Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa
With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…
Bentler, P M
This paper reviews recent results and work in progress from a longitudinal study of drug use etiologies and consequences. Early- and mid-adolescent drug use patterns, personality, and behavioral correlates were studied in a large sample of normal youth beginning in the mid-1970's. To determine the correlates and consequences of adolescent drug use, controlling for related tendencies such as lack of social conformity and deviant friendship networks, 654 youngsters were followed into young adulthood and their behaviors and lifestyles evaluated. Teenage drug use was found to disrupt many critical developmental tasks of adolescence and young adulthood. Tendencies to use many different drugs as an adolescent led in young adulthood to increased drug crime involvement, decreased college involvement, increased job instability, income, psychoticism, and stealing episodes. Intervention efforts should be directed not only towards decreasing drug use, but also towards improving personal maturity, social skills, and economic opportunities.
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul
Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…
Longshore, Douglas; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.; St. Clair, Patricia A.
In a recent randomized field trial, Ellickson et al. found the Project ALERT drug prevention curriculum curbed alcohol misuse and tobacco and marijuana use among eighth-grade adolescents. This article reports effects among ninth-grade at-risk adolescents. Comparisons between at-risk girls in ALERT Plus schools (basic curriculum extended to ninth…
Miller, Brenda A.; Aalborg, Annette E.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Bauman, Karl; Spoth, Richard
Mothers were allowed to choose between two different family-based adolescent alcohol-drug prevention strategies and the choice was examined in relation to parent and teen characteristics. Under real world conditions, parents are making choices regarding health promotion strategies for their adolescents and little is known about how parent and teen…
Schinke, Steven P.; Schwinn, Traci M.; Hursh, Hilary A.
Intervention research is essential to help Hispanic American adolescents avoid drug use. This article describes an intervention research program aimed at preventing drug use among these youths. Grounded in salient epidemiological data, the program is informed by bicultural competence, social learning, and motivational interviewing theories. The…
Meneses, Carmen; Charro, Belén
To examine the significant differences in smoking, drug and alcohol use between adolescent boys and girls, and to raise the possible need to design and implement prevention programs from a gender perspective. A qualitative study using eight discussion groups of adolescents aged 14-18 years (n=56) and 6 semi-structured interviews with experts and professionals in drug prevention in the Community of Madrid. Categorical interpretive analysis was performed. The adolescents and prevention professional indicated differences between boys and girls in drug and alcohol use. The significances, reasons associated with the consumption and the patterns of consumption were perceived differently by each sex. To lose weight, calm down or an image of rebelliousness was related to girls who smoked, while boys smoked less because they did more sports. The perception of certain precocity of drug consumption was associated with the step from school to Higher Education Institutions. They found smoking associated with a good social image among their groups. Adolescents showed the ineffectiveness of the campaigns and prevention messages they received, incoherence of adults between messages and actions, and the attraction of all behaviours that are banned. Professionals observed the need to include a gender perspective in prevention programs, but did not know how to achieve it, mainly because it has been translated into different activities for each sex until now. The significant differences associated with smoking, drug and alcohol use observed in the adolescents should lead us to design and implement prevention programs that incorporate a gender perspective. It is perhaps from this strategy where drug and alcohol use among girls can be reduced. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Van Hasselt, Vincent B.; Schlessinger, Kari M.; DiCicco, Tina M.; Anzalone, William F.; Leslie, Tricia L.; George, John A.; Werder, Edward J.; Massey, Larry L.
The present study provides preliminary data concerning the efficacy of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment (ADAPT) Program, a collaborative effort involving mental health and law enforcement. ADAPT is a multi-component, cognitive-behavioral outpatient intervention serving children and youth referred directly from local police…
Odgers, Candice L; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S; Piquero, Alex R; Slutske, Wendy S; Milne, Barry J; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E
Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents' future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk.
Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Black, David S.; Zaman, Adnin; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Sussman, Steve
Adolescence is marked by several key development-related changes, including neurocognitive changes. Cognitive abilities associated with self-regulation are not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood whereas tendencies to take risks and seek thrilling and novel experience seem to increase significantly throughout this phase, resulting in a discrepancy between increased susceptibility to poor regulation and lower ability to exercise self-control. Increased vulnerability to drug use initiation, maintenance, and dependence during adolescence may be explained based on this imbalance in the self-regulation system. In this paper, we highlight the relevance of schools as a setting for delivering adolescent drug use prevention programs that are based on recent findings from neuroscience concerning adolescent brain development. We discuss evidence from school-based as well as laboratory research that suggests that suitable training may improve adolescents’ executive brain functions that underlie self-regulation abilities and, as a result, help prevent drug use and abuse. We note that considerable further research is needed in order (1) to determine that self-regulation training has effects at the neurocognitive level and (2) to effectively incorporate self-regulation training based on neuropsychological models into school-based programming. PMID:23408284
Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Keller, Bryan; Liu, Xiang
Early adolescent girls' rates of drug use have matched, and in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Though girls and boys share risk factors for drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Tailored interventions to prevent girls' drug use are warranted. This study developed and tested a web-based, drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. The nationwide sample of 13- and 14-year-old girls (N = 788) was recruited via Facebook ads. Enrolled girls were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. All girls completed pretest measures online. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with the 9-session, gender-specific prevention program online. The program aimed to reduce girls' drug use and associated risk factors by improving their cognitive and behavioral skills around such areas as coping with stress, managing mood, maintaining a healthy body image, and refusing drug use offers. Girls in both conditions again completed measures at posttest and 1-year follow-up. At posttest, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention smoked fewer cigarettes and reported higher self-esteem, goal setting, media literacy, and self-efficacy. At 1-year follow-up, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention reported engaging in less binge drinking and cigarette smoking; girls assigned to the intervention condition also had higher alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana refusal skills, coping skills, and media literacy and lower rates of peer drug use. This study's findings support the use of tailored, online drug abuse prevention programming for early adolescent girls.
Goldberg, L; MacKinnon, D P; Elliot, D L; Moe, E L; Clarke, G; Cheong, J
Use of alcohol and other illicit drugs by adolescent male athletes is a significant problem. Participation in sports may encourage use of drugs that enhance athletic performance, especially anabolic steroids (AS). Because, to our knowledge, no other intervention has successfully altered substance abuse by athletes, we developed and assessed the efficacy of a team-centered, sex-specific education program designed to reduce adolescent athletes' intentions to use and use of AS and alcohol and other illicit drugs. We studied 31 high school football teams that comprised 3207 athletes in 3 successive annual cohorts (1994-1996). The intervention included interactive classroom and exercise training sessions given by peer educators and facilitated by coaches and strength trainers. Program content included discussion of sports nutrition, exercise alternatives to AS and sport supplements, and the effects of substance abuse in sports, drug refusal role-playing, and the creation of health promotion messages. Questionnaires assessing AS, the use of sport supplements and alcohol and other illicit drugs, and potential risk and protective factors were administered before and after the intervention (before and after the football season) and up to 1 year after the program. At season's end, intentions to use (PIllicit drug use (marijuana, amphetamines, and narcotics) was reduced at 1 year, whether alcohol was included (P = .04) or excluded (P = .02) from the index. Other long-term effects included fewer students reporting drinking and driving (P = .004), less sport supplement use (P = .009), and improved nutrition behaviors (Pillicit drugs and associated harmful activities can be prevented with a sex-specific, team-centered education. School athletic teams provide an optimal environment in which to provide drug prevention and health promotion education.
Ken Russell Coelho
Full Text Available Alcohol and Other Drug abuse in adolescents and adults continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. Care in intervention programs aimed at high risk populations identified occurs after the maladaptive behavioral delinquency has occurred, and only then is an individual afforded the opportunity to join an intervention program. The focus of this paper is to illustrate and highlight the value of prevention programs which emphasize altering maladaptive behavior before the behavior becomes problematic. Emotional Intelligence is not only an indicator of alcohol and other drug abuse, but is linked to emotional competence, social and emotional learning, the development of healthy and life promoting behavior, and has been proven to reduce some of the risk factors associated with alcohol and other drug abuse in adolescents and adults. This paper seeks to recognize the significance of Emotional Intelligence as a desirable health promoting attribute and to establish the importance of its conceptual use in a prevention based model for reducing associated high risk behaviors.
Sanchez, Zila M; Sanudo, Adriana; Andreoni, Solange; Schneider, Daniela; Pereira, Ana Paula D; Faggiano, Fabrizio
Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention and do not conduct culturally adapted activities for that purpose. This study evaluated the impact of the Unplugged program on drug use prevention among children and adolescents in public middle schools of Brazil. A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2013 with 2185 students in 16 public schools from 3 Brazilian cities. The intervention group attended 12 weekly classes of the Unplugged program for drug use prevention, and the control group did not attend to any school prevention programs in the same year. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate temporal and between group changes in the consumption of each drug. The study suggested that there was no evidence that Unplugged effected 11- to 12-year-old students. However, the program seemed to stimulate a decrease in recent marijuana use (transition from use to non-use in 85.7% of intervention cases and 28.6% of control cases, OR = 17.5, p = 0.039) among 13- to 15-year-old students. In addition, students in this age range who received the Unplugged program had similar drug consumption levels to those observed before the program began. However, students in the control group presented a significant tendency to increase marijuana use and binge drinking. This study adds to the evidence of program efficacy among Brazilian middle school students by presenting marginal effects on binge drinking and marijuana use. An 18-month randomized controlled trial is recommended for a future study.
Zila M. Sanchez
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention and do not conduct culturally adapted activities for that purpose. This study evaluated the impact of the Unplugged program on drug use prevention among children and adolescents in public middle schools of Brazil. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2013 with 2185 students in 16 public schools from 3 Brazilian cities. The intervention group attended 12 weekly classes of the Unplugged program for drug use prevention, and the control group did not attend to any school prevention programs in the same year. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate temporal and between group changes in the consumption of each drug. Results The study suggested that there was no evidence that Unplugged effected 11- to 12-year-old students. However, the program seemed to stimulate a decrease in recent marijuana use (transition from use to non-use in 85.7% of intervention cases and 28.6% of control cases, OR = 17.5, p = 0.039 among 13- to 15-year-old students. In addition, students in this age range who received the Unplugged program had similar drug consumption levels to those observed before the program began. However, students in the control group presented a significant tendency to increase marijuana use and binge drinking. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence of program efficacy among Brazilian middle school students by presenting marginal effects on binge drinking and marijuana use. An 18-month randomized controlled trial is recommended for a future study.
Newton, Nicola C; Champion, Katrina E; Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Stapinski, Lexine; Koning, Ina; Tonks, Zoe; Teesson, Maree
Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents is a serious concern, and effective prevention is critical. Research indicates that expanding school-based prevention programs to include parenting components could increase prevention outcomes. This paper aims to identify and describe existing combined student- and parent-based programs for the prevention of alcohol and other drug use to evaluate the efficacy of existing programs. The PsycINFO, Medline, Central Register of Controlled trials and Cochrane databases were searched in April 2015 and additional articles were obtained from reference lists. Studies were included if they evaluated a combined universal intervention for students (aged 11-18 years old) and their parents designed to prevent alcohol and/or other drug use, and were delivered in a school-based setting. Risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers. Because of the heterogeneity of the included studies, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis and a qualitative description of the studies was provided. From a total of 1654 screened papers, 22 research papers met inclusion criteria, which included 13 trials of 10 programs. Of these, nine programs demonstrated significant intervention effects in terms of delaying or reducing adolescent alcohol and/or other drug use in at least one trial. This is the first review of combined student- and parent-based interventions to prevent and reduce alcohol and other drug use. Whilst existing combined student- and parent-based programs have shown promising results, key gaps in the literature have been identified and are discussed in the context of the development of future prevention programs. [Newton NC, Champion KE, Slade T, Chapman C, Stapinski L, Koning I, Tonks Z, Teesson M. A systematic review of combined student- and parent-based programs to prevent alcohol and other drug use among adolescents. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:337-351]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
McDuffie, Thomas E., Jr.; Bernt, Francis M.
Surveyed 212 parent-adolescent pairs to examine their perceptions of adolescent drug use. Compared to adolescents, parents were more likely to list reasons for drug use with negative connotations. Parents underestimated use of alcohol and marijuana and frequency with which teenagers' friends became drunk or high relative to adolescents' estimates.…
Winters, Ken C.; Arria, Amelia
Research now suggests that the human brain is still maturing during adolescence. The developing brain may help explain why adolescents sometimes make decisions that are risky and can lead to safety or health concerns, including unique vulnerabilities to drug abuse. This article explores how this new science may be put to use in our prevention and…
Newton, N.C.; Champion, K.; Slade, T.; Chapman, C.; Stapinski, L.; Koning, H.M.; Tonks, Z.; Teesson, M.
Issues. Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents is a serious concern, and effective prevention is critical. Research indicates that expanding school-based prevention programs to include parenting components could increase prevention outcomes. This paper aims to identify and describe existing
The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…
Bavarian, Niloofar; Duncan, Robert; Lewis, Kendra M; Miao, Alicia; Washburn, Isaac J
The study examined whether adolescents receiving a universal, school based, drug prevention program in Grade 7 varied, by student profile, in substance use behaviors post program implementation. Profiles were a function of recall of program receipt and substance use at baseline. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, a large, geographically diverse, longitudinal school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Take Charge of Your Life drug prevention program. Profiles were created using self-reported substance use (preintervention) and program recall (postintervention) at Grade 7. First, characteristics of each of the 4 profiles of treatment students who varied by program recall and baseline substance use were explored. Then, multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the odds of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) among student profiles at the 6 additional study waves (Time 2 [Grade 7] through Time 7 [Grade 11]). Pearson's chi-square tests showed sample characteristics varied by student profile. Multilevel logistic regression results were consistent across all examined substance use behaviors at all time points. Namely, as compared with students who had no baseline substance use and had program recall (No Use, Recall), each of the remaining 3 profiles (No Use, No Recall; Use, Recall; Use, No Recall) were more likely to engage in substance use. Post hoc analyses showed that for the 2 subprofiles of baseline substance users, there were only 2 observed, and inconsistent, differences in the odds of subsequent substance use by recall status. Findings suggest that for students who were not baseline substance users, program recall significantly decreased the likelihood of subsequent substance use. For students who were baseline substance users, program recall did not generally influence subsequent substance use. Implications for school-based drug prevention
Cordova, David; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Lua, Frania Mendoza; Bauermeister, Jose; Nurenberg, Rachel; Ovadje, Lauretta; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Council, Youth Leadership
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk behaviors among adolescents remain significant public health concerns. Shifts in policy and advances in technology provide opportunities for researchers and clinicians to deliver and evaluate mobile-health (mHealth) prevention programs in primary care, however, research is limited. This study assessed the usability and acceptability of Storytelling 4 Empowerment-a mHealth HIV/STI and drug abuse preventive intervention app-among adolescents in primary care. Informed by principles of community-based participatory research, we recruited a purposive sample of 30 adolescents from a youth-centered community health care clinic in Southeast Michigan. The study sample is primarily African American and female. Adolescents who participated in the Storytelling 4 Empowerment intervention assessed its usability and acceptability, and self-reported their HIV/STI risk behaviors. We used a multiple-methods approach. Adolescents reported high acceptability of the content, process, and format of Storytelling 4 Empowerment, as evidenced by qualitative data and mean scores from the Session Evaluation Form for the HIV/STI and Alcohol/Drug content, overall Storytelling 4 Empowerment intervention, and Client Satisfaction Questionnaire-8. Findings indicate that Storytelling 4 Empowerment is acceptable among adolescents in primary care. A next step is to examine the effect of Storytelling 4 Empowerment on adolescent sexual risk and drug use behaviors and HIV/STI testing.
Project ALERT departs boldly from prevention models of the 196Os and 197Os, which emphasized informing adolescents about the long-term consequences of drug use or building their decisionmaking skills...
Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Overbeek, Geertjan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/25233602X; Vermulst, Ad; Monshouwer, Karin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202651967; Lammers, Jeroen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Engels, Rutger C M E
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old
The role of alcohol as an "entrance drug" to further addictive substances is described. Thereby the gradual increase of number and strength of drugs merits our special attention. Moreover the fetal alcohol syndrome and its prevention is an especially important point of view.
Gilchrist, Lewayne D.; And Others
Collected data from first 100 subjects in on-going longitudinal study of drug use before and during pregnancy in adolescence. Findings from unmarried pregnant adolescents revealed that, although lifetime prevalence of drug use was relatively high, substance use declined voluntarily and substantially during pregnancy. Prepregnancy drug use…
Moncher, Michael S; Parms, Clifford A; Orlandi, Mario A; Schinke, Steven P; Miller, Samuel O; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B
This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects' attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions.
Hall, Bruce W.; Bacon, Tina P.; Ferron, John M.
Sixth graders participating in the "Too Good for Drugs" (TGFD) prevention program in comparison to 6th graders not participating show different results by student risk level. Sixth graders from 20 middle schools were randomly assigned to receive the intervention and those from 20 paired middle schools assigned to serve as controls (N =…
Sloboda, Zili; David, Susan L.
This question and answer guide provides an overview of the research on the origins and pathways of drug abuse, the basic principles derived from effective drug abuse prevention research, and the application of research results to the prevention of drug use among young people. The basic principles derived from drug abuse prevention research are…
Moghadam, Mahdieh Poodineh; Sari, Mahdieh; Balouchi, Abbas; Madarshahian, Farah; Moghadam, Khadijeh
One of the most effective strategies in the prevention of addiction is increasing awareness among young people, towards the tendency for taking drugs their physical, mental and social side effects. Storytelling is effective for increasing characteristics of happiness and resilience. This study uses storytelling, a common and popular method to increase awareness among adolescents. To examine the effect of storytelling-based education on the prevention of drug abuse, based on a readiness to addiction index. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 136 high school students (grade one), selected by a cluster sampling procedure from May 2014 to February 2015 in Zabol, Iran. The instrument for gathering data was a readiness to addiction questionnaire. This questionnaire included 41 items for which the scoring of each item followed the Likerts format. The data gathered was analysed using SPSS version 21 with descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The results revealed that the mean of the readiness to addiction index in the case group fell from 75.66±19.99 to 69.57±21.83 (paired t-test; p =0.02); in the control group the same index changed from 103.01±21.88 to 93.98±27.70 (paired t-test, p = 0.775). That is, the index decreased for both groups, but the reduction was statistically significant only for the case group (p =0.02). This suggests that the narrative method is effective in reducing adolescents readiness to addiction. Storytelling is an effective way to raise awareness among young people about addiction and its detrimental impacts on health. Therefore, such a technique can be taken into consideration in teaching principles of prevention.
Ford, Jason A.; Watkins, William C.
For many adolescents today, the most common form of substance use is nonmedical prescription drug use. Fittingly, many researchers, policy makers, and people who work with youth are concerned about the serious problems associated with nonmedical prescription drug use (NMPDU). In this article, authors Jason Ford and William Watkins provide an…
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with drug education and prevention. Papers include: (1) "State of the Art of Drug Prevention Programs: A Five Year Retrospective of School Curricula" (Natalie Silverstein, et al.); (2) "TCs: Education for Wholeness"…
The increasing scourge of drug abuse among adolescents is a major challenge facing mankind. As the importance of health education in disease prevention is enormous, drug misuse prevention programme requires introducing innovations, flexibility and reinforcement which will be effective in shortest possible time among ...
Manceaux, Pauline; Maricq, Aurélie; Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine
Drug addicts are more and more stigmatized in our society. Recent data show a connection between substance abuse and other behaviors considered normal, such as passionate love. Adolescence is characterized by a biopsychosocial, cognitive and neurodevelopmental immaturity. This article aims to understand if these subjects are more likely to develop addictions to certain products or addictive behaviors such as passionate love. It also offers a better understanding of the current models for prevention of substance abuse during adolescence. After defining the roles played, in the brain, by dopamine and by the reward circuit, as well as the different stages of development of the human brain, we compared neurobiological data and imaging studies both in cases of passionate love and substance addiction during adolescence. The brain imaging studies highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex in the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the addictive phenomenon. Now, the maturation of the prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence, as do significant peaks in the expression of dopamine. These studies also suggest an increase in cortical activation (nucleus accumbens and amygdala) when processing emotional information, which is also increased during adolescence. Taken together, the results show a parallel between addiction and love relations, both at the level of neuroscience and imaging. A greater emotional lability and sensitivity may play a role in the higher incidence of substance abuse and dependence in love observed at this age. Preventing the use of illegal substances among young people therefore requires a very specific approach.
Testa, Mark F.; Smith, Brenda
Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance…
Milne, Dona; Glasier, Anna
Teenage pregnancy is on a decline, but there are wide inequalities in those who are still becoming pregnant at an early age. Teenage pregnancy remains a public health concern. Numbers of repeat pregnancy in adolescence are small but contribute to poor health outcomes for young women and their children. A number of studies have demonstrated the impact that low levels of educational attainment, lack of aspiration, low socioeconomic status, dislike of school, lack of family connectedness and poor parental monitoring can have on early sexual activity and, in some cases, pregnancy among adolescents. Risks for repeat pregnancy in adolescence would appear to be linked to whether the pregnancy was intended or not, and what incentives or motivations, if any, existed to prevent subsequent early pregnancies. There would appear to be two options available to those who wish to reduce the negative health outcomes associated with repeat pregnancy in adolescence. First, to increase the life choices available to young women, which improve their social and economic circumstances. Secondly, to develop a clear understanding of pregnancy intentions within this group to ensure the provision of appropriate services which deliver the best possible outcomes for them and their child.
Safer, L A; Harding, C G
This paper describes the Under Pressure Program, an innovative communication-centered approach designed to involve Chicago public junior and senior high school students in considering the problems and prevention of adolescent substance abuse. The centerpiece of the program is a 30-minute live musical play, Captain Clean, which incorporates extensive postperformance dialogue and role play to explore the pressures and feelings of adolescents regarding substance abuse. This unique blend of live entertainment and applied learning techniques enables adolescents to understand the pressures they face and teaches them to make responsible choices, in addition to serving as a vehicle for effective school and community substance abuse intervention. By going beyond the 60-second "just say no" television and radio campaigns, the Under Pressure Program addresses the underlying causes of adolescent substance abuse. Students are engaged in active participation rather than the traditional "teach and preach." The goals of the program are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of live theatre in preventing and intervening in adolescent substance abuse, and (2) to examine the effectiveness of live theatre, via postperformance dialogue and role playing, in soliciting feedback from adolescents as to their own feelings about substance abuse and using school counselors and other available resources, and to build upon their recommendations for improving substance abuse prevention and intervention programs. The program is targeted at predominantly minority, low-income students who have been identified as "high risk." The Under Pressure format consists of four integral parts: faculty/staff community in-service: theatrical performance (Captain Clean); postperformance dialogue and role play; and student, faculty, counselor, and community follow-up.
Substance use among adolescents is a major problem facing the world today. However, there are challenges on prevention of substance use among this population. The purpose of this systematic review was to explore and describe current evidence on substance use prevention programmes among adolescents focusing ...
Full Text Available Background: The behavior and dietary treatments are not so successful for extremely obese adolescents. Therefore, using drugs to treat extremely obese children and adolescents are among the modern approaches. This research aims to study the pharmaceutical interventions performed for treatment of obese children. Materials and Methods: The strategy of research was using of key words ‘obesity’, ‘adolescence’, ‘treatment’ and ‘anti-obesity drugs’ were searched in websites of PubMed, Iranian Medical Digital Library, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran. This study reviewed all the available published papers in English and Farsi languages during 2000-2010. The Criteria for exclusion was The papers that had been published on interventions and treatment of eating disorders, type II diabetes or the obesity caused by the secondary syndromes. Results: Twelve papers were found as short-term clinical trials and/or long-term follow-ups. In these studies, the positive effects of ‘sibutramine’ in some studies are shown; although some other side effects are reported as well. A significant weight-loss had been reported on ‘orlistat’ medicine, but digestive complications had been observed as well. None of the studies had followed up patients for more than one year. Apparently, ‘Metformin’ requires further studies.Conclusion: The FDA has only approved ‘sibutramine’ and ‘orlistat’ drugs. But side effects of long-term these drugs have already been unknown. However, it seems that ‘orlistat’ is applied for ≥12-year-old children and ‘sibutramine’ for ≥ 16-year-old children.
Nanda, Sharmila; Konnur, Neelam
Screening for drug abuse should be a part of adolescent health maintenance visits. Good interviewing skills using open-ended, nonjudgmental questions in a private setting may elicit a history of drug abuse. A detailed and comprehensive history is important to recognize family dynamics, early behavioral changes (Table 5, see page 198), comorbid psychiatric conditions, and the adolescent's attitude toward substances of abuse. A good physical exam may reveal clinical sequelae of drug abuse. Testing for drug abuse should be done with the patient's consent except in cases where judgment is impaired. Periodic screening for drugs is a part of drug treatment and rehabilitation. The typical pediatrician is not equipped to provide drug counseling and treatment to the abusing adolescent. Specialized referral centers would be ideal, and clinicians need to be aware of local resources in their communities. Anticipatory guidance explaining the ill effects of drugs is mandatory. Prevention should be aimed at increasing public awareness of the consequences of drug abuse, improving parenting techniques, and introducing school-based drug prevention programs. The fight against substance abuse needs to be a community effort in which the individual, the family and the primary care physician play important roles.
... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...
Bahr, Stephen J.; Maughan, Suzanne L.; Marcos, Anastasios C.; Li, Bingdao
Uses data from a random sample of 13,250 adolescents. Results show that mother/adolescent bonding and family drug problems have modest, indirect effects on the likelihood of adolescent drug use; father/adolescent bonding, parental monitoring, and family aggression have relatively weak effects on adolescent drug use; and religious students do not…
Demant, Jakob Johan; Laura Marie, Schierff
Adolescents exhibit a high rate of use of alcohol and illicit drugs. Effect studies rarely describe the actual content of the interventions in detail. Less is known about what was actually done in the prevention than about their effects. Aim: This study is a review study grouping the qualitatively...... for analysis. The sample consisted of 33 peer-reviewed articles published between January 2010 and December 2014. Findings: Five categories of intervention and prevention programmes were identified: ‘Information-based or testing-based primary prevention approaches’, ‘Primary prevention approaches incorporating...
Belgrave, Faye Z.; Reed, Melba C.; Plybon, Laura E.; Corneille, Maya
This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two…
Watts, W. David; Ellis, Anne Marie
Explored relationship between drug and alcohol abuse and eating disorders in female adolescents (n=826). Eating Disorders Risk Scale was adopted and correlated with drug and alcohol use, other forms of deviance, family and peer relationships, and depression. Findings support concept of generalized theory of addictions based on psychosocial,…
Yusoff, Fadhli; Sahril, Norhafizah; Rasidi, Naim M; Zaki, Nor Azian M; Muhamad, Norazlina; Ahmad, NoorAni
Illicit drug use among adolescents has become a public health issue in Malaysia. This study was from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) and aimed to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with illicit drug use among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. A 2-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used and data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 25 507 students participated in the study. The prevalence of adolescents who ever used illicit drugs was 1.7%. Adolescents who ever used illicit drugs were associated with current smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 6.99; 95% CI = 5.19, 9.40), current alcohol use (aOR = 4.63; 95% CI = 3.43, 6.26), ever having sex (aOR = 4.76; 95% CI = 3.54, 6.41), truancy (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.07, 1.90), lack of peer support (aOR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.07, 2.03), and lack of parental monitoring (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.22, 2.39). Public health intervention should be addressed to prevent illicit drug used among adolescents. © 2014 APJPH.
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Shin, YoungJu; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L; Krieger, Janice L
The present study seeks to understand how parents as prevention agents approach substance use prevention messages during the period of early adolescence. Students (N = 410) in a drug prevention trial completed surveys from 7th to 9th grade. Using longitudinal data, a series of latent transition analyses was conducted to identify major trends of parent-adolescent drug talk styles (i.e., never talked, situated direct, ongoing direct, situated indirect, and ongoing indirect) in control and treatment conditions. Findings demonstrate a developmental trend in drug talk styles toward a situated style of talk as youth transitioned from 7th grade to 9th grade. Findings also show that even though the drug prevention trial did not specifically target parental communication, parents in the treatment condition provide more ongoing substance use prevention messages to their adolescent children than do parents in the control condition. The present study discusses relevant developmental issues, potential intervention effects, and future research directions for communication research in substance use prevention.
Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime
Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants' use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents.
Stander, Valerie A; Reed, Cheryl; Olson, Cheryl B; Johnson, Judy; Merrill, Lex L; Clapp, John; Elder, John; Lawson, Gary; Mangual, George; Lowe, Nate
.... Some of the common components were information on the consequences of drug use, decision-making skill training, public pledges not to use drugs, values clarification, goal setting, stress management...
Although all children have the potential for becoming destructively involved with psychoactive drugs, there is considerable evidence that youngsters with particular kinds of psychologic and family problems are at high risk for chemical dependency. These include youngsters with developmental deficiencies that interfere with their capacity to master the environment. Children with a strong family history of alcoholism or drug abuse also seem to be at high risk. Obviously, there is some overlap between these two groups, not only because parental drug abuse and alcoholism may damage the fetus, but because chemically dependent parents are more likely to abuse or neglect their children because of the impact of their own illness on their functioning as parents. In addition, families in which drug use is modeled as a typical behavior are more likely to produce adolescents who use drugs, although rigid rules against drug use are relatively ineffective in preventing adolescents from experimenting with drugs. Finally, certain behavior patterns in young childhood--particularly severe aggressiveness, rebelliousness, and learning problems at school--seem to be correlated with the development of chemical dependency during adolescence.
Baumrind, D; Moselle, K A
Adolescent drug use is placed in an historical and developmental perspective. Existing evidence concerning causes and consequences of adolescent drug use is inconclusive. In the absence of conclusive empirical evidence and cogent theories, we present a prima facie case against early adolescent drug use by defending six propositions which posit specific cognitive, conative, and affective negative consequences including impairment of attention and memory; developmental lag imposing categorical limitations on the level of maximum functioning available to the user in cognitive, moral and psychosocial domains; amotivational syndrome; consolidation of diffuse or negative identity; and social alienation and estrangement. We call for a program of research which could provide credible evidence to support or rebut these propositions, and thus address the factual claims underlying the sociomoral concerns of social policy planners.
Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.
The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to
This paper discusses a technique which uses rock music lyrics to enable adolescents to gain an understanding of dependency upon mood-altering substances. While the pervasiveness of alcohol and other drugs in society is well-known, it is surprising and instructive for adolescents to explore the close inter-relationship between drugs, rock lyrics, and their own behavior. Drug-related songs were chosen, recorded and the lyrics were transcribed. A chart, illustrating the progression of addiction, was used to demonstrate how themes in drug-related songs parallel the stages of addiction. Adolescents hear, read, and discuss the lyrics in relationship to the stages, and in the process, increase their personal understanding of drug issues such as the search for relief, increased dependence, loss of control, and physical deterioration, all stages on the addiction chart. Through guided discussion of the lyrics and issues, adolescents begin to consider alternative ways of coping with daily pressures other than withdrawal from society or aggression toward it, two types of behavior seen with increasing frequency among today's youth.
Belenko, Steven; Dugosh, Karen L; Lynch, Kevin; Mericle, Amy A; Pich, Michele; Forman, Robert F
Given the uncertain effects of antidrug media campaigns, and the ease of finding online illegal drug information, research is needed on the Internet role in disseminating drug information to youths. This exploratory study analyzes National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY) data on drug website viewing among 12-18 year olds (N = 7,145). Approximately 10.4% reported drug-related website exposure: 5.4% viewed only websites that communicated how to avoid drugs or bad things about drugs (antidrug websites); 1.7% only viewed websites that communicated how to use drugs and good things about drugs (prodrug websites); and 3.2% viewed both types of websites. The low rates of viewing antidrug websites occurred despite efforts in the National Youth Antidrug Media Campaign (NYAMC) to encourage youths to visit such websites. Prodrug website viewers had used inhalants and been offered marijuana, perceived little risk in trying marijuana, intended to use marijuana, had close friends who used drugs, reported low parental monitoring, and had been exposed to antidrug media messages. Viewing antidrug websites was related to gender, income, likelihood of using marijuana in the next 12 months, having close friends who use drugs and talking to friends about avoiding drugs, parental monitoring, and drug prevention exposure. Prior prevention exposure increased drug website viewing overall, perhaps by increasing general curiosity about drugs. Because adolescents increasingly seek health information online, research is needed on how they use the Internet as a drug information source, the temporal relationships of prevention exposure and drug website viewing, and the effects of viewing prodrug websites on drug risk.
Pirruccello, Linda M
Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young people in the United States. The etiology of suicide in this population has eluded policy makers, researchers, and communities. Although many suicide prevention programs have been developed and implemented, few are evidence-based in their effectiveness in decreasing suicide rates. In one northern California community, adolescent suicide has risen above the state's average. Two nurses led an effort to develop and implement an innovative grassroots community suicide prevention project targeted at eliminating any further teen suicide. The project consisted of a Teen Resource Card, a community resource brochure targeted at teens, and education for the public and school officials to raise awareness about this issue. This article describes this project for other communities to use as a model. Risk and protective factors are described, and a comprehensive background of adolescent suicide is provided.
... press ctrl+c to copy Featured Publications Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Principles of Substance Abuse Prevention for Early Chil... Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Marijuana: Facts for ...
Carnevale, Teresa D.
Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…
More than half of the Dutch adolescents start drinking before age 12 (Monshouwer et al., 2009). Early drinking is related to several developmental risks and to later alcohol and drug abuse (Behrendt et al., 2009). A Dutch alcohol prevention program (PAS) targets early adolescents and their parents
Knight, [No Value
Adolescents use alcohol more frequently and heavily than all other illicit drugs combined.(1) Given the myriad health, developmental, and social problems associated with alcohol use, it is not surprising that the American Medical Association's Guidelines for Adolescent Preventive Services recommends
Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Spoth, Richard L.; Redmond, Cleve
Preparing for the Drug Free Years (PDFY) is a preventive intervention that targets parenting behaviors, family interaction patterns, and adolescent substance use, factors that have been shown to predict depression among teenagers. Effects of PDFY on trajectories of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms from 6th through 12th grade were…
The prevention of drug use is one of the primary goals of the War on Drugs. However, despite investment in high-profile interventions such as social marketing campaigns and enforcement-based deterrence, these efforts have generally failed. With the emergence of novel policy frameworks to control and regulate drug use, a window of opportunity exists to test approaches to drug prevention that take into account existing evidence and the rights of individuals who use drugs. Specifically, there is a growing consensus that entry into drug use is a socially-defined event that individuals experience within particular socio-structural contexts. This understanding, coupled with a distinction between the value of preventing problematic drug use rather than all drug use, provides a useful framework within which to develop effective and rights-based approaches to drug prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Krieger, Janice L; Hecht, Michael L; Graham, John W
This study extends a typology of parent-offspring drug talk styles to early adolescents and investigates associations with adolescent substance use. Data come from a self-report survey associated with a school-based, 7th grade drug prevention curriculum. Mixed methods were used to collect data across four measurement occasions spanning 30 months. Findings highlight the frequencies of various drug-talk styles over time (i.e., situated direct, ongoing direct, situated indirect, ongoing indirect, never talked), messages adolescents hear from parents, and comparisons of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use by drug-talk style. This study advances an understanding of parent-adolescent communication about substances and holds practical implications for drug prevention efforts.
Nwagu, Evelyn N
This study determined students' perception of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours in Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a researcher-made questionnaire. The population for the study comprised all students in government secondary schools in Enugu state, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 600 students randomly selected from the population. Means, t-test and ANOVA were used for data analysis. The result of the study revealed that there were significant differences at 0.05 level of significance in the mean perception of the students of the influence of alcohol and drug usage on adolescents' sexual behaviours when they were classified by gender and class. All the students irrespective of age agreed that alcohol and drug usage negatively influence sexual behaviour. The students perceived that students who do not take alcohol usually control their sexual desires while rape is common with students who are drug users. It was recommended among others that preventive health programmes meant to address adolescents' sexuality should be combined with appropriate drug education for maximum benefit. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Machado, Daisy Maria; de Sant’Anna Carvalho, Alexandre Machado; Riera, Rachel
Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV) drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a new intervention for people at high risk for acquiring HIV, with an estimated HIV incidence of >3%. Recent data from trials show evidence of the efficacy of PrEP as a powerful HIV prevention tool in high-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, HIV-1-serodiscordant heterosexual couples, and IV drug users. The reported efficacy in those trials of the daily use of oral tenofovir, alone or in combination with emtricitabine, to prevent HIV infection ranged from 44% to 75% and was heavily dependent on adherence. Despite the proven efficacy of PrEP in adult trials, concerns remain about its feasibility in real-life scenarios due to stigma, cost, and limited clinician experience with PrEP delivery. Recent studies are attempting to expand the inquiry into the efficacy of such HIV prophylaxis approaches in adolescent populations, but there are still many gaps in knowledge, and no country has yet approved it for use with adolescents. The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the evidence from studies on PrEP for adolescents. We have compiled and reviewed published studies focusing on safety, feasibility, adherence to therapeutics, self-perception, and legal issues related to PrEP in people aged between 10 and 24 years. PMID:29238237
Wu, Ping; Hoven, Christina W.; Fuller, Cordelia J.
