition among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K.D.; Whitbeck, L.B.; Hoyt, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on the social support networks of homeless and runaway youth suggest the social networks of runaway youth are made up largely of transient deviant peer relationships. This paper examined social network characteristics of 428 homeless and runaway adolescents from small-to moderate-sized cities in four Midwestern states. We…

  4. Predictors of Trauma-Related Symptoms among Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael D.; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about trauma-related symptoms among runaway adolescents. Precocious departure from familial homes often exposes youth to traumatic victimization. This study examined the extent to which runaway adolescents present trauma symptomotology and assessed factors that predict trauma symptoms. Participants (N = 350) were 12-18 years of age…

  5. Two-year predictors of runaway and homeless episodes following shelter services among substance abusing adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Guo, Xiamei; Brakenhoff, Brittany; Feng, Xin

    2013-10-01

    Given high levels of health and psychological costs associated with the family disruption of homelessness, identifying predictors of runaway and homeless episodes is an important goal. The current study followed 179 substance abusing, shelter-recruited adolescents who participated in a randomized clinical trial. Predictors of runaway and homeless episodes were examined over a two year period. Results from the hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that family cohesion and substance use, but not family conflict or depressive symptoms, delinquency, or school enrollment predicted future runaway and homeless episodes. Findings suggest that increasing family support, care and connection and reducing substance use are important targets of intervention efforts in preventing future runaway and homeless episodes amongst a high risk sample of adolescents. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of Family Therapy Outcome with Alcohol-Abusing, Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Prestopnik, Jillian L

    2009-01-01

    Treatment evaluation for alcohol problem, runaway adolescents and their families is rare. This study recruited primary alcohol problem adolescents (N = 119) and their primary caretakers from two runaway shelters and assigned them to (a) home-based ecologically based family therapy (EBFT), (b) office-based functional family therapy (FFT), or (c)…

  7. Propensity for Violence among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents: An Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Devan M.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of violent behaviors among homeless and runaway adolescents or the specific behavioral factors that influence violent behaviors across time. In this longitudinal study of 300 homeless and runaway adolescents aged 16 to 19 at baseline, the authors use event history analysis to assess the factors associated with…

  8. Prevent thermal runaway of lithium-ion batteries with minichannel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jian; Lan, Chuanjin; Qiao, Yu; Ma, Yanbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D model was developed to study nail penetration induced thermal runaway. • Effects of flow rate, thermal abuse reactions, and nail dimensions were examined. • Minichannel cooling at cell level cannot cease thermal runaway in a single cell. • Minichannel cooling can prevent thermal runaway propagation between cells. - Abstract: Thermal management on lithium-ion batteries is a crucial problem for the performance, lifetime, and safety of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Fire and explosions can be triggered by thermal runaway if the temperature of the lithium-ion batteries is not maintained properly. This work describes a minichannel cooling system designed at the battery module level and the investigation on its efficacy on the mitigation of thermal runaway. Nail penetration was employed to simulate the internal short circuits, which in reality may be caused by vehicle collisions and/or manufacturing defects. Two integrated models were utilized to study thermal runaway: the conjugate heat transfer model and the reaction kinetics model. Numerical simulations were conducted to understand the thermal runaway process and the effects of flow rate, thermal abuse reactions, nail penetration depth, and nail diameter. It is concluded that minichannel cooling at cell level cannot cease thermal runaway in a single cell, but it can prevent battery fratricide due to thermal runaway propagation between cells.

  9. Understanding and Preventing Runaway Behavior: Indicators and Strategies for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Lisa A.; Raimondi, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Runaway behavior is a national epidemic that affects many school-aged youths. Although there are no definitive numbers, it has been estimated that between 1.3 and 2.8 million youths run away each year, and youths with disabilities are more at risk for engaging in runaway behavior than their nondisabled peers. Considering the high number of youths…

  10. Ecologically Based Family Therapy Outcome with Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, N.; Prestopnik, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Runaway youth report a broader range and higher severity of substance-related, mental health and family problems relative to non-runaway youth. Most studies to date have collected self-report data on the family and social history; virtually no research has examined treatment effectiveness with this population. This study is a treatment development…

  11. Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaozhe; Xu, Yibo; Wen, Chao; Chen, Dilin

    2017-12-19

    Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS) based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication.

  12. Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhe Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication.

  13. Predictors of Substance Use and Family Therapy Outcome among Physically and Sexually Abused Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…

  14. Onset of Conduct Disorder, Use of Delinquent Subsistence Strategies, and Street Victimization among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt D.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the effects of childhood-onset conduct disorder on later antisocial behavior and street victimization among a group of homeless and runaway adolescents. Four hundred twenty-eight homeless and runaway youth were interviewed directly on the streets and in shelters from four Midwestern states. Key findings include the following.…

  15. Can Cell to Cell Thermal Runaway Propagation be Prevented in a Li-ion Battery Module?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith; Lopez, Carlos; Orieukwu, Josephat

    2014-01-01

    Increasing cell spacing decreased adjacent cell damage center dotElectrically connected adjacent cells drained more than physically adjacent cells center dotRadiant barrier prevents propagation when fully installed between BP cells center dotBP cells vent rapidly and expel contents at 100% SOC -Slower vent with flame/smoke at 50% -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 160 degC center dotLG cells vent but do not expel contents -Thermal runaway event typically occurs at 200 degC center dotSKC LFP modules did not propagate; fuses on negative terminal of cell may provide a benefit in reducing cell to cell damage propagation. New requirement in NASA-Battery Safety Requirements document: JSC 20793 Rev C 5.1.5.1 Requirements - Thermal Runaway Propagation a. For battery designs greater than a 80-Wh energy employing high specific energy cells (greater than 80 watt-hours/kg, for example, lithium-ion chemistries) with catastrophic failure modes, the battery shall be evaluated to ascertain the severity of a worst-case single-cell thermal runaway event and the propensity of the design to demonstrate cell-to-cell propagation in the intended application and environment. NASA has traditionally addressed the threat of thermal runaway incidents in its battery deployments through comprehensive prevention protocols. This prevention-centered approach has included extensive screening for manufacturing defects, as well as robust battery management controls that prevent abuse-induced runaway even in the face of multiple system failures. This focused strategy has made the likelihood of occurrence of such an event highly improbable. b. The evaluation shall include all necessary analysis and test to quantify the severity (consequence) of the event in the intended application and environment as well as to identify design modifications to the battery or the system that could appreciably reduce that severity. In addition to prevention protocols, programs developing battery designs with

  16. Healthcare Barriers and Utilization Among Adolescents and Young Adults Accessing Services for Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelvakumar, Gayathri; Ford, Nancy; Kapa, Hillary M; Lange, Hannah L H; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Bonny, Andrea E

    2017-06-01

    Homeless and runaway youth are at disproportionate risk for adverse health outcomes. Many barriers to accessing healthcare have been documented; however, the relative impact of discrete barriers on homeless youth healthcare utilization behavior is not firmly established. We administered a survey examining reported barriers and healthcare utilization among adolescents and young adults accessing services at three community centers for homeless and runaway youth. Of 180 respondents, 57 % were male, 80 % non-White, and 21 % identified as a sexual minority. Stepwise logistic regression models, controlling for age and study site, explored associations between barriers and 3 healthcare utilization outcomes (doctor visit in past 12 months; regular care provider; frequent emergency department (ED) visits). The most commonly reported barriers were "don't have a ride" (27.2 %), "no insurance" (23.3 %), and "costs too much" (22.8 %). All fear-based barriers (e.g., "I don't trust the doctors") were reported by runaway youth as the impact of discrete barriers varies depending on outcome of focus.

  17. The Role of Child Gender, Problem Behaviors, and the Family Environment on Maternal Depressive Symptoms: Findings from Mothers of Substance Abusing Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiamei; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescents' problem behaviors, moderated by adolescent gender, as well as the association between maternal depressive symptoms and the family environment characteristics above and beyond child variables. Data were collected from 137 mothers of runaway adolescents with…

  18. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes suitable for preventing thermal runaway in lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Scott; Panday, Ashoutosh; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel

    2014-04-22

    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics. In another aspect, the electrolyte exhibits a conductivity drop when the temperature of electrolyte increases over a threshold temperature, thereby providing a shutoff mechanism for preventing thermal runaway in lithium battery cells.

  19. How to prevent runaways in trickle-bed reactors for Pygas hydrogenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Kronberg, Alexandre E.

    2002-01-01

    In the past, several runaways have occurred in Trickle-Bed Reactors (TBR) used for the hydrogenation of pyrolysis gasoline as produced in ethylene cracking installations. This phenomenon has been studied in the framework of a special program in the Netherlands, which is administered by the National

  20. Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Thrane, Lisa; Whitbeck, Les B.; Johnson, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and…

  1. Runaway Youths: Families in Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Margaret; And Others

    The Hamden Mental Health Service staff collaborated with the police on a joint research project concerning runaway youth. The data suggest that adolescents who run away come from broken homes where disruption during preadolescence has been associated with parental separation and remarriage. These adolescents often exhibit symptoms of depression…

  2. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  3. Runaways: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jennifer; Mosteller, Frederick

    More than half of runaway adolescents cite poor family communication and conflict as the primary reasons for running. Runaways (.5-1.5 million annually) generally arrive on the streets with few survival skills and little money. They are often subject to abuse of various sorts, and many eventually resort to criminal activity or use drugs in efforts…

  4. The Meaning of Home for Runaway Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Muzicant, Amit

    2008-01-01

    This naturalistic qualitative study examines the concept of "home" for runaway girls. Through the "home story" of girls who run away from home, the authors hoped to understand the many facets of home, as well as broaden the existing knowledge-base about the phenomenon of adolescent runaway girls. Data consisted of in-depth interviews with 15 girls…

  5. Safe venting of ''red oil'' runaway reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paddleford, D.F.; Fauske, H.K.

    1994-01-01

    Calorimetry testing of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) saturated with strong nitric acid was performed to determine the relationship between vent size and pressure buildup in the event of a runaway reaction. These experiments show that runaway can occur in an open system, but that even when runaway is induced in the TBP/HN0 3 system, dangerous pressure buildup will be prevented with practical vent size

  6. Family Functioning and Predictors of Runaway Behavior Among At-Risk Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Stephanie Brooks; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S

    2017-06-01

    Adolescent runaway behavior is associated with a host of negative outcomes in young adulthood. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that predict running away in youth. Longitudinal data from 111 at-risk families were used to identify proximal predictors of runaway behavior over a 12-week period. On average, youth were 14.96 years old, and 45% were female. Ten percent of youth ran away during the 12-week follow-up period. In bivariate analyses, running away was predicted by poorer youth- and parent-rated family functioning, past runaway behavior, and other problem behaviors (e.g., substance use, delinquency), but not poorer perceived academic functioning. Results of a hierarchical logistic regression revealed a relationship between youth-rated family functioning and runaway behavior. However, this effect became non-significant after accounting for past runaway behavior and other problem behaviors, both of which remained significant predictors in the multivariable model. These findings suggest that youth who run away may be engaged in a more pervasive pattern of problematic behavior, and that screening and prevention programs need to address the cycle of adolescent defiant behavior associated with running away. Recommendations for clinical practice with this at-risk population are discussed.

  7. Prevention for Pediatric and Adolescent Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Carolyn; Lewis, Kara Stuart; Little, Robert; Rastogi, Reena Gogia; Yonker, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents can experience significant disability from frequent migraine. A number of tools have been developed to help quantify the impact of migraine in this population. Many preventative medications used in adults are routinely used to prevent migraines in children, although there has been less rigorous study. This article reviews the indications and evidence for the use of migraine preventatives, such as antidepressants, antihypertensives, anticonvulsants, antihistamines, and botulinum toxin, in this population. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  8. Preventing adolescent suicide: a community takes action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirruccello, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young people in the United States. The etiology of suicide in this population has eluded policy makers, researchers, and communities. Although many suicide prevention programs have been developed and implemented, few are evidence-based in their effectiveness in decreasing suicide rates. In one northern California community, adolescent suicide has risen above the state's average. Two nurses led an effort to develop and implement an innovative grassroots community suicide prevention project targeted at eliminating any further teen suicide. The project consisted of a Teen Resource Card, a community resource brochure targeted at teens, and education for the public and school officials to raise awareness about this issue. This article describes this project for other communities to use as a model. Risk and protective factors are described, and a comprehensive background of adolescent suicide is provided.

  9. Thermal Runaway Severity Reduction Assessment and Implementation: On Li-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Preventing cell-cell thermal runaway propagation and flames/sparks from exiting battery enclosure is possible with proper thermal & electrical design and cell thermal runaway ejecta/effluent management and can be had with minimal mass/volume penalty.

  10. Preventing toxicomania and addictive behaviour in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceaux, Pauline; Maricq, Aurélie; Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Drug addicts are more and more stigmatized in our society. Recent data show a connection between substance abuse and other behaviors considered normal, such as passionate love. Adolescence is characterized by a biopsychosocial, cognitive and neurodevelopmental immaturity. This article aims to understand if these subjects are more likely to develop addictions to certain products or addictive behaviors such as passionate love. It also offers a better understanding of the current models for prevention of substance abuse during adolescence. After defining the roles played, in the brain, by dopamine and by the reward circuit, as well as the different stages of development of the human brain, we compared neurobiological data and imaging studies both in cases of passionate love and substance addiction during adolescence. The brain imaging studies highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex in the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the addictive phenomenon. Now, the maturation of the prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence, as do significant peaks in the expression of dopamine. These studies also suggest an increase in cortical activation (nucleus accumbens and amygdala) when processing emotional information, which is also increased during adolescence. Taken together, the results show a parallel between addiction and love relations, both at the level of neuroscience and imaging. A greater emotional lability and sensitivity may play a role in the higher incidence of substance abuse and dependence in love observed at this age. Preventing the use of illegal substances among young people therefore requires a very specific approach.

  11. Electron run-away

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The run-away effect of electrons for the Coulomb scattering has been studied by Dricer, but the question for other scattering mechanisms is not yet studied. Meanwhile, if the scattering is quasielastic, a general criterion for the run-away may be formulated; in this case the run-away influence on the distribution function may also be studied in somewhat general and qualitative manner. (Auth.)

  12. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  13. Results of prevention programs with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C L

    1987-09-01

    Programs for preventing smoking and alcohol and drug abuse have radically changed in the past decade. Instead of being regarded as a health or discipline problem that involves only a few deviant adolescents, drug use has begun to be viewed as social behavior that is functional for adolescents, not capricious, and is normative for that population. The most successful prevention programs have sought to delay the onset of tobacco use. Based on theoretical and etiological research, these programs target factors that have repeatedly been predictive of adolescent smoking, alcohol and drug use. The programs teach adolescents (1) why people their age smoke tobacco or use alcohol and drugs; (2) how these meanings get established by peers, older role models and advertising; (3) how to resist these influences to smoke or to use alcohol and drugs; and (4) life skills and competencies to counterbalance the functions that drug use serves. Because of the association with the onset of smoking and the onset of using other drugs, these strategies are being studied for alcohol use and other drugs. In addition, elected peer leaders are trained to conduct these activities with their classmates and act as new role models for non-use. Evaluations of these approaches are optimistic. Studies in northern California and Minnesota reveal 50-70% reductions in the onset of smoking. Botvin's 'Life Skills Training' program demonstrates success in delaying heavy alcohol and marijuana use.

  14. Problems of Maltreated Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, P. David; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Shelter staff from 8 states completed Client Information Records on 2,019 runaways. Found significant differences in problems reported by physically abused and sexually abused runaways when compared to nonabused runaway peers. Runaways who were both physically and sexually maltreated were significantly more vulnerable and much worse off than those…

  15. Preventive strategies in child and adolescent psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescence are periods of growth and development that are critical to the formation of adult personality and psychopathology. Moreover, childhood psychopathology may differ significantly in presentation and risk factors from those seen among adults and may require different preventive strategies. Service-related characteristics such as the shortage of trained child and adolescent mental health professionals also demand that the focus should shift from resource-intensive treatment interventions, toward preventive measures that can be delivered at lower cost in terms of workforce, money, and time; and can lead to improved outcomes for a wide variety of conditions. Preventive strategies that have been implemented in this population have mostly included both preventive measures (aiming at reducing the prevalence of risk factors and promotive components (aimed at increasing resilience and positive mental health characteristics, usually in combination. Interventions have been shown to be most effective when they are targeted at underlying latent structures that predict risk; they are also more effective when delivered over a prolonged period. Interventions must also be formulated such that they are developmentally appropriate, and with clearly stated outcome parameters for evaluation. A few example interventions that have made use of these strategies are discussed in the course of this article.

  16. Runaway electrons in toroidal discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoepfel, H.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of runaway electrons in toroidal devices are reviewed here, with particular reference to tokamaks. The complex phenomenology of runaway effects, which have been the subject of research for the past twenty years, is organized within the framework of a number of physical models. The mechanisms and rates for runaway production are discussed first, followed by sections on runaway-driven kinetic relaxation processes and runaway orbit confinement. Next, the equilibrium and stability of runaway-dominated discharges are reviewed. Models for runaway production at early times in the discharge and the scaling of runaway phenomena to larger devices are also discussed. Finally, detection techniques and possible applications of runaways are mentioned. (author)

  17. The Prevention of Adolescent Smoking: A Public Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harken, Laurel S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses ways to prevent adolescents from smoking by preparing them to deal with problematic situations. Focuses on problem-solving and decision-making skills. Prevention strategies are also discussed. (RB)

  18. The prevention of teenage pregnancy in adolescent's view

    OpenAIRE

    Fiedler, Milla Wildemberg; Araújo, Alisson; Souza, Márcia Christina Caetano de

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research is to understand the vision of adolescents on the prevention of adolescent pregnancy in a school in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais. This is a descriptive study, exploratory, with a qualitative approach, with 14 adolescents. Semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed and interpreted by discourse analysis. The analysis of the reports of the subjects interviewed originated four empirical categories: perception about the importance of preventing tee...

  19. Runaway electrons during tokamak startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.

    1988-01-01

    Runaway electrons significantly affect the plasma and impurity evolution during tokamak startup. During its rise, a runaway pulse stores magnetic flux inductively; this is then released during the decay phase of the runaway pulse. This process affects plasma formation, current initiation and current buildup. Because of their relativistic velocities the runaway electrons have higher ionization and excitation rates than the plasma electrons. This leads to a significant modification of the impurity behaviour and consequently the plasma evolution. (author). 20 refs, 8 figs

  20. Obesity prevention in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Boyd

    2009-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity has been increasing in most middle- and high-income countries, and, as with adult obesity, this has been driven by increasingly obesogenic environments, especially the food environment. This constitutes a "market failure," signaling the need for government interventions with policies, programs, and social marketing. Population prevention strategies are critical, and children and adolescents should be the priority populations. Food marketing to children is a central policy issue for governments to address, and comprehensive regulations are needed to provide substantive protection for children. Community-based intervention programs show some real promise in reducing childhood obesity, but the 2 big challenges ahead are to ensure that there is substantial ongoing funding so that the community capacity to promote healthy weights can be scaled up to a national level and to ensure that policies are in place to support these efforts. The social and cultural shifts that support healthy eating and physical activity occur differentially, and special efforts are needed to reduce the socioeconomic gradients associated with childhood obesity. A positive public health approach encompassing environmental, regulatory, sociocultural, and educational strategies offer the best chance of reducing obesity without increasing disordered eating patterns.

  1. Interventions for preventing unintended pregnancies among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oringanje, Chioma; Meremikwu, Martin M; Eko, Hokehe; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Anne; Ehiri, John E

    2016-02-03

    Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle- and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. To assess the effects of primary prevention interventions (school-based, community/home-based, clinic-based, and faith-based) on unintended pregnancies among adolescents. We searched all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status up to November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group Specialised trial register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts Online, The Gray Literature Network, HealthStar, PsycINFO, CINAHL and POPLINE and the reference lists of articles. We included both individual and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any interventions that aimed to increase knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies, promote delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unintended pregnancies in adolescents aged 10 years to 19 years. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate, binary outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (Cl). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 53 RCTs that enrolled 105,368 adolescents. Participants were ethnically diverse. Eighteen studies randomised individuals, 32

  2. Tobacco use among adolescents. Strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, R P; Manley, M W; Glynn, T J

    1995-04-01

    Tobacco use is a major public health problem that has its onset during childhood and adolescence. To prevent the onset, physicians can reach children and their parents in their offices beginning in the prenatal period and continuing through adulthood. For pediatricians and other physicians who care for children, NCI recommends five office-based activities that begin with the letter A. The 5 As include anticipatory guidance, ask, advise, assist, and arrange follow-up visits. Elimination of tobacco use requires a comprehensive strategy that includes health professional interventions, policy changes, advertising restrictions, comprehensive school-based programs, community activities, and advocacy approaches. Physicians and health professionals have major roles to play in each of these interventions.

  3. Runaway snakes in TEXTOR-94

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, I.; R. Jaspers,; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Finken, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of a runaway beam confined in an island-like structure, a so-called runaway snake, are reported. The observations are made in TEXTOR-94 by measurement of synchrotron radiation emitted by these runaways. A full poloidal View allows for the study of the synchrotron pattern of the snake to

  4. [Violence prevention in childhood and adolescence--a brief overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.

  5. Thermonuclear Runaway model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, W.M.; Kutter, G.S.; Starrfield, S.; Truran, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The nova outburst requires an energy source that is energetic enough to eject material and is able to recur. The Thermonuclear Runaway (TNR) model, coupled with the binary nature of nova systems satisfies these conditions. The white dwarf/red dwarf binary nature of novae was first recognized as a necessary conditions by Kraft. The small separation characteristic of novae systems allows the cool, red secondary to overflow is Roche lobe. In the absence of strong, funneling magnetic fields, the angular momentum of this material prevents it from falling directly onto the primary, and it first forms a disk around the white dwarf. This material is eventually accreted from the disk onto the white dwarf. As the thickness of this hydrogen-rich layer increases, the degenerate matter at the base reaches a temperature that is high enough to initiate thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen. Thermonuclear energy release increases the temperature which in turn increases the energy generation rate. Because the material is degenerate, the pressure does not increase with temperature, which normally allows a star to adjust itself to a steady nuclear burning rate. Thus the temperature and nuclear energy generation increase and a TNR results. When the temperature reaches the Fermi temperature, degeneracy is lifted and the rapid pressure increase causes material expansion. The hydrogen-rich material either is ejected or consumed by nuclear burning, and the white dwarf returns to its pre-outburst state. The external source of hydrogen fuel from the secondary allows the while process to repeat. 43 refs., 8 figs

  6. Runaway electrons and magnetic island confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2016-01-01

    The breakup of magnetic surfaces is a central feature of ITER planning for the avoidance of damage due to runaway electrons. Rapid thermal quenches, which lead to large accelerating voltages, are thought to be due to magnetic surface breakup. Impurity injection to avoid and to mitigate both halo and runaway electron currents utilizes massive gas injection or shattered pellets. The actual deposition is away from the plasma center, and the breakup of magnetic surfaces is thought to spread the effects of the impurities across the plasma cross section. The breakup of magnetic surfaces would prevent runaway electrons from reaching relativistic energies were it not for the persistence of non-intercepting flux tubes. These are tubes of magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. In simulations and in magnetic field models, non-intercepting flux tubes are found to persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of magnetic islands even when a large scale magnetic surface breakup occurs. As long as a few magnetic surfaces reform before all of the non-intercepting flux tubes dissipate, energetic electrons confined and accelerated in these flux tubes can serve as the seed electrons for a transfer of the overall plasma current from thermal to relativistic carriers. The acceleration of electrons is particularly strong because of the sudden changes in the poloidal flux that naturally occur in a rapid magnetic relaxation. The physics of magnetic islands as non-intercepting flux tubes is studied. Expressions are derived for (1) the size of islands required to confine energetic runaway electrons, (2) the accelerating electric field in an island, (3) the increase or reduction in the size of an island by the runaway electron current, (4) the approximate magnitude of the runaway current in an island, and (5) the time scale for the evolution of an island.

  7. Runaway electrons and magnetic island confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boozer, Allen H., E-mail: ahb17@columbia.edu [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The breakup of magnetic surfaces is a central feature of ITER planning for the avoidance of damage due to runaway electrons. Rapid thermal quenches, which lead to large accelerating voltages, are thought to be due to magnetic surface breakup. Impurity injection to avoid and to mitigate both halo and runaway electron currents utilizes massive gas injection or shattered pellets. The actual deposition is away from the plasma center, and the breakup of magnetic surfaces is thought to spread the effects of the impurities across the plasma cross section. The breakup of magnetic surfaces would prevent runaway electrons from reaching relativistic energies were it not for the persistence of non-intercepting flux tubes. These are tubes of magnetic field lines that do not intercept the walls. In simulations and in magnetic field models, non-intercepting flux tubes are found to persist near the magnetic axis and in the cores of magnetic islands even when a large scale magnetic surface breakup occurs. As long as a few magnetic surfaces reform before all of the non-intercepting flux tubes dissipate, energetic electrons confined and accelerated in these flux tubes can serve as the seed electrons for a transfer of the overall plasma current from thermal to relativistic carriers. The acceleration of electrons is particularly strong because of the sudden changes in the poloidal flux that naturally occur in a rapid magnetic relaxation. The physics of magnetic islands as non-intercepting flux tubes is studied. Expressions are derived for (1) the size of islands required to confine energetic runaway electrons, (2) the accelerating electric field in an island, (3) the increase or reduction in the size of an island by the runaway electron current, (4) the approximate magnitude of the runaway current in an island, and (5) the time scale for the evolution of an island.

  8. Adolescent pregnancy. Teen perspectives on prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, M L; Bragadottir, H

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the views of teens concerning effective strategies to prevent pregnancy. Qualitative methods and a focus group approach were used. The sample consisted of male and female adolescents, 14 to 19 years of age, in grades 9 to 12, who volunteered to participate in the study. Seven groups of teens met with the investigator twice over 2 consecutive weeks. Instruments included a Screening Questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guidelines. Teens were concerned about teen pregnancy, and supported a comprehensive approach to sex education beginning in the early elementary grades, with age and developmentally appropriate content and reinforcement from late grade school through high school. Generally, teens thought that teaching abstinence in grade school followed by contraception education in junior high and high school was a realistic strategy for pregnancy prevention. They wanted to discuss sexual feelings as well as the mechanical aspects of sex. Finally, they did not want to be told not to have sex, but rather wanted to be guided in their own decision making. Teens wanted parents and other adults to be involved in helping them understand sexuality and make decisions about sexual behavior. Nurses who work with families need to understand why teens are becoming pregnant, provide opportunities for teens to discuss sexual behavior, and educate parents on sexual development and parent-child communication. Nurses also need to let parents and teens know that they are a resource for information, guidance, and health services related to sexual development and behavior.

  9. Simulation study on avoiding runaway electron generation by magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, S.; Yoshino, R.; Matsumoto, T.; Hudson, S.R.; Kawano, Y.; Takizuka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Simulations have demonstrated that magnetic islands having the widths expected on the major disruption cause the collisionless loss of the relativistic electrons, and that the resultant loss rate is high enough to avoid or to suppress the runaway generation. It is because, for the magnetic fluctuations in the disruption, the loss of the electron confinement due to the breakdown of the toroidal momentum conservation overwhelms the runaway electron confinement due to the phase-averaging effect of relativistic electrons. Simulation results agree closely with recent experiments on fast plasma shutdown, showing that it is possible to prevent the generation of runaway electrons. (author)

  10. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  11. An Adult Communication Skills Program to Prevent Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, John K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Conducted communication skills workshops to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescents by teaching adults how to help young people make responsible decisions and resist peer influences. One year later, 66% reported use of skills five or more times in the previous month, and significantly fewer adolescents in the high workshop intensity area…

  12. Prevention and Intervention of Depression in Asian-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…

  13. Digital gaming for HIV prevention with young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Runaway snakes in TEXTOR-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entrop, I.; Jaspers, R.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Finken, K.H.

    1999-01-01

    Observations of a runaway beam confined in an island-like structure, a so-called runaway snake, are reported. The observations are made in TEXTOR-94 by measurement of synchrotron radiation emitted by these runaways. A full poloidal view allows for the study of the synchrotron pattern of the snake to estimate runaway energy, pitch angle and the radius, shift and safety factor of the drift surface q D at which the runaway beam has developed. The runaway snake parameters are investigated under different current and magnetic field strength conditions. Examples are found of a runaway snake at the q D =1 and the q D =2 drift surface. The radial diffusion coefficient of runaways inside a snake is D r approx. 0.01m 2 s -1 . The rapid runaway losses in regions of (macroscopic) magnetic perturbations outside a snake and the good confinement inside an island assumed to consist of perfect nested surfaces are consistent with magnetic turbulence as the main cause for runaway transport. (author)

  15. [Construction of the addiction prevention core competency model for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.

  16. Adolescents' mental health and the Greek family: preventive aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierodiakonou, C S

    1988-03-01

    Preventive mental health measures can be properly planned only if the various factors leading to the adolescent's personality structure are extensively investigated. Starting with the specific attitudes of a couple towards genetic counselling, the disadvantages of urbanization and of the dissolution of the traditional extended family are discussed with regard to their effect on the younger members. Data are produced concerning the child-rearing practices of Greek in comparison to American parents and their effect on the adolescent's emotional life. Extreme dependence on the family, pressure for school achievements, lack of sexual education, etc. are characteristic of the stresses a Greek adolescent undergoes. Socio-cultural conditions, like immigration, adoption, etc. are shown to have a different psychological effect on an adolescent in Greece than in America. Specific stresses regarding the adolescent's future, like preparing for university entrance examinations, are discussed and preventive measures are proposed.

  17. Runaway in the landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Walcher, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    We consider flux compactifications of type IIB string theory on the mirror of a rigid Calabi-Yau. In special cases, these models are dual to the type IIA flux vacua with runaway direction in flux space. We show that new weak coupling AdS solutions can be found for large complex structure, while Minkowski solutions with all moduli stabilized are confined to be at strong coupling. The existence of these solutions, as found in a previous work, is nevertheless guaranteed by a nonrenormalization theorem of the type IIB flux superpotential. Based on our results, we are led to the conjecture that supersymmetric runaway directions in flux space are always accompanied by a spectrum of moduli masses reaching down to the AdS scale. This could be violated in a nonsupersymmetric situation

  18. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  19. [Effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use: The view of experts and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Cristian; del Moral, Gonzalo; Musitu, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; John, Bev

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to obtain the views of a sample of adolescents and experts on adolescence, family, school, local policies and media, regarding the effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use. Four educational centers in the province of Seville. Head office of the Alcohol and Society Foundation in Madrid. Qualitative study using the method proposed by Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Data were collected from 10 discussion groups guided by semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using Atlas ti 5 software. A total of 32 national experts and 40 adolescents of both sexes aged 15 to 20 years living in the province of Seville, selected by theoretical intentional sampling. The experts believed that most of the evaluated preventive actions were effective, while adolescents disputed the preventive impact of most of them. Adolescents proposed actions focused on the reduction of supply of alcohol. Experts proposed a mixed model as the most effective strategy to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents, combining supply and demand reduction policies, depending on specific short and long term objectives. We have obtained, not only an overview of what is working (or not) from the view of adolescents and experts, but also the key points that should be taken into account for designing effective prevention policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Richard F; Fagan, Abigail A; Gavin, Loretta E; Greenberg, Mark T; Irwin, Charles E; Ross, David A; Shek, Daniel T L

    2015-01-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention. PMID:22538180

  1. Dynamics of runaways in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.; Ingesson, L.C.; Johnson, M.F.; Ward, D.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the properties of the runaway beams generated in JET following disruptions. Radiation is emitted by the runaways, both when they are in flight and when they hit the vessel walls. Because radiation protected soft x-ray cameras were developed for the JET DT campaign, it has been possible to make the first direct observations of the runaway beam in flight from the x-ray line radiation produced by the beam excitation of K-shell vacancies in the metallic impurities of the residual plasma. These observations give clear images of the runaway beam and provide detailed information on its time development, size, position and stability. The current density and q-profile have also been determined. It has been found that there is a delay between the disruption and the start of runaway generation and this offers a possibility of instigating runaway control methods. Detailed determination of the runaway-wall interaction suggests that the runaways have a braided structure. (author)

  2. [Current Guidelines to Prevent Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, S; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Graf, C; Grünewald-Funk, D; Widhalm, K; Korsten-Reck, U; Markert, J; Güssfeld, C; Müller, M J; Moss, A; Wabitsch, M; Wiegand, S

    2016-01-01

    Current guidelines for the prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence are presented. A literature search was performed in Medline via PubMed, and appropriate studies were analysed. Programs to prevent childhood obesity were to date mainly school-based. Effects were limited to date. Analyses tailored to different age groups show that prevention programs have the best effects in younger children (adolescence, school-based interventions were most effective when adolescents were directly addressed. To date, obesity prevention programs have mainly focused on behavior oriented prevention. Recommendations for condition oriented prevention have been suggested by the German Alliance of Non-communicable Diseases and include one hour of physical activity at school, promotion of healthy food choices by taxing unhealthy foods, mandatory quality standards for meals at kindergarten and schools as well as a ban on unhealthy food advertisement addressing children. Behavior oriented prevention programs showed hardly any or only limited effects in the long term. Certain risk groups for the development of obesity are not reached effectively by available programs. Due to the heterogeneity of available studies, universally valid conclusions cannot be drawn. The combination with condition oriented prevention, which has to counteract on an obesogenic environment, is crucial for sustainable success of future obesity prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Runaway-ripple interaction in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    Two approaches of the interaction between runaway electrons and the ripple field, in tokamaks, are discussed. The first approach considers the resonance effect as an intense cyclotron heating of the electrons, by the ripple field, in the guiding center frame of the fast particles. In the second approach, an Hamiltonian formalism is used. A criterion for the onset of chaotic behavior and the results are given. A new universal instability of the runaway population in tokamak configuration is found. When combined with cyclotron losses one of its major consequence is to act as an effective slowing down mechanism preventing the free fall acceleration toward the synchrotron limit. This configuration allows the explanation of some experimental results of Tore Supra and Textor

  4. Numerical simulation of runaway electron effect on Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    1998-07-01

    The runaway electron effects on Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are studied by the numerical analyses. The present study is the first investigation of time-dependent thermal response of PFCs caused by runaway electron impact. For this purpose, we developed a new integrated numerical code, which consists of the Monte Carlo code for the coupled electrons and photons transport analysis and the finite element code for the thermo-mechanical analysis. In this code, we apply the practical incident parameters and distribution of runaway electrons recently proposed by S. Putvinski, which can express the time-dependent behavior of runaway electrons impact. The incident parameters of electrons in this study are the energy density ranging from 10 to 75 MJ/m 2 , the average electrons' energy of 12.5 MeV, the incident angle of 0.01deg and the characteristic time constant for decay of runaway electrons event of 0.15sec. The numerical results showed that the divertor with CFC (Carbon-Fiber-Composite) armor did not suffer serious damage. On the other hand, maximum temperatures at the surface of the divertor with tungsten armor and the first wall with beryllium armor exceed the melting point in case of the incident energy density of 20 and 50 MJ/m 2 . Within the range of the incident condition of runaway electrons, the cooling pipe of each PFCs can be prevented from the melting or burn-out caused by runaway electrons impact, which is one of the possible consequences of runaway electrons event so far. (author)

  5. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  6. Teenage Pregnancy Prevention and Adolescents' Sexual Outcomes: An Experiential Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…

  7. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  8. Adolescent HIV Prevention: An Application of the Elaboration Likelihood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, April E.; Weiskotten, David; Morgen, Keith J.

    Ninth grade students (n=298) participated in a study to examine the influence source credibility, message, quality, and personal relevance on HIV prevention message efficacy. A pilot study with adolescent focus groups created the high and low quality messages, as well as the high (HIV+) and low (worried parent) credibility sources. Participants…

  9. An analysis of family-school collaboration in preventing adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people.

  10. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bochaver

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community. These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience on the Russian reality and for development of a new generation of programs for the prevention of substance abuse in Russia. Also, these principles and ideas may be partly extrapolated to develop prevention programs for other social risks.

  11. Inflation expels runaways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachlechner, Thomas C. [Department of Physics, Columbia University,New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2016-12-30

    We argue that moduli stabilization generically restricts the evolution following transitions between weakly coupled de Sitter vacua and can induce a strong selection bias towards inflationary cosmologies. The energy density of domain walls between vacua typically destabilizes Kähler moduli and triggers a runaway towards large volume. This decompactification phase can collapse the new de Sitter region unless a minimum amount of inflation occurs after the transition. A stable vacuum transition is guaranteed only if the inflationary expansion generates overlapping past light cones for all observable modes originating from the reheating surface, which leads to an approximately flat and isotropic universe. High scale inflation is vastly favored. Our results point towards a framework for studying parameter fine-tuning and inflationary initial conditions in flux compactifications.

  12. Inter-machine comparison of the termination phase and energy conversion in tokamak disruptions with runaway current plateau formation and implications for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Solís, J.R.; Loarte, A.; Hollmann, E.M.; Esposito, B.; Riccardo, V.

    2014-01-01

    The termination of the current and the loss of runaway electrons following runaway current plateau formation during disruptions have been investigated in the JET, DIII-D and FTU tokamaks. Substantial conversion of magnetic energy into runaway kinetic energy, up to ∼10 times the initial plateau runaway kinetic energy, has been inferred for the slowest current terminations. Both modelling and experiment suggest that, in present devices, the efficiency of conversion into runaway kinetic energy is determined to a great extent by the characteristic runaway loss time, τ diff , and the resistive time of the residual ohmic plasma after the disruption, τ res , increasing with the ratio τ diff /τ res . It is predicted that, in large future devices such as ITER, the generation of runaways by the avalanche mechanism will play an important role, particularly for slow runaway discharge terminations, increasing substantially the amount of energy deposited by the runaways onto the plasma-facing components by the conversion of magnetic energy of the runaway plasma into runaway kinetic energy. Estimates of the power fluxes on the beryllium plasma-facing components during runaway termination in ITER indicate that for runaway currents of up to 2 MA no melting of the components is expected. For larger runaway currents, minimization of the effects of runaway impact on the first wall requires a reduction in the kinetic energy of the runaway beam before termination and, in addition, high plasma density n e and low ohmic plasma resistance (long τ res ) to prevent large conversion of magnetic into runaway kinetic energy during slow current terminations. (paper)

  13. Updates on adolescent dating and sexual violence prevention and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Jones, Kelley A; McCauley, Heather L

    2018-05-09

    Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents. Studies have found sex category differences, with adolescent girls reporting more victimization than boys, particularly sexual violence. Sexual and gender minority youth also experience a higher prevalence of violence victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. Studies on risk factors include examinations of childhood adversities, exposure to sexually explicit material and substance use as well as the role of gender inequitable attitudes on violence perpetration. Recent prevention research includes examining the impact of bystander interventions and transforming gender norms. Recent ADV/ sexual violence research highlights both prevalence and modifiable risk and protective factors that may help reduce such violence. Practitioners caring for youth should consider ADV/ sexual violence when seeing patients (including those struggling with substance use and other behaviours that contribute to poor health) and not simply rely on screening tools to identify those suffering from ADV/ sexual violence.

  14. Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services: the GAPS in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadomski, Anne; Bennett, Shannon; Young, Margaret; Wissow, Lawrence S

    2003-05-01

    Pre- and post-Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) comparison of outcomes gathered via chart audit. A rural hospital-based general pediatric clinic. Adolescents who underwent annual examinations between April 1, 1998, and March 31, 2001. A random sample of 441 medical records was reviewed. Training in the GAPS model and use of the questionnaire began in April 1998. Detection of, discussion of, and referrals for GAPS-related risk behavior. The medical records of 162 younger adolescents (aged 11-15 years) and 279 older adolescents (aged 16-19 years) were audited. Detection of risk behaviors increased from 19% at baseline to 95% with the initial GAPS and 87% with the periodic GAPS. The most prevalent risk factor was having a rifle or gun in the home (younger adolescents, 47% and older adolescents, 39%). The mean number of risk behaviors and health concerns documented was higher in the initial GAPS (4.8 and 1.3, respectively) than in the periodic GAPS (3.8 and 0.7) (P =.01 and.006). The GAPS questionnaires detected lower levels of risk behavior compared with a local Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Controlling for sex, age, and clinician, discussion of psychosocial topics increased during the study period; however, there was considerable variation among clinicians regarding the topics addressed. The GAPS-related referral rate did not change significantly. The GAPS model increases clinicians' detection and discussion of risk behaviors.

  15. Depressive Symptoms Moderate Dating Violence Prevention Outcomes Among Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collibee, Charlene; Rizzo, Christie J; Kemp, Kathleen; Hood, Erik; Doucette, Hannah; Gittins Stone, Daniel I; DeJesus, Brett

    2018-04-01

    Few dating violence prevention programs assess how variations in initial violence risk affects responsiveness. This study examines the efficacy of Date SMART, a dating violence and sexual risk prevention program designed to target high-risk adolescent girls, in preventing dating violence in the context of varying initial levels of depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of N = 109 female adolescents with a history of physical dating violence participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Date SMART program and a knowledge only (KO) comparison. Using baseline depression level as a primary risk factor, a series of multilevel models revealed significant main effects of baseline depression such that higher baseline depression was associated with greater physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results also showed a three-way interaction for assessment point, depressive symptoms, and condition for physical dating violence perpetration. Specifically, those with higher baseline depression in Date SMART showed significantly less physical dating violence perpetration at follow-ups compared with those with higher baseline depression in the KO group. This difference in violence reduction between conditions was not observed for those with lower baseline depression. Date SMART appears to effectively reduce physical dating violence perpetration in those with higher levels of initial risk. Current findings support that adolescents with different risk profiles respond differently to violence prevention programs.