This article examines factors associated with adolescents receiving treatment for drug-related problems. Data on adolescents (aged 12–17) from the 1995 and 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA, N = 9133) were used. Information was obtained concerning adolescent drug use, smoking, drinking and related problems, as well as sociodemographics. Many adolescents with drug-related problems did not receive treatment. Among predisposing factors, gender and age were associated with drug ...
Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L
American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.
Flick, L H
Adolescent pregnancy and parenthood are increasingly common today and pose many problems for both the individual persons involved and society as a whole. For programs to address these issues successfully, factors associated with unintended pregnancy and resulting parenthood must first be identified and understood. This paper is a review of current research on the factors associated with the four steps leading to an adolescent becoming a parent. Being an adolescent parent requires taking a particular path at four crossroads: becoming sexually active, not using or incorrectly using contraceptives, carrying rather than aborting a pregnancy, and parenting rather than placing a child for adoption. Much research in the last 15 years has explored adolescent childbearing, but many studies only compared adolescent parents to nonparents to reach conclusions about differences in these groups. This review focuses on recent studies that explore the four processes, or crossroads, separately and it excludes studies that generalize and overlap these processes. Factors that influence adolescent behavior at multiple points on the path to parenthood indicate areas particularly relevant for preventive intervention. For instance, boyfriends exert influence at all four crossroads. Sexual activity and contraceptive use increase with longevity of relationships, yet closer relationships are less often associated with raising a child. Better general communication skills, and particularly an increased ability to discuss sexuality, increases use of contraceptives, and low educational and occupational aspirations appear to influence each successive turn toward parenthood. This summary of current research serves to highlight those individual, family, dyadic, and social factors that exert great impact on adolescent parenthood by influencing young people at each of the four crossroads. These factors suggest potentially effective points for intervention to reduce the incidence of adolescent
Andersen, John Sahl; Lindberg, Laura Maria Glahder; Nixon, Michael Simon
Introduction: In Denmark about 600,000 persons are treated for hypertension and more than 300,000 people are receiving cholesterol lowering drugs. The prevalence of hypertension in people aged 80 years is 70%. For antidepressants the defined daily doses/1000 aged >80 years/day exceed 200. By far...... the most preventive drugs are prescribed in general practice. Special considerations exist in relation to medication of elderly patients. The prevalence of polypharmacy and the subsequent increased risk of side effects and drug interactions is high. Drug-related problems represent the fifth leading cause...... of death in the United States. The public expenses to drug treatment are constantly increasing. The possibility to withdraw the medication must be taken into account but the decision to discontinue drugs is complex and poorly understood. Planned studies: 1. Patients’ views upon discontinuation...
Kindle, Silverlene J.
Since the 1960s long-term studies have documented nation-wide patterns of adolescent smoking, drinking and illicit drug use. The federal government responded by passing the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which funded school-based prevention programs. The problem for school counselors in a Georgia Public School District was…
Background Alcohol use, especially heavy episodic drinking, at an early age has been associated with various problems (e.g. risky sexual behaviours, health problems, depression, and heavy alcohol consumption at a later age). Thus, a better understanding of the risk and protective factors that influence adolescent alcohol use is crucial to developing effective prevention strategies. The aim of this thesis is to examine the importance of risk and protective factors in the development of heavy e...
Haffner, D; Casey, S
The US has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the industrialized world, over 1,000,000 a year. This can add to social problems including poverty, unemployment, family breakup, juvenile crime, school dropouts, and child abuse. In several studies various approaches have been developed and it is concluded that teens must not only be given the knowledge to avoid teen pregnancies, but the motivation to do so. Sex education is an important part of pregnancy prevention, but few programs go beyond the facts of reproduction and less than 14% of them are 40 hours long. Studies have shown mixed results as to the effect of education on teen pregnancy. There are many programs that have been developed by different communities, including computer programs and youth service agencies. Religious groups also play an important part in sex education and they have some distinct advantages in affecting teens' sexual values and activities. Education programs for teen's parents appear to be very important since studies show when sexuality is discussed at home, the teens begin activity later and use birth control more. Clinics have had difficulty recruiting and retaining teen patients and devote special attention to establishing a rapport with them. The school-based clinic is becoming increasingly popular and can provide birth control counseling, contraceptives, family planning clinic referral, examinations, pregnancy testing, and prenatal care. There success is due to confidentiality, convenience, and comprehensive service. However, since nearly all efforts on teen pregnancy prevention are directed at girls, 1/2 of those involved in teen pregnancies--males--are not participating in programs. This must change for longterm success of these programs and also the involvement of the community and media.
Kuczynski, H J
After a review of the situation regarding adolescent pregnancy in the U.S., some suggestions on how to prevent early pregnancy are offered. About 1/10 of adolescent girls become pregnant annually, over 1/3 of them unmarried, incurring high medical risks to themselves and their babies, as well as a great toll on their education, biological maturation, psychological development, and likelihood of contracting a lasting marriage. Acceptance and help for pregnant adolescents is increasing in society, but prevention is not being addressed, except for recent liberalization of abortion legislation and consent for health care for minors. No single factor can explain this epidemic of teen pregnancy: early dating, lack of parental guidance, and lack of sex education are often cited. Provision of sex education and contraceptive access is regarded as usurping parental responsibility as well as corrupting youth and promoting promiscuity. Responsible freedom, sexual equality and respect should be taught along with biological courses on sex and contraception. It is suggested that training of teachers and nurse/midwives to be more effective counselors will help. Among 12 other suggestions are providing access of contraceptives to teens, coordinating health services, encouraging better communication between parents and teens, emphasizing preventive services, and helping teenagers say "no" to sexual intercourse.
Non-drug addictions are part of us, including children and youth. It is important to realize that non-drug addictions influence us and are underestimated despite their seriousness. They constitute serious social-pathological phenomenon of the present. This Bachelor Thesis deals particularly with prevention and the present situation of socially undesired behaviour that is very widespread in current society. With pathological gambling, mobile phone addiction, virtual addictions, alimentary diso...
Seedial, Stephen M; Ghosh, Soumojit; Saunders, R Scott; Suwanabol, Pasithorn A; Shi, Xudong; Liu, Bo; Kent, K Craig
Despite significant advances in vascular biology, bioengineering, and pharmacology, restenosis remains a limitation to the overall efficacy of vascular reconstructions, both percutaneous and open. Although the pathophysiology of intimal hyperplasia is complex, a number of drugs and molecular tools have been identified that can prevent restenosis. Moreover, the focal nature of this process lends itself to treatment with local drug administration. This article provides a broad overview of current and future techniques for local drug delivery that have been developed to prevent restenosis after vascular interventions. A systematic electronic literature search using PubMed was performed for all accessible published articles through September 2012. In an effort to remain current, additional searches were performed for abstracts presented at relevant societal meetings, filed patents, clinical trials, and funded National Institutes of Health awards. The efficacy of local drug delivery has been demonstrated in the coronary circulation with the current clinical use of drug-eluting stents. Until recently, however, drug-eluting stents were not found to be efficacious in the peripheral circulation. Further pursuit of intraluminal devices has led to the development of balloon-based technologies, with a recent surge in trials involving drug-eluting balloons. Early data appear encouraging, particularly for treatment of superficial femoral artery lesions, and several devices have recently received the Conformité Européene mark in Europe. Investigators have also explored the periadventitial application of biomaterials containing antirestenotic drugs, an approach that could be particularly useful for surgical bypass or endarterectomy. In the past, systemic drug delivery has been unsuccessful; however, there has been recent exploration of intravenous delivery of drugs designed specifically to target injured or reconstructed arteries. Our review revealed a multitude of additional
Oster, R A
A peer counseling program was developed as a method for preventing drug and alcohol abuse among high school juniors and seniors. The program was implemented and the results were monitored to evaluate the impact of the program on the students. An analysis of the data showed that the students were able to learn and utilize peer counseling skills but that the prevention of drug abuse could not be documented in this study. Subjective reports, however, were found to support the effects of the program.
Solov'ev, A G; Novikova, G A
The authors have systematized approaches to the prevention of beer dependence in adolescents and presented the inner structure of prevention in educational institutions in terms of consecutive steps. The author's methods for adolescence beer dependence diagnosis are described. Different forms of preventive work with adolescences and their parents allowing to combine flexibly the preventive methods with the participation of cross-functional specialists are presented.
Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are – among others – sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between
Kozicki, Zigmond A.
Examines reasons that adolescents use alcohol and drugs, including role confusion, developmental factors, parental influence, and peer pressure. Reports that adolescents also abuse substances to feel excitement, cope with personality conflicts, and express their individuality through rebellion. (ABB)
Full Text Available Childhood and adolescence are periods of growth and development that are critical to the formation of adult personality and psychopathology. Moreover, childhood psychopathology may differ significantly in presentation and risk factors from those seen among adults and may require different preventive strategies. Service-related characteristics such as the shortage of trained child and adolescent mental health professionals also demand that the focus should shift from resource-intensive treatment interventions, toward preventive measures that can be delivered at lower cost in terms of workforce, money, and time; and can lead to improved outcomes for a wide variety of conditions. Preventive strategies that have been implemented in this population have mostly included both preventive measures (aiming at reducing the prevalence of risk factors and promotive components (aimed at increasing resilience and positive mental health characteristics, usually in combination. Interventions have been shown to be most effective when they are targeted at underlying latent structures that predict risk; they are also more effective when delivered over a prolonged period. Interventions must also be formulated such that they are developmentally appropriate, and with clearly stated outcome parameters for evaluation. A few example interventions that have made use of these strategies are discussed in the course of this article.
Rogol Alan D
Full Text Available Abstract Doping with endocrine drugs is quite prevalent in amateur and professional athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA has a list of banned drugs for athletes who compete and a strategy to detect such drugs. Some are relatively easy, anabolic steroids and erythropoietin, and others more difficult, human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I. The use of such compounds is likely less in adolescent athletes, but the detection that much more difficult given that the baseline secretion of the endogenous hormone is shifting during pubertal development with the greatest rise in testosterone in boys occuring about the time of peak height velocity and maximal secretion of hGH and IGF-I. This review notes the rationale, physiology, performance enhancement, adverse events and the detection of doping with insulin, rhGH, rhIGF-I, erythropoietin, and anabolic-androgenic steroids.
Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Minelli, Mark
To evaluate the consistency of the relationship between early drug use in adolescence and illegal drug use in adulthood as proposed in the "gateway theory" and to determine whether pre-existing depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. We used contractual data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult health data spanning a 14 year period. We assessed the relationship between gateway drugs at baseline (age 11-20 years) and drug use in adulthood using generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression models. Gateways drugs used in early adolescence were significantly associated with marijuana use, illegal drugs and cocaine in older adolescence, but over time these relationships were not consistent in adulthood. Changes in the pattern of psychoactive drug use were important predictors of drug use in adulthood. A history of higher depressive symptoms was associated with higher frequencies of psychoactive drug use over time. Users of mental health services in adolescence were less likely to use drugs in older adolescence and in adulthood. Relationships between early drug use and later drug use in adulthood cannot be solely explained by the gateway hypothesis. Collectively, adolescent drug prevention and treatment programs should apply theory-based and evidence-proven multisectoral intervention strategies rather than providing a brief counseling on individual's behaviors. This evidence should include understanding that changes in behavior should involve broader analyses of the underlying social context for drug use and in particular the role of the community social norms in driving a group's behaviors.
Cousineau, D.; Savard, M.; Allard, D.
Illicit drug use was studied in 2071 students 11 to 18 years of age. Almost all drug users had friends who consumed drugs, compared with only one third of those who did not use drugs. This suggests a bond between adolescent drug users, who form a distinct group of which most students are unaware.
Henry, Kimberly L
The process of disengagement from prosocial entities (e.g., family and school) and either simultaneous or subsequent engagement with antisocial entities (e.g., friends who use drugs) is a critical contributor to adolescent drug use and delinquency. This study provides a series of formal mediation tests to demonstrate the relationship between poor family attachment, poor school attachment, involvement with friends who use drugs, and a student's own use of drugs. Results indicate that poor family attachment exerts its effect on drug use through poor school attachment and involvement with friends who use drugs. In addition, poor school attachment exerts its effect on drug use through involvement with friends who use drugs. The results of this study corroborate theories that suggest disengagement from prosocial entities is associated with involvement with antisocial entities and eventual involvement in drug use. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed. 2008 APA
Vicary, Judith R.; Resnik, Henry
This monograph is designed to help employers, employees, managers, and union officials develop effective workplace policies and programs to prevent drug and alcohol abuse and other health problems. The text of the monograph: (1) presents information regarding the costs of drug and alcohol use in the workplace, and evidence of potential…
Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Paddock, Susan; Chiesa, James
School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for…
Tucker, J B; Barone, J E; Stewart, J; Hogan, R J; Sarnelle, J A; Blackwood, M M
To identify an effective medium for communicating with adolescents in a large-scale, cost-effective violence prevention program. A set of youth violence prevention programs was established at The Stamford Hospital, a level II trauma center. The traveling version of the program was presented to middle school students in four parts: 1) a rap music video created by our violence prevention staff, 2) a facilitated discussion about dealing with anger, 3) a video of a trauma resuscitation in our emergency department, and 4) a commercial video of a teenage boy paralyzed after a gunshot wound. A written questionnaire with a five-point rating scale (1 to 5) was used to survey the audience 1 month after the program. The survey assessed the respondents' recall of each part of the program and the perceptions of the value of each part in identifying the problem of violence and reducing violent behavior. Of 99 respondents, the highest ratings for retention, problem identification, and impact were given to the commercial video (combined average category ranking of 11.394) and the rap music video (11.182). The trauma resuscitation video and the discussion of anger were ranked as being less effective (10.253 and 9.383, respectively). The audience seemed to comprehend the main point of the program and ranked the program, as a whole, higher than any of the parts when measured by success at problem identification and impact. Effective communication with adolescents is possible through many avenues. Children of the video age respond well to visual material. A violence prevention program should incorporate effective multimedia presentations. A variety of methods in combination proves to be most effective.
Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Lipari, Rachel; Dowd, William N; Aldridge, Arnie P; Novak, Scott P
Nonmedical prescription drug use is estimated to be the second most abused category of drugs after marijuana among adolescents. Prescription drugs can be highly addictive and prolonged use can produce neurological changes and physiological dependence and could result in adverse mental health outcomes. This topic is largely unexplored, as current knowledge of possible mechanisms of the linkage between adverse mental health consequences and prescription drug misuse is limited. This study explores the relationship between nonmedical use of prescription drugs and depression outcomes among adolescents. Given their complex and confounded relationship, our purpose is to better understand the extent to which nonmedical use of prescription drugs is an antecedent of depressive episodes. Using data from the 2008-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the study employs a propensity score matching methodology to ascertain whether nonmedical use of prescription drugs is linked to major depressive episodes among adolescents. The results document a positive relationship between nonmedical prescription drug use and major depressive episodes among adolescents. Specifically, the results indicate that adolescents who used prescription drugs non-medically are 33% to 35% more likely to experience major depressive episodes compared to their non-abusing counterparts. This provides additional evidence about the potential public health consequences of misuse of prescription drugs on adverse mental health outcomes. Given the significant increased risk of major depressive episode among adolescents who use prescription drugs nonmedically, it seems that the prevention of nonmedical prescription drug use warrants the utilization of both educational and public health resources. An important area for future research is to understand how any policy initiatives in this area must strike a balance between the need to minimize the misuse of prescription drugs and the need to ensure access for
Swendsen, Joel; Burstein, Marcy; Case, Brady; Conway, Kevin P.; Dierker, Lisa; He, Jianping; Merikangas, Kathleen R.
Context Comprehensive descriptions of substance use and abuse trajectories have been lacking in nationally representative samples of adolescents. Objective To examine the prevalence, age at onset, and sociodemographic correlates of alcohol and illicit drug use and abuse among US adolescents. Design Cross-sectional survey of adolescents using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Setting Combined household and school adolescent samples. Participants Nationally representative sample of 10 123 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Main Outcome Measures Lifetime estimates of alcohol and illicit substance use and DSM-IV diagnoses of abuse, with or without dependence. Results By late adolescence, 78.2% of US adolescents had consumed alcohol, 47.1% had reached regular drinking levels defined by at least 12 drinks within a given year, and 15.1% met criteria for lifetime abuse. The opportunity to use illicit drugs was reported by 81.4% of the oldest adolescents, drug use by 42.5%, and drug abuse by 16.4%. The median age at onset was 14 years for alcohol abuse with or without dependence, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 years for drug abuse without dependence. The associations observed by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity often varied significantly by previous stage of use. Conclusions Alcohol and drug use is common in US adolescents, and the findings of this study indicate that most cases of abuse have their initial onset in this important period of development. Prevention and treatment efforts would benefit from careful attention to the correlates and risk factors that are specific to the stage of substance use in adolescents. PMID:22474107
Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Grey, Margaret
To compare the effectiveness of two school-based internet obesity prevention programs for diverse adolescents on body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, and self-efficacy, and to explore moderators of program efficacy. It was hypothesized that the addition of coping skills training to a health education and behavioral support program would further enhance health outcomes. A randomized clinical trial with cluster randomization by class and repeated measures with follow-up at 3 and 6 months was conducted (n = 384). BMI was assessed by use of standard procedures. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, nutrition behavior, self-efficacy, and satisfaction were assessed with self-report measures. Data analysis consisted of mixed model analyses with autoregressive covariance structure for repeated data by use of intent-to-treat procedures. The mean age of students was 15.31 years (±0.69), with a mean BMI of 24.69 (±5.58). The majority were girls (62%) and of diverse race/ethnicity (65% non-white). There were no significant differences between groups on any outcomes and no change in BMI over time. There were significant improvements in health behaviors (sedentary behavior, moderate and vigorous physical activity, healthy eating, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar beverages, and junk food intake) and self-efficacy. Gender and lesson completion moderated select health outcomes. There was excellent participation and high satisfaction with the programs. School-based internet obesity prevention programs are appealing to adolescents and improve health behaviors. The differential effect of coping skills training may require longer follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
In 2014, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia joined Colorado and Washington as voters approved initiatives to legally regulate and tax marijuana for adults. Other states, including California, are likely to follow in 2016. While none of these new laws allow sales to minors, there is widespread concern about the potential impact of these reforms on teenagers. Many worry that legalization will "send the wrong message," and increase access and availability, leading to an escalation in teenage use. This new social, political and cultural context presents a new challenge, as marijuana gradually becomes a normal part of the adult world, akin to alcohol. The movement toward legalization provides an opportunity to re-think our approach to teen drug education/prevention. This is the moment to examine current approaches, and devise innovative, pragmatic strategies for dealing with teens and marijuana (and other drug use). As we examine the issue of drug education/prevention in the context of legalization, we detail efforts that have been tried, and what is realistically possible to accomplish, with the health and safety of teenagers our highest priority. A reality-based approach advocates honest, science-based information; encourages moderation, if experimentation persists; promotes an understanding of the legal consequences and social context of drug use; emphasizes safety through personal responsibility and knowledge; and encourages the delay of experimentation with all intoxicating substances until adulthood.
Richardson, Gale A.; Larkby, Cynthia; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.
Objective: To investigate the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent drug use, while controlling for other predictors of adolescent use. Method: Data are from a longitudinal study of PCE in which women and their offspring were assessed throughout childhood. Adolescents were interviewed at 15 years about their age at…
Daniels, Stephen R; Arnett, Donna K; Eckel, Robert H; Gidding, Samuel S; Hayman, Laura L; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Robinson, Thomas N; Scott, Barbara J; St Jeor, Sachiko; Williams, Christine L
The prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents has dramatically increased. There may be vulnerable periods for weight gain during childhood and adolescence that also offer opportunities for prevention of overweight. Overweight in children and adolescents can result in a variety of adverse health outcomes, including type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. The best approach to this problem is prevention of abnormal weight gain. Several strategies for prevention are presented. In addition, treatment approaches are presented, including behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical treatment. Childhood and adolescent overweight is one of the most important current public health concerns.
Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.
The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…
Fiedler, Milla Wildemberg; Araújo, Alisson; Souza, Márcia Christina Caetano de
The objective of the research is to understand the vision of adolescents on the prevention of adolescent pregnancy in a school in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais. This is a descriptive study, exploratory, with a qualitative approach, with 14 adolescents. Semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed and interpreted by discourse analysis. The analysis of the reports of the subjects interviewed originated four empirical categories: perception about the importance of preventing tee...
Hohl, Bernadette C; Wiley, Shari; Wiebe, Douglas J; Culyba, Alison J; Drake, Rebecca; Branas, Charles C
Homicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents in the United States and the leading cause of death for adolescents who are African American. Large cities have disproportionate homicide rates. To determine the relationships between exposures to drugs and alcohol at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels and adolescent firearm homicide and to inform new approaches to preventing firearm violence. Population-based case-control study from January 2010 to December 2012 of all 13- to 20-year-olds who were homicide victims in Philadelphia during the study period matched to randomly selected 13- to 20-year-old controls from the general population. Individual drug and alcohol use at the time of injury, history of drug and alcohol use, caregiver drug and alcohol use, and neighborhood availability of alcohol and illegal drugs. We also controlled for age, race, school suspensions, arrests, and neighborhood ethnicity. Adolescent firearm homicide identified from police and medical examiner's reports. We enrolled 161 adolescent homicide cases, including 157 (97.5%) firearm homicide cases and 172 matched controls, including 166 (96.5%) firearm homicide controls. Adolescents with a history of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.1; 95% CI, 1.2-14.0) or drug use (AOR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.7-11.6) had increased odds of firearm homicide. Adolescents whose caregiver had a history of drug use had increased odds of firearm homicide (AOR, 11.7; 95% CI, 2.8-48.0). Adolescents in neighborhoods with high densities of alcohol outlets (AOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.1-9.1) and moderate or high drug availability had increased odds of firearm homicide (AOR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.1-10.3 vs AOR, 7.5; 95% CI, 2.2-25.8). Almost all adolescent homicides in Philadelphia between 2010 and 2012 were committed with a firearm. Substance use at the individual, family, and neighborhood levels was associated with increased odds of adolescent firearm homicide; drug use was associated at all 3 levels and
Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.
Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a
Malmberg, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Kleinjan, M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Background: Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a
Amey, C H; Albrecht, S L; Miller, M K
Contrary to popular stereotypes, current studies of adolescent populations suggest that Black teens are less likely to use illicit drugs than are White teens. This study investigates the extent to which differences in religiosity are responsible for racial differences in drug use. Using data from a national survey of United States high school seniors, our results indicate that religion does provide some protection from drug use by adolescents. However, religiosity has less of an impact on the drug use of Black adolescents, perhaps as a result of the diverse roles of the Black church.
Oringanje, Chioma; Meremikwu, Martin M; Eko, Hokehe; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Anne; Ehiri, John E
Unintended pregnancy among adolescents represents an important public health challenge in high-income countries, as well as middle- and low-income countries. Numerous prevention strategies such as health education, skills-building and improving accessibility to contraceptives have been employed by countries across the world, in an effort to address this problem. However, there is uncertainty regarding the effects of these interventions, hence the need to review the evidence-base. To assess the effects of primary prevention interventions (school-based, community/home-based, clinic-based, and faith-based) on unintended pregnancies among adolescents. We searched all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status up to November 2015. We searched the Cochrane Fertility Regulation Group Specialised trial register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015 Issue 11), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts Online, The Gray Literature Network, HealthStar, PsycINFO, CINAHL and POPLINE and the reference lists of articles. We included both individual and cluster randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating any interventions that aimed to increase knowledge and attitudes relating to risk of unintended pregnancies, promote delay in the initiation of sexual intercourse and encourage consistent use of birth control methods to reduce unintended pregnancies in adolescents aged 10 years to 19 years. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. Where appropriate, binary outcomes were pooled using a random-effects model with a 95% confidence interval (Cl). Where appropriate, we combined data in meta-analyses and assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 53 RCTs that enrolled 105,368 adolescents. Participants were ethnically diverse. Eighteen studies randomised individuals, 32
Li, X; Feigelman, S; Stanton, B; Galbraith, J; Huang, W
To test the hypothesis that involvement in drug trafficking leads to illicit drug use among urban African-American adolescents. Self-reports of substance use, illicit drug use, and drug trafficking were obtained at baseline and every 6 months for 24 months from 383 African-American early adolescents. Transitions between involvement in drug trafficking and illicit drug use over time were examined. Path analysis was conducted to examine the causal relation between drug trafficking and drug use. Among the 35 youth who were initially involved only in drug trafficking, 22 (67%) subsequently used illicit drugs. Of the 53 youth who were initially involved only in illicit drug use, only 19 (42%) continued using drugs at later waves (p drug trafficking had a strong effect on subsequent drug trafficking and drug use, whereas baseline drug use did not have an effect on subsequent drug use or drug trafficking. Initiation of drug trafficking by adolescents appears to lead to sustained involvement in drug-related activities, including continued drug trafficking and drug use. By contrast, initiation of drug use does not necessarily lead to continued involvement in drug-related behaviors.
Li, Xiaoming; And Others
Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…
Ten years after publication of the UK Government's strategy for drug misuse in 1995, Tackling Drugs Together, the impact of drug education and prevention programmes remains less than desired. The 1995 strategy envisaged a new emphasis on education and prevention and there have been developments since then in drug education, especially with…
Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka
Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.
Wu, Ying; Stanton, Bonita F; Li, Xiaoming; Galbraith, Jennifer; Cole, Matthew L
To assess health protection motivation as explained by the constructs of protection motivation theory (PMT) and its association with drug trafficking over 2 years. The sample included 817 African American youth (13-16 years old) participating in an adolescent risk-reduction program. We developed an instrument measuring the level of health protection motivation (LHPM) using factor analysis. Changes in LHPM over time were examined among drug traffickers, abstainers, initiators, and nonrisk youths. In sum, 151 participants reported selling and/or delivering drugs during the study period. The significant inverse correlation between drug-trafficking intention and health protection motivation was consistent with PMT. Changes in LHPM were strongly associated with the dynamics of behavior over 2 years. Adolescent drug trafficking can be predicted by an overall level of health protection motivation. PMT and related theories should be considered in the design of drug-trafficking prevention intervention.
Aquilino, M L; Bragadottir, H
To elicit the views of teens concerning effective strategies to prevent pregnancy. Qualitative methods and a focus group approach were used. The sample consisted of male and female adolescents, 14 to 19 years of age, in grades 9 to 12, who volunteered to participate in the study. Seven groups of teens met with the investigator twice over 2 consecutive weeks. Instruments included a Screening Questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guidelines. Teens were concerned about teen pregnancy, and supported a comprehensive approach to sex education beginning in the early elementary grades, with age and developmentally appropriate content and reinforcement from late grade school through high school. Generally, teens thought that teaching abstinence in grade school followed by contraception education in junior high and high school was a realistic strategy for pregnancy prevention. They wanted to discuss sexual feelings as well as the mechanical aspects of sex. Finally, they did not want to be told not to have sex, but rather wanted to be guided in their own decision making. Teens wanted parents and other adults to be involved in helping them understand sexuality and make decisions about sexual behavior. Nurses who work with families need to understand why teens are becoming pregnant, provide opportunities for teens to discuss sexual behavior, and educate parents on sexual development and parent-child communication. Nurses also need to let parents and teens know that they are a resource for information, guidance, and health services related to sexual development and behavior.
... Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain ... regarding prevention and treatment of MDMA. ( September 2017 ) View all related publications Related NIDA Notes Articles Narrative ...
This dissertation on Harm Reduction approach in the prevention of drug addictions deals with tertiary drug prevention. It aims to show the importance of how much information about this topic students at comprehensive schools get and have. The theoretical part provides some information about the consequences of drug addiction in general, about drug prevention, substitution treatment, Harm Reduction approach and the services involved. The practical part presents the results of a survey which ai...
Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L; Atkinson, Joshua; Tschida, David A
This research employed the theory of reasoned action to investigate the role of authoritative parenting in 3 drug-prevention behaviors: (a) parental monitoring, (b) parent-child discussions, and (c) awareness of the child's environment. A phone survey of 158 parents of adolescents in 7th, 9th, and 11th grades revealed that authoritative parenting was correlated with parenting practices that reduce the likelihood of adolescent drug use, including discussing family rules about drugs, discussing strategies to avoid drugs, discussing those in trouble with drugs, parental monitoring, knowing the child's plans for the coming day, and personally knowing the child's friends well. Additionally, authoritative parenting moderated the attitude-behavioral intention relation for parental monitoring and awareness of the child's environment, with the weakest relation detected for low-authoritative parents. The utility of these findings in helping design and target antidrug messages for parents more effectively is discussed.
Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders experienced by adolescents. Research has shown depression rates are higher in Asian-American adolescents when compared to their European-American counterparts. This paper will investigate possible programs for preventing and responding to Asian-American youths' depression through a…
The provision of adolescent preventive services (APS) is imperative globally among clinicians, especially paediatricians. Adolescents are at a developmental stage that is characterised by experimentation and risk-taking owing to their emerging cognitive abilities and social experiences.[1,2] They are therefore vulnerable ...
Twombly, Eric C.; Holtz, Kristen D.; Agnew, Christine B.
Prescription drug misuse is a major health problem, particularly among teens. A key step in curbing misuse is the development of effective prescription drug prevention messages. This paper explores the elements of prescription drug misuse prevention messages that resonate with teens using data from focus groups with seventh and eighth grade…
Skrzypiec, Grace; Owens, Laurence
In this study adolescents offered their insights and perspectives of factors associated with adolescent illicit drug taking intentions. The factors explored were identified using a cross-disciplinary approach involving the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and criminological theories, and these formed the framework for data analysis. Interviews…
Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.
This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and…
Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young
This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.
Hser, Yih-Ing; Grella, Christine E.; Collins, Cyleste; Teruya, Cheryl
Investigates effects of drug-use initiation and conduct disorder (CD) among 1031 adolescents who participated in the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). The mean age of first drug use was 12.7, 57% met DSM-III-R criteria for CD, and earlier initiators were more likely to have CD. (Contains 27 references and 4 tables.)…
Ierodiakonou, C S
Preventive mental health measures can be properly planned only if the various factors leading to the adolescent's personality structure are extensively investigated. Starting with the specific attitudes of a couple towards genetic counselling, the disadvantages of urbanization and of the dissolution of the traditional extended family are discussed with regard to their effect on the younger members. Data are produced concerning the child-rearing practices of Greek in comparison to American parents and their effect on the adolescent's emotional life. Extreme dependence on the family, pressure for school achievements, lack of sexual education, etc. are characteristic of the stresses a Greek adolescent undergoes. Socio-cultural conditions, like immigration, adoption, etc. are shown to have a different psychological effect on an adolescent in Greece than in America. Specific stresses regarding the adolescent's future, like preparing for university entrance examinations, are discussed and preventive measures are proposed.
Garland, A F; Zigler, E
The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.
Spear, Linda Patia
Studies using animal models of adolescent exposure to alcohol, nicotine, cannabinoids, and the stimulants cocaine, 3,4-Methylenedioxymethampethamine and methamphetamine have revealed a variety of persisting neural and behavioral consequences. Affected brain regions often include mesolimbic and prefrontal regions undergoing notable ontogenetic change during adolescence, although it is unclear whether this represents areas of specific vulnerability or particular scrutiny to date. Persisting alterations in forebrain systems critical for modulating reward, socioemotional processing and cognition have emerged, including apparent induction of a hyper-dopaminergic state with some drugs and/or attenuations in neurons expressing cholinergic markers. Disruptions in cognitive functions such as working memory, alterations in affect including increases in social anxiety, and mixed evidence for increases in later drug self-administration have also been reported. When consequences of adolescent and adult exposure were compared, adolescents were generally found to be more vulnerable to alcohol, nicotine, and cannabinoids, but generally not to stimulants. More work is needed to determine how adolescent drug exposure influences sculpting of the adolescent brain, and provide approaches to prevent/reverse these effects. PMID:27484868
Chan, Gary C K; Kelly, Adrian B; Carroll, Annemaree; Williams, Joanne W
This study examined the association between peer drug use and adolescent polysubstance use, and investigated if this association was moderated by parenting and/or school factors. The sample consisted of 9966 participants (mean age=14.3; 49.34% males) randomly selected from secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Three 30-day polysubstance use profiles were derived from latent class analysis - no drug use (47.7%), mainly alcohol use (44.1%) and polysubstance use (8.2%). These profiles were then regressed on peer's drug use, family conflict, parental monitoring, parental disapproval of drug use, school commitment, reward for prosocial involvement in school and academic failure, and the interactions between peer's drug use and each of the parenting and school variables. Relative to non-users, peer's drug use was strongly associated with polysubstance use (OR=30.91, pSchool commitment and parental monitoring were significantly associated with reduced likelihood of polysubstance use (p<0.05), but they did not moderate the relationship between peer drug use and adolescent polysubstance use. All analyses were adjusted for key demographic factors such as age, gender, areas of residence, birth place and family affluence. Reinforcing parent disapproval of drug use may be an important strategy in reducing adolescent substance use. Parents may need to be more integrated into mainstream prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coker, Tumaini R; Sareen, Harvinder G; Chung, Paul J; Kennedy, David P; Weidmer, Beverly A; Schuster, Mark A
To examine the perspectives of publicly insured adolescents and their parents on ways to encourage adolescent utilization of preventive health services. We conducted eight focus groups with 77 adolescents enrolled in a large Medicaid managed care plan in Los Angeles County, California, and two focus groups with 21 of their parents. Discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Adolescents and parents reported that the most effective way to encourage preventive care utilization among teens was to directly address provider-level barriers related to the timeliness, privacy, confidentiality, comprehensiveness, and continuity of their preventive care. They reported that incentives (e.g., cash, movie tickets, gift cards) might also be an effective way to increase preventive care utilization. To improve adolescent receipt of surveillance and guidance on sensitive health-related topics, most adolescents suggested that the best way to encourage clinician-adolescent discussion was to increase private face-to-face discussions with a clinician with whom they had a continuous and confidential relationship. Adolescents reported that the use of text messaging, e-mail, and Internet for providing information and counseling on various sensitive health-related topics would also encourage adolescent utilization of preventive health services. Parents, however, more often preferred that their teen receive these services through in-office discussions and clinician-provided brochures. State agencies, health plans, clinics, and individual providers may consider focusing their efforts to improve adolescents' utilization of preventive services on basic structural and quality of care issues related to the clinician-patient relationship, access to services, and confidentiality. (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suárez, Cristian; del Moral, Gonzalo; Musitu, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Juan Carlos; John, Bev
The objective of this study is to obtain the views of a sample of adolescents and experts on adolescence, family, school, local policies and media, regarding the effectiveness of institutional policies to prevent adolescent alcohol use. Four educational centers in the province of Seville. Head office of the Alcohol and Society Foundation in Madrid. Qualitative study using the method proposed by Grounded theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Data were collected from 10 discussion groups guided by semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using Atlas ti 5 software. A total of 32 national experts and 40 adolescents of both sexes aged 15 to 20 years living in the province of Seville, selected by theoretical intentional sampling. The experts believed that most of the evaluated preventive actions were effective, while adolescents disputed the preventive impact of most of them. Adolescents proposed actions focused on the reduction of supply of alcohol. Experts proposed a mixed model as the most effective strategy to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents, combining supply and demand reduction policies, depending on specific short and long term objectives. We have obtained, not only an overview of what is working (or not) from the view of adolescents and experts, but also the key points that should be taken into account for designing effective prevention policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali
Effectively reducing adolescents' risky sexual behaviors has been an urgent need since the HIV/AIDS infections among young people has been acknowledged as a priority. Self-efficacy has been considered playing an essential role in behavioral changes, and depressed individuals may demonstrate lower self-efficacy. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to gain insights into self-reported depression among 16-18 years-old Taiwanese adolescents as well as to explore psychosocial predictors of AIDS preventive self-efficacy. A convenience sample of 734 adolescents from southern Taiwan was recruited, and several reliable and valid questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics, odds ratio, independent t-test, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were utilized to analyze data. Results showed that the differences in self-reported depression and in the AIDS preventive self-efficacy varied by gender, substance use, and having sexual experience. Furthermore, depression was a significant predictor of AIDS preventive self-efficacy while controlling the covariates. This study suggests that gender and mental health status such as depression may play significant roles in AIDS preventive self-efficacy. Nurses and health care providers should take the influence of mental health into consideration when designing AIDS preventive interventions for male and female Taiwanese adolescents. The provided information may also enhance psychiatric nurses' capability to provide care and to enhance the prevention of HIV infection for adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ott, Mary A; Alexander, Andreia B; Lally, Michelle; Steever, John B; Zimet, Gregory D
Adolescents have had very limited access to research on biomedical prevention interventions despite high rates of HIV acquisition. One concern is that adolescents are a vulnerable population, and trials carry a possibility of harm, requiring investigators to take additional precautions. Of particular concern is preventive misconception, or the overestimation of personal protection that is afforded by enrolment in a prevention intervention trial. As part of a larger study of preventive misconception in adolescent HIV vaccine trials, we interviewed 33 male and female 16-19-year-olds who have sex with men. Participants underwent a simulated HIV vaccine trial consent process, and then completed a semistructured interview about their understanding and opinions related to enrolment in a HIV vaccine trial. A grounded theory analysis looked for shared concepts, and focused on the content and process of adolescent participants' understanding of HIV vaccination and the components of preventive misconception, including experiment, placebo and randomisation. Across interviews, adolescents demonstrated active processing of information, in which they questioned the interviewer, verbally worked out their answers based upon information provided, and corrected themselves. We observed a wide variety of understanding of research concepts. While most understood experiment and placebo, fewer understood randomisation. All understood the need for safer sex even if they did not understand the more basic concepts. Education about basic concepts related to clinical trials, time to absorb materials and assessment of understanding may be necessary in future biomedical prevention trials.
Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell
Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…
Moore, Sharon E.
Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The current study proposed that empathy may indirectly play a protective role for adolescents in drug use behaviors and that this relationship will be mediated by self-regulatory strategies found in drug refusal efficacy. We predict that empathy will be linked to prosocial behavior and aggression, though we do not believe that they will mediate…
In Africa, HIV is having a devastating impact on young people. Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are unique challenges to implementing adolescent-friendly policies and HIV prevention programs. More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on ...
In Africa, HIV is having a devastating impact on young people. Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are unique challenges to implementing adolescent-friendly policies and HIV prevention programs. More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on ...
Goldman, Ran D.
ABSTRACT QUESTION I frequently see adolescent boys in my practice with transient gynecomastia. My management includes reassuring the boys and their families; however, I also understand that specific medication, alcohol, and drugs can cause gynecomastia. How common is this phenomenon, and what medications can induce gynecomastia? ANSWER While gynecomastia is a physiologic phenomenon in most newborns and adolescents, it is important to consider pathologic conditions and medications that can cause breast enlargement. Antibiotics, antiulcer drugs, growth hormones, and chemotherapy have been reported to induce gynecomastia. Adolescents who use anabolic steroids, or who abuse alcohol, marijuana, heroin, or amphetamines, should be alerted to the fact that gynecomastia might develop. Treatment of drug-induced gynecomastia includes discontinuation of the offending drug. Very rarely is surgical intervention required. PMID:20393092
... Malaria About Malaria FAQs Fast Facts Disease Biology Ecology Human Factors Sickle Cell Mosquitoes Parasites Where Malaria ... medicines, also consider the possibility of drug-drug interactions with other medicines that the person might be ...
Malonda, Elisabeth; Samper, Paula
Background Emotions are potent modulators and motivators of the behaviour that the individual displays in the different situations they have to live and they can act as a protection factor or vulnerability of the adapted or maladaptive behaviour. This study focuses on anxiety in adolescence. Objectives. The objective is, through a longitudinal study, to analyse the psychological processes and emotions that facilitate the symptoms of anxiety and those which protect the adolescent from these symptoms. Material and Methods 417 adolescents (192 boys and 225 girls) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school (81 boys and 85 girls) or the fourth year of secondary school (111 boys and 140 girls). The mean age was 14.70 (SD = 0.68; range = 13-17 years). This study monitored participating adolescents for three years. Results The results indicate a differential profile in the evaluated emotions according to sex, with the girls being the ones to experiment more anxiety and more empathy, while the boys show more emotional instability and aggression. Conclusions It is concluded that the best predictors for anxiety are anger state, aggressive behaviour, empathic concern together with the lack of coping mechanisms focused on problem solving and the perception of stress as a threat. Key words:Adolescence, anxiety, emotions, coping, stress. PMID:27988785
Flynn, Anna B; Falco, Mathea; Hocini, Sophia
Lack of robust program evaluation has hindered the effectiveness of school-based drug abuse prevention curricula overall. Independently evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of universal, middle school-based drug abuse prevention curricula are the most useful indicators of whether such programs are effective or ineffective. To conduct a systematic review identifying independently evaluated RCTs of universal, middle school-based drug abuse prevention curricula; extract data on study quality and substance use outcomes; and assess evidence of program effectiveness. PsycInfo, Educational Resources Information Center, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched between January 1, 1984, and March 15, 2015. Search terms included variations of drug, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, as well as school, prevention, and effectiveness. Studies included in the review were RCTs carried out by independent evaluators of universal school-based drug prevention curricula available for dissemination in the United States that reported alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or other drug use outcomes. Two researchers extracted data on study quality and outcomes independently using a data extraction form and met to resolve disagreements. A total of 5071 publications were reviewed, with 13 articles meeting final inclusion criteria. Of the 13 articles, 6 RCTs of 4 distinct school-based curricula were identified for inclusion. Outcomes were reported for 42 single-drug measures in the independent RCTs, with just 3 presenting statistically significant (P drug prevention curricula. Independent evaluations show little evidence of effectiveness for widely used programs. New methods may be necessary to approach school-based adolescent drug prevention.
Lemieux, Anthony F; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Pratto, Felicia
This research examines the process of conducting and evaluating a music-based HIV prevention intervention among urban adolescents, and is informed by the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model. Musically talented opinion leaders were recruited to write, record, and distribute HIV prevention themed music to their peers to increase HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors. In this 3-month field experiment, participants were 306 students enrolled in health classes at each of three large multiracial urban high schools (one treatment school; two control schools). Measures of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors, both pre- and postintervention. Results indicate that the intervention influenced several aspects of HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and condom use and HIV testing behaviors. This research demonstrates that the incorporation of music into HIV prevention interventions for adolescents has the potential to be effective.
Roe, Stephen; Becker, Jane
The aim of this study was to carry out a comprehensive and systematic review of the literature on drug-use prevention with vulnerable young people. A search of electronic databases was conducted to find evaluations of prevention programmes targeted at high-risk young people and including illegal drug use as an outcome measure. Sixteen relevant…
Nenadic-Bilan, Diana; Vigato, Teodora
The national strategies of drug abuse prevention across Europe have come to recognise that the drug abuse problem presents a complex set of issues of which there is no simple solution. There is a considerable increase in investment in prevention, treatment and harm-reduction activities and increased focus on supply reduction. School settings are…
Ma, Wei-Fen; Chao, Fen-Hao; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Chiang, Li-Chi
As adolescent girls have specific healthcare needs, this paper was designed to provide a better understanding of their healthcare needs in both physical and psychosocial terms. After conducting a targeted review of the literature on children and adolescents, we identified factors of importance to physical health as body weight, physical activity, menstruation, sexual knowledge and attitude and to psychosocial health as anxiety, interpersonal relationships, depression, and suicide behavior. Reflecting these factors, this paper presents four preventive suggestions to clinical practice, education, and research to facilitate improvements in adolescent girl's health. These suggestions include: 1) strengthening health education and media responsibility with regard to adolescent girl health; 2) improving awareness of the needs of adolescent girls within healthcare and education organizations; 3) making health guidelines for promoting proper health behavior in adolescent girls; and 4) mobilizing nurses to assert the health of adolescent girls in clinical, education, and research fields. This is the first paper that focuses on the health needs of adolescent Taiwanese girls. The authors hope that more people become involved in the care of adolescent girl's health in Taiwan.
Rodriguez, Daniel M; Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C
Serious educational games (SEG) have been shown to be effective in educating young people about a range of topics, including languages and maths. This paper identifies the use of computerised SEGs in education about alcohol and other drugs and reviews their impact on the prevention of alcohol and drug use. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ERIC, Scopus, psychINFO, pubMED and DRUG databases were searched in February 2013. Additional publications were obtained from the reference lists of the relevant papers. Studies were included if they described an evaluation of a computerised SEG that targeted alcohol and/or other drugs and had been trialled with adolescents. Eight SEGs were identified targeting tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, methamphetamine, ecstasy, inhalants, cocaine and opioids. Six reported positive outcomes in terms of increased content knowledge and two reported increased negative attitudes towards the targeted drugs. Only one reported a decrease in the frequency of drug use. This is the first review of the efficacy of computerised SEGs for alcohol and other drugs for adolescents. Results suggest that SEGs can increase content knowledge of alcohol and other drugs. Evidence concerning impacts on negative attitudes and alcohol and drug use is limited, with few studies examining these outcomes. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available Irrational drug use is one of the main health problems all over the world, especially in developing countries. Limited studies about irrational drug use examples showed that main defects. These are polypharmacy, use of drug drug incompatible with diagnosis, inappropriate use of antibiotics, unnecessary use of expensive drug and people's self-treatment with over the counter and prescribing drugs. There are many reasons for irrational drug use. The main reasons are lack of education, socio-cultural, economic and resulting from regulatory mechanism factors. These reasons affect each other, so problems become more complicated. Reasons resulting from pharmacist and doctors occurs basic of irrational drug use. So attitude of doctors and pharmacist toward rational drug use should be evaluated for resolve defects, formal and non-formal education should be continually used and improved. Rational drug use policies should be developed involving drug companies, doctors, pharmacists and patients. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(4.000: 452-462
Fuentes, María C; García, Fernando; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol
This study analyzes the relationship between a multidimensional measure of self-concept, the Self-concept Form-5 Questionnaire (AF5), and drug use among adolescents. From the responses of 632 participants (47.5% females) aged 12 to 17 years (M = 14.88 years, SD = 1.71 years), results showed negative relationships between family, academic and physical self-concept, and drug use. Although a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use was found, this significant relationship disappeared once the age and sex of adolescents was controlled statistically. Moreover, the study includes other adjustment indicators in adolescence (psychological adjustment, personal competence, antisocial behavior and parenting). Results support the idea of self-concept as an important correlate of psychological well-being and a basic theoretical construct for explaining adjusted and adaptive behaviors in adolescence. Likewise, our results underline the need for statistical control of the effect of a third variable (sex), which could explain some contradictory results reported in the literature (a positive relationship between social self-concept and drug use), so as to avoid reaching conclusions based on spurious relationships. self-concept, multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, adolescence, psychosocial adjustment, drug use.
Blüher, S; Kromeyer-Hauschild, K; Graf, C; Grünewald-Funk, D; Widhalm, K; Korsten-Reck, U; Markert, J; Güssfeld, C; Müller, M J; Moss, A; Wabitsch, M; Wiegand, S
Current guidelines for the prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence are presented. A literature search was performed in Medline via PubMed, and appropriate studies were analysed. Programs to prevent childhood obesity were to date mainly school-based. Effects were limited to date. Analyses tailored to different age groups show that prevention programs have the best effects in younger children (adolescence, school-based interventions were most effective when adolescents were directly addressed. To date, obesity prevention programs have mainly focused on behavior oriented prevention. Recommendations for condition oriented prevention have been suggested by the German Alliance of Non-communicable Diseases and include one hour of physical activity at school, promotion of healthy food choices by taxing unhealthy foods, mandatory quality standards for meals at kindergarten and schools as well as a ban on unhealthy food advertisement addressing children. Behavior oriented prevention programs showed hardly any or only limited effects in the long term. Certain risk groups for the development of obesity are not reached effectively by available programs. Due to the heterogeneity of available studies, universally valid conclusions cannot be drawn. The combination with condition oriented prevention, which has to counteract on an obesogenic environment, is crucial for sustainable success of future obesity prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Metzger, David S.; Zhang, Yan
Research conducted during the first 20 years of the AIDS epidemic provided a solid foundation of data supporting methadone treatment as HIV prevention. Drug users in methadone treatment were consistently found to reduce the frequency of drug use, risk behaviors, and infections. These data have been consistent over time and across cultural settings and have been used to promote the expansion of drug treatment as a prevention intervention. More recently, data has emerged suggesting the preventi...
Suicide is the third most common cause of death among adolescents globally, and poisoning is the leading method of attempted suicide. Survival after self-poisoning or drug overdose (OD) is common, providing an opportunity for secondary prevention. The aim of this study was to highlight pattern of presentations and preceding factors of OD in an adolescent population. We retrospectively evaluated the data of 85 adolescents presenting to a large regional hospital with OD over a 3-year period. The female-to-male ratio was 4.3:1. The median age of adolescents was 15.83 (range: 11.32 – 16.98) years. History of deliberate self-harm (DSH) was documented in 44.7%. Twenty-eight (33%) patients had been under the care of the CAMHS prior to index admission. Acetaminophen was the commonest drug used. Depression was the most common cause of mental illness in the study group. Substance abuse and conduct disorder were significantly commoner in males (p<0.05). Self-poisoning including OD in adolescence is a strong predictor of suicide; understanding the probable triggers can be significant in establishing appropriate prevention strategies.
A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…
Full Text Available Ken C Winters,1,3 Emily E Tanner-Smith,2 Elena Bresani,3 Kathleen Meyers31Department of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, 2Peabody Research Institute, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 3Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Research on the development and efficacy of drug abuse treatment for adolescents has made great strides recently. Several distinct models have been studied, and these approaches range from brief interventions to intensive treatments. This paper has three primary aims: to provide an overview of conceptual issues relevant to treating adolescents suspected of drug-related problems, including an overview of factors believed to contribute to a substance use disorder, to review the empirical treatment outcome literature, and to identify areas of need and promising directions for future research.Keywords: adolescent drug abuse, treatment
Dobrovolny, Hana; Deecke, Lucas
Severe, long-lasting influenza infections are often caused by new strains of influenza. The long duration of these infections leads to an increased opportunity for the emergence of drug resistant mutants. This is particularly problematic for new strains of influenza since there is often no vaccine, so drug treatment is the first line of defense. One strategy for trying to minimize drug resistance is to apply periodic treatment. During treatment the wild-type virus decreases, but resistant virus might increase; when there is no treatment, wild-type virus will hopefully out-compete the resistant virus, driving down the number of resistant virus. We combine a mathematical model of severe influenza with a model of drug resistance to study emergence of drug resistance during a long-lasting infection. We apply periodic treatment with two types of antivirals: neuraminidase inhibitors, which block release of virions; and adamantanes, which block replication of virions. We compare the efficacy of the two drugs in reducing emergence of drug resistant mutants and examine the effect of treatment frequency on the emergence of drug resistant mutants.
New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.
This report describes the efforts of the New Jersey State Department of Education to assist local school districts in a comprehensive approach to combat drug and alcohol abuse in the schools. The introduction examines the drug and alcohol problems of students in New Jersey and discusses the State Board of Education's recent adoption of the first…
Andersen, John Sahl; Lindberg, Laura Maria Glahder; Nixon, Michael Simon
of death in the United States. The public expenses to drug treatment are constantly increasing. The possibility to withdraw the medication must be taken into account but the decision to discontinue drugs is complex and poorly understood. Planned studies: 1. Patients’ views upon discontinuation...
Georgina Amayuela Mora
Full Text Available In Ecuador the profound social, have been creating the conditions for the development of new conceptions in the education of the sexuality. The necessity of taking actions in relation with the education of the sexuality is a challenge for the educators and the health personal. The objective of this paper is to offer psycho-pedagogical foundations for the prevention of adolescent pregnancy Theoretical and empiric methods were used in the present investigation, mainly. The work provides a system of psycho-pedagogical grounds to take into account in any proposal for adolescent pregnancy prevention.
Krug, Samuel E.; Henry, Thomas J.
Interrelationships between patterns of drug abuse and personality and motivation were determined for male and female subjects. Significant sex differences were found with respect to drug behavior. Females used amphetamines more frequently than males and also showed greater multiple drug use. (Author)
Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol is the most widely used substance among adolescents, exceeding the use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The study aims at investigating the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and prevalence and knowledge of Drug Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA among Italian adolescents. Methods: The study population was a sample of 512 students of secondary education (high school from 3 public schools in Milan, Italy. Two hundred and fourty-nine boys and 263 girls aged 15 to 21 years old (M = 16.2, SD = 2.1 answered a specially structured anonymous questionnaire. Results: Recent problem drinking (‘every day’ or ‘once a week’ was reported from 9% (‘wine’ up to 28% (‘beer’ of students. Cannabis and rave drugs usage (ranged from ‘every day’ to ‘once only in a while’ were reported by up to 38% (‘cannabis’ and 2% (‘rave drugs’ of students. Beer was the most popular type of alcoholic beverage (81% with respect to wine (62% and hard liquor (66%. Only a small percentage of participants stated that they were informed about the possible addiction to alcohol (5% and its negative social consequences (3%. Nevertheless, almost all the students (92% declared that alcohol consumption was less dangerous than other psychoactive substances. Finally, most students stated to know DFSA phenomenon (77% and were victims or witness (13% of a DFSA event. Conclusion: Psychoactive substances consumption remains a serious problem among Italian adolescents. For a successful alcohol strategy there is a need to implement preventive measures and counseling approaches in school. Increasing the knowledge of the negative effects of alcohol/drugs use might also lead to a better prevention of the DFSA phenomenon.
Chang, Chiu-Ching; Liao, Jung-Yu; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Hsu, Hsiao-Pei; Chen, Chih-Che; Guo, Jong-Long
Studies indicate that adolescent-onset drug users experience a greater likelihood of dependence that continues into adulthood. The importance of early intervention was evident in treating adolescents before their substance use progressed. We examined the effectiveness of an intervention program that prevents students who experiment with drugs from reusing them. The study was based on 10 out of 18 invited schools that were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (5 schools, n = 43) or the comparison group (5 schools, n = 41). The intervention group received an E-course program that comprised a main intervention course (12 sessions) and a booster course (2 sessions). By reducing the burden of teaching content during the 14 sessions, the in-class counselor had opportunities for face-to-face discussions with students on their ambivalence toward quitting illegal drugs. The comparison group received the conventional didactic drug prevention course (2 sessions). Outcomes in terms of stress management, refusal skills, pros of drug use, cons of drug use, and drug use resistance self-efficacy were measured via structured questionnaires conducted thrice: at baseline, after the main intervention sessions, and after the booster sessions. A linear mixed model (LMM) was employed to investigate the effects of time and groups on the outcome variables with group, time, and group × time as fixed effects. Subjects and schools were selected as random effects in order to consider both within-subject and within-school correlations. There was a significant group × time interaction with regard to stress management, refusal skills, pros of drug use, and drug use resistance self-efficacy, excluding cons of drug use. The intervention group displayed better stress management compared to the comparison group after the booster intervention. Similar between-group differences were identified in that the intervention group displayed better refusal skills and drug use
Levy, Sharon; Siqueira, Lorena M; Ammerman, Seth D; Gonzalez, Pamela K; Ryan, Sheryl A; Siqueira, Lorena M; Smith, Vincent C
Drug testing is often used as part of an assessment for substance use in children and adolescents. However, the indications for drug testing and guidance on how to use this procedure effectively are not clear. The complexity and invasiveness of the procedure and limitations to the information derived from drug testing all affect its utility. The objective of this clinical report is to provide guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians on the efficacy and efficient use of drug testing on the basis of a review of the nascent scientific literature, policy guidelines, and published clinical recommendations.
Ducoffe, Aaron R; Baehr, Avi; Peña, Juliet C; Rider, Briana B; Yang, Sandra; Hu, Dale J
Adverse drug events (ADEs) have been highlighted as a national patient safety and public health challenge by the National Action Plan for Adverse Drug Event Prevention (ADE Action Plan), which was released by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in August 2014. The following October, the ADE Prevention: 2014 Action Plan Conference provided an opportunity for federal agencies, national experts, and stakeholders to coordinate and collaborate in the initiative to reduce preventable ADEs. The single-day conference included morning plenary sessions focused on the surveillance, evidence-based prevention, incentives and oversights, and additional research needs of the drug classes highlighted in the ADE Action Plan: anticoagulants, diabetes agents, and opioids. Afternoon breakout sessions allowed for facilitated discussions on measures for tracking national progress in ADE prevention and the identification of opportunities to ensure safe and high-quality health care and medication use. © The Author(s) 2015.
D'Hondt, W; Vandewiele, M
Though it may appear more severe and dramatic in most industrialized nations, drug addiction has also become a matter for concern in some developing nations. The problem is even more complex when, prior to the advent of colonialism and the adoption of Western values by those countries, there already existed traditional forms of drug addiction. This paper examines the attitudes of Senegalese school-going adolescents to the problem of drug addiction. It describes the nature, development, and perception of drug addiction in the country from an historical and sociological point of view. It shows the tolerance of Senegalese society toward drugs - some were used in traditional medicine - and its rejection of "hard" and intermediate drugs, as they are viewed negatively by the society. The authors finally analyze the motivations of the drug addicts which also indicate, in Africa as in the West, a crisis of identity reflecting a global crisis of civilization.
Hops, H; Tildesley, E; Lichtenstein, E; Ary, D; Sherman, L
This study reports on the social problem-solving interactions of young adolescents in single-parent and intact families on substance-specific and nonsubstance-related issues. Although research has shown the impact of families on adolescent substance use, all of the previous results have been based on questionnaire or interview data. A sample of 128 families was selected from a larger sample of 763 within a longitudinal study of adolescent substance use. Parent(s) and one adolescent, aged 11-15, participated in interactions which were videotaped for later coding. In three standard scenarios, the families discussed fictional assignments from a health class teacher about the use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana. In addition, they discussed an issue salient to them that was the source of recent conflict. Results showed that aversive affective behavior was more likely to be displayed by substance-using adolescents, whether or not the issue was drug-related. Mothers' and fathers' alcohol use was also shown to contribute to alcohol and cigarette use among their children, while fathers' smoking contributed to marijuana and hard drug use. These data suggest that such families may not be skilled at resolving issues and coping with life's difficulties whether or not they are drug-related.
Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M
This study examined psychosocial correlates of drug and alcohol abuse in hospitalized adolescents and the extent to which these associations may be affected by ethnicity. Four hundred fifty-eight psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-19, completed measures of psychological functioning, environmental stress, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Multiple regression analyses examined the joint and independent predictors of drug and alcohol abuse for European Americans, Latino Americans, and African Americans separately. Seven variables--age, depression, impulsivity, low self-esteem, delinquent predisposition, low peer insecurity, and history of child abuse--jointly predicted drug abuse for all groups, and predicted alcohol abuse for European Americans and Latino Americans. However, several differences were noted with respect to which variables made independent contributions to the model. Such differences may reflect distinct risk factors for drug and alcohol abuse in these three ethnic groups and may also have implications for prevention and treatment programs.
Santelli, John S.; And Others
Special edition discusses adolescent sexuality, focusing on pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and prevention. The articles focus on demographics, risk factors, school-based risk reduction programs, contraception, early intervention, options, school-based prenatal and postpartum care programs, teenage parenting, abortion, HIV and AIDS,…
Davis, Sean; Huebner, Angela; Piercy, Fred; Shettler, Lauren; Meszaros, Peggy S.; Matheson, Jennifer
The present researchers used a multi-wave Delphi methodology to determine what 14 knowledgeable substance abuse professionals believe are the most appropriate smoking prevention practices for female adolescents. While there was some agreement with the emerging literature, particularly on weight control issues and parental involvement, there was…
Somers, Cheryl L.
This study evaluates the effectiveness of an experiential approach to teen pregnancy (TP) prevention called "Baby Think It Over," a computerized infant simulator, on adolescents' attitudes and behaviors regarding teen pregnancy and sexuality. Recently, a more realistic model called "Real Care Baby" was developed. The small amount of research on…
The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…
The purpose of this article is to describe how school staff members, learners and parents collaborate to prevent adolescent learner violence in two different urban secondary schools. The increase in acts of interpersonal learner violence has a destructive effect on the safe and positive development of young people.
Williams, Terrinieka T; Griffith, Derek M; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober; Sanchez, Jennifer C
The rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs; including HIV/AIDS) among African Americans in Flint, Michigan, are among the highest in the state. In Genesee County, where Flint is located, the incidence of HIV/AIDS cases increased at an average rate of 24% each year from 2003 to 2007 for adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19. YOUR Blessed Health (YBH) is a multilevel, faith-based HIV prevention program designed to increase HIV awareness and knowledge and reduce HIV risk behaviors among African American congregations. This article describes one of the five components of the intervention--training of faith leaders to implement a sexual health curriculum for adolescents in their congregations. Staff from YOUR Center, a community-based HIV service organization, and researchers from the University of Michigan, School of Public Health, partnered with faith-based organizations (FBOs) to address HIV/AIDS in Flint, Michigan. Participating FBOs selected faith leaders to be trained by YOUR Center staff to implement the YBH program in their congregations. Using the HIV Outreach, Prevention and Education (HOPE) curriculum, faith leaders from 20 FBOs provided HIV education to 212 adolescents in Flint, Michigan. Study findings demonstrate that faith leaders who participate in specific and ongoing HIV prevention education training can be useful sexual health resources for youth in faith-based settings. Implications for research and practice highlight the advantages of continued partnerships between FBOs and public health professionals in future HIV prevention efforts for adolescents.
Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J
Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid,
Friedman, A S; Glickman, N W
The relationship to treatment outcome, as measured by reduction in drug use, of specific characteristics and elements of 30 drug-free outpatient programs for adolescents is reported. Admission and discharge data were obtained from National Institute on Drug Abuse-Client Oriented Data Acquisition Process on 5789 adolescents in the 30 programs. A partial cross-validation study was conducted by analyzing separately for two annual client subsamples. The program, not the individual clients, was the unit of analysis. While controlling for differences between programs on their client populations, multiple regression analysis indicated that the following characteristics of programs were found to predict the outcome criterion variable, to a statistically significant degree: treat a large number of adolescent clients; have a special school for school dropouts; have a relatively large budget; employ counselors or therapists who have at least 2 years' experience in working with adolescent drug abusers; provide special services such as vocational counseling, recreational services, and birth control services; use such therapy methods as crisis intervention, gestalt therapy, music/art therapy, and group confrontation; and be perceived by the clients as allowing and encouraging free expression and spontaneous action by clients. There was a high degree of replication of these findings across the two annual subsamples of clients; and the amount of variance in the treatment outcome criterion variable accounted for by the above-listed program characteristics was quite impressive.
Goldman, Ran D.
QUESTION I frequently see adolescent boys in my practice with transient gynecomastia. My management includes reassuring the boys and their families; however, I also understand that specific medication, alcohol, and drugs can cause gynecomastia. How common is this phenomenon, and what medications can induce gynecomastia?
Etheridge, Rose M.; Smith, Jeff C.; Rounds-Bryant, Jennifer L.; Hubbard, Robert L.
Compared treatment needs and services received in six areas based on the Treatment Outcome Prospective Study and the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies for Adolescents (DATOS-A). Found a general decline in services received that was only partially offset by significant decreases in some self-reported service needs in DATOS-A. Unmet needs…
Prescrire's analyses showed that the quality of drug packaging in 2010 still left much to be desired. Potentially dangerous packaging remains a significant problem: unclear labelling is source of medication errors; dosing devices for some psychotropic drugs create a risk of overdose; child-proof caps are often lacking; and too many patient information leaflets are misleading or difficult to understand. Everything that is needed for safe drug packaging is available; it is now up to regulatory agencies and drug companies to act responsibly. In the meantime, health professionals can help their patients by learning to identify the pitfalls of drug packaging and providing safe information to help prevent medication errors.
A.A. Bochaver; T.V. Tretyakova
We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community). These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience...
Cashman, Clodagh M.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Beirne, Paul V.; Verbeek, Jos H.
BACKGROUND: Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers (operating a motorised vehicle) in preventing injury or work-related effects such as
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.
Deighan, William P., Comp.; And Others
Materials useful in drug and alcohol abuse prevention programs directed towards high school athletes are contained in this document. Nine topic areas are covered: (1) effects of athletics on young people, such as pressure to win; (2) reasons athletes use drugs and alcohol, including coping with stress and feeling good; (3) enabling behaviors of…
McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry
Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…
HIV PREVENTION AMONG DRUG AND ALCOHOL USERS: MODELS. OF INTERVENTION IN KENYA. Clement S. Deveau. Academy for Educational Development (AED). Capable Partners Program (CAP). Nairobi, Kenya. ABSTRACT. The spread of HIV among drug and alcohol users, as a high-risk group, is a significant ...
Schwinn, Traci Marie; Thom, Bridgette; Schinke, Steven Paul; Hopkins, Jessica
Rates of drug use among sexual-minority youths are disproportionately high. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. This study developed and tested a web-based drug abuse prevention program for sexual-minority youths. A sample (N = 236) of sexual-minority youths was recruited via Facebook. Online, all youths completed pretests; youths randomly assigned to the intervention received a 3-session prevention program; and all youths completed posttest and 3-month follow-up measurements. At 3-month follow-up and compared to youths in the control arm, intervention-arm youths reported less stress, reduced peer drug use, lower rates of past 30-day other drug use, and higher coping, problem solving, and drug-use refusal skills. Outcome data suggest the potential of tailored intervention content to address sexual-minority youths' drug use rates and related risk factors. Moreover, study procedures lend support to the feasibility of using the Internet to recruit sexual-minority youths, collect data, and deliver intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henry, Kimberly L
The primary aim was to examine correlated growth trajectories and reciprocal effects between academic achievement and drug use over the course of junior high school. One hundred and three male and 98 female students from 3 rural junior high schools were surveyed 4 times over the course of 3 years. Dual trajectory latent growth models were estimated. Growth trajectories of school achievement and drug use over the course of junior high were highly correlated. Students who demonstrated deteriorating achievement during the course of junior high school showed an increase in drug use during this same time frame. Cross-process regressions indicated that students who demonstrated superior academic achievement in sixth grade exhibited a shallower rate of increase in drug use (ie, their drug use escalated to a lesser extent). The processes of academic disengagement (as marked by deteriorating grades) and drug use during adolescence appear to be related to one another. Prevention initiatives aimed at keeping adolescents academically engaged in school may have protective benefits against escalation of drug use.
WHO reports 36.7 million people are living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) worldwide by 2016 with about 1.8 million new infections each year. It will be a specific health problem for the world in both developed and developing countries so it is necessary strategies to reduce HIV transmission to the community. HIV transmission in people with risk factors is largely determined by the amount of virus in the blood of people who are the source of infection. Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has long been used in HIV patients, which serves to suppress viral replication so that the patient’s immunity increases; opportunistic infections are resolved and prolong the lifespan and lower transmission rates. In the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) study 052 there was a 96% reduction in transmission in earlier antiretroviral. ARV is also used in the prevention of transmission in people exposed to HIV virus that is Postexposure Prophylaxis as well as in people at risk before exposure (Pre-exposure Prophylaxis). Three prevention strategies with the provision of ARV is expected to be guided as a means of prevention of transmission in addition to behavioral changes has long been declared since the beginning of the HIV epidemic.
Hansen, William B.
Drug prevention efforts in elementary schools are widespread. Nonetheless, there are clear challenges that both researchers and practitioners face. Because there may be occasional unintended negative outcomes--statistically these are guaranteed--does not mean all prevention efforts should grind to a halt. It is far better that any observed…
Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W; Johnson, C Anderson; Pentz, Mary Ann; Robertson, Elizabeth
This article introduces the scope of the Special Issue. A variety of scientific disciplines are brought together to establish theoretical integration of the arenas of drug use, misuse, "abuse," and drug misuse prevention. Transdisciplinary scientific collaboration (TDSC) is utilized as a process of integration. Introductory comments regarding the strengths and limitations of TDSC are presented. Then, the relevance of genetics to substance misuse and substance misuse prevention is presented. Next, the relevance of cognition for prevention is discussed. Specifically, neurologically plausible distinctions in cognition and implicit cognition and their relevance for prevention are discussed. At a relatively molar social-level of analysis, social network theory, systems dynamic models, geographic information systems models, cultural psychology, and political science approaches to drug misuse and its prevention are introduced. The uses of both quantitative and qualitative statistical approaches to prevention are mentioned next. Finally, targeted prevention, bridging the efficacy-effectiveness gap, and a statement on overcoming disbalance round out the Special Issue. The bridges created will serve to propel drug misuse "prevention science" forward in the years to come. Advances in understanding etiological issues, translation to programs, and ecological fit of programming are desired results.
Braamskamp, Marjet J. A. M.; Wijburg, Frits A.; Wiegman, Albert
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death and morbidity in the world. The origins of atherosclerosis and subsequent CVD begin in childhood. In order to prevent CVD, children and adolescents at high risk for premature atherosclerosis should be identified and treated as early as
Duan, Lei; Chou, Chih-Ping; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann
The present study analyzed the long-term effects of perceived friend use and perceived peer use on adolescents' own cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use as a series of parallel growth curves that were estimated in two developmental pieces, representing middle and high school (N = 1,040). Data were drawn from a large drug abuse prevention trial,…
Li, Jianhua; Li, Xinyue
The objective of this paper is to review the current status of drug use and HIV/AIDS prevention for drug users in China and provide scientific evidence for HIV/AIDS prevention and control in drug users. Literature and articles related to drug abuse in China, as well as the results of prevention efforts and successful cases regarding HIV/AIDS prevention in drug users, are reviewed. Lessons learned are drawn out for the future improvement of work and the sustainable development of treatment programs. The number of drug users in China is increasing. Even though the number of opioid-type drug users is growing more slowly than in the past, the number of amphetamine-type stimulant users has increased sharply. It has been proven that methadone maintenance treatment and syringe exchange programs gradually and successfully control HIV/AIDS transmission in drug users. However, it is necessary to enhance these prevention methods and expand their coverage. In addition, the strengthening of antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment for HIV-infected drug users is crucial for HIV/AIDS prevention and control. The rapidly growing number of amphetamine-type stimulant users, along with their high-risk behavior, poses a hidden danger of greater HIV/AIDS transmission through sexual intercourse in the near future.
Kuritzkes, Daniel R
Development of resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) is a major impediment to optimum treatment of HIV-1 infection. Although resistance testing can help to select subsequent regimens when virologic failure occurs, cross-resistance, which affects all classes of ARVs, may make it more difficult to achieve optimum control of HIV. We have known for some time that our first choice of antiretroviral therapy offers the best chance to control HIV replication and that initial therapy should be selected with an eye on future options. Potency is the first line of defense against the development of resistance. Other factors that affect resistance development include: tolerability, potential for optimum adherence, and genetic and pharmacologic barriers to development of resistance. If resistance emerges, only a single drug may be affected initially, and a rapid change in ARVs may preserve the efficacy of other components. One cautionary note is that we can no longer assume that a patient's HIV is fully susceptible to all ARVs even in the initial regimen. Transmission of drug-resistant HIV means that the genetic composition may be that of an "experienced" virus with reduced susceptibility to ARVs. Resistance testing at the time of transmission is most likely to reveal this resistance, but over time the dominant genetic pattern may revert to wild-type, and be missed by resistance testing. Because "archived" resistant HIV may emerge quickly once treatment is initiated, we need to keep this in mind when selecting initial therapy.
Altobelli, E; Rapacchietta, L; Tiberti, S; Petrocelli, R; Cicioni, L; di Orio, F; Profeta, F V
Substance abuse is the result of interaction between constitutional, environmental and socio-demographic factors. Several studies have been demonstrated that the adolescent substance abuse is a serious and growing problem. The aim of our study is to investigate the association between substance, alcohol and tobacco abuse and socio-familiar factors, to evaluate a substance abuse prevention program which decreases substance use in adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was developed and carried out by involving a group of adolescents, randomly selected from the secondary school of Teramo province. Data were collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The associations between substance use and the determinants taken into account was evaluated by the chi-square test of Fisher exact test or trend test when appropriated. Our data show that the alcohol abuse is more frequent in males (41.1%, p = 0.000), while the nicotine abuse is more frequent in females (46.1%, p = 0.005). However, our results show that the abuse of alcohol, nicotine, heroine, cocaine and ecstasy is associated to lack of stability in the family, respectively: 61.5% (p = 0.001); 61.5% (p = 0.022); 7.7% (p = 0.018); 7.7% (p = 0.010): 7.7% (p = 0.004). The nicotine abuse is higher in adolescents living with a smoker: 50.3% (p = 0.000). Finally, the substance abuse is higher in adolescents having friends that are drug-addicts, in particular: alcohol 49.6% (p = 0.000), nicotine 43.0% (p = 0.000), cannabis 27.9% (p = 0.000). This survey suggests that the knowledge of factors influencing the initiation, combination and cessation of the use of substance is crucial for the prevention of drug use among adolescents.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses. Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 7/1/2014.
This podcast is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses. Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 7/1/2014.
Ndifreke E. Udonwa
Full Text Available Background: Malaria prevention and treatment constitute an unbearable economic burden to most African countries, especially south of the Sahara, where about 500 million cases occur annually. The problem of malaria among adolescents has largely been overshadowed by the huge burden of the disease among young children. Attention to malaria among adolescents has also been diverted by the huge burden of HIV/AIDS among adolescents. Some surveys reveal a lack of knowledge and many misconceptions about the transmission and treatment of malaria, which could adversely affect malaria control measures and antimalarial therapy. Such a knowledge gap could have an adverse effect on school children, who could be used as change agents and as role models for their siblings and peers in the malaria control strategy.Objectives: To determine the malaria prevention practices of school adolescents in the coastal community of Calabar, Nigeria.Method: This was a cross-sectional survey involving secondary schools in southern Calabar. Four hundred adolescents were randomly selected from the 4565 learners in 5 out of 17 secondary schools in southern Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the respondents.Results: Most respondents (77.5% were aware that the vector transmits the malaria parasite through biting. Fewer respondents would prevent malaria attacks by clearing the vegetation in the peri-domestic environment (13.5%, filling up potholes (16.9%, opening up drainage (11%, using insecticide-treated nets (25.7% or using antimalarial drugs (11.2%. Less than one-tenth (8% would use various other methods such as not accepting unscreened blood, while only 11% obtained the information from their teachers.Conclusion: The study identified knowledge gaps among school children. There is a need to empower teachers with information about the cause of malaria and prevention strategies.
Gong, Jie; Zeng, Jing; Xingiang, Chen; Li, Fang; Zhou, Dun-jin; Wang, Zeng-zhen
To investigate the role of knowledge, attitude and perceived social norm on the use of New Type of Drugs (NTD) and to construct the mediated model among these factors. With stratified random group sampling, 3018 students from 3 middle schools, 3 high schools, 3 vocational high schools and a municipal-own university in Wuhan city completed questionnaires under anonymous and voluntary practice. A conceptual model was developed based on Reasoned Behavior Theory. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the proposed model. The overall prevalent rate of NTD was 3.28%, with 4.81% for males, 1.94% for females,1.80% for middle school students, 2.91% for general high school students, 7.83% for vocational school students and 3.25% for college students. SEM seemed to have been fixed nicely into the model. Adolescent NTD was significantly predicted by knowledge, attitude, perceived social norm which were all directly affecting or medicated by the susceptibility of drugs. Knowledge, attitude, perceived social norm might increase the risks for NTD use among adolescents, suggesting that preventive education on drug use among adolescents should be paid to improve the knowledge on drugs.
Peres, Camila Alves; Peres, Rodrigo Alves; da Silveira, Fernando; Paiva, Vera; Hudes, Esther Sid; Hearst, Norman
The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding AIDS among incarcerated male adolescents in Brazil and to develop an AIDS prevention intervention for this population. A questionnaire administered to 275 boys in São Paulo covered demographic and social characteristics, drugs, and HIV risk perception and behavior. Subsequently, we collected qualitative data on the development and implementation of a prevention program. Ninety-eight percent of adolescents were sexually experienced, most initiating by age 13; 22% were fathers. Injection drug use was reported by 5.5%, 12% had exchanged sex for money, 35% had more than 15 partners and 8% had homosexual experience. Although 72% had used condoms, only 9% used them consistently, and only 35% used one in their last intercourse before incarceration. Predictors of condom use included carrying condoms and endorsing the statement "I would use condoms with my girlfriend." Many said their lives include other risks more important than AIDS, such as survival in the crime scene. Initial efforts at prevention based on commonly used approaches of providing information to guide future rational decisions generated limited participation. However, when we worked with them to develop interventions based on their interests and needs, using modalities such as music, hip-hop arts, graffiti, and helping them to create an AIDS prevention compact disk, they responded with enthusiasm. These incarcerated adolescents are at extremely high social risk and report high levels of risk behavior for HIV infection. Interventions for these youth were better received when developed in collaboration with them and based on their beliefs, aspirations, and culture. The intervention that resulted went beyond AIDS to include issues such as violence, drugs, sexuality and human rights.
Idiosyncratic drug toxicity has led to the market withdrawal of many drugs in the past. Since animal experiments are not predictive of such toxicity, the pharmaceutical industry continues to seek new methodologies for the prevention of such effects. Although the mechanism of idiosyncratic drug toxicity remains unclear, immune reactions are likely involved. Although drugs with low molecular weights are typically not themselves immunogenic, these drugs may become haptens after being converted to chemically reactive metabolites and becoming covalently cross-linked to proteins. Therefore, screening tests to detect chemically reactive metabolites, most typically by trapping with glutathione, are carried out at early stages of drug development. More quantitative methods are used in later stages of drug development; radioassays for covalent binding (using (14)Cor (3)H-labeled compounds) are most frequently employed. A zone classification system created by combining previous assessment criteria for the chemically reactive metabolites in vitro (assessment of drug candidates. A mechanism for idiosyncratic, drug-induced hepatotoxicity is proposed by analogy to virus-induced hepatitis, where cytotoxic T lymphocytes play an important role; we suggest that idiosyncrasy reflects the involvement of polymorphisms in the human leucocyte antigen-encoding loci. In fact, a strong correlation has been found between of idiosyncratic drug toxicity and specific human leucocyte antigen genotypes. Therefore, screening of patients for gene biomarkers is expected to reduce the clinical risk of idiosyncratic drug toxicity, thereby prolonging the life cycle of otherwise useful drugs.
Becker, Daniel F; Grilo, Carlos M
The authors examined psychosocial correlates of drug and alcohol abuse in 462 hospitalized adolescents, and the extent to which these associations may be affected by gender or by substance type. Participants completed a battery of psychometrically-sound, self-report measures of psychological functioning, environmental stress, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse. Four multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the joint and independent predictors of drug abuse and alcohol abuse, for males and for females. Multiple regression analysis revealed that seven variables--age, depression, impulsivity, low self-esteem, delinquent predisposition, low peer insecurity, and history of child abuse--jointly predicted both drug and alcohol abuse, for both males and females. However, several differences were found with respect to which variables made independent contributions to the predictive models--with only delinquent predisposition making a significant independent contribution for all four conditions. We found distinct patterns of psychosocial predictor variables for drug and alcohol abuse, as well as distinct patterns for males and females. These results may reflect differing risk factors for drug abuse and alcohol abuse in adolescent psychiatric patients--and differing risk factors for males and females. Such differences have potential implications for prevention and treatment.
Sjo, Christina Power; Stenstrøm, Anne Dorte; Bojesen, Anders Bo
if obesity or metabolic aberration starts in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: Drug-naive adolescents were recruited after contact with an outpatient Psychosis Team. Changes relative to baseline in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG...... months the participants' BMI had increased from 0.5 to 1.57 standard deviation (SD) above the 50th percentile for age and gender (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to include all the aspects of MetS in a sample of drug-naive adolescents followed over the first 12 months...... after starting SGA treatment. A significant shift in all parameters (except BP) toward MetS was found, presumably due to SGA use. Therefore, these adolescents will need proper follow-up, consisting of not only monitoring but also preventive measures to diminish these effects of SGA use....
Pratt, B M; Woolfenden, S R
Eating disorders represent an extremely difficult condition to treat and patients consume an enormous amount of mental health energy and resources. Being young, female, and dieting are some of the few identified risk factors that have been reliably linked to the development of eating disorders, and several prevention eating disorder prevention programs have been developed and trialed with children and adolescents. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness of eating disorder prevention programs for children and adolescents both in the general population and those determined to be at risk. 1. To determine if eating disorder prevention programs are effective in promoting healthy eating attitudes and behaviours in children and adolescents; 2. To determine if eating disorder prevention programs are effective in promoting psychological factors that protect children and adolescents from developing eating disorders; 3. To determine if eating disorder prevention programs are effective in promoting satisfactory physical health in children and adolescents; 4. To determine if eating disorder prevention programs have a long-term, sustainable, and positive impact on the mental and physical health of children and adolescents; and, 5. To determine the safety of eating disorder prevention programs in terms of possible harmful consequences on the mental or physical health of children and adolescents. Relevant trials are identified through searching the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register (CCTR) and relevant biomedical and social science databases. All terms necessary to detect prevention programs and the participant groups are used. A strategy to locate randomised controlled trials is used. Other sources of information are the bibliographies of systematic and non-systematic reviews and reference lists from articles identified through the search strategy. In order to identify unpublished studies, experts in the field are contacted by letter and
Levy, Sharon; Schizer, Miriam
More than a decade after the US Supreme Court established the legality of school-based drug testing, these programs remain controversial, and the evidence evaluating efficacy and risks is inconclusive. The objective of this technical report is to review the relevant literature that explores the benefits, risks, and costs of these programs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Golpe, Sandra; Gómez, Patricia; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús; Rial, Antonio
Alcohol and drug use among adolescents has been causing great concern for decades in Spain and in the European Union as a whole. In addition, the technology boom experienced over the last two decades has contributed to the emergence of a new public healthcare issue: problematic Internet use. The increasing importance that both problems have been gaining in recent years has led some authors to analyze the relationship between alcohol and the consumption of other drugs alongside problematic Internet use, and to provide relevant empirical evidence. Based on a sample of 3,882 Spanish adolescents aged between 12 and 18, the results obtained confirm that there is a relationship between the consumption of alcohol (measured by the AUDIT) and other drugs (measured by the CRAFFT and the CAST), and problematic Internet use (measured by the EUPI-a). Problematic Internet users among them not only have more significant levels of substance use, but also a three-times greater chance of developing hazardous drug use (39.4% vs 13.3%). This highlights the need to develop transversal prevention capable of acting on the common variables to both issues, beyond developing programs focused on specific behaviors. In this sense, values-based education and life skills training should be given priority in prevention.
Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921
August, Gerald J.; Winters, Ken C.; Realmuto, George M.; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria; Lee, Susanne
Objective: To describe the late adolescent drug use outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. Method: Adolescent drug use outcomes were compared between ADHD-only (n = 27),…
Simons, Ronald L.; Robertson, Joan F.
Developed and tested adolescent drug use model integrating social learning theory and recent stress and coping studies. Interviewed adolescents (N=343) aged 13-17 and found increase in adolescent drug use with presence of parental rejection, deviant peers, and combination of low self-esteem and avoidant coping style. Suggests both individual…
Spruijt, Ed; De Goede, Marijn; Iedema, Jurijen; Maas, Cora; Duindam, Vincent
Study examines the effects of adolescents' vocational and relationship experiences, adherence to non-traditional values, and parental divorce and involvement on adolescent soft drug use. Results reveal that vocational and relationship experiences in adolescence correlate with the use of soft drugs and adherence to non-conventional norms and values…
Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Galea, Sandro
We assessed relations among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use from adolescence to young adulthood, and evaluated whether exposure to violence contributed to disorder co-occurrence. We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Respondents were 12–15 years old in 1995–1997 (N = 1,517), and were reinterviewed in 1997–2000 (n = 1,315), and 2000–2002 (n = 1,210). We examined exposure to violence at ages 12–15 and 14–17, and depression, conduct disorder, and drug use at ages 14–17 and 17–20. Multivariate transition models revealed an association between prior conduct disorder and drug use, as well as a relationship between prior depression and conduct disorder. Adolescent exposure to violence was associated with higher odds of conduct disorder and drug use but not depression. Comorbid relations between conduct disorder and drug use were independent of prior exposure to violence. Although preventing adolescent exposure to violence may reduce the risk of conduct disorder and drug use by young adulthood, future research needs to investigate alternative determinants of sequential comorbidity among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use in adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:22147426
Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Sánchez, Brisa N; Galea, Sandro
We assessed relations among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use from adolescence to young adulthood, and evaluated whether exposure to violence contributed to disorder co-occurrence. We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Respondents were 12-15 years old in 1995-1997 (N = 1,517), and were reinterviewed in 1997-2000 (n = 1,315), and 2000-2002 (n = 1,210). We examined exposure to violence at ages 12-15 and 14-17, and depression, conduct disorder, and drug use at ages 14-17 and 17-20. Multivariate transition models revealed an association between prior conduct disorder and drug use, as well as a relationship between prior depression and conduct disorder. Adolescent exposure to violence was associated with higher odds of conduct disorder and drug use but not depression. Comorbid relations between conduct disorder and drug use were independent of prior exposure to violence. Although preventing adolescent exposure to violence may reduce the risk of conduct disorder and drug use by young adulthood, future research needs to investigate alternative determinants of sequential comorbidity among depression, conduct disorder, and drug use in adolescence and young adulthood. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.
Antiplatelet drugs are recommended for secondary prevention of recurrent cardiovascular events in patients who experience diseases in which the pathophysiology is associated with platelet aggregation and atherosclerosis, including acute coronary syndrome, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke,
Umar, Asad; Steele, Vernon E; Menter, David G; Hawk, Ernest T
Various clinical and epidemiologic studies show that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COXIBs) help prevent cancer. Since eicosanoid metabolism is the main inhibitory targets of these drugs the resulting molecular and biological impact is generally accepted. As our knowledge base and technology progress we are learning that additional targets may be involved. This review attempts to summarize these new developments in the field. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Thakur, Jagdeep S.; Chauhan, C. G. S.; Diwana, Vijay K.; Chauhan, Dayal C.; Thakur, Anamika
In addition to their therapeutic effects on malignant cells, cytotoxic agents have the potential of causing destruction of healthy, normal cells. Extravasation of the drug can produce extensive necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Management of these extravasational effects differs from one centre to another and prevention is usually strongly emphasized. We analyzed our management of 12 patients referred to us over five years with extravasation of cytotoxic drugs and reviewed the lit...
Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree
Alcohol and other drug use are major contributors to the global burden of disease. Prevention is critical and evidence is beginning to support the use of online mediums to prevent alcohol and other drug use and harms among adolescents. This study aims to expand the evidence base by conducting a systematic review of recent universal prevention programs delivered by computers and the Internet. A total of 12 papers reporting outcomes from trials of nine universal online prevention programs were identified. Of the identified interventions, five targeted multiple substances, two focused solely on alcohol, one targeted only cannabis and one primarily addressed smoking. The majority of programs were delivered at school; however one was implemented in a primary care setting. Six programs demonstrated significant, but modest, effects for alcohol and/or other drug use outcomes. Evidence to support the efficacy of computer and Internet-based prevention programs for alcohol and other drug use and related harms among adolescents is rapidly emerging, demonstrating that online prevention is an area of increasing promise. Further replication work, longer-term trials and attempts to increase the impact are required.
de Crousaz, P
Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that: 1. Bacterial plaque which accumulates around the teeth is responsible for chronic periodontal inflammation. From adolescence on, this inflammation is almost universal. 2. Gingivitis prepares the periodontitis, which is characterized by a migration of the epithelial attachment, pocket formation and progressive bone loss. 3. Calculus is formed by plaque calcification. Its rough surface allows bacterial retention and proliferation in contact with the epithelial covering. 4. The mechanisms of host resistance to parasitic plaque are mostly unknown. This resistance is variable and seems to decrease with age. 5. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents is a real problem in preventive medicine, because of its immediate or remote consequences on tooth loss. Thanks to fluoride, the prevention of dental caries is quite effective; the prevention of periodontal disease is on the contrary much more difficult. Mechanical removal of plaque is tedious and must be done again and again; however, it is not logical to separate prevention of caries from that of periodontal disease. Information of the public at large on oral health is of utmost importance, as well as a good cooperation of the teachers in preventive programs for schoolchildren. Every health department or service should try to apply the following measures: -Permanent employments for "school dental nurses" should be created, on a part-time or full-time basis. They should take care of the organisation and supervision of oral health programs. -In each school dental service, a dentist should be responsible for teaching the theoretical and practical aspects of periodontal prevention. -Caries reduction obtained by fluorides is no excuse to reduce the "treatment staff". This staff should be devoted to prevention at large and to refreshing courses. In a young population with regular supervision, prevention of periodontal disease can meet with considerable success
Killen, Joel D.
Discusses the need for smoking prevention programs that help adolescents resist social pressure and that use the results of current smoking prevention research. Theoretical foundations of current smoking prevention programs are also provided. (AS)
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? 86.100 Section 86.100 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.100 What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? The IHE's drug prevention program must, a...
Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents from a Brazilian cohort. The occurrence of five ACEs, the use of alcohol and tobacco and trying illicit drugs were investigated in the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort at the age of 15 (n = 4,230. A score was created for the ACEs and their association with the use of substances was evaluated. Around 25% of adolescents consumed alcohol, 6% smoked and 2.1% reported having used drugs at least once in their lives. The ACEs were associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. A dose-response relation between the number of ACEs and the substance use was found, particularly with regard to illicit drugs. The occurrence of ACEs was positively associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents and the risk may be different for men and women. These results point to the fact that strategies for preventing the use of substances should include interventions both among adolescents and within the family environment.
Forsyth, A J; Barnard, M; McKeganey, N P
This paper aims to demonstrate whether a relationship exists between adolescent drug use and identification with styles of music linked to specific youth culture. Survey data were collected by researchers, under exam conditions, from two contrasting samples of Scottish secondary schoolchildren. Fieldwork was conducted in five comprehensive schools in the city of Dundee in 1994 and five comprehensive schools in the rural area of Perth and Kinross District in 1996. Questionnaires were administered to two randomly selected mixed ability classes in each of the four compulsory school years (S1 to S4), at each participating school. The eventual sample (n = 1523) was approximately 10% of all children in these school years from the geographical areas surveyed. Comparisons were made between life-time measures of legal and illegal drug use and current favourite style of music. Although few children in this study had ever taken the drug ecstasy (MDMA), 'fans' of rave music were more likely to have used drugs than those who preferred other styles of music. This relationship held true across a range of drugs used, across two geographical areas, over time and controlling for age, gender and parental social class. The paper is one of the first to quantify a possible relationship between drug use and music style. On the basis of the evidence presented, a significant relationship was found between identification with rave music and life-time drug use.
US Department of Education, 2008
In response to recent alcohol-related tragedies and to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Education to identify and promote effective campus-based prevention programs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Education has awarded approximately $3.5…
Sessa, Maurizio; Rossi, Claudia; Rafaniello, Concetta; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Scavone, Cristina; Fiorentino, Sonia; Grassi, Enrico; Reginelli, Alfonso; Rotondo, Antonio; Sportiello, Liberata
The current study aims to assess the preventability of the contrast media adverse drug reactions reported through the Campania spontaneous reporting system, identifying the possible limitations emerged in this type of evaluation. All the individual case safety reports validated by the Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Centre from July 2012 to September 2015 were screened to select those that reported contrast media as suspected drug. Campania Preventability Assessment Committee, in collaboration with clinicians specialized in Radiology, assessed the preventability according to the P-Method, through a case-by-case approach. From July 2012 to September 2015, 13798 cases were inserted by pharmacovigilance managers in the Italian Pharmacovigilance Network database (in the geographical contest of the Campania Region), of which 67 reported contrast media as suspected drug. Five preventable cases were found. The most reported causes for preventability were the inappropriate drug use for the case clinical conditions and the absence of the preventive measure administrated prior to the contrast media administration. Several limitations were found in the evaluation of the critical criteria for the preventability assessment. Educational initiatives will be organized directly to the healthcare professionals involved in the contrast media administration, to promote an appropriate use of the contrast media.
Sussman, Steve; Gunning, Melissa; Lisha, Nadra E; Rohrbach, Louise A; Kniazev, Vadim; Masagutov, Radik
We describe correlates of drug use-consequences related variables (addiction concern, problem consequences, and drinking alcohol/using drugs while driving) among two samples of high school students, one in the Russian Federation (n = 365), and one in the United States (n = 965). The correlates used in the analyses are based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, which organizes predictors of adolescent substance misuse into intrapersonal (e.g., depression), cultural/attitudinal (e.g., perceived harmfulness of drug use), and interpersonal (friend and family drug use) types of influence. We examined measures from each type of influence, along with drug use (cigarette and alcohol use) as correlates. Overall, correlates from each of the types of influence were significant predictors of substance use consequences variables in both samples. The most consistent predictors of consequences across countries were depression, perceived harmfulness of drug use, family substance abuser, friends' substance use, and last 30-day cigarette use. These results suggest that the Theory of Triadic Influence is relevant to both countries. We speculate that drug prevention efforts may share common features among some U.S. and Russian youth populations.
O'Connell, Mary Beth
To characterize the changes in bone mass with age in women and men, explain the physiology and pathophysiology of the bone remodeling process, identify the targets for prescription osteoporosis drugs in this process, and provide details about the uses, efficacy, safety, and economics of prescription drug therapies for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Preventing accelerated bone loss and decreasing age-related decreases in bone density are the primary goals of prescription drug therapy for osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates are the drugs of choice for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. Alternatives for patients who cannot take bisphosphonates include raloxifene and calcitonin salmon. Menopause is accompanied by a rapid loss in bone mass that is followed by annual losses due to aging in women, which are similar to age-related bone mass decreases in men. Most prescription drug therapies for osteoporosis prevention or treatment reduce bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast activation and activity, with only one medication class able to increase bone formation by stimulating osteoblasts. Denosumab, an investigational monoclonal antibody that inhibits nuclear factor kB ligand, would be a new class of anti-resorptive medications. Bisphosphonates currently are the drugs of choice for preventing and treating osteoporosis, with 7- and 10-year safety data available for risedronate and alendronate, respectively. Weekly and monthly regimens of bisphosphonates improve patient acceptance. Recently, an injectable form of ibandronate received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for once every 3 months administration. Raloxifene and calcitonin salmon are alternatives for patients who cannot take bisphosphonates because of contraindications or adverse effects. Teriparatide, a recombinant parathyroid hormone fragment, not only increases bone mineral density but also increases bone connectivity. Osteoporosis medications are usually safe, especially if used
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Drug abuse is one of the complicated phenomenons in the human communities that it produces health problems. The effect of applying fear appeal message on attitudes and intention against drug abuse, drug resistance skills, knowledge about side effect of drugs and drug abuse related behaviors among male high school students was studied based on applying extended parallel process model as a theoretical framework. Materials & Methods: Two high schools were chosen from six state high schools as an intervention (n=86 and control (n=97 groups. Educational curriculum, that was designed, based on students’ educational needs, appealed students’ fear and recommended messages developed students' ability for resisting against drugs. Before intervention 5-6 students who were known as a favourite and leader of students, were selected by student’s opinion in each class as students' leaders. The each leader of the group had a coordinator and mediate role between his group and health educators. Henceforth a favourite teacher was chosen by students’ vote for helping health educators and participated in the educational intervention program.Results: The result showed that educational manipulation had significant effect on intervention group’s average response for intention (t= -4.03, p<0.000 and attitude against drug abuse (t= -6.19, p<0.000, peer resistance skills (t=-0.82, p<0.000, and knowledge (t= -10.88, p<0.000. In addition, it was not found positive urinary rapid immune-chromatography test for opium and marijuana in the intervention group whereas 6.3% in the control groups.Conclusion: This findings suggest that applying fear appeals theories and effective health risk message would be an efficient tool for preventing drug abuse education programs but further studies are needed to define function of EPPM as a effective model for creating social inoculation against drug abuse among non- drug expose adolescents.
Yone Gonçalves de Moura
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.
Spivak, H; Hausman, A J; Prothrow-Stith, D
The Violence Prevention Project is a community-based outreach and education project directed toward reducing the negative social and medical outcomes of violence among adolescents. Community agency personnel are trained to work with youth on issues of anger and conflict resolution. A mass media campaign advertises the issue to the broader population. Interventions, such as the Violence Prevention Project, can use the public health strategies to increase awareness of the problem and associated risk factors, provide alternative conflict resolution techniques, and generate a new community ethos around violence. This approach holds great promise in an area in which after-the-fact legislative and punitive interventions have not worked.
E. V. Moroz
Full Text Available Prevention of gastrointestinal tract (GIT complications is the most important element for the rational use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin (LDA. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs have long been the only medication to prevent these complications. However, PPIs are only effective in preventing and treating upper GIT diseases (NSAID gastropathy rather than small intestinal injury (NSAID enteropathy. Rebamipide has emerged as a novel agent to protect the gastrointestinal mucosa today. The effect of the drug differs from that of PPIs: it is a typical gastroand enteroprotector that enhances the synthesis of endogenous prostaglandins and possesses a significant anti-inflammatory potential. Rebamipide has long been widely used by doctors inJapan,South Korea, andChinaas an effective and safe agent for the treatment of many diseases of the digestive system. There is a strong evidence base for the efficacy of rebamipide in preventing and treating NSAID gastropathy and NSAID enteropathy (including LDA-induced injuries. Controlled studies have found that the drug is not inferior to the classic gastroprotective agent misoprostol, significantly outperforming the latter in its tolerability. This review describes the mechanism of action of rebamipide and main clinical trials of its therapeutic effect in NSAID gastropathy and NSAID enteropathy.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S
Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petzold, Max; Hägg, Staffan
Background Numerous observational studies suggest that preventable adverse drug reactions are a significant burden in healthcare, but no meta-analysis using a standardised definition for adverse drug reactions exists. The aim of the study was to estimate the percentage of patients with preventable adverse drug reactions and the preventability of adverse drug reactions in adult outpatients and inpatients. Methods Studies were identified through searching Cochrane, CINAHL, EMBASE, IPA, Medline, PsycINFO and Web of Science in September 2010, and by hand searching the reference lists of identified papers. Original peer-reviewed research articles in English that defined adverse drug reactions according to WHO’s or similar definition and assessed preventability were included. Disease or treatment specific studies were excluded. Meta-analysis on the percentage of patients with preventable adverse drug reactions and the preventability of adverse drug reactions was conducted. Results Data were analysed from 16 original studies on outpatients with 48797 emergency visits or hospital admissions and from 8 studies involving 24128 inpatients. No studies in primary care were identified. Among adult outpatients, 2.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2–3.2%) had preventable adverse drug reactions and 52% (95% CI: 42–62%) of adverse drug reactions were preventable. Among inpatients, 1.6% (95% CI: 0.1–51%) had preventable adverse drug reactions and 45% (95% CI: 33–58%) of adverse drug reactions were preventable. Conclusions This meta-analysis corroborates that preventable adverse drug reactions are a significant burden to healthcare among adult outpatients. Among both outpatients and inpatients, approximately half of adverse drug reactions are preventable, demonstrating that further evidence on prevention strategies is required. The percentage of patients with preventable adverse drug reactions among inpatients and in primary care is largely unknown and should be
DuRant, R H; Treiber, F; Getts, A; McCloud, K; Linder, C W; Woods, E R
To compare the effectiveness of the Violence Prevention Curriculum for Adolescents to the Conflict Resolution: A Curriculum for Youth Providers among middle school students. A sample (N = 225) of adolescents (males = 48%) representing 20% of the student population in two middle schools were administered a pretest questionnaire. Of these students, 89% were African-American, 10% were white, and 1% were Native-American and lived in public housing (40%) or in neighborhoods adjacent to public housing (60%). Each school was randomly assigned to one of the curricula. Each curriculum was administered during 10 50-min sessions held twice a week over 5 weeks. One week later, 209 students who completed the 10 sessions were tested with the same questionnaire. The data were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance. Students who received either curriculum reported significant decreases in their self-reported use of violence in hypothetical conflict situations, frequency of use of violence in the previous 30 days, and frequency of physical fights in the previous 30 days. The conflict resolution curriculum was more effective in reducing the frequency of fights resulting in an injury requiring medical treatment in the previous 30 days. Both curricula were successful in reducing three indicators of violence. However, the conflict resolution approach was more successful in reducing the frequency of more severe physical fights requiring medical treatment. The latter finding is of particular importance, because that physical fighting is the form of violence behavior in which young adolescents most often engage.
El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Oliver, Sandy; Saleh, Nadine; El-Bawab, Lamya; Rizk, Rana; Farha, Aida; Hamra, Rasha
Drug counterfeiting has serious public health and safety implications. The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence on the effectiveness of interventions to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. We searched multiple electronic databases and the grey literature up to March 2014. Two reviewers completed, in duplicate and independently, the study selection, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment. We included randomised trials, non-randomised studies, and case studies examining any intervention at the health system-level to combat or prevent drug counterfeiting. Outcomes of interest included changes in failure rates of tested drugs and changes in prevalence of counterfeit medicines. We excluded studies that focused exclusively on substandard, degraded or expired drugs, or that focused on medication errors. We assessed the risk of bias in each included study. We reported the results narratively and, where applicable, we conducted meta-analyses. We included 21 studies representing 25 units of analysis. Overall, we found low quality evidence suggesting positive effects of drug registration (OR=0.23; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.67), and WHO-prequalification of drugs (OR=0.06; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.35) in reducing the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard drugs. Low quality evidence suggests that licensing of drug outlets is probably ineffective (OR=0.66; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.05). For multifaceted interventions (including a mix of regulations, training of inspectors, public-private collaborations and legal actions), low quality evidence suggest they may be effective. The single RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of 'two extra inspections' in improving drug quality. Policymakers and stakeholders would benefit from registration and WHO-prequalification of drugs and may also consider multifaceted interventions. Future effectiveness studies should address the methodological limitations of the available evidence. PROSPERO CRD42014009269
Rebeca Nunes Guedes De Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature on preventing intimate partner violence among adolescents in the field of health based on gender and generational categories. METHOD This was an integrative review. We searched for articles using LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, and SciELO databases. RESULTS Thirty articles were selected. The results indicate that most studies assessed interventions conducted by programs for intimate partner violence prevention. These studies adopted quantitative methods, and most were in the area of nursing, psychology, and medicine. Furthermore, most research contexts involved schools, followed by households, a hospital, a health center, and an indigenous tribe. CONCLUSION The analyses were not conducted from a gender- and generation-based perspective. Instead, the scientific literature was based on positivist research models, intimately connected to the classic public healthcare model and centered on a singular dimension.
Crano, William D; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Tan, Cara N; Siegel, Jason T
Social commentary about prevention messages may affect their likelihood of acceptance. To investigate this possibility, student participants (N = 663) viewed 3 antimarijuana advertisements, each followed immediately by videotaped discussions involving 4 adults or 4 adolescents using either extreme or moderate language in their positive commentaries. The commentaries were expected to affect participants' perceptions of the extent to which the ads were designed to control their behavior (perceived control), which was hypothesized to inhibit persuasion. Two indirect effects analyses were conducted. Marijuana attitudes and usage intentions were the outcome variables. Both analyses revealed statistically significant source by language interactions on participants' perceived control (both p persuasion, and the impact of interpersonal communication variations on acceptance of media-transmitted prevention messages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Sasha A. Fleary
Full Text Available This study explored the extent to which nonprescription and prescription drugs misuse among adolescents/young adults are related to their perception that it is safer than illicit drugs, ease of access, and lower societal stigma. Adolescents/young adults (; , completed an online survey about their nonprescription and prescription drug misuse, other substance use, and correlates of use. Perceived risk, societal stigma, and access to nonprescription and prescription drugs were predictive of misuse. Results support program planners working towards targeting perceived risk and societal stigma in reducing misuse and the need to restrict and monitor access to nonprescription and prescription drugs for adolescents/young adults.
Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.
Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…
Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.
The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…
This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…
Sanchez, Zila M; Valente, Juliana Y; Sanudo, Adriana; Pereira, Ana Paula D; Cruz, Joselaine I; Schneider, Daniela; Andreoni, Solange
A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2014 with 7th and 8th grade students from 72 public schools in 6 Brazilian cities. This trial aimed to evaluate the effects of an adapted European school-based drug prevention program Unplugged, called #Tamojunto in Brazil, which was implemented by the Ministry of Health as part of public policy. The experimental group (n = 3340) attended 12 classes in the #Tamojunto program, and the control group (n = 3318) did not receive a school prevention program. Baseline data were collected prior to program implementation, and follow-up data were collected 9 months later, allowing a matching of 4213 adolescents in both waves. The substances examined were alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, inhalants, cocaine, and crack. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate the changes in consumption of each drug between time points and between groups. The intervention and control groups had similar baseline characteristics. The mean age of the adolescents was 12.5 ± 0.7 years, and 51.3% were female. The program seemed to increase alcohol use initiation (first alcohol use); students in the experimental group had a 30% increased risk of initiating alcohol use during the 9-month follow-up (aRR = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.13-1.49, p program suggest that the content and lessons regarding alcohol may enhance curiosity about its use among adolescents. We suggest a re-evaluation of the expansion of the #Tamojunto program in schools while analyzing why the program's effects were inconsistent with those of previous European studies.
Predicting and preventing suicide represent very difficult challenges for clinicians. The awareness of adolescent suicide as a major social and medical problem has increased over the past years. However, many health care professionals who have frequent contact with adolescents are not sufficiently trained in suicide evaluation techniques and approaches to adolescents with suicidal behavior. Suicide prevention efforts among adolescents are restricted by the fact that there are five key problems related to the evaluation and management of suicidality in adolescents: 1. Many clinicians underestimate the importance of the problem of adolescent suicidal behavior and underestimate its prevalence. 2. There is a misconception that direct questioning of adolescents about suicidality is sufficient to evaluate suicide risk. 3. Another misconception is that adolescents with non-psychiatric illnesses do not need to be evaluated for suicidality. 4. Many clinicians do not know about or underestimate the role of contagion in adolescent suicidal behavior. 5. There is a mistaken belief that adolescent males are at lower suicide risk than adolescent females. Educating medical professionals and trainees about the warning signs and symptoms of adolescent suicide and providing them with tools to recognize, evaluate, and manage suicidal patients represent a promising approach to adolescent suicide prevention.
Robbins, Michael S.; Szapocznik, José; Horigian, Viviana E.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Puccinelli, Marc; Jacobs, Petra; Burlew, Kathy; Werstlein, Robert; Bachrach, Ken; Brigham, Greg
Brief strategic family therapy™ (BSFT) is a manualized treatment designed to address aspects of family functioning associated with adolescent drug use and behavior problems (J. Szapocznik, U. Hervis, S. Schwartz, (2003). Brief strategic family therapy for adolescent drug abuse. (NIH Publication No. 03-4751). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse). Within the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s (NIDA’s) Clinical Trials Network, BSFT is being compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in a mu...
Y. N. Nakhimova
Full Text Available Introduction. The formation of responsibility for one’s health in the youth environment is one of the tasks of the institution of education that determines the process of socialization. The future of sustainable development of country is determined, among other things, by the formation of negative social attitudes towards drug use.The aim of the publication is to study the specifics of the social orientation among young people on drug use and to justify the need for prevention in the educational environment.Methodology and research methods. Methodological basis of work involves classical theories of social installation; anomies; cultural conflict; subcultures; stigmatizations; social control; social space. The analysis and synthesis of scientific publications and data of the government statistics, including results of a number of social researches of 2010–2015 conducted in the Tyumen region are used. Sociological methods, including poll, questioning and the formalized interviews are applied at an experimental investigation phase. Data processing is carried out in technique of the factorial and classification analysis.Results and scientific novelty. Drug abuse among young people is a result of the contradiction between youth attitudes and social norms. It is shown that the prevention of drug abuse in Russia is institutionally ineffective. The social attitudes and motives connected with drug abuse among young people aged 18–30 years are revealed. It is established that acceptance of drug abuse experience is not defined by a gender, social and/or material status. The main types of the attitude to drug abuse experience are designated: 1 complete negation of a possibility of drug abuse; 2 refusal of drug abuse, but indifference or loyal attitude to drug abuse by others; 3 readiness for periodic drug usage; 4 steady stereotype of regular use of narcotic substances.The necessity of flexible forms of influence on youth for formation of sustainable
Schulz, Ursula G
Stroke is an important cause of death and disability. However, about two thirds of cerebrovascular events are initially minor. They carry a high risk of potentially severe recurrent events, but they also offer an opportunity for secondary prevention to avoid such recurrences. As most recurrent events occur within a short time after the initial presentation, secondary prevention has to be started as soon as possible. Dramatic risk reduction can be achieved with well-established drugs if used in a timely manner. A standard secondary preventive regimen will address multiple vascular risk factors and will usually consist of an antiplatelet agent, a lipid lowering drug, and an antihypertensive agent. Depending on the risk factor profile of each patient, this will have to be adjusted individually, for example, taking into account the presence of cardioembolism or of stenotic disease of the brain-supplying arteries. In recent years, the approach to treating these risk factors has evolved. In addition to absolute blood pressure, blood pressure variability has emerged as an important contributing factor to stroke risk, which is affected differently by different antihypertensive agents. New oral anticoagulants reduce the risk of cerebral haemorrhage and the need for regular blood checks. The best antiplatelet regimen for stroke prevention is still uncertain, and treatment of dyslipidaemia may change if trials with cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, which increase levels of HDL-cholesterol, are successful. This article reviews the current evidence for drug treatments in the secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M
Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide.
Prevenção da aterosclerose e tratamento medicamentoso de anormalidades lipídicas de alto risco em crianças e adolescentes Prevention of atherosclerosis and drug treatment of high-risk lipid abnormalities in children and adolescents
Priscilla Severino Gonçalves de Castro
additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Pediatricians should know when to diagnose dyslipidemia, when to indicate drug treatment and which medication can be used in children and adolescents with the least risk or harm to their development. CONCLUSIONS: The first-line treatment of dyslipidemia consists of lifestyle changes, focusing on prevention. Children with high-risk lipid abnormalities should be considered for drug treatment. Decisions to be made together with the parents must be evaluated taking into consideration risks and benefits of the medication to the patient.