  16. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Teitelman, Anne M; Bevilacqua, Amanda W; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-09-01

    Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk-reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk-reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Generalized programs and interventions may not have universal, transnational, and crosscultural

  17. Interventions for preventing eating disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, B M; Woolfenden, S R

    2002-01-01

    Eating disorders represent an extremely difficult condition to treat and patients consume an enormous amount of mental health energy and resources. Being young, female, and dieting are some of the few identified risk factors that have been reliably linked to the development of eating disorders, and several prevention eating disorder prevention programs have been developed and trialed with children and adolescents. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of eating disorder prevention programs for children and adolescents both in the general population and those determined to be at risk. 1. To determine if eating disorder prevention programs are effective in promoting healthy eating attitudes and behaviours in children and adolescents; 2. To determine if eating disorder prevention programs are effective in promoting psychological factors that protect children and adolescents from developing eating disorders; 3. To determine if eating disorder prevention programs are effective in promoting satisfactory physical health in children and adolescents; 4. To determine if eating disorder prevention programs have a long-term, sustainable, and positive impact on the mental and physical health of children and adolescents; and, 5. To determine the safety of eating disorder prevention programs in terms of possible harmful consequences on the mental or physical health of children and adolescents. Relevant trials are identified through searching the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register (CCTR) and relevant biomedical and social science databases. All terms necessary to detect prevention programs and the participant groups are used. A strategy to locate randomised controlled trials is used. Other sources of information are the bibliographies of systematic and non-systematic reviews and reference lists from articles identified through the search strategy. In order to identify unpublished studies, experts in the field are contacted by letter and

  18. Adolescent pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daisy Maria; de Sant’Anna Carvalho, Alexandre Machado; Riera, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV) drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a new intervention for people at high risk for acquiring HIV, with an estimated HIV incidence of >3%. Recent data from trials show evidence of the efficacy of PrEP as a powerful HIV prevention tool in high-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples, and IV drug users. The reported efficacy in those trials of the daily use of oral tenofovir, alone or in combination with emtricitabine, to prevent HIV infection ranged from 44% to 75% and was heavily dependent on adherence. Despite the proven efficacy of PrEP in adult trials, concerns remain about its feasibility in real-life scenarios due to stigma, cost, and limited clinician experience with PrEP delivery. Recent studies are attempting to expand the inquiry into the efficacy of such HIV prophylaxis approaches in adolescent populations, but there are still many gaps in knowledge, and no country has yet approved it for use with adolescents. The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the evidence from studies on PrEP for adolescents. We have compiled and reviewed published studies focusing on safety, feasibility, adherence to therapeutics, self-perception, and legal issues related to PrEP in people aged between 10 and 24 years. PMID:29238237

  19. Theory of runaway electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, H [Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, University of California, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1958-07-01

    This paper treats the problem of electrons moving through an infinite gas of positive ions under the influence of a static uniform electric field of arbitrary strength. In evaluating the electrical conductivity of such a gas the conventional treatment involves a perturbation solution of the time-independent Boltzmann equation, and results in the well-known (temperature){sup 3/2} law. Two assumptions are basic to these treatments: 1) that a steady state electron velocity distribution is attained several mean-free collision times after the electric field is applied, and 2) that the terminal electron drift velocity is small compared to the average random electron speed. Both assumptions are avoided in this paper. In the next section the problem is formulated starting with the Boltzmann equation and a review of approximate analytic solutions appropriate to the weak and strong electric field cases is presented. We then describe a time-dependent numerical solution to the Boltzmann equation and compare these results with the approximate solutions. All of these treatments lead to the conclusion that this problem does not admit a time-independent solution. Because of the strong energy dependence of the Rutherford scattering law, the electron drift velocity is not bounded by a terminal value, rather it grows monotonically with time. This is the so-called runaway effect predicted by Giovanelli. Collective effects, or plasma oscillations, are ignored in this work, although these undoubtedly play an important role in the conduction of electricity through the plasma.

  20. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  1. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Andrea B; Canizares, Catalina; Gomez, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  2. Reclaiming Gender and Power in Sexual Violence Prevention in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.

  3. Adolescent pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado DM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Daisy Maria Machado,1 Alexandre Machado de Sant’Anna Carvalho,2 Rachel Riera3 1Disciplina de Infectologia Pediátrica, Departamento de Pediatria, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, 2Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Disciplina de Medicina Baseada em Evidências, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a new intervention for people at high risk for acquiring HIV, with an estimated HIV incidence of >3%. Recent data from trials show evidence of the efficacy of PrEP as a powerful HIV prevention tool in high-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples, and IV drug users. The reported efficacy in those trials of the daily use of oral tenofovir, alone or in combination with emtricitabine, to prevent HIV infection ranged from 44% to 75% and was heavily dependent on adherence. Despite the proven efficacy of PrEP in adult trials, concerns remain about its feasibility in real-life scenarios due to stigma, cost, and limited clinician experience with PrEP delivery. Recent studies are attempting to expand the inquiry into the efficacy of such HIV prophylaxis approaches in adolescent populations, but there are still many gaps in knowledge, and no

  4. The Origin of Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, R.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2000-12-01

    Milliarcsecond astrometry provided by Hipparcos and by radio observations makes it possible to retrace the orbits of some of the nearest runaway stars and pulsars to determine their site of origin. The orbits of the runaways AE Aurigae and μ Columbae and of the eccentric binary ι Orionis intersected each other ~2.5 Myr ago in the nascent Trapezium cluster, confirming that these runaways were formed in a binary-binary encounter. The path of the runaway star ζ Ophiuchi intersected that of the nearby pulsar PSR J1932+1059, ~1 Myr ago, in the young stellar group Upper Scorpius. We propose that this neutron star is the remnant of a supernova that occurred in a binary system that also contained ζ Oph and deduce that the pulsar received a kick velocity of ~350 km s-1 in the explosion. These two cases provide the first specific kinematic evidence that both mechanisms proposed for the production of runaway stars, the dynamical ejection scenario and the binary-supernova scenario, operate in nature.

  5. A Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial of the Positive Prevention PLUS Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    To determine the impact of Positive Prevention PLUS, a school-based adolescent pregnancy prevention program on delaying sexual intercourse, birth control use, and pregnancy. I randomly assigned a diverse sample of ninth grade students in 21 suburban public high schools in California into treatment (n = 2483) and control (n = 1784) groups that participated in a clustered randomized controlled trial. Between October 2013 and May 2014, participants completed baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys regarding sexual behavior and pregnancy. Participants in the treatment group were offered Positive Prevention PLUS, an 11-lesson adolescent pregnancy prevention program. The program had statistically significant impacts on delaying sexual intercourse and increasing the use of birth control. However, I detected no program effect on pregnancy rates at 6-month follow-up. The Positive Prevention PLUS program demonstrated positive impacts on adolescent sexual behavior. This suggests that programs that focus on having students practice risk reduction skills may delay sexual activity and increase birth control use.

  6. Electron runaway in rf discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.

    1992-10-01

    The critical electric field is computed as a function of pressure and starting energy for electrons to run away to high energies in moderate pressure discharges. The runaway conditions depend critically on the shape of the elastic cross section vs. energy curve. Computations are made for H, H 2 , and He gases, and it is shown that runaway occurs much more readily in atomic hydrogen than in the other gases. The values of the runaway fields are larger than would normally occur in dc discharges, where large voltages would lead to arc formation. However, in rf discharges such electric fields can be sustained over times long compared to electron transit times but short compared to ion transit times. (author)

  7. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea B. Horn

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  8. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne

    2014-05-27

    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  9. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  10. Runaway Reaction: Solving for X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Solveig A.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the runaway reaction as it was displayed by Barry, a 14-year-old eighth-grade boy with learning disabilities. It identifies some of the common characteristics of this response and proposes school intervention methods. Functional behavioral assessments and strength-based assessments are encouraged, along with using strategy…

  11. Social mediation of persuasive media in adolescent substance prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crano, William D; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Tan, Cara N; Siegel, Jason T

    2017-06-01

    Social commentary about prevention messages may affect their likelihood of acceptance. To investigate this possibility, student participants (N = 663) viewed 3 antimarijuana advertisements, each followed immediately by videotaped discussions involving 4 adults or 4 adolescents using either extreme or moderate language in their positive commentaries. The commentaries were expected to affect participants' perceptions of the extent to which the ads were designed to control their behavior (perceived control), which was hypothesized to inhibit persuasion. Two indirect effects analyses were conducted. Marijuana attitudes and usage intentions were the outcome variables. Both analyses revealed statistically significant source by language interactions on participants' perceived control (both p negative marijuana attitudes and diminished usage intentions when adults used moderate (vs. extreme) language in their favorable ad commentaries (both p impact of interpersonal communication variations on acceptance of media-transmitted prevention messages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Using Anti-Tobacco Industry Messages to Prevent Smoking among High-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Niederdeppe, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Christine; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    Media campaigns to prevent adolescent tobacco use in the United States increasingly focus on the deceitful practices of the tobacco industry; however, little is known about how adolescents at elevated smoking risk respond to this strategy. This study used data from a nationally representative survey of 10,035 adolescents, ages 12-17 years, in…

  13. [Electronic media in obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch-Blüher, Susann; Koormann, Stefanie; Brauchmann, Jana; Wiegand, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/Web of Science to identify randomized and/or controlled studies that have investigated the efficacy of electronic media for obesity prevention below the age of 18. A total of 909 studies were identified, and 88 studies were included in the analysis. Active video games did increase physical activity compared to inactive games when applied within a peer group. Interventions via telephone had positive effects on certain lifestyle-relevant behaviours. Interventions via mobile were shown to decrease dropout rates by sending regular SMS messages. To date, interventions via smartphones are scarce for adolescents; however, they might improve cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from internet-based interventions showed a trend towards positive effects on lifestyle-relevant behaviors. The combination of different electronic media did not show superior results compared to interventions with only one medium. Interventions via TV, DVD or video-based interventions may increase physical activity when offered as an incentive, however, effects on weight status were not observed. Children and adolescents currently grow up in a technology- and media-rich society with computers, tablets, smartphones, etc. used daily. Thus, interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity are contemporary. Available studies applying electronic media are however heterogeneous in terms of applied medium and duration

  14. A model for disruption generated runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.; Campbell, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    One of the possible consequences of disruptions in tokamaks is the generation of runaway electrons which can impact plasma facing components and cause damage, owing to high local energy deposition. This problem becomes more serious as the machine size and plasma current increase. Since large size and high currents are characteristics of proposed future machines, control of runaway generation is an important design consideration. A lumped circuit model for disruption runaway electron generation indicates that impurity concentration and type, as well as plasma motion, can strongly influence runaway behaviour. A comparison of disruption data from several runs on JET and DIII-D with model results demonstrate the effects of impurities, and plasma motion, on runaway number density and energy. The model is also applied to the calculation of runaway currents for ITER. (author). 16 refs, 13 figs

  15. Runaway electron generation in tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Andersson, F.; Fueloep, T.; Smith, H.; Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.; Eriksson, L.-G.

    2005-01-01

    The time evolution of the plasma current during a tokamak disruption is calculated by solving the equations for runaway electron production simultaneously with the induction equation for the toroidal electric field. The resistive diffusion time in a post-disruption plasma is typically comparable to the runaway avalanche growth time. Accordingly, the toroidal electric field induced after the thermal quench of a disruption diffuses radially through the plasma at the same time as it accelerates runaway electrons, which in turn back-react on the electric field. When these processes are accounted for in a self-consistent way, it is found that (1) the efficiency and time scale of runaway generation agrees with JET experiments; (2) the runaway current profile typically becomes more peaked than the pre-disruption current profile; and (3) can easily become radially filamented. It is also shown that higher runaway electron generation is expected if the thermal quench is sufficiently fast. (author)

  16. Preventing Adolescent Risk Behavior in the Rural Context: An Integrative Analysis of Adolescent, Parent, and Provider Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…

  17. Runaway Children in America: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, William H.; Burkhead, E. Jane

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature regarding runaway children, defines runaway youth, and discusses predisposing factors. Suggestions are offered for further research on the etiology and treatment of runaway behavior. (JDD)

  18. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…

  19. Incentives for preventing smoking in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefler, Marita; Liberato, Selma C; Thomas, David P

    2017-06-06

    Adult smoking usually has its roots in adolescence. If individuals do not take up smoking during this period it is unlikely that they ever will. Further, once smoking becomes established, cessation is challenging; the probability of subsequently quitting is inversely proportional to the age of initiation. One novel approach to reducing the prevalence of youth smoking is the use of incentives. To assess the effect of incentives on preventing children and adolescents (aged 5 to 18 years) from starting to smoke. It was also our intention to assess, where possible, the dose-response of incentives, the costs of incentive programmes, whether incentives are more or less effective in combination with other interventions to prevent smoking initiation, and any unintended consequences arising from the use of incentives. For the original review (published 2012) we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, CSA databases and PsycINFO for terms relating to incentives, in combination with terms for smoking and tobacco use, and children and adolescents. The most recent searches were of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, and were carried out in December 2016. We considered randomized controlled trials (RCTs) allocating children and adolescents (aged 5 to 18 years) as individuals, groups or communities to intervention or control conditions, where the intervention included an incentive aimed at preventing smoking uptake. We also considered controlled trials (CTs) with baseline measures and post-intervention outcomes. Two review authors extracted and independently assessed the data. The primary outcome was the smoking status of children or adolescents at follow-up who reported no smoking at baseline. We required a minimum follow-up of six months from baseline and assessed each included study for risks of bias. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial; we did

  20. Stochastic runaway of dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Graeff, P.

    1984-10-01

    One-dimensional, stochastic, dynamical systems are well studied with respect to their stability properties. Less is known for the higher dimensional case. This paper derives sufficient and necessary criteria for the asymptotic divergence of the entropy (runaway) and sufficient ones for the moments of n-dimensional, stochastic, dynamical systems. The crucial implication is the incompressibility of their flow defined by the equations of motion in configuration space. Two possible extensions to compressible flow systems are outlined. (orig.)

  1. Effect of runaway electrons and VDE's on ITER first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Cardella, A.; Federici, G.; Ioki, K.; Parker, R.; Akiba, M.; Ezato, K.

    1998-01-01

    Runaway electron and VDE energy deposition transients pose a major Be and W armour lifetime issue depending on their frequencies. The impact is more severe in the case of W because of the high minimum armour thickness required to prevent Cu from melting. Use of W armour should be limited to regions where such 'slow' high energy deposition transients are highly unlikely. Future effort is required to better understand and characterise these events and to develop design measures to address the issue. (author)

  2. Relativistic runaway electrons in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaspers, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Runaway electrons are inherently present in a tokamak, in which an electric field is applied to drive a toroidal current. The experimental work is performed in the tokamak TEXTOR. Here runaway electrons can acquire energies of up to 30 MeV. The runaway electrons are studied by measuring their synchrotron radiation, which is emitted in the infrared wavelength range. The studies presented are unique in the sense that they are the first ones in tokamak research to employ this radiation. Hitherto, studies of runaway electrons revealed information about their loss in the edge of the discharge. The behaviour of confined runaways was still a terra incognita. The measurement of the synchrotron radiation allows a direct observation of the behaviour of runaway electrons in the hot core of the plasma. Information on the energy, the number and the momentum distribution of the runaway electrons is obtained. The production rate of the runaway electrons, their transport and the runaway interaction with plasma waves are studied. (orig./HP)

  3. Runaway companions of supernova remnants with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubert, Douglas; Fraser, Morgan; Evans, N. Wyn

    2018-04-01

    It is expected that most massive stars have companions and thus that some core-collapse supernovae should have a runaway companion. The precise astrometry and photometry provided by Gaia allows for the systematic discovery of these runaway companions. We combine a prior on the properties of runaway stars from binary evolution with data from TGAS and APASS to search for runaway stars within ten nearby supernova remnants. We strongly confirm the existing candidate HD 37424 in S147, propose the Be star BD+50 3188 to be associated with HB 21, and suggest tentative candidates for the Cygnus and Monoceros Loops.

  4. Runaway modeling in ORMAK and TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.; Swain, D.W.; Marcus, F.B.; Kammash, T.

    1977-07-01

    A zero-dimensional tokamak start-up code is used to investigate the generation of runaway electrons in the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK) and The Next Step (TNS) and the effect of the runaways on the plasma breakdown, current, and energy balance, The runaways, which are considered collisionless, are treated self-consistently in the circuit equation by including a runaway current component (determined from a runaway rate equation). During the earliest stages of a discharge, the total current in the plasma is so low that closed flux surfaces do not exist. Runaways produced are lost almost instantly because they follow magnetic field lines that intersect the limiter. Once the current in the tokamak builds up sufficiently, closed flux surfaces start forming which improves runaway containment. The time tau when this occurs is uncertain. Results on ORMAK and TNS are displayed for different values of tau (before which any runaway created is assumed to be lost instantaneously). The assumption of flux surface closure after some arbitrary time tau is then justified by modeling an ORMAK discharge which includes the effects on runaway confinement of error fields generated by currents flowing in the leads to the toroidal field coils. Also shown are ORMAK simulations in different density regimes and TNS results for different loop voltage pulses

  5. Runaway Slave Advertisements: Teaching from Primary Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tom; Doyle, Brooke

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how children can learn from runaway slave advertisements. The advertisements for runaway slaves that masters placed in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century newspapers are among the documentary sources available to teachers for studying the lives of African-American slaves. Such advertisements often describe a…

  6. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya

    2016-07-29

    Fluoride mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention in school-based programmes and by individuals at home. This is an update of the Cochrane review of fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2003. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride mouthrinses in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objective is to examine whether the effect of fluoride rinses is influenced by:• initial level of caries severity;• background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); or• fluoride concentration (ppm F) or frequency of use (times per year). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (whole database, to 22 April 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 April 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 April 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1937 to 22 April 2016), LILACS BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database, 1982 to 22 April 2016), BBO BIREME (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; from 1986 to 22 April 2016), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 22 April 2016) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 22 April 2016). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or

  7. Runaway acceleration during magnetic reconnection in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P; Eriksson, L-G; Andersson, F

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the basic theory of runaway electron production is reviewed and recent progress is discussed. The mechanisms of primary and secondary generation of runaway electrons are described and their dynamics during a tokamak disruption is analysed, both in a simple analytical model and through numerical Monte Carlo simulation. A simple criterion for when these mechanisms generate a significant runaway current is derived, and the first self-consistent simulations of the electron kinetics in a tokamak disruption are presented. Radial cross-field diffusion is shown to inhibit runaway avalanches, as indicated in recent experiments on JET and JT-60U. Finally, the physics of relativistic post-disruption runaway electrons is discussed, in particular their slowing down due to emission of synchrotron radiation, and their ability to produce electron-positron pairs in collisions with bulk plasma ions and electrons

  8. Runaway pacemaker: a forgotten phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel F; Sammartino, M Victoria; Pellegrino, Graciela M M; Barja, Luis D; Albina, Gaston; Segura, Eliseo V; Balado, Roberto; Laiño, Ruben; Giniger, Alberto G

    2005-11-01

    Runaway is an uncommon pacemaker dysfunction, characterized by fast and erratic spikes at non-physiological rates. This infrequent but potentially lethal failure mode may be related to low battery voltage. Four single chamber pacemaker patients were analyzed (Medtronic Minix ST 8330, Minneapolis, MN, had been implanted in two patients and two CPI Triumph VR 1124, St Paul, MN, in the other two). They had been admitted because of presyncopal episodes. Typical high rate stimuli at 2000 ppm alternating with pacing at 60-65 ppm were recorded in all ECGs. Lead system tests were normal. The pulse generators had to be replaced.

  9. Disk tides and accretion runaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William R.; Hahn, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    It is suggested that tidal interaction of an accreting planetary embryo with the gaseous preplanetary disk may provide a mechanism to breach the so-called runaway limit during the formation of the giant planet cores. The disk tidal torque converts a would-be shepherding object into a 'predator,' which can continue to cannibalize the planetesimal disk. This is more likely to occur in the giant planet region than in the terrestrial zone, providing a natural cause for Jupiter to predate the inner planets and form within the O(10(exp 7) yr) lifetime of the nebula.

  10. Evidence-based obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence: critique of recent etiological studies, preventive interventions, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2012-07-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.

  11. Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention in Childhood and Adolescence: Critique of Recent Etiological Studies, Preventive Interventions, and Policies123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005

  12. Runaway Children Twelve Years Later: A Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lucy; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This study was based on intensive interviews with former runaways, nonrunaway siblings, parents, and other relatives. Differences in outcome were found between: (1) runaways and siblings; (2) runaway repeaters and nonrepeaters; and (3) runaways from working-class and middle-class backgrounds. (Author)

  13. The Prevalence of Disabilities and Maltreatment among Runaway Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patricia M.; Knutson, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptive information was analyzed for maltreated and nonmaltreated runaways from hospital (N=39,352, 255 runaways) and school (N=40,211, 562 runaways) populations. Children and youth with disabilities (especially those with behavior disorders, mental retardation, and communication disorders) were at increased risk to become runaways in both…

  14. In Their Own Words: Adolescents Strategies to Prevent Friend's Risk Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.

    2014-01-01

    Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early adolescents…

  15. Prevention of alcohol use in early adolescents: A joint venture of school and parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    More than half of the Dutch adolescents start drinking before age 12 (Monshouwer et al., 2009). Early drinking is related to several developmental risks and to later alcohol and drug abuse (Behrendt et al., 2009). A Dutch alcohol prevention program (PAS) targets early adolescents and their parents

  16. A Theater-Based Approach to Primary Prevention of Sexual Behavior for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lisa D.; Berlin, Cydelle; Palen, Lori-Ann; Ashley, Olivia Silber

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a crucial period for preventing teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This study evaluated STAR LO, a theater-based intervention designed to affect antecedents of sexual activity among urban early adolescents (N = 1,143). Public elementary/middle schools received the intervention or served as a wait-listed…

  17. School-Based Drug Prevention among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…

  18. The role of the primary care provider in preventing and treating alcohol problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knight, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    Adolescents use alcohol more frequently and heavily than all other illicit drugs combined.(1) Given the myriad health, developmental, and social problems associated with alcohol use, it is not surprising that the American Medical Association's Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services recommends

  19. Use of Technology for HIV Prevention Among Adolescent and Adult Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J; Patel, Viraj V; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2015-12-01

    Although the proportion of new HIV infections in the USA among women has decreased over the last few years, still, approximately 20 % of new infections occur annually among adolescent and adult women. The development of effective evidence-based prevention interventions remains an important approach to further decreasing these numbers. Technology-delivered prevention interventions hold tremendous potential due, in part, to their ability to reach beyond the walls of brick-and-mortar intervention sites to engage individuals where they are. While most technology-delivered interventions have focused on adolescents and men who have sex with men, much fewer have specifically targeted adolescent or adult women despite evidence showing that interventions tailored to specific target populations are most effective. We summarize the recently published literature on technology-delivered HIV prevention interventions for US adolescent and adult women and provide suggestions for next steps in this nascent but emergent area of prevention research.

  20. The caries-preventive effect of chlorhexidine varnish in children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    James, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents and to determine its effectiveness compared to fluoride varnish.

  1. [Preventive treatment of tension headache in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shypilova, E M; Zavadenko, N N; Nesterovskiy, Yu E

    To assess the efficacy of noophen (γ-amino-β-phenylbutyric acid hydrochloride) in the preventive treatment of tension-type headache (TTH) in children and adolescents. The study included 30 patients with TTH, aged from 8 to 16 years, treated with noophen in dose of 15-20 mg/kg per day (2-3 times perorally) during 2 month. Before and during the treatment characteristics of headache, its influence on daily activities were assessed with HIT-6 and PedMIDAS, anxiety disorders were assessed with SCAS, the dynamics of sleep disturbances in children were evaluated. A significant decrease in the frequency, duration and intensity of TTH as well as positive changes in daily life activities and reduction of anxiety and sleep disorders manifestations, which are the risk factors for TTH, were demonstrated during the treatment with noophen. Starting from the first month of treatment, there was a significant decrease in the number of days completely lost because of headache and days with the reduced activity (a decrease in the productivity by >50%).

  2. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; Chong, Lee Yee

    2015-06-15

    Topically applied fluoride gels have been widely used as a caries-preventive intervention in dental surgeries and school-based programmes for over three decades. This updates the Cochrane review of fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2002. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride gels in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objectives are to examine whether the effect of fluoride gels is influenced by the following: initial level of caries severity; background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes, or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); mode of use (self applied under supervision or operator-applied), and whether there is a differential effect between the tray and toothbrush methods of application; frequency of use (times per year) or fluoride concentration (ppm F). We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 5 November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 5 November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 5 November 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 5 November 2014), LILACS and BBO via the BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 5 November 2014), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 5 November 2014) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1945 to 5 November 2014). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 5 November 2014. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication in the search of the electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or indicated, comparing topically applied fluoride gel with placebo or no treatment in

  3. A review of educational-based gambling prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Chin Oh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.

  4. Long-term health and medical cost impact of smoking prevention in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Michael, Shannon L

    2015-02-01

    To estimate smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood and to estimate long-term health and medical cost impacts of preventing smoking in today's adolescents. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we first estimated smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood. Then, using the predicted probabilities, we estimated the number of adolescents who were prevented from becoming adult daily smokers as a result of a hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in today's adolescents. We further estimated lifetime medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained as a result of preventing adolescents from becoming adult daily smokers. All costs were in 2010 dollars. Compared with never smokers, those who had tried smoking at baseline had higher probabilities of becoming current or former daily smokers at follow-up regardless of baseline grade or sex. A hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in 24.5 million students in 7th-12th grades today could prevent 35,962 individuals from becoming a former daily smoker and 44,318 individuals from becoming a current daily smoker at ages 24-32 years. As a result, lifetime medical care costs are estimated to decrease by $1.2 billion and lifetime QALYs is estimated to increase by 98,590. Effective smoking prevention programs for adolescents go beyond reducing smoking prevalence in adolescence; they also reduce daily smokers in young adulthood, increase QALYs, and reduce medical costs substantially in later life. This finding indicates the importance of continued investment in effective youth smoking prevention programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. On the inward drift of runaway electrons during the plateau phase of runaway current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Di, E-mail: hudi-2@pku.edu.cn [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); School of Nuclear Science and Technology and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The well observed inward drift of current carrying runaway electrons during runaway plateau phase after disruption is studied by considering the phase space dynamic of runaways in a large aspect ratio toroidal system. We consider the case where the toroidal field is unperturbed and the toroidal symmetry of the system is preserved. The balance between the change in canonical angular momentum and the input of mechanical angular momentum in such a system requires runaways to drift horizontally in configuration space for any given change in momentum space. The dynamic of this drift can be obtained by integrating the modified Euler-Lagrange equation over one bounce time. It is then found that runaway electrons will always drift inward as long as they are decelerating. This drift motion is essentially non-linear, since the current is carried by runaways themselves, and any runaway drift relative to the magnetic axis will cause further displacement of the axis itself. A simplified analytical model is constructed to describe such inward drift both in the ideal wall case and no wall case, and the runaway current center displacement as a function of parallel momentum variation is obtained. The time scale of such displacement is estimated by considering effective radiation drag, which shows reasonable agreement with the observed displacement time scale. This indicates that the phase space dynamic studied here plays a major role in the horizontal displacement of runaway electrons during plateau phase.

  6. Anomalous resistivity due to low-frequency turbulence. [of collisionless plasma with limited acceleration of high velocity runaway electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, H. L.; Palmadesso, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Large amplitude ion cyclotron waves have been observed on auroral field lines. In the presence of an electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field these waves prevent the acceleration of the bulk of the plasma electrons leading to the formation of a runaway tail. It is shown that low-frequency turbulence can also limit the acceleration of high-velocity runaway electrons via pitch angle scattering at the anomalous Doppler resonance.

  7. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  8. Adolescence Behaviour Problems: How to Tackle or Prevent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. Jurist Lionial

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between child hood and adulthood. Adolescent period starts with puberty. The period during which the capability for sexual reproduction is attained; it is marked by changes in both primary and secondary sexual characteristics and is dated from menarche in…

  9. Long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use prevention on adult mental health services utilization: the midwestern prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of a drug abuse(1) prevention program, previously shown to prevent marijuana use in adolescence, on adulthood mental health service use. Analyses were conducted on 961 6th (41%) and 7th (59%) grade participants randomly assigned to intervention or control groups at baseline in 1984. These participants were followed-up through 2003 representing 15 waves of data collection. Eighty-five percent of participants were Caucasian and 56% were female. The hypothesis was that direct program effects on early adulthood mental health service use would be mediated by program effects on high school marijuana use trajectories. Structural equation models, imputing for missing data, demonstrated that MPP (Midwestern Prevention Project) program effects on mental health were mediated by the marijuana use growth curve intercept. Findings support the role of early adolescent drug use prevention programs in impacting later mental health problems. The study's limitations are noted.

  10. Runaway electrons in TEXT-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Runaway electrons have long been studied in tokamak plasmas. The previous results regarding runaway electrons and the detection of hard x-rays are reviewed. The hard x-ray energy on TEXT-U is measured and the scaling of energy with electron density, n e , is noted. This scaling suggests a runaway source term that scales roughly as n e / 1 . The results indicate that runaways are created throughout the discharges. An upper bound for X e due to magnetic fluctuations was found to be .0343 m 2 /s. This is an order of magnitude too low to explain the thermal transport in TEXT, implying that electrostatic fluctuations are important in thermal transport in TEXT

  11. Measurements of Silicon Detector Thermal Runaway

    CERN Document Server

    Heusch, C A; Moser, H G

    1999-01-01

    We measured thermal runaway properties of previously irradiated silicon detectors cooled by TPG bars. We simulated their expected behaviour to measure the energy gap in the detector material and to test the validity of various underlying assumptions.

  12. Strategies for prevention or reduction of drug use for adolescents: systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamyris Alexandre Salles

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted with the objective of identifying scientific evidence of strategies for prevention or reduction of drug use among adolescents. Searches were conducted in databases LILACS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Scopus and Cochrane Library, with descriptors Ensino, Educação em Saúde, Transtornos relacionados ao uso de substâncias, Adolescentes and Enfermagem Psiquiátrica. Twenty-seven articles were chosen. Results pointed to a variety of software, projects and interventions that are used as strategies for prevention or reduction of drug use among adolescents. Among the studies, 74.1% (n=20 reached satisfactory results and 25.9% (n=7 reached partially satisfactory results. Only Narconon Project and Brief Intervention were widely effective in reducing use of a variety of drugs among adolescents, since the other studies were focused on specific drugs or were limited to use prevention among non-using adolescents.

  13. Runaway electrons in the SINP tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The runaway electrons have been studied in the start-up phase [12–14], as well as in the steady phase [15–17]. We have confined ourselves here to the initial rise phase of the discharge mainly because the runaway electrons find the initial low density (Т ) and large applied toroidal electric field ( М = Оloop 2 К), where К is ...

  14. Runaway electrons beams in ITER disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, H.H.

    1993-01-01

    In agreement with the initial projections, the potential generation of runaway beams in disruptions of ITER discharges was performed. This analysis was based on the best-available present projections of plasma parameters existing in large-tokamak disruptions. Using these parameters, the potential contributions from various basic mechanisms for the generation of runway electrons were estimated. The envisioned mechanisms included (i) the well-known Dreicer process (assuming an evaporation of the runways from the thermal distribution), (ii) the seeding of runaway beams resulting from the potential presence of trapped high-temperature electrons from the original discharge still remaining in the disruption plasma at time of reclosure of the magnetic surfaces, and (iii) the generation of runaway beams through avalanche exponentiation of low-level seed runaways resulting via close collisions of existing runaways with cold plasma electrons. Finally, the prospective behavior of the any generated runaway beams -- in particular during their decay -- as well as their potential avoidance and/or damage controlled extraction through the use of magnetic perturbation fields also was considered in some detail

  15. Diffusion with Varying Drag; the Runaway Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, David Kenneth

    We study the motion of electrons in an ionized plasma of electrons and ions in an external electric field. A probability distribution function describes the electron motion and is a solution of a Fokker-Planck equation. In zero field, the solution approaches an equilibrium Maxwellian. For arbitrarily small field, electrons overcome the diffusive effects and are freely accelerated by the field. This is the electron runaway phenomenon. We treat the electric field as a small perturbation. We consider various diffusion coefficients for the one dimensional problem and determine the runaway current as a function of the field strength. Diffusion coefficients, non-zero on a finite interval are examined. Some non-trivial cases of these can be solved exactly in terms of known special functions. The more realistic case where the diffusion coefficient decays with velocity are then considered. To determine the runaway current, the equivalent Schrodinger eigenvalue problem is analysed. The smallest eigenvalue is shown to be equal to the runaway current. Using asymptotic matching a solution can be constructed which is then used to evaluate the runaway current. The runaway current is exponentially small as a function of field strength. This method is used to extract results from the three dimensional problem.

  16. Diffusion with varying drag; the runaway problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollins, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The motion of electrons in an ionized plasma of electrons and ions in an external electric field is studied. A probability distribution function describes the electron motion and is a solution of a Fokker-Planck equation. In zero field, the solution approaches an equilibrium Maxwellian. For arbitrarily small field, electrons overcome the diffusive effects and are freely accelerated by the field. This is the electron-runaway phenomenon. The electric field is treated as a small perturbation. Various diffusion coefficients are considered for the one dimensional problem, and the runaway current is determined as a function of the field strength. Diffusion coefficients, non-zero on a finite interval are examined. Some non-trivial cases of these can be solved exactly in terms of known special functions. The more realistic case where the diffusion coeffient decays with velocity are then considered. To determine the runaway current, the equivalent Schroedinger eigenvalue problem is analyzed. The smallest eigenvalue is shown to be equal to the runaway current. Using asymptotic matching, a solution can be constructed which is then used to evaluate the runaway current. The runaway current is exponentially small as a function of field strength. This method is used to extract results from the three dimensional problem

  17. Eating habits, knowledge about cancer prevention and the HPLP scale in Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Hafize Ozturk; Ceber, Esin; Sogukpinar, Neriman; Saydam, Birsen Karaca; Otles, Semih; Ozenturk, Gulsun

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional status and healthy lifestyle are important factors not only in cancer etiology but also for prevention efforts. A good nutritional status contributes to a healthy life with high economic, social and cultural level. Unhealthy eating habits are part of risky behavior seen from adolescence. The present study was therefore carried out to determine eating habits, level of knowledge about cancer prevention and behavior of a group of adolescents. Data were collected using questionnaire covering eating habits and knowledge of adolescents on prevention from cancer, and special scale (HPLP) to determine the related behavior. Three hundred sixty six of 390 students volunteered for study. Eating habits and the level of cancer prevention knowledge were similar for both genders, except for the exercise issue. The mean total points of adolescents in the Health Promotion Behavior and Subscales was 113,63. While spiritual growth had the highest score in HPLP subscale, exercise had a minimal score. Exercise was the only HPLP subscale with a statistically significant difference between male and female genders. Although they have some information, the adolescents surveyed did not have preventive skills relative to their practical life. In general in order to ensure cancer prevention and a healthy life style social, cultural and sportive activities should be encouraged and educational programmes supporting these goals should be designed and applied for all stages of life, starting in early childhood.

  18. Theory of Planned Behavior in School-Based Adolescent Problem Gambling Prevention: A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina

    2015-12-01

    Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.

  19. Resourcing resilience: social protection for HIV prevention amongst children and adolescents in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toska, Elona; Gittings, Lesley; Hodes, Rebecca; Cluver, Lucie D; Govender, Kaymarlin; Chademana, K Emma; Gutiérrez, Vincent Evans

    2016-07-01

    Adolescents are the only age group with growing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa, making HIV prevention research among this population an urgent priority. Structural deprivations are key drivers of adolescent HIV infection in this region. Biomedical interventions must be combined with behavioural and social interventions to alleviate the socio-structural determinants of HIV infection. There is growing evidence that social protection has the potential to reduce the risk of HIV infection among children and adolescents. This research combined expert consultations with a rigorous review of academic and policy literature on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention among children and adolescents, including prevention for those already HIV-positive. The study had three goals: (i) assess the evidence on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention, (ii) consider key challenges to implementing social protection programmes that promote HIV prevention, and (iii) identify critical research gaps in social protection and HIV prevention, in Eastern and Southern Africa. Causal pathways of inequality, poverty, gender and HIV risk require flexible and responsive social protection mechanisms. Results confirmed that HIV-inclusive child-and adolescent-sensitive social protection has the potential to interrupt risk pathways to HIV infection and foster resilience. In particular, empirical evidence (literature and expert feedback) detailed the effectiveness of combination social protection particularly cash/in-kind components combined with "care" and "capability" among children and adolescents. Social protection programmes should be dynamic and flexible, and consider age, gender, HIV-related stigma, and context, including cultural norms, which offer opportunities to improve programmatic coverage, reach and uptake. Effective HIV prevention also requires integrated social protection policies, developed through strong national

  20. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  1. Preventing Adolescent Social Anxiety and Depression and Reducing Peer Victimization: Intervention Development and Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Objective Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Method Adolescents (N=14; 13–18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths’ clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Results Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention (M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Conclusions Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed. PMID:27857509

  2. Runaway electron transport studies in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongzhen; Qi Changwei; Ding Xuantong; Li Wenzhong

    2002-01-01

    The transport of runaway electrons in a hot plasma has been studied in four experiments, which provide the runaway diffusivity D r The first experiment obtained runaway electrons using a steady state approach for values of the runaway confinement time τ r , deduced from hard X-ray bremsstrahlung spectra. In the second experiment, diffusion has been interpreted in terms of the magnetic fluctuation, from which a electron thermal diffusivity can be deduced. Runaway electro diffusion coefficient is determined by intrinsic magnetic fluctuations, rather than electrostatic fluctuations because of the high energy involved. The results presented here demonstrate the efficiency of using runaway transport techniques for determining intrinsic magnetic fluctuations

  3. Current practice of adolescent preventive services among paediatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be bridged by general health education and provision of adolescent- friendly services .... Do any of your close friends ever smoke cigarettes or chew tobacco? 23 (22.3) .... physician surveys: The limited utility of electronic options. Health Serv ...

  4. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-05-14

    Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers' involvement. A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. The snowball method was used to select mothers. Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers' awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. The mothers' awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. Randomized Trial of a Broad Preventive Intervention for Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, N.A.; Dumka, L.E.; Millsap, R.E.; Gottschall, A.; McClain, D.B.; Wong, J.J.; Germán, M.; Mauricio, A.M.; Wheeler, L.; Carpentier, F.D.; Kim, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This randomized trial of a family-focused preventive intervention for Mexican American (MA) adolescents evaluated intervention effects on adolescent substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and school discipline and grade records in 8th grade, one year after completion of the intervention. The study also examined hypothesized mediators and moderators of intervention effects. Method Stratified by language of program delivery (English vs. Spanish), the trial included a sample of 516 MA adolescents (50.8% female; M =12.3 years, SD=.54) and at least one caregiver that were randomized to receive a low dosage control group workshop or the 9-week group intervention that included parenting, adolescent coping, and conjoint family sessions. Results Positive program effects were found on all five outcomes at one-year posttest, but varied depending on whether adolescents, parents, or teachers reported on the outcome. Intervention effects were mediated by posttest changes in effective parenting, adolescent coping efficacy, adolescent school engagement, and family cohesion. The majority of direct and mediated effects were moderated by language, with a larger number of significant effects for families that participated in Spanish. Intervention effects also were moderated by baseline levels of mediators and outcomes, with the majority showing stronger effects for families with poorer functioning at baseline. Conclusion Findings support the efficacy of the intervention to decrease multiple problem outcomes for MA adolescents, but also demonstrate differential effects for parents and adolescents receiving the intervention in Spanish vs. English, and depending on their baseline levels of functioning. PMID:22103956

  6. Evaluation of a Peer-Led Drug Abuse Risk Reduction Project for Runaway/Homeless Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Stuart W.; Jarvis, Sara

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the Drug Prevention in Youth risk reduction program that was implemented in shelters for runaway/homeless youths in the southeastern United States. An evaluation strategy was developed allowing for comparisons between peer-led, adult-led and nonintervention groups. Well-trained and motivated peer/near-peer leaders made particularly…

  7. Modelling Venting and Pressure Build-up in a 18650 LCO Cell during Thermal Runaway (ABSTRACT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian; White, Ralph

    Li-ion batteries are a very popular type of electric storage devices that possess high energy density when compared to the other battery chemistries. Due to this property, when operating under abusive conditions such as high ambient temperature, the batteries can experience thermal runaway, which...... may lead to fires and explosions. To prevent this, it is therefore important to model thermal runaway considering different events such as venting and the pressure development inside the battery cell, which makes the main purpose of this paper. A model consisting of the different decomposition....... By fitting the activation energies, and measuring experimentally the mass of the ejecta during thermal runaway, the model is compared and validated against an extensive experiment performed by Golukbov et al. [1] during oven heating. When analysing the results, it is found that by including the venting...

  8. Strategies to Engage Adolescents in Digital Health Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie R. Partridge

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is one of the greatest health challenges facing today’s adolescents. Dietary interventions are the foundation of obesity prevention and management. As adolescents are digital frontrunners and early adopters of technology, digital health interventions appear the most practical modality for dietary behavior change interventions. Despite the rapid growth in digital health interventions, effective engagement with adolescents remains a pertinent issue. Key strategies for effective engagement include co-designing interventions with adolescents, personalization of interventions, and just-in-time adaptation using data from wearable devices. The aim of this paper is to appraise these strategies, which may be used to improve effective engagement and thereby improve the dietary behaviors of adolescents now and in the future.

  9. Perceptions of oral health, preventive care, and care-seeking behaviors among rural adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-12-01

    An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being "free" or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  10. Simulation of tokamak runaway-electron events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Miyahara, A.; Miyake, M.; Yamamoto, T.