Weihrauch-Blüher, Susann; Koormann, Stefanie; Brauchmann, Jana; Wiegand, Susanna
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is - amongst other factors - due to changed leisure time habits with decreased physical activity and increased media consumption. However, electronic media such as tablets and smartphones might also provide a novel intervention approach to prevent obesity in childhood and adolescence. A summary of interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity is provided to investigate short term effects as well as long term results of these interventions. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed/Web of Science to identify randomized and/or controlled studies that have investigated the efficacy of electronic media for obesity prevention below the age of 18. A total of 909 studies were identified, and 88 studies were included in the analysis. Active video games did increase physical activity compared to inactive games when applied within a peer group. Interventions via telephone had positive effects on certain lifestyle-relevant behaviours. Interventions via mobile were shown to decrease dropout rates by sending regular SMS messages. To date, interventions via smartphones are scarce for adolescents; however, they might improve cardiorespiratory fitness. The results from internet-based interventions showed a trend towards positive effects on lifestyle-relevant behaviors. The combination of different electronic media did not show superior results compared to interventions with only one medium. Interventions via TV, DVD or video-based interventions may increase physical activity when offered as an incentive, however, effects on weight status were not observed. Children and adolescents currently grow up in a technology- and media-rich society with computers, tablets, smartphones, etc. used daily. Thus, interventions applying electronic media to prevent childhood obesity are contemporary. Available studies applying electronic media are however heterogeneous in terms of applied medium and duration
Thompson, Matthew; Dana, Tracy; Bougatsos, Christina; Blazina, Ian; Norris, Susan L
The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in children, and may persist into adulthood. This systematic review was conducted for the US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation on the effectiveness of screening asymptomatic children and adolescents for hypertension in order to prevent cardiovascular disease. Eligible studies were identified from Medline and the Cochrane Library (through July 2012). We included trials and controlled observational studies in asymptomatic children and adolescents on the effectiveness and harms of screening and treatment, as well as accuracy of blood pressure measurement. One author extracted study characteristics and results, which were checked for accuracy by a second author. No studies evaluated the effects of screening for hypertension on health outcomes. Two studies of screening tests for elevated blood pressure reported moderate sensitivities (0.65, 0.72) and specificities (0.75, 0.92). Sensitivities and specificities of child hypertension for the later presence of adult hypertension (7 studies) were wide ranging (0-0.63 and 0.77-1.0, respectively), and associations between child hypertension and carotid intima media thickening and proteinuria in young adults (3 studies) were inconsistent. Seven studies reported that drug interventions effectively lowered blood pressure in adolescents over short follow-up periods. No serious treatment-related adverse effects were reported. There is no direct evidence that screening for hypertension in children and adolescents reduces adverse cardiovascular outcomes in adults. Additional studies are needed to improve diagnosis and risk stratification of children with elevated blood pressure and to quantify risks and benefits of interventions.
Knowles, Cynthia R.
This book helps educators produce assessments of their schools' drug and violence prevention programs. It contains over 30 separate resources that can be adapted to specific evaluations (e.g., sample youth and adult participant feedback sheets, sample classroom observation sheets and teacher implementation logs, sample en-route participant…
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…
McCrystal, Patrick; Percy, Andrew; Higgins, Kathryn
Young people excluded from school are a group at an increased risk of drug use and antisocial behaviour during adolescence and later marginalisation and exclusion from society in adulthood. As part of the Belfast Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of the onset and development of adolescent drug use, young people who entered post-primary…
Rishel, Carrie W.; Cottrell, Lesley; Kingery, Tricia
Adolescent risk behavior remains prevalent and contributes to numerous social problems and growing health care costs. Contrary to popular perception, adolescents in rural areas engage in risky behaviors at least as much as youth from urban or suburban settings. Little research, however, focuses on risk behavior prevention in the rural context.…
Weinstein, Erica S.
This paper presents a review of 25 sources on school-based eating disorder prevention programs for pre-adolescents and adolescents. The sources used to collect the information include Search ERIC database, PsycINFO, InterScience, and Expanded Academic. A review of the literature concluded that the most effective method of implementing a…
Hazell, Philip; Mirzaie, Mohsen
There is a need to identify effective and safe treatments for depression in children and adolescents. While tricyclic drugs are effective in treating depression in adults, individual studies involving children and adolescents have been equivocal. Prescribing of tricyclic drugs for depression in children and adolescents is now uncommon, but an accurate estimate of their efficacy is helpful as a comparator for other drug treatments for depression in this age group. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2000 and updated in 2002, 2006 and 2010. To assess the effects of tricyclic drugs compared with placebo for depression in children and adolescents and to determine whether there are differential responses to tricyclic drugs between child and adolescent patient populations. We conducted a search of the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Review Group's Specialised Register (CCDANCTR) (to 12 April 2013), which includes relevant randomised controlled trials from the following bibliographic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (all years), EMBASE (1974-), MEDLINE (1950-) and PsycINFO (1967-). The bibliographies of previously published reviews and papers describing original research were cross-checked. We contacted authors of relevant abstracts in conference proceedings of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and we handsearched the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1978 to 1999). Randomised controlled trials comparing the efficacy of orally administered tricyclic drugs with placebo in depressed people aged 6 to 18 years. One of two review authors selected the trials, assessed their quality, and extracted trial and outcome data. A second review author assessed quality and checked accuracy of extracted data. Most studies reported multiple outcome measures including depression scales and clinical global impression scales. For each study, we took the best
La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Background: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the…
Yamaguchi, K; Kandel, D B
Possible linkages of influence among classes of drugs in the observed sequential progression from adolescence to young adulthood are investigated through event history analyses. Three stages are examined: initiation to marijuana, to the use of other illicit drugs, and to prescribed psychoactive drugs. The data are based on a follow-up cohort of former adolescents representative of high school students in grade 10 and 11 in New York State who were reinterviewed nine years later at ages 24-25. The sequential order between alcohol and/or cigarettes and marijuana reflects not only the effect of the use of legal drugs on marijuana initiation, but also age effects on onset of these drugs, controlling for individual characteristics measured in adolescence; marijuana use by one's friends in adolescence is an additional important predictor of marijuana initiation. Prior use of marijuana is necessary for progression to other illicit drugs. Multiple factors are involved in the progression to prescribed drugs, with adolescent depressive symptomatology and use of other illicit drugs important for both sexes, and maternal use of psychoactive drugs, dropping out of school, and prior use of marijuana of additional importance for women. Although licit drugs influence initiation into marijuana independently of age effects, it is especially for the progression from marijuana to other illicit drugs that the earlier drug is associated with the progression to a higher stage drug.
DuPont, Robert L; Merlo, Lisa J; Arria, Amelia M; Shea, Corinne L
This paper describes the goals and current practice of school-based random student drug testing (RSDT) as part of an overall drug prevention strategy, briefly explores the available literature evaluating its effectiveness and discusses the controversies related to RSDT. The authors describe the rationale for RSDT programs and the prevalence of RSDT and other drug testing programs in schools. Eight major criticisms and controversies in RSDT are discussed, including those related to acceptance of RSDT, program effectiveness, costs, legality and effects of drug testing on students. The limitations of the current literature are explored. Although there is limited empirical evidence to support or refute the efficacy of RSDT in schools, there remains substantial opposition to such programs, which may contribute to the paucity of empirical studies of RSDT. Rigorous long-term evaluations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of various versions of RSDT programs to prevent drug use and identify students in need of assistance to become and stay drug-free. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Sichieri, Rosely; Souza, Rita Adriana de
Few studies on treatment or prevention of obesity have shown significant results. Theoretically, in children and adolescents as compared to adults, prevention of excessive weight gain should be easy due to the energy expended during growth, associated with more time spent in leisure-time activities. However, numerous factors that stimulate overeating and sedentary behaviors are difficult to overcome. Additionally, most intervention studies have focused on a minor portion of the many factors associated with obesity. Important aspects of the obesity epidemic such as the role of the food industry, fast food chains, advertising, and a lifestyle that limits children to sedentary activities and overeating cannot be explored by a traditional clinical trial design. At any rate, among the published interventions, those including the family in weight-reduction strategies have shown the best results, as compared to children-centered approaches. Meanwhile, studies on specific nutrient or dietary composition (such as calcium, protein, or glycemic index) related to prevention or treatment of obesity have failed to yield good results. Reducing the intake of high-sugar carbonated drinks and juices has shown promising but still inconclusive results.
Robbins, Michael S; Mayorga, Carla C; Mitrani, Victoria B; Szapocznik, José; Turner, Charles W; Alexander, James F
This study examined the relationship between alliance and retention in family therapy. Alliance was examined at the individual (parent, adolescent) and family level (within-family differences) for families that either dropped out or completed family therapy. Participants were 31 Hispanic adolescents and their family members who received brief strategic family therapy for the treatment of adolescent drug use. Videotapes of first sessions were rated to identify parent and adolescent alliances with the therapist. Results demonstrated that Completer cases had significantly higher levels of alliance across all family members than Dropout cases, and Dropout cases had significantly higher unbalanced alliances than Completer cases. Clinical implications are discussed.
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the procedures for submitting a drug prevention program certification? 86.4 Section 86.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.4 What are the procedures for submitting a drug prevention program certification? An IHE shall submi...
Full Text Available In addition to their therapeutic effects on malignant cells, cytotoxic agents have the potential of causing destruction of healthy, normal cells. Extravasation of the drug can produce extensive necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Management of these extravasational effects differs from one centre to another and prevention is usually strongly emphasized. We analyzed our management of 12 patients referred to us over five years with extravasation of cytotoxic drugs and reviewed the literature for different approaches with regard to prophylaxis and management of extravasational effects. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the department of plastic surgery of a medical college. Five years of retrospective data were studied of patients referred to our department with extravasation of cytotoxic drugs. Results: We managed 12 cases referred to our department with extravasation of cytotoxic drugs. Mitomycin C was used in seven cases (58.33%, vincristine in two cases (16.66%, 5-Florouracil in another two cases while doxorubicin was responsible for extravasational side effects in one case (8.33%. The size of necrosis ranged from 3.75 cm 2 to 25 cm 2 with average size of 9.6 cm 2 . In terms of the area involved, the dorsum of the hand was involved in five cases (41.66%, the wrist in another five cases (41.66%, and the cubital fossa in the remaining two cases (16.66%. All cases were treated with daily debridement of necrotic tissue, saline dressing, and split skin grafting. Conclusion: Extravasation of cytotoxic drugs further increases the suffering of cancer patients. This catastrophe can only be avoided by vigilance and immediate application of antidotes. Once the local toxicity of the drugs takes effect, morbidity is unavoidable
Araujo, Manuel; Golpe, Sandra; Braña, Teresa; Varela, Jesús; Rial, Antonio
Early detection of alcohol and drug abuse among adolescents is decisive not only for rapid referral and intervention in cases of risk, but also as an indicator for use in the evaluation of prevention programs and public policies to reduce consumption. One of the most widely-used screening instruments in the world is the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) (Rahdert, 1991), whose substance use and abuse subscale (POSITUAS) is a brief tool of enormous applied potential. However, there is still no empirical validation study that would ensure its good psychometric performance in Spain. The aim of this paper is to analyse the psychometric properties of POSITUAS among Spanish adolescents. For this purpose, 569 students aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.71; SD = 1.79) were personally interviewed. The study sample was selected through two-stage sampling. The results obtained, using the Adolescent Diagnostic Interview (Winters & Henly, 1993) as the gold criterion, allow us to inform that the Spanish version of the POSITUAS has excellent psychometric behaviour, both at the level of internal consistency (a = .82) as well as regards sensitivity (94.3%) and specificity (83.9%), with an area under the ROC curve of .953. Also, the realisation of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis allows for verifying the one-dimensional character of the scale. As a result, POSITUAS is made available to researchers and professionals in the field of addictive behaviours for use with a minimum of psychometric guarantees.
Nagy, Ede; Verres, Rolf; Grevenstein, Dennis
Adolescence is a critical phase for the development substance use patterns. We propose that individual competence in dealing with psychoactive substances is crucial for the development of healthy substance use behavior and prevention of substance misuse or addiction. We present a new concept of health related skills in dealing with alcohol and other drugs in adolescence, its operationalization and validation. Our conception of risk competence (RICO) consists of the four major factors being Reflective, Informed, Self-Controlled and Life-Oriented, and their sub-facets. Based on a sample of N = 753 adolescents we used classical test theory as well as item response theory to create a new measure of RICO. Validity was investigated in a new sample of N = 229 with regard to substance use, risk perception, and measures of personality (Big Five, sense of coherence, general self-efficacy). RICO contains 7 scales with 28 items that measure independent aspects of risk competence. Cross-sectional criterion validity for most of the scales could be shown. Conclusions/Importance: The new RICO scales are a valid measure of different aspects of risk competence in dealing with psychoactive substances. The questionnaire can be used in general research settings, but may also be applied to assess the effects of interventions.
Cordova, David; Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P
Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as "S4E"). A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician-adolescent HIV/STI and drug use communication
Shin, YoungJu; Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L
The current study examines the relationships among adolescent reports of parent-adolescent drug talk styles, family communication environments (e.g., expressiveness, structural traditionalism, and conflict avoidance), and adolescent substance use. ANCOVAs revealed that the 9th grade adolescents (N = 718) engaged in four styles of "drug talks" with parents (e.g., situated direct, ongoing direct, situated indirect, and ongoing indirect style) and these styles differed in their effect on adolescent substance use. Multiple regression analyses showed that expressiveness and structural traditionalism were negatively related to adolescent substance use, whereas conflict avoidance was positively associated with substance use. When controlling for family communication environments and gender, adolescents with an ongoing indirect style reported the lowest use of substance. The findings suggest implications and future directions for theory and practice.
Full Text Available Abuse of drugs, psychotropic substances, illegal drugs and other addictive substances (drugs among teenagers especially students to be a problem from time to time keeps going on and it seems difficult to be finalized. So also in Indonesia drug abuse prevention efforts at the level of the student and the student assessment has been a great school for education practitioners and also involving relevant agencies such as BNN, BKKBN, the health department and the police. On the other hand, the number of victims of drug abuse among adolescents from year-to-year increase. spiritual intelligence (SQ is low is one of the students to be drug users. Various approaches, models and techniques of counseling has been developed and implemented in schools in order to develop students' potential. Counseling logo is one of the counseling intervention model that was first introduced by Viktor Frankl who seek to build the spiritual dimension of human besides raceway and psychological dimensions, and assume that the meaning of life and a desire for meaningful is the primary motivation of men to achieve meaningful livelihoods (the meaningful life is wanted. This research aimed to develop the logo counseling to improving the lives meaning drug abuse prevention and to know the effectiveness of that model. This research uses research and development approach or R&D with seven essential steps, namely (1 research and information collecting, (2 planning, (3 developing preliminary from of product, (4 preliminary field testing and product revision, (5 main field test and product revision, (6 operational field test and product revision, and (7 dissemination implementation and institutionalization. The population of this research includes practitioners or school counselors, experts and both state, Junior High School, Senior High Scholl and vocational students in Bali Province. The results of research on the effect of counseling logo on the trend of drug abuse in students in
Yakovlev, A N; Brodyansky, V M; Schurina, A V; Romashkin, R A; Kibitov, A O
To clarify the psychological mechanism underlying the genetic risk of substance addiction at the first stage of drug use by adolescents. Genetic risk was evaluated by genotyping of 5 polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system genes (dopamine receptor D2 and D4 genes and tyrosine hydroxylase gene). Psychological testing was performed using the Russian version of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Seventy-five adolescents, aged 14-17 years, (girls 32%), who misused alcohol, including 22 adolescents using drugs, were examined. The level of genetic risk was directly correlated with the probability of drug use by boys, for girls the correlation was not confirmed. The increase of the level of genetic risk for boys was correlated with the increase on the scale «Self-directedness» of TCI-125 that may reflect a probable tendency to replacement of negative information, feeling of illusory wellbeing. The findings clarify the direction of measures for the prevention of drug use.
Raposo, Jakelline Cipriano Dos Santos; Costa, Ana Carolina de Queiroz; Valença, Paula Andréa de Melo; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria; Diniz, Alcides da Silva; Colares, Viviane; Franca, Carolina da
To estimate the prevalence of illicit drug use and its association with binge drinking and sociodemographic factors among adolescent students. This is a cross-sectional study with probabilistic conglomerate sampling, involving 1,154 students, aged 13 to 19 years old, from the public school system, in the city of Olinda, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, carried out in 2014. We used the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire, validated for use with Brazilian adolescents. The Chi-square test (≤ 0.05) and Poisson regression analysis were used to estimate the prevalence ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Use in life of illicit drugs was four times more prevalent among students who reported binge drinking (95%CI 3.19-5.45). Being in the age group of 16 to 19 years, being male, and having no religion were also significantly associated with illicit drug use. The prevalence of use in life of illicit drugs was higher in this study than in other studies carried out in Brazil and it was strongly associated with binge drinking. This factor was associated with gender, age, and religion. Estimar a prevalência do uso de drogas ilícitas e sua associação com binge drinking e fatores sociodemográficos entre estudantes adolescentes. Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerado, envolvendo 1.154 estudantes, de 13 a 19 anos de idade, da rede pública de ensino, no município de Olinda, PE, 2014. Foi utilizado o questionário Youth Risk Behavior Survey, validado para uso com adolescentes brasileiros. Para análise dos dados foi utilizado o teste do Qui-quadrado (≤ 0,05) e análise de regressão de Poisson, para estimar razões de prevalência, com intervalos com 95% de confiança. O uso na vida de drogas ilícitas foi quatro vezes mais prevalente entre os estudantes que relataram o binge drinking (IC95% 3,19-5,45). Estar na faixa etária de 16 a 19 anos, ser do sexo masculino e não ter religião também foram significativamente associados ao uso de drogas
Akers, Aletha Y; Gold, Melanie A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Primary STD prevention relies on five key strategies: practicing abstinence, choosing low-risk partners, discussing partners' sexual history, using condoms consistently and not having multiple partners. Few studies have examined all of these strategies simultaneously, and few have focused on rural black adolescents, whose rates of early sexual initiation and STDs are among the highest in the nation. In 2006, a sample of 37 black adolescents (20 female, 17 male) from two rural North Carolina counties participated in focus groups that explored their understanding of how primary prevention strategies reduce STD transmission, the common barriers they encounter in trying to adopt these strategies and the risk reduction strategies that they employ. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Adolescents understood how primary prevention strategies reduce STD transmission. However, they perceived sex as normal and abstinence as unlikely during adolescence. Furthermore, they considered the remaining primary prevention strategies difficult to implement because these strategies depend on partner cooperation and incorrectly assume that STD prevention is paramount when adolescents make sexual decisions. Adolescents reported using alternative strategies to reduce their STD risk; the most commonly used approaches were indirect assessments of partner characteristics (e.g., evaluating partners' physical appearance and sexual history) and STD testing (to identify and treat infections). Adolescents try to reduce their STD risk, but do so by using ineffective practices. Promoting primary prevention strategies requires helping adolescents to identify opportunities to successfully employ these strategies. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Walker, Q David; Caster, Joseph M; Levin, Edward D; Kuhn, Cynthia M
Epidemiological evidence suggests that people who begin experimenting with drugs of abuse during early adolescence are more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUDs), but this correlation does not guarantee causation. Animal models, in which age of onset can be tightly controlled, offer a platform for testing causality. Many animal models address drug effects that might promote or discourage drug intake and drug-induced neuroplasticity. We have reviewed the preclinical literature to investigate whether adolescent rodents are differentially sensitive to rewarding, reinforcing, aversive, locomotor, and withdrawal-induced effects of drugs of abuse. The rodent model literature consistently suggests that the balance of rewarding and aversive effects of drugs of abuse is tipped toward reward in adolescence. However, increased reward does not consistently lead to increased voluntary intake: age effects on voluntary intake are drug and method specific. On the other hand, adolescents are consistently less sensitive to withdrawal effects, which could protect against compulsive drug seeking. Studies examining neuronal function have revealed several age-related effects but have yet to link these effects to vulnerability to SUDs. Taken together, the findings suggest factors which may promote recreational drug use in adolescents, but evidence relating to pathological drug-seeking behavior is lacking. A call is made for future studies to address this gap using behavioral models of pathological drug seeking and for neurobiologic studies to more directly link age effects to SUD vulnerability.
Shannon, Erin E.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Dougherty, Donald M.; Liguori, Anthony
Because of the widespread use of drugs by adolescents, there is demand for scientific rigor in sampling and accuracy in methods for ascertaining drug use patterns. The present study (1) characterized adolescents who responded to advertisements for marijuana users; (2) compared rates of drug use reported on the telephone versus an on-site interview; and (3) examined drug use patterns as a function of parental awareness of drug use. Adolescents identifying themselves as marijuana users during t...
Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…
Branik, Emil; Meng, Heiner
It will be largely supposed that early intervention in schizophrenia improves the outcome of the illness. The paper summarizes the up today significant knowledge about the early recognition and treatment of schizophrenic psychosis in the adolescence. It will be pointed at the diagnostic difficulties and peculiarities in this age group. A comprehensive repeated assessment is necessary if prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia respectively psychotic states have to be taken in account. It will be pleaded for a early low dosis therapy with atypical neuroleptics to prevent the "psychotic catastrophe", that means the full outbreak of the disease. The pharmacotherapy should be a part of an intensive multimodal treatment program. The longstanding continuity of the relations to one and the same treatment setting and therapist responsible for it seems to influence the outcome positively.
Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Pilawski, Angela; Durkin, Sarah; Holt, Tracey
Dieting prevention interventions have been relatively unsuccessful and may be more effective if they concentrate on messages known to be relatively high on persuasive properties. We aimed to identify anti-dieting messages rated most strongly on persuasive dimensions and participant characteristics that predicted message evaluations in adolescent girls. Grade 7 and 8 girls completed questionnaires assessing risk factors for, and early symptoms of, eating disorders. Two weeks later, participants viewed on video seven messages (each 2-3 minutes long) frequently used to dissuade against dieting in prevention interventions and one control message. After viewing each message, participants rated it on a scale assessing the persuasive dimensions of Relevance, Believability, Emotional Response, and Intention to Diet. A quarter to a third of participants felt less likely to go on a diet after viewing the messages. "Skipping meals makes you feel starved so you overeat and feel bad" and "Don't be fooled by the fad diets promoted in the media" were rated most strongly. Higher dieting, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect were generally associated with lower persuasive ratings, suggesting the importance of intervention prior to the establishment of dieting behaviors after which there is more message resistance. Age was also a predictor of Believability for some messages, supporting the importance of ensuring the age appropriateness of messages.
Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya
Fluoride mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention in school-based programmes and by individuals at home. This is an update of the Cochrane review of fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2003. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride mouthrinses in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objective is to examine whether the effect of fluoride rinses is influenced by:• initial level of caries severity;• background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); or• fluoride concentration (ppm F) or frequency of use (times per year). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (whole database, to 22 April 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 April 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 April 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1937 to 22 April 2016), LILACS BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database, 1982 to 22 April 2016), BBO BIREME (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; from 1986 to 22 April 2016), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 22 April 2016) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 22 April 2016). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or
Ramos, R.R.N.; Etchebehere, E.C.S.C.; Santos, A.O.; Lima, M.C.L.; Ramos, C.D.; Camargo, E.E.; Silva, C.A.M.; Serrat, S.M.
Polydrug abuse in children and adolescents is a major social problem. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate brain perfusion in polydrug abuser adolescents with brain SPECT imaging (BSI) using 99m Tc-HMPAO. Materials and Methods: Sixteen male polydrug abuser patients (11 to 18 years) were submitted to BSI. Forty-eight normal individuals (26 males, 22 females; 18 to 31 years) were used as a control group. Images were performed after an intravenous injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO in a dark, quiet room. Images were acquired in a camera-computer system equipped with a fan beam collimator. The images were reconstructed in the transaxial, coronal and sagittal views and submitted to semi-quantitative analysis using the thalami as reference, by placing regions of interest (ROIs) in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Patients were also submitted to neuropsychology tests and neurologic examination. Results: Significant hypoperfusion was found in the inferior portion of the frontal lobes (left and right: p<0.0001), temporal lobes (left lateral: p=0.0392; right lateral: p=0.0044; left and right mesial: p<0.0005), right parietal lobe (p=0.025), visual cortex (p=0.0013), pons (p = 0.0002), cerebellar hemispheres (left: p=0.0216; right: p=0.0005) and vermis (p=0.0015). An inverse relationship was observed between the degree of perfusion and the duration of drug abuse in the inferior left frontal lobe (? = -0.55; p=0.0255), superior right frontal lobe (? = -0.51; p=0.043), lateral right temporal lobe (? = -0.58; p=0.0172), mesial left temporal lobe (? -0.52; p=0.0384), left parietal lobe (? = -0.51; p=0.0416), basal ganglia (left: ? = -0.70; p=0.0022; right: ? = -0.65; p=0.0056) and cingulate gyrus (? = -0.66; p=0.0054). A significant correlation was observed between the perfusion of the temporal lobes with the Bender-Koppits test (left and right lateral: p=0.0559). Significant correlation was also noted between the perfusion of the lateral left temporal lobe (p=0.0559), parietal
Guo, Rui; He, Qian; Shi, Junxin; Gong, Jie; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Zengzhen
Drug abuse continues to be a serious public health threat worldwide. Most drug abuse prevention research has been conducted with predominantly American or European adolescent populations. Little is known about approaches that work best to prevent the initiation of Chinese adolescent drug use. For targeting risk factors of drug initiation in Chinese adolescents, a school-based health intervention program named "Cognition-Motivation-Emotional Intelligence-Resistance Skills" (CMER) was developed to enhance cognition upon drug use, to decrease motivation of drug use and to improve emotional adjusting and drug resistance skills in this study. A total of 798 students from 3 senior high schools in Wuhan, a city in central China, were assigned randomly to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received the CMER program in which knowledge, development of positive attitude and motivation towards drugs and training of peer resistance skills were basic elements. The immediate impact was compared by measuring the above mentioned elements prior to and three-month after the training session. Students from both groups were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic items, self-reported drug use behavior, cognition, attitude, and motivation associated with the initiation of drug use and resistance skills. Three months after the intervention, significant effects were found on "illegal substance use at least once" (P0.05). It was concluded that the CMER program, which significantly increased the knowledge of drugs and peer resistance skills, was effective in the drug abuse prevention in a sample of school students in Wuhan, China.
de Jong, Marlies R.; Van der Elst, Maarten; Hartholt, Klaas A.
Falls are the leading cause of injuries among older adults, aged 65 years and older. Furthermore, falls are an increasing public health problem because of ageing populations worldwide due to an increase in the number of older adults, and an increase in life expectancy. Numerous studies have identified risk factors and investigated possible strategies to prevent (recurrent) falls in community-dwelling older people and those living in long-term care facilities. Several types of drugs have been ...
de Jong, Marlies R.; Elst, Maarten; Hartholt, Klaas
textabstractFalls are the leading cause of injuries among older adults, aged 65 years and older. Furthermore, falls are an increasing public health problem because of ageing populations worldwide due to an increase in the number of older adults, and an increase in life expectancy. Numerous studies have identified risk factors and investigated possible strategies to prevent (recurrent) falls in community-dwelling older people and those living in long-term care facilities. Several types of drug...
Amanda L. Divin
Full Text Available Adolescence represents a vulnerable time for the development of both drug use/abuse and mental illness. Although previous research has substantiated a relationship between drug use and suicidal behavior, little research has examined this relationship with non-medical prescription drug use. Given the growing prevalence of non-medical prescription drug use (NMPDU among adolescents, this study explored the association between NMPDU and suicidal behavior. Nationally representative data were derived from 16, 410 adolescents who completed the 2009 National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Approximately 19.8% of participants reported lifetime NMPDU. NMPDU was associated with significantly increased odds of suicidal behavior (P < 0.01, with seriously considering attempting suicide and making a plan about attempting suicide representing the strongest correlates for males and females. Results suggest the importance of 1 continued reinforcement of drug education programs in high school begun at earlier ages and 2 mental health care and screenings among adolescents.
Reilly, John J
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.
Reilly, John J.
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005
Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.
The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results…
Ford, Jason A.
There has been a tremendous increase in the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents in recent years. Research now indicates that the prevalence of nonmedical prescription drug use is greater than the prevalence of other illicit drug use, excluding marijuana. Despite these recent trends, there is a dearth of research in the…
Guo, Jong-Long; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Liao, Jung-Yu; Huang, Chiu-Mieh
To evaluate the long-term effects of an illicit drug use prevention program for adolescents that integrates life skills into the theory of planned behavior. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in which 24 participating schools were randomized to either an intervention group (12 schools, n = 1,176 students) or a control group (12 schools, n = 915 students). Participants were grade 7 students. The intervention comprised a main intervention of 10 sessions and two booster interventions. Booster 1 (four sessions) and booster 2 (two sessions) were performed at 6 months and 12 months, respectively, after completion of the main intervention. Assessments were made at baseline, after the main intervention, and after each booster session using specific questionnaires for measuring participants' attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and life skills. Retention rates were 71.9% (845/1,176) in the intervention group and 90.7% (830/915) in the control group after the 12-month follow-up. A significantly lower proportion of intervention group participants reported illicit drug use after the first and second booster sessions compared with control group participants (.1% vs. 1.7% and .2% vs. 1.7%, respectively; both p drug use. A drug use prevention program integrating life skills into the theory of planned behavior may be effective for reducing illicit drug use and improving planned behavior-related constructs in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fegert Jörg M
Full Text Available Abstract Most psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of children and adolescents are applied "off label" with a direct risk of under- or overdosing and a delayed risk of long-term side effects. The selection of doses in paediatric psychiatric patients requires a consideration of pharmacokinetic parameters and the development of central nervous system, and warrants specific studies in children and adolescents. Because these are lacking for most of the psychotropic drugs applied in the Child and Adolescent and Psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy and to enable to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. Multi-centre TDM studies enable the identification of age- and development-dependent therapeutic ranges of blood concentrations and facilitate a highly qualified standardized documentation in the child and adolescent health care system. In addition, they will provide data for future research on psychopharmacological treatment in children and adolescents, as a baseline for example for clinically relevant interactions with various co-medications. Therefore, a German-Austrian-Swiss "Competence Network on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" was founded 1 introducing a comprehensive internet data base for the collection of demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents.
Shenkman, Elizabeth; Youngblade, Lise; Nackashi, John
Adolescence has traditionally been thought of as a time of good health. However, adolescents comprise an important group with unique needs among State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) enrollees. Throughout the 1990s, there was increasing evidence of unacceptably high morbidity and mortality among adolescents from injuries, suicide, sexually transmitted diseases, substance abuse, and other conditions associated with risk behaviors. The establishment of relationships with the health care system can ensure prompt treatment and help promote healthy behaviors, assuming that the adolescent feels comfortable seeking help for his or her health-related concerns. However, health care systems typically are not designed to ensure that adolescents receive the primary and preventive care that might ameliorate the negative consequences of health-damaging behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine the following hypotheses. 1) Adolescents with special health care needs, those engaging in risk behaviors, and those who were insured before program enrollment would be more likely than those who were healthy and those not engaging in risk behaviors to have a preventive care visit in the year preceding the interview. No differences would be observed in the odds of preventive care visits based on age, race/ethnicity, and gender. 2) No differences would be observed in the receipt of risk-behavior counseling for those with a preventive care visit based on the adolescents' sociodemographic and health characteristics. 3) Adolescents who were older would be more likely to engage in risk behaviors than younger adolescents. There would be no differences in reports of risk behaviors based on gender, race/ethnicity, and children with special health care needs status. Adolescents 12 to 19 years old and newly enrolled in SCHIP were eligible for the study. Telephone interviews were conducted within 3 months after enrollment with parents of adolescents to obtain sociodemographic
Brown, C. Hendricks; Guo, Jing; Singer, L. Terri; Downes, Katheryne; Brinales, Joseph M.
Context: Although there have been substantial advances in knowledge about drug prevention over the last decade, the majority of school-based drug prevention studies have been conducted in urban settings. There is little knowledge about the effectiveness of such programs when they are implemented in rural populations. Purpose: To examine the…
Bobrowski, Krzysztof Jan; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Staszewski, Krzysztof O; Borucka, Anna
The aim of this research was to assess the delayed effects of a two-year alcohol prevention program implemented in Polish primary schools. The program comprised two curricula implemented the school and in family houses: Program Domowych Detektywów and Fantastyczne Mozliwości. Both curricula were the Polish versions of two American school-based prevention programs which belonged to Project Northland. The initial study sample (N = 802) comprised 10 to 11 years old pupils (fourth and fifth-grade) from eight primary schools in Warsaw. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 421) and the reference group (n = 381). A self-completion questionnaire was administered to students four times: at the baseline, seven, fifteen and twenty seven months after. The program had an expected influence on the students' attitudes, knowledge and resistance skills towards alcohol. The effects on the participants' initiation of drunkenness and their first experience in alcohol use with their peers have also been reported. Most of the positive effects remained significant over time. The effectiveness of the program, as shown by the outcome evaluation, supports an argument for its wide implementation in Polish schools. Further progress in the field of alcohol and drug prevention in Poland depends on overcoming the existing barriers in this area of public health.
Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Johnston, Lloyd D.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Messersmith, Emily E.
Does success in school protect teenagers from drug use? Does drug use impair scholastic success? This book tackles a key issue in adolescent development and health--the education-drug use connection. The authors examine the links and likely causal connections between educational experiences, delinquent behavior, and adolescent use of tobacco,…
Hadar, Ravit; Dong, Le; Del-Valle-Anton, Lucia; Guneykaya, Dilansu; Voget, Mareike; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Schweibold, Regina; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Goetz, Thomas; Ewing, Samuel; Kettenmann, Helmut; Wolf, Susanne A; Winter, Christine
In recent years schizophrenia has been recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder likely involving a perinatal insult progressively affecting brain development. The poly I:C maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is considered as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Using this model we and others demonstrated the association between neuroinflammation in the form of altered microglia and a schizophrenia-like endophenotype. Therapeutic intervention using the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline affected altered microglia activation and was successful in the adult offspring. However, less is known about the effect of preventive therapeutic strategies on microglia properties. Previously we found that deep brain stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex applied pre-symptomatically to adolescence MIA rats prevented the manifestation of behavioral and structural deficits in adult rats. We here studied the effects of deep brain stimulation during adolescence on microglia properties in adulthood. We found that in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex, microglial density and soma size were increased in MIA rats. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was unchanged in all brain areas before and after implantation and stimulation. Stimulation of either the medial prefrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens normalized microglia density and soma size in main projection areas including the hippocampus and in the area around the electrode implantation. We conclude that in parallel to an alleviation of the symptoms in the rat MIA model, deep brain stimulation has the potential to prevent the neuroinflammatory component in this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Elliot, D; Goldberg, L
Athletes with a higher intent to use anabolic steroids were similar to students who indicated no predisposition to use steroids on economic, academic, and physical measures. They had similar understandings of anabolic steroid effects, and their self-rated understandings of how to weight train and of sports nutrition were similar. In addition, the influence of the coaches and the media and the perceived prevalence of anabolic steroid use were not different between the higher- and lower-intent students. These results demonstrated several significant differences. Higher-intent students had higher levels of alcohol and marijuana use, which suggest that those items might be tackled concurrently. These athletes had higher hostility, impulsivity, and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Despite similar physical measures, they had a high body image, but were less satisfied with their current weight. These findings underscored the importance of using nutrition and appropriate training as effective alternatives to anabolic steroids. Higher-intent students had greater peer tolerance of drug use and less parental influence not to use drugs, which implies that a peer-led small group format might be important to dispel the perceived peer tolerance. Including a parent-based component, one that emphasizes a disapproval of drug use also could be effective. Higher-intent athletes had less ability to refuse an offer of steroids. The dynamics of turning down steroids may differ from that of other illicit substances so that training in refusal skills specific to steroids is needed. These differences provide a needs assessment to identify curricular components for an intervention to permit anabolic steroid use. The sports team may be a unique educational setting because it can capitalize on peer ties, the coach's influence, and an athletes' motivation to improve, to prevent drug use, and to promote healthy behaviors.
Office of Policy Development, Washington, DC.
This document describes the Federal response to drug abuse and drug trafficking. The actions of President Reagan, in Executive Order 12368, establishing an official advisor on drug abuse policy matters, and the priorities, issues, and objectives (international cooperation, drug law enforcement, education and prevention, detoxification and…
Marinho, Valeria C C; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; Chong, Lee Yee
Topically applied fluoride gels have been widely used as a caries-preventive intervention in dental surgeries and school-based programmes for over three decades. This updates the Cochrane review of fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2002. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride gels in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objectives are to examine whether the effect of fluoride gels is influenced by the following: initial level of caries severity; background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes, or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); mode of use (self applied under supervision or operator-applied), and whether there is a differential effect between the tray and toothbrush methods of application; frequency of use (times per year) or fluoride concentration (ppm F). We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 5 November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 5 November 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 5 November 2014), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 5 November 2014), LILACS and BBO via the BIREME Virtual Health Library (1980 to 5 November 2014), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 5 November 2014) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1945 to 5 November 2014). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on 5 November 2014. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication in the search of the electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or indicated, comparing topically applied fluoride gel with placebo or no treatment in
Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A
Reports of high levels of use of protein powders and nutritional supplements among young men is a concern because these substances may act as a gateway for the use of drugs and illegal substances to enhance appearance or sports performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, supplement use, and attitudes towards doping in sport among an adolescent male sample. Participants were 1148 male adolescents (age range 11-21 years) in Australia who completed a self-report questionnaire that measured weight change behaviors, supplement use, body dissatisfaction (Male Body Attitudes Scale; MBAS) and attitudes towards doping in sport (Performance Enhancing Attitudes Survey; PEAS). There was a positive correlation between MBAS total and PEAS scores (r = .19, p sport. Young men who were currently attempting weight loss or weight gain, and those currently consuming energy drinks (ηp2 = .01, p sport. However, those involved in weight lifting, and using protein powders were not (p > .05). These findings suggest that body dissatisfaction, weight change behaviors, and supplement use are related to more lenient attitudes towards doping in sport among adolescent boys. Future research might examine whether combining educational content for the prevention of body dissatisfaction and the use of drugs in sport may have a greater preventive impact than current programs aimed at young men.
Lee, Kyung Eun; Hwang, Se Jung; Gwak, Hye Sun; Lee, Byung Koo; Bae, Seung Jin; Rhie, Sandy
Adolescence is critical in the habituation of diverse lifestyles and is a base for future physical well-being. Although gastrointestinal disorders are frequently reported in adolescents, studies related to GI drug use or related factors in Korean adolescents are rare. Thus, this study examined Korean adolescents for the use of GI drugs for abdominal symptoms and analyzed the associated factors. This cross-sectional study was done with a total of 2,416 students who completed a given questionnaire. The health-related questions included GI medication intake, smoking, alcohol, caffeine, regular exercise, self-cognitive health level, GI symptom, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) intake, and sleep problems. In questions about GI medication intake, drugs included digestives and antacids. And the intake of GI drugs more than once during the past 1 month was regarded as taking GI drugs. The sociodemographic questions included age, gender, grade, number of close friends, extracurricular activities, and school performance. The overall prevalence for taking GI drugs, including antacids and digestives, was 17.4 %. When students taking GI drugs were compared with those not taking GI drugs, the former group showed higher rates of girls (P caffeine, self-cognitive health levels, and GI symptoms showed statistical significance with the rate of GI drug intake. The rate of GI drug intake in NSAID users was 2.7 times higher than that in non-users (P academic performances and health status in adulthood.
Zosel, Amy; Bartelson, Becki Bucher; Bailey, Elise; Lowenstein, Steven; Dart, Rick
To describe the characteristics and health effects of adolescent (age 13-19 years) prescription drug abuse and misuse using the Researched Abuse Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS(®)) System. Secondary analysis of data collected from RADARS System participating poison centers was performed. Data for all intentional exposures from 2007 through 2009 were used to describe adolescent prescription opioid (oxycodone, fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, morphine, methadone, buprenorphine, and tramadol) and stimulant (methylphenidate and amphetamines) exposures. A total of 16,209 intentional adolescent exposures to prescription drugs were identified, 68% to opioids and 32% to stimulants. The mean age was 16.6 years (SD ± 1.7 years). Slightly more than half (52.4%) of drug mentions involved females. The five most frequently misused or abused drugs were hydrocodone (32%), amphetamines (18%), oxycodone (15%), methylphenidate (14%), and tramadol (11%). Of all exposures, 38% were classified as suspected suicidal. Of adolescents who intentionally exposed themselves to prescription drugs, 30% were treated in a health care facility, 2,792 of whom were admitted to the hospital, including 1,293 to the intensive care unit. A total of 17.2% of intentional exposures were associated with no effect, 38.9% minor effects, 23.3% moderate effects, 3.6% major effects, and 0.1% were associated with death. Oxycodone and methadone were associated with the most deaths. No deaths were associated with exposures to stimulants. Prescription drug misuse and abuse poses an important health problem and results in thousands of hospitalizations of adolescents per year. Further work is needed to develop focused interventions and educational programs to prevent prescription drug abuse and misuse by adolescents. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hiriscau, Ioana E; Stingelin-Giles, Nicola; Stadler, Christina; Schmeck, Klaus; Reiter-Theil, Stella
Conducting prevention research with children and adolescents raises ethical challenges especially regarding confidentiality. Research with children and adolescents often applies methodologies which aims at the disclosure of sensitive information about practices that impact on adolescent mental and physical health such as sexual activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, illegal drug use, self-damaging and suicidal behaviour (ideation and attempts). The scope of the article is to review normative documents that cover topics relevant for confidentiality when conducting research with children and adolescents. A systematic literature search in MEDLINE was performed to identify relevant international and European guidelines and codes of ethics that cover health, behavioural and social science research. Additionally, the European Research Ethics website was consulted for double check. However, none of the documents aimed at biomedical, behavioural or social research offers concrete support in resolving practical research ethics problems regarding confidentiality. The codes show a lack of clarity in any circumstances in which the researcher might have an obligation to breach confidentiality by disclosing sensitive information. Only little information is given on what kind of disclosed information, if disclosed, might justify breaching confidentiality. The findings prove a need for normative documents to address the ethical questions regarding confidentiality arising in research practice explicitly and specifically. Moreover, further forms of ethical guidance should be developed to support ethical research with children and adolescents.
Wilson, Louise F.
Obesity is a major pediatric public health problem. Adolescents are a priority population for intervention strategies. School nurses are in key positions to design intervention strategies to promote healthy lifestyles and prevent adolescent obesity in the students they serve. To design effective programs, school nurses need to know what components…
Trudeau, Kimberlee J.; Black, Ryan A.; Kamon, Jody L.; Sussman, Steve
Background: An Internet-based relapse prevention supplement to adolescent substance abuse treatment programming is a promising modality to reinforce treatment gains and enhance recovery; however, an evidence base is lacking. Objective: To assess the efficacy of the online Navigating my Journey (NmJ) program. Methods: 129 adolescent-aged…
Wolfe, Vicky Veitch; Dozois, David J. A.; Fisman, Sandra; DePace, JoAnne
Up to 25% of adolescent girls experience an episode of major depression, at least twice the rate found with adolescent boys. In addition to reducing the suffering associated with depression, prevention efforts with this high-risk population have the potential to avert short- and long-term functional impairment, reduce the risk of associated mental…
Buckley, Lisa; Chapman, Rebekah L.; Sheehan, Mary C.; Reveruzzi, Bianca N.
Injury is a significant public health problem among youth. A primary cause of adolescent injury is risk-taking behavior, including alcohol use, interpersonal violence and road-related risks. A novel approach to prevention is building on friendships by encouraging adolescents to intervene into their friends' risk taking. Fifty-one early adolescents…
Monshouwer, K.; Smit, H.F.E.; Ruiter, M.; Ormel, H.; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, w.; Oldehinkel, T.
Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level
Monshouwer, K.; Smit, F.; Ruiter, M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, F.; Vollebergh, W.; Oldehinkel, T.
Background: Depression in adolescence is associated with long-term adverse consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify target groups at increased risk of developing depression in early adolescence, such that prevention is associated with the largest health benefit at population-level
Clemency, Colleen E.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon
This article presents an innovative multiple family psychoeducational group for the prevention of disordered eating among adolescent females. An overview of the concerns facing adolescents today is presented, including sociocultural norms, body dissatisfaction associated with pubertal changes, teasing regarding weight and shape, and family…
Sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund, this report presents a comprehensive look at three Toward Teen Health high school-based, adolescent health centers in Chicago, Illinois. Following a brief introduction, the report provides the rationale for opening adolescent health centers and outlines the principles that guide the centers. Next, a…
van Nimwegen, L.; de Haan, L.; van Beveren, N.; van den Brink, W.; Linszen, D.
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the neurobiological and psychosocial developmental factors in adolescence contributing to simultaneous onset and co-occurrence of psychosis and substance use disorders. METHOD: A review of the literature. RESULTS: Adolescence is a period with specific psychosocial challenges
Seigneurie, A-S; Sauvanaud, F; Limosin, F
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder of tongue, jawbone, trunk and/or limbs that may appear after a prolonged use of dopamine receptor blocking agents (after 3 months of treatment or after 1 month for patients over 60), and that are present during at least four consecutive weeks. TD is a frequent side effect of both classical neuroleptics and new generation antipsychotic drugs. The prevalence of iatrogenic TD is between 24 and 32 % after treatment with classical neuroleptics and about 13 % after treatment with a new generation antipsychotic. This paper presents an updated literature review of data on diagnosis, prevention and treatment of TD. We conducted a review of literature using the Medline Browser tool, screening studies from 1950 to 2013 in English or French with keywords « tardive dyskinesia », « tardive dystonia », and « abnormal movements caused by antipsychotic drugs ». We first describe and define semeiological features of TD: dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, acathisie, chorea, ballism and athetosia. Secondarily, we resume the main differential diagnoses to exclude when confronted with this kind of movement disorders. Differential diagnoses for dyskinesia can be classified between primary (Parkinson and Huntington diseases) and secondary (Wilson disease, intoxication, metabolic abnormality, cerebrovascular accident) abnormal movements. Psychogenic TD can be evocated if previous pathologies are excluded in case of atypical clinical presentation. We detail the risk factors for TD. Endogenous risk factors are related to the patient's age, underlying psychiatric disease (bipolar disorder or Alzheimer dementia), addiction to alcohol or cocaine, female gender, or neurodevelopmental vulnerability. Iatrogenic risk factors are high doses of antipsychotics, long or intermittent administration, and particular pharmaceutical classes or associations of antipsychotics. As a comprehensive tool, we review the main physiopathological hypotheses to
Haughwout, Sarah P; Harford, Thomas C; Castle, I-Jen P; Grant, Bridget F
Adolescent substance users face serious health and social consequences and benefit from early diagnosis and treatment. The objectives of this study were to observe trends in treatment utilization; examine correlates of treatment utilization and treatment types/settings among adolescent substance users with and without substance use disorder (SUD); and assess gender differences. National Survey on Drug Use and Health data were pooled across 2002 to 2013, with a combined sample of 79,885 past-year substance users ages 12 to 17 (17,510 with SUD and 62,375 without SUD). Treatment was defined as receiving treatment or counseling for use of alcohol or any drug, not counting cigarettes. Trends were assessed by joinpoint linear regression, and multivariable logistic regression assessed odds ratios of treatment utilization. Percentages of past-year treatment use did not change in 2002 to 2013. Treatment utilization was more prevalent among adolescents with SUD than without (11.4% vs. 1.4%) and among males than females. Among adolescents with and without SUD, criminal justice involvement and perceiving a need for treatment increased adolescent treatment utilization, while SUDs other than alcohol abuse, older age, and talking to parents increased treatment use among adolescents with SUD, and polysubstance use and male gender increased treatment among those without SUD. Treatment gaps persisted among non-Hispanic Blacks for both groups with and without SUD, male Hispanics with SUD, female non-Hispanic Asians without SUD, and private insurance coverages. Gender differences were observed in SUD, race/ethnicity, and insurance coverage. Most adolescents received treatment for both alcohol and drug use, and self-help group and outpatient rehabilitation facility were the most used treatment settings. Treatment utilization among adolescents with past-year substance use remained low and unimproved in 2002 to 2013. Treatment gaps among minority populations, insurance coverage, and in
Mead, Emma; Atkinson, Greg; Richter, Bernd; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Baur, Louise; Finer, Nicholas; Corpeleijn, Eva; O'Malley, Claire; Ells, Louisa J.
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL,
Geckova, A; van Dijk, JP
The impact of peer behavior on smoking, alcohol consumption drug use and sports pursuits by pals was followed on a sample of 2616 Slovak adolescents (including 1370 boys, mean age 15 years) within the project Health Inequalities in Adolescents. The data were collected in the form of questionnaires.
Kristiansen, Patricia L.; Hubbard, Robert L.
Gives an overview of methodology for adolescent component of the national Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies; the sample of programs reflects treatment available to adolescents in six urban areas. Describes design, content, and quality of interview protocols. Discusses data collection procedures and completion rates for each phase of…
Barlow, Allison; Mullany, Britta C.; Neault, Nicole; Davis, Yvonne; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lake, Kristin; Powers, Julia; Clouse, Emily; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John T.
American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) adolescents have high rates of pregnancy, as well as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and, increasingly, methamphetamine (meth) use. The progression of adolescent drug use to meth use could have devastating impacts on AI communities, particularly when youth are simultaneously at risk for teen childbearing. In…
Bildt, de A.; Mulder, E.J.; Scheers, T.; Minderaa, R.B.; Tobi, H.
OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmacotherapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4 to
Fuertes Martín, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M Begoña; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Martínez Alvarez, José Luis; Fernández Fuertes, Andrés; Carcedo González, Rodrigo J
This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.
Our purpose was to systematically review the literature on the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents and to determine its effectiveness compared to fluoride varnish.
Blackstock, Oni J; Patel, Viraj V; Cunningham, Chinazo O
Although the proportion of new HIV infections in the USA among women has decreased over the last few years, still, approximately 20 % of new infections occur annually among adolescent and adult women. The development of effective evidence-based prevention interventions remains an important approach to further decreasing these numbers. Technology-delivered prevention interventions hold tremendous potential due, in part, to their ability to reach beyond the walls of brick-and-mortar intervention sites to engage individuals where they are. While most technology-delivered interventions have focused on adolescents and men who have sex with men, much fewer have specifically targeted adolescent or adult women despite evidence showing that interventions tailored to specific target populations are most effective. We summarize the recently published literature on technology-delivered HIV prevention interventions for US adolescent and adult women and provide suggestions for next steps in this nascent but emergent area of prevention research.
Pershukov, I V; Batyraliev, T A
The problem of drug eluting stents (DES) safety has been actively discussed throughout 2006 because of increase of frequency of development of late stent thromboses which were noted during almost 2 years after stenting. In December 2006 US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory panel acknowledged increase of development of late stent thrombosis. At the same time FDA accepted new definition of stent-thrombosis suggested by the Academic Research Consortium. According to this definition thrombosis can be definite, probable and possible. Any unexplained death before end of follow-up in a trial should be considered thrombosis related. Recalculation of thrombosis rate using this definition caused pronounced increase of this parameter in previously conducted trials. Thrombosis rate rose from 0,6 to 3,3% for bare metal stents, from 0,8 to 3,6% for sirolimus eluting stents and from 1,3 to 3,5% for paclitaxel eluting stents. Professional cardiological and angiographical societies (ACC, AHA, SCAI) responding to FDA advisory panel published their proofs and vision of the problem of stent thrombosis. In February 2007 ACC, AHA, SCAI, American College of Surgeons and Association of Dentists published scientific bulletin in which described preventive measures aimed at lowering of risk of thrombosis development. This document contains strict recommendation to continue double antithrombotic therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel for 12 months after implantation of DES or abandonment of the use of this type of stents when long term double antithrombotic therapy is not possible.
SALAZAR, EDUARDO; SERUMS,Fuerza Aérea del Perú. Lima, Perú; UGARTE, MANUEL; SERUMS,Fuerza Aérea del Perú. Lima, Perú; VÁSQUEZ, LUIS; SERUMS,Ejército Peruano. Lima, Perú; LOAIZA, JOSÉ; SERUMS,Ejército Peruano. Lima, Perú
Objective: To determine the prevalence of alcohol and drug use and psychosocial factors associated in adolescents in Lima. Design: Analytic transversal study. Material and Methods: A sample of 430 adolescents from one Lima high school was studied. The questionnaire used was the Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ). Results: Three hundred and ninety-one valid questionnaires were received. The prevalence of either alcohol or drug use was 43%; the alcohol use 42,2%, marijuana 8,7%,...
Zavela, Kathleen J.
Investigated effective drug prevention strategies for school-aged populations from drug prevention programs funded by the Department of Health and Human Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Interviews with model programs' directors and staff highlighted 15 strategies essential for developing effective programs. Strategies focused on…
Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan
This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100-$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14-$28). Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites.
Crossin, Rose; Cairney, Sheree; Lawrence, Andrew J; Duncan, Jhodie R
Abuse of inhalants containing the volatile solvent toluene is a significant public health issue, especially for adolescent and Indigenous communities. Adolescent inhalant abuse can lead to chronic health issues and may initiate a trajectory towards further drug use. Identification of at-risk individuals is difficult and diagnostic tools are limited primarily to measurement of serum toluene. Our objective was to identify the effects of adolescent inhalant abuse on subsequent drug use and growth parameters, and to test the predictive power of growth parameters as a diagnostic measure for inhalant abuse. We retrospectively analysed drug use and growth data from 118 Indigenous males; 86 chronically sniffed petrol as adolescents. Petrol sniffing was the earliest drug used (mean 13 years) and increased the likelihood and earlier use of other drugs. Petrol sniffing significantly impaired height and weight and was associated with meeting 'failure to thrive' criteria; growth diagnostically out-performed serum toluene. Adolescent inhalant abuse increases the risk for subsequent and earlier drug use. It also impairs growth such that individuals meet 'failure to thrive' criteria, representing an improved diagnostic model for inhalant abuse. Implications for Public Health: Improved diagnosis of adolescent inhalant abuse may lead to earlier detection and enhanced health outcomes. © 2016 The Authors.
Valente, Juliana Y; Moreira, Tais Campos; Ferigolo, Maristela; Barros, Helena M T
Programs for parents have been found to have a direct positive impact on reducing the consumption of psychoactive substances by adolescents, as well as having an indirect impact on reducing risk factors and increasing protective factors. The present study aimed to verify if a telehealth prevention program based on a brief motivational intervention helps to reduce parental risk practices and increase parental protective practices for drug use in comparison with psychoeducation. A pilot randomized controlled trial was performed at the National Service of Guidance and Information on Drug Use (Ligue 132), from September 2014 to December 2015, with the parents of adolescents (n=26). The outcome measures were parental style, risk, and protective parental practices. The brief motivational intervention was found to be more effective than psychoeducation in reducing the negligent behavior of parents. Furthermore, when comparing pre- and post-intervention data, the brief motivational intervention helped to change parental style and the large majority of parental practices: increasing positive monitoring, as well as decreasing physical abuse, relaxed discipline, inconsistent punishment, and negative monitoring. These results demonstrate that the telehealth intervention is effective in modifying the parental practices known to help in preventing drug use. Studies with more number of subjects are required so that the results can be substantiated and generalized. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Boon Chin Oh
Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.
Peter W. Choate
Full Text Available Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents’ experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1 finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2 experiences as the problems escalated; (3 looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4 connecting to the parent’s own history; (5 trying to cope; (6 challenges of getting help; (7 impact on siblings; and (8 choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed.
Wang, Li Yan; Michael, Shannon L
To estimate smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood and to estimate long-term health and medical cost impacts of preventing smoking in today's adolescents. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), we first estimated smoking progression probabilities from adolescence to young adulthood. Then, using the predicted probabilities, we estimated the number of adolescents who were prevented from becoming adult daily smokers as a result of a hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in today's adolescents. We further estimated lifetime medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained as a result of preventing adolescents from becoming adult daily smokers. All costs were in 2010 dollars. Compared with never smokers, those who had tried smoking at baseline had higher probabilities of becoming current or former daily smokers at follow-up regardless of baseline grade or sex. A hypothetical 1 percentage point reduction in the prevalence of ever smoking in 24.5 million students in 7th-12th grades today could prevent 35,962 individuals from becoming a former daily smoker and 44,318 individuals from becoming a current daily smoker at ages 24-32 years. As a result, lifetime medical care costs are estimated to decrease by $1.2 billion and lifetime QALYs is estimated to increase by 98,590. Effective smoking prevention programs for adolescents go beyond reducing smoking prevalence in adolescence; they also reduce daily smokers in young adulthood, increase QALYs, and reduce medical costs substantially in later life. This finding indicates the importance of continued investment in effective youth smoking prevention programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dating violence (also known as adolescent relationship abuse) and sexual violence are prevalent from the middle school years throughout adolescence, peak in young adulthood, and are associated with multiple poor physical and mental health consequences. By offering universal education and brief anticipatory guidance with all adolescent patients about healthy and unhealthy relationships and sexual consent, health care providers can help promote healthy adolescent sexual relationships, ensure youth know about available resources and supports for relationship abuse and sexual violence (including how to help a friend), and facilitate connections to victim service advocates, both for prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oesterle, Sabrina; Epstein, Marina; Haggerty, Kevin P; Moreno, Megan A
Despite strong evidence that family programs are effective in preventing adolescent substance use, recruiting parents to participate in such programs remains a persistent challenge. This study explored the feasibility of using Facebook to recruit parents of middle school students to a self-directed family program to prevent adolescent drug use. The study used paid Facebook ads aiming to recruit 100 parents in Washington and Colorado using marijuana- or parenting-focused messages. All ad-recruited parents were also invited to refer others in order to compare Facebook recruitment to web-based respondent-driven sampling. Despite offering a $15 incentive for each successfully referred participant, the majority of the screened (70.4%) and eligible (65.1%) parents were recruited through Facebook ads. Yet, eligibility and consent rates were significantly higher among referred (76.6 and 57.3%, respectively) than Facebook-recruited parents (60.0 and 36.6%, respectively). Click-through rates on Facebook were higher for marijuana-focused than parenting-focused ads (0.72 and 0.65%, respectively). The final sample (54% Facebook-recruited) consisted of 103 demographically homogeneous parents (female, educated, non-Hispanic White, and mostly from Washington). Although Facebook was an effective and efficient method to recruit parents to a study with equal to better cost-effectiveness than traditional recruitment strategies, the promise of social media to reach a diverse population was not realized. Additional approaches to Facebook recruitment are needed to reach diverse samples in real-world settings and increase public health impact of family programs.
Thomsen, Linda Aagaard
interventions against medication errors. Methods: A systematic literature review of the available literature on preventable adverse A systematic literature review of the available literature on preventable adverse drug events was conducted to describe the incidence and characteristics of preventable adverse......Summary Background: Preventable adverse drug events are caused by errors in the medication use Preventable adverse drug events are caused by errors in the medication use process, and are of particular interest when designing interventions to improve the quality of medication therapy. Type 2...... diabetes became the case because a large proportion of patients are undertreated and not monitored as recommended; yet, the epidemiology of preventable adverse drug events in type 2 diabetes is largely unknown. The aims of the studies were to develop quality indicators for preventable adverse drug events...
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must an IHE submit a drug prevention program certification? 86.6 Section 86.6 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.6 When must an IHE submit a drug prevention program certification? (a) After October 1, 1990, except as provided in...
Reicher, Hannelore; Matischek-Jauk, Marlies
Depression is a major and increasingly frequent health problem among young people (WHO, 2017). Adolescence is a peak time for the first onset of depression (Seeley & Lewinsohn, 2008). However despite discovering high prevalence rates among young people in recent studies , teachers tend to overlook depressive symptoms in adolescents, while…
Kumar, V. Jurist Lionial
Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between child hood and adulthood. Adolescent period starts with puberty. The period during which the capability for sexual reproduction is attained; it is marked by changes in both primary and secondary sexual characteristics and is dated from menarche in…
DRUG ABUSE , *MILITARY PERSONNEL, *MILITARY PLANNING, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, BACKGROUND, SURVEYS, HYPOTHESES, MANAGEMENT, EDUCATION, PREVENTION, CORRECTIONS, IDENTIFICATION, TREATMENT, REHABILITATION, REPORTS, ORGANIZATIONS, COSTS
Sun, Fan-Ko; Long, Ann; Yu, Pei-Jane; Huang, Hui-Man; Chiang, Chun-Ying; Yao, YuChun
This study was designed to explore Category 3 and 4 controlled drug users' perceptions of participating in health-prevention lectures. A phenomenological approach was used. Twelve participants were interviewed after completing the lectures. Findings revealed five themes (1) mixed emotions; (2) self-development; (3) finding the lectures lacked practicality and relevance; (4) highlighting three stages for discontinuing drug-usage; and, (5) suggesting tips for the advancement of lectures. These findings could be used as a map to help health professionals understand drug users' perceptions of attending health prevention lectures and provide insight into how young people might stop using drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Valente, Juliana Y; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Sanchez, Zila M
To identify different patterns of drug use in adolescence and determine if these are associated with parenting styles and other sociodemographic factors. A latent class analysis was conducted using baseline data collected in a sample (n=6381) from a randomized controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the #Tamojunto drug-use prevention program, carried out with 7th- and 8th-grade public school students in six Brazilian cities. Three latent classes were identified among the students: 1) abstainers/low users (81.54%), 2) alcohol users/binge drinkers (16.65%), and 3) polydrug users (1.80%). A gradient of inverse association was found between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and indulgent, with the neglectful style as a reference point) and the classes "alcohol users/binge drinkers" (aOR=0.36, 95%CI=0.27-0.47; aOR=0.56, 95%CI=0.43-0.72; and aOR=0.64, 95%CI=0.51-0.80, respectively) and "polydrug users" (aOR=0.09, 95%CI=0.03-0.24; aOR=0.23, 95%CI=0.11-0.52; and aOR=0.24, 95%CI=0.08-0.74, respectively). Associations were also revealed between the latent classes and the adolescent's age and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that activities to develop parenting skills should be included in school programs aimed at the prevention of drug use among adolescents in order to reduce neglectful practices and thereby possibly reduce drug use among the children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Doering-Silveira, Evelyn; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier
Ritual use of ayahuasca within the context of the Brazilian ayahuasca churches often starts during late childhood or early adolescence. Premature access to psychoactive drugs may represent a risk factor for drug misuse. Conversely, religious affiliation seems to play a protective role in terms of substance abuse. The objective of this study was to describe patterns of drug use in a sample of adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious setting. Forty-one adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 43 adolescents who never drank ayahuasca. No significant differences were identified in terms of lifetime substance consumption. Throughout the previous year period, ayahuasca adolescents used less alcohol (46.31%) than the comparison group (74.4%). Recent use of alcohol was also more frequent among the latter group (65.1%) than among ayahuasca drinkers (32.5%). Although not statistically significant, slight differences in terms of patterns of drug use were definitely observed among groups. Despite their early exposure to a hallucinogenic substance, adolescents using ayahuasca in a controlled setting were mostly comparable to controls except for a considerably smaller proportion of alcohol users. Religious affiliation may have played a central role as a possible protective factor for alcohol use. Thus, ayahuasca seems to be a relatively safe substance as far as drug misuse is concerned.
Otten, Roy; Mun, Chung Jung; Dishion, Thomas J
There is limited empirical integration between peer clustering theory and the Gateway framework. The goal of the present study was to test the hypothesis that friendship associations partly predict gateway escalations in the use of drugs from adolescence to adulthood. This longitudinal study analyzed 3 waves of data from a community sample of 711 male and female participants without a history of illicit drug use reporting drug use at age 17, 22, and 27. Substance use assessments including tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, onset and abuse/dependence tendency of illicit drugs other than cannabis (i.e., cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates), and friends' reported use of illicit drugs. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized model. Participants' cannabis use level at age 17 was positively associated with perceived friends' drug use at age 22, which in turn predicted participants' onset of illicit drug use between ages 22 and 27. Moreover, progression of tobacco use throughout age 17 to 22 was associated with an increased onset of illicit drug use between ages 22 and 27. Apart for an effect of cannabis use at age 22 on abuse and dependence tendency to various drugs at age 28, results were similar. During this period of development, the availability and selection of drug-using friends contributes to the progression to potentially more rewarding and damaging illicit drugs. These findings suggest the need to attend to the peer ecology in prevention and support the common practice of using abstaining peers in treatment for drug dependence. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Martins, Silvia S; Storr, Carla L; Alexandre, Pierre K; Chilcoat, Howard D
Perceived risk and attitudes about the consequences of drug use, perceptions of others expectations and self-efficacy influence the intent to try drugs and continue drug use once use has started. We examine associations between adolescents' attitudes and beliefs towards ecstasy use; because most ecstasy users have a history of marijuana use, we estimate the association for three groups of adolescents: non-marijuana/ecstasy users, marijuana users (used marijuana at least once but never used ecstasy) and ecstasy users (used ecstasy at least once). Data from 5049 adolescents aged 12-18 years old who had complete weighted data information in Round 2 of the Restricted Use Files (RUF) of the National Survey of Parents and Youth (NSPY). Data were analyzed using jackknife weighted multinomial logistic regression models. Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to approve of marijuana and ecstasy use as compared to non-drug using youth. Adolescent marijuana and ecstasy users were more likely to have close friends who approved of ecstasy as compared to non-drug using youth. The magnitudes of these two associations were stronger for ecstasy use than for marijuana use in the final adjusted model. Our final adjusted model shows that approval of marijuana and ecstasy use was more strongly associated with marijuana and ecstasy use in adolescence than perceived risk in using both drugs. Information about the risks and consequences of ecstasy use need to be presented to adolescents in order to attempt to reduce adolescents' approval of ecstasy use as well as ecstasy experimentation.
Potenza, Marc N
Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biological bases of addictions, these disorders continue to represent a huge public health burden that is associated with substantial personal suffering. Efforts to target addictions require consideration of how the improved biological understanding of addictions may lead to improved prevention, treatment, and policy initiatives. In this article, we provide a narrative review of current biological models for addictions with a goal of placing existing data and theories within a translational and developmental framework targeting the advancement of prevention, treatment, and policy strategies. Data regarding individual differences, intermediary phenotypes, and main and interactive influences of genetic and environmental contributions in the setting of developmental trajectories that may be influenced by addictive drugs or behavior indicate complex underpinnings of addictions. Consideration and further elucidation of the biological etiologies of addictions hold significant potential for making important gains and reducing the public health impact of addictions. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Spoth, Richard; Trudeau, Linda; Redmond, Cleve; Shin, Chungyeol
This brief report summarizes a replication and extension of a developmental outcome modeling study, by examining whether delayed substance initiation during adolescence, resulting from universal middle school preventive interventions, reduces problematic use in young adults Ages 25 and 27, up to 14.5 years after baseline. Participants were middle school students from 36 Iowa schools randomly assigned to the Strengthening Families Program plus Life Skills Training (SFP 10-14 + LST), LST-only, or a control condition. Self-report questionnaires originally were collected at 11 time points, through Age 22. A subsequent grant allowed for assessments at Ages 25 and 27, including measures of drunkenness, alcohol-related problems, cigarette use, illicit drug use (lifetime and frequency), marijuana use and prescription drug misuse. These outcomes were modeled as variables influenced by growth factors describing substance initiation during adolescence. Models included the effects of baseline risk, intervention condition assignment, and their interaction; risk-related moderation effects were examined and relative reduction rates were calculated for dichotomous variables. Model fits were good. Analyses showed significant or marginally significant indirect intervention effects on all outcomes, through effects on adolescent substance initiation growth factors. Intervention × Risk interaction effects favored the higher risk subsample, replicating earlier findings. Additional direct effects on young adult use were observed only for cigarette frequency. Relative reduction rates were larger for the higher risk subsamples, ranging from 3.9% to 36.2%. Universal preventive interventions implemented during early adolescence have the potential to decrease the rates of substance misuse and associated problems into young adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kim, Dong-Hyun; So, Wi-Young
Background: Recreational drug abuse control has long been a major goal of global health and social welfare organizations. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the possible associations between recreational drug abuse and Korean adolescents' school records. Methods: In 2012, 74,186 seventh- through twelfth-grade students participated…
Blackstone, Sarah R.; Herrmann, Lynn K.
Prior research has established associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, little research has been done investigating the relationship between other common illicit drugs and BMI trends. The present study investigated whether adolescents who reported using illicit drugs showed differences in BMI…
Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.
The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…
This study examines the role of libraries in curbing drug abuse among adolescent boys in Nigeria. The study discovered that substance abuse is on the increase. It is one of the major social problems plaguing Nigerian society. Although different classes of people are getting involved in the despicable act of drug abuse, the ...
Francis, Shelley A; Lam, Wendy K; Cance, Jessica D; Hogan, Vijaya K
This study examines African American faith based leaders' attitudes and beliefs about providing HIV prevention education and services to adolescents. Using a convenience sample, we identified priority adolescent health issues, attitudes about abstinence messages, and willingness to provide and participate in HIV prevention. Leaders identified drugs, gangs, alcohol, sex, and pregnancy as priority health issues affecting youth in their institutions. Leaders' strongly preferred to emphasize abstinence messages. Although leaders were willing to provide youth with health education, they were not willing to discuss specific behaviors associated with HIV transmission. African American churches provide a venue to reach African American youth; however, there are limitations to relying on faith-based HIV prevention services. HIV prevention education should continue to be supplemented via parents, schools, and public health agencies.
Benchaya, Mariana C; Bisch, Nadia K; Moreira, Taís C; Ferigolo, Maristela; Barros, Helena M T
To evaluate the association between drug use and parenting styles perceived by Brazilian adolescent children. This cross-sectional study enrolled adolescents aged 14 to 19 years that used the Serviço Nacional de Orientações e Informações sobre a Prevenção do Uso Indevido de Drogas (VIVAVOZ). A total of 232 adolescents participated in the study. Phone interviews were conducted using the Parental Responsiveness and Demandingness Scale, which classifies maternal and paternal styles perceived by adolescent children as authoritative, neglectful, indulgent or authoritarian. Sociodemographic variables were collected and an instrument was used to assess monthly drug use and abuse. Maternal and paternal parenting styles perceived as neglectful, indulgent or authoritarian (non-authoritative) were significantly associated with drug use (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.3-5.7 for mothers and OR = 2.8; 95%CI, 1.3-6.3 for fathers). Non-authoritative styles also had a significant association with tobacco use in the previous month in the analysis of maternal (OR = 2.7; 95%CI, 1.2-6.5) and paternal (OR = 3.9; 95%CI, 1.4-10.7) styles, and use of cocaine/crack in the previous month (OR = 3.9; 95%CI, 1.1-13.8) and abuse of any drug (OR = 2.2; 95%CI, 1.0-5.1) only for the paternal style. Logistic regression revealed that maternal style (OR = 3.3; 95%CI, 1.1-9.8), adolescent sex (OR = 3.2; 95%CI, 1.5-7.2) and age (OR = 2.8; 95%CI, 1.2-6.2) were associated with drug use. Adolescents that perceived their mothers as non-authoritative had greater chances of using drugs. There was a strong association between non-authoritative paternal styles and adolescent drug abuse.
St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina
Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.
Can, Hafize Ozturk; Ceber, Esin; Sogukpinar, Neriman; Saydam, Birsen Karaca; Otles, Semih; Ozenturk, Gulsun
Nutritional status and healthy lifestyle are important factors not only in cancer etiology but also for prevention efforts. A good nutritional status contributes to a healthy life with high economic, social and cultural level. Unhealthy eating habits are part of risky behavior seen from adolescence. The present study was therefore carried out to determine eating habits, level of knowledge about cancer prevention and behavior of a group of adolescents. Data were collected using questionnaire covering eating habits and knowledge of adolescents on prevention from cancer, and special scale (HPLP) to determine the related behavior. Three hundred sixty six of 390 students volunteered for study. Eating habits and the level of cancer prevention knowledge were similar for both genders, except for the exercise issue. The mean total points of adolescents in the Health Promotion Behavior and Subscales was 113,63. While spiritual growth had the highest score in HPLP subscale, exercise had a minimal score. Exercise was the only HPLP subscale with a statistically significant difference between male and female genders. Although they have some information, the adolescents surveyed did not have preventive skills relative to their practical life. In general in order to ensure cancer prevention and a healthy life style social, cultural and sportive activities should be encouraged and educational programmes supporting these goals should be designed and applied for all stages of life, starting in early childhood.
Giles, Michelle; Hass, Michael
Eating disorders are among the most frequently seen chronic illnesses found in adolescent females. In this paper, we discuss school-based prevention and intervention efforts that seek to reduce the impact of this serious illness. School counselors play a key role in the prevention of eating disorders and can provide support even when not directly…
Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate
The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…
Varnado-Sullivan, Paula J.; Zucker, Nancy
The Body Logic Program for Adolescents was developed as a two-stage intervention to prevent the development of eating disorder symptoms. Preliminary results indicate that this program shows promise as an effective prevention effort. The current article provides a detailed description of the protocol for implementing Body Logic Part I, a…
Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ortega, Enrique; Stattin, Hakan
Background: In spite of the proven effectiveness of parenting based programs to prevent adolescent risk behaviors, such programs are rarely implemented in Mediterranean countries. Objective: This pilot study was aimed at assessing the feasibility and the effects of a parenting based universal prevention program (Connect) in Italy. Methods: Our…
Kindt, Karlijn C. M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.
As restructuring a negative cognitive style is a central skill taught in many depression prevention programs, we tested whether a universal prevention program evoked a change in negative cognitive style in adolescents. In addition, we examined distinct developmental trajectories of negative cognitive styles and assessed whether research condition…
La Greca, Annette M.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Background Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Objective Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Method Adolescents (N=14; 13–18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths’ clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Results Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention (M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Conclusions Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed. PMID:27857509
La Greca, Annette M; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Mufson, Laura; Chan, Sherilynn
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and depression are common among adolescents, frequently comorbid, and resistant to change. Prevention programs for adolescent SAD are scant, and depression prevention programs do not fully address peer-risk factors. One critical peer-risk factor for SAD and depression is peer victimization. We describe the development and initial evaluation of a transdiagnostic school-based preventive intervention for adolescents with elevated symptoms of social anxiety and/or depression and elevated peer victimization. We modified Interpersonal Psychotherapy-Adolescent Skills Training for depression, incorporating strategies for dealing with social anxiety and peer victimization. Our open trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary benefit of the modified program (called UTalk) for adolescents at risk for SAD or depression and who also reported peer victimization. Adolescents (N=14; 13-18 years; 79% girls; 86% Hispanic) were recruited and completed measures of peer victimization, social anxiety, and depression both pre- and post-intervention and provided ratings of treatment satisfaction. Independent evaluators (IEs) rated youths' clinical severity. The intervention (3 individual and 10 group sessions) was conducted weekly during school. Regarding feasibility, 86% of the adolescents completed the intervention ( M attendance=11.58 sessions). Satisfaction ratings were uniformly positive. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant declines in adolescent- and IE-rated social anxiety and depression and in reports of peer victimization. Additional secondary benefits were observed. Although further evaluation is needed, the UTalk intervention appears feasible to administer in schools, with high satisfaction and preliminary benefit. Implications for research on the prevention of adolescent SAD and depression are discussed.