    1987-08-01

    High energy runaway-electron events which can occur in tokamaks when the plasma hits the first wall are a critical issue for the materials selection of future devices. Runaway-electron events are simulated with an electron linear accelerator to better understand the observed runaway-electron damage to tokamak first wall materials and to consider the runaway-electron issue in further materials development and selection. The electron linear accelerator produces beam energies of 20 to 30 MeV at an integrated power input of up to 1.3 kW. Graphite, SiC + 2 % AlN, stainless steel, molybdenum and tungsten have been tested as bulk materials. To test the reliability of actively cooled systems under runaway-electron impact layer systems of graphite fixed to metal substrates have been tested. The irradiation resulted in damage to the metal compounds but left graphite and SiC + 2 % AlN without damage. Metal substrates of graphite - metal systems for actively cooled structures suffer severe damage unless thick graphite shielding is provided. (author)

  11. Acceleration of runaway electrons in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The dc electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the evolution of the runaway tail are studied numerically, using a relativistic quasi-linear code based on the Ritz-Galerkin method and finite elements. A small field-aligned electric field is turned on at a certain time. The resulting distribution function from the runaway process is used to calculate the synchrotron emission during the evolution of the runaway tail. It is found that, during the runaway tail formation, which lasts a few tens of seconds for typical solar flare conditions, the synchrotron emission level is low, almost ot the same order as the emission from the thermal plasma, at the high-frequency end of the spectrum. However, the emission is enhanced explosively in a few microseconds by several orders of magnitude at the time the runaway tail stops growing along the magnetic field and tends toward isotropy due to the pitch-angle scattering of the fast particles. Results indicate that, in order to account for the observed synchrotron emission spectrum of a typical solar flare, the electric field acceleration phase must be accompanied or preceded by a heating phase which yields an enhanced electron temperature of about 2-15 keV in the flare region if the electric field is 0.1-0.2 times the Dreicer field and cyclotron-to-plasma frequency ratios are of order 1-2.

  12. [The development of an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an integrated suicide-violence prevention program for adolescents. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of the integrated suicide-violence prevention program on self-esteem, parent-child communication, aggression, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants for the study were high school students, 24 in the experimental group and 25 in the control group. Data was analyzed by using the SPSS/WIN. 11.5 program with chi2 test, t-test, and 2-way ANOVA. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported increased self-esteem scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. Participants in the integrated suicide-violence prevention program reported decreased aggression and suicidal ideation scores, which was significantly different from those in the control group. The integrated suicide-violence prevention program was effective in improving self-esteem and decreasing aggression and suicidal ideation for adolescents. Therefore, this approach is recommended as the integrated suicide-violence prevention strategy for adolescents.

  13. Simulation study on dynamics of runaways in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Qin Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Electrons with high velocities can be accelerated to very high energies by a strong electric field to form runaway electrons. In tokamak, runaway electrons are produced in many different processes, including the acceleration from the high-energy tail of thermal distribution, through the runaway avalanche, during the rf wave heating and other non-Ohmic current drive, and even in the magnetic reconnection. This proceeding focus on different dynamical problems of runaway electrons in tokamaks. (author)

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process.

  15. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth

  16. Adolescent environmental enrichment prevents behavioral and physiological sequelae of adolescent chronic stress in female (but not male) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P

    2017-11-22

    The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.

  17. A Systematic Review of Apps using Mobile Criteria for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (mCAPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Elizabeth; Mangone, Emily Rose

    2016-11-10

    Adolescents in the United States and globally represent a high-risk population for unintended pregnancy, which leads to high social, economic, and health costs. Access to smartphone apps is rapidly increasing among youth, but little is known about the strategies that apps employ to prevent pregnancy among adolescents and young adults. Further, there are no guidelines on best practices for adolescent and young adult pregnancy prevention through mobile apps. This review developed a preliminary evaluation framework for the assessment of mobile apps for adolescent and young adult pregnancy prevention and used this framework to assess available apps in the Apple App Store and Google Play that targeted adolescents and young adults with family planning and pregnancy prevention support. We developed an assessment rubric called Mobile Criteria for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention (mCAPP) for data extraction using evidence-based and promising best practices from the literature. mCAPP comprises 4 domains: (1) app characteristics, (2) user interface features, (3) adolescent pregnancy prevention best practices, and (4) general sexual and reproductive health (SRH) features. For inclusion in the review, apps that advertised pregnancy prevention services and explicitly mentioned youth, were in English, and were free were systematically identified in the Apple App Store and Google Play in 2015. Screening, data extraction, and 4 interrater reliability checks were conducted by 2 reviewers. Each app was assessed for 92 facets of the mCAPP checklist. Our search returned 4043 app descriptions in the Apple App Store (462) and Google Play (3581). After screening for inclusion criteria, 22 unique apps were included in our analysis. Included apps targeted teens in primarily developed countries, and the most common user interface features were clinic and health service locators. While app strengths included provision of SRH education, description of modern contraceptives, and some use of

  18. School Nurse-Delivered Adolescent Relationship Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, Claire A.; Dick, Rebecca; Gilkerson, Fern; Mattern, Cheryl S.; James, Lisa; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Project Connect is a national program to build partnerships among public health agencies and domestic violence services to improve the health care sector response to partner and sexual violence. Pennsylvania piloted the first school nurse-delivered adolescent relationship abuse intervention in the certified school nurses' office…

  19. Postretrieval Extinction in Adolescence Prevents Return of Juvenile Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn E.; Monfils, Marie-H.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences early in life can contribute to the development of mood and anxiety disorders that manifest during adolescence and young adulthood. In young rats exposed to acute fear or stress, alterations in neural development can lead to enduring behavioral abnormalities. Here, we used a modified extinction intervention…

  20. Pilot using World Wide Web to prevent diabetes in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Joann D; Armstrong, Myrna L; Amos, Elizabeth; Shriver, Brent; Roman-Shriver, Carmen; Feng, Du; Harrison, Lanell; Luker, Scott; Nash, Anita; Blevins, Monica Witcher

    2006-02-01

    This pilot study tested the effects of an interactive nutrition education Web site on fruit, vegetable, and fat consumption in minority adolescents genetically at risk for Type 2 diabetes. A one-group nonexperimental pretest, posttest focus group design was used. Twenty-one sixth-grade to eighth-grade junior high adolescents who were minorities volunteered to participate. Participants received 5 hours of Web-based nutrition education over 3 weeks. A significant difference in fat consumption was supported from the computerized dietary assessment. No difference was found in fruit or vegetable consumption. Comparative data indicated a rise in body mass index (BMI) percentile from 88.03 (1999) to 88.40 (2002; boys) and 88.25 (1999) to 91.2 (2002; girls). Focus group responses supported the satisfaction of adolescents in the study with the use of the Web-based intervention for nutrition education. Healthy eating interventions using Web-based nutrition education should be further investigated with adolescents.

  1. Disruption generated runaway electrons in TEXTOR and ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Jaspers,; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Schüller, F. C.; Finken, K.H.; Grewe, T.; Mank, G.

    1996-01-01

    Runaway generation during a major disruption has been observed in TEXTOR. Measurements of the synchrotron radiation yielded number, energy and pitch angle of the runaways. A simple model, which assumes that the runaways take over the current density in the centre of the discharge, successfully

  2. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  3. Computeen: A Randomized Trial of a Preventive Computer and Psychosocial Skills Curriculum for At-Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…

  4. Post-retrieval extinction in adolescence prevents return of juvenile fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carolyn E.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic experiences early in life can contribute to the development of mood and anxiety disorders that manifest during adolescence and young adulthood. In young rats exposed to acute fear or stress, alterations in neural development can lead to enduring behavioral abnormalities. Here, we used a modified extinction intervention (retrieval+extinction) during late adolescence (post-natal day 45 [p45]), in rats, to target auditory Pavlovian fear associations acquired as juveniles (p17 and p25). The effects of adolescent intervention were examined by assessing freezing as adults during both fear reacquisition and social transmission of fear from a cagemate. Rats underwent testing or training at three time points across development: juvenile (p17 or p25), adolescent (p45), and adult (p100). Retrieval+extinction during late adolescence prevented social reinstatement and recovery over time of fears initially acquired as juveniles (p17 and p25, respectively). Adolescence was the only time point tested here where retrieval+extinction prevented fear recall of associations acquired 20+ days earlier. PMID:27634147

  5. Adolescent neurocognitive development, self-regulation, and school-based drug use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Black, David S; Zaman, Adnin; Riggs, Nathaniel R; Sussman, Steve

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is marked by several key development-related changes, including neurocognitive changes. Cognitive abilities associated with self-regulation are not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood whereas tendencies to take risks and seek thrilling and novel experience seem to increase significantly throughout this phase, resulting in a discrepancy between increased susceptibility to poor regulation and lower ability to exercise self-control. Increased vulnerability to drug use initiation, maintenance, and dependence during adolescence may be explained based on this imbalance in the self-regulation system. In this paper, we highlight the relevance of schools as a setting for delivering adolescent drug use prevention programs that are based on recent findings from neuroscience concerning adolescent brain development. We discuss evidence from school-based as well as laboratory research that suggests that suitable training may improve adolescents' executive brain functions that underlie self-regulation abilities and, as a result, help prevent drug use and abuse. We note that considerable further research is needed in order (1) to determine that self-regulation training has effects at the neurocognitive level and (2) to effectively incorporate self-regulation training based on neuropsychological models into school-based programming.

  6. [Adolescent tuberculosis; a challenge and opportunity to prevent community transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarit, Adriana; Simó, Sílvia; Rozas, Librada; Deyà-Martínez, Àngela; Barrabeig, Irene; Gené, Amadéu; Fortuny, Clàudia; Noguera-Julian, Antoni

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents may present with adult-type pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), including cavity disease in upper lobes and smear-positive sputum, which involves a significant transmission risk for social and family contacts. A retrospective (2007-2012) observational study of a case series of TB was conducted in children and adolescents (12 years at diagnosis are compared. The series consisted of 124 patients (56.5% males, median age: 4.0 years). In half of the cases, the patient was of immigrant origina and TB was diagnosed after clinical-radiological suspicion, intra-thoracic disease being the most common (91.9%). Cultures yielded positive results in one third of cases (37.9%) and isolates were sensitive to oral first-line anti-TB agents in 100%. Median (interquartile range) duration of treatment was 6 (6-9) months, directly observed therapy was needed in 10 patients, and there was a satisfactory outcome after treatment in 98.4%. Among adolescents, TB was more prevalent in females (63.2%) and immigrant patients (68.4%), comorbidity at diagnosis and lung cavity forms were more common, and the source case was identified only in 21.1% of the patients. Adult-type pulmonary TB is common among adolescents, may be associated with underlying medical conditions, and is often diagnosed late, posing a significant transmission risk to the community. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Parent-based interventions for preventing or reducing adolescent substance use - A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in preventing, curbing or reducing substance use (i.e. alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) among 10 to 18-year-olds. The databases PubMed, PsychInfo, Eric and Google Scholar were used to identify randomized trials published within the past 12years evaluating effects on adolescent substance use. Of the 653 identified in the first screening, 39 publications dealing with 13 programs were included. Results reveal desirable effects of parenting measures such as rule-setting, monitoring and parent-child communication. There was also some evidence in terms of preventing, curbing or reducing adolescent substance use. However, this appears to depend particularly on the age group of the adolescents in question, the kind of parents included and the intensity of the program. To conclude, the results of this systematic review underline the importance of including parents in programs aiming to impede initiation of substance use or curb or reduce already existing substance use in adolescence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Starting young: sexual initiation and HIV prevention in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Mueller, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.

  9. Native American adolescents' views of fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G X; Toubbeh, J; Cline, J; Chisholm, A

    1998-04-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents in the United States. Adolescent females are recognized as one group at risk for giving birth to babies with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Sixth through eighth grade Native Americans were surveyed about their attitudes toward and knowledge of FAS risk factors and prevention strategies. Data revealed that 52% of students drank alcohol prior to the survey. Though sexually active, students lacked knowledge about the relationship between alcohol and FAS. The study revealed 1) limited prevention programs in middle schools and 2) the most influential factor in determining attitudes and decisions about alcohol use was the immediate family. Students felt FAS prevention is an important topic in school health education, noting the important role peers play in teaching and role modeling. Various strategies incorporating music and communication technology such as videotape and computer-assisted interactive tools into prevention materials are discussed.

  10. Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Andra L; Ball, Barbara; Valle, Linda Anne; Noonan, Rita; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-07-01

    Violence experienced by adolescent girls from their dating partners poses considerable threat to their health and well-being. This report provides an overview of the prevalence and consequences of heterosexual teen dating violence and highlights the need for comprehensive prevention approaches to dating violence. We also discuss some considerations and future directions for the study and prevention of dating violence. We begin with a discussion of the definition of dating violence and also discuss measurement concerns and the need for evaluation of prevention strategies. Although women and men of all ages may be the victims or perpetrators, male-to-female dating violence experienced by adolescent girls is the main focus of this article. We incorporate research regarding girls' perpetration of dating violence where appropriate and as it relates to prevention.

  11. The main reasons of conflicts between adolescents in the multicultural class and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuhlaeva O.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The conflict interaction in the adolescent environment, mainly in the context of intercultural interaction, is considered in the article on the basis of theoretical analysis. The relationship between conflict in adolescence and the overcoming of adolescent crisis is described, as well as the conflict was correlated with other age characteristics. A special emphasis is placed on intergroup conflicts. An additional specificity of conflicts in school classes with mixed cultural composition is discussed. An analysis of the specifics of the conflict interaction in connection with the measurement of cultures by G. Hofstede was carried out (individualism-collectivism, power distance, masculinity-femininity and avoidance of uncertainty. The conclusion about the greater urgency of potential contradictions is being made if there are teenagers belonging to widely differing cultures in the school class. The role of laughter culture as manifestations of antipodes in game form for the prevention and correction of conflicts in a adolescent multicultural environment is shown.

  12. Localized thermonuclear runaways and volcanoes on degenerate dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, M.M.

    1982-10-15

    Practically all studies to date of thermonuclear runaways on degenerate dwarf stars in binary systems have considered only spherically symmetric eruptions. We emphasize that even slightly non-spherically symmetric accretion leads to transverse temperature gradients in the dwarfs' accreted envelopes. Over a rather broad range of parameter space, thermalization time scales in accreted envelopes are much longer than thermonuclear runaway time scales. Thus localized thermonuclear runaways (i.e., runaways much smaller than the host degenerate star) rather than spherically symmetric global eruptions are likely to occur on many degenerate dwarfs. Localized runaways are more likely to occur on more massive and/or hotter dwarfs.

  13. The influence of plasma motion on disruption generated runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the possible consequences of disruptions is the generation of runaway electrons which can impact plasma facing components and cause damage due to high local energy deposition. This problem becomes more serious as the machine size and plasma current increases. Since large size and high currents are characteristics of proposed future machines, control of runaway generation is an important design consideration. A lumped circuit model for disruption runaway electron generation indicates that control circuitry on strongly influence runaway behavior. A comparison of disruption data from several shots on JET and D3-D with model results, demonstrate the effects of plasma motion on runaway number density and energy. 6 refs., 12 figs

  14. Transport of runaway and thermal electrons due to magnetic microturbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The ratio of the runaway electron confinement to thermal electron energy confinement is derived for tokamaks where both processes are determined by free streaming along stochastic magnetic field lines. The runaway electron confinement is enhanced at high runaway electron energies due to phase averaging over the magnetic perturbations when the runaway electron drift surfaces are displaced from the magnetic surfaces. Comparison with experimental data from LT-3, Ormak, PLT, ST, and TM-3 indicates that magnetic stochasticity may explain the relative transport rates of runaways and thermal electron energy

  15. Is a gender differential intervention necessary in the prevention of adolescent drug use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Carmen; Charro, Belén

    2014-01-01

    To examine the significant differences in smoking, drug and alcohol use between adolescent boys and girls, and to raise the possible need to design and implement prevention programs from a gender perspective. A qualitative study using eight discussion groups of adolescents aged 14-18 years (n=56) and 6 semi-structured interviews with experts and professionals in drug prevention in the Community of Madrid. Categorical interpretive analysis was performed. The adolescents and prevention professional indicated differences between boys and girls in drug and alcohol use. The significances, reasons associated with the consumption and the patterns of consumption were perceived differently by each sex. To lose weight, calm down or an image of rebelliousness was related to girls who smoked, while boys smoked less because they did more sports. The perception of certain precocity of drug consumption was associated with the step from school to Higher Education Institutions. They found smoking associated with a good social image among their groups. Adolescents showed the ineffectiveness of the campaigns and prevention messages they received, incoherence of adults between messages and actions, and the attraction of all behaviours that are banned. Professionals observed the need to include a gender perspective in prevention programs, but did not know how to achieve it, mainly because it has been translated into different activities for each sex until now. The significant differences associated with smoking, drug and alcohol use observed in the adolescents should lead us to design and implement prevention programs that incorporate a gender perspective. It is perhaps from this strategy where drug and alcohol use among girls can be reduced. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Obesity Prevention in Early Adolescence: Student, Parent, and Teacher Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G.; Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Daratha, Kenneth B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant health problem among today's youth; however, most school-based prevention programs in this area have had limited success. Focus groups were conducted with seventh- to eighth-grade students, parents, and teachers to provide insight into the development of a comprehensive program for the prevention of adolescent…

  17. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  18. An Analysis of Family-School Collaboration in Preventing Adolescent Violence in Urban Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, C. J. Gerda; Emslie, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people. Empirical evidence indicates…

  19. Preventing Drug Abuse among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.

    2015-01-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…

  20. Effective Prevention of Adolescent Substance Abuse--Educational versus Deterrent Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…

  1. "Mbizi": Empowerment and HIV/AIDS Prevention for Adolescent Girls in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitza, Amy; Chilisa, Bagele; Makwinja-Morara, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a small group intervention for HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescent girls in Botswana. The psychoeducational group model is designed to empower girls to overcome the gender inequality that puts women at increased risk of HIV infection in the country. Group goals include heightening group members' awareness of the influence…

  2. Efficacy of Adolescent Suicide Prevention E-Learning Modules for Gatekeepers : A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Gould, Madelyn S; Twisk, Jos Wr; Kerkhof, Ad Jfm; Koot, Hans M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Face-to-face gatekeeper training can be an effective strategy in the enhancement of gatekeepers' knowledge and self-efficacy in adolescent suicide prevention. However, barriers related to access (eg, time, resources) may hamper participation in face-to-face training sessions. The

  3. Developing a Web-Based Intervention to Prevent Drug Use among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…

  4. Adolescents' responses to a school-based prevention program promoting healthy eating at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.C.J.; Bruin, H. de; Larsen, J.K.; Mensink, F.; Hoek, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programs, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. The present study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a

  5. Parent-based interventions for preventing or reducing adolescent substance use: A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, S.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing relevance of peers, parents remain important socializing agents for their adolescent children and are therefore promising agents for inclusion in prevention or intervention programs. This systematic review provides an overview of the effectiveness of parent-based programs in

  6. The role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to investigate the role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use. First, we investigated the association of specific parental drinking patterns with 12-15 year olds' drinking. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns, i.e. having a heavy drinking father

  7. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E.; Cummings, Amanda A.; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents ("JOVEN"/YOUTH: "Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios"/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate…

  8. A Covariance Structure Model Test of Antecedents of Adolescent Alcohol Misuse and a Prevention Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielman, T. E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…

  9. Development and formative evaluation of a family-centred adolescent HIV prevention programme in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maretha; Thurman, Tonya R; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Taylor, Tory M; Nice, Johanna K; Finestone, Michelle

    2018-03-06

    Preventing HIV among young people is critical to achieving and sustaining global epidemic control. Evidence from Western settings suggests that family-centred prevention interventions may be associated with greater reductions in risk behaviour than standard adolescent-only models. Despite this, family-centred models for adolescent HIV prevention are nearly non-existent in South Africa - home to more people living with HIV than any other country. This paper describes the development and formative evaluation of one such intervention: an evidence-informed, locally relevant, adolescent prevention intervention engaging caregivers as co-participants. The programme, originally consisting of 19 sessions for caregivers and 14 for adolescents, was piloted with 12 groups of caregiver-adolescent dyads by community-based organizations (CBOs) in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng provinces. Literature and expert reviews were employed in the development process, and evaluation methods included analysis of attendance records, session-level fidelity checklists and facilitator feedback forms collected during the programme pilot. Facilitator focus group discussions and an implementer programme workshop were also held. Results highlighted the need to enhance training content related to cognitive behavioural theory and group management techniques, as well as increase the cultural relevance of activities in the curriculum. Participant attendance challenges were also identified, leading to a shortened and simplified session set. Findings overall were used to finalize materials and guidance for a revised 14-week group programme consisting of individual and joint sessions for adolescents and their caregivers, which may be implemented by community-based facilitators in other settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the avalanche generation of runaway electrons during tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Solís, J. R.; Loarte, A.; Lehnen, M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple zero dimensional model for a tokamak disruption is developed to evaluate the avalanche multiplication of a runaway primary seed during the current quench phase of a fast disruptive event. Analytical expressions for the plateau runaway current, the energy of the runaway beam, and the runaway energy distribution function are obtained allowing the identification of the parameters dominating the formation of the runaway current during disruptions. The effect of the electromagnetic coupling to the vessel and the penetration of the external magnetic energy during the disruption current quench as well as of the collisional dissipation of the runaway current at high densities are investigated. Current profile shape effects during the formation of the runaway beam are also addressed by means of an upgraded one-dimensional model

  11. Treatment planning: A key milestone to prevent treatment dropout in adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Lyne; Saint-Jean, Micheline; Breton, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a broader appreciation of processes involved in treatment dropout in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A constructivist grounded theory was chosen using a multiple-case research design with three embedded levels of analysis (adolescent, parent, and care setting). Theoretical sampling and the different stages of analysis specific to grounded theory were performed according to the iterative process of constant comparative analysis. Twelve cases were examined (nine dropouts among adolescents with BPD and for the purpose of falsification, one dropout of suicidal adolescent without BPD and two completed treatments among adolescents with BPD). To document the cases, three groups of informants were recruited (adolescents, parents, and therapists involved in the treatment) and 34 interviews were conducted. Psychological characteristics, perception of mental illness and mental health care, and help-seeking context were the specific treatment dropout vulnerabilities identified in adolescents with BPD and in their parents. However, their disengagement became an issue only when care-setting response--including mitigation of accessibility problems, adaptation of services to needs of adolescents with BPD, preparation for treatment, and concern for clinicians' disposition to treat--was ill-suited to these treatment dropout vulnerabilities. Treatment planning proves to be a key milestone to properly engage adolescents with BPD and their parent. Systematic assessment of treatment dropout vulnerabilities before the intervention plan is laid out could foster better-suited responses of the care setting thus decreasing the incidence of treatment discontinuation in adolescents with BPD. Treatment dropout vulnerabilities specific to adolescents with BPD and their parents can be detected before the beginning of treatment. Premature treatment termination may be prevented if the care setting considers these vulnerabilities at treatment

  12. Runaway electron beam in atmospheric pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreshkin, E V; Barengolts, S A; Chaikovsky, S A; Oreshkin, V I

    2015-01-01

    A numerical simulation was performed to study the formation of a runaway electron (RAE) beam from an individual emission zone in atmospheric pressure air discharges with a highly overvolted interelectrode gap. It is shown that the formation of a RAE beam in discharges at high overvoltages is much contributed by avalanche processes. (paper)

  13. Runaway breakdown and electrical discharges in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milikh, Gennady; Roussel-Dupré, Robert

    2010-12-01

    This review considers the precise role played by runaway breakdown (RB) in the initiation and development of lightning discharges. RB remains a fundamental research topic under intense investigation. The question of how lightning is initiated and subsequently evolves in the thunderstorm environment rests in part on a fundamental understanding of RB and cosmic rays and the potential coupling to thermal runaway (as a seed to RB) and conventional breakdown (as a source of thermal runaways). In this paper, we describe the basic mechanism of RB and the conditions required to initiate an observable avalanche. Feedback processes that fundamentally enhance RB are discussed, as are both conventional breakdown and thermal runaway. Observations that provide clear evidence for the presence of energetic particles in thunderstorms/lightning include γ-ray and X-ray flux intensifications over thunderstorms, γ-ray and X-ray bursts in conjunction with stepped leaders, terrestrial γ-ray flashes, and neutron production by lightning. Intense radio impulses termed narrow bipolar pulses (or NBPs) provide indirect evidence for RB particularly when measured in association with cosmic ray showers. Our present understanding of these phenomena and their enduring enigmatic character are touched upon briefly.

  14. Runaway electrons in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Takemichi; Nakamura, Kazuo; Toi, Kazuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Hiraki, Naoji

    1981-01-01

    Pulse height analysis of soft X-rays is carried out in the TRIAM-1 tokamak. The electron temperatures determined from the soft X-ray spectrum agree well with those from Thomson scattering. It is observed that low-energy runaway (slideaway) electrons appear in the high-current-density discharges. (author)

  15. Runaway electrons in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, T; Nakamura, K; Toi, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-09-01

    Pulse height analysis of soft X-rays is carried out in the TRIAM-1 tokamak. The electron temperatures determined from the soft X-ray spectrum agree well with those from Thomson scattering. It is observed that low-energy runaway (slideaway) electrons appear in the high-current-density discharges.

  16. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are ... More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth. Members of the ... Institution. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

  17. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are ... More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on youth. Members of the ... Institution. Ottawa Hospital Research Institute.

  18. Adolescent transformations of behavioral and neural processes as potential targets for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldreth, Dana; Hardin, Michael G; Pavletic, Nevia; Ernst, Monique

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a transitional period in development that is marked by a distinct, typical behavioral profile of high rates of exploration, novelty-seeking, and emotional lability. While these behaviors generally assist the adolescent transition to independence, they can also confer vulnerability for excessive risk-taking and psychopathology, particularly in the context of specific environmental or genetic influences. As prevention research depends on the identification of targets of vulnerability, the following review will discuss the interplay among motivational systems including reward-related, avoidance-related, and regulatory processes in typical and atypical adolescent development. Each set of processes will be discussed in relation to their underlying neural correlates and distinct developmental trajectories. Evidence suggests that typical adolescent behavior and the risk for atypical development are mediated by heightened adolescent responsiveness of reward-related and avoidance-related systems under specific conditions, concurrent with poor modulation by immature regulatory processes. Finally, we will propose strategies to exploit heightened reward processing to reinforce inhibitory control, which is an essential component of regulatory processes in prevention interventions.

  19. Models of safe nutrition of children and adolescents as a basis for prevention of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weker, Halina; Barańska, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present up-to-date nutrition models for children and adolescents in Poland on the basis of current research on obesity prevention. Up-to-date results of research on the link between nutritional factor and the nutritional status of children and adolescents, nutritional standards and recommendations of expert teams on healthy diet were analysed, based on the review of literature (Medline database) from the years 2005-2010. The main components of the model of safe nutrition for children and adolescents, which according to the current views should be combined with obesity prevention, include the frequency of meals, selection of products in a daily diet and observance of norms concerning energy and nutritional value of the diets. Other factors include family and environmental determinants, including dietary habits and behaviour, knowledge about nutrition and physical activity. The models of safe nutrition for children and adolescents in Poland are compliant with the current nutritional recommendations of the WHO and EU standards. The developed models of safe nutrition for children and adolescents must not only be popularised but also their efficiency needs to be increased by adjusting them to various groups of recipients.

  20. Counseling About Skin Cancer Prevention Among Adolescents: What Do Parents Receive From Health Care Providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Mays, Darren; Kornides, Melanie L; Gilkey, Melissa B

    2017-10-01

    Adolescence is a high-risk period for ultraviolet radiation exposure, a primary cause of skin cancer later in life. We sought to characterize receipt of health care provider-delivered counseling about skin cancer prevention (SCP) among parents of adolescents. In 2016, we conducted an online survey with a national sample of parents of adolescents aged 11-17 years (n = 1,253). Multivariable logistic regression assessed correlates of receiving counseling from a health care provider about any of the six skin cancer prevention (SCP) topics. Only half (49%) of parents recalled discussing any SCP topic with their child's provider; the prevalence was highest for sunscreen (39%) and lowest for indoor tanning (3%). Parents had greater odds of receiving counseling if they had a child with more sun-reactive skin (odds ratio [OR] = 1.53); a family history of skin cancer (OR = 1.38); or a higher quality relationship with the provider (OR = 1.47; all p attention to SCP counseling is needed, especially for exposures such as indoor tanning that remain prevalent among adolescents but are rarely addressed in clinical encounters. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of Adolescent Suicide Prevention E-Learning Modules for Gatekeepers: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Gould, Madelyn S; Twisk, Jos Wr; Kerkhof, Ad Jfm; Koot, Hans M

    2016-01-29

    Face-to-face gatekeeper training can be an effective strategy in the enhancement of gatekeepers' knowledge and self-efficacy in adolescent suicide prevention. However, barriers related to access (eg, time, resources) may hamper participation in face-to-face training sessions. The transition to a Web-based setting could address obstacles associated with face-to-face gatekeeper training. Although Web-based suicide prevention training targeting adolescents exists, so far no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to investigate their efficacy. This RCT study investigated the efficacy of a Web-based adolescent suicide prevention program entitled Mental Health Online, which aimed to improve the knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers working with adolescents (12-20 years old). The program consisted of 8 short e-learning modules each capturing an important aspect of the process of early recognition, guidance, and referral of suicidal adolescents, alongside additional information on the topic of (adolescent) suicide prevention. A total of 190 gatekeepers (ages 21 to 62 years) participated in this study and were randomized to either the experimental group or waitlist control group. The intervention was not masked. Participants from both groups completed 3 Web-based assessments (pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up). The outcome measures of this study were actual knowledge, and participants' ratings of perceived knowledge and perceived self-confidence using questionnaires developed specifically for this study. The actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and perceived self-confidence of gatekeepers in the experimental group improved significantly compared to those in the waitlist control group at posttest, and the effects remained significant at 3-month follow-up. The overall effect sizes were 0.76, 1.20, and 1.02, respectively, across assessments. The findings of this study indicate that Web-based suicide prevention e-learning modules can be an

  2. Family functioning and mental health in runaway youth: association with posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sanna J; Cochran, Gerald; Barczyk, Amanda N

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the direct effects of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, poor family communication and worries concerning family relationships, depression, anxiety, and dissociation on posttraumatic stress symptoms. Runaway youth were recruited from emergency youth shelters in New York and Texas. Interviews were completed with 350 youth who averaged 15 years of age. Structural equation modeling was used to examine family functioning, maltreatment, depression, dissociation, and anxiety in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Results indicated that direct effects of family relationship worry to dissociation, β = .77, p family communication and youth dissociation, β = .42, p stress symptoms, but depression was not. Findings underscore the critical role of family relationships in mental health symptoms experienced by runaway adolescents. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  3. Psychological and pedagogical conditions for the preventions of deviant behavior among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vist N.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available this article focuses on such a highly relevant subject as the prevention and correction of deviant behavior in the adolescent environment. The study revealed the main vectors for the development of the modern science of deviant behavior, identified the main causes of deviations and carried out a comparative analysis of the work on the prevention of deviant behavior in the CIS countries and abroad. This paper proved that the key factor in the prevention and correction of deviant behavior should be, firstly, the family as the primary and the most important institution of identity formation, and secondly, the pedagogically controlled environment of educational institutions serving as a condition for socialization and personal development for children and adolescents.

  4. Receptivity of African American Adolescents to an HIV-Prevention Curriculum Enhanced by Text Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Judith B.; St Lawrence, Janet S.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study assessed African American adolescents’ receptivity to an HIV-prevention curriculum enhanced by text messaging. DESIGN AND METHODS Two focus groups were conducted with 14 African American adolescents regarding how an HIV-prevention curriculum could be enhanced for text messaging delivery. RESULTS The adolescents were receptive to the idea of text messaging HIV-prevention information but wanted to receive a maximum of three messages per day during the hours of 4:00–6:00 p.m. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS By taking the findings of this study, nurses, other healthcare providers, and community-based organizations can adapt evidence-based interventions for text messaging delivery to individuals at high risk for HIV infection. PMID:19356206

  5. Translating models of antisocial behavioral development into efficacious intervention policy to prevent adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A; McCourt, Sandra N

    2010-04-01

    Adolescent chronic antisocial behavior is costly but concentrated in a relatively small number of individuals. The search for effective preventive interventions draws from empirical findings of three kinds of gene-by-environment interactions: (1) parenting behaviors mute the impact of genes; (2) genes alter the impact of traumatic environmental experiences such as physical abuse and peer social rejection; and (3) individuals and environments influence each other in a dynamic developmental cascade. Thus, environmental interventions that focus on high-risk youth may prove effective. The Fast Track intervention and randomized controlled trial are described. The intervention is a 10-year series of efforts to produce proximal change in parenting, peer relations, social cognition, and academic performance in order to lead to distal prevention of adolescent conduct disorder. Findings indicate that conduct disorder cases can be prevented, but only in the highest risk group of children. Implications for policy are discussed. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Adolescent Self-Consent for Biomedical Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Amy Lewis; Knopf, Amelia S; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hosek, Sybil G; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Zimet, Gregory D

    2015-07-01

    The Adolescent Medicine Trials Network Protocol 113 (ATN113) is an open-label, multisite demonstration project and Phase II safety study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis with 15- to 17-year-old young men who have sex with men that requires adolescent consent for participation. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to the process by which Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and researchers made decisions regarding whether to approve and implement ATN113 so as to inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Participants included 17 researchers at 13 sites in 12 states considering ATN113 implementation. Qualitative descriptive methods were used. Data sources included interviews and documents generated during the initiation process. A common process for initiating ATN113 emerged, and informants described how they identified and addressed practical, ethical, and legal challenges that arose. Informants described the process as responding to the protocol, preparing for IRB submission, abstaining from or proceeding with submission, responding to IRB concerns, and reacting to the outcomes. A complex array of factors impacting approval and implementation were identified, and ATN113 was ultimately implemented in seven of 13 sites. Informants also reflected on lessons learned that may help inform future biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. The results illustrate factors for consideration in determining whether to implement such trials, demonstrate that such protocols have the potential to be approved, and highlight a need for clearer standards regarding biomedical HIV prevention research with high-risk adolescent populations. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Facebook-Based Obesity Prevention Program for Korean American Adolescents: Usability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bu Kyung; Nahm, Eun-Shim; Rogers, Valerie E; Choi, Mona; Friedmann, Erika; Wilson, Marisa; Koru, Gunes

    Adolescent obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges. Social networking sites are currently popular among adolescents. Therefore, the obesity prevention program for Korean American adolescents was developed on the most popular social networking site, Facebook. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of a culturally tailored Facebook-based obesity prevention program for Korean American adolescents (Healthy Teens). An explorative descriptive design of usability testing was used. Usability testing employing one-on-one observation, the think-aloud method, audio taping, screen activity capture, and surveys was performed. Twenty participants were recruited from two Korean language schools (mean age, 15.40 ± 1.50 years). Recruitment and user testing was performed between February and April 2014. Content analysis, using the inductive coding approach, was performed by three coders to analyze transcriptions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data including demographic characteristics, perceived usability, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Testing revealed several usability issues in content, appearance, and navigation. Participants' comments regarding content were positive. Although the Facebook platform provided limited flexibility with respect to building the site, participants described the program's appearance as appropriate. Most participants did not experience difficulty in navigating the program. Our preliminary findings indicated that participants perceived the Healthy Teens program as usable and useful. This program could be used as a robust platform for the delivery of health education to adolescents. Further research is required to assess the effects of Facebook-based programs on adolescent obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preventing adolescent pregnancy with social and cognitive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, R P; Fetro, J V; Leland, N; Volkan, K

    1992-04-01

    A 15-session sex education program was delivered by teachers to 586 10th graders using techniques based on social learning theory, including modeling, in-class and out-of-class practice of skills for abstaining from sexual intercourse, and for contraception. Knowledge about reproduction and birth control, intentions to use skills to avoid pregnancy, and communication with parents about pregnancy prevention were significantly greater at posttest and 6-month follow-up for the trained group than for the control group. Members of the trained group tended to use birth control more often, especially those who started to have sexual intercourse subsequent to the program. No differences in the frequency of sexual intercourse, pregnancy scares, or pregnancies were found. Satisfaction with the program was high. Although skill training by itself may not be sufficient to significantly prevent pregnancies, this program offers promise of being a useful component of combined school, home, and community activities to prevent pregnancy.

  9. Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Curry, Susan J; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-06-20

    Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance). Children and adolescents may also experience teasing and bullying behaviors based on their weight. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may continue into adulthood and lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes or other obesity-related morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes. Although the overall rate of child and adolescent obesity has stabilized over the last decade after increasing steadily for 3 decades, obesity rates continue to increase in certain populations, such as African American girls and Hispanic boys. These racial/ethnic differences in obesity prevalence are likely a result of both genetic and nongenetic factors (eg, socioeconomic status, intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food, and having a television in the bedroom). To update the 2010 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for obesity in children 6 years and older. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for obesity in children and adolescents and the benefits and harms of weight management interventions. Comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions (≥26 contact hours) in children and adolescents 6 years and older who have obesity can result in improvements in weight status for up to 12 months; there is inadequate evidence regarding the effectiveness of less intensive interventions. The harms of behavioral interventions can be bounded as small to none, and the harms of screening are minimal. Therefore, the USPSTF

  10. African-American and Latino Parents’ Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents’ perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial. PMID:27186064

  11. African-American and Latino Parents' Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2016-06-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents' perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by three independent coders using thematic content analysis. Seventy-six percent of the 17 participants were female. Latino parents condoned fighting only as a last resort, and taught children about consequences of fighting, emotional regulation, and non-violent conflict-resolution strategies. African-American parents endorsed teaching non-violent strategies, but expressed some doubts about their effectiveness. African-American parents also suggested corporal punishment, but acknowledged that this may not be an optimal long-term strategy. Positive role modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults were cited as having important roles in fighting prevention. Suggested interventions included teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, anger management, and alternatives to fighting. Parents recommended that violence prevention programs incorporate the experiences of former fighters and be tailored to community needs. Study findings suggest that youth violence-prevention programs may benefit from addressing parental attitudes towards fighting and parent-child communication about fighting, teaching adolescents non-violent conflict-resolution skills, and tailoring programs by race/ethnicity. Promoting positive modeling and involvement by teachers and other adults also may be beneficial.

  12. Malaria: Knowledge and prevention practices among school adolescents in a coastal community in Calabar, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuse, Abraham N.; Etokidem, Aniekan J.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Malaria prevention and treatment constitute an unbearable economic burden to most African countries, especially south of the Sahara, where about 500 million cases occur annually. The problem of malaria among adolescents has largely been overshadowed by the huge burden of the disease among young children. Attention to malaria among adolescents has also been diverted by the huge burden of HIV/AIDS among adolescents. Some surveys reveal a lack of knowledge and many misconceptions about the transmission and treatment of malaria, which could adversely affect malaria control measures and antimalarial therapy. Such a knowledge gap could have an adverse effect on school children, who could be used as change agents and as role models for their siblings and peers in the malaria control strategy. Objectives To determine the malaria prevention practices of school adolescents in the coastal community of Calabar, Nigeria. Method This was a cross-sectional survey involving secondary schools in southern Calabar. Four hundred adolescents were randomly selected from the 4565 learners in 5 out of 17 secondary schools in southern Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents. Results Most respondents (77.5%) were aware that the vector transmits the malaria parasite through biting. Fewer respondents would prevent malaria attacks by clearing the vegetation in the peri-domestic environment (13.5%), filling up potholes (16.9%), opening up drainage (11%), using insecticide-treated nets (25.7%) or using antimalarial drugs (11.2%). Less than one-tenth (8%) would use various other methods such as not accepting unscreened blood, while only 11% obtained the information from their teachers. Conclusion The study identified knowledge gaps among school children. There is a need to empower teachers with information about the cause of malaria and prevention strategies.

  13. Structural drivers and social protection: mechanisms of HIV risk and HIV prevention for South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can "cash plus care" social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (psocial protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=-0.08, psocial protection has the greatest prevention effects for the most vulnerable. Social protection comprising unconditional cash plus care was associated with reduced risk pathways through moderation and main effects, respectively. Our findings suggest the importance of social protection within a combination package of HIV-prevention

  14. Control of runaway electron energy using externally injected whistler waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2018-03-01

    One way of mitigating runaway damage of the plasma-facing components in a tokamak fusion reactor is by limiting the runaway electron energy under a few MeV, while not necessarily reducing the runaway current appreciably. Here, we describe a physics mechanism by which such momentum space engineering of the runaway distribution can be facilitated by externally injected high-frequency electromagnetic waves such as whistler waves. The drastic impact that wave-induced scattering can have on the runaway energy distribution is fundamentally the result of its ability to control the runaway vortex in the momentum space. The runaway vortex, which is a local circulation of runaways in momentum space, is the outcome of the competition between Coulomb collisions, synchrotron radiation damping, and runaway acceleration by the parallel electric field. By introducing a wave that resonantly interacts with runaways in a particular range of energies which is mildly relativistic, the enhanced scattering would reshape the vortex by cutting off the part that is highly relativistic. The efficiency of resonant scattering accentuates the requirement that the wave amplitude can be small so the power requirement from external wave injection is practical for the mitigation scheme.

  15. HIV Prevention for Adolescents: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that 50% of the 30 million HIV infections worldwide occurred in young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years. In the United States, national statistics estimate that almost 40% of new HIV cases occur in youth ages 13-29 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). Therefore, a focus on preventing…

  16. Peer Models Prevent Smoking among Pre-Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, John A.; Campbell, Lloyd P.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested that the most desirable approach to combatting the smoking problem is to prevent youngsters from beginning to smoke, rather than prescribing treatment for them after they have become steady smokers. A program, which uses peer models, is described in this paper. (Author/KC)

  17. [Effectiveness of educational interventions for the prevention of pregnancy in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Martos, Sebastián; López-Medina, Isabel M; Álvarez-García, Cristina; Álvarez-Nieto, Carmen

    2018-06-11

    To assess the effectiveness of the interventions to prevent a pregnancy in adolescence. Systematic review. The following databases were consulted: PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cuiden Plus, LILACS, and IME, in order to identify interventions aimed at preventing a pregnancy in adolescence. A total of 24 primary investigations, in which an educational program to prevent a pregnancy in the adolescence was evaluated, were selected. The quality of the selected studies was assessed according to the CASPe scale. Educational programs for the modification of the teenage pregnancy rate show inconclusive results, as there are 2 studies that find a reduction, and 2 that find that there are no significant changes. For secondary outcomes, it was found that educational programs are effective for increasing the knowledge level about sexuality and contraceptive methods and changing attitudes about the risk of a teenage pregnancy or the use of contraceptive methods. There are no statistically significant differences between the studies with a positive and negative outcome (P>.05) for any of the results analysed in this review. There is no a single intervention modality that is the most effective for prevention of a teenage pregnancy. More research is needed with a longitudinal approach that assess not only intermediate results, but also a modification in the pregnancy rate. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Health Promotion for Adolescent Childhood Leukemia Survivors: Building on Prevention Science and eHealth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L.; Lindemulder, Susan J.; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D.; Smith, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals’ subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. PMID:23109253

  19. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years. The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time, while five of seven studies which assessed dietary

  20. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  1. African-American and Latino Parents��� Attitudes and Beliefs Regarding Adolescent Fighting and Its Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents��� perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, t...

  2. Radial transport of high-energy runaway electrons in ORMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Swain, D.W.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    The transport of high-energy runaway electrons near the outside of a low-density ORMAK discharge is investigated by measuring the flux of runaways to the outer limiter during and after an inward shift of the plasma column. The experimental results are interpreted through a runaway confinement model which includes both the classical outward displacement of the runaway orbit with increasing energy and an additional runaway spatial diffusion coefficient which simulates an unspecified source of anomalous transport. Diffusion coefficients in the range D approximately equal to 10 2 -10 4 cms -1 are found under various discharge conditions indicating a significant non-collisional runaway transport near the outside of the discharge, particularly in the presence of MHD instability. (author)

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies of runaway electrons in the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, S.S.; Finken, K.H.; Wongrach, K.; Willi, O.

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of runaway electrons in tokamaks and their mitigations, particularly the recent studies performed by a group of the Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf in collaboration with the Institute of Energy and Climate Research of the Research Centre (Forschungszentrum) of Juelich are reviewed. The main topics focus on (i) runaway generation mechanisms, (ii) runaway orbits in equilibrium plasma, (iii) transport in stochastic magnetic fields, (iv) diagnostics and investigations of transport of runaway electron and their losses in low density discharges (v) runaway electrons during plasma disruptions, and (vi) runaway mitigation methods. The development of runaway diagnostics enables the measurement of runaway electrons in both the centre and edge of the plasma. The diagnostics provide an absolute runaway energy resolved measurement, the radial decay length of runaway electrons and, the structure and dynamics of runaway electron beams. The new mechanism of runaway electron formation during plasma disruptions is discussed.

  4. Theoretical and experimental studies of runaway electrons in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullaev, S.S.; Finken, K.H.; Wongrach, K.; Willi, O.

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies of runaway electrons in tokamaks and their mitigations, particularly the recent studies performed by a group of the Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf in collaboration with the Institute of Energy and Climate Research of the Research Centre (Forschungszentrum) of Juelich are reviewed. The main topics focus on (i) runaway generation mechanisms, (ii) runaway orbits in equilibrium plasma, (iii) transport in stochastic magnetic fields, (iv) diagnostics and investigations of transport of runaway electron and their losses in low density discharges (v) runaway electrons during plasma disruptions, and (vi) runaway mitigation methods. The development of runaway diagnostics enables the measurement of runaway electrons in both the centre and edge of the plasma. The diagnostics provide an absolute runaway energy resolved measurement, the radial decay length of runaway electrons and, the structure and dynamics of runaway electron beams. The new mechanism of runaway electron formation during plasma disruptions is discussed.

  5. Smoking uptake among Saudi adolescents: tobacco epidemic indicators and preventive actions needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mutaz; Eggers, Sander Matthijs; Alotaiby, Fahad Falah; de Vries, Nanne; de Vries, Hein

    2014-11-25

    The aim of this cross-sectional school-based study was to assess smoking prevalence, indicators for the smoking epidemic and determinants of smoking among Saudi adolescents. The study included 695 male adolescents from 11 to 16 years of age who filled out self-report questionnaires based on the European Smoking Framework Approach questionnaire, which uses the I-Change model to assess attitude, social influence and the self-efficacy of the participants. Smokers were 275 (39.6%) adolescents. Smokers tended to receive more daily pocket money, live in more affluent families and show lower academic performance. Non-smokers were inclined to believe that smoking may help people to feel relaxed and confident, encountered less social influences to smoke than smokers, but reported low self-efficacy not to smoke when with smoker friends and when offered a cigarette. Smokers reported the lowest self-efficacy not to smoke in all situations assessed. The results suggest the smoking epidemic among male Saudi adolescents may still be in the early stages, providing ample opportunity for preventive actions aimed at halting the further progress of this epidemic. Secondly, smoking prevention programs in Saudi Arabia need to reinforce non-smoking attitudes, address how to resist pressure to smoke, and how to develop high self-efficacy towards non-smoking in various situations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Predictors of risky sexual behavior in African American adolescent girls: implications for prevention interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K

    2002-09-01

    To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.

  7. [Knowledge and practices by adolescents in preventing occupational injuries: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Roberta; Lefèvre, Ana Maria C; Lefèvre, Fernando; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Liliane R; Zinn, Lílian C S; Soares, Nilson S; Fischer, Frida M

    2007-06-01

    To describe knowledge and practices adopted by high school students to prevent occupational injuries. The study was carried out in a public school located in São Paulo, in 2003. Fifty-three evening students aged 14 to 21 years old participated the study, they were divided into two groups with and without job experience (32 and 21 students, respectively). The students answered two questions: "Why do occupational injuries occur?" and "How do you avoid occupational injuries?" Analyses were performed using the software "Quali-quanti" to structure collective discourses. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSES: Adolescents with work experience reported that occupational injuries occur due to carelessness of the employee, bad luck of the employee, employer's negligence, lack of training, and unsafe workplace. Adolescents without work experience reported that the main causes of work injuries were carelessness of the employee and employer's negligence. Regarding the ways to protect themselves against occupational injuries, both groups reported that: they pay attention (would pay attention) and wear safety equipment (would wear) safety equipment. Adolescents from both groups showed limited knowledge about occupational injuries and prevention methods. Students "blamed the victim" to explain the injuries and considered "paying attention to work" as the best way to protect themselves. These facts showed that the culture of blaming the victim is present since adolescence and probably it is an outcome of a learning process of the society.

  8. How Can Pharmacists Support STI Prevention and Treatment Among Female Adolescents and Young Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunmilola Abraham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and reproductive health is a critical focus area for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. Of the 20 million newly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs annually, nearly half of them are contracted by young people between the ages of 15 to 24. It has become increasingly necessary to improve awareness and prevention of STIs during adolescent years. The knowledge gained through appropriately relevant sexual and reproductive health education may persist as adolescents transition into adulthood. Community pharmacists interact with AYAs frequently and are therefore well positioned to engage this vulnerable population in conversations about their sexual and reproductive health through use innovative and interactive technologies. For instance, mobile applications are easily accessible to AYAs and can allow pharmacists to disseminate relevant medication information to smartphone users that download adolescent-tailored mobile applications. Although many medication adherence apps are currently available on the market, none of these apps are tailored towards sexual reproductive health information for female AYAs. A mobile-based program designed to provide a pharmacist-guided sexual and reproductive health education to female AYAs may help to address the lapses in current adolescent-aged school health classes. In the future, usage of this intervention would improve the accuracy and comprehension of female adolescents and young adults’ awareness and knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health. As a result, further research should be conducted to develop mobile applications conducive to adolescent and young adults to address sexual and reproductive health issues. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or

  9. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume (gain-framed) versus negative consequences of not listening to music at a reduced volume (loss-framed)] and type of temporal context (short-term versus long-term consequences). Participants were recruited from four vocational and secondary education schools in the Netherlands and message exposure took place online during class hours. Two weeks prior to message exposure, adolescents provided data on intention and risk perception towards hearing loss and use of (digital) music players. After message exposure, 194 adolescents (mean age = 14.71 years, SD = 1.00, 37.8% males) provided immediate follow-up data on intention. Results revealed that intention to listen to music at a reduced volume increased in those exposed to a loss-framed message with short-term consequences. No changes were found in the other conditions. Messages that emphasize negative short-term consequences of not listening to music at a moderate volume have the ability to influence adolescents' intention towards hearing loss prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Communication between Asian American Adolescents and Health Care Providers about Sexual Activity, Sexually Transmitted Infections, and Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…

  11. Mother-Child Conflict and Its Moderating Effects on Depression Outcomes in a Preventive Intervention for Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F.; Gallop, Robert; Mufson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on mother-child conflict as an outcome and moderator of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a preventive intervention for depression. Forty-one adolescents (average age = 13.37, SD = 1.19) with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST or school counseling (SC). Adolescents…

  12. Prevention of Problem Behaviours among Adolescents: The Impact of the Communities That Care Strategy in the Netherlands (2008-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Harrie; Aussems, Claire; Steketee, Majone; Boutellier, Hans; Cuijpers, Pim

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system influences targeted risk and protective factors and the subsequent development of problem behaviour among adolescents (12-18 years) in the Netherlands. In this quasi-experimental study of ten communities (five experimental, five control), adolescent outcomes were…

  13. Disruption generated secondary runaway electrons in present day tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, I.M.; Jaspers, R.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions in present day tokamaks (JET, JT-60U, TEXTOR) was made. It was shown that even for tokamaks with the plasma current I approx 100 kA the secondary generation may dominate the runaway production during disruptions. In the same time in tokamaks with I approx 1 MA the runaway electron secondary generation during disruptions may be suppressed

  14. Developing and maintaining state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, J B; Galano, J

    1993-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of state-wide adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions. Key informants in five states throughout the southern United States were given semi-structured interviews regarding the adolescent pregnancy prevention coalitions in their states. From these interviews and other documents, conclusions were drawn regarding the nature and importance of the environments within which these coalitions operate, the universe of activities in which coalitions engage, and the stages of development of these coalitions. Katz and Kahn's model of social organizations served as the basis for understanding coalitions in terms of these three considerations. Future research should consider the utility of organizational models that can explain more fully the organization--committee hybrid structure that tends to characterize these coalitions.

  15. Runaway-electron-materials interaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Miyahara, A.

    1990-03-01

    During the operation of magnetic fusion devices it has been frequently observed that runaway electrons can cause severe damage to plasma facing components. The energy of the runaway electrons could possibly reach several 100 MeV in a next generation device with an energy content in the plasma in the order of 100 MJ. In this study effects of high energy electron - materials interaction were determined by laboratory experiments using particle beam facilities, i.e. the Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research of Osaka University and the 10 MW Neutral Beam Injection Test Stand of the National Institute for Fusion Science. The experiments and further analyses lead to a first assessment of the damage thresholds of plasma facing materials and components under runaway electron impact. It was found that metals (stainless steel, molybdenum, tungsten) showed grain growth, crack formation and/or melting already below the threshold for crack initiation on graphite (14-33 MJ/m 2 ). Strong erosion of carbon materials would occur above 100 MJ/m 2 . Damage to metal coolant channels can occur already below an energy deposition of 100 MJ/m 2 . The energy deposited in the metal coolant channels depends on the thickness of the plasma facing carbon material D, with the shielding efficiency S of carbon approximately as S∼D 1.15 . (author) 304 refs. 12 tabs. 59 figs

  16. Numerical analysis on pump turbine runaway points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, L; Liu, J T; Wang, L Q; Jiao, L; Li, Z F

    2012-01-01

    To research the character of pump turbine runaway points with different guide vane opening, a hydraulic model was established based on a pumped storage power station. The RNG k-ε model and SMPLEC algorithms was used to simulate the internal flow fields. The result of the simulation was compared with the test data and good correspondence was got between experimental data and CFD result. Based on this model, internal flow analysis was carried out. The result show that when the pump turbine ran at the runway speed, lots of vortexes appeared in the flow passage of the runner. These vortexes could always be observed even if the guide vane opening changes. That is an important way of energy loss in the runaway condition. Pressure on two sides of the runner blades were almost the same. So the runner power is very low. High speed induced large centrifugal force and the small guide vane opening gave the water velocity a large tangential component, then an obvious water ring could be observed between the runner blades and guide vanes in small guide vane opening condition. That ring disappeared when the opening bigger than 20°. These conclusions can provide a theory basis for the analysis and simulation of the pump turbine runaway points.

  17. Prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: Critical appraisal of the evidence base (in German)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite careful planning and implementation, overweight/obesity prevention interventions in children and adolescents typically show no, inconsistent or merely weak effects. Such programs usually aim at behavior changes, rarely also at environmental changes, that draw upon conventional wisdom regardi...

  18. Neuromuscular exercises prevent severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Leonard; Krutsch, Volker; Weber, Johannes; Nerlich, Michael; Luig, Patrick; Loose, Oliver; Angele, Peter; Krutsch, Werner

    2017-10-20

    Team handball is associated with a high risk of severe knee injury that needs to be reduced, particularly at the youth level. The purpose of this study was to show how an injury-prevention programme effectively reduces severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players. Of 23 adolescent handball teams of both sexes, 13 were randomly allocated into the intervention group (168 players) and 10 into the control group (111 players). Players of the intervention group regularly participated in an injury-prevention programme for one season. Handball exposure and sustained injuries were documented for both groups on a monthly basis. The primary outcome parameter of the injury-prevention programme was the incidence of severe knee injury. Of the 279 included players, 68 (24%) sustained 82 injuries yielding an overall incidence of 1.85 injuries per 1000 h handball exposure (intervention group: 50 injuries/incidence: 1.90/1000 h; control group: 32 injuries/incidence: 1.78/1000 h). Knee injury was the second most frequent injury in adolescent team handball. The primary outcome parameter, severe knee injury occurred significantly more often in the control group [mean age (SD) 15.1 (1.0), injury incidence 0.33/1000 h] than in the intervention group [mean age (SD) 14.9 (0.9), injury incidence 0.04/1000 h]. The odds ratio was 0.11 (95% CI 0.01-0.90), p = 0.019. Other injuries to the lower extremities showed no significant difference between the two groups. Frequent neuromuscular exercises prevent severe knee injury in adolescent team handball players and should thus be included in the practical routine as well as in the education of team coaches.

  19. A Qualitative Study to Inform the Development of a Videogame for Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    We used qualitative methods to inform the development of an interactive videogame focused on behavior change to reduce risk and promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in young minority adolescents. Guided by community-partnered research principles, we conducted and analyzed 16 individual interviews and six focus groups with 10–15 year-old boys and girls (36 unique participants) at a neighborhood-based nonprofit organization serving youth from low-resource neighborhoods. Three r...

  20. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Andrew James; Galbally, Megan; Gannon, Tara; Symeonides, Christos

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders...

  1. Prevention for child and adolescent psychiatry in low-resource settings

    OpenAIRE

    Rachna Bhargava; Anamika Sahu; Debabani Bhattacharya

    2017-01-01

    Preventive measures for mental health issues among children have received meager attention. Although the prevalence rates of mental disorders are significant, systematic focused efforts toward management specifically in this special population in low-resources settings have been markedly inconsequential. Certainly, unlike other medical conditions, policies, and services related to mental health of children and adolescent are not adequate and efficient to deal with the burden of mental disorde...

  2. MHD stability of runaway electron discharge in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatani, M.

    1978-04-01

    A runaway current concentrating in the central region has stabilizing effects on kink and tearing instabilities on the basis of a model in which the runaway current is assumed rigid. The Kruskal-Shafranov limit (iota(a) = iota sub(σ(a) + iota sub( b)(a) <= 1) disappears for iota sub(σ(a) <= 0.2 in the case of parabolic profiles of both the runaway current and the conduction current. Here iota sub(σ)(a) is a rotational transform due to the conduction current and iota sub( b)(a) is a rotational transform due to the runaway current. (auth.)

  3. Equilibrium, confinement and stability of runaway electrons in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.

    1976-03-01

    Some of the ramifications of the runaway population in tokamak experiments are investigated. Consideration is given both to the normal operating regime of tokamaks where only a small fraction of high energy runaways are present and to the strong runaway regime where runaways are thought to carry a significant portion of the toroidal current. In particular, the areas to be examined are the modeling of strong runaway discharges, single particle orbit characteristics of runaways, macroscopic beam-plasma equilibria, and stability against kink modes. A simple one-dimensional, time-dependent model has been constructed in relation to strong runaway discharges. Single particle orbits are analyzed in relation to both the strong runaway regime and the weak regime. The effects of vector E x vector B drifts are first considered in strong runaway discharges and are found to lead to a slow inward shrinkage of the beam. Macroscopic beam-plasma equilibria are treated assuming a pressureless relativistic beam with inertia and using an ideal MHD approximation for the plasma. The stability of a toroidal relativistic beam against kink perturbations is examined using several models

  4. Collisional avalanche exponentiation of runaway electrons in electrified plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Fleischmann, H.H.; Zweben, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to earlier expectations, it is estimated that generation of runaway electrons from close collisions of existing runaways with cold plasma electrons can be significant even for small electric fields, whenever runaways can gain energies of about 20 MeV or more. In that case, the runaway population will grow exponentially with the energy spectrum showing an exponential decrease towards higher energies. Energy gains of the required magnitude may occur in large tokamak devices as well as in cosmic-ray generation. (orig.)

  5. Depression and Anxiety Prevention Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for At-Risk Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne P. A. Rasing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anxiety in adolescents is therefore imperative. We conducted a meta-analytic review of the effects of school-based and community-based prevention programs that are based on cognitive behavioral therapy with the primary goal preventing depression, anxiety, or both in high risk adolescents. Articles were obtained by searching databases and hand searching reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. The selection process yielded 32 articles in the meta-analyses. One article reported on two studies and three articles reported on both depression and anxiety. This resulted in a total of 36 studies, 23 on depression and 13 on anxiety. For depression prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, meta-analysis showed a small effect of prevention programs directly after the intervention, but no effect at 3–6 months and at 12 months follow-up. For anxiety prevention aimed at high risk adolescents, no short-term effect was found, nor at 12 months follow-up. Three to six months after the preventive intervention, symptoms of anxiety were significantly decreased. Although effects on depression and anxiety symptoms were small and temporary, current findings cautiously suggest that depression and anxiety prevention programs based on CBT might have small effects on mental health of adolescents. However, it also indicates that there is still much to be gained for prevention programs. Current findings and possibilities for future research are discussed in order to further

  6. Prevention of infection in children and adolescents with primary immunodeficiency disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou-Alataki, Efimia; Hassan, Amel; Davies, E Graham

    2012-12-01

    Primary Immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a heterogenous group of inherited disorders that may involve one or multiple components of the immune system. PIDs are uncommon, chronic and severe disorders, in which patients cannot mount a sufficiently protective immune response, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections. This review addresses the current practices for the prevention of infection in children and adolescents with PIDs, particular covering immunisations and antimicrobial prophylaxis. Over recent years, there have been major advances in molecular and cellular understanding in the field of PIDs. Many different disorders are recognised with variable spectra of infection susceptibility depending on the particular aspects of the immune response that are affected. Immunoglobulin prophylaxis is the mainstay of treatment for PIDs and provides passive protection. Prophylactic antimicrobials are efficacious in children and adolescents with predominant defects in primary T cell immunodeficiency diseases and phagocytic disorders, and also with predominant defects in antibody production. Prophylactic antibiotics are suggested for patients with antibody deficiency diseases if recurrent infections exceed three per year, if severe infections occur despite adequate immunoglobulin replacement and in hypogammaglobulinaemic patients who have bronchiectasis. Certain immunisations are effective in antibody deficiencies, T cell deficiencies, complement deficiencies and phagocytic disorders. There are remarkably few published data relating to clinical management aimed at preventing infectious complications in children and adolescents with PIDs. The cornerstones of the prevention of infection in most PID patients are: antimicrobial prophylaxis, appropriate vaccination, immunoglobulin replacement, for the more severe cases, and regular ongoing follow-up.

  7. A Family Focused Randomized Controlled Trial to Prevent Adolescent Alcohol and Tobacco Use: The Moderating Roles of Positive Parenting and Adolescent Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Olson, Ardis L.; Forehand, Rex; Gaffney, Cecelia A.; Zens, Michael S.; Bau, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Four years of longitudinal data from 2,153 families with a 5th- or 6th-grade preadolescent participating in a family-focused pediatric primary-care-based prevention program were used to examine whether prevention effects were moderated by positive parenting and/or adolescent gender. Alcohol and tobacco use, internalizing problems, and…

  8. Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen

    2014-01-01

    About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12-18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents

  9. Adolescent Female Text Messaging Preferences to Prevent Pregnancy After an Emergency Department Visit: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernick, Lauren Stephanie; Schnall, Rebecca; Stockwell, Melissa S; Castaño, Paula M; Higgins, Tracy; Westhoff, Carolyn; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2016-09-29

    Over 15 million adolescents use the emergency department (ED) each year in the United States. Adolescent females who use the ED for medical care have been found to be at high risk for unintended pregnancy. Given that adolescents represent the largest users of text messaging and are receptive to receiving text messages related to their sexual health, the ED visit represents an opportunity for intervention. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore interest in and preferences for the content, frequency, and timing of an ED-based text message intervention to prevent pregnancy for adolescent females. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews in one urban ED in the United States with adolescent females aged 14-19 years. Eligible subjects were adolescents who were sexually active in the past 3 months, presented to the ED for a reproductive health complaint, owned a mobile phone, and did not use effective contraception. Using an interview guide, enrollment continued until saturation of key themes. The investigators designed sample text messages using the Health Beliefs Model and participants viewed these on a mobile phone. The team recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews based on thematic analysis using the qualitative analysis software NVivo and Excel. Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (13/14; 93%), insured (13/14; 93%), ED users in the past year (12/14; 86%), and frequent text users (10/14; 71% had sent or received >30 texts per day). All were interested in receiving text messages from the ED about pregnancy prevention, favoring messages that were "brief," "professional," and "nonaccusatory." Respondents favored texts with links to websites, repeated information regarding places to receive "confidential" care, and focused information on contraception options and misconceptions. Preferences for text message frequency varied from daily to monthly, with random hours of delivery to maintain "surprise." No participant feared that text

  10. A parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in South Africa: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Cluver, L; Meinck, F; Shenderovich, Y; Ward, CL; Herrero Romero, R; Lombard, C; Doubt, JS; Steinert, J; Catanho, R; Wittesaele, C; DeStone, S; Salah, N; Mpimilashe, P; Lachman, J; Loening, H

    2016-01-01

    Background An estimated one billion children experience child abuse each year, with the highest rates in low- and middle-income countries. The Sinovuyo Teen programme is part of Parenting for Lifelong Health, a WHO/UNICEF initiative to develop and test violence-prevention programmes for implementation in low-resource contexts. The objectives of this parenting support programme are to prevent the abuse of adolescents, improve parenting and reduce adolescent behavioural problems. This trial aim...

  11. Effectiveness of a citywide patient immunization navigator program on improving adolescent immunizations and preventive care visit rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G; Humiston, Sharon G; Gallivan, Sarah; Albertin, Christina; Sandler, Martha; Blumkin, Aaron

    2011-06-01

    To assess the impact of a tiered patient immunization navigator intervention (immunization tracking, reminder/recall, and outreach) on improving immunization and preventive care visit rates in urban adolescents. Randomized clinical trial allocating adolescents (aged 11-15 years) to intervention vs standard of care control. Eight primary care practices. Population-based sample of adolescents (N = 7546). Immunization navigators at each practice implemented a tiered protocol: immunization tracking, telephone or mail reminder/recall, and home visits if participants remained unimmunized or behind on preventive care visits. Immunization rates at study end. Secondary outcomes were preventive care visit rates during the previous 12 months and costs. The intervention and control groups were similar at baseline for demographics (mean age, 13.5 years; 63% black, 14% white, and 23% Hispanic adolescents; and 74% receiving Medicaid), immunization rates, and preventive care visit rates. Immunization rates at the end of the study were 44.7% for the intervention group and 32.4% for the control group (adjusted risk ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.5); preventive care visit rates were 68.0% for the intervention group and 55.2% for the control group (1.2; 1.2-1.3). Findings were similar across practices, sexes, ages, and insurance providers. The number needed to treat for immunizations and preventive care visits was 9. The intervention cost was $3.81 per adolescent per month; the cost per additional adolescent fully vaccinated was $465, and the cost per additional adolescent receiving a preventive care visit was $417. A tiered tracking, reminder/recall, and outreach intervention improved immunization and preventive care visit rates in urban adolescents. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00581347.

  12. Preventing Filipino Mental Health Disparities: Perspectives from Adolescents, Caregivers, Providers, and Advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R; Supan, Jocelyn; Lansang, Anjelica; Beyer, William; Kubicek, Katrina; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-12-01

    Filipino Americans are the second largest immigrant population and second largest Asian ethnic group in the U.S. Disparities in youth behavioral health problems and the receipt of mental health services among Filipino youth have been documented previously. However, few studies have elicited perspectives from community stakeholders regarding how to prevent mental health disparities among Filipino youth. The purpose of the current study is to identify intervention strategies for implementing mental health prevention programs among Filipino youth. We conducted semi-structured interviews (n=33) with adolescents, caregivers, advocates, and providers and focus groups (n=18) with adolescents and caregivers. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a methodology of "coding consensus, co-occurrence, and comparison" and was rooted in grounded theory. Four recommendations were identified when developing mental health prevention strategies among Filipino populations: address the intergenerational gap between Filipino parents and children, provide evidence-based parenting programs, collaborate with churches in order to overcome stigma associated with mental health, and address mental health needs of parents. Findings highlight the implementation of evidence-based preventive parenting programs in faith settings as a community-identified and culturally appropriate strategy to prevent Filipino youth behavioral health disparities.

  13. Early life programming as a target for prevention of child and adolescent mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and perinatal periods offer important opportunities for the prevention of deleterious fetal exposures. As such, the perinatal period is a critical period where future mental health prevention efforts should be focused and prevention models developed. Interventions grounded in evidence-based recommendations for the perinatal period could take the form of public health, universal and more targeted interventions. If successful, such interventions are likely to have lifelong effects on (mental) health. PMID:24559477

  14. Common elements of adolescent prevention programs: minimizing burden while maximizing reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustani, Maya M; Frazier, Stacy L; Becker, Kimberly D; Bechor, Michele; Dinizulu, Sonya M; Hedemann, Erin R; Ogle, Robert R; Pasalich, Dave S

    2015-03-01

    A growing number of evidence-based youth prevention programs are available, but challenges related to dissemination and implementation limit their reach and impact. The current review identifies common elements across evidence-based prevention programs focused on the promotion of health-related outcomes in adolescents. We reviewed and coded descriptions of the programs for common practice and instructional elements. Problem-solving emerged as the most common practice element, followed by communication skills, and insight building. Psychoeducation, modeling, and role play emerged as the most common instructional elements. In light of significant comorbidity in poor outcomes for youth, and corresponding overlap in their underlying skills deficits, we propose that synthesizing the prevention literature using a common elements approach has the potential to yield novel information and inform prevention programming to minimize burden and maximize reach and impact for youth.

  15. [Health prevention for children and adolescents in competitive sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhagen, A; Pommerening, S; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2009-12-01

    The promotion of sport talents in Germany is federally standardised. Apart from the training and management support, annual sports-medical investigations with standardised procedures are mandatory for athletes' health and safety. For the first time, this study evaluates the prevalence ratio of medical findings in Hessian top athletes. The data of all athletes presenting in one of the 27 licenced examination centres in Hesse during the period of investigation were evaluated for age, sex and sports discipline as well as medical findings and a trinomial classification of the sports-related health status. The completeness of this collection in the relevant period from November 2006 to October 2007 was assured by cross-checking the application charts of all related sports associations. Data of 1620 (m: 904, 14.8 +/- 2.5 years; w: 716, 14.3 +/- 2.6 years) of all 1713 athletes presenting during the evaluation period were used for analysis. Medical findings (e. g., resulting in follow-up evaluation or further consultations) were seen in 83.5 % of all athletes. A small group (3.6 %) was temporarily, and one single athlete was completely exempted from sports participation. These results underline (additionally to the preventive capability of sports-medical investigations) the need for an annual medical consultation of juvenile athletes. Further investigations should be extended to other districts and classes and might evaluate the direct and indirect costs of diseases.

  16. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  18. A Pilot Study for Linking Adolescent Patients to an Interactive Tobacco Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Calabro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The American Academy of Pediatrics and professional guidelines recommend intervening with adolescents about avoiding tobacco use in the health-care setting. Barriers in the clinical setting limit consistent provision of this critical service. Objectives: This pilot study compared 2 approaches for referring adolescents to an evidence-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in the outpatient setting. Secondary aims assessed tobacco use, knowledge, and program evaluation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study setting was a medical and dental clinic. Participants aged 13 to 18 received tobacco advice and instructions to work through “A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience.” The program addresses health concerns of adolescents about tobacco use and is founded on behavioral change theories. The link to access it is featured on the website of the National Cancer Institute’s Research-Tested Interventions. Participants (N = 197 were randomized to 1 of 2 approaches (ie, a program link via e-mail or referral by a printed card. Results: The program was accessed by 57% (112 of 197 of participants. Both referral approaches were equally effective. Non-Hispanics were twice as likely to access the program as Hispanics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.8, P < .05. Over 95% of participants identified themselves as nonusers of tobacco and evaluated the program as beneficial in increasing knowledge and motivation to remain tobacco-free. Conclusion: Linking adolescent patients to an evidence-based tobacco prevention/cessation program at a community health clinic was highly promising and feasible. We present conclusions for future research.

  19. Tobacco use related attitudes and behaviors in Indian Adolescents: association with school-based prevention education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Khubchandani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescent tobacco use in India has increased substantially within the past few decades. Schools can serve as an important avenue for prevention education, but little is known about the current practices of Indian schools in relation to tobacco use prevention education. Methods: To assess the extent and influence tobacco use prevention education in Indian schools,we analyzed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey data for India, which was a population-based study of a national random sample of 10112 students from 180 private and public schools.Variables such as student demographic profile, tobacco use behavior, perceptions about tobacco use, and exposure to school-based tobacco use prevention education were considered for analyses. Results: Prevalence of any form of tobacco use (14% and current smoking (8% was found to differ by gender. A quarter of the students believed that boys who smoke are more attractive or have more friends compared to non-smokers, and almost half of the students reported that smoking and health were never discussed as a part of a lesson in school. The association between school-based prevention education and tobacco use behavior was assessed (after adjustment forage, gender, and parental smoking. Students who were educated in school about tobacco use and its effects were significantly more likely to have negative attitude toward tobacco use and less likely to report use of tobacco. Conclusion: School-based tobacco use prevention education has beneficial influence on adolescents in India. Given the early age of initiation of tobacco use, school curricula in India should emphasize on tobacco use prevention education.

  20. Health Beliefs Related to Diabetes Mellitus Prevention among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem L. Al-Mutairi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.

  1. Towards an integration of positive and sickness paradigms in the prevention of eating disorders in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. Góngora

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders problems are highly relevant in adolescence and require intervention through the implementation of prevention and promotion health programs. A Few primary prevention programmers to fight eating disorders have reached satisfactory results. The most successful results have been obtained with approaches that promote media literacy, the use of cognitive dissonance and the enhancement of self-esteem. Since many of the programs based on the disease model have failed to prevent such difficulties, the prevention of eating disorders may be improved by taking the contributions of positive psychology. Studies have shown that interventions based on this paradigm are effective to increase the feeling of happiness and subjective well-being. Unlike the traditional approach that works with the identification of risk and protective factors, positive psychology emphasizes the identification and promotion of healthy factors. Positive interventions assume that strengthening the positive, the dysfunctional or negative will be diminished. The integration of both contributions will enrich the approach to promote healthy behavior in adolescents.

  2. Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and Promising Future Directions for Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kit Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16–19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially. Nearly half of U.S. high school students admit to texting while driving in the last month, but the frequency of use according to vehicle speed and high-risk situations remains unknown. Several risk factors are associated with cell phone use while driving including: parental cellphone use while driving, social norms for quick responses to text messages, and higher levels of temporal discounting. Given the limited effectiveness of current mitigation strategies such as educational campaigns and legal bans, a multi-pronged behavioral and technological approach addressing the above risk factors will be necessary to reduce this dangerous behavior in adolescents.

  3. Perspectives of family medicine physicians on the importance of adolescent preventive care: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jaime L; Aalsma, Matthew C; Gilbert, Amy L; Hensel, Devon J; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2016-01-20

    The study objective was to identify commonalities amongst family medicine physicians who endorse annual adolescent visits. A nationally weighted representative on-line survey was used to explore pediatrician (N = 204) and family medicine physicians (N = 221) beliefs and behaviors surrounding adolescent wellness. Our primary outcome was endorsement that adolescents should receive annual preventive care visits. Pediatricians were significantly more likely (p family medicine physicians, bivariate comparisons were conducted between those who endorsed an annual visit (N = 164) compared to those who did not (N = 57) with significant predictors combined into two multivariate logistic regression models. Model 1 controlled for: patient race, proportion of 13-17 year olds in provider's practice, discussion beliefs scale and discussion behaviors with parents scale. Model 2 controlled for the same first three variables as well as discussion behaviors with adolescents scale. Model 1 showed for each discussion beliefs scale topic selected, family medicine physicians had 1.14 increased odds of endorsing annual visits (p family medicine physicians had 1.15 increased odds of also endorsing the importance of annual visits (p Family medicine physicians that endorse annual visits are significantly more likely to affirm they hold strong beliefs about topics that should be discussed during the annual exam. They also act on these beliefs by talking to parents of teens about these topics. This group appears to focus on quality of care in thought and deed.

  4. 3. Management and prevention of obesity and its complications in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Jennifer A; Baur, Louise A

    2005-02-07

    Obesity in children and adolescents has reached alarming levels--20%-25% of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and 4.9% of boys and 5.4% of girls are obese. Rates of obesity have increased significantly in Australia from 1985 to 1995, with the prevalence of overweight doubling and obesity trebling. Body mass index (related to reference standards for age and sex) is recommended as a practical measure of overweight and obesity in children, and is used in monitoring individual progress in clinical practice. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may be associated with a range of medical and psychological complications, and can predispose individuals to serious health problems in adult life, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Obesity interventions for which there is some evidence include family support, a developmentally appropriate approach, long-term behaviour modification, dietary change, and increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour. Prevention of obesity in children and adolescents requires a range of strategies involving changes in both the microenvironment (eg, housing, neighbourhoods, recreational opportunities) and the macroenvironment (eg, food marketing, transport systems, urban planning).

  5. Adolescent Cellphone Use While Driving: An Overview of the Literature and Promising Future Directions for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, M. Kit; Wanner, Kathryn J.; McDonald, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in adolescents, and drivers aged 16–19 are the most likely to die in distracted driving crashes. This paper provides an overview of the literature on adolescent cellphone use while driving, focusing on the crash risk, incidence, risk factors for engagement, and the effectiveness of current mitigation strategies. We conclude by discussing promising future approaches to prevent crashes related to cellphone use in adolescents. Handheld manipulation of the phone while driving has been shown to have a 3 to 4-fold increased risk of a near crash or crash, and eye glance duration greater than 2 seconds increases crash risk exponentially. Nearly half of U.S. high school students admit to texting while driving in the last month, but the frequency of use according to vehicle speed and high-risk situations remains unknown. Several risk factors are associated with cell phone use while driving including: parental cellphone use while driving, social norms for quick responses to text messages, and higher levels of temporal discounting. Given the limited effectiveness of current mitigation strategies such as educational campaigns and legal bans, a multi-pronged behavioral and technological approach addressing the above risk factors will be necessary to reduce this dangerous behavior in adolescents. PMID:27695663

  6. Construction and validation of educational materials for the prevention of metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Ionara Holanda de; Silva, Antônia Fabiana Rodrigues da; Rocha, Aparecida do Espírito Santo de Holanda; Lima, Luisa Helena de Oliveira; Moreira, Thereza Maria Magalhães; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da

    2017-10-05

    To develop and validate an educational technology focused on prevention of metabolic syndrome among adolescents. This was methodological research. Using an integrative review, the available publications on the subject were analyzed. Then, this knowledge was used to describe the theoretical content and, with the help of a graphic designer, the art and layout of the pages were developed. In the third phase, the booklet was evaluated and validated by 21 specialists and 39 adolescents. Data collection included three different questionnaires, according to the focus of evaluation of each group of participants, analyzed for reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) and agreement by Infraclass Correlation Coefficient. The mean score attributed by technical content experts was 91.7%, and the content validity index, measured by experts responses, was 0.98, showing high reliability and agreement. In addition, the level of agreement of the positive responses given by adolescents was 88.4%. the educational booklet has proved to be a valid and reliable tool to be used for promoting adolescent health.

  7. Prevention of adolescent substance abuse through the development of personal and social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, G J

    1983-01-01

    The initiation of substance use typically begins during adolescence and appears to be the result of the complex interplay of social, personality, cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and developmental factors. Traditional smoking, alcohol, and drug education programs have attempted to increase students' knowledge of the risks associated with using these substances in the hope that this would deter use. Other programs have attempted to enrich the personal and social development of students through what has been referred to as "affective" education. Unfortunately, the inescapable conclusion to be drawn from the substance abuse prevention literature is that few of these programs have demonstrated any degree of success in terms of the actual prevention of substance use/abuse. Traditional educational approaches to substance abuse prevention appear to be inadequate because they are based on faulty assumptions and are too narrow in their focus. The "affective" education approaches, on the other hand, appear to have placed too little emphasis on the acquisition of the kind of skills that are likely to increase general personal competence and enable students to cope with the various interpersonal and intrapersonal pressures to begin using tobacco, alcohol, or drugs. From the perspective of social learning theory (Bandura 1977) and problem behavior theory (Jessor and Jessor 1977), substance use is conceptualized as a socially learned, purposive, and functional behavior which is the result of the interplay of social (environmental) and personal factors. One potentially effective approach to substance abuse prevention might involve enhancing general personal competence and teaching adolescents the kind of problem-specific skills and knowledge which will increase their ability to resist the various forms of pro-substance-use social pressure. Brief reviews of the social skills training literature and the literature related to techniques for coping with anxiety not only provide

  8. [Prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in European countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewa, Aleksandra; Zorena, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    In the 21st century the occurrence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents reaches the size of a global epidemic. It is recommended to promote a healthy lifestyle and, above all, to educate children, adolescents and adults about the dangerous consequences of being overweight or obese. It is crucial for prevention programs to comprise educational activities so that the participants are encouraged to change their lifestyle for better. However, it must be borne in mind that the overall effectiveness of such activities is determined by the commitment of both the obese child and the environment - the school or kindergarten and the media. Only integrated efforts can increase patients' awareness and reverse the growing trend in incidence of obesity around the world. This work discusses the current knowledge of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, as well as the methods of prevention applied in various European countries. The analysis was based on up-to-date epidemiological data available in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  9. A backward Monte Carlo method for efficient computation of runaway probabilities in runaway electron simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guannan; Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego

    2017-10-01

    Kinetic descriptions of RE are usually based on the bounced-averaged Fokker-Planck model that determines the PDFs of RE. Despite of the simplification involved, the Fokker-Planck equation can rarely be solved analytically and direct numerical approaches (e.g., continuum and particle-based Monte Carlo (MC)) can be time consuming specially in the computation of asymptotic-type observable including the runaway probability, the slowing-down and runaway mean times, and the energy limit probability. Here we present a novel backward MC approach to these problems based on backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs). The BSDE model can simultaneously describe the PDF of RE and the runaway probabilities by means of the well-known Feynman-Kac theory. The key ingredient of the backward MC algorithm is to place all the particles in a runaway state and simulate them backward from the terminal time to the initial time. As such, our approach can provide much faster convergence than the brute-force MC methods, which can significantly reduce the number of particles required to achieve a prescribed accuracy. Moreover, our algorithm can be parallelized as easy as the direct MC code, which paves the way for conducting large-scale RE simulation. This work is supported by DOE FES and ASCR under the Contract Numbers ERKJ320 and ERAT377.

  10. An Online Drug Abuse Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls: Posttest and 1-Year Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Keller, Bryan; Liu, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    Early adolescent girls' rates of drug use have matched, and in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Though girls and boys share risk factors for drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Tailored interventions to prevent girls' drug use are warranted. This study developed and tested a web-based, drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. The nationwide sample of 13- and 14-year-old girls (N = 788) was recruited via Facebook ads. Enrolled girls were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. All girls completed pretest measures online. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with the 9-session, gender-specific prevention program online. The program aimed to reduce girls' drug use and associated risk factors by improving their cognitive and behavioral skills around such areas as coping with stress, managing mood, maintaining a healthy body image, and refusing drug use offers. Girls in both conditions again completed measures at posttest and 1-year follow-up. At posttest, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention smoked fewer cigarettes and reported higher self-esteem, goal setting, media literacy, and self-efficacy. At 1-year follow-up, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention reported engaging in less binge drinking and cigarette smoking; girls assigned to the intervention condition also had higher alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana refusal skills, coping skills, and media literacy and lower rates of peer drug use. This study's findings support the use of tailored, online drug abuse prevention programming for early adolescent girls.

  11. Study of runaway current generation following disruptions in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z Y; Kim, W C; Yu, Y W; England, A C; Yoo, J W; Hahn, S H; Yoon, S W; Lee, K D; Oh, Y K; Kwak, J G; Kwon, M

    2013-01-01

    The high fraction of runaway current conversion following disruptions has an important effect on the first wall for next-generation tokamaks. Because of the potentially severe consequences of a large full current runaway beam on the first wall in an unmitigated disruption, runaway suppression is given a high priority. The behavior of runaway currents both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 massive gas injection (MGI) shutdown experiments is investigated in the KSTAR tokamak. The experiments in KSTAR show that the toroidal magnetic field threshold, B T >2 T, for runaway generation is not absolute. A high fraction of runaway current conversion following spontaneous disruptions is observed at a much lower toroidal magnetic field of B T = 1.3 T. A dedicated fast valve for high-pressure gas injection with 39.7 bar is developed for the study of disruptions. A study of runaway current parameters shows that the conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway current can reach over 80% both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 MGI shutdown experiments in KSTAR. (paper)

  12. Experimental Investigation of Runaway Electron Generation in Textor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Jaspers,; Finken, K.H.; Mank, G.; Hoenen, F.; Boedo, J. A.; Cardozo, N. J. L.; Schüller, F. C.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental study of the generation of runaway electrons in TEXTOR has been performed. From the infrared synchrotron radiation emitted by relativistic electrons, the number of runaway electrons can be obtained as a function of time. In low density discharges (n(e)BAR < 1 X 10(19) m-3)

  13. Runaway greenhouse atmospheres: Applications to Earth and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1991-01-01

    Runaway greenhouse atmospheres are discussed from a theoretical standpoint and with respect to various practical situation in which they might occur. The following subject areas are covered: (1) runaway greenhouse atmospheres; (2) moist greenhouse atmospheres; (3) loss of water from Venus; (4) steam atmosphere during accretion; and (5) the continuously habitable zone.