Nuno-Gutierrez, Bertha Lidia; Alvarez-Nemegyei, Jose; Rodriguez-Cerda, Oscar
The aim of this study was to explore the social representations used by the parents of adolescent drug users to explain the onset of drug use. Differences in explanations between the parents of male and female adolescents were also explored. Sixty parents who accompanied their children to four rehabilitation centers in 2004 completed two…
Herrera, Dora; Morales Córdova, Hugo
The existence of several causes of antisocial behavior during adolescence seems to respond, not only to the combination of many risk factors within different levels of human development, but also to cultural and historical processes affecting, in many ways, several generations since their early childhood. This paper revises the main explicative theories about antisocial behavior during adolescence and highlights the theory of the Neuropsychological Taxonomy of the Antisocial Behavior proposed...
Martinez, Suzanna M; Blanco, Estela; Delva, Jorge; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila
Purpose Studies report an association between neighborhood risk and both obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMR) among adolescents. Here we describe the effect of perceived neighborhood risk on adiposity and CMR among Chilean adolescents. Methods Participants were 523 low- to middle-income Chilean adolescents. We assessed neighborhood risk in early adolescence, adiposity in childhood and in early and later adolescence, and blood pressure and fasting glucose in later adolescence. Neighborhood risk profiles were estimated using latent profile analysis (LPA) and based on reported perceptions of crime and drug sales/use. Using linear and logistic regression, we examined the effect of neighborhood risk on adiposity and CMR. Results Mean age in early and later adolescence was 14 and 17 years, respectively. Participants were 52% male, with a mean BMI z-score of 0.67, and 8% met criteria for the metabolic syndrome. LPA identified two neighborhood profiles: 61% low risk and 39% high risk. In later adolescence, being in the high risk profile predicted a higher BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass index (p-values Chilean neighborhoods with high crime and drugs, targeted public health interventions and policies for youth could be beneficial. PMID:24411818
Tannenbaum, Cara; Sheehan, Nancy L
Concomitant administration of multiple drugs can lead to unanticipated drug interactions and resultant adverse drug events with their associated costs. A more thorough understanding of the different cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters has led to new methods to try to predict and prevent clinically relevant drug interactions. There is also an increased recognition of the need to identify the impact of pharmacogenetic polymorphisms on drug interactions. More stringent regulatory requirements have evolved for industry to classify cytochrome inhibitors and inducers, test the effect of drug interactions in the presence of polymorphic enzymes, and evaluate multiple potentially interacting drugs simultaneously. In clinical practice, drug alert software programs have been developed. This review discusses drug interaction mechanisms and strategies for screening and minimizing exposure to drug interactions. We also provide future perspectives for reducing the risk of clinically significant drug interactions. PMID:24745854
Newbery, Natasha; McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John
Purpose: The feasibility of a community-level drug prevention intervention based upon the principles of motivational interviewing within a further education college was investigated in a pilot study. Design/methodology/approach: The implementation over the course of a single term of "Let's Talk about Drugs" was studied with both action…
Inzaule, Seth C.; Hamers, Raph L.; Calis, Job; Boerma, Ragna; Sigaloff, Kim; Zeh, Clement; Mugyenyi, Peter; Akanmu, Sulaimon; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.
: The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV.
Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn
This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention…
Moore, Julia K; Watson, Hunna J; Harper, Emily; McCormack, Julie; Nguyen, Thinh
Background To describe the rates, indications, and adverse effects of psychotropic drug prescription in a specialist tertiary hospital child and adolescent eating disorder service. Methods Retrospective case note study of all active eating disorder patients (N = 115) over the period of treatment from referral to time of study (M = 2 years), covering patient demographics, clinical characteristics, drug prescriptions, indications, and adverse effects. Results Psychotropic drugs were prescribed ...
Seoane-Vazquez, Enrique; Rodriguez-Monguio, Rosa; Alqahtani, Saad; Schiff, Gordon
Look-alike, sound-alike (LASA) drug names are a cause of medication errors with resulting patient harm and healthcare costs. This study assessed to which extent the use of the generic drug name, therapeutic class, health problem, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications might be used to differentiate LASA drug pairs. We collected information about LASA drug pairs reported by the FDA to have look-alike sound-alike similarities. To assess potential for differentiating LASA drug pairs, we compared the following drug characteristics: generic name, therapeutic class, health problem, and FDA-approved indication. For the 33 FDA reported LASA drug pairs we identified a total of 432 FDA-approved indications. Using the generic name, therapeutic class, health problem and drug indication we were able to differentiate 8 (24.2%), 24 (72.7%), 25 (75.8%) and 26 (78.8%), respectively of the 33 LASA drug pairs. Using the generic name, therapeutic class, and health problem we were able to distinguish 31 (7.2%), 212 (49.1%), and 269 (62.3%), respectively of the 432 FDA-approved indications for the LASA drug pairs. Including the FDA-approved indication in the drug prescription may be used to differentiate LASA drug pairs and thus, prevent wrong drug medication errors.
Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Owens, Douglas K; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, a lateral curvature of the spine of unknown cause with a Cobb angle of at least 10°, occurs in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. Idiopathic scoliosis is the most common form and usually worsens during adolescence before skeletal maturity. Severe spinal curvature may be associated with adverse long-term health outcomes (eg, pulmonary disorders, disability, back pain, psychological effects, cosmetic issues, and reduced quality of life). Early identification and effective treatment of mild scoliosis could slow or stop curvature progression before skeletal maturity, thereby improving long-term outcomes in adulthood. To update the 2004 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for idiopathic scoliosis in asymptomatic adolescents. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for and treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The USPSTF found no direct evidence on screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and health outcomes and no evidence on the harms of screening. The USPSTF found inadequate evidence on treatment with exercise and surgery. It found adequate evidence that treatment with bracing may slow curvature progression in adolescents with mild or moderate curvature severity (Cobb angle scoliosis cannot be determined. The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. (I statement).
Full Text Available We argue the need of development and implementation of informational programs to focus drug prevention in adolescents due to the fact that the researchers neglected the distortion of knowledge and ideas about the consequences of drug use. The results of the program aimed at change the cognitive component of social representations of teenagers about taking drugs are presented. The program implemented in general education school is based on informational approach: a video is shown about the consequences of drug use on human health and life. The study involved 158 adolescents aged 15 to 18 years, students of 9th and 11th grades. As a result of the program, we recorded a significant reduction in the desire of teens to try drugs, their increased knowledge about the consequences of drug use, change in the hierarchy of consequences of initiation to drugs important for adolescents, and their life orientations. We identified and described age-and gender-specific impact of the program on the study parameters.
Burkhart, Gregor; Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Bo, Alessandra
Following the 2003 publication of the European Union (EU) Council Recommendations and the 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 EU Drugs Action Plans, increasing attention has been given in EU member states' drug policies to populations that are vulnerable to problem drug use (PDU). Monitoring data reported to the EMCDDA by designated agencies from 30 countries…
Shin, Hyucksun S.
Reviewed evaluation studies of school-based drug prevention programs published from 1993-99 to identify significant program features that could influence the success of drug prevention education. Results found that programs components varied significantly. Programs employing a social-influence model varied in their effectiveness depending on the…
Primary schools can play a significant preventative role in addressing drug-related harm in young people's lives. "One and All" is a programme aimed at assisting schools to plan and implement drug prevention in the middle primary years through developing students' social and emotional competence and nurturing their resilience. It is part…
Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L.; Dinson, Ay-Laina
The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the…
Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha
The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.
Li, X; Stanton, B; Feigelman, S
To examine the association between exposure to drug trafficking (selling or delivering drugs) and exposure to other forms of community violence and risk behaviors among urban, low-income African American children and adolescents. Community-based, cross-sectional survey. Ten public housing developments in a large eastern city in the United States. Three hundred forty-nine urban, low-income African American children and adolescents (198 boys and 151 girls), aged 9 to 15 years. Exposure to drug trafficking and other forms of community violence (as either a victim or a witness), risk behaviors/perceptions including risk-taking/delinquency, drug use, perpetration of violence or other crimes, threats to school achievement, and perceived peer involvement. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to examine whether exposure to drug trafficking is a risk factor that is distinct from other exposure to violence. Multivariate analysis of variance and chi2 tests were performed to assess the relationship between exposure to drug trafficking and other forms of community violence and risk behaviors/perceptions. Of 349 participants, 63 (18%) had been asked to traffic drugs and 134 (38%) had seen someone else being asked to traffic drugs. Factor analysis indicates that exposure to drug trafficking appears to be different from other forms of community violence. However, having been asked and having seen other people being asked to traffic drugs were both strongly associated with exposure to other forms of community violence. Compared with children and adolescents who had not been exposed to drug trafficking, those who were exposed to drug trafficking reported more risk-taking and delinquent behaviors, drug use, threats to achievement, and a perception of more peer involvement in these risk behaviors. Exposure to drug trafficking is a unique risk factor that is strongly associated with exposure to other forms of community violence and involvement in other risk behaviors.
Background: The burden of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is associated with wide range of diseases, including cardio respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary heart disease. Aims: This study aimed to assess the awareness of the adolescents towards the causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Methods: The present study was based on primary data. The study included 200 adolescents surveyed as per convenience sampling. The an...
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-2-0066 TITLE: A Nanolayer Copper Coating for Prevention Nosocomial Multi- drug Resistant Infections PRINCIPAL...SUBTITLE A Nanolayer Copper Coating for Prevention Nosocomial Multi- drug Resistant Infections 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-2-0066 5c...for in vitro antimicrobial efficacy and mammalian cell cytotoxicity potential using standardized assays that are approved by the Food and Drug
This thesis entitled "The role of non-profit organizations in the area of secondary prevention of drug addictions" conceived like a overview study, which is based on examples of best practices. The thesis has two main objectives, the first is to describe existing services in secondary prevention of drug addictions. The second main objective is description of cooperation of non-profit organizations with state administrative in that field and in the context of drug policy.
Botvin, Gilbert J.; Epstein, Jennifer A.; Baker, Eli; Diaz, Tracy; Ifill-Williams, Michelle
Reports on the effectiveness of a drug abuse prevention intervention with a predominantly minority sample of seventh-grade students (N=721). Results indicate that this approach was effective on several behavioral measures of current drug use, including measures of polydrug use and on intention measures relevant to future drug use. (RJM)
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What review of IHE drug prevention programs does the Secretary conduct? 86.101 Section 86.101 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND... programs does the Secretary conduct? The Secretary annually reviews a representative sample of IHE drug...
Doescher, Andréa Marques Leão [UNESP; Leão, Andreza Marques de Castro [UNESP; Ribeiro, Paulo Rennes Marçal [UNESP
The sexual abuse suffered in childhood and adolescence, in addition to damage to physical and psychological health of the victim, is considered as an important risk factor for alcohol and drugs addiction, development of psychopathology and psychosocial damage in adulthood. In addition to the pain and humiliation that are submitted by the abuse, children and adolescents also experience shame and guilt which require them to adopt coping strategies to endure those feelings. The use of psychoacti...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use is highly prevalent among Dutch adolescents. The Healthy School and Drugs program is a nationally implemented school-based prevention program aimed at reducing early and excessive substance use among adolescents. Although the program's effectiveness was tested in a quasi-experimental design before, many program changes were made afterwards. The present study, therefore, aims to test the effects of this widely used, renewed universal prevention program. Methods/Design A randomized clustered trial will be conducted among 3,784 adolescents of 23 secondary schools in The Netherlands. The trial has three conditions; two intervention conditions (i.e., e-learning and integral and a control condition. The e-learning condition consists of three digital learning modules (i.e., about alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana that are sequentially offered over the course of three school years (i.e., grade 1, grade 2, and grade 3. The integral condition consists of parental participation in a parental meeting on substance use, regulation of substance use, and monitoring and counseling of students' substance use at school, over and above the three digital modules. The control condition is characterized as business as usual. Participating schools were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Participants filled out a digital questionnaire at baseline and will fill out the same questionnaire three more times at follow-up measurements (8, 20, and 32 months after baseline. Outcome variables included in the questionnaire are the percentage of binge drinking (more than five drinks per occasion, the average weekly number of drinks, and the percentage of adolescents who ever drunk a glass of alcohol and the percentage of adolescents who ever smoked a cigarette or a joint respectively for tobacco and marijuana. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized clustered trial that evaluates the
Dodd, Virginia J.; Logan, Henrietta; Brown, Cameron D.; Calderon, Angela; Catalanotto, Frank
BACKGROUND An asymmetrical oral disease burden is endured by certain population subgroups, particularly children and adolescents. Reducing oral health disparities requires understanding multiple oral health perspectives, including those of adolescents. This qualitative study explores oral health perceptions and dental care behaviors among rural adolescents. METHODS Semistructured individual interviews with 100 rural, minority, low socioeconomic status adolescents revealed their current perceptions of oral health and dental care access. Respondents age ranged from 12 to 18 years. The sample was 80% black and 52% male. RESULTS Perceived threat from dental disease was low. Adolescents perceived regular brushing and flossing as superseding the need for preventive care. Esthetic reasons were most often cited as reasons to seek dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care include finances, transportation, fear, issues with Medicaid coverage and parental responsibility. In general, adolescents and their parents are in need of information regarding the importance of preventive dental care. CONCLUSIONS Findings illuminate barriers to dental care faced by low-income rural adolescents and counter public perceptions of government-sponsored dental care programs as being “free” or without cost. The importance of improved oral health knowledge, better access to care, and school-based dental care is discussed. PMID:25388597
Nădăşan, Valentin; Chirvăsuţă, Radu; Ábrám, Zoltan; Mihăicuţă, Ştefan
Smoking among children and adolescents is a pressing public health issue that demands the development, improvement and implementation of programmes aimed at the prevention and cessation of smoking on a global scale. The objective of our article is to review the main types of interventions for smoking prevention and cessation among children and adolescents. These interventions are based on a wide variety of approaches and include school-based programmes, primary and secondary care-based interventions, programmes targeting parents and family, community-based programmes, social marketing programmes and media campaigns, legislative interventions and computer and other IT-based interventions. Generally, there is still a paucity of low level evidence regarding the efficacy of most smoking prevention and cessation programmes for children and adolescents except for a few particular types of interventions that are reasonably well documented.
Cărăuşu, Elena Mihaela; Indrei, L L; Păduraru, A; Andrei, R; Petrea, C
If before 1989 the use of drugs in Romania was an exceptional situation, in the last few years our country evolved from a transit area to a potential market. The drug users in Romania a coming from all the social classes (workers, unemployed, students and even medical staff), but more vulnerable are the adolescents and the young unemployed people. There is a certain risk that the drug use in Romania to become a wide spread phenomenon, with a tendency of getting out of control. Thus we need an operational program in the fight against the drug use.
Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.
Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184
Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Johansen, Lily Manzello; Roesbjerg, Troels M I
This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolesc......This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child...... and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication. We included a total of 5555 prescriptions representing 2932 patients...... by a higher frequency of inpatients, older age, and a different distribution of diagnoses. This study found a frequent use of off-label prescriptions when treating children and adolescents with psychopharmacological drugs other than ADHD medication. In addition, prescription of more than 1 psychotropic drug...
Thepthien, B; Altaf, L; Chuchareon, P; Srivanichakron, S
This study is first of its kind in Bangkok, and is a five-year (2009-2013) cross-sectional web-based survey to examine HIV preventive behaviors related to substance abuse among adolescents (N = 16,913). The questionnaire was self-administered. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The relationship between different types of substance abuse with risky and preventive behaviors was assessed. Male participants reported more substance abuse as compared to females. The risk behaviors observed among the substance abusers include increased sexual experience, multiple sex partners, no use of condoms, and injection drug use. The preventive behaviors include having a high self-risk assessment, going for HIV testing (highest in methamphetamine users), and screening for sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression suggests that risky behaviors (e.g., sexual experience, injection drug use) are more common in substance abusers. Adolescents are clearly at a high risk. Behavioral preventive measures are needed to reduce or delay premature substance exposure to prevent a wide range of health problems and risks such as HIV and AIDS, injection drug use and unprotected sex.
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Soletti, Asha Banu; Burnette, Denise; Sharma, Shilpi; Leavitt, Sarah; McCarthy, Katharine
In this article, we examine parent-adolescent communication about sex among rural Indian youth and their parents. We conducted in-depth interviews (N = 40) with mothers, fathers, and adolescent boys and girls aged 14 to 18 years in a rural community in Maharashtra, India. In the context of key cultural factors, including gender-related norms, we explore issues of sexual health and critically assess widely held beliefs that Indian parents are unwilling or unable to discuss sex-related topics with their children. Our findings suggest that despite communication barriers, e.g., lack of knowledge and cultural proscriptions, Indian families are interested in and willing to communicate about sex-related topics. Future research should seek to determine the viability of family-based HIV prevention interventions for Indian adolescents.
Full Text Available We discuss the features of development and implementation of programs of social and psychological support of adolescents in domestic and foreign practice. The priority in the field of prevention of social risks among young people is to provide systematic, comprehensive, accurate information about the consequences of substance use, adolescent training in self-care and self-regulation, the use of health-care technology, the formation of stable personal negative attitude to the problem of substance abuse. The effectiveness of preventive anti-drug programs is caused by the identification of the target group (including psychophysiological age characteristics, development of a set of preventive measures based on interagency cooperation with involvement of the minors’ parents (legal representatives.
Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.
OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth
The second study will use a health behaviour survey to evaluate risk-taking behaviours among school-based adolescents in Entebbe, Uganda. Researchers will conduct interviews with health and education officials in Entebbe to assess acceptance levels for school-based HIV intervention strategies. Both studies will inform ...
In an effort to reduce the current epidemic of gun violence among children and adolescents in the United States, this fact sheet presents various approaches to reducing access to and interest in carrying firearms. Suggested approaches to reducing access include: (1) urging parents to turn in their guns to police; (2) repealing anti-gun control…
Jones, Carolyn E.; Monfils, Marie-H.
Traumatic experiences early in life can contribute to the development of mood and anxiety disorders that manifest during adolescence and young adulthood. In young rats exposed to acute fear or stress, alterations in neural development can lead to enduring behavioral abnormalities. Here, we used a modified extinction intervention…
Smith, Brittany L; Morano, Rachel L; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Myers, Brent; Solomon, Matia B; Herman, James P
The late adolescent period is characterized by marked neurodevelopmental and endocrine fluctuations in the transition to early adulthood. Adolescents are highly responsive to the external environment, which enhances their ability to adapt and recover from challenges when given nurturing influences, but also makes them vulnerable to aberrant development when exposed to prolonged adverse situations. Female rats are particularly sensitive to the effects of chronic stress in adolescence, which manifests as passive coping strategies and blunted hypothalamo-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) stress responses in adulthood. We sought to intervene by exposing adolescent rats to environmental enrichment (EE) immediately prior to and during chronic stress, hypothesizing that EE would minimize or prevent the long-term effects of stress that emerge in adult females. To test this, we exposed male and female rats to EE on postnatal days (PND) 33-60 and implemented chronic variable stress (CVS) on PND 40-60. CVS consisted of twice-daily unpredictable stressors. Experimental groups included: CVS/unenriched, unstressed/EE, CVS/EE and unstressed/unenriched (n = 10 of each sex/group). In adulthood, we measured behavior in the open field test and forced swim test (FST) and collected blood samples following the FST. We found that environmental enrichment given during the adolescent period prevented the chronic stress-induced transition to passive coping in the FST and reversed decreases in peak adrenocortical responsiveness observed in adult females. Adolescent enrichment had little to no effect on males or unstressed females tested in adulthood, indicating that beneficial effects are specific to females that were exposed to chronic stress.
David A. Wolfe
Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.
Russell, Brenda L.; Jennings, Brian; Classey, Sherry
The current research examined students' perceptions of random drug testing for students participating in after-school activities. Results found students were more likely to endorse drug testing at their school if they are already engaged in after-school activities and not currently using drugs and/or alcohol. While middle and high school students'…
Burke, Andrew R.; Miczek, Klaus A.
Rationale Research on adolescence and drug abuse increased substantially in the past decade. However, drug-addiction related behaviors following stressful experiences during adolescence are less studied. We focus on rodent models of adolescent stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. Objectives Review the ontogeny of behavior, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in adolescent rodents. We evaluate evidence that stressful experiences during adolescence engender hypersensitivity to drugs of abuse and offer potential neural mechanisms. Results and Conclusions Much evidence suggests that final maturation of behavior, dopamine systems, and HPA axis occurs during adolescence. Stress during adolescence increases amphetamine- and ethanol-stimulated locomotion, preference, and self-administration under many conditions. The influence of adolescent stress on subsequent cocaine- and nicotine-stimulated locomotion and preference is less clear. The type of adolescent stress, temporal interval between stress and testing, species, sex, and the drug tested are key methodological determinants for successful cross-sensitization procedures. The sensitization of the mesolimbic dopamine system is proposed to underlie stress cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse in both adolescents and adults through modulation by CRF. Reduced levels of mesocortical dopamine appear to be a unique consequence of social stress during adolescence. Adolescent stress may reduce the final maturation of cortical dopamine through D2 dopamine receptor regulation of dopamine synthesis or glucocorticoid-facilitated pruning of cortical dopamine fibers. Certain rodent models of adolescent adversity are useful for determining neural mechanisms underlying the cross-sensitization to drugs of abuse. PMID:24370534
Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L; Dinson, Ay-Laina
The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Seventy-four middle- and high-school-aged youth in 15 focus groups adapted and validated the details of the scripts to make them more realistic. Specifically, youth participants affirmed the situations described in the scripts and suggested changes to details of the scripts to make them more culturally specific. Suggested changes to the scripts also reflected preferred drug resistance strategies described in prior research, and varied based on the type of drug offerer described in each script (i.e., peer/friend, parent, or cousin/sibling). Implications for culturally grounded drug prevention are discussed.
Morihisa,Rogerio Shigueo; Barroso,Lúcia Pereira; Scivoletto,Sandra
OBJECTIVE: To verify how conduct disorder and conduct problems are associated with gender, age at onset of drug use and categories of drugs used. METHOD: A test of association was conducted between the presence of comorbidity and gender. Mean age of first use of each drug was compared to mean age of first arrest, of first robbery/theft, and of first drug dealing. RESULTS: In this sample, approximately 59% of adolescents had already robbed and/or stolen, 38.6% had already been arrested, 32.3% ...
Werch, Chudley E.; And Others
Examined stages of drug use acquisition among college students (n=669) and relationship between stage status and motivation to avoid drugs and frequency of drug use. College students differed with regard to their stage of habit acquisition across five drugs. Findings suggest that acquisition stage heuristic holds promise in increasing…
Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee
Due to concerns over Thai adolescent risky behaviors, effective prevention strategies are needed. Determining the role neighborhood context plays in program engagement and outcomes may inform these strategies. This study includes 170 mother-adolescent pairs (M = 13.44, SD = 0.52) in Bangkok, Thailand in a prevention program for adolescent…
Lang, Jason M.; Waterman, Jill; Baker, Bruce L.
Computeen, a preventive technology and psychosocial skills development program for at-risk adolescents, was designed to improve computer skills, self-esteem, and school attitudes, and reduce behavior problems, by combining elements of community-based and empirically supported prevention programs. Fifty-five mostly Latino adolescents from 12 to 16…
Fischhoff, Baruch, Ed.; Crowell, Nancy A., Ed.; Kipke, Michele, Ed.
Risk taking is a natural part of teenagers' lives. They need to take some risks in order to grow. However, they can also get into trouble with their risk taking when it involves behaviors such as sex, drinking, smoking, violence, and drug use. Interest in the role that decision making plays in adolescents' involvement in high-risk behaviors led…
Boendermaker, W.J.; Prins, P.J.M.; Wiers, R.W.; Göbel, S.; Ma, M.; Baalsrud Hauge, J.; Oliveira, M.F.; Wiemeyer, J.; Wendel, V.
Excessive use of psychoactive substances during adolescence poses a serious health risk. It can lead to cognitive impairment, as well as addictive problems later in life. Dual process models of addiction suggest that to counter this development, the overdeveloped automatic reactions to drug-related
Primary prevention in drug abuse has been, most of the time, reduced to its informational aspect. This paper points out some of the errors made in this field, both by contributing to the 'inflation' of the drug problem and by using scare tactics as preventive arguments. It invites consideration of drug addiction not as an isolated problem, but as one of the multiple results of an existential crisis, the author tries to show that in this field the emphasis of primary prevention should be on education.
Jones, Carolyn E.
Traumatic experiences early in life can contribute to the development of mood and anxiety disorders that manifest during adolescence and young adulthood. In young rats exposed to acute fear or stress, alterations in neural development can lead to enduring behavioral abnormalities. Here, we used a modified extinction intervention (retrieval+extinction) during late adolescence (post-natal day 45 [p45]), in rats, to target auditory Pavlovian fear associations acquired as juveniles (p17 and p25). The effects of adolescent intervention were examined by assessing freezing as adults during both fear reacquisition and social transmission of fear from a cagemate. Rats underwent testing or training at three time points across development: juvenile (p17 or p25), adolescent (p45), and adult (p100). Retrieval+extinction during late adolescence prevented social reinstatement and recovery over time of fears initially acquired as juveniles (p17 and p25, respectively). Adolescence was the only time point tested here where retrieval+extinction prevented fear recall of associations acquired 20+ days earlier. PMID:27634147
This article explores the Advertising Council's first national drug abuse prevention campaign in the 1970s. Scholarship thus far has demonstrated the ways in which the issue of drug abuse represented a chief political strategy for President Nixon. Evidence from major trade press publications, congressional hearings, and an array of archival sources suggest that this campaign was also part of a public relations crusade on behalf of the advertising industry in response to public criticism of its role in abetting a culture of drug dependence. These institutional and political pressures helped shape drug abuse prevention in the 1970 s and for the decades that followed. Copyright © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Daniel T. L. Shek
Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.
The rising numbers of new HIV infections among young people ages 15-24 in many developing countries, especially among young women, signal an urgent need to identify and respond programmatically to behaviors and situations that contribute to the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in early adolescence. Quantitative and qualitative studies of the sexual knowledge and practices of adolescents age 14 and younger reveal that substantial numbers of boys and girls in many countries engage in unprotected heterosexual vaginal intercourse--by choice or coercion--before their 15th birthdays. Early initiation into male-male or male-female oral and/or anal sex is also documented in some populations. Educational, health, and social programs must reach 10-14-year-olds as well as older adolescents with the information, skills, services, and supplies (condoms, contraceptives) they need to negotiate their own protection from unwanted and/or unsafe sexual practices and to respect the rights of others.
Hermans, Roel C J; de Bruin, Hanneke; Larsen, Junilla K; Mensink, Fréderike; Hoek, Annet C
To improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents' healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch " Healthy School Canteen Program ." This study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13-16 years). Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12-19 years) using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data. Findings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance). Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively). In general, a majority of the adolescents (64%) expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools. School-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program , should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food choice autonomy. In addition, schools should not lose
Aims: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, demographic. Characteristics of the study population and type of substance abused among children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. Method :1160 patients below the age of 18 years who had attended psychiatric care between December 1980 and ...
Leal, Wanda E; Jackson, Dylan B
The aim of the current study is to determine whether energy drink consumption contributes to drug use and, more specifically, an escalation in the severity of drug use. We first examine the association between energy drink use and hard drug use, and subsequently investigate whether soft drug use mediates this relationship. Potential moderating influences are also investigated by testing whether the degree of mediation varies by age, gender, and race. The current study uses a nationally representative sample of 8th (ages 13-14), 10th (ages 15-16), and 12th (ages 17-18) grade adolescents from the 2015 Monitoring the Future survey. Negative binomial regression is employed to examine associations between energy drink consumption and soft and hard drug use. Mediation results indicate that energy drink consumption is significantly associated with increased soft drug use, which is, in turn, associated with significant increases in hard drug use. This cascading effect of energy drink consumption on drug use appears to be stronger among younger females and older males. Results for the moderating effect of race are mixed. Energy drinks appear to pose an important threat to adolescent health in the form of soft and hard drug use. The United States may want to consider adopting energy drink policies similar to European countries and Canada, which require warning labels on beverages with high caffeine content. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Power, Thomas G.; Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Daratha, Kenneth B.
Background: Obesity is a significant health problem among today's youth; however, most school-based prevention programs in this area have had limited success. Focus groups were conducted with seventh- to eighth-grade students, parents, and teachers to provide insight into the development of a comprehensive program for the prevention of adolescent…
Sussman, Steve; Gunning, Melissa; Lisha, Nadra E.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Kniazev, Vadim; Masagutov, Radik
We describe correlates of drug use-consequences related variables (addiction concern, problem consequences, and drinking alcohol/using drugs while driving) among two samples of high school students, one in the Russian Federation (n = 365), and one in the United States (n = 965). The correlates used in the analyses are based on the Theory of Triadic Influence, which organizes predictors of adolescent substance misuse into intrapersonal (e.g., depression), cultural/attitudinal (e.g., perceived ...
Full Text Available The conflict interaction in the adolescent environment, mainly in the context of intercultural interaction, is considered in the article on the basis of theoretical analysis. The relationship between conflict in adolescence and the overcoming of adolescent crisis is described, as well as the conflict was correlated with other age characteristics. A special emphasis is placed on intergroup conflicts. An additional specificity of conflicts in school classes with mixed cultural composition is discussed. An analysis of the specifics of the conflict interaction in connection with the measurement of cultures by G. Hofstede was carried out (individualism-collectivism, power distance, masculinity-femininity and avoidance of uncertainty. The conclusion about the greater urgency of potential contradictions is being made if there are teenagers belonging to widely differing cultures in the school class. The role of laughter culture as manifestations of antipodes in game form for the prevention and correction of conflicts in a adolescent multicultural environment is shown.
Tanner, Amanda E.; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Rush, Kayci
Introduction Evaluating interventions for reducing unintended adolescent pregnancy is necessary to ensure quality and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine core case management practices and processes for engaging high-risk girls in Prime Time, an intensive multi-component intervention from the perspectives of intervention program staff. Method Structured individual interviews were conducted with the entire Prime Time program staff (N=7) to assess successes and challenges in engaging adolescent girls at high risk for early pregnancy recruited from school and community clinics. Results Program staff described different capacities of adolescents to engage with the program (easy, middle and difficult connecting adolescents) and provided specific recommendations for working with different connectors. Discussion Findings from this study support the notion that preventive interventions with vulnerable groups of adolescents must pay careful attention to strategies for establishing trusting youth-adult relationships. The ability of staff (e.g., case managers, nurses) to engage with adolescents is a crucial step in improving health outcomes. The identified strategies are useful in helping adolescents build skills, motivations and supports needed for healthy behavior change. PMID:22726710
Barton, Allen W; Beach, Steven R H; Kogan, Steven M; Stanley, Scott M; Fincham, Frank D; Hurt, Tera R; Brody, Gene H
The present study investigates the trajectory of children's exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence, its effects on adolescents' psychological adjustment, as well as the ability of a family-centered prevention program to alter this trajectory. A total of 331 African American couples with an adolescent or preadolescent child participated in a randomized control trial of the Promoting Strong African American Families program, a newly developed program targeting couple and cocaregiving processes. Using a multi-informant, latent growth curve approach, child exposure to interparental conflict during adolescence was found to be stable over a period of 2 years among families in the control group, but significantly declined among families in the treatment condition. Rates of change were significantly different between intervention and control groups based on parents' report of youth exposure to interparental conflict, but not for child's report. Structural equation models found trajectory parameters of interparental conflict predicted changes in adolescent depressive symptoms, with increasing rates of changes in conflict associated with increases in adolescent internalizing symptoms over the 2-year duration of the study. Finally, a significant indirect effect was identified linking treatment, changes in parents' reports of child exposure to interparental conflict, and adolescent depressive symptoms. The implications for research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Miller, Brenda A; Holder, Harold D; Voas, Robert B
Environmental prevention strategies in club settings where music and dance events are featured could provide an important new arena for the prevention of drug use and other risky behaviors (e.g., sexual risk taking, intoxication and drug use, aggression, and driving under the influence). Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) occur in clubs that attract young, emerging adults (18-25 years of age) and attract individuals who engage in various types of drug use. Borrowing from the environmental prevention studies that focus on reducing alcohol use and related problems, a model for drug prevention in the club setting is proposed. Initially, an overview of the relationships between EMDEs and drug use and other risky behaviors are presented. Next, rationales for environmental strategies are provided. Finally, an environmental approach to prevention of drug use and risky behaviors in clubs is described. This comprehensive set of environmental strategies, is designed to be mutually supportive and interactive. Environmental strategies are believed to provide potential for developing an efficacious prevention strategy. The environmental prevention approach presented here is composed of three intervention domains: (1) Mobilization, (2) Strategies for the Exterior Environment, and (3) Strategies for the Interior Environment.
Farabee, D; Leukefeld, C G
This study examined the likelihood that drug users would receive HIV/ AIDS prevention information and supplies (e.g., condoms and bleach) in the rural state of Kentucky. Despite evidence of high HIV risk among criminal justice and substance-using populations, incarceration and substance-user treatment were only minimally associated with prior HIV prevention exposure or HIV testing. These data strongly support the use of criminal justice and treatment settings to provide AIDS prevention interventions for the high-risk drug-using populations they serve, and to target HIV prevention services in rural as well as urban areas.
Egron, Adeline; Olivier-Abbal, Pascale; Gouraud, Aurore; Babai, Samy; Combret, Sandrine; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle
Antineoplastic drugs are one of the pharmacological classes more frequently involved in occurrence of "serious" adverse drug reactions. However, few epidemiological data are available regarding the preventability of adverse drug reactions with ambulatory cancer chemotherapy. We assessed the rate and characteristics of "preventable" or "potentially preventable" "serious" adverse drug reactions induced by oral protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs). We performed a retrospective study with all "serious" adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 in the French Pharmacovigilance Database with the eight oral protein kinase inhibitors marketed in France: sorafenib, imatinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, dasatinib, lapatinib, nilotinib and everolimus (Afinitor®) using the French adverse drug reactions preventability scale. This study was carried out on 265 spontaneous notifications. Most of adverse drug reactions were "unpreventable" (63.8 %). Around one third were "unevaluable" due to notifications poorly documented (medical history, dosage, use of drugs as first or second intention, concomitant drugs). One (0.4 %) adverse drug reaction was "preventable" with dasatinib (subdural hematoma) and three (1.1 %) were "potentially preventable" (hepatic adverse drug reactions): two with imatinib and one with sorafenib. For these four cases, we identified some characteristics: incorrect dosages, drug interactions and off-label uses. An appropriate prescription could avoid the occurrence of 1.5 % "serious" adverse drug reactions with oral PKIs. This rate is low and further studies are needed to compare our results by using other preventability instruments and to improve the French ADRs Preventability Scale.
Dielman, T. E.; And Others
Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…
N.P.M. Ezendam (Nicole)
textabstractThe high prevalence of overweight and obesity is an important determinant of avoidable burden of disease in the Netherlands and worldwide. Preventing excessive weight gain among children and adolescents can contribute to reducing this burden. The present thesis adds to the knowledge on
This thesis aimed to investigate the role of parents in preventing adolescent alcohol and cannabis use. First, we investigated the association of specific parental drinking patterns with 12-15 year olds' drinking. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns, i.e. having a heavy drinking father
Mauriello, Leanne M.; Driskell, Mary Margaret H.; Sherman, Karen J.; Johnson, Sara S.; Prochaska, Janice M.; Prochaska, James O.
This article describes the development and pilot testing of a computer-based, multiple-behavior obesity prevention program for adolescents. Using the Transtheoretical Model as a framework, this intervention offers individualized feedback based on readiness to engage in physical activity, to consume fruits and vegetables, and to limit television…
Shaibu, Sheila; Holsten, Joanna E.; Stettler, Nicolas; Maruapula, Segametsi D.; Jackson, Jose C.; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokone, George; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Compher, Charlene W.
The study's objectives were to gain school personnel's (1) perceptions on diet, physical activity, body size, and obesity, (2) description of school food and physical activity practices, and (3) recommendations for programs to prevent adolescent obesity. The study took place in six junior secondary schools of varying socioeconomic status in…
The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…
Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Sun, Ping; Unger, Jennifer B; Johnson, C Anderson
Smoking prevention interventions have been shown to be effective in reducing smoking prevalence in the United States. Further work is needed to address smoking in China, where over one third of the world's current smokers reside. China, with more than 60% of the male population being smokers, also presents a unique opportunity to test cognitive processes involved in depression, social influences, and smoking. Adolescents at-risk for developing depression may process social information differently from low-risk counterparts. The Wuhan Smoking Prevention Trial was a school-based longitudinal randomized controlled trial aimed at preventing initiation and escalation of adolescent smoking behaviors. Thousand three hundred and ninety-one male seventh-grade students were assessed with a 200-item paper-and-pencil baseline survey, and it was readministered 1 year later following program implementation. Friend prevalence estimates were significantly higher among 30-day smokers and among those at highest risk for depression symptoms. The program appeared to be successful in changing the perception of friend smoking prevalence only among adolescents with a comorbidity of high scores of depression symptoms and who have experimented previously with smoking. This Program x Comorbidity interaction on perceived friend smoking prevalence was significant in predicting 30-day smoking 1 year after program implementation. This study provides evidence that those adolescents with high levels of depressive symptoms may be more sensitive to social influences associated with smoking prevalence. Individual Disposition x Social Environmental Influences may be important when developing future effective prevention programming.