  14. Runaway greenhouse atmospheres: Applications to Earth and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasting, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Runaway greenhouse atmospheres are discussed from a theoretical standpoint and with respect to various practical situation in which they might occur. The following subject areas are covered: (1) runaway greenhouse atmospheres; (2) moist greenhouse atmospheres; (3) loss of water from Venus; (4) steam atmosphere during accretion; and (5) the continuously habitable zone

  15. Thermal effects of runaway electrons in an armoured divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stad, R.C.L. van der.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes the results of a numerical thermal analysis of the heat deposition of runaway electrons accompanying plasma disruptions in a armoured divertor. The divertor concepts studied are carbon on molybdenum and beryllium on copper. The conclusion is that the runaway electrons can cause melting of the armour as well as melting of the structure and can damage the divertor severely. (orig.)

  16. On the origin of high-velocity runaway stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gvaramadze, V.V.; Gualandris, A.; Portegies Zwart, S.

    2009-01-01

    We explore the hypothesis that some high-velocity runaway stars attain their peculiar velocities in the course of exchange encounters between hard massive binaries and a very massive star (either an ordinary 50-100 M-circle dot star or a more massive one, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary

  17. Simulation of long-term dynamic behavior of runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yulei; Liu Jian; Zhang Ruili; He Yang

    2015-01-01

    The secular dynamics of runaway electrons in Tokamak electromagnetic field is studied. The radiation effect is added into a relativistic volume-preserving algorithm to gain long-term stability of calculation. The results shows that the method we used is able to reveal the behavior of a runaway electron in configuration space. (author)

  18. Pit and fissure sealants for preventing dental decay in the permanent teeth of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Hiiri, Anne; Nordblad, Anne

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although pit and fissure sealants are effective in preventing caries, their efficacy may be related to the caries prevalence in the population. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the caries prevention of pit and fissure sealants in children and adolescents...... for comparison of sealant versus sealant. Five split-mouth studies and one parallel group study with 5 to 10 year old children found a significant difference in favour of second or third generation resin-based sealants on first permanent molars, compared to a control without sealant, with a pooled RR of 0.13 (95...... sealant group; 27% of sealed surfaces were decayed compared to 77% of surfaces without sealant.The results of the studies comparing different sealant materials were conflicting. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Sealing is a recommended procedure to prevent caries of the occlusal surfaces of permanent molars...

  19. Reaching adolescent girls through social networking: a new avenue for smoking prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struik, Laura Louise; Bottorff, Joan L; Jung, Mary; Budgen, Claire

    2012-09-01

    Because adolescent girls are being targeted on social networking sites by the tobacco industry, new online tobacco control (TC) initiatives are needed. The purpose of this interpretive descriptive study was to explore adolescent girls' perspectives on the use of social networking sites to deliver TC messages targeting young women. Focus groups were conducted with 17 girls aged 16 to 19. Seven TC messages were provided for evaluation and as context for discussion about the delivery of TC messages on social networking sites. Data were analyzed for themes, which included concerns about the effectiveness of current TC messages and the stereotypical representations of gender, factors perceived to influence the effectiveness of TC messages on social networking sites, and suggestions for enhancing the effectiveness of TC messages placed on social networking sites. Endorsement of TC messaging on social networking sites suggests that this medium is an untapped resource for smoking prevention.

  20. Preventing Drug Abuse Among Hispanic Adolescents: Developing a Responsive Intervention Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven P; Schwinn, Traci M; Hursh, Hilary A

    2015-10-01

    Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The program, called Vamos, is aimed at the risk and protective factors as well as the cultural prerogatives that demark the adolescent years of Hispanic American youths. Innovative in its approach, the program is delivered through a smartphone application (app). By interacting with engaging content presented via the app, youths can acquire the cognitive-behavioral skills necessary to avoid risky situations, urges, and pressures associated with early drug use. The intervention development process is presented in detail, and an evaluation plan to determine the program's efficacy is outlined. Lessons for practice and intervention programming are discussed.

  1. An Impact Triggered Runaway Greenhouse on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, T. L.; McKay, C. P.; Toon, O. B.

    2004-01-01

    When a planet is in radiative equilibrium, the incoming solar flux balances the outgoing longwave flux. If something were to perturb the system slightly, say the incoming solar flux increased, the planet would respond by radiating at a higher surface temperature. Since any radiation that comes in must go out, if the incoming is increased, the outgoing must also increase, and this increase manifests itself as a warmer equilibrium temperature. The increase in solar flux would correspond to an increase in temperature, which would increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere due to increased evaporation. Since water vapor is a greenhouse gas, it would absorb more radiation in the atmosphere leading to a yet warmer equilibrium temperature. The planet would reach radiative equilibrium at this new temperature. There exists a point, however, past which this positive feedback leads to a "runaway" situation. In this case, the planet does not simply evaporate a little more water and eventually come to a slightly higher equilibrium temperature. Instead, the planet keeps evaporating more and more water until all of the planet's available liquid and solid water is in the atmosphere. The reason for this is generally understood. If the planet's temperature increases, evaporation of water increases, and the absorption of radiation increases. This increases the temperature and the feedback continues until all water is in the atmosphere. The resulting equilibrium temperature is very high, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of a point with slightly lower solar flux. One can picture that as solar flux increases, planetary temperature also increases until the runaway point where temperature suddenly "jumps" to a higher value, in response to all the available water now residing in the atmosphere. This new equilibrium is called a "runaway greenhouse" and it has been theorized that this is what happened to the planet Venus, where the surface temperature is more than 700 K

  2. Factors that influence the preventive care offered to adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services, NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoe AV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia Background: Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists. Senior clinicians (SCs can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs' ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1 clinical leadership and administrative support, 2 professional support network, 3 clinical and educational resources, 4 the clinician's patient management aptitude, and 5 clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents' confidence toward self-care. Conclusion: This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist's offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem

  3. Runaway dilaton and equivalence principle violations

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume; Veneziano, Gabriele; Damour, Thibault; Piazza, Federico; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2002-01-01

    In a recently proposed scenario, where the dilaton decouples while cosmologically attracted towards infinite bare string coupling, its residual interactions can be related to the amplitude of density fluctuations generated during inflation, and are large enough to be detectable through a modest improvement on present tests of free-fall universality. Provided it has significant couplings to either dark matter or dark energy, a runaway dilaton can also induce time-variations of the natural "constants" within the reach of near-future experiments.

  4. Strategically Timed Preventive Education and Media Strategies Reduce Seasonal Trends in Adolescent Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauster, A; Waddington, A; Jamieson, M A

    2015-08-01

    This study sought to analyze the effect of strategically timed local preventive education on reducing teen conception rates during known seasonal peaks in March and April. All teen conceptions (age ≤ 19) from March and April 2010, 2011, and 2012 were identified using medical records data. Teen conceptions occurring in January 2010, 2011, and 2012 were also identified to control for any new trends in the community. A city of 160,000 with 1 tertiary care centre. Pregnant adolescents (age ≤ 19). During the month of February 2012, preventive education and media awareness strategies were aimed at parents, teachers, and teens. Adolescent conceptions in March and April 2012. Conception rates in teens ≤18 years old were significantly reduced in March and April 2012 compared to March and April 2010 and 2011 (RR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32 - 0.88, P = .0132). There was an increase in conceptions in March and April 2012 compared to 2010 and 2011 among 19-year-olds (RR = 1.57, 95% CI = 0.84-2.9, P = .1500). Effect modification revealed our ≤18-year-old group and our 19-year-old group were distinct groups with different risk estimates (P = .0075). Educational sessions were poorly attended and contraception clinic volume was static. We propose increased parental supervision in response to media reminders as a possible explanation for the reduction in adolescent conceptions (≤18 years old) seen in March 2012. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  6. Child and Adolescent Suicidal Behavior: School-Based Prevention, Assessment, and Intervention. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Meeting a crucial need, this book distills the best current knowledge on child and adolescent suicide prevention into comprehensive guidelines for school-based practitioners. The author draws on extensive research and clinical experience to provide best-practice recommendations for developing schoolwide prevention programs, conducting risk…

  7. The dynamic role of parental influences in preventing adolescent smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E Melinda; Xiao, Yang; Gordon, Judith S; Khoury, Jane C

    2013-04-01

    As adolescents grow, protective parental influences become less important and peer influences take precedence in adolescent's initiation of smoking. It is unknown how and when this occurs. We sought to: prospectively estimate incidence rates of smoking initiation from late childhood through mid-adolescence, identify important risk and protective parental influences on smoking initiation, and examine their dynamic nature in order to identify key ages. Longitudinal data from the National Survey of Parents and Youth of 8 nationally representative age cohorts (9-16 years) of never smokers in the U.S. were used (N=5705 dyads at baseline). Analysis involved a series of lagged logistic regression models using a cohort-sequential design. The mean sample cumulative incidence rates of tobacco use increased from 1.8% to 22.5% between the 9 and 16 years old age cohorts. Among risk factors, peer smoking was the most important across all ages; 11-15 year-olds who spent time with peers who smoked had 2 to 6.5 times higher odds of initiating smoking. Parent-youth connectedness significantly decreased the odds of smoking initiation by 14-37% in 11-14 year-olds; parental monitoring and punishment for smoking decreased the odds of smoking initiation risk by 36-59% in 10-15 year-olds, and by 15-28% in 12-14 year-olds, respectively. Parental influences are important in protecting against smoking initiation across adolescence. At the same time, association with peers who smoke is a very strong risk factor. Our findings provide empirical evidence to suggest that in order to prevent youth from initiating smoking, parents should be actively involved in their adolescents' lives and guard them against association with peers who smoke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  9. A randomized trial of the effect of centralized reminder/recall on immunizations and preventive care visits for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Peter G; Albertin, Christina; Humiston, Sharon G; Rand, Cynthia M; Schaffer, Stanley; Brill, Howard; Stankaitis, Joseph; Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Blumkin, Aaron; Stokley, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    To assess the impact of a managed care-based patient reminder/recall system on immunization rates and preventive care visits among low-income adolescents. We conducted a randomized controlled trial between December 2009 and December 2010 that assigned adolescents aged 11-17 years to one of three groups: mailed letter, telephone reminders, or control. Publicly insured youths (n = 4115) were identified in 37 participating primary care practices. The main outcome measures were immunization rates for routine vaccines (meningococcus, pertussis, HPV) and preventive visit rates at study end. Intervention and control groups were similar at baseline for demographics, immunization rates, and preventive visits. Among adolescents who were behind at the start, immunization rates at study end increased by 21% for mailed (P immunizations and preventive visits, with modest costs and modest impact. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Environmental approaches in the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Leitzmann, M

    2011-03-01

    This article aims to provide a structured review of how to create settings and environments that prevent the development of childhood overweight and obesity. It also describes which institutions and levels are responsible for environmental (global) approaches in obesity prevention and which evidence exists in terms of process and outcomes of different preventive measures. Environmental approaches in disease prevention deal with social and technical-material conditions of daily living, as those conditions significantly influence health behavior. Strategies that focus on the obesogenic environment are considered increasingly important in the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents. They can be applied at different levels (e.g., schools, communities). These interventions should aim to improve the availability of healthy foods and physical activity facilities, e.g., by provision of healthy meals and foods in schools, restaurants, and stores and by price reductions of healthy foods. Physical activity can be supported by creating attractive green spaces and playgrounds in schools and cities, improving sidewalk networks and a supportive pedestrian environment, and implementing walk-to-school projects. On a national level, policies and legislation can support changes in the social and situational environments, e.g., relating to catering in schools or TV advertisement. The practice of environmental approaches is complex, because many stakeholders from different sectors have to be involved. This may account for the observation that environmental approaches are currently underrepresented in obesity prevention.

  11. Gender Differences in Risk Factors for Adolescent Binge Drinking and Implications for Intervention and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson L. Dir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use, particularly binge drinking (BD, is a major public health concern among adolescents. Recent national data show that the gender gap in alcohol use is lessening, and BD among girls is rising. Considering the increase in BD among adolescent girls, as well as females’ increased risk of experiencing more severe biopsychosocial negative effects and consequences from BD, the current review sought to examine gender differences in risk factors for BD. The review highlights gender differences in (1 developmental-related neurobiological vulnerability to BD, (2 psychiatric comorbidity and risk phenotypes for BD, and (3 social-related risk factors for BD among adolescents, as well as considerations for BD prevention and intervention. Most of the information gleaned thus far has come from preclinical research. However, it is expected that, with recent advances in clinical imaging technology, neurobiological effects observed in lower mammals will be confirmed in humans and vice versa. A synthesis of the literature highlights that males and females experience unique neurobiological paths of development, and although there is debate regarding the specific nature of these differences, literature suggests that these differences in turn influence gender differences in psychiatric comorbidity and risk for BD. For one, girls are more susceptible to stress, depression, and other internalizing behaviors and, in turn, these symptoms contribute to their risk for BD. On the other hand, males, given gender differences across the lifespan as well as gender differences in development, are driven by an externalizing phenotype for risk of BD, in part, due to unique paths of neurobiological development that occur across adolescence. With respect to social domains, although social and peer influences are important for both adolescent males and females, there are gender differences. For example, girls may be more sensitive to pressure from peers to fit in and

  12. History matters: childhood weight trajectories as a basis for planning community-based obesity prevention to adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, J; Angbratt, M; Valter, L; Nordvall, M; Timpka, T

    2012-04-01

    To use epidemiological data and a standardized economic model to compare projected costs for obesity prevention in late adolescence accrued using a cross-sectional weight classification for selecting adolescents at age 15 years compared with a longitudinal classification. All children born in a Swedish county (population 440 000) in 1991 who participated in all regular measurements of height and weight at ages 5, 10 and 15 years (n=4312) were included in the study. The selection strategies were compared by calculating the projected financial load resulting from supply of obesity prevention services from providers at all levels in the health care system. The difference in marginal cost per 1000 children was used as the primary end point for the analyses. Using the cross-sectional selection strategy, 3.8% of adolescents at age 15 years were selected for evaluation by a pediatric specialist, and 96.2% were chosen for population-based interventions. In the trajectory-based strategy, 2.4% of the adolescents were selected for intensive pediatric care, 1.4% for individual clinical interventions in primary health care, 14.0% for individual primary obesity prevention using the Internet and 82.1% for population-based interventions. Costs for the cross-sectional selection strategy were projected to USD463 581 per 1000 adolescents and for the trajectory-based strategy were USD 302 016 per 1000 adolescents. Using projections from epidemiological data, we found that by basing the selection of adolescents for obesity prevention on weight trajectories, the load on highly specialized pediatric care can be reduced by one-third and total health service costs for obesity management among adolescents reduced by one-third. Before use in policies and prevention program planning, our findings warrant confirmation in prospective cost-benefit studies.

  13. Malaria: Knowledge and prevention practices among school adolescents in a coastal community in Calabar, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndifreke E. Udonwa

    2010-04-01

    Objectives: To determine the malaria prevention practices of school adolescents in the coastal community of Calabar, Nigeria. Method: This was a cross-sectional survey involving secondary schools in southern Calabar. Four hundred adolescents were randomly selected from the 4565 learners in 5 out of 17 secondary schools in southern Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents. Results: Most respondents (77.5% were aware that the vector transmits the malaria parasite through biting. Fewer respondents would prevent malaria attacks by clearing the vegetation in the peri-domestic environment (13.5%, filling up potholes (16.9%, opening up drainage (11%, using insecticide-treated nets (25.7% or using antimalarial drugs (11.2%. Less than one-tenth (8% would use various other methods such as not accepting unscreened blood, while only 11% obtained the information from their teachers. Conclusion: The study identified knowledge gaps among school children. There is a need to empower teachers with information about the cause of malaria and prevention strategies.

  14. Lessons Learned From a Community–Academic Partnership Addressing Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention in Filipino American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Joyce R.; Chamberlain, Lisa J.; Rivera, Kahealani K.; Gonzalez, Sarah E.; Mendoza, Fernando S.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Filipino Americans have more adolescent pregnancies than other Asian-Pacific Islanders (APIs). Few community–academic collaborations have addressed adolescent pregnancy prevention in this community. Objectives We sought to describe the lessons learned from and impact of a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program for Filipino Americans implemented by a Filipina pediatrics resident. Methods We formed a community–academic partnership between the Filipino Youth Coalition, a community-based organization (CBO) in San Jose, California, and the Stanford School of Medicine’s Pediatric Advocacy Program. We developed a culturally tailored parent–teen conference addressing adolescent pregnancy prevention in Filipino Americans. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated this intervention by collecting both pre- and post-conference data using a convenience sample design. Lessons Learned Engaging particular aspects of Filipino culture (i.e., religion and intergenerational differences) helped to make this community–academic partnership successful. For physicians-in-training who are conducting community-based participatory research (CBPR), project challenges may include difficulties in building and maintaining academic–community relationships, struggles to promote sustainability, and conflicting goals of “community insiders” and “academic outsiders.” Authors offer insights and implications for residents interested in practicing CBPR. Conclusion CBPR is a key tool for exploring health issues in understudied populations. CBPR experiences can provide meaningful educational opportunities for physicians-in-training and can build sustained capacity in CBOs. They can also help residents to develop analytic skills, directly affect the health of the communities they serve, and, for minority physicians, give back to the communities they call home. PMID:21169708

  15. Alfvénic instabilities driven by runaways in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fülöp, T.; Newton, S.

    2014-01-01

    Runaway particles can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields. Here, we address the possibility that such runaway ions and electrons excite Alfvénic instabilities. The magnetic perturbation induced by these modes can enhance the loss of runaways. This may have important implications for the runaway electron beam formation in tokamak disruptions

  16. Providing a Clean Environment for Adolescents: Evaluation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Li; Chou, Li-Na; Zheng, Ya-Cheng

    2017-06-13

    Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1) to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2) to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70), grocery stores (n = 83), and betel nut stalls (n = 81). The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1%) of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers' ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1%) to 59 (25.2%) and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9%) to 175 (74.8%) after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ² = 11.26, p selling tobacco products to minors. Schools should pay close attention to tobacco hazard prevention education for junior high school students to ensure that such students are adequately educated about tobacco hazard prevention.

  17. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinetic modelling of runaway electron avalanches in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, E; Peysson, Y; Saint-Laurent, F; Decker, J; Granetz, R S; Vlainic, M

    2015-01-01

    Runaway electrons can be generated in tokamak plasmas if the accelerating force from the toroidal electric field exceeds the collisional drag force owing to Coulomb collisions with the background plasma. In ITER, disruptions are expected to generate runaway electrons mainly through knock-on collisions (Hender et al 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 S128–202), where enough momentum can be transferred from existing runaways to slow electrons to transport the latter beyond a critical momentum, setting off an avalanche of runaway electrons. Since knock-on runaways are usually scattered off with a significant perpendicular component of the momentum with respect to the local magnetic field direction, these particles are highly magnetized. Consequently, the momentum dynamics require a full 3D kinetic description, since these electrons are highly sensitive to the magnetic non-uniformity of a toroidal configuration. For this purpose, a bounce-averaged knock-on source term is derived. The generation of runaway electrons from the combined effect of Dreicer mechanism and knock-on collision process is studied with the code LUKE, a solver of the 3D linearized bounce-averaged relativistic electron Fokker–Planck equation (Decker and Peysson 2004 DKE: a fast numerical solver for the 3D drift kinetic equation Report EUR-CEA-FC-1736, Euratom-CEA), through the calculation of the response of the electron distribution function to a constant parallel electric field. The model, which has been successfully benchmarked against the standard Dreicer runaway theory now describes the runaway generation by knock-on collisions as proposed by Rosenbluth (Rosenbluth and Putvinski 1997 Nucl. Fusion 37 1355–62). This paper shows that the avalanche effect can be important even in non-disruptive scenarios. Runaway formation through knock-on collisions is found to be strongly reduced when taking place off the magnetic axis, since trapped electrons can not contribute to the runaway electron population. Finally

  19. Thermal Runaways in LHC Interconnections: Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Willering, G P; Bottura, L; Scheuerlein, C; Verweij, A P

    2011-01-01

    The incident in the LHC in September 2008 occurred in an interconnection between two magnets of the 13 kA dipole circuit. This event was traced to a defect in one of the soldered joints between two superconducting cables stabilized by a copper busbar. Further investigation revealed defective joints of other types. A combination of (1) a poor contact between the superconducting cable and the copper stabilizer and (2) an electrical discontinuity in the stabilizer at the level of the connection can lead to an unprotected quench of the busbar. Once the heating power in the unprotected superconducting cable exceeds the heat removal capacity a thermal run-away occurs, resulting in a fast melt-down of the non-stabilized cable. We have performed a thorough investigation of the conditions upon which a thermal run-away in the defect can occur. To this aim, we have prepared heavily instrumented samples with well-defined and controlled defects. In this paper we describe the experiment, and the analysis of the data, and w...

  20. Measurements of the runaway electron energy during disruptions in the tokamak TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, M.; Finken, K. H.; Willi, O.; Lehnen, M.; Xu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements of the total runaway electron energy are carried out using a reciprocating probe during induced TEXTOR disruptions. A comparison with the energy inferred from runaway energy spectra, which are measured with a scintillator probe, is used as an independent check of the results. A typical runaway current of 100 kA at TEXTOR contains 30 to 35 kJ of runaway energy. The dependencies of the runaway energy on the runaway current, the radial probe position, the toroidal magnetic field and the predisruptive plasma current are studied. The conversion efficiency of the magnetic plasma energy into runaway energy is calculated to be up to 26%.

  1. Exploring the context of trafficking and adolescent sex industry involvement in Tijuana, Mexico: consequences for HIV risk and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Silverman, Jay G; Engstrom, David; Bojorquez-Chapela, Ietza; Usita, Paula; Rolón, María Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-04-01

    Coerced and adolescent sex industry involvement are linked to serious health and social consequences, including enhanced risk of HIV infection. Using ethnographic fieldwork, including interviews with 30 female sex workers with a history of coerced or adolescent sex industry involvement, we describe contextual factors influencing vulnerability to coerced and adolescent sex industry entry and their impacts on HIV risk and prevention. Early gender-based violence and economic vulnerability perpetuated vulnerability to coercion and adolescent sex exchange, while HIV risk mitigation capacities improved with increased age, control over working conditions, and experience. Structural interventions addressing gender-based violence, economic factors, and HIV prevention among all females who exchange sex are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The effectiveness of injury-prevention programs in reducing the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament sprains in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkewicz, Jeffrey; Webb, Tristen; Waters, Brian; Welch McCarty, Cailee; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2012-11-01

    There is a high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in adolescents participating in pivoting sports such as soccer, basketball, and handball. Most ACL injuries in athletes are noncontact injuries, with a mechanism of sudden deceleration, change in direction, or landing from a jump. These mechanisms coupled with an increase in contraction of the quadriceps have been shown as risk factors for ACL injuries. Injuries to the ACL may require surgery, a long rehabilitation, and the potential for reinjury. Studies have shown reductions in lower extremity injury rates using training protocols that focus on landing mechanics, balance training, strength training, and/or agility training. There has been some thought that starting preventive training programs with adolescent athletes may be the most effective approach to reducing adolescent ACL injuries. Can lower extremity injury-prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury rates in adolescent athletes?

  3. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  4. Depression and Anxiety Prevention Based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for At-Risk Adolescents: A Meta-Analytic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sanne P. A. Rasing; Sanne P. A. Rasing; Daan H. M. Creemers; Daan H. M. Creemers; Jan M. A. M. Janssens; Ron H. J. Scholte; Ron H. J. Scholte

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders during adolescence. During this life phase, the incidence of these clinical disorders rises dramatically, and even more adolescents suffer from symptoms of depression or anxiety that are just below the clinical threshold. Both clinical and subclinical levels of depression or anxiety symptoms are related to decreased functioning in various areas, such as social and academic functioning. Prevention of depression and anx...

  5. Providing a Clean Environment for Adolescents: Evaluation of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Li Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking not only damages the health of adolescents, but also contributes to air pollution. The Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act in Taiwan stipulates that cigarettes should not be sold to persons younger than 18 years. Therefore, schools should actively educate students and raise awareness of the Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act to reduce the level of damage to the health of adolescents and maintain good air quality. This study had two main goals: (1 to evaluate the stipulation that no person shall provide tobacco products to persons under the age of 18 and the effects of counseling strategies on store managers confirming customer ages before tobacco sale in southern Taiwan; and (2 to evaluate the situation of tobacco hazard prevention education conducted by school in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional design was adopted for this study. Study I: The investigation involved an analysis of 234 retailers including convenience stores (n = 70, grocery stores (n = 83, and betel nut stalls (n = 81. The results indicated that among the 234 retailers, 171 (73.1% of them routinely failed to confirm the buyers’ ages before allowing them to purchase tobacco. The number of retailers who exhibited failure to confirm customer ages before selling tobacco products had decreased from 171 (73.1% to 59 (25.2% and that of those who confirmed customer ages before selling tobacco products had increased from 63 (26.9% to 175 (74.8% after counseling strategies had been provided, thereby revealing statistical significance (χ2 = 11.26, p < 0.001. Study II: A total of 476 (89.1% participants had received tobacco hazards prevention education and 58 (10.9% had not. Among the various residential areas, the highest percentage of participants that did not received tobacco hazards prevention education located in the plane regions (8.4%. The government organizations should continue to adopt counseling strategies to reduce the rate of disobedience of the Tobacco Hazards

  6. One-Dimensional Modelling of Marine Current Turbine Runaway Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Lundin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available If a turbine loses its electrical load, it will rotate freely and increase speed, eventually achieving that rotational speed which produces zero net torque. This is known as a runaway situation. Unlike many other types of turbine, a marine current turbine will typically overshoot the final runaway speed before slowing down and settling at the runaway speed. Since the hydrodynamic forces acting on the turbine are dependent on rotational speed and acceleration, turbine behaviour during runaway becomes important for load analyses during turbine design. In this article, we consider analytical and numerical models of marine current turbine runaway behaviour in one dimension. The analytical model is found not to capture the overshoot phenomenon, while still providing useful estimates of acceleration at the onset of runaway. The numerical model incorporates turbine wake build-up and predicts a rotational speed overshoot. The predictions of the models are compared against measurements of runaway of a marine current turbine. The models are also used to recreate previously-published results for a tidal turbine and applied to a wind turbine. It is found that both models provide reasonable estimates of maximum accelerations. The numerical model is found to capture the speed overshoot well.

  7. Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plyusnin, V.V.; Riccardo, V.; Jaspers, R.; Alper, B.; Kiptily, V.G.; Mlynar, J.; Popovichev, S.; Luna, E. de La; Andersson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive analysis of disruptions in JET has helped advance the understanding of trends of disruption-generated runaway electrons. Tomographic reconstruction of the soft x-ray emission has made possible a detailed observation of the magnetic flux geometry evolution during disruptions. With the aid of soft and hard x-ray diagnostics runaway electrons have been detected at the very beginning of disruptions. A study of runaway electron parameters has shown that an approximate upper bound for the conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaways is about 60% over a wide range of plasma currents in JET. Runaway generation has been simulated with a test particle model in order to verify the results of experimental data analysis and to obtain the background for extrapolation of the existing results onto larger devices such as ITER. It was found that close agreement between the modelling results and experimental data could be achieved if in the calculations the post-disruption plasma electron temperature was assumed equal to 10 eV and if the plasma column geometry evolution is taken into account in calculations. The experimental trends and numerical simulations show that runaway electrons are a critical issue for ITER and, therefore, the development of mitigation methods, which suppress runaway generation, is an essential task

  8. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  9. Enhancing sibling relationships to prevent adolescent problem behaviors: theory, design and feasibility of Siblings Are Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Hostetler, Michelle; McHale, Susan M

    2013-02-01

    Siblings play a significant but neglected role in family socialization dynamics, and focusing on the sibling relationship is a non-stigmatizing point of entry into the family for prevention programming. Siblings are Special (SAS) was designed as a universal program that targets both sibling relationship and parenting mediating processes in middle childhood to prevent behavior problems in adolescence. We describe the theoretical framework underlying SAS, the SAS curriculum, and the feasibility of the program based on a study of 128 middle-childhood aged sibling dyads. Data on the quality of program implementation, program fidelity, siblings' engagement, and ratings of impact indicated the SAS program was acceptable to families and schools, that the curriculum could be implemented with high fidelity, that siblings and parents participated at high levels and were highly engaged, and that, from the perspective of group leaders, school administrators and parents, the program had a positive impact on the siblings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the kinematics of a runaway Be star population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubert, D.; Evans, N. W.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the hypothesis that B type emission-line stars (Be stars) have their origin in mass-transfer binaries by measuring the fraction of runaway Be stars. We assemble the largest-to-date catalogue of 632 Be stars with 6D kinematics, exploiting the precise astrometry of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) from the first Gaia Data Release. Using binary stellar evolution simulations, we make predictions for the runaway and equatorial rotation velocities of a runaway Be star population. Accounting for observational biases, we calculate that if all classical Be stars originated through mass transfer in binaries, then 17.5% of the Be stars in our catalogue should be runaways. The remaining 82.5% should be in binaries with subdwarfs, white dwarfs or neutron stars, because those systems either remained bound post-supernova or avoided the supernova entirely. Using a Bayesian methodology, we compare the hypothesis that each Be star in our catalogue is a runaway to the null hypothesis that it is a member of the Milky Way disc. We find that 13.1^{+2.6}_{-2.4}% of the Be stars in our catalogue are runaways, and identify a subset of 40 high-probability runaways. We argue that deficiencies in our understanding of binary stellar evolution, as well as the degeneracy between velocity dispersion and number of runaway stars, can explain the slightly lower runaway fraction. We thus conclude that all Be stars could be explained by an origin in mass-transfer binaries. This conclusion is testable with the second Gaia data release (DR2).

  11. Clinicians' preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmadi, Roxana; Gahnberg, Lars; Gabre, Pia

    2011-05-01

    Clinicians handle diagnosis and treatment planning of caries in different ways, and the underlying factors leading to management of risk and choice of treatment strategies are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate dentists' and dental hygienists' choices of preventive strategies for children and adolescents identified as at high risk of developing caries. A sample of dental records from 432 of a total of 3372 children in a Swedish county identified as at high risk of developing caries, aged 3-19 years, was randomly selected for analysis in the study. Information of importance for the therapists' choice of caries management strategies were obtained from the dental records. The results showed that therapists considered tooth brushing instruction and fluoride treatment at the clinic to be of primary importance as treatment given in 60% of the cases, respectively. Fluoride treatment at home and diet counselling were both chosen in half of the cases. Fissure sealant therapy was used in 21% of the cases, and 15% of the patients did not receive any preventive treatment at all. The results also showed that girls more often received fluoride treatment, tooth brushing instruction and oral hygiene information than boys. In the majority of the children and adolescents, several preventive measures were given. The more background factors included in the risk assessment, the more preventive measures were given. The differences between the treatments given to girls and the boys need to be further investigated. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2010 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Pilot evaluation of an adolescent risk and injury prevention programme incorporating curriculum and school connectedness components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, R L; Buckley, L; Sheehan, M; Shochet, I M

    2013-08-01

    School connectedness is an important protective factor for adolescent risk-taking behaviour. This study examined a pilot version of the Skills for Preventing Injury in Youth (SPIY) programme, combining teacher professional development (PD) for increasing school connectedness (connectedness component) with a risk and injury prevention curriculum for early adolescents (curriculum component). A process evaluation was conducted on the connectedness component, involving assessments of programme reach, participant receptiveness and initial use, and a preliminary impact evaluation was conducted on the combined connectedness and curriculum programme. The connectedness component was well received by teacher participants, who saw benefits for both themselves and their students. Classroom observation also showed that teachers who received PD made use of the programme strategies. Grade 8 students who participated in the SPIY programme were less likely to report violent behaviour at 6-month follow-up than were control students, and trends also suggested reduced transport injuries. The results of this research support the use of the combined SPIY connectedness and curriculum components in a large-scale effectiveness trial to assess the impact of the programme on students' connectedness, risk-taking and associated injuries.

  13. A Qualitative Study to Inform the Development of a Videogame for Adolescent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Camenga, Deepa R.; Edelman, E. Jennifer; Fiellin, Lynn E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We used qualitative methods to inform the development of an interactive videogame focused on behavior change to reduce risk and promote human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention in young minority adolescents. Guided by community-partnered research principles, we conducted and analyzed 16 individual interviews and six focus groups with 10–15 year-old boys and girls (36 unique participants) at a neighborhood-based nonprofit organization serving youth from low-resource neighborhoods. Three recurrent themes lent themselves to translation into a videogame-based intervention. Adolescents reported protective factors and facilitators to engaging in risk behaviors, including (1) their personal ability to balance the tension between individuation and group membership, (2) the presence of stable mentor figures in their life, and (3) the neighborhood in which they live. We used these themes to inform the design of our videogame intervention with the goal that these methods may increase the intervention's efficacy at promoting HIV prevention by making them more tailored and relevant to a specific population. Our qualitative study provides a practical understanding of how important elements identified by minority youth regarding negotiating around risk behaviors can be integrated into a videogame intervention. These findings offer valuable insights to researchers whose goal is to design effective and tailored interventions to affect behavior change. PMID:24078897

  14. A framework to prevent and control tobacco among adolescents and children: introducing the IMPACT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Mathur, Manu Raj; Singh, Neha

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive evidence based model aimed at addressing multi-level risk factors influencing tobacco use among children and adolescents with multi-level policy and programmatic approaches in India. Evidences around effectiveness of policy and program interventions from developed and developing countries were reviewed using Pubmed, Scopus, Google Scholar and Ovid databases. This evidence was then categorized under three broad approaches: Policy level approaches (increased taxation on tobacco products, smoke-free laws in public places and work places, effective health warnings, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotions and sponsorships, and restricting access to minors); Community level approaches (school health programs, mass media campaigns, community based interventions, promoting tobacco free norms) and Individual level approaches (promoting cessation in various settings). This review of literature around determinants and interventions was organized into developing the IMPACT framework. The paper further presents a comparative analysis of tobacco control interventions in India vis a vis the proposed approaches. Mixed results were found for prevention and control efforts targeting youth. However, this article suggests a number of intervention strategies that have shown to be effective. Implementing these interventions in a coordinated way will provide potential synergies across interventions. Pediatricians have prominent role in advocating and implementing the IMPACT framework in countries aiming to prevent and control tobacco use among adolescents and children.

  15. A qualitative study to inform the development of a video game for adolescent HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieftje, Kimberly; Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Camenga, Deepa R; Edelman, E Jennifer; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2012-08-10

    To inform the development of an interactive video game focused on behavior change to reduce risk and promote HIV prevention in young minority adolescents. We used qualitative methods guided by community-partnered research principles to conduct and analyze 16 individual interviews and six focus groups with 10-15 year old boys and girls (36 unique participants) at a neighborhood-based non-profit organization serving youth from low-resource neighborhoods. We identified three recurring themes. Adolescents report protective factors and facilitators to engaging in risk behaviors including: 1) their personal ability to balance the tension between individuation and group membership; 2) the presence of stable mentor figures in their life; and 3) the neighborhood in which they live. By conducting a qualitative study guided by community-partnered research principles, we identified themes from our target audience that could be translated into a video game-based intervention, including the storyline and character development. These methods may increase the intervention's efficacy at promoting HIV prevention by making them more tailored and relevant to a specific population.

  16. THE EFFECT OF A CULTURALLY TAILORED SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION INTERVENTION WITH PLAINS INDIAN ADOLESCENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchell, Beverly A; Robbins, Leslie K; Lowe, John A; Hoke, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effects of incorporating tribal specific cultural beliefs into a tailored substance abuse prevention intervention for at risk rural Oklahoma Native American Indian (NAI) Plains adolescents. The 10 hour Native American Talking Circle Intervention, a school-based, group substance abuse prevention program, was implemented over a 8.5 week period and evaluated using a one group, pretest-posttest design. Measurements were from the Native Self-Reliance Questionnaire and the Substance Problems Scale from Global Appraisal of Individual Needs-Quick (GAIN-Q). One-tailed, paired sample t-tests demonstrated significant increase in self-reliance, from 86.227 to 92.204 (t (43) = -2.580, p = .007) and a decrease in substance abuse/use, from 2.265 to 1.265 (t (33) = 1.844, p = .007). The Native Talking Circle Intervention based on tribal-specific values and beliefs was shown to be effective with substance abuse/use at-risk NAI Plains tribal adolescents.

  17. Empirical development of brief smoking prevention videotapes which target African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, S; Parker, V C; Lopes, C; Crippens, D L; Elder, P; Scholl, D

    1995-07-01

    Two studies are described which provide evaluations for two brief videotapes developed as supplemental materials in the prevention of tobacco use among African-American adolescents. One videotape (the "soap opera") provides a more general audience-oriented presentation of prevention material and it was filmed primarily at a shopping mall, whereas the other videotape (the "rap") provides a "hip-hop generation" presentation, and it was filmed primarily at an outdoor hangout. The first study compared the two videotapes against each other. The second study compared the two videotapes combined in the same presentation, controlling for order of presentation, against a discussion group control. The results of the two studies indicated few differences in receptivity to the two videotapes among primarily African-American and Latino young adolescents. The rap videotape was rated as more accurate in its depiction of the African-American lifestyle, although both videotapes were equally liked. When shown together, the videotapes were not found to be superior in decreasing behavioral intention to smoke compared to a discussion group control. No change in trial of smoking was observed within or across conditions measured over a pre-post summer interval. These data suggest that "culturally sensitive" videotapes have no more of a short-term effect on youth than do other types of brief interventions which involve minority implementers.

  18. Emotional Intelligence: An Untapped Resource for Alcohol and Other Drug Related Prevention among Adolescents and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Russell Coelho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors.

  19. Runaway electrons dynamics and confinement in Tore-Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelier, M.; Geraud, A.; Joyer, P.; Martin, G.; Rax, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The lack of energy of runaway electrons, confined in Tore Supra tokamak, is studied. Ohmic discharges, obtained with helium gas, exhibit a small amount of runaway electrons on both hard X-ray monitors and neutron sensors. The observations show an important lack of energy for runaway electrons confined in Tore Supra. It is assumed to be dued to a small pitch-angle scattering (a few degrees), and many candidates for this are compared: the strongest known one collisions seems not to be enough by an order of magnitude. Density and magnetic scans on Tore Supra are needed to discriminate between enhanced collisional scattering processes and purely magnetic phenomena

  20. Does parental disapproval of smoking prevent adolescents from becoming established smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D; Dalton, M

    2001-12-01

    (adjusted odds ratio 0.4 [0.1, 1.0]). Those who perceived their parents becoming more lenient over time were significantly more likely to progress to established smokers. In all analyses, the effect of parental disapproval of smoking was stronger and more robust than the effect of parent smoking. In addition, the effect of parent disapproval was as strong for parents who smoked as it was for nonsmoking parents. An interaction analysis suggests that the peer smoking effect is attenuated when both parents strongly disapprove of smoking, suggesting that parent disapproval makes adolescents more resistant to the influence of peer smoking. These findings contrast with the widespread notion that there is little parents can do to prevent their adolescents from becoming smokers. Instead, adolescents who perceive that both parents would respond negatively and be upset by their smoking are less likely to smoke. Interventions that enhance parental self-efficacy in conveying and enforcing no-smoking policies for their children could reduce adolescent smoking.

  1. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior

  2. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, I. M., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, Academicheskaya Str. 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Zhou, R. J., E-mail: pankratov@kipt.kharkov.ua, E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  3. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, I. M.; Zhou, R. J.; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  4. Facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention with adolescents: perspectives of HIV-infected parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura L; Reis, Janet S; Weber, Kathleen M

    2013-08-01

    We examined HIV-infected parents' conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Eighty-one percent of parents reported "sometimes" or "often" communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one's child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents.

  5. Facilitators and Barriers to Discussing HIV Prevention With Adolescents: Perspectives of HIV-Infected Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet S.; Weber, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Methods. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Results. Eighty-one percent of parents reported “sometimes” or “often” communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one’s child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Conclusions. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents. PMID:23763390

  6. School-based interventions for preventing Hiv, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Background School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Objectives To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. Main results We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in

  7. Counseling Received by Adolescents Undergoing Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Moving Toward Age-Equitable Comprehensive Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Michelle R; Patel, Eshan U; Dam, Kim H; Packman, Zoe R; Van Lith, Lynn M; Hatzold, Karin; Marcell, Arik V; Mavhu, Webster; Kahabuka, Catherine; Mahlasela, Lusanda; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Seifert Ahanda, Kim; Ncube, Getrude; Lija, Gissenge; Bonnecwe, Collen; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2018-04-03

    The minimum package of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) services, as defined by the World Health Organization, includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, HIV prevention counseling, screening/treatment for sexually transmitted infections, condom promotion, and the VMMC procedure. The current study aimed to assess whether adolescents received these key elements. Quantitative surveys were conducted among male adolescents aged 10-19 years (n = 1293) seeking VMMC in South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe. We used a summative index score of 8 self-reported binary items to measure receipt of important elements of the World Health Organization-recommended HIV minimum package and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief VMMC recommendations. Counseling sessions were observed for a subset of adolescents (n = 44). To evaluate factors associated with counseling content, we used Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations and robust variance estimation. Although counseling included VMMC benefits, little attention was paid to risks, including how to identify complications, what to do if they arise, and why avoiding sex and masturbation could prevent complications. Overall, older adolescents (aged 15-19 years) reported receiving more items in the recommended minimum package than younger adolescents (aged 10-14 years; adjusted β, 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], .12-.21; P benefits or uptake of HIV testing. These self-reported findings were confirmed during counseling observations. Moving toward age-equitable HIV prevention services during adolescent VMMC likely requires standardizing counseling content, as there are significant age differences in HIV prevention content received by adolescents.

  8. Runaway breakdown and hydrometeors in lightning initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, A V; Karashtin, A N

    2013-05-03

    The particular electric pulse discharges are observed in thunderclouds during the initiation stage of negative cloud-to-ground lightning. The discharges are quite different from conventional streamers or leaders. A detailed analysis reveals that the shape of the pulses is determined by the runaway breakdown of air in the thundercloud electric field initiated by extensive atmospheric showers (RB-EAS). The high amplitude of the pulse electric current is due to the multiple microdischarges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by the low-energy electrons generated in the RB-EAS process. The series of specific pulse discharges leads to charge reset from hydrometeors to the free ions and creates numerous stretched ion clusters, both positive and negative. As a result, a wide region in the thundercloud with a sufficiently high fractal ion conductivity is formed. The charge transport by ions plays a decisive role in the lightning leader preconditioning.

  9. Naturalness from Runaways in Direct Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer-Nameki, Sakura; /UC, Santa Barbara /King' s Coll. London; Tamarit, Carlos; /UC, Santa Barbara; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    Postulating that the NMSSM singlet is a meson of a microscopic confining theory opens up new model-building possibilities. Based on this, we construct calculable models of direct mediation that solve the {mu}/B{mu} problem and simultaneously lead to realistic phenomenology. The singlet that couples to the Higgs fields develops a runaway produced by soft interactions, then stabilized by a small superpotential perturbation. The mechanism is first realized in an O'Raifeartaigh model of direct gauge mediation with metastable supersymmetry breaking. Focusing then on the microscopic theory, we argue that super QCD with massless and massive flavors in the free magnetic phase gives rise to this dynamics in the infrared. A deformation of the SQCD superpotential leads to large spontaneous R-symmetry breaking, gaugino masses naturally at the scale of the Higgs mass parameters, and absence of CP violating phases.

  10. Analytical treatment of the runaway-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, H.J.

    1980-09-01

    In the analytical treatment of the runaway-effect there appear the integrals Isub(m)(α). For m = 1, 2 and 3, series expansions for these integrals can be found in the literature. Furthermore, asymptotic solutions for Isub(m)(α) are known. It is shown here that the solutions for Isub(m)(α) can be approximated by the modified Bessel Function Ksub(n)(αsup(ν)) in such a way that for α → 0 the exact limiting value for Isub(m)(α) follows and that for α → infinite essentially the known asymptotic solutions for Isub(m)(α) follow. The maximum error for this approximation in the order of percent is considered justifiable for the application considered. (orig.)

  11. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls. The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1 "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2 "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3 "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  12. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Emmelin, Maria

    2010-12-21

    To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls). The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1) "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2) "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3) "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  13. Use of Multimedia or Mobile Devices By Adolescents for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckle, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize studies of the use of multimedia technology by adolescents to engage in their healthcare promotion and disease prevention. A systematic literature review of relevant peer-reviewed research published between 2009 and 2014 was performed. The 16 articles reviewed were a combination of quantitative and mixed-method methodology based on the efficacy of multimedia, mobile technology, Short Messaging Services (SMS) texting, and social networking (e.g., Facebook®), to engage adolescents ages 10 to 20 years in health promotion and disease prevention. Although adolescents have high attrition rates in the studies, they demonstrated advantages in using SMS texting features and social networking, especially the chat function, in relation to health promotion and disease prevention. Some small gains were noticed in health promotion and disease prevention in the majority of the studies, though some were not significant due to attrition. Additional research, especially nursing research, is necessary. Mobile and multimedia technology allows for a promising correlation between adolescents and increased healthcare knowledge, health promotion, and disease prevention.

  14. Radio-frequency wave enhanced runaway production rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, V.S.; McClain, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Enhancement of runaway electron production (over that of an Ohmic discharge) can be achieved by the addition of radio-frequency waves. This effect is studied analytically and numerically using a two-dimensional Fokker--Planck quasilinear equation

  15. Runaway electrons and rational q-surfaces in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheetham, A.D.; Hogg, G.R.; Kuwahara, H.; Morton, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Results of measurements with LT-4 of runaway electron behaviour during the current rise stage of discharges when q = rBsub(T)/RBsub(p) (where r and R are minor and major radii, Bsub(T) and Bsub(p) are toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields) is changing continuously are reported. The results establish a role for outward moving rational q regions in removing runaway electrons from a tokamak plasma. The model indicates that as well as carrying a proportion of low energy runaways with them the rational q regions also scatter high energy electrons from the discharge. This leads to an upper limit for the energy of fully confined electrons. The size of the runaway population might be minimised by controlling the rate of movement of rational surfaces. This would be achieved by programming the rate of rise of the plasma current

  16. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  17. Comments on thermal runaway experiments in sub-ignition tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.

    1982-09-01

    Justification of deuterium-tritium operations is discussed from the physics viewpoint and optimal thermal runaway experiments in high-field, high-density compact tokamaks are suggested within the minimization of the induced radioactivation. (author)

  18. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy--Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jami F; Benas, Jessica S; Schueler, Christie M; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E; Mufson, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset.

  19. A Randomized Depression Prevention Trial Comparing Interpersonal Psychotherapy—Adolescent Skills Training to Group Counseling in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benas, Jessica S.; Schueler, Christie M.; Gallop, Robert; Gillham, Jane E.; Mufson, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Given the rise in depression disorders in adolescence, it is important to develop and study depression prevention programs for this age group. The current study examined the efficacy of Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training (IPT-AST), a group prevention program for adolescent depression, in comparison to group programs that are typically delivered in school settings. In this indicated prevention trial, 186 adolescents with elevated depression symptoms were randomized to receive IPT-AST delivered by research staff or group counseling (GC) delivered by school counselors. Hierarchical linear modeling examined differences in rates of change in depressive symptoms and overall functioning from baseline to the 6-month follow-up assessment. Cox regression compared rates of depression diagnoses. Adolescents in IPT-AST showed significantly greater improvements in self-reported depressive symptoms and evaluator-rated overall functioning than GC adolescents from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. However, there were no significant differences between the two conditions in onset of depression diagnoses. Although both intervention conditions demonstrated significant improvements in depressive symptoms and overall functioning, results indicate that IPT-AST has modest benefits over groups run by school counselors which were matched on frequency and duration of sessions. In particular, IPT-AST outperformed GC in reduction of depressive symptoms and improvements in overall functioning. These findings point to the clinical utility of this depression prevention program, at least in the short-term. Additional follow-up is needed to determine the long-term effects of IPT-AST, relative to GC, particularly in preventing depression onset. PMID:26638219

  20. Runaway pacemaker: a still existing complication and therapeutic guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Andersen, C; Nielsen, L H

    1989-01-01

    Runaway pacemaker is a rare, but still existing potential lethal complication in permanent pacemakers. Within 4 1/2 years, we saw two cases of runaway pacemaker in patients with multiprogrammable, VVI pacemakers (Siemens-Elema, Model 668). In both cases a pacemaker-induced ventricular tachycardia...... pacemaker may be connected to the permanent pacing lead. Thereafter, the lead can be safely cut. As an alternative, a temporary transvenous pacing lead may be established prior to disconnecting the permanent pacing lead....

  1. Sawtooth-induced loss of runaway electrons in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Longwen; Shi Bingren; Jiao Yiming

    2001-01-01

    A model based on banana orbit loss has been proposed to explain the sawtooth effect on the loss of the runaway electrons in tokamaks. Circulating runaway electrons can be transferred into the trapped ones due to magnetic perturbation during sawtooth crashes, then they are repelled to the limiter via toroidal precession drift with a time delay. This model may also clarify the hard X-ray oscillations correlated with the m = 2 mode and the hard X-ray bursts during outer disruptions

  2. Destabilization of the electron Bernstein modes by runaway electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, D.A.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the electromagnetic finite k/sub parallel/ electron Bernstein mode can be destabilized by the runaway electron distribution which results from the quasilinear action of the magnetized plasma oscillation. This mechanism is shown to yield growth rates of the order of 10 8 sec -1 and is suggested as a mechanism for the enchanced cyclotron harmonic emission in the presence of runaway electrons

  3. Kinetic modelling of runaway electron avalanches in tokamak plasmas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nilsson, E.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.; Granetz, R.S.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Vlainic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 9 (2015), č. článku 095006. ISSN 0741-3335 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma physics * runaway electrons * knock-on collisions * tokamak * Fokker-Planck * runaway avalanches Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.404, year: 2015

  4. Masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS among male adolescents: social representations in a land reform settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Oliveira Arraes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship of masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD / HIV / AIDS among adolescent males of a land reform settlement in central Brazil. METHOD: a qualitative study using as precepts the strands of social representations with teenagers between 12 to 24 years. RESULTS: three categories emerged - Perception of vulnerability; Gender and vulnerability; and, Prevention and vulnerability to STD / HIV / AIDS. Adolescents felt invulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases anchored in the social representations in favor of the male hegemony. An ignorance about forms of prevention for STD / HIV / AIDS was demonstrated in their statements. It is believed that institutional projects such as the School Health Program and the Men's Health Care Program constitute essential tools to minimize factors of vulnerability in this population, since the school is recognized as a social facility that promotes socialization of experiences and contributes to the construction of the identity of the adolescent. CONCLUSION: the social representations of masculinity collaborate for the vulnerable behavior of the adolescents for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. One hopes that this study can contribute to the production of knowledge and technical-scientific improvement of the professionals, especially the nurse, in order to discuss issues related to male sexuality of adolescents in the situation of the land reform settlement.

  5. Masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS among male adolescents: social representations in a land reform settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraes, Camila de Oliveira; Palos, Marinésia Aparecida Prado; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Teles, Sheila Araujo; Souza, Márcia Maria de; Matos, Marcos André de

    2013-01-01

    to analyze the relationship of masculinity, vulnerability and prevention of STD / HIV / AIDS among adolescent males of a land reform settlement in central Brazil. a qualitative study using as precepts the strands of social representations with teenagers between 12 to 24 years. three categories emerged - Perception of vulnerability; Gender and vulnerability; and, Prevention and vulnerability to STD / HIV / AIDS. Adolescents felt invulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases anchored in the social representations in favor of the male hegemony. An ignorance about forms of prevention for STD / HIV / AIDS was demonstrated in their statements. It is believed that institutional projects such as the School Health Program and the Men's Health Care Program constitute essential tools to minimize factors of vulnerability in this population, since the school is recognized as a social facility that promotes socialization of experiences and contributes to the construction of the identity of the adolescent. the social representations of masculinity collaborate for the vulnerable behavior of the adolescents for the acquisition of sexually transmitted diseases. One hopes that this study can contribute to the production of knowledge and technical-scientific improvement of the professionals, especially the nurse, in order to discuss issues related to male sexuality of adolescents in the situation of the land reform settlement.

  6. Smoking among adolescents in Northern Greece: a large cross-sectional study about risk and preventive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyratos Dionisios G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate epidemiological data about cigarette smoking in relation with risk and preventive factors among Greek adolescents. Methods We randomly selected 10% of the whole number of schools in Northern Greece (133 schools, 18,904 participants were included. Two anonymous questionnaires (smoker's and non-smoker's were both distributed to all students so they selected and filled in only one. A parental signed informed consent was obtained using an informative leaflet about adolescent smoking. Results The main findings of the study were: a 14.2% of the adolescents (mean age+/−SD: 15.3+/−1.7 years reported regular smoking (24.1% in the age group 16–18 years, b 84.2% of the current smokers reported daily use, c students who live in urban and semirural areas smoke more frequently than those in rural areas, d students in technically oriented schools smoke twice as frequent compared to those in general education, e risk factors for smoking: male gender, low educational level of parents, friends who smoke (OR: 10.01, 95%CI: 8.53-11.74, p Conclusions Even though prevalence of cigarette smoking is not too high among Greek adolescents, frequency of everyday cigarette use is alarming. We identified many social and lifestyle risk and preventive factors that should be incorporated in a national smoking prevention program among Greek adolescents.

  7. Sex, condoms, gender roles, and HIV transmission knowledge among adolescents in León, Nicaragua: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manji, A; Peña, R; Dubrow, R

    2007-09-01

    There are few peer-reviewed studies of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices among adolescents in Central America. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 246 adolescents in León, Nicaragua, where there is reason for concern about a rise in HIV infections. In many respects, León adolescents were typical of those in other Latin American countries, with a mixture of correct and incorrect knowledge about transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a higher proportion of males than females reporting having had sex or using condoms, and inconsistent condom use. While some sexual attitudes conformed to the ideology of machismo, others did not, providing an opening for prevention interventions. Some dimensions of HIV/AIDS stigma were high, and most adolescents disapproved of same-sex sexual behaviour. Intervention against homosexuality-related stigma is particularly urgent because a concentrated HIV epidemic may be emerging in Nicaragua among men who have sex with men. Personal religious beliefs did not appear to pose a barrier to condom use. In a multivariate model, being out of school was a significant correlate of having had sex and of insufficient HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Accordingly, HIV prevention interventions must reach adolescents both in and out of school. A multi-component approach to prevention is needed, including programmes based in schools, communities, the mass media and health facilities.

  8. Preventive physiotherapy interventions for back care in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Muñoz, Inmaculada; Gómez-Conesa, Antonia; Sánchez-Meca, Julio

    2012-08-21

    Preventive interventions improve healthy behaviours and they also increase knowledge regarding back care in children and adolescents, but studies exhibit great variability in their contents, duration and number of sessions, and in the assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to review the empirical evidence regarding preventive physiotherapy interventions for back care in children and adolescents, and to ascertain the most efficacious treatments, in what way and under which circumstances. Studies were located from computerized databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, PEDro, Web of Science and IME) and other sources. The search period extended to May 2012. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to use physical therapy methodologies of preventive treatment on children and adolescents, and to compare a treatment and a control group. Treatment, participant, methodological, and extrinsic characteristics of the studies were coded. Two researchers independently coded all of the studies. As effect size indices, standardized mean differences were calculated for measures of behaviours and knowledge, both in the posttest and in the follow-up. The random and mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analyses and sensitivity analyses were carried out in order to check the robustness of the meta-analytic results. A total of 19 papers fulfilled the selection criteria, producing 23 independent studies. On average, the treatments reached a statistically significant effectiveness in the behaviours acquired, both in the posttest and in the follow-up (d+ = 1.33 and d+ = 1.80, respectively), as well as in measures of knowledge (posttest; d+ = 1.29; follow-up: d+ = 0.76). Depending on the outcome measure, the effect sizes were affected by different moderator variables, such as the type of treatment, the type of postural hygiene, the teaching method, or the use of paraprofessionals as cotherapists. The interventions were successful in

  9. Preventive physiotherapy interventions for back care in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo-Muñoz Inmaculada

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive interventions improve healthy behaviours and they also increase knowledge regarding back care in children and adolescents, but studies exhibit great variability in their contents, duration and number of sessions, and in the assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to review the empirical evidence regarding preventive physiotherapy interventions for back care in children and adolescents, and to ascertain the most efficacious treatments, in what way and under which circumstances. Methods Studies were located from computerized databases (Cochrane Library, Medline, PEDro, Web of Science and IME and other sources. The search period extended to May 2012. To be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to use physical therapy methodologies of preventive treatment on children and adolescents, and to compare a treatment and a control group. Treatment, participant, methodological, and extrinsic characteristics of the studies were coded. Two researchers independently coded all of the studies. As effect size indices, standardized mean differences were calculated for measures of behaviours and knowledge, both in the posttest and in the follow-up. The random and mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analyses and sensitivity analyses were carried out in order to check the robustness of the meta-analytic results. Results A total of 19 papers fulfilled the selection criteria, producing 23 independent studies. On average, the treatments reached a statistically significant effectiveness in the behaviours acquired, both in the posttest and in the follow-up (d+ = 1.33 and d+ = 1.80, respectively, as well as in measures of knowledge (posttest; d+ = 1.29; follow-up: d+ = 0.76. Depending on the outcome measure, the effect sizes were affected by different moderator variables, such as the type of treatment, the type of postural hygiene, the teaching method, or the use of paraprofessionals as

  10. A 3D thermal runaway propagation model for a large format lithium ion battery module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xuning; Lu, Languang; Ouyang, Minggao; Li, Jiangqiu; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model is built for a large format lithium ion battery module. The 3D TR propagation model is built based on the energy balance equation. Empirical equations are utilized to simplify the calculation of the chemical kinetics for TR, whereas equivalent thermal resistant layer is employed to simplify the heat transfer through the thin thermal layer. The 3D TR propagation model is validated by experiment and can provide beneficial discussions on the mechanisms of TR propagation. According to the modeling analysis of the 3D model, the TR propagation can be delayed or prevented through: 1) increasing the TR triggering temperature; 2) reducing the total electric energy released during TR; 3) enhancing the heat dissipation level; 4) adding extra thermal resistant layer between adjacent batteries. The TR propagation is successfully prevented in the model and validated by experiment. The model with 3D temperature distribution provides a beneficial tool for researchers to study the TR propagation mechanisms and for engineers to design a safer battery pack. - Highlights: • A 3D thermal runaway (TR) propagation model for Li-ion battery pack is built. • The 3D TR propagation model can fit experimental results well. • Temperature distributions during TR propagation are presented using the 3D model. • Modeling analysis provides solutions for the prevention of TR propagation. • Quantified solutions to prevent TR propagation in battery pack are discussed.

  11. Conversion of magnetic energy to runaway kinetic energy during the termination of runaway current on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, A. J.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Tong, R. H.; Zhang, J.; Wei, Y. N.; Ma, T. K.; Wang, X. L.; Yang, H. Y.; Gao, H. L.; Pan, Y.; the J-TEXT Team

    2018-05-01

    A large number of runaway electrons (REs) with energies as high as several tens of mega-electron volt (MeV) may be generated during disruptions on a large-scale tokamak. The kinetic energy carried by REs is eventually deposited on the plasma-facing components, causing damage and posing a threat on the operation of the tokamak. The remaining magnetic energy following a thermal quench is significant on a large-scale tokamak. The conversion of magnetic energy to runaway kinetic energy will increase the threat of runaway electrons on the first wall. The magnetic energy dissipated inside the vacuum vessel (VV) equals the decrease of initial magnetic energy inside the VV plus the magnetic energy flowing into the VV during a disruption. Based on the estimated magnetic energy, the evolution of magnetic-kinetic energy conversion are analyzed through three periods in disruptions with a runaway current plateau.

  12. Initial insight into why physical activity may help prevent adolescent smoking uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrain-McGovern, Janet; Rodriguez, Daniel; Cuevas, Jocelyn; Sass, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Whereas research supports the importance of regular physical activity to decrease the likelihood of smoking uptake, the mechanisms accounting for this relationship are poorly understood. We sought to determine whether the enjoyment or reward derived from physical activity is one mechanism underlying the relationship between smoking and physical activity. The sample was composed of 1374 adolescents participating in a prospective longitudinal survey study of health behaviors. Variables were measured via self-report every six months for eight waves of data spanning four years. An associative processes latent growth curve model revealed a significant and negative indirect effect of baseline physical activity on baseline smoking through baseline physical activity reward (b(indirect)=-.18, z=-3.11, p=.002; 95% CI=-.29, -.07). Similarly, there was a significant and negative indirect effect of physical activity trend on smoking trend through physical activity reward trend (b(indirect)=-.16, z=-2.09, p=.04; 95% CI=-.30, -.01). The effect of physical activity on smoking at baseline and across time was completely mediated by physical activity reward. There was less support for the idea that smoking progression was associated with reduced physical activity reward and subsequent declines in physical activity. This study provides the first evidence implicating physical activity reward as one mechanism by which physical activity reduces the likelihood of adolescent smoking uptake. Smoking prevention interventions that promote physical activity and target physical activity enjoyment may have an important impact on adolescent smoking initiation and progression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pit and fissure sealants versus fluoride varnishes for preventing dental decay in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiiri, Anne; Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli; Nordblad, Anne

    2010-01-01

    the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants to be statistically significantly higher than an application of fluoride varnish every 6 months in preventing occlusal decays of first molars at 23 months (with a RR of 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 0.95); and at 4 years and 9 years (with a RR of 0.42, 95...... caries on the fluoride varnished tooth surfaces, compared to sealed plus fluoride varnished surfaces, with a RR of 0.36 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.61). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was some evidence on the superiority of pit and fissure sealants over fluoride varnish application in the prevention of occlusal......BACKGROUND: The majority of the detected increment in dental caries among children and adolescents is confined to pit and fissure surfaces of first molars. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants with fluoride varnishes in the prevention...

  14. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd. Taib, Mohd. Nasir; Mohd. Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordere...

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Scholten

    Full Text Available Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138 was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape. Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues.

  16. Identifying social mechanisms for the prevention of adolescent drinking and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W; Nygaard, Peter; Miller, Brenda A

    2008-03-01

    This study identifies social mechanisms that might help prevent youth from being involved in driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD). Data collected through telephone surveys with 1534 adolescents and young adults aged 15-20 years (mean=17.6, S.D.=1.6) in California, USA, were analyzed. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that DUI and RWDD were strongly related to drinking in unstructured situations, modeling of DUI by peers and parents, and perceived peer approval or disapproval of DUI. DUI outcome expectancies were indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through situational drinking. Parental monitoring and DUI law enforcement were also indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through DUI expectancies and other mechanisms. The findings, overall, suggest that parental influence remains important even through late adolescence. Parental monitoring, in particular, might help to reduce unstructured socializing with peers, drinking, and affiliation with peers who engage in DUI. Parental monitoring may also foster beliefs about the risks of DUI. Conversely, parents' own DUI behavior may normalize drinking and DUI behaviors, thus countering monitoring efforts.

  17. Identifying Social Mechanisms for the Prevention of Adolescent Drinking and Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W.; Nygaard, Peter; Miller, Brenda A.

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies social mechanisms that might help prevent youth from being involved in driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and riding with drinking drivers (RWDD). Data collected through telephone surveys with 1,534 adolescents and young adults aged 15–20 years (mean = 17.6, SD = 1.6) in California, USA were analyzed. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that DUI and RWDD were strongly related to drinking in unstructured situations, modeling of DUI by peers and parents, and perceived peer approval or disapproval of DUI. DUI outcome expectancies were indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through situational drinking. Parental monitoring and DUI law enforcement were also indirectly related to DUI and RWDD through DUI expectancies and other mechanisms. The findings, overall, suggest that parental influence remains important even through late adolescence. Parental monitoring, in particular, might help to reduce unstructured socializing with peers, drinking, and affiliation with peers who engage in DUI. Parental monitoring may also foster beliefs about the risks of DUI. Conversely, parents’ own DUI behavior may normalize drinking and DUI behaviors, thus countering monitoring efforts. PMID:18329409

  18. Active lifestyle in childhood and adolescence prevents obesity development in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M

    2015-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individuals who are active but who decrease physical activity (PA) over time have a higher risk of becoming obese in young adulthood, when compared to individuals who are consistently active throughout childhood and adolescence. Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members (242 males and 251 females) participated in accelerometry assessments, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and dietary questionnaire surveys at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 years. Group-based trajectory analyses identified distinct trajectory patterns of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), percentage of body fat, and energy intake. A multivariable logistic regression model was fit to estimate the odds of "becoming obese" based on the MVPA trajectories, adjusted for mother's education, somatic maturation, and energy intake. Among males, 74.7% had a "normal" body fat pattern, 14.6% had a "becoming obese" pattern, and 10.7% had a "consistently obese" pattern, while among females, the percentages were 58.6%, 28.6%, and 12.8%, respectively. Participants who were active (≥45 min MVPA) as children but decreased MVPA with age were more likely to become obese, compared to consistently active participants (adjusted OR = 2.77; 95% CI = 1.16, 6.58). An active lifestyle throughout childhood and adolescence could prevent obesity development in young adulthood. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  19. Gender-Specific HIV Prevention with Urban Early-Adolescent Girls: Outcomes of the Keepin' It Safe Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Noia, Jennifer; Schinke, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of Keepin' It Safe, a theory-based, gender-specific, CD-ROM-mediated HIV prevention program for urban, early adolescent girls. Intervention effects were examined in a randomized, pretest-posttest wait-list control-group design. Changes in HIV/AIDS knowledge, protective attitudes, and skills for reducing HIV…

  20. Prevention of problem behaviours among adolescents: The impact of the Communities that Care strategy in the Netherlands (2008–2011).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, H.; Aussems, C.; Steketee, M.; Boutellier, H.; Cuijpers, P.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system influences targeted risk and protective factors and the subsequent development of problem behaviour among adolescents (12-18 years) in the Netherlands. In this quasi-experimental study of ten communities (five

  1. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents: expert opinions from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2009-05-01

    To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth work, music entertainment, and enforcement authorities participated in a qualitative, electronic, 3-round, Web-based Delphi study. Multiple parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents were identified; the most relevant are the adolescents themselves, their parents, manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones, and the authorities. The experts did not expect that adolescents in general would perform the necessary protective behaviors to prevent MP3-induced hearing loss. Two environmental health protection measures were identified as both relevant and feasible to be implemented (ie, authorities encourage manufacturers to produce safer products, and public health campaigns will be held to improve knowledge of the risks of high-volume music, possible protective measures, and consequences of hearing loss). Authorities, the music industry in general, and especially manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones should recognize their responsibility and create a safer MP3-listening environment by taking measures to protect today's youth from the dangers of listening to high-volume music on MP3 players.

  2. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  3. The efficacy of an e-learning prevention program for substance use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewik, M.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at risk for tobacco and alcohol use, yet little or no prevention programs are available for this group. 'Prepared on time' is an e-learning program based on the attitude - social influence - efficacy model originally developed

  4. Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierhaus, Marc; Maass, Asja; Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based stress prevention programme in adolescence to promote appropriate coping behaviour. The TTM assumes three consecutive phases in the adoption of behavioural patterns. Progress throughout the phases is promoted…

  5. Effects of an Interactive School-Based Program for Preventing Adolescent Sexual Harassment: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijster, G.P.A. de; Felten, H.; Kok, G.; Kocken, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Many adolescents experience sexual harassment and victims of sexual harassment have higher risks regarding well-being and health behaviors such as higher risks of suicidal thoughts, suicidal ideation and feeling unsafe at school. A peer-performed play and school lessons on preventing sexual

  6. The Third Rail of Family Systems: Sibling Relationships, Mental and Behavioral Health, and Preventive Intervention in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Sibling relationships are an important context for development, but are often ignored in research and preventive interventions with youth and families. In childhood and adolescence, siblings spend considerable time together, and siblings' characteristics and sibling dynamics substantially influence developmental trajectories and outcomes. This…

  7. Emotion Regulation, Coping, and Decision Making: Three Linked Skills for Preventing Externalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Guerra, Nancy

    2017-03-01

    Research on executive control during the teenage years points to shortfalls in emotion regulation, coping, and decision making as three linked capabilities associated with youth's externalizing behavior problems. Evidence gleaned from a detailed review of the literature makes clear that improvement of all three capabilities is critical to help young people better navigate challenges and prevent or reduce externalizing and related problems. Moreover, interventions can successfully improve these three capabilities and have been found to produce behavioral improvements with real-world significance. Examples of how successful interventions remediate more than one of these capabilities are provided. Future directions in research and practice are also proposed to move the field toward the development of more comprehensive programs for adolescents to foster their integration. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. Scaling law of runaway electrons in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongzhen

    2005-01-01

    Runaway confinement time in ohmic and additionally heated tokamak plasmas presents an anomalous behavior in comparison with theoretical predictions based on neoclassical models. A one-dimensional numerical including generation and loss effects for runaway electrons is used to deduce the dependence of runaway energy ε τ on runaway confinement time. The simulation results are presented in the form of a scaling law for ε τ on plasma parameters. The scaling of ε τ and therefore the runaway confinement time and runaway electron diffusivity has been studied in the HL-1M tokamak, by measuring hard X-ray spectra under different experimental conditions. (authors)

  9. Physics of the interaction between runaway electrons and the background plasma of the current quench in tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reux, Cedric

    2017-10-01

    Runaway electrons are created during disruptions of tokamak plasmas. They can be accelerated in the form of a multi-MA beam at energies up to several 10's of MeV. Prevention or suppression of runaway electrons during disruptions will be essential to ensure a reliable operation of future tokamaks such as ITER. Recent experiments showed that the suppression of an already accelerated beam with massive gas injection was unsuccessful at JET, conversely to smaller tokamaks. This was attributed to a dense, cold background plasma (up to several 1020 m-3 accompanying the runaway beam. The present contribution reports on the latest experimental results obtained at JET showing that some mitigation efficiency can be restored by changing the features of the background plasma. The density, temperature, position of the plasma and the energy of runaways were characterized using a combined analysis of interferometry, soft X-rays, bolometry, magnetics and hard X-rays. It showed that lower density background plasmas were obtained using smaller amounts of gas to trigger the disruption, leading to an improved penetration of the mitigation gas. Based on the observations, a physical model of the creation of the background plasma and its subsequent evolution is proposed. The plasma characteristics during later stages of the disruption are indeed dependent on the way it was initially created. The sustainment of the plasma during the runaway beam phase is then addressed by making a power balance between ohmic heating, power transfer from runaway electrons, radiation and atomic processes. Finally, a model of the interaction of the plasma with the mitigation gas is proposed to explain why massive gas injection of runaway beams works only in specific situations. This aims at pointing out which parameters bear the most importance if this mitigation scheme is to be used on larger devices like ITER. Acknowledgement: This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium

  10. Peer mentorship program on HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes among orphaned adolescents: an evidence based practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabunya, Proscovia; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Byansi, William; Nattabi, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are particularly vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection. Adolescents orphaned as a direct result of HIV/AIDS are at an elevated risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. However, limited empirical evidence exists on HIV knowledge and prevention programs, especially those designed to address HIV information gaps among adolescents. This study evaluates the effect of a peer mentorship program provided in addition to other supportive services on HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes, among school-going orphaned adolescents in southern Uganda. We utilize data from the Bridges to the Future Study, a 5-year longitudinal randomized experimental study funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Out of the 1410 adolescents enrolled in the study (average age = 12.7 at study initiation), 855 of them participated in a nine-session, curriculum based peer mentorship program. We analyzed data collected at baseline and 12-months post intervention initiation. The results from bivariate and regression analysis indicate that, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, adolescents who participated in a peer mentorship program were more likely than non-participants to report increased scores on HIV/AIDS knowledge(b = .86, 95%CI = .47 – 1.3, p ≤ .001); better scores on desired HIV/AIDS-related beliefs (b = .29, 95%CI = .06 – .52, p ≤ .01); and better scores on HIV/AIDS prevention attitudes (b = .76, 95%CI = .16 – 1.4, p ≤ .01). Overall, the study findings point to the potential role a of peer mentorship program in promoting the much-desired HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes among orphaned adolescents. Future programs and policies that support AIDS-orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa should consider incorporating peer mentoring programs that provide

  11. Adolescent Gambling-Oriented Attitudes Mediate the Relationship Between Perceived Parental Knowledge and Adolescent Gambling : Implications for Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; ter Bogt, Tom; Pastore, Massimiliano; Siciliano, Valeria; Molinaro, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Although substantial research has provided support for the association between parental practices and adolescent gambling, less is known about the role of adolescent attitudes in this relationship. The primary purpose of this study was to test an integrative model linking perceived parental

  12. Family-Based Interventions in Preventing Children and Adolescents from Using Tobacco: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Baker, Philip R A; Thomas, Bennett C

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco is the main preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Adolescent smoking is increasing in many countries with poorer countries following the earlier experiences of affluent countries. Preventing adolescents from starting smoking is crucial to decreasing tobacco-related illness. To assess effectiveness of family-based interventions alone and combined with school-based interventions to prevent children and adolescents from initiating tobacco use. Fourteen bibliographic databases and the Internet, journals hand-searched, and experts consulted. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with children or adolescents and families, interventions to prevent starting tobacco use, and follow-up ≥6 months. Abstracts/titles independently assessed and data independently entered by 2 authors. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Risk-of-Bias tool. Twenty-seven RCTs were included. Nine trials of never-smokers compared with a control provided data for meta-analysis. Family intervention trials had significantly fewer students who started smoking. Meta-analysis of 2 RCTs of combined family and school interventions compared with school only, showed additional significant benefit. The common feature of effective high-intensity interventions was encouraging authoritative parenting. Only 14 RCTs provided data for meta-analysis (approximately a third of participants). Of the 13 RCTs that did not provide data for meta-analysis 8 compared a family intervention with no intervention and 1 reported significant effects, and 5 compared a family combined with school intervention with a school intervention only and none reported additional significant effects. There is moderate-quality evidence that family-based interventions prevent children and adolescents from starting to smoke. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preliminary investigation of a videogame prototype for cigarette and marijuana prevention in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lindsay R; Hieftje, Kimberly D; Pendergrass, Tyra M; Sawyer, Benjamin G; Fiellin, Lynn E

    2018-02-09

    Videogames are becoming increasingly popular to deliver health interventions; however, their role in the primary prevention of cigarette and marijuana use has not yet been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary test of the efficacy of a role-playing videogame prototype, smokeSCREEN, aimed at developing knowledge and behavioral skills associated with primary prevention of cigarette and marijuana use. The authors also explored participants' gameplay experience. This study employed a 1-group pretest-posttest design with 25 adolescent boys and girls aged 11 to 14 years (M age = 11.56, SD = 0.77) who had never tried cigarettes or marijuana. Participants played four 1-hour gameplay sessions over a 2-week period. Assessments of knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes, perceived norms, and intentions related to cigarette and marijuana prevention were collected at baseline and 2-week and 12-week follow-ups. Ratings of gameplay experience were collected after the 2 weeks of gameplay. One-way repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted. Findings are (1) improvements in knowledge for both cigarette (Wilks' λ = 0.62, F(2, 23) = 7.21, P = .004) and marijuana (Wilks' λ = 0.67, F(2, 23) = 5.75, P = .009) use from pre- to post-gameplay that were characterized by large effects; and (2) nonsignificant trends in the expected direction emerged for changes in self-efficacy and perceived norms related to both cigarettes and marijuana that were characterized by medium-large effects. Overall, the players provided positive reports of their experience with the smokeSCREEN videogame prototype. These findings provide preliminary evidence that a videogame has the potential to influence key cognitive and motivational variables and can be an engaging means to deliver a cigarette and marijuana prevention intervention.

  14. Universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes for children and adolescents: Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol misuse by young people causes significant health and social harm, including death and disability. Therefore, prevention of youth alcohol misuse is a policy aim in many countries. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based and (3) multi-component universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in children and adolescents. Three Cochrane systematic reviews were performed: searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Project CORK and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials up to July 2010, including randomised trials evaluating universal alcohol misuse prevention programmes in school, family or multiple settings in youths aged 18 years or younger. Two independent reviewers identified eligible studies and any discrepancies were resolved via discussion. A total of 85 trials were included in the reviews of school (n = 53), family (n = 12) and multi-component (n = 20) programmes. Meta-analysis was not performed due to study heterogeneity. Most studies were conducted in North America. Risk of bias assessment revealed problems related to inappropriate unit of analysis, moderate to high attrition, selective outcome reporting and potential confounding. Certain generic psychosocial and life skills school-based programmes were effective in reducing alcohol use in youth. Most family-based programmes were effective. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that multiple interventions provided additional benefit over single interventions. In these Cochrane reviews, some school, family or multi-component prevention programmes were shown to be effective in reducing alcohol misuse in youths. However, these results warrant a cautious interpretation, since bias and/or contextual factors may have affected the trial results. Further research should replicate the most promising studies identified in these reviews and pay particular attention to content and context factors through rigorous evaluation.

  15. Efficacy evaluation of the school program Unplugged for drug use prevention among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention and do not conduct culturally adapted activities for that purpose. This study evaluated the impact of the Unplugged program on drug use prevention among children and adolescents in public middle schools of Brazil. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2013 with 2185 students in 16 public schools from 3 Brazilian cities. The intervention group attended 12 weekly classes of the Unplugged program for drug use prevention, and the control group did not attend to any school prevention programs in the same year. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate temporal and between group changes in the consumption of each drug. Results The study suggested that there was no evidence that Unplugged effected 11- to 12-year-old students. However, the program seemed to stimulate a decrease in recent marijuana use (transition from use to non-use in 85.7% of intervention cases and 28.6% of control cases, OR = 17.5, p = 0.039 among 13- to 15-year-old students. In addition, students in this age range who received the Unplugged program had similar drug consumption levels to those observed before the program began. However, students in the control group presented a significant tendency to increase marijuana use and binge drinking. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence of program efficacy among Brazilian middle school students by presenting marginal effects on binge drinking and marijuana use. An 18-month randomized controlled trial is recommended for a future study.

  16. Street Kids--Homeless and Runaway Youth. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children, Family, Drugs and Alcoholism of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. One Hundred First Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This hearing was the second in a series examining the impact of homelessness and dislocation on young people in America. This session focused on the problems of homeless and runaway adolescents. Witnesses described the need for multiple services for this population, for effective provision of services, and for greater coordination and planning.…

  17. Research on Clinical Preventive Services for Adolescents and Young Adults: Where Are We and Where Do We Need to Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion K; Aalsma, Matthew C; Weitzman, Elissa R; Garcia-Huidobro, Diego; Wong, Charlene; Hadland, Scott E; Santelli, John; Park, M Jane; Ozer, Elizabeth M

    2017-03-01

    We reviewed research regarding system- and visit-level strategies to enhance clinical preventive service delivery and quality for adolescents and young adults. Despite professional consensus on recommended services for adolescents, a strong evidence base for services for young adults, and improved financial access to services with the Affordable Care Act's provisions, receipt of preventive services remains suboptimal. Further research that builds off successful models of linking traditional and community clinics is needed to improve access to care for all youth. To optimize the clinical encounter, promising clinician-focused strategies to improve delivery of preventive services include screening and decision support tools, particularly when integrated into electronic medical record systems and supported by training and feedback. Although results have been mixed, interventions have moved beyond increasing service delivery to demonstrating behavior change. Research on emerging technology-such as gaming platforms, mobile phone applications, and wearable devices-suggests opportunities to expand clinicians' reach; however, existing research is based on limited clinical settings and populations. Improved monitoring systems and further research are needed to examine preventive services facilitators and ensure that interventions are effective across the range of clinical settings where youth receive preventive care, across multiple populations, including young adults, and for more vulnerable populations with less access to quality care. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Historical context for the creation of the Office of Adolescent Health and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Evelyn M; Farb, Amy Feldman

    2014-03-01

    In Fiscal Year 2010, Federal funds were dedicated to support evidence-based approaches to effectively target teen pregnancy prevention and resulted in the establishment of the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) Program. Through the tiered TPP Program, OAH supports replication and evaluation of programs using models whose effectiveness has been demonstrated through rigorous evaluation and the development and testing of promising or innovative pregnancy prevention strategies and approaches. This article documents the creation of OAH and the development of the TPP Program, the identification of a TPP evidence base, current program and evaluation efforts at OAH, and government coordination and partnerships related to reducing teen pregnancy. This article is of interest to those working to improve the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Applying the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion to a videotape-based eating disorders primary prevention program for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Giselle F; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2004-01-01

    This study applied principles from the Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion to the prevention of disordered eating. Early adolescent girls watched either a preventive videotape only (n=114) or video plus post-video activity (verbal discussion, written exercises, or control discussion) (n=187); or had no intervention (n=104). Significantly more body image and knowledge improvements occurred at post video and follow-up in the intervention groups compared to no intervention. There were no outcome differences among intervention groups, or between girls with high or low elaboration likelihood. Further research is needed in integrating the videotape into a broader prevention package.

  20. Economic Models of Preventive Dentistry for Australian Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmukayakul, Utsana; Sia, Kah-Ling; Gold, Lisa; Hegde, Shalika; de Silva, Andrea M; Moodie, Marj

    2015-01-01

    To identify economic evaluation models and parameters that could be replicated or adapted to construct a generic model to assess cost-effectiveness of and prioritise a wide range of community-based oral disease prevention programmes in an Australian context. The literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, ERIC, PsycINFO, CINHAL (EBSCOhost), EMBASE (Ovid), CRD, DARE, NHSEED, HTA, all databases in the Cochrane library, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases from their inception to November 2012. Thirty-three articles met the criteria for inclusion in this review (7 were Australian studies, 26 articles were international). Existing models focused primarily on dental caries. Periodontal disease, another common oral health problem, was lacking. Among caries prevention studies, there was an absence of clear evidence showing continuous benefits from primary through to permanent dentition and the long-term effects of oral health promotion. No generic model was identified from previous studies that could be immediately adopted or adapted for our purposes of simulating and prioritising a diverse range of oral health interventions for Australian children and adolescents. Nevertheless, data sources specified in the existing Australian-based models will be useful for developing a generic model for such purposes.

  1. Biological contributions to addictions in adolescents and adults: prevention, treatment, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N

    2013-02-01

    Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biological bases of addictions, these disorders continue to represent a huge public health burden that is associated with substantial personal suffering. Efforts to target addictions require consideration of how the improved biological understanding of addictions may lead to improved prevention, treatment, and policy initiatives. In this article, we provide a narrative review of current biological models for addictions with a goal of placing existing data and theories within a translational and developmental framework targeting the advancement of prevention, treatment, and policy strategies. Data regarding individual differences, intermediary phenotypes, and main and interactive influences of genetic and environmental contributions in the setting of developmental trajectories that may be influenced by addictive drugs or behavior indicate complex underpinnings of addictions. Consideration and further elucidation of the biological etiologies of addictions hold significant potential for making important gains and reducing the public health impact of addictions. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. School-based internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Popick, Rachel; Grey, Margaret

    2013-03-01

    In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies had variable control groups, program content, and sample characteristics. Though few authors reported on implementation processes or body mass index (BMI) outcomes, the majority of studies were effective in improving health behaviors in the short term. Most studies were judged to have a high or unclear risk of bias in at least two domains, thus the quality of evidence for this body of literature is moderate. Further research is needed to examine programs of longer duration, optimal dose and timing of programs, cost-effectiveness, and mediators and moderators of intervention outcomes.