The literature on adolescent cognitive development and issues related to the prevention of teenage pregnancy are briefly discussed. The author outlines relevant questions which should be understood by professionals working in sex education and human services programs, and presents implications for research. (GDC)
Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline
Substance abuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substance abuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…
Karki, Suyen; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Lansimies-Antikainen, Helena; Varjoranta, Pirjo; Pirskanen, Marjatta; Laukkanen, Eila
The aim of this systematic review is to describe and evaluate the effects of interventions used for preventing or reducing substance use among adolescents under 18 years of age. Studies (N = 27) available in CINAHL and PubMed from 2007 to 2010 were included. Results showed that family-based interventions and combined interventions have significant…
Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…
Crone, M; Reijneveld, S; Willemsen, M; van Leerdam, F J M; Spruijt, R; Sing, R
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and social influence may therefore be useful to prevent smoking among these students.
Ghoncheh, Rezvan; Gould, Madelyn S; Twisk, Jos Wr; Kerkhof, Ad Jfm; Koot, Hans M
BACKGROUND: Face-to-face gatekeeper training can be an effective strategy in the enhancement of gatekeepers' knowledge and self-efficacy in adolescent suicide prevention. However, barriers related to access (eg, time, resources) may hamper participation in face-to-face training sessions. The
Kapungu, Chisina T.; Nappi, Carla N.; Thakral, Charu; Miller, Steven A.; Devlin, Catharine; McBride, Cami; Hasselquist, Emily; Coleman, Gloria; Drozd, Derek; Barve, Chinmayee; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of evidence-based recruitment and retention strategies for a longitudinal, family-based HIV prevention intervention study targeting adolescents in psychiatric care by (1) determining consent rate (recruitment), rate of participation at the first intervention session (retention), and…
Hermans, R.C.J.; Bruin, H. de; Larsen, J.K.; Mensink, F.; Hoek, A.C.
Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programs, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. The present study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a
Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W
In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African American, and 45% were Puerto Rican. Self-report data were obtained on externalizing and internalizing problems, substance use, and contextual influences across adolescence and young adulthood. Drug dependence was assessed in adulthood. Multivariate logistic regressions of drug dependence were performed on the whole sample and separately by gender. Each of the domains was associated with adult drug dependence. Although mean gender differences were found, most associations of risk factors with drug dependence did not vary significantly by gender. Treating externalizing and internalizing problems, reducing substance use, and providing coping skills for adverse contextual influences in adolescence and young adulthood may reduce the likelihood of becoming drug dependent in adulthood.
Visser, Maretha; Thurman, Tonya R; Spyrelis, Alexandra; Taylor, Tory M; Nice, Johanna K; Finestone, Michelle
Preventing HIV among young people is critical to achieving and sustaining global epidemic control. Evidence from Western settings suggests that family-centred prevention interventions may be associated with greater reductions in risk behaviour than standard adolescent-only models. Despite this, family-centred models for adolescent HIV prevention are nearly non-existent in South Africa - home to more people living with HIV than any other country. This paper describes the development and formative evaluation of one such intervention: an evidence-informed, locally relevant, adolescent prevention intervention engaging caregivers as co-participants. The programme, originally consisting of 19 sessions for caregivers and 14 for adolescents, was piloted with 12 groups of caregiver-adolescent dyads by community-based organizations (CBOs) in KwaZulu-Natal and Gauteng provinces. Literature and expert reviews were employed in the development process, and evaluation methods included analysis of attendance records, session-level fidelity checklists and facilitator feedback forms collected during the programme pilot. Facilitator focus group discussions and an implementer programme workshop were also held. Results highlighted the need to enhance training content related to cognitive behavioural theory and group management techniques, as well as increase the cultural relevance of activities in the curriculum. Participant attendance challenges were also identified, leading to a shortened and simplified session set. Findings overall were used to finalize materials and guidance for a revised 14-week group programme consisting of individual and joint sessions for adolescents and their caregivers, which may be implemented by community-based facilitators in other settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huizink, A.C.; Levälahti, E.; Korhonen, T.; Dick, D.M.; Pulkkinen, L.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.
Objective: Among Finnish adolescent twins, we compared (a) a model that describes a direct impact of liability to tobacco use on cannabis and other illicit drug use with (b) a model that included a shared underlying liability for these substances. Furthermore, the extent to which genetic and
Huizink, A.C.; Levälahti, E.; Korhonen, T.; Dick, D.M.; Rose, R.J.; Kaprio, J.
Objective: Among Finnish adolescent twins, we compared (a) a model that describes a direct impact of liability to tobacco use on cannabis and other illicit drug use with (b) a model that included a shared underlying liability for these substances. Furthermore, the extent to which genetic and
Malone, Patrick S.; Van Eck, Kathryn; Flory, Kate; Lamis, Dorian A.
Prior research findings have been mixed as to whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is related to illicit drug use independent of conduct problems (CP). With the current study, the authors add to this literature by investigating the association between trajectories of ADHD symptoms across childhood and adolescence and onset of…
Tobi, H.; Meijer, W.M.; Tuinstra, J.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.
OBJECTIVE: To detect whether there were socio-economic differences in the overall use of prescription and OCT drugs among adolescents. METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis of questionnaire data collected to investigate socio-economic differences in health risk behaviour and decision-making.
de Bildt, Annelies; Mulder, Erik J.; Scheers, Tom; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Tobi, Hilde
OBJECTIVE. This study investigated the interrelationship between psychopharmaco-therapy in general and the use of specific psychotropic drugs and pervasive developmental disorder and other behavior problems in children and adolescents with mental retardation. METHODS. A total of 862 participants 4
Stinchfield, Randy; Winters, Ken C.
The purposes of this study were to examine the clinical utility of the Personal Experience Inventory (PEI) Psychosocial scales to predict adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome. The role of psychosocial risk factors in predicting treatment outcome also has theoretical interest given that such factors have been associated with the development of…
Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John
This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE…
Anna M. Hogendorf
Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1 in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. Methods. Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15–18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD. The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011. Metabolic control was regarded as good if self-reported HbA1c was <8% or poor if HbA1c was ≥8%. Results. Lifetime prevalence of illicit drug use was lower among adolescents with DM1 than in the control group [58 (28% versus 5524 (46%, p=10-5]. Cannabis preparations were the most frequently used substances [38 (18.3% versus 3976 (33.1%, p=10-5], followed by tranquilizers, sedatives, and amphetamine. Lifetime and last 12-month use of cannabis were associated with poorer glycemic control (HbA1c ≥ 8%, p<0.01 and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions. Adolescents with DM1 report using illicit drugs to a lesser extent than their healthy peers. The use of cannabis is associated with a poorer metabolic control in teens with DM1.
Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Gryczynski, Jan; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Schwartz, Robert P.
Adolescence is a period of rapid biological, psychological, and social development in the human life cycle. Drug and alcohol misuse during this critical period poses substantial problems for individual and public health, yet is highly prevalent in the United States and elsewhere. The screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) model may be well-suited for identifying and intervening with adolescents who are at-risk of developing substance use disorders and those adolescents whose substance use puts them at risk for injury or illness. This article reviews the literature on SBIRT for adolescent populations, focusing on findings from randomized controlled trials. The limited evidence suggests that brief interventions may be effective with adolescents, but a number of gaps in the literature were identified. Considerations for implementing SBIRT with adolescent populations are discussed. Randomized trials are needed that have adequate statistical power, employ longer-term follow-ups, and test the effectiveness of SBIRT for adolescents in various service delivery settings. PMID:23352110
Downey, Ann M.
Explored the hypothesis that the increased use, misuse, and abuse of drugs is one of the myriad explanations for the escalation in youth suicidal behavior during the past 25 years. Used clinical case histories and research results to exemplify the impact of heightened drug usage as an argument for the upsurge in youth suicide. (Author/LLL)
Munoz, Raul A.; And Others
A longitudinal study of educational variables and drug use was conducted by interview with 635 young Puerto Rican adults. Half had been selected as representing a "high risk" population, half a "normal risk" population. Correlational analyses revealed that the use of all drugs was associated with a negative attitude toward…
... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22 of...
Thomsen, Linda Aagaard
population receiving oral antihyperglycaemic treatment (9,791 persons) was set up, and indicator positives identified (Articles no. 2 and 3). The third step in the model consisted of a risk assessment of preventable adverse drug events, including an assessment of clinical areas that need quality improvement...... events are common in primary care, with many resulting in hospitalisation. Projected to a Danish setting, 216,000 patients will experience a preventable adverse drug event each year, and 162,000 of these patients will need hospital admission. Quality improvement interventions should target errors......Summary Background: Preventable adverse drug events are caused by errors in the medication use Preventable adverse drug events are caused by errors in the medication use process, and are of particular interest when designing interventions to improve the quality of medication therapy. Type 2...
Arlan L. Rosenbloom
Full Text Available There is increasing use of antipsychotic drugs in pediatric and psychiatry practice for a wide range of behavioral and affective disorders. These drugs have prominent side effects of interest to pediatric endocrinologists, including weight gain and associated metabolic risk factors and hyperprolactinemia. The drugs block dopamine action, thus disinhibiting prolactin secretion. Hyperprolactinemia is especially prominent with first-generation antipsychotics such as haloperidol and the second-generation drugs, most commonly risperidone, with some patients developing gynecomastia or galactorrhea or, as a result of prolactin inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus, amenorrhea. With concern about the long-term effects of antipsychotics on bone mass and pituitary tumor formation, it is prudent to monitor serum prolactin levels in antipsychotic drug-treated pediatric patients and consider treatment with an agent less likely to induce hyperprolactinemia.
Humensky Jennifer L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous literature has shown a divergence by age in the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and substance use: adolescents with low SES are more likely to engage in substance use, as are adults with high SES. However, there is growing evidence that adolescents with high SES are also at high risk for substance abuse. The objective of this study is to examine this relationship longitudinally, that is, whether wealthier adolescents are more likely than those with lower SES to engage in substance use in early adulthood. Methods The study analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth, a longitudinal, nationally-representative survey of secondary school students in the United States. Logistic regression models were analyzed examining the relationship between adolescent SES (measured by parental education and income and substance use in adulthood, controlling for substance use in adolescence and other covariates. Results Higher parental education is associated with higher rates of binge drinking, marijuana and cocaine use in early adulthood. Higher parental income is associated with higher rates of binge drinking and marijuana use. No statistically significant results are found for crystal methamphetamine or other drug use. Results are not sensitive to the inclusion of college attendance by young adulthood as a sensitivity analysis. However, when stratifying by race, results are consistent for white non-Hispanics, but no statistically significant results are found for non-whites. This may be a reflection of the smaller sample size of non-whites, but may also reflect that these trends are driven primarily by white non-Hispanics. Conclusions Previous research shows numerous problems associated with substance use in young adults, including problems in school, decreased employment, increases in convictions of driving under the influence (DUI and accidental deaths. Much of the previous
Wichstrøm, Tove; Wichstrøm, Lars
To study whether participation in organized sports during adolescence predicts increased smoking of tobacco, alcohol intoxication and cannabis use from late adolescence to adulthood when controlling for potential confounders. Moreover, to study whether such increased drug use varies according to type of sport (team versus individual), main skills needed (endurance, strength or technical) and level of competition. Survey of national sample of Norwegian high school students (aged 13-19 years) in 1992 (T1) followed-up in 1994 (T2), 1999 (T3) and 2006 (T4) (n = 3251). Outcome measures included smoking of tobacco and 12-month prevalences of alcohol intoxication and cannabis use, respectively. Confounders included pubertal timing, friends' drug use, perceived social acceptance, grades and parental socio-economic status. Latent growth curve analyses showed that initial level of participation in organized sports predicted growth in alcohol intoxication. Those involved initially in team sports had greater growth in alcohol intoxication, but lower growth in tobacco use and cannabis use, during the adolescent and early adult years compared to those involved in technical or strength sports. Practising endurance sports, as opposed to technical or strength sports, predicted reduced growth in alcohol intoxication and tobacco use. Sports participation in adolescence, and participation in team sports in particular, may increase the growth in alcohol intoxication during late adolescent and early adult years, whereas participation in team sports and endurance sports may reduce later increase in tobacco and cannabis use.
Desrosiers, Lyne; Saint-Jean, Micheline; Breton, Jean-Jacques
The aim of this study was to gain a broader appreciation of processes involved in treatment dropout in adolescents with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A constructivist grounded theory was chosen using a multiple-case research design with three embedded levels of analysis (adolescent, parent, and care setting). Theoretical sampling and the different stages of analysis specific to grounded theory were performed according to the iterative process of constant comparative analysis. Twelve cases were examined (nine dropouts among adolescents with BPD and for the purpose of falsification, one dropout of suicidal adolescent without BPD and two completed treatments among adolescents with BPD). To document the cases, three groups of informants were recruited (adolescents, parents, and therapists involved in the treatment) and 34 interviews were conducted. Psychological characteristics, perception of mental illness and mental health care, and help-seeking context were the specific treatment dropout vulnerabilities identified in adolescents with BPD and in their parents. However, their disengagement became an issue only when care-setting response--including mitigation of accessibility problems, adaptation of services to needs of adolescents with BPD, preparation for treatment, and concern for clinicians' disposition to treat--was ill-suited to these treatment dropout vulnerabilities. Treatment planning proves to be a key milestone to properly engage adolescents with BPD and their parent. Systematic assessment of treatment dropout vulnerabilities before the intervention plan is laid out could foster better-suited responses of the care setting thus decreasing the incidence of treatment discontinuation in adolescents with BPD. Treatment dropout vulnerabilities specific to adolescents with BPD and their parents can be detected before the beginning of treatment. Premature treatment termination may be prevented if the care setting considers these vulnerabilities at treatment
Full Text Available Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents aged 13–18 who had sexual initiations. Adolescents who failed to use any contraceptive method and/or condom during last sexual intercourse and who experienced multiple sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the study were taken as ‘at risk’. In view of these, the adolescents risk count ranged from zero to three – greater number indicates higher count of risky sexual practices. Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations and p<0.05 indicated a statistical significance. Results: It was found out that 301 of 633 (47.55%; 95% CI=43.62%, 51.45% adolescents experienced one or more risky sexual practices. High parental monitoring compared to low decreases the Incidence Rate of engaging in risky sexual practices by 28% (adjusted incidence rate ratio, or IRR=0.72; 95% CI=0.520, 0.986. Those who had a satisfactory level of SRH communications with their parents compared to poor communicators experianced less incidence rate of risky sexual practices which was marginal (adjusted IRR=0.82; 95% CI=0.637, 1.051. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the adolescents engaged in one or more risky sexual practices. Importantly, high parental monitoring decreases the likelihood of these risky practices. Therefore, parents need to be encouraged to keep an eye on their young children.
Full Text Available Drug use is one of the major challenges that todays society faces; its effects are felt at the level of various social, professional and age categories. Over 50 non-profit organizations are involved in the development of anti-drug social programs in Romania. Their role is to improve the degree of awareness of the target population concerning the risks associated with drug use, but also to steer consumers towards healthy areas, beneficial to their future. This paper aims to detail the issue of drug use in Romania, by making predictions based on the evolution of this phenomenon during the next five years. The obtained results have revealed the necessity to increase the number of programs preventing drug use, aswell as the need to continue social programs that have proved effective in previous years.
Jenkins, J E
This study examined the importance of students' academic performance level and extracurricular activities as predictors of drug involvement relative to peer influence. Social development theory provided the theoretical rational for the study. Data were obtained from 2,229 randomly selected students in the eighth, tenth, and twelfth grades from seventeen school districts in northeastern Ohio. At all three grade levels, involvement in extracurricular activities and academic level were significantly correlated with students' gateway and hard drug use. Consistent with prior research, the strongest correlate of gateway and hard drug use across all grade levels was affiliation with drug-using friends. Having a job after school was marginally related to self-reported gateway drug use at grade level ten. Multiple regression analysis revealed that extracurricular involvement and academic performance level make small, but unique contributions to the prediction of adolescents' gateway drug use beyond affiliation with drug-using peers at all three grade levels. The findings of this study suggest that students' academic performance and extracurricular involvements are significantly related to adolescent gateway and hard drug use, but have less predictive significance relative to peer relationships.
Full Text Available Abstract Background New HIV diagnoses related to injection drug use (IDU have declined in the United States. Access to clean syringes and decreasing HIV transmission among injection drug users have been HIV prevention priorities of the Rhode Island (RI HIV community. To examine trends in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI, we performed a retrospective analysis of new HIV diagnoses according to HIV risk factor from 1990–2003. Results There has been an 80% absolute reduction in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in RI coincident with IDU-specific prevention efforts. Conclusion There has been a greater decline in IDU-related new HIV diagnoses in Rhode Island compared to national data reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We hypothesize that this dramatic decline in Rhode Island is related to extensive HIV prevention efforts targeting IDUs. Further research is needed to examine the impact of specific HIV prevention interventions for injection drug users.
The spread of HIV among drug and alcohol users, as a high-risk group, is a significant problem in Africa, as in other parts of the world. Few programs have been implemented in Africa to deal specifically with this issue. Since November 2006, the AED Capable Partners Program in Kenya project has provided technical ...
Park, J; Kosterman, R; Hawkins, J D; Haggerty, K P; Duncan, T E; Duncan, S C; Spoth, R
Preparing for the Drug-Free Years (PDFY) is a curriculum designed to help parents learn skills to consistently communicate clear norms against adolescent substance use, effectively and proactively manage their families, reduce family conflict, and help their children learn skills to resist antisocial peer influences. This study examined the effects of PDFY on the trajectories of these factors, as well as on the trajectory of alcohol use from early to mid adolescence. The sample consisted of 424 rural families of sixth graders from schools randomly assigned to an intervention or a control condition. Data were collected from both parents and students at pretest, posttest, and 1-, 2- and 3 1/2-year follow-ups. Latent growth models were examined. PDFY significantly reduced the growth of alcohol use and improved parent norms regarding adolescent alcohol use over time. Implications for prevention and evaluation are discussed.
Nielsen, Eva Skovslund; Hellfritzsch, Maja; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Rasmussen, Helle; Thomsen, Per Hove; Laursen, Torben
This study aimed to describe the level of off-label treatment with psychotropic drugs at a child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic in Denmark. We performed a cross-sectional study assessing records on patients treated with medicine at two outpatient clinics at the child and adolescent psychiatric ward, on 1 day in 2014. Prescriptions of drugs from ATC group N05-N06 were classified according to label status. Six hundred and fifteen drug prescriptions distributed on nine different drugs were prescribed to 503 children eligible for this study. Overall results showed that 170 of the 615 prescriptions were off-label, which corresponds to 27.6 %. Attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) drugs were prescribed 450 times (73.2 %) of which 11 prescriptions were off-label (2.4 %). Other psychotropic drugs comprised 165 (26.8 %) prescriptions and of these 159 (96.4 %) were off-label. With 106 prescriptions, melatonin was the most prescribed of these drugs; all prescriptions were off-label. The main reasons for classifying prescriptions as off-label were age and indication of treatment. This cross-sectional study reveals that medical treatment of children with other psychotropic drugs than ADHD drugs is usually off-label. ADHD drugs were, as the only drug group, primarily prescribed on-label. Although off-label prescription may be rational and even evidence based, the responsibility in case of, e.g. adverse drug reactions is a challenge, and clinical trials in children should be incited.
This paper reviews the role of currently available antiplatelet drugs in primary and secondary prevention of vascular events in diabetic patients and the limitations of these drugs, and it discusses the role of novel and more potent antiplatelets and of new agents currently under clinical development.
Sanchez, Zila M.; Opaleye, Emerita Satiro; Chaves, Tharcila V.; Noto, Ana R.; Nappo, Solange A.
Researches have emphasized religiosity as a protective factor against drug use although the mechanism through which it occurs is still unknown. This article aims to explore religious beliefs that could prevent drug use among youth. Three sources of qualitative data were used: participant observation in 21 religious institutions, semistructured…
Midford, Richard; Cahill, Helen; Ramsden, Robyn; Davenport, Gillian; Venning, Lynne; Lester, Leanne; Murphy, Bernadette; Pose, Michelle
Aim: This pilot study investigated what alcohol prevention benefits could be achieved by a harm reduction focused school drug education intervention that addressed all drug use, both licit and illicit. Method: The study population comprised a cohort of 225 students in three intervention secondary schools and 93 students in a matched control school…
Lukacher, G Ia; Makshantseva, N V
The study involved 152 adolescents which had abused narcotic and toxic substances once, occasionally or regularly. Males aged 15 to 16 years displayed highest occurrence rate of the abuse. Drug addiction and toxicomania were established in 6% of subjects. Volatile stuff and tranquilizers were most frequent in use. Microsocial adversities were experienced by all the subjects. Besides, an "altered background" is characteristic of drug addicts and toxicomania patients. The fact of narcotic and toxic substances usage as euphorigenic agents deserves due attention of narcologists, pedagogues, sociologists. Biologically conditioned risk factors conducive to drug addiction and toxicomania should be investigated.
Moshki, Mahdi; Hassanzade, Tahere; Taymoori, Parvaneh
Background: Drug abuse is now-a-days one of the gravest social harms. Recent years have experienced a drastic rise in drug abuse among school and university students. Thus, the need for special attention to the issue is deemed important. The present study was conducted with the aim of assessing the impact of life skills training on promotion of drug abuse preventive behaviors. Methods: This field trial experimental study was conducted on 60 students of Gonabad Medical University selected thro...
Full Text Available this article focuses on such a highly relevant subject as the prevention and correction of deviant behavior in the adolescent environment. The study revealed the main vectors for the development of the modern science of deviant behavior, identified the main causes of deviations and carried out a comparative analysis of the work on the prevention of deviant behavior in the CIS countries and abroad. This paper proved that the key factor in the prevention and correction of deviant behavior should be, firstly, the family as the primary and the most important institution of identity formation, and secondly, the pedagogically controlled environment of educational institutions serving as a condition for socialization and personal development for children and adolescents.
Jerí, F. Raúl; Departamento de Medicina, Sección de Neurología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Carbajal, Carlos; Departamento de Medicina, Sección de Neurología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú; Sánchez M., César; Departamento de Medicina, Sección de Neurología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú
Clinical observations of 35 youths who used hallucinogenic drugs for two to four years are mostly present . The proportion of males was three times compared to women , almost all households were from well integrated and belonged to a higher socio- economic level or medium . The drugs used were marijuana , LSD , barbiturates , mescaline , afetamina , methaqualone and alcohol, in various combinations . All of these young people showed signs of psychological disturbance , personality disorders g...
The prevalence of overweight in childhood and adolescence in Europe is still growing. This development could not yet be stopped despite numerous intervention and prevention measures. Due to the lack of longitudinal data, so far no reliable evaluation of incidence rates or long-term health effects of overweight and obesity can be made. Overweight and adiposity are caused by multiple factors. Beside genetic predisposition and individual lifestyle, effective prevention measures should e. g. also take account of psycho-social, context and environmental factors. The prevention of obesity is an issue that clinical medicine and public health should tackle together. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Park, Bu Kyung; Nahm, Eun-Shim; Rogers, Valerie E; Choi, Mona; Friedmann, Erika; Wilson, Marisa; Koru, Gunes
Adolescent obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges. Social networking sites are currently popular among adolescents. Therefore, the obesity prevention program for Korean American adolescents was developed on the most popular social networking site, Facebook. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of a culturally tailored Facebook-based obesity prevention program for Korean American adolescents (Healthy Teens). An explorative descriptive design of usability testing was used. Usability testing employing one-on-one observation, the think-aloud method, audio taping, screen activity capture, and surveys was performed. Twenty participants were recruited from two Korean language schools (mean age, 15.40 ± 1.50 years). Recruitment and user testing was performed between February and April 2014. Content analysis, using the inductive coding approach, was performed by three coders to analyze transcriptions. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze quantitative data including demographic characteristics, perceived usability, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Testing revealed several usability issues in content, appearance, and navigation. Participants' comments regarding content were positive. Although the Facebook platform provided limited flexibility with respect to building the site, participants described the program's appearance as appropriate. Most participants did not experience difficulty in navigating the program. Our preliminary findings indicated that participants perceived the Healthy Teens program as usable and useful. This program could be used as a robust platform for the delivery of health education to adolescents. Further research is required to assess the effects of Facebook-based programs on adolescent obesity prevention. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treloar, Carla; Laybutt, Becky; Carruthers, Susan
Aims: Prevention education has had limited success in reducing transmission of blood borne virus among people who inject drugs. Innovative approaches to prevention education are required. Method: This study used video recordings of injecting episodes and interviews with participants reviewing their video recordings to explore the concept of…
Segars, Lance, Ed.; Akinola, Olayinka, Ed.
The U.S. Department of Education's Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention has developed this annotated bibliography to provide those interested in prevention at colleges and universities--and in surrounding communities--with a ready reference of current, important, and available information resources.…
Barth, R P; Fetro, J V; Leland, N; Volkan, K
A 15-session sex education program was delivered by teachers to 586 10th graders using techniques based on social learning theory, including modeling, in-class and out-of-class practice of skills for abstaining from sexual intercourse, and for contraception. Knowledge about reproduction and birth control, intentions to use skills to avoid pregnancy, and communication with parents about pregnancy prevention were significantly greater at posttest and 6-month follow-up for the trained group than for the control group. Members of the trained group tended to use birth control more often, especially those who started to have sexual intercourse subsequent to the program. No differences in the frequency of sexual intercourse, pregnancy scares, or pregnancies were found. Satisfaction with the program was high. Although skill training by itself may not be sufficient to significantly prevent pregnancies, this program offers promise of being a useful component of combined school, home, and community activities to prevent pregnancy.
Full Text Available Migraine is among the 10 most disabling disorders worldwide. It is characterized by episodes of moderate or severe headaches with various degree of disability, resulting in a considerable health burden upon the sufferers and their family. The objective of this article is to review the use of prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs. Particular focus is given to their mechanism of action, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, safety profile, efficacy and to provide a summary of the most relevant clinical studies and patient preference.
Morihisa, Rogerio Shigueo; Barroso, Lúcia Pereira; Scivoletto, Sandra
To verify how conduct disorder and conduct problems are associated with gender, age at onset of drug use and categories of drugs used. A test of association was conducted between the presence of comorbidity and gender. Mean age of first use of each drug was compared to mean age of first arrest, of first robbery/theft, and of first drug dealing. In this sample, approximately 59% of adolescents had already robbed and/or stolen, 38.6% had already been arrested, 32.3% had prior history of drug dealing, 24.1% had depression, and 9.6% had conduct disorder. Prevalence of conduct problems was 65.2%. Tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine were used before the first robbery and/or theft, first drug dealing, and first arrest. The fact that drug use onset preceded illegal acts suggests that the latter are the consequence of the consumption of the former, or perhaps, the consequence of "social invisibility" (feeling of not belonging to anything or to anybody) by which these youths undergo. Labeling these youths as conduct-disordered adolescents may cloud a rather different reality, and it may submit them to more social isolation and stigmatization as well.
The main goal of this thesis was to evaluate the effectiveness of an alcohol prevention program both for parents and adolescents in Norway.The aim of the first study was to estimate the prevalence of alcohol drinking among Norwegian adolescents, as well as to identify determinants associated with early onset of drinking and test models for predicting early onset. The study showed that approximately one in four of the 13-14 year olds in the study had tried alcohol. Different variables were ass...
Graybiel, A.; Knepton, J.
The new drug, AHR 5645B, together with other drugs was evaluated in tests, conducted with eight male subjects, concerning its ability to prevent motion sickness. It was found that AHR 5645B, used in doses of 20, 50, and 100 mg, was not efficacious in preventing experimental motion sickness. A combination of 50 mg meclizine and 25 mg ephedrine sulfate produced the best results. Favorable results were also obtained with a combination of 12.5 mg promethazine hydrochloride and 12.5 mg ephedrine sulfate. The findings in the reported experiment point to the difficulty of identifying a highly efficacious antimotion sickness drug for everyone.
Garcia, Denise Máximo; Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Lo, Denise Swei
To associate the nutritional status and the self-perception of nutritional status with the use of licit drugs among adolescents. Cross-sectional study in which 210 adolescents answered a questionnaire on alcohol and tobacco experimentation and self-perceptions about their nutritional status. The correspondence between the adolescents' perception of their own nutritional status and actual nutritional status was analyzed, as well as associations between nutritional status, self-perception of nutritional status, gender, age, and presence of smokers at home with alcohol and tobacco use. The variables were analyzed separately in a bivariate analysis and, subsequently, a multivariate analysis determined the factors associated with drug use. The study included 210 adolescents with a median age of 148 months; 56.6% were females. Of the total sample, 6.6% have tried cigarettes, and 20% have tried alcohol; 32.3% had BMI Z-Score≥1, 12.85% had BMI Z-Score≥2, and 50.7% had a correct perception of his/her weight. After a multivariate analysis, only the self-perception about weight statistically influenced experimentation of tobacco, and patients who identified themselves as having very high weight were more likely to experiment tobacco (odds ratio (OR) 13.57; confidence interval (95% CI) 2.05-89.8; p=0.007); regarding alcohol use, adolescents who identified themselves as having high weight were 2.4 times more likely to experiment with alcohol than adolescents that identified themselves as having normal weight (95% CI 1.08-5.32, p=0.031). Adolescents with self-perception of excess weight may constitute a risk group for alcohol and tobacco use. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Grossman, David C; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Curry, Susan J; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen
Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance). Children and adolescents may also experience teasing and bullying behaviors based on their weight. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may continue into adulthood and lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes or other obesity-related morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes. Although the overall rate of child and adolescent obesity has stabilized over the last decade after increasing steadily for 3 decades, obesity rates continue to increase in certain populations, such as African American girls and Hispanic boys. These racial/ethnic differences in obesity prevalence are likely a result of both genetic and nongenetic factors (eg, socioeconomic status, intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food, and having a television in the bedroom). To update the 2010 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for obesity in children 6 years and older. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for obesity in children and adolescents and the benefits and harms of weight management interventions. Comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions (≥26 contact hours) in children and adolescents 6 years and older who have obesity can result in improvements in weight status for up to 12 months; there is inadequate evidence regarding the effectiveness of less intensive interventions. The harms of behavioral interventions can be bounded as small to none, and the harms of screening are minimal. Therefore, the USPSTF
Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine
Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can "cash plus care" social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (psocial protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=-0.08, psocial protection has the greatest prevention effects for the most vulnerable. Social protection comprising unconditional cash plus care was associated with reduced risk pathways through moderation and main effects, respectively. Our findings suggest the importance of social protection within a combination package of HIV-prevention
Card, Josefina J; Lessard, Laura; Benner, Tabitha
It is important that interventions that have been shown effective in changing risky behavior be disseminated, so that they can be replicated (implemented in a new site) and so that their effectiveness in a new setting can be investigated. This article provides an update on an innovative resource for promoting the replication of effective teen pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention programs. The resource is called the Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence (PASHA). A Scientist Expert Panel rates candidate adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention programs based on the strength of the evidence of their effectiveness in changing risky sexual behavior among youth ages 10-19 (10-21 for STI/HIV prevention programs). Developers of selected programs are invited to make their program and evaluation materials publicly available through PASHA. PASHA publishes and disseminates replication kits for programs it successfully acquires. Fifty-six programs have been selected by PASHA's Scientist Expert Panel as "effective" in changing one or more risky behaviors associated with adolescent pregnancy or STI/HIV. Complete program and evaluation materials from 35 of these programs are now currently available through PASHA, five are pending, 12 are publicly available from other sources, and only four are not publicly available. PASHA programs are aimed at a diverse target population and cover diverse content on many abstinence and contraception/condom-related topics. Many pedagogical techniques are used to effect behavior change, noticeably role play and group discussion. PASHA illustrates well the productive research-to-practice feedback loop that is the backbone of "translation research." The resource can be used by adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention practitioners to put what works to work to continue the lowering of the nation's adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV rates.
The World Health Organization estimates that 50% of the 30 million HIV infections worldwide occurred in young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years. In the United States, national statistics estimate that almost 40% of new HIV cases occur in youth ages 13-29 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). Therefore, a focus on preventing…
Smolak, Linda; Levine, Michael P.
It is important for adults who work with youth to know how to address the issues of eating disorders and steroid use. This article provides signs and symptoms for both, and then gives practical suggestions for talking with youth about a potential problem. It ends with prevention strategies for adults who work with youth. (Contains 3 tables.)
The article deals with analysis of the laws "On prevention of alcoholism, drug addiction and toxicomania" introduced in some subjects of the Russian Federation (Permskaya, Tomskaya, Murmanskaya oblast, the Republics of Bashkortostan, Mordovia, Buryatia, Mari El, etc.). The laws stipulate the participation of the authorities of public and municipal administration, public health, social protection, home affairs and others in the prevention activities. The integral part of this activity is the approval of corresponding regional programs with adequate financing and coordination. The laws on prevention of alcoholism, drug addiction and toxicomania, adopted in the subjects of the Russian Federation are of advance character and testify the necessity of adoption of relevant Federal law.
Vermeulen-Smit, E; Verdurmen, J E E; Engels, R C M E; Vollebergh, W A M
To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N=3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Logistic regression analyses revealed that 1) parental cannabis use was significantly related to more adolescent lifetime and recent cannabis use, and 2) restrictive cannabis-specific parental rules were associated with less adolescent recent cannabis and lifetime use of other illicit drugs, even when controlled for sociodemographic factors, general parenting, adolescent tobacco use, and tobacco-specific parenting. In addition, no significant interaction was observed between parental cannabis use and cannabis-specific rules in their relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use, indicating that cannabis rules are evenly associated with adolescent drug use for families with and without parental cannabis experience. In addition to general parenting practices, restrictive cannabis-specific rules are related to lower adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug rates. Parents who ever used cannabis have children with a higher prevalence of cannabis use. However, their restrictive cannabis-specific rules are equally related to a lower chance of adolescent cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Over the past few years there have been several randomized controlled trials that examine the effect of lifestyle modification and pharmacological interventions on the likelihood of developing diabetes mellitus (DM type 2 in people at high risk. These studies demonstrated that the number of people newly diagnosed with diabetes within 3–6-year period may be considerably reduced. Therefore focus of discussing the tactics to control DM type 2 is shifted from the relatively narrow topic of treatment of the disease at a wide range of issues of its prophylaxis: prevention of development and early treatment of DM, aimed to stabilization or reverse progression of the disease and prevention of its progression. This review discusses the general concept and the evidence base on preventing DM type 2 in the context of the pathogenesis of the disease. In addition, the attention is paid to the possibilities of the use of the discussed approaches to clinical practice, taking into account pathogenetic features of the disease and and clinical findings.
Yuliya Borisovna Kinyasheva
Full Text Available The article considers the drug problem in modern society, which is the most complicated one and dangerous for youth, as the most receptive social group. It is defined, that drug prevention is an important instrument in the reduction of non-medical drug and psychotropic substances consumption. The results of anti-drug policy are affected by a combination of preventing and operational measures together with the total development of the interdepartmental cooperation. The article represents the original summary’s research, written on the basis of studying and theoretical analysis of sources, documents on the research issue, and also data from the report “About the Drug Situation in Tula Region”. The authors reveal root causes and dynamics of drug abuse among young people; show the domination of social and psychological environment in drug addiction among citizens. Studies of the preventive work show a number of important issues in this field (beadledom, institutions acting disunity, underfunding, etc., overcoming them is possible due to systematic approach. The outcome of this work shows the variation of universal technologies using for preventing psychotropic substances addiction. The results of the research study can be applied in social psychology, education and advocacy, and also in the law enforcement agencies.
Murphy, Michelle; Mills, Sierra; Winstone, Joanna; Leishman, Emma; Wager-Miller, Jim; Bradshaw, Heather; Mackie, Ken
Introduction: The high prevalence of adolescent cannabis use, the association between this use and later psychiatric disease, and increased access to high-potency cannabis highlight the need for a better understanding of the long-term effects of adolescent cannabis use on cognitive and behavioral outcomes. Furthermore, increasing Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in high-potency cannabis is accompanied by a decrease in cannabidiol (CBD), thus an understanding of the interactions between CBD and THC in the neurodevelopmental effects of THC is also important. The current study examined the immediate and long-term behavioral consequences of THC, CBD, and their combination in a mouse model of adolescent cannabis use. Materials and Methods: Male CD1 mice received daily injections of THC (3 mg/kg), CBD (3 mg/kg), CBD+THC (3 mg/kg each), vehicle, or remained undisturbed in their home cage (no handling/injections), either during adolescence (postnatal day [PND] 28-48) or during early adulthood (PND 69-89). Animals were then evaluated with a battery of behavioral tests 1 day after drug treatment, and again after 42 drug-free days. The tests included the following: open field (day 1), novel object recognition (NOR; day 2), marble burying (day 3), elevated plus maze (EPM; day 4), and Nestlet shredding (day 5). Results: Chronic administration of THC during adolescence led to immediate and long-term impairments in object recognition/working memory, as measured by the NOR task. In contrast, adult administration of THC caused immediate, but not long term, impairment of object/working memory. Adolescent chronic exposure to THC increased repetitive and compulsive-like behaviors, as measured by the Nestlet shredding task. Chronic administration of THC, either during adolescence or during adulthood, led to a delayed increase in anxiety as measured by the EPM. All THC-induced behavioral abnormalities were prevented