  3. School-Based Obesity-Prevention Policies and Practices and Weight-Control Behaviors among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2017-02-01

    The promotion of healthy eating and physical activity within school settings is an important component of population-based strategies to prevent obesity; however, adolescents may be vulnerable to weight-related messages, as rapid development during this life stage often leads to preoccupation with body size and shape. This study examines secular trends in secondary school curricula topics relevant to the prevention of unhealthy weight-control behaviors; describes cross-sectional associations between weight-related curricula content and students' use of weight-control behaviors; and assesses whether implementation of school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices is longitudinally related to students' weight-control behaviors. The Minnesota School Health Profiles and Minnesota Student Survey (grades 9 and 12) data were used along with National Center for Education Statistics data to examine secular trends, cross-sectional associations (n=141 schools), and longitudinal associations (n=42 schools). Students self-reported their height and weight along with past-year use of healthy (eg, exercise), unhealthy (eg, fasting), and extreme (eg, use laxatives) weight-control behaviors. Descriptive statistics, generalized estimating equations, and generalized linear regression models accounting for school-level demographics. There was no observable pattern during the years 2008 to 2014 in the mean number of curricula topics addressing unhealthy weight-control behaviors, despite an increase in the prevalence of curricula addressing acceptance of body-size differences. Including three vs fewer weight-control topics and specifically including the topic of eating disorders in the curricula was related to a lower school-level percent of students using any extreme weight-control behaviors. In contrast, an overall measure of implementing school-based obesity-prevention policies/practices (eg, prohibited advertising) was unrelated to use of unhealthy or extreme behaviors

  4. The role of 1-h physical activity every day in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-Xiu, Zhang; Jing-Yang, Zhou; Jin-Shan, Zhao; Zun-Hua, Chu

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have reported that physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle are associated with being overweight and obese in children and adults. A new policy of 1-h physical activity (PA) every day was released by the Chinese government. The present study examined the role of 1-h PA every day in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 29,030 students (14,578 boys and 14,452 girls) aged 10-18 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and skinfold thickness (SFT) of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) of adolescents was calculated from their height and weight, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was obtained according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. All subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 had a PA of more than 1 h/day while group 2 had less than 1 h/day. Comparisons of BMI, WC, SFT, and prevalences of overweight and obesity between the two groups were made. The overall percentages of students in group 1 were 34.29 % in boys and 30.15 % in girls. The prevalences of overweight and obesity for both boys and girls were all significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 in all age categories. In conclusion, 1-h PA every day has a beneficial effect in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China. These observations highlight the importance of PA in the prevention of overweight and obesity in adolescents.

  5. A group randomized controlled trial integrating obesity prevention and control for postpartum adolescents in a home visiting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire-Joshu, Debra L; Schwarz, Cynthia D; Peskoe, Sarah B; Budd, Elizabeth L; Brownson, Ross C; Joshu, Corinne E

    2015-06-26

    Adolescence represents a critical period for the development of overweight that tracks into adulthood. This risk is significantly heightened for adolescents that become pregnant, many of whom experience postpartum weight retention. The aim of this study was to evaluate Balance Adolescent Lifestyle Activities and Nutrition Choices for Energy (BALANCE), a multicomponent obesity prevention intervention targeting postpartum adolescents participating in a national home visiting child development-parent education program. A group randomized, nested cohort design was used with 1325 adolescents, 694 intervention and 490 control, (mean age = 17.8 years, 52 % underrepresented minorities) located across 30 states. Participatory methods were used to integrate lifestyle behavior change strategies within standard parent education practice. Content targeted replacement of high-risk obesogenic patterns (e.g. sweetened drink and high fat snack consumption, sedentary activity) with positive behaviors (e.g. water intake, fruit and vegetables, increased walking). Parent educators delivered BALANCE through home visits, school based classroom-group meetings, and website activities. Control adolescents received standard child development information. Phase I included baseline to posttest (12 months); Phase II included baseline to follow-up (24 months). When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents who were ≥12 weeks postpartum were 89 % more likely (p = 0.02) to maintain a normal BMI or improve an overweight/obese BMI by 12 months; this change was not sustained at 24 months. When compared to the control group, BALANCE adolescents significantly improved fruit and vegetable intake (p = .03). In stratified analyses, water intake improved among younger BALANCE teens (p = .001) and overweight/obese BALANCE teens (p = .05) when compared to control counterparts. There were no significant differences between groups in sweetened drink and snack consumption

  6. [Prevalence of helmet use in children and adolescents in Germany and preventable bicycle-related head injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsche, J; Hintzpeter, B; Neuhauser, H; Schlaud, M

    2011-08-01

    Head injuries are the main cause of death in bicycle-related accidents among children and adolescents. According to a Cochrane Review, the risk of head injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.26-0.37) or brain injury (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.23-0.42) decreases by 69% if a helmet is worn. This study presents the prevalence of helmet use in cycling children and adolescents in Germany and the proportion of head injuries that could be prevented by wearing helmets. The potential effects of increased helmet wearing rates on the population attributable risk percentage for head injuries (PAR%) are demonstrated. The prevalence of helmet use in children aged 3-17 years was analysed using data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The percentage of head injuries preventable by helmet use in this group is estimated by calculating PAR%. Prevalence rates of helmet use and odds ratios from a Cochrane Review about the effectiveness of bicycle helmets for the prevention of head injuries were used for analysis. The potential effect of increased helmet use is shown in 3 scenarios by means of differences of PAR% values in the most relevant age groups. The older the children, the less likely they are to wear a helmet: 89.5% (95% CI 88.0%-90.8%) of the 3- to 6-year-old children wear a helmet when cycling but only 11.0% (95% CI 9.3%-12.9%) of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents do. In the youngest group (3-6 years) 19% of bicycle-related head injuries are attributable to the non-use of helmets, but this proportion rises to 67% in the oldest group (14-17 years). The PAR% of head injuries associated with not wearing a helmet may be reduced by more than a third by increasing the helmet wearing rate to 67% (2 out of 3) among adolescents, and may be reduced to half if 75% of adolescents wore a helmet. Particularly older children and adolescents hardly use bicycle helmets, hence the rate of preventable head injury is high. Efforts towards increasing helmet use

  7. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The resonance between runaway electrons and magnetic ripple in HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruijie; Hu Liqun; Lu Hongwei; Lin Shiyao; Zhong Guoqiang; Xu Ping; Zhang Jizong

    2011-01-01

    For suppressing the energy of runaway electrons in tokamak plasma, we analyzed the X-ray energy spectra by runaway electrons in different discharges of the HT-7 tokamak experiment performed in the autumn of 2009. The resonant phenomenon between runaway electrons and magnetic ripple was found. Although, the energy of runaway electrons in the plasma core can be as high as several tens of MeV, but when they are transported to the edge, the electron energy are limited to a certain range by resonance with the magnetic ripple of different harmonic numbers. The runaway electrons under high loop voltage resonate with low step magnetic perturbations, with high energy gain; whereas the runaway electrons under low loop voltage resonate with high level magnetic perturbations, with low energy gain. Using this mechanism, the energy of runaway electrons can be restricted to a low level, and this will significantly mitigate the damage effect on the equipment caused by runaway electrons. (authors)

  9. Characteristics of post-disruption runaway electrons with impurity pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Yasunori; Nakano, Tomohide; Isayama, Akihiko; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Tamai, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hirotaka; Takenaga, Hidenobu; Bakhtiari, Mohammad; Ide, Shunsuke; Kondoh, Takashi; Hatae, Takaki

    2005-01-01

    Characteristics of post-disruption runaway electrons with impurity pellet injection were investigated for the first time using the JT-60U tokamak device. A clear deposition of impurity neon ice pellets was observed in a post-disruption runaway plasma. The pellet ablation was attributed to the energy deposition of relativistic runaway electrons in the pellet. A high normalized electron density was stably obtained with n e bar /n GW ∼2.2. Effects of prompt exhaust of runaway electrons and reduction of runaway plasma current without large amplitude MHD activities were found. One possible explanation for the basic behavior of runaway plasma current is that it follows the balance of avalanche generation of runaway electrons and slowing down predicted by the Andersson-Helander model, including the combined effect of collisional pitch angle scattering and synchrotron radiation. Our results suggested that the impurity pellet injection reduced the energy of runaway electrons in a stepwise manner. (author)

  10. 78 FR 64153 - Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ...-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children... interim rule entitled Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for...

  11. Models of primary runaway electron distribution in the runaway vortex regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu; McDevitt, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Generation of runaway electrons (RE) beams can possibly induce the most deleterious effect of tokamak disruptions. A number of recent numerical calculations have confirmed the formation of a RE bump in their energy distribution by taking into account Synchrontron radiational damping force due to RE’s gyromotions. Here, we present a detailed examination on how the bump location changes at different pitch-angle and the characteristics of the RE pitch-angle distribution. Although REs moving along the magnetic field are preferably accelerated and then populate the phase-space of larger pitch-angle mainly through diffusions, an off-axis peak can still form due to the presence of the vortex structure which causes accumulation of REs at low pitch-angle. A simplified Fokker- Planck model and its semi-analytical solutions based on local expansions around the O point is used to illustrate the characteristics of RE distribution around the O point of the runaway vortex in phase-space. The calculated energy location of the O point together with the local energy and pitch-angle distributions agree with the full numerical solution.

  12. Runaway electron generation during plasma shutdown by killer pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, K; Feher, T; Smith, H; Fueloep, T; Helander, P

    2008-01-01

    Tokamak discharges are sometimes terminated by disruptions that may cause large mechanical and thermal loads on the vessel. To mitigate disruption-induced problems it has been proposed that 'killer' pellets could be injected into the plasma in order to safely terminate the discharge. Killer pellets enhance radiative energy loss and thereby lead to rapid cooling and shutdown of the discharge. But pellets may also cause runaway electron generation, as has been observed in experiments in several tokamaks. In this work, runaway dynamics in connection with deuterium or carbon pellet-induced fast plasma shutdown is considered. A pellet code, which calculates the material deposition and initial cooling caused by the pellet is coupled to a runaway code, which determines the subsequent temperature evolution and runaway generation. In this way, a tool has been created to test the suitability of different pellet injection scenarios for disruption mitigation. If runaway generation is avoided, the resulting current quench times are too long to safely avoid large forces on the vessel due to halo currents

  13. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  14. Sexual Attitudes and Behavior of Guatemalan Teenagers: Considerations for Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganza, Carlos E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Conducted 2 studies to explore prevalence of adolescence pregnancy in Guatemala and identify level of contraception. In first study found 89 percent of male and 38 percent of female adolescents (N=850) had experienced coitus. In the second study found pregnancy rate of minors (N=551) in a gynecology clinic was highest for adolescents aged 13-14.…

  15. From kids, through kids, to kids: examining the social influence strategies used by adolescents to promote prevention among peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L; Coveleski, Samantha; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Kootsikas, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances have increased the interest and ability of lay audiences to create messages; however, the feasibility of incorporating lay multimedia messages into health campaigns has seldom been examined. Drawing on the principle of cultural grounding and narrative engagement theory, this article seeks to examine what types of messages adolescents believe are most effective in persuading their peers to resist substance use and to provide empirical data on the extent to which audience-generated intervention messages are consistent with the associated campaign philosophy and branding. Data for the current study are prevention messages created by students as part of a four-lesson substance use prevention "booster" program delivered to eighth-grade students in 20 rural schools in Pennsylvania and Ohio during 2010-2011. Content analysis results indicate that didactic message strategies were more common in audience-generated messages than narrative strategies, although strategy was somewhat dependent on the medium used. Two of the most common strategies that adolescents used to persuade peers not to use substances were negative consequences and identity appeals, and messages varied in the degree to which they were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings and program philosophy of the prevention campaign. Implications of the current study for understanding the social construction of substance use prevention messages among adolescents and incorporating audience-generated messages in health communication campaigns are discussed.

  16. Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP): a theoretically based approach for teaching HIV prevention to adolescents through an exploration of popular music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin-Foster, Carla; McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann

    2010-05-01

    Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue-student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness.

  17. Rural Runaways: Rurality and Its Implications for Services to Children and Young People Who Run Away

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Myfanwy; Goswami, Haridhan

    2010-01-01

    This article debates options for service provision to young rural runaways in the UK. Using data drawn from two national surveys and follow-on qualitative studies, the authors trace urban myths of rurality and their effects on runaway provision. The authors review models of rural refuge, systemic advocacy and mobile services for rural runaways.…

  18. 76 FR 22785 - Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway Children for Free School...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... [FNS-2008-0001] RIN 0584-AD60 Direct Certification and Certification of Homeless, Migrant and Runaway... concerning the certification of certain children who are homeless, runaway, or migratory. This rule affects... children who are homeless, runaway, or migratory, as determined by the homeless coordinator for homeless or...

  19. 30 CFR 56.9302 - Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against moving or runaway railroad..., and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9302 Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment. Stopblocks, derail devices, or other devices that protect against moving or runaway rail equipment shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9302 - Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection against moving or runaway railroad..., Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9302 Protection against moving or runaway railroad equipment. Stopblocks, derail devices, or other devices that protect against moving or runaway rail equipment shall be...

  1. 77 FR 33223 - Announcement of the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements Under the Runaway and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... the Publication of Funding Opportunity Announcements Under the Runaway and Homeless Youth Act AGENCY... Statutory Authority: Runaway and Homeless Youth Act, 42 U.S.C. sections 5701-5752, as amended by the.... Porter, Director, Runaway and Homeless Youth Program, Family and Youth Services Bureau, 1250 Maryland Ave...

  2. The Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale: Assessing parental concordance with parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead C. Cardamone-Breen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Despite substantial evidence demonstrating numerous parental risk and protective factors for the development of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders, there is currently no single measure that assesses these parenting factors. To address this gap, we developed the Parenting to Reduce Adolescent Depression and Anxiety Scale (PRADAS as a criterion-referenced measure of parental concordance with a set of evidence-based parenting guidelines for the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety disorders. In this paper, we used a sample of Australian parents of adolescents to: (1 validate the PRADAS as a criterion-referenced measure; (2 examine parental concordance with the guidelines in the sample; and (3 examine correlates of parental concordance with the guidelines. Methods Seven hundred eleven parents completed the PRADAS, as well as two established parenting measures, and parent-report measures of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Six hundred sixty adolescent participants (aged 12–15 also completed the symptom measures. Concordance with the guidelines was assessed via nine subscale scores and a total score. Reliability of the scores was assessed with an estimate of the agreement coefficient, as well as 1-month test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was examined via correlations between the scale and two established parenting measures. Results One proposed subscale was removed from the final version of the scale, resulting in a total of eight subscales. Reliability was high for the total score, and acceptable to high for seven of the eight subscales. One-month test-retest reliability was acceptable to high for the total score. Convergent validity was supported by moderate to high correlations with two established measures of parenting. Overall, rates of parental concordance with the guidelines were low in our sample. Higher scores were associated with being female and higher levels of parental education

  3. Focus on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The European Society of Hypertension has recently published its recommendations on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Taking this contribution as a starting point the Study Group of Hypertension of the Italian Society of Pediatrics together with the Italian Society of Hypertension has conducted a reappraisal of the most recent literature on this subject. The present review does not claim to be an exhaustive description of hypertension in the pediatric population but intends to provide Pediatricians with practical and updated indications in order to guide them in this often unappreciated problem. This document pays particular attention to the primary hypertension which represents a growing problem in children and adolescents. Subjects at elevated risk of hypertension are those overweight, with low birth weight and presenting a family history of hypertension. However, also children who do not present these risk factors may have elevated blood pressure levels. In pediatric age diagnosis of hypertension or high normal blood pressure is made with repeated office blood pressure measurements that show values exceeding the reference values. Blood pressure should be monitored at least once a year with adequate methods and instrumentation and the observed values have to be interpreted according to the most updated nomograms that are adjusted for children’s gender, age and height. Currently other available methods such as ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure measurement are not yet adequately validated for use as diagnostic instruments. To diagnose primary hypertension it is necessary to exclude secondary forms. The probability of facing a secondary form of hypertension is inversely proportional to the child’s age and directly proportional to blood pressure levels. Medical history, clinical data and blood tests may guide the differential diagnosis of primary versus secondary forms. The prevention

  4. Texting and Mobile Phone App Interventions for Improving Adherence to Preventive Behavior in Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Sherif M; Kuhns, Lisa M

    2017-04-19

    Many preventable behaviors contribute to adolescent mortality and morbidity. Non-adherence to preventive measures represents a challenge and has been associated with worse health outcomes in this population. The widespread use of electronic communication technologies by adolescents, particularly the use of text messaging (short message service, SMS) and mobile phones, presents new opportunities to intervene on risk and preventive risk behavior, but little is known about their efficacy. This study aimed to systematically evaluate evidence for the efficacy of text messaging and mobile phone app interventions to improve adherence to preventive behavior among adolescents and describe intervention approaches to inform intervention development. This review covers literature published between 1995 and 2015. Searches included PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, PsycINFO, CINAHL, INSPEC, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and additional databases. The search strategy sought articles on text messaging and mobile phone apps combined with adherence or compliance, and adolescents and youth. An additional hand search of related themes in the Journal of Medical Internet Research was also conducted. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts, assessed full-text articles, and extracted data from articles that met inclusion criteria. Included studies reflect original research-experimental or preexperimental designs with text messaging or mobile phone app interventions-targeting adherence to preventive behavior among adolescents (12-24 years old). The preferred reporting items of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed for reporting results, and findings were critically appraised against the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria. Of 1454 records, 19 met inclusion criteria, including text messaging (n=15) and mobile phone apps (n=4). Studies targeted clinic attendance, contraceptive use, oral health, physical activity and weight management

  5. Effects of Spatial Gradients on Electron Runaway Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeice, Peter; Ljepojevic, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    The runaway process is known to accelerate electrons in many laboratory plasmas and has been suggested as an acceleration mechanism in some astrophysical plasmas, including solar flares. Current calculations of the electron velocity distributions resulting from the runaway process are greatly restricted because they impose spatial homogeneity on the distribution. We have computed runaway distributions which include consistent development of spatial gradients in the energetic tail. Our solution for the electron velocity distribution is presented as a function of distance along a finite length acceleration region, and is compared with the equivalent distribution for the infinitely long homogenous system (i.e., no spatial gradients), as considered in the existing literature. All these results are for the weak field regime. We also discuss the severe restrictiveness of this weak field assumption.

  6. Relation of the runaway avalanche threshold to momentum space topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu

    2018-02-01

    The underlying physics responsible for the formation of an avalanche instability due to the generation of secondary electrons is studied. A careful examination of the momentum space topology of the runaway electron population is carried out with an eye toward identifying how qualitative changes in the momentum space of the runaway electrons is correlated with the avalanche threshold. It is found that the avalanche threshold is tied to the merger of an O and X point in the momentum space of the primary runaway electron population. Such a change of the momentum space topology is shown to be accurately described by a simple analytic model, thus providing a powerful means of determining the avalanche threshold for a range of model assumptions.

  7. Application of Statistical Potential Techniques to Runaway Transport Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguilior, S.; Castejon, F.; Parrondo, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    A method is presented for computing runaway production rate based on techniques of noise-activated escape in a potential is presented in this work. A generalised potential in 2D momentum space is obtained from the deterministic or drift terms of Langevin equations. The diffusive or stochastic terms that arise directly from the stochastic nature of collisions, play the role of the noise that activates barrier crossings. The runaway electron source is given by the escape rate in such a potential which is obtained from an Arrenius-like relation. Runaway electrons are those skip the potential barrier due to the effect of stochastic collisions. In terms of computation time, this method allows one to quickly obtain the source term for a runway electron transport code.(Author) 11 refs

  8. Generation of runaway electron beams in high-pressure nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. F.; Burachenko, A. G.; Baksht, E. Kh

    2017-07-01

    In this paper the results of experimental studies of the amplitude-temporal characteristics of a runaway electron beam, as well as breakdown voltage in nitrogen are presented. The voltage pulses with the amplitude in incident wave ≈120 kV and the rise time of ≈0.3 ns was used. The supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB) was detected by a collector behind the flat anode. The amplitude-time characteristics of the voltage and SAEB current were studied with subnanosecond time resolution. The maximum pressure at which a SAEB is detectable by collector was ∼1 MPa. This pressure increases with decreasing the voltage rise time. The waveforms of the discharge and runaway electron beam currents was synchronized with the voltage pulses. The mechanism of the runaway electron generation in atmospheric-pressure gases is analyzed on the basis of the obtained experimental data.

  9. Gender differences in suicide prevention responses: implications for adolescents based on an illustrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Emma; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-02-23

    There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates.

  10. Gender Differences in Suicide Prevention Responses: Implications for Adolescents Based on an Illustrative Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hamilton

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Methods: Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. Results: The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. Conclusions: We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates.

  11. Influence of Parenting Practices on Eating Behaviors of Early Adolescents during Independent Eating Occasions: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marla Reicks

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among early adolescents (10–14 years, poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.

  12. Go4it; study design of a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of a multidisciplinary group intervention for obese adolescents for prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofsteenge, G.H.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Weijs, P.J.M.; van Tulder, M.W.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background. In the Netherlands, the first adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 2 as a result of obesity have recently been diagnosed. Therefore, it is very important that programs aiming at the prevention of type 2 diabetes of obese adolescents are developed and evaluated. Methods. Go4it is a

  13. Investigating the effects of counseling programs on runaway youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of counseling programs on reducing the runaway youth in Iran. The study selects a sample of 30 students and divides them into two groups of control and experiment. The first group is kept under eight sessions of social skills training and a questionnaire consists of various questions including confidence items is distributed among both groups after the training ends. The implementation of Kolmogorov-Smirnov has revealed that both pre and post-test data are normally distributed. In addition, the result of ANOVA test has revealed that training program could significantly improve runaway youth’s confidence.

  14. Power-law and runaway growth in conserved aggregation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya; Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The z-transform technique is used to analyze the Smoluchowski coagulation equation for conserved aggregation systems. A universal power law with the exponent -5/2 appears when a total 'mass' has a certain critical value. Below the threshold, ordinary scaling relations hold and the system exhibits a behavior like usual critical phenomena. Above the threshold, in contrast, the excess amount of mass coagulates into a runaway member, and remaining members follow the power law. Here the runaway growth coexists with the power law. It is argued that these behaviors are observed universally in conserved aggregation processes

  15. On the origin of the hypervelocity runaway star HD271791

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the origin of the runaway early B-type star HD271791 and show that its extremely high velocity (\\simeq 530-920 km/s) cannot be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova ejection scenario. Instead, we suggest that HD271791 attained its peculiar velocity in the course of a strong dynamical encounter between two hard massive binaries or via an exchange encounter between a hard massive binary and a very massive star, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary massive stars...

  16. On the origin of the hypervelocity runaway star HD 271791

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the origin of the early-B-type runaway star HD 271791 and show that its extremely high velocity (≃530 - 920km s-1) cannot be explained within the framework of the binary-supernova ejection scenario. Instead, we suggest that HD 271791 attained its peculiar velocity in the course of a strong dynamical encounter between two hard, massive binaries or through an exchange encounter between a hard, massive binary and a very massive star, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary massive stars in the dense core of a young massive star cluster.

  17. Would vaccination against nicotine be a cost-effective way to prevent smoking uptake in adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Coral E; Barendregt, Jan J; Wallace, Angela; Hall, Wayne D

    2012-04-01

    We used epidemiological modelling to assess whether nicotine vaccines would be a cost-effective way of preventing smoking uptake in adolescents. We built an epidemiological model using Australian data on age-specific smoking prevalence; smoking cessation and relapse rates; life-time sex-specific disability-adjusted life years lived for cohorts of 100,000 smokers and non-smokers; government data on the costs of delivering a vaccination programme by general practitioners; and a range of plausible and optimistic estimates of vaccine cost, efficacy and immune response rates based on clinical trial results. We first estimated the smoking uptake rates for Australians aged 12-19 years. We then used these estimates to predict the expected smoking prevalence in a birth cohort aged 12 in 2003 by age 20 under (i) current policy and (ii) different vaccination scenarios that varied in cost, initial vaccination uptake, yearly re-vaccination rates, efficacy and a favourable vaccine immune response rate. Under the most optimistic assumptions, the cost to avert a smoker at age 20 was $44,431 [95% confidence interval (CI) $40,023-49,250]. This increased to $296,019 (95% CI $252,307-$355,930) under more plausible scenarios. The vaccine programme was not cost-effective under any scenario. A preventive nicotine vaccination programme is unlikely to be cost-effective. The total cost of a universal vaccination programme would be high and its impact on population smoking prevalence negligible. For these reasons, such a programme is unlikely to be publicly funded in Australia or any other developed country. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. [Sexual responsibility: a key concept in the prevention of AIDS, abortion and adolescent pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luco, A

    1992-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 300,000 people have AIDS, and there are 50-100 infections for each case. Responsible sexual behavior is crucial for prevention, since sexual transmission is the principal route of contracting AIDS. The major causes of maternal mortality in the 15-39 year age group in Latin America are complications from induced abortion which is also responsible for 40% of global maternal mortality, i.e., 200,000 women die because of induced abortion complications out of 500,000 women who succumb to pregnancy- and birth-related caused annually. In the 1980s 38% of deaths in Chile were related to abortion of women who died in reproductive age. In developing countries almost 50% of hospital admissions occur because of abortion sequelae. Infant mortality is higher in 20-year old mothers giving birth compared with the 20-29 age group. 40,000 children are born/year in Chile to mothers 20. In 1980 these births made up 16.7% of all births. 45% of births of mothers 20 are illegitimate. These young mothers are often unprepared for the parental role: 80% of children hospitalized for malnutrition were children of adolescent mothers according to a survey. The Catholic Church's view opposing contraceptives and sexuality outside of marriage conflicts with contemporary opinion backed by mass media favoring sexuality as leading to personal enrichment and advocating contraception. More than 60% of boys and more than 30% of girls start sexual relations 20. Young people do not use contraceptives because of misinformation, difficulty in getting appropriate information, and male machismo. AIDS prevention mandate sex education stressing responsible sexuality with abstinence, condom use, and monogamy.

  19. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to id...

  20. [The NETWASS prevention model for early identification and assessment of adolescents in psychosocial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Friederike; Fiedler, Nora; Leuschner, Vincenz; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research-based NETWASS prevention model aims to enable school staff to identify students experiencing a psychosocial crisis that could lead to severe targeted school violence and to initiate appropriate support measures. A detailed analysis of the adolescent psychosocial crisis is conducted at an early stage by evaluating possible warning behaviors, crisis symptoms, a student’s individual and social background, and resources. The model was implemented in 98 schools. During the project duration of seven months staff from 59 schools reported 99 cases of a student’s psychosocial crisis. Three experts conducted a content analysis of the reported qualitative data focusing on crisis symptoms of the students as well as the initiated measures. Results show a broad spectrum of risk factors, whereas aggressive behavior of students was reported most frequently. On the basis of theoretical assumptions, the reported cases were divided into three distinct risk groups. A total of eight high-risk cases were observed and reported by the school staff. The school staff mostly reacted to the student crisis by initiating resource-orientated measures, the expertise of child and youth therapists was mostly requested for the high risk cases. By describing the impact of cases and choice of measures undertaken, the study aims to give an overview of incidents schools as well as clinical psychologists and therapists are confronted with.

  1. EDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION FOR THE CARDIOVASCULAR PREVENTION IN ADOLESCENTS OF SECONDARY BASIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Arnold Domínguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthy lifestyles incorporated in early ages could influence the most important behaviours and risk factors for atherosclerotic vascular disease in order to reduce the incidence of this condition during adulthood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the educational-participatory intervention on students' knowledge as to cardiovascular risk factors. Material: An educational intervention with a quasi-experimental design was conducted from April 2007 to October 2008 in eighth grade junior high school students from Old Havana (the intervention group and Center Havana (the control group. The nonparametric Chi square tests from McNemar and Mantel-Haenszel were used. Results: There were significant statistical associations with a confidence limit of 95% between initial and final state of knowledge in relation to cardiovascular risk factors in the intervention group (p = 0.0001, in the control group (p = 0.035 and between the study group versus the control group after the intervention (p = 0.0001. Conclusions: An educational-participatory program for health promotion and prevention of major risk factors of cardiovascular disease (inadequate dietary habits, smoking and physical inactivity among adolescents, contributes to increase their knowledge and encourages the adoption of healthy daily habits and lifestyles.

  2. Adolescents' reactions to universal and indicated prevention programs for depression: perceived stigma and consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M; Wignall, Ann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Kowalenko, Nick; Davis, Anna; McLoone, Jordana; Spence, Susan H

    2006-06-01

    There is a common view that one of the major considerations in selecting between universal and indicated interventions is the marked stigma produced by the latter. However, to date there has been no empirical examination of this assumption. The current study examined reported stigma and program satisfaction following two school-based interventions aimed at preventing depression in 532 middle adolescents. The interventions were conducted either across entire classes by classroom teachers (universal delivery) or in small high risk groups by mental health professionals (indicated delivery). The indicated delivery was associated with significantly greater levels of perceived stigma, but effect sizes were small and neither program was associated with marked stigma in absolute terms. Perceived stigma was more strongly associated with aspects of the individual including being male and showing greater externalizing symptomatology. In contrast, the indicated program was evaluated more positively by both participants and program leaders and effect sizes for these measures of satisfaction were moderate to large. The results point to the need for further empirical evaluation of both perceived stigma and program satisfaction in providing balanced considerations of the value of indicated and universal programs.

  3. [Preventive human rights monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry and welfare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ernst; Paar, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Since 1 July 2012 the Austrian Ombudsman Board (AOB) together with its six regional expert commissions form the so called "National Prevention Mechanism" implementing the UN Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT). The commissions are mandated to conduct regular, unrestricted and unannounced visits to all types of places in which there is or can be a deprivation or restriction of personal liberty, such as prisons, police stations, but also psychiatric hospitals or residential homes/groups for children and juveniles supervised by youth welfare services. 20 monitoring visits have been held in departments for Child- and Adolescent Psychiatry between 2012 and 2016. In the field of residential groups for young people 40 visiting protocols (out of a total of 176 between 2015 and 2016) have been chosen for this analysis. The following article overviews the legal sources and key issues of the monitoring process in this field as well as the commissions' findings and recommendations.

  4. 45 CFR 1351.10 - What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.10 What is the purpose of the Runaway and Homeless Youth...

  5. 45 CFR 1351.20 - What are the additional requirements under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? 1351.20 Section 1351.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND... Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant? (a) To improve the administration of the Runaway and Homeless...

  6. 45 CFR 1351.12 - Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.12 Who gets priority for the award of a Runaway and...

  7. 45 CFR 1351.17 - How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.17 How is application made for a Runaway and Homeless...

  8. 45 CFR 1351.15 - What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What costs are supportable under a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.15 What costs are supportable under a Runaway and Homeless...

  9. 45 CFR 1351.11 - Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.11 Who is eligible to apply for a Runaway and Homeless...

  10. 45 CFR 1351.18 - What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to fund? 1351.18 Section 1351.18 Public... SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.18 What criteria has HHS established for deciding which Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant applications to...

  11. 45 CFR 1351.16 - What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and Homeless Youth Program grant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and... FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FAMILY AND YOUTH SERVICES BUREAU RUNAWAY AND HOMELESS YOUTH PROGRAM Runaway and Homeless Youth Program Grant § 1351.16 What costs are not allowable under a Runaway and...

  12. How to Design Tobacco Prevention and Control Games for Youth and Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of Expert Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Mercado, Rebeccah; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Darville, Gabrielle; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-12-01

    Games for health, including digital videogames and gaming-based approaches, are increasingly being used in health promotion research and practice. Recently published research has shown that videogames have significant potential to promote healthy behaviors among youth and adolescents. Yet, there is a lack of available evidence-based resources to guide practitioners on the integration of games into tobacco prevention and smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap, expert researchers and game developers were interviewed to further define games for health, explore the current research, and provide recommendations for developing, evaluating, and promoting effective anti-tobacco games. Nationally recognized experts on game development, games for health, tobacco, and health behavior were asked to participate. A qualitative analysis of 25 in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Main themes that emerged from the data analysis included the following: (1) the current state of games for health research to facilitate health behavior change, (2) strategies for how to develop and evaluate games for quality and impact, and (3) recommendations for how to effectively design tobacco prevention and smoking cessation educational videogames that engage youth and adolescents. The synthesized findings identified through these expert interviews offer stakeholders strategies for how to incorporate games for health within their current and future work. Specific recommendations are presented for developers and researchers to consider when developing and evaluating videogames for tobacco prevention and smoking cessation targeted at youth and adolescents.

  13. Entrepreneurship education: A strength-based approach to substance use and suicide prevention for American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, Lauren; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Goklish, Novalene; Ingalls, Allison; Craft, Todd; Sprengeler, Feather; McGuire, Courtney; Barlow, Allison

    2016-01-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents suffer the largest disparities in substance use and suicide. Predominating prevention models focus primarily on risk and utilize deficit-based approaches. The fields of substance use and suicide prevention research urge for positive youth development frameworks that are strength based and target change at individual and community levels. Entrepreneurship education is an innovative approach that reflects the gap in available programs. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a youth entrepreneurship education program in partnership with one AI community. We detail the curriculum, process evaluation results, and the randomized controlled trial evaluating its efficacy for increasing protective factors. Lessons learned may be applicable to other AI communities.

  14. Mitigation of current quench by runaway electrons in LHCD discharges in the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.W.; Hu, L.Q.; Lin, S.Y.; Zhong, G.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Production of runaway electrons during a major disruption has been observed in HT-7 Tokamak. The runaway current plateaus, which can carry part of the pre-disruptive current, are observed in lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) limiter discharges. It is found that the runaway current can mitigate the disruptions effectively. Detailed observations are presented on the runaway electrons generated following disruptions in the HT-7 tokamak with carbon limited discharges. The results indicate that the magnetic oscillations play an important role in the activity of runaway electrons in disruption. (author)

  15. School-based interventions for preventing HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Sinclair, David; Mathews, Catherine; Kagee, Ashraf; Hillman, Alex; Lombard, Carl

    2016-11-08

    School-based sexual and reproductive health programmes are widely accepted as an approach to reducing high-risk sexual behaviour among adolescents. Many studies and systematic reviews have concentrated on measuring effects on knowledge or self-reported behaviour rather than biological outcomes, such as pregnancy or prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To evaluate the effects of school-based sexual and reproductive health programmes on sexually transmitted infections (such as HIV, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis), and pregnancy among adolescents. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for published peer-reviewed journal articles; and ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for prospective trials; AIDS Educaton and Global Information System (AEGIS) and National Library of Medicine (NLM) gateway for conference presentations; and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNAIDS, the WHO and the National Health Service (NHS) centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) websites from 1990 to 7 April 2016. We handsearched the reference lists of all relevant papers. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), both individually randomized and cluster-randomized, that evaluated school-based programmes aimed at improving the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. When appropriate, we obtained summary measures of treatment effect through a random-effects meta-analysis and we reported them using risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included eight cluster-RCTs that enrolled 55,157 participants. Five trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and Kenya), one in Latin America

  16. Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, Mirte A. G.; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. Methods In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N?=?225) aged 13 to 17?years and their mothers (N?=?122) and fathers (N?=?105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as in...

  17. Etiology, Treatment and Prevention of Obesity in Childhood and Adolescence: A Decade in Review

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of f...

  18. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, Kalesita F; Moodie, Marj M; Mavoa, Helen M; Pomana, Siosifa; Schultz, Jimaima T; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2011-05-09

    The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP) conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents) to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but the dose and frequency of activities were

  19. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomana Siosifa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider

  20. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalysha Closson

    2016-11-01

    depression and inconsistent condom use suggest pathways for HIV risk. HIV prevention interventions targeting adolescents must address the syndemics of trauma and HIV through the scale-up of gender-transformative, youth-centred, trauma-informed integrated HIV and mental health services.

  1. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Dietrich, Janan Janine; Nkala, Busi; Musuku, Addy; Cui, Zishan; Chia, Jason; Gray, Glenda; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Hogg, Robert S; Miller, Cari L; Kaida, Angela

    2016-11-25

    prevention interventions targeting adolescents must address the syndemics of trauma and HIV through the scale-up of gender-transformative, youth-centred, trauma-informed integrated HIV and mental health services.

  2. Suppression of Runaway Electrons by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in TEXTOR Disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnen, M.; Bozhenkov, S. A.; Abdullaev, S. S.; TEXTOR Team,; Jakubowski, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of runaway electrons in the international fusion experiment ITER disruptions can lead to severe damage at plasma facing components. Massive gas injection might inhibit the generation process, but the amount of gas needed can affect, e.g., vacuum systems. Alternatively, magnetic perturbations can suppress runaway generation by increasing the loss rate. In TEXTOR disruptions runaway losses were enhanced by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n=1 and n=2. The disruptions are initiated by fast injection of about 3x10 21 argon atoms, which leads to a reliable generation of runaway electrons. At sufficiently high perturbation levels a reduction of the runaway current, a shortening of the current plateau, and the suppression of high energetic runaways are observed. These findings indicate the suppression of the runaway avalanche during disruptions

  3. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reux, C.; Plyusnin, V.; Alper, B.; Alves, D.; Bazylev, B.; Belonohy, E.; Brezinsek, S.; Decker, J.; Devaux, S.; Vries, P. de; Fil, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams

  4. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reux, C., E-mail: cedric.reux@cea.fr [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Plyusnin, V. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Alper, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Instituto de Plasmas e Fuso Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Bazylev, B. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Institut für Hochleistungsimpuls und Mikrowellentechnik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus Nord, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Belonohy, E. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie-und Klimaforschung-Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Decker, J. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Devaux, S. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Vries, P. de [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Fil, A. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); and others

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Runaway electrons (RE) have been obtained at JET-ILW using massive argon injection. • The runaway electron domain entry points are similar between JET-C and JET-ILW. • Inside the runaway electron domain, higher RE currents are observed with JET-ILW. • RE impact has been observed without material melting up to 100 kA RE current. • Heat deposition of 2 ± 1 mm is confirmed by measurements and simulations. - Abstract: Runaway electrons (RE) during disruptions are a concern for future tokamaks including ITER with its metallic wall. Although RE are rare in spontaneous disruptions with the JET ITER-like Wall (JET-ILW), RE beams up to 380 kA were obtained using massive injection (MGI) of argon in JET-ILW divertor discharges. Entry points into the RE domain defined by operational parameters (toroidal field, argon fraction in MGI) are unchanged but higher RE currents have been obtained inside the JET-ILW MGI-generated RE domain when compared to JET-C. This might be due to the influence of the metallic wall on the current quench plasma. Temperatures of 900 °C have been observed following RE impacts on beryllium tiles. Heat deposition depth of ∼2 mm has to be assumed to match the tile cooling time. 3D simulations of the RE energy deposition using the ENDEP/MEMOS codes show that material melting is unlikely with 100 kA RE beams.

  5. Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plyusnin, V.V.; Riccardo, V.; Jaspers, R.; Alper, B.; Kiptily, V.G.; Mlynář, Jan; Popovichev, S.; de La Luna, E.; Andersson, F.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2006), s. 277-284 ISSN 0029-5515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : JET * tokamak * fusion * dicsruption * runaway electrons * tomography Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.839, year: 2006

  6. Gang Involvement and Membership among Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Kevin A.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2003-01-01

    Assessed the extent of gang involvement among homeless and runaway youth, comparing gang members, gang-involved youth (not members), and non-gang youth on several dimensions. Interview data indicated that 15.4 percent of the youth were gang members and 32.2 percent were involved in gangs. These youth reported more family problems and school…

  7. Low Simulated Radiation Limit for Runaway Greenhouse Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, Colin; Robinson, Tyler D.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Crisp, David

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial planet atmospheres must be in long-term radiation balance, with solar radiation absorbed matched by thermal radiation emitted. For hot moist atmospheres, however, there is an upper limit on the thermal emission which is decoupled from the surface temperature. If net absorbed solar radiation exceeds this limit the planet will heat uncontrollably, the so-called \\runaway greenhouse". Here we show that a runaway greenhouse induced steam atmosphere may be a stable state for a planet with the same amount of incident solar radiation as Earth has today, contrary to previous results. We have calculated the clear-sky radiation limits at line-by-line spectral resolution for the first time. The thermal radiation limit is lower than previously reported (282 W/sq m rather than 310W/sq m) and much more solar radiation would be absorbed (294W/sq m rather than 222W/sq m). Avoiding a runaway greenhouse under the present solar constant requires that the atmosphere is subsaturated with water, and that cloud albedo forcing exceeds cloud greenhouse forcing. Greenhouse warming could in theory trigger a runaway greenhouse but palaeoclimate comparisons suggest that foreseeable increases in greenhouse gases will be insufficient to do this.

  8. Conditions for electron runaway under leader breakdown of long gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ul'yanov, K. N.

    2008-01-01

    An original hydrodynamic model in which inelastic collisions in the equations of motion and energy balance play a decisive role is developed and applied to simulate electron avalanches in strong electric fields. The mean energy and drift velocity of electrons, as well as the ionization coefficient and electric field in a wide range of mean electron energies, are determined for helium and xenon. A criterion is derived for the runaway of the average electron in discharges with ionization multiplication. It is shown that runaway can take place at any value of E/p, provided that the momentum mean free path exceeds the gap length. The voltage corresponding to electron runaway is found for helium, xenon, and air as a function of the electric field, the electron mean energy, and the parameter pd. Conditions for the formation of a precursor in electronegative gases are analyzed. It is shown that the presence of a precursor with a high electric conductance is necessary for the formation of a new leader step. The voltage and time ranges corresponding to efficient electron runaway and X-ray generation during leader breakdown in air are determined

  9. Velocity Distributions of Runaway Stars Produced by Supernovae in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2016) 37: 22. DOI: 10.1007/s12036-016-9400-2. Velocity Distributions of Runaway Stars Produced by Supernovae in the Galaxy. Abudusaimaitijiang Yisikandeer. ∗. , Chunhua Zhu, Zhaojun Wang. & Guoliang Lü. School of Physical Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, 830046, China. ∗.

  10. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Intan Zainun Sharif Ishak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely ‘Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively’ (EPaL, a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13–14 years old. Methods/Design Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13–14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity, body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. Discussion It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016

  11. School-based intervention to prevent overweight and disordered eating in secondary school Malaysian adolescents: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Chin, Yit Siew; Mohd Taib, Mohd Nasir; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah

    2016-10-20

    Obesity, eating disorders and unhealthy weight-loss practices have been associated with diminished growth in adolescents worldwide. Interventions that address relevant behavioural dimensions have been lacking in Malaysia. This paper describes the protocol of an integrated health education intervention namely 'Eat Right, Be Positive About Your Body and Live Actively' (EPaL), a primary prevention which aimed to promote healthy lifestyle in preventing overweight and disordered eating among secondary school adolescents aged 13-14 years old. Following quasi-experimental design, the intervention is conducted in two secondary schools located in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. Adolescents aged 13-14 years will be included in the study. A peer-education strategy is adopted to convey knowledge and teach skills relevant to achieving a healthy lifestyle. The intervention mainly promoted: healthy eating, positive body image and active lifestyle. The following parameters will be assessed: body weight, disordered eating status, stages of change (for healthy diet, breakfast, food portion size, screen viewing and physical activity), body image, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, eating and physical activity behaviours; and knowledge, attitude and practice towards a healthy lifestyle. Assessment will be conducted at three time points: baseline, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up. It is hypothesized that EPaL intervention will contribute in preventing overweight and disordered eating by giving the positive effects on body weight status, healthy lifestyle behaviour, as well as health-related quality of life of peer educators and participants. It may serve as a model for similar future interventions designed for the Malaysian community, specifically adolescents. UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000024349 (Date of registration: 11th. October 2016, retrospectively registered).

  12. A randomized trial of motivational interviewing and facilitated contraceptive access to prevent rapid repeat pregnancy among adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Lutz, Robyn; Osuagwu, Ngozi; Rotz, Dana; Goesling, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Most interventions designed to reduce teen pregnancy rates have not focused on pregnant and/or parenting adolescents. Therefore, a large randomized controlled trial was conducted regarding a motivational interviewing program entitled Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy in a low-income sample of adolescent mothers. This program recommended monthly sessions between a participant and a registered nurse over 18 months. This program also featured facilitated birth control access through transportation assistance and a part-time contraceptive clinic. The impact of this program on rapid repeat pregnancies at 18 months after enrollment was evaluated. Five hundred ninety-eight adolescent females were enrolled from 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics and 5 postpartum units of a large hospital system in a Midwestern city. Each participant was enrolled at least 28 weeks pregnant or less than 9 weeks postpartum. Each participant was randomized to either the Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy intervention or a usual-care control condition. Intervention participants averaged 4.5 hours of assistance. Participants were contacted by blinded research staff at 6 and 18 months to complete self-report surveys. Differences in outcomes between the intervention and control groups were assessed using ordinary least-squares regression. There was an 18.1% absolute reduction in self-reported repeat pregnancy in the intervention group relative to the control group (20.5% vs 38.6%%; P Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy program represents one of the few evidence-based interventions to reduce rapid repeat teen pregnancy. This relatively brief intervention may be a viable alternative to more time-intensive programs that adolescent mothers may be unable or unwilling to receive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The possibilities of suicide prevention in adolescents. A holistic approach to protective and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2013-03-01

    physical or biological-somatic level which includes physical circumstances, genetics, health, and diseases; (2) at the mental or psychological level, which includes mental health, self-esteem, and ability to deal with difficult circumstances, manage emotions, or cope with stress; (3) at the cultural level or the broader life environment, and this includes social, political, environmental, and economic factors that contribute to available options and quality of life; (4) at the social level, which includes relationships and involvement with others such as family, friends, workmates, the wider community and the person's sense of belonging; (5) at the spiritual level, which includes faith, hope, charity, despair, salvation. Children and adolescents spend a lot of time at school, so teachers must be educated to notice any warning signs of suicide, but the majority of pedagogues not only do not know the most important mental and psychosomatic symptoms, but do not recognize them in children and do not know how to handle them either. Hopelessness is the most important spiritual risk factor. The Beck Hopelessness Scale is a tool for easy application in general practice. The author lists some important symptoms and signs that neither parents nor teachers are able to recognize and handle, and provides useful advice for prevention.

  14. Perceptions of Oral Health, Preventive Care, and Care-Seeking Behaviors among Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural…

  15. Preventing High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Pregnancy among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…

  16. Adolescent Substance Abuse: Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies. Maternal & Child Health Technical Information Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Mark J.

    The high prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse by adolescents poses a significant threat to the wellness of youth. Adolescents appear to use drugs for a variety of reasons. In addition to the multiple etiologic and risk factors present for substance abuse, there are many pathways teenagers may follow on their way to substance abuse. The…

  17. The Physician's Role in Prevention. Adolescent Alcoholism: Recognizing, Intervening, and Treating Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph V.; Krol, Ronald A.

    This document is one of seven publications contained in a series of materials for physicians on recognizing, intervening with, and treating adolescent alcoholism. The materials in this unit of study offer guidelines to help physicians make responsible and informed decisions about their roles with adolescent patients. Materials are presented which…

  18. Early detection and prevention of adolescent alcohol use: Parenting and psychosocial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents has become a major public health concern over the past decade. This alcohol use is associated with various other problems, therefore it is important to detect at-risk adolescents as a starting point for interventions. The main aim of this thesis is to identify

  19. Runaway transient simulation of a model Kaplan turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S; Liu, D; Wu, Y [State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering, Department of Thermal Eng., Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhou, D [Water Conservancy and Hydropower Eng., Hohai University, Nanjing. 210098 (China); Nishi, M, E-mail: liushuhong@tsinghua.edu.c [Kyushu Inst. Tech. Senior Academy, Kitakyushu, 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The runaway transient is a typical transient process of a hydro power unit, where the rotational speed of a turbine runner rapidly increases up to the runaway speed under a working head as the guide vanes cannot be closed due to some reason at the load rejection. In the present paper, the characteristics of the runaway transient of a model Kaplan turbine having ns = 479(m-kW) is simulated by using a time-dependent CFD technique where equation of rotational motion of runner, continuity equation and unsteady RANS equations with RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model are solved iteratively. In the calculation, unstructured mesh is used to the whole flow passage, which consists of several sub-domains: entrance, casing, stay vanes + guide vanes, guide section, runner and draft tube. And variable speed sliding mesh technique is used to exchange interface flow information between moving part and stationary part, and three-dimensional unstructured dynamic mesh technique is also adopted to ensure mesh quality. Two cases were treated in the simulation of runaway transient characteristics after load rejection: one is the rated operating condition as the initial condition, and the other is the condition at the maximum head. Regarding the runaway speed, the experimental speed is 1.45 times the initial speed and the calculation is 1.47 times the initial for the former case. In the latter case, the experiment and the calculation are 1.67 times and 1.69 times respectively. From these results, it is recognized that satisfactorily prediction will be possible by using the present numerical method. Further, numerical results show that the swirl in the draft-tube flow becomes stronger in the latter part of the transient process so that a vortex rope will occur in the draft tube and its precession will cause the pressure fluctuations which sometimes affect the stability of hydro power system considerably.

  20. Runaway transient simulation of a model Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Zhou, D.; Liu, D.; Wu, Y.; Nishi, M.

    2010-08-01

    The runaway transient is a typical transient process of a hydro power unit, where the rotational speed of a turbine runner rapidly increases up to the runaway speed under a working head as the guide vanes cannot be closed due to some reason at the load rejection. In the present paper, the characteristics of the runaway transient of a model Kaplan turbine having ns = 479(m-kW) is simulated by using a time-dependent CFD technique where equation of rotational motion of runner, continuity equation and unsteady RANS equations with RNG k-epsilon turbulence model are solved iteratively. In the calculation, unstructured mesh is used to the whole flow passage, which consists of several sub-domains: entrance, casing, stay vanes + guide vanes, guide section, runner and draft tube. And variable speed sliding mesh technique is used to exchange interface flow information between moving part and stationary part, and three-dimensional unstructured dynamic mesh technique is also adopted to ensure mesh quality. Two cases were treated in the simulation of runaway transient characteristics after load rejection: one is the rated operating condition as the initial condition, and the other is the condition at the maximum head. Regarding the runaway speed, the experimental speed is 1.45 times the initial speed and the calculation is 1.47 times the initial for the former case. In the latter case, the experiment and the calculation are 1.67 times and 1.69 times respectively. From these results, it is recognized that satisfactorily prediction will be possible by using the present numerical method. Further, numerical results show that the swirl in the draft-tube flow becomes stronger in the latter part of the transient process so that a vortex rope will occur in the draft tube and its precession will cause the pressure fluctuations which sometimes affect the stability of hydro power system considerably.

  1. Runaway transient simulation of a model Kaplan turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S; Liu, D; Wu, Y; Zhou, D; Nishi, M

    2010-01-01

    The runaway transient is a typical transient process of a hydro power unit, where the rotational speed of a turbine runner rapidly increases up to the runaway speed under a working head as the guide vanes cannot be closed due to some reason at the load rejection. In the present paper, the characteristics of the runaway transient of a model Kaplan turbine having ns = 479(m-kW) is simulated by using a time-dependent CFD technique where equation of rotational motion of runner, continuity equation and unsteady RANS equations with RNG k-ε turbulence model are solved iteratively. In the calculation, unstructured mesh is used to the whole flow passage, which consists of several sub-domains: entrance, casing, stay vanes + guide vanes, guide section, runner and draft tube. And variable speed sliding mesh technique is used to exchange interface flow information between moving part and stationary part, and three-dimensional unstructured dynamic mesh technique is also adopted to ensure mesh quality. Two cases were treated in the simulation of runaway transient characteristics after load rejection: one is the rated operating condition as the initial condition, and the other is the condition at the maximum head. Regarding the runaway speed, the experimental speed is 1.45 times the initial speed and the calculation is 1.47 times the initial for the former case. In the latter case, the experiment and the calculation are 1.67 times and 1.69 times respectively. From these results, it is recognized that satisfactorily prediction will be possible by using the present numerical method. Further, numerical results show that the swirl in the draft-tube flow becomes stronger in the latter part of the transient process so that a vortex rope will occur in the draft tube and its precession will cause the pressure fluctuations which sometimes affect the stability of hydro power system considerably.

  2. A Runaway Yellow Supergiant Star in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugent, Kathryn F.; Massey, Philip; Morrell, Nidia I.; Skiff, Brian; Georgy, Cyril

    2018-05-01

    We recently discovered a yellow supergiant (YSG) in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) with a heliocentric radial velocity of ∼300 km s‑1, which is much larger than expected for a star at its location in the SMC. This is the first runaway YSG ever discovered and only the second evolved runaway star discovered in a galaxy other than the Milky Way. We classify the star as G5-8 I and use de-reddened broad-band colors with model atmospheres to determine an effective temperature of 4700 ± 250 K, consistent with what is expected from its spectral type. The star’s luminosity is then log L/L ⊙ ∼ 4.2 ± 0.1, consistent with it being a ∼30 Myr 9 M ⊙ star according to the Geneva evolution models. The star is currently located in the outer portion of the SMC’s body, but if the star’s transverse peculiar velocity is similar to its peculiar radial velocity, in 10 Myr the star would have moved 1.°6 across the disk of the SMC and could easily have been born in one of the SMC’s star-forming regions. Based on its large radial velocity, we suggest it originated in a binary system where the primary exploded as a supernovae, thus flinging the runaway star out into space. Such stars may provide an important mechanism for the dispersal of heavier elements in galaxies given the large percentage of massive stars that are runaways. In the future, we hope to look into additional evolved runaway stars that were discovered as part of our other past surveys. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  3. X-ray study of bow shocks in runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Becker, M.; del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Peri, C. S.; Benaglia, P.

    2017-11-01

    Massive runaway stars produce bow shocks through the interaction of their winds with the interstellar medium, with the prospect for particle acceleration by the shocks. These objects are consequently candidates for non-thermal emission. Our aim is to investigate the X-ray emission from these sources. We observed with XMM-Newton a sample of five bow shock runaways, which constitutes a significant improvement of the sample of bow shock runaways studied in X-rays so far. A careful analysis of the data did not reveal any X-ray emission related to the bow shocks. However, X-ray emission from the stars is detected, in agreement with the expected thermal emission from stellar winds. On the basis of background measurements we derive conservative upper limits between 0.3 and 10 keV on the bow shocks emission. Using a simple radiation model, these limits together with radio upper limits allow us to constrain some of the main physical quantities involved in the non-thermal emission processes, such as the magnetic field strength and the amount of incident infrared photons. The reasons likely responsible for the non-detection of non-thermal radiation are discussed. Finally, using energy budget arguments, we investigate the detectability of inverse Compton X-rays in a more extended sample of catalogued runaway star bow shocks. From our analysis we conclude that a clear identification of non-thermal X-rays from massive runaway bow shocks requires one order of magnitude (or higher) sensitivity improvement with respect to present observatories.

  4. Water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional constipation in children and adolescents: is there evidence?,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Nunes Boilesen

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To study the evidence on the role of water and fluid intake in the prevention and treatment of functional intestinal constipation in children and adolescents. Source of data: A search was carried out in the Medline database (between 1966 and 2016 for all published articles containing the following words: constipation, water, and fluids, published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish. All original articles that assessed children and adolescents were selected by title and abstract. The references of these articles were also evaluated. Synthesis of data: A total of 1040 articles were retrieved. Of these, 24 were selected for reading. The study included 11 articles that assessed children and adolescents. The articles were divided into two categories, those that evaluated water and fluid intake as a risk factor for intestinal constipation and those that evaluated their role in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Five articles were included in the first category. The criteria for assessing fluid intake and bowel rhythm were different in each study. Three studies demonstrated an association between low fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Regarding treatment, five articles with heterogeneous methodologies were found. None of them clearly identified the favorable role of fluid intake in the treatment of intestinal constipation. Conclusion: There are few articles on the association between fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Epidemiological evidence indicates an association between lower fluid intake and intestinal constipation. Further clinical trials and epidemiological studies that consider the international recommendations for fluid intake by children and adolescents are required.

  5. Effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program for transdiagnostic prevention in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine; Burke, Christine; Brinkman, Sally; Wade, Tracey

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety, depression and eating disorders show peak emergence during adolescence and share common risk factors. School-based prevention programs provide a unique opportunity to access a broad spectrum of the population during a key developmental window, but to date, no program targets all three conditions concurrently. Mindfulness has shown promising early results across each of these psychopathologies in a small number of controlled trials in schools, and therefore this study investigated its use in a randomised controlled design targeting anxiety, depression and eating disorder risk factors together for the first time. Students (M age 13.63; SD = .43) from a broad band of socioeconomic demographics received the eight lesson, once weekly.b ("Dot be") mindfulness in schools curriculum (N = 132) or normal lessons (N = 176). Anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns and wellbeing were the primary outcome factors. Although acceptability measures were high, no significant improvements were found on any outcome at post-intervention or 3-month follow-up. Adjusted mean differences between groups at post-intervention were .03 (95% CI: -.06 to -.11) for depression, .01 (-.07 to -.09) for anxiety, .02 (-.05 to -.08) for weight/shape concerns, and .06 (-.08 to -.21) for wellbeing. Anxiety was higher in the mindfulness than the control group at follow-up for males, and those of both genders with low baseline levels of weight/shape concerns or depression. Factors that may be important to address for effective dissemination of mindfulness-based interventions in schools are discussed. Further research is required to identify active ingredients and optimal dose in mindfulness-based interventions in school settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing Online Recruitment and Retention Methods for HIV Prevention Research Among Adolescent Males Who Are Interested in Sex with Males: Interviews with Adolescent Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P

    2017-12-21

    Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of oral probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Zheng, Bin; Cai, Hong-Fu; Chen, Yan-Hui; Qiu, Ming-Qi; Liu, Mao-Bai

    2018-04-17

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in hospitalized children and adolescents has been increasing year-on-year. Paediatric CDAD represents a significant economic burden on healthcare systems. Probiotics are live organisms thought to improve the microbial balance of the host, counteract disturbances in intestinal flora, and reduce the risk of colonization by pathogenic bacteria. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess the economy of probiotics for the prevention of CDAD in children and adolescents receiving antibiotics. A decision tree model combined clinical effectiveness, utility, and cost data was used. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the robustness of the model outcomes. The Oral probiotics strategy and No probiotics strategy offered patients 0.05876 and 0.056 QALY at a cost of $16668.70 and $20355.28, respectively. The Oral probiotics strategy exhibited higher QALY and lower cost, so it is the cost-saving strategy. The results were robust for sensitivity analyses. From the perspective of the medical system, oral probiotics as a preventive strategy for CDAD in hospitalized children and adolescents who are receiving a therapeutic course of antibiotics reduced the risk of CDAD, and it is a cost-saving strategy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Relationships between body image, nutritional supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys: implications for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2014-03-27

    Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Participants were 1148 male adolescents (age range 11-21 years) in Australia who completed a self-report questionnaire that measured weight change behaviors, supplement use, body dissatisfaction (Male Body Attitudes Scale; MBAS) and attitudes towards doping in sport (Performance Enhancing Attitudes Survey; PEAS). There was a positive correlation between MBAS total and PEAS scores (r = .19, p sport. Young men who were currently attempting weight loss or weight gain, and those currently consuming energy drinks (ηp2 = .01, p sport. However, those involved in weight lifting, and using protein powders were not (p > .05). These findings suggest that body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, and supplement use are related to more lenient attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys. Future research might examine whether combining educational content for the prevention of body dissatisfaction and the use of drugs in sport may have a greater preventive impact than current programs aimed at young men.

  9. The efficacy of an e-learning prevention program for substance use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewik, Marion; VanDerNagel, Joanne E L; Engels, Rutger C M E; DeJong, Cor A

    2017-04-01

    Adolescents with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at risk for tobacco and alcohol use, yet little or no prevention programs are available for this group. 'Prepared on time' is an e-learning program based on the attitude - social influence - efficacy model originally developed for fifth and sixth grades of mainstream primary schools. The goals of this study were (1) to examine the lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol among this target group and (2) to gain a first impression of the efficacy of 'Prepared on time' among 12-16-year old students with moderate or mild ID (MMID). Students form three secondary special-needs schools were assigned to the experimental (e-learning) group (n=37) or the control group (n=36). Pre-intervention and follow-up data (3 weeks after completion) were gathered using semi-structured interviews inquiring about substance use among students with MMID and the behavioral determinants of attitude, subjective norm, modelling, intention, and knowledge. The lifetime tobacco use and alcohol consumption rates in our sample were 25% and 59%, respectively. The e-learning program had a positive effect on the influence of modelling of classmates and friends. No significant effects were found on other behavioral determinants and knowledge. A substantial proportion of adolescents with MMID in secondary special-needs schools use tobacco or alcohol. This study showed that an e-learning prevention program can be feasible for adolescents with MMID. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-05

    This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10-19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have not often included mental health measures (n=7). It is recommended that future interventions

  12. Systematic review of mental health and well-being outcomes following community-based obesity prevention interventions among adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19 years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have

  13. Office of Adolescent Health medical accuracy review process--helping ensure the medical accuracy of Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jo Anne G; Moreno, Elizabeth L; Rice, Tara M

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) developed a systematic approach to review for medical accuracy the educational materials proposed for use in Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) programs. This process is also used by the Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF) for review of materials used in the Personal Responsibility Education Innovative Strategies (PREIS) Program. This article describes the review process, explaining the methodology, the team implementing the reviews, and the process for distributing review findings and implementing changes. Provided also is the definition of "medically accurate and complete" as used in the programs, and a description of what constitutes "complete" information when discussing sexually transmitted infections and birth control methods. The article is of interest to program providers, curriculum developers and purveyors, and those who are interested in providing medically accurate and complete information to adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Controlling runaway vortex via externally injected high-frequency electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zehua; McDevitt, Chris; Tang, Xianzhu

    2017-10-01

    One way of mitigating runaway damage of the plasma-facing components in a tokamak fusion reactor is by limiting the runaway electron energy under a few MeV, while not necessarily reducing the runaway current appreciably. Here we describe a physics mechanism by which such momentum space engineering of the runaway distribution can be facilitated by externally injected high-frequency electromagnetic waves such as the whistler waves. The drastic impact that wave-induced scattering can have on the runaway energy distribution is fundamentally the result of its ability to control the runaway vortex in the momentum space. The runaway vortex, which is a local circulation of runaways in momentum space, is the outcome of the competition between Coulomb collisions, synchrotron radiation damping, and runaway acceleration by parallel electric field. By introducing a wave that resonantly interacts with runaways at a particular range of energy that is mildly relativistic, the enhanced scattering would reshape the vortex by cutting off the part that is highly relativistic. The efficiency of resonant scattering accentuates the requirement that the wave amplitude can be small so the power requirement from external wave injection is practical for the mitigation scheme.

  15. Risk factors for secondary substance use disorders in people with childhood and adolescent-onset bipolar disorder: opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneson, Aileen; Funderburk, Jennifer S; Maisto, Stephen A

    2013-07-01

    Compared to other mental illnesses, bipolar disorder is associated with a disproportionately high rate of substance use disorders (SUDs), and the co-occurrence is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis of primary bipolar disorder may provide opportunities for SUD prevention, but little is known about the risk factors for secondary SUD among individuals with bipolar disorder. The purposes of this study were to describe the population of people with childhood and adolescent-onset primary bipolar disorder, and to identify risk factors for secondary SUD in this population. Using data collected from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study, we identified 158 individuals with childhood-onset (adolescent-onset (13-18 years) primary bipolar disorder (I, II or subthreshold). Survival analysis was used to identify risk factors for SUD. Compared to adolescent-onset, people with childhood-onset bipolar disorder had increased likelihoods of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (adjusted odds ratio=2.81) and suicide attempt (aOR=3.61). Males were more likely than females to develop SUD, and did so at a faster rate. Hazard ratios of risk factors for SUD were: lifetime oppositional defiant disorder (2.048), any lifetime anxiety disorder (3.077), adolescent-onset bipolar disorder (1.653), and suicide attempt (15.424). SUD was not predicted by bipolar disorder type, family history of bipolar disorder, hospitalization for a mood episode, ADHD or conduct disorder. As clinicians struggle to help individuals with bipolar disorder, this study provides information that might be useful in identifying individuals at higher risk for SUD. Future research can examine whether targeting these risk factors may help prevent secondary SUD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Efficacy Trial of a Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents: Effects at 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Gau, Jeff M.; Wade, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for high-risk adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, 341 at-risk youths were randomized to a group CB intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  17. Using the theory of planned behaviour to understand the motivation to learn about HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescents in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreeyesus Hadera, H.; Boer, Hendrik; Kuiper, Wilmad

    2007-01-01

    Various studies indicate that school- or university-based HIV prevention curricula can reduce the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour among adolescent youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective HIV/AIDS prevention education may be problematic, if the needs of youth are not served adequately. To

  18. Family-based programmes for preventing smoking by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Baker, Philip R A; Thomas, Bennett C; Lorenzetti, Diane L

    2015-02-27

    quality evidence to suggest that family-based interventions can have a positive effect on preventing children and adolescents from starting to smoke. There were more studies of high intensity programmes compared to a control group receiving no intervention, than there were for other compairsons. The evidence is therefore strongest for high intensity programmes used independently of school interventions. Programmes typically addressed family functioning, and were introduced when children were between 11 and 14 years old. Based on this moderate quality evidence a family intervention might reduce uptake or experimentation with smoking by between 16 and 32%. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously because effect estimates could not include data from all studies. Our interpretation is that the common feature of the effective high intensity interventions was encouraging authoritative parenting (which is usually defined as showing strong interest in and care for the adolescent, often with rule setting). This is different from authoritarian parenting (do as I say) or neglectful or unsupervised parenting.

  19. Running away experience and psychoactive substance use among adolescents in Taiwan: multi-city street outreach survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lew-Ting Chih-Yin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine: 1 the relationship between being a runaway and the time since the first absconding event and adolescent substance use; 2 whether different kinds of psychoactive substances have a different temporal relationship to the first absconding event; and 3 whether the various reasons for the first absconding event are associated with different risks of substance use. Methods Participants were drawn from the 2004-2006 nationwide outreach programs across 26 cities/towns in Taiwan. A total of 17,133 participants, age 12-18 years, who completed an anonymous questionnaire on their experience of running away and substances use and who were now living with their families, were included in the analysis. Results The lifetime risk of tobacco, alcohol, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use increased steadily from adolescents who had experienced a trial runaway episode (one time lasting ≤ 1 day, to those with extended runaway experience (≥ 2 times or lasting > 1 day, when compared to those who had never ran away. Adolescents who had their first running away experience > 6 months previously had a greater risk of betel nut or illegal drug/inhalant use over the past 6-months than those with a similar experience within the last 6 months. Both alcohol and tobacco use were most frequently initiated before the first running away, whereas both betel nut and illegal drug/inhalant use were most frequently initiated after this event. When adolescents who were fleeing an unsatisfactory home life were compared to those who ran away for excitement, the risk of alcohol use was similar but the former tended to have a higher risk of tobacco, betel nut, and illegal drug/inhalant use. Conclusions More significant running away and a longer time since the first absconding experience were associated with more advanced substance involvement among adolescents now living in a family setting. Once adolescents had left home, they

  20. Preventing gender-based violence victimization in adolescent girls in lower-income countries: Systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Krause, Kathleen H; Miedema, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review of reviews synthesizes evidence on the impact of interventions to prevent violence against adolescent girls and young women 10-24 years (VAWG) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Theories of women's empowerment and the social ecology of multifaceted violence frame the review. Child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC), child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and sexual violence were focal outcomes. Our review followed the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) for the systematic review of reviews, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for a systematic review of recent intervention studies. Of 35 reviews identified between June 7 and July 20, 2016, 18 were non-duplicate systematic reviews of medium-to-high quality. Half of these 18 reviews focused on interventions to prevent IPV. Only four focused on adolescents, of which three focused on child marriage and one compared findings across early and late adolescence. None focused on interventions to prevent child abuse or sexual violence in adolescent/young women. From these 18 reviews and the supplemental systematic review of intervention studies, data were extracted on 34 experimental or quasi-experimental intervention studies describing 28 interventions. Almost all intervention studies measured impacts on one form of VAWG. Most studies assessed impacts on child marriage (n = 13), then IPV (n = 8), sexual violence (n = 4), child abuse (n = 3), and FGMC (n = 3). Interventions included 1-6 components, involving skills to enhance voice/agency (n = 17), social networks (n = 14), human resources like schooling (n = 10), economic incentives (n = 9), community engagement (n = 11) and community infrastructure development (n = 6). Bundled individual-level interventions and multilevel interventions had more favorable impacts on VAWG. Interventions involving community engagement, skill-building to

  1. A parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in South Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Meinck, Franziska; Shenderovich, Yulia; Ward, Catherine L; Romero, Rocio Herrero; Redfern, Alice; Lombard, Carl; Doubt, Jenny; Steinert, Janina; Catanho, Ricardo; Wittesaele, Camille; De Stone, Sachin; Salah, Nasteha; Mpimpilashe, Phelisa; Lachman, Jamie; Loening, Heidi; Gardner, Frances; Blanc, Daphnee; Nocuza, Mzuvekile; Lechowicz, Meryn

    2016-07-19

    An estimated one billion children experience child abuse each year, with the highest rates in low- and middle-income countries. The Sinovuyo Teen programme is part of Parenting for Lifelong Health, a WHO/UNICEF initiative to develop and test violence-prevention programmes for implementation in low-resource contexts. The objectives of this parenting support programme are to prevent the abuse of adolescents, improve parenting and reduce adolescent behavioural problems. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of Sinovuyo Teen compared to an attention-control group of a water hygiene programme. This is a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, with stratified randomisation of 37 settlements (rural and peri-urban) with 40 study clusters in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. Settlements receive either a 14-session parenting support programme or a 1-day water hygiene programme. The primary outcomes are child abuse and parenting practices, and secondary outcomes include adolescent behavioural problems, mental health and social support. Concurrent process evaluation and qualitative research are conducted. Outcomes are reported by both primary caregivers and adolescents. Brief follow-up measures are collected immediately after the intervention, and full follow-up measures collected at 3-8 months post-intervention. A 15-24-month follow-up is planned, but this will depend on the financial and practical feasibility given delays related to high levels of ongoing civil and political violence in the research sites. This is the first known trial of a parenting programme to prevent abuse of adolescents in a low- or middle-income country. The study will also examine potential mediating pathways and moderating factors. Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201507001119966. Registered on 27 April 2015. It can be found by searching for the key word 'Sinovuyo' on their website or via the following link: http://www.pactr.org/ATMWeb/appmanager/atm

  2. Field O stars: formed in situ or as runaways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2012-08-01

    A significant fraction of massive stars in the Milky Way and other galaxies are located far from star clusters and star-forming regions. It is known that some of these stars are runaways, i.e. possess high space velocities (determined through the proper motion and/or radial velocity measurements), and therefore most likely were formed in embedded clusters and then ejected into the field because of dynamical few-body interactions or binary-supernova explosions. However, there exists a group of field O stars whose runaway status is difficult to prove via direct proper motion measurements (e.g. in the Magellanic Clouds) or whose (measured) low space velocities and/or young ages appear to be incompatible with their large separation from known star clusters. The existence of this group led some authors to believe that field O stars can form in situ. Since the question of whether or not O stars can form in isolation is of crucial importance for star formation theory, it is important to thoroughly test candidates of such stars in order to improve the theory. In this paper, we examine the runaway status of the best candidates for isolated formation of massive stars in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds by searching for bow shocks around them, by using the new reduction of the Hipparcos data, and by searching for stellar systems from which they could originate within their lifetimes. We show that most of the known O stars thought to have formed in isolation are instead very likely runaways. We show also that the field must contain a population of O stars whose low space velocities and/or young ages are in apparent contradiction to the large separation of these stars from their parent clusters and/or the ages of these clusters. These stars (the descendants of runaway massive binaries) cannot be traced back to their parent clusters and therefore can be mistakenly considered as having formed in situ. We argue also that some field O stars could be detected in optical

  3. Blocking the benefit of group-based HIV-prevention efforts during adolescence: the problem of HIV-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, David H; Swenson, Rebecca R; Brown, Larry K; Stanton, Bonita F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F; Diclemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Romer, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to impede HIV-antibody testing and safer sexual practices in adults. Less is known about its effects on prevention programs among at-risk youth. This study examined the longitudinal relationships between HIV-stigma and HIV-knowledge following completion of a validated group-based intervention. Data were provided by 1,654 African-American adolescents who participated in a large multi-city prevention trial (Project iMPACCS). Participants were randomly assigned to an empirically-validated skill-based intervention or a general health promotion control group. Both stigma and knowledge were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. Results suggested that adolescents participating in the intervention showed improvements in knowledge and decreases in stigma when compared to controls. Improvements in stigma appeared to be partly driven by improvements in knowledge. Higher baseline stigma was shown to reduce gains in knowledge in both the treatment and control groups. Results suggest that HIV-stigma can interfere with how youth identify with and internalize messages from group-based prevention trials.

  4. Socioeconomic Differences in Parenting Strategies to Prevent Adolescent Smoking: A Case Study from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Haal, Sylke; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to identify possible socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. In 2012, survey data of adolescents (N = 225) aged 13 to 17 years and their mothers (N = 122) and fathers (N = 105) were collected in Haarlem, the Netherlands. Questions on smoking behaviour and eleven anti-smoking parenting strategies were answered by adolescents, mothers and fathers. School tracks of adolescents and educational level of parents were measured as indicators of socioeconomic position. Linear multilevel regression analyses were applied to study the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and standardised scores of anti-smoking strategies. Analyses were controlled for age, sex and smoking by parents and adolescents. We found no consistent socioeconomic differences in the use of anti-smoking parenting strategies. There were no statistically significant differences in relation to parental educational level or when using adolescent reports on parenting practices. However, when using parental reports, a few strategies varied significantly according to adolescent educational track. Adolescents in higher educational tracks were more likely to have no-smoking rules in the home (standardised regression coefficient (β) = 0.20, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.03; 0.37, p = 0.022) and more likely to have a no-smoking agreement (β = 0.17, 95 % CI: 0.00; 0.34, p = 0.048). However, they were less likely to frequently communicate about smoking with their parents (β = -0.25, 95 % CI: -0.41; -0.08, p = 0.004). In this specific population, there was no consistent support for the hypothesis that anti-smoking parenting strategies contribute to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Parental factors that are more likely to contribute to these inequalities include parental smoking and parenting styles.

  5. [Information, attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic representations of AIDS risk and prevention among poor adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchán-Hamann, E

    1995-01-01

    Four hundred and sixteen poor adolescents of both sexes in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed to study both their level of information and symbolic representations concerning AIDS risk and prevention. The most common source of information on HIV/AIDS was the mass media, particularly television broadcasts. There were doubts and lack of trust regarding official government information on HIV/AIDS. Nearly 70% of the adolescents interviewed believe in HIV transmission through mosquito bites and some 40% through casual contact with wounds or scars or sharing of bathroom utensils. Men seemed to show a greater awareness and autonomy vis- -vis taking initiatives in sex encounters. Attitudes of segregation and exclusion of people with AIDS persist. Lack of prevention was attributed to the impossibility of predicting sexual encounters. The study of symbolic aspects concerning causes of HIV/AIDS displayed broad variability: 80% of the interviewees associated AIDS with excesses in sexual behavior and 40% with homosexual practices. Causal images vary from the predominant view of AIDS as unfair punishment to the less frequent stance considering AIDS as fair punishment (due to sinful behavior). An ambiguous attitude towards transgression (taking as its sterotype the figure of Rio's "malandro", or "streetwise dude") may influence perception of risk and prevention. The paper calls attention to the need for implementing clearer and more direct educational programs. This could be useful for the implementation of culturally sensitive control measures through a reshaping of AIDS symbols. The author recommends a better understanding of the social and economic determinants of disease and reinforcement of the kinds of discourse which empower and raise the self-esteem of poor adolescents by endorsing their civil rights.

  6. Runaway electrons in disruptions and perturbed magnetic topologies of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear fusion represents a valuable perspective for a safe and reliable energy supply from the middle of the 21st century on. Currently, the tokamak is the most advanced principle of confining a man-made fusion plasma. The operation of future, reactor sized tokamaks like ITER faces a crucial difficulty in the generation of runaway electrons. The runaway of electrons is a free fall acceleration into the relativistic regime which is known in various kinds of plasmas including astrophysical ones, thunderbolts and fusion plasmas. The tokamak disruption instability can include the conversion of a substantial part of the plasma current into a runaway electron current. When the high energetic runaways are lost, they can strike the plasma facing components at localised spots. Due to their high energies up to a few tens of MeV, the runaways carry the potential to reduce the lifetimes of wall components and even to destroy sensitive, i.e. actively cooled parts. The research for effective ways to suppress the generation of runaway electrons is hampered by the lack of a complete understanding of the physics of the runaways in disruptions. As it is practically impossible to use standard electron detectors in the challenging environment of a tokamak, the experimental knowledge about runaways is limited and it relies on rather indirect techniques of measurement. The main diagnostics used for this PhD work are three reciprocating probes which measure the runaway electrons directly at the plasma edge of the tokamak TEXTOR. A calorimetric probe and a material probe which exploits the signature that a runaway beam impact leaves in the probe were developed in the course of the PhD work. Novel observations of the burst-like runaway electron losses in tokamak disruptions are reported. The runaway bursts are temporally resolved and first-time measurements of the corresponding runaway energy spectra are presented. A characteristic shape and typical burst to burst variations of the

  7. Knowledge Towards Prevention of Osteoporosis in Adolescent Girls: Effect of Educational Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in women, affecting the quality of life by having the increasing risk of fractures. There are no data on awareness of adolescent girls as a vulnerable group about osteoporosis. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge concerning osteoporosis among high school female students in Semnan, Iran and to evaluate the effect of educational program. Methods This pre and post-study was performed on 583 high-school female students, whom selected from 8 schools using multi-stage sampling. The study questionnaires were completed by interviewing students. All students participated in a single education session (about 2 hours and the level of knowledge about osteoporosis, its risk factors and complications were assessed before and after education. Results The mean ± SD score for general knowledge regarding osteoporosis was 0.35 ± 0.35, about complications of osteoporosis was -0.18 ± 0.53 and about risk factors for osteoporosis was also 0.25 ± 0.21. The mean total knowledge about osteoporosis was the highest in third high school grade girls (P = 0.009, while no difference was observed in score of knowledge towards osteoporosis across the different educational fields (P = 0.156. The mean total score of knowledge toward osteoporosis was significantly increased after educational intervention compared to prior to the educational program with the mean ± SD pre-educational score 0.23 ± 0.19 (median 0.26 and post-educational score 0.45 ± 0.22 (median 0.48 (P < 0.001. Conclusions In conclusion, our results indicated that awareness of Semnan high schools girls on osteoporosis, especially about its complications is poor. Lack of awareness could be due to the lack of training. Thus, more training needed with a focus on understanding the causes of disease and its complications in order to resolve the problem and reduce the incidence of osteoporosis. So by increasing awareness regarding

  8. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Annie M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as

  9. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Louise B; Moodie, Marj M; Simmons, Annie M; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2010-07-30

    Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008) project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation), a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring) and a Project Management Committee (project delivery). A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week) and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as physical activity practices were seen by the teachers as

  10. Note: Measurement of the runaway electrons in the J-TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X. Q.; Luo, Y. H.; Jin, W.; Li, J. C.; Chen, Z. P.; Wang, Z. J.; Yang, Z. J.; Zhuang, G.

    2012-01-01

    The runaway electrons have been measured by hard x-ray detectors and soft x-ray array in the J-TEXT tokamak. The hard x-ray radiations in the energy ranges of 0.5-5 MeV are measured by two NaI detectors. The flux of lost runaway electrons can be obtained routinely. The soft x-ray array diagnostics are used to monitor the runaway beam generated in disruptions since the soft x-ray is dominated by the interaction between runaway electrons and metallic impurities inside the plasma. With the aid of soft x-ray array, runaway electron beam has been detected directly during the formation of runaway current plateau following the disruptions.

  11. Observation of runaway electrons by infrared camera in J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, R. H.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, M.; Huang, D. W.; Yan, W.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-11-15

    When the energy of confined runaway electrons approaches several tens of MeV, the runaway electrons can emit synchrotron radiation in the range of infrared wavelength. An infrared camera working in the wavelength of 3-5 μm has been developed to study the runaway electrons in the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). The camera is located in the equatorial plane looking tangentially into the direction of electron approach. The runaway electron beam inside the plasma has been observed at the flattop phase. With a fast acquisition of the camera, the behavior of runaway electron beam has been observed directly during the runaway current plateau following the massive gas injection triggered disruptions.

  12. Fokker-Planck simulations of knock-on electron runaway avalanche and bursts in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, S.C.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Harvey, R.W.; Chan, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    The avalanche of runaway electrons in an ohmic tokamak plasma triggered by knock-on collisions of traces of energetic electrons with the bulk electrons is simulated by the bounce averaged Fokker-Planck code, CQL3D. It is shown that even when the electric field is small for the production of Dreicer runaways, the knock-on collisions can produce significant runaway electrons in a fraction of a second at typical reactor parameters. The energy spectrum of these knock-on runaways has a characteristic temperature. The growth rate and temperature of the runaway distribution are determined and compared with theory. In simulations of pellet injection into high temperature plasmas, it is shown that a burst of Dreicer runaways may also occur depending on the cooling rate due to the pellet injection. Implications of these phenomena on disruption control in reactor plasmas are discussed. (author)

  13. Influence of the angular scattering of electrons on the runaway threshold in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chanrion, O.; Bonaventura, Z.; Bourdon, A.

    2016-01-01

    The runaway electron mechanism is of great importance for the understanding of the generation of x- and gamma rays in atmospheric discharges. In 1991, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) were discovered by the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. Those emissions are bremsstrahlung from high energy...... electrons that run away in electric fields associated with thunderstorms. In this paper, we discuss the runaway threshold definition with a particular interest in the influence of the angular scattering for electron energy close to the threshold. In order to understand the mechanism of runaway, we compare...... scattering is not valid below 1 MeV where the runaway threshold usually is defined. These results are important for the thermal runaway and the runaway electron avalanche discharge mechanisms suggested to participate in the TGF generation....

  14. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.M.D.

    2011-01-01

    at a distance of similar to 550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur similar to 4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from similar to 50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical...... electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.......The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which...

  15. Runaway beam studies during disruptions at JET-ILW

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reux, C.; Plyusnin, V.; Alper, B.; Alves, D.; Bazylev, B.; Belonohy, E.; Brezinsek, S.; Decker, J.; Devaux, S.; de Vries, P.; Fil, A.; Gerasimov, S.; Lupelli, I.; Jachmich, S.; Khilkevitch, E.M.; Kiptily, V.; Koslowski, R.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Manzanares, A.; Mlynář, Jan; Nardon, E.; Nilsson, E.; Riccardo, V.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Shevelev, A.E.; Sozzi, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 143-149 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * JET * runaway electrons * disruptions * ILW Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311514006850

  16. Investigation of runaway electrons in the PRETEXT Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstrand, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    High energy (0.2 to 0.4 MeV) runaway electrons have been studied in PRETEXT discharges by detecting the hard x-ray bremsstrahlung radiation produced when they escape from the discharge and strike the limiter. A pulse height analysis system, which included pileup rejection circuitry because of the high count rate, recorded both the amplitude and arrival time of each pulse

  17. Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls and their Perceptions of Obesity Prevention in Shahr-e Kord, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ramezankhani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity (PA has positive effects on physical, psychological and social health in the individual and the community. Reduced PA is a major global problem that is increasing in prevalence every day. The present study aimed to determine the status of PA among adolescent girls and their perceptions of obesity prevention. Materials and Methods: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 308 randomly-selected female high-school students in in Shahr-e Kord, Iran. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model and the Standard Physical Activity Questionnaire and were then analyzed in SPSS-16 using statistical tests including the Chi-square test and Pearson’s and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficients. Results: According to the results, 217 (70.1% of the adolescents had light PA, 84 (27.3% had moderate and only 8 (2.6% had severe physical activity. The adolescents obtained mean scores of 39.61±19.46 in knowledge, 31.88±15.04 in perceived susceptibility, 34.76±19.82 in perceived severity, 43.11±2.6 in perceived benefits of PA and 39.94±1.93 in perceived barriers. The mean score of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity and perceived benefits were higher in those with moderate physical activity compared to those with light physical activity (P

  18. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Prevention of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Longitudinal Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  20. Effectiveness of adolescent suicide prevention e-learning modules that aim to improve knowledge and self-confidence of gatekeepers: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Kerkhof, Ad JFM; Koot, Hans M

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing e-learning modules can be an effective strategy for enhancing gatekeepers’ knowledge, self-confidence and skills in adolescent suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of an online training program called Mental Health Online which consists of eight short e-learning modules, each capturing an important aspect of the process of recognition, guidance and referral of suicidal adolescents (12–20 years). The primary outcomes of this study are par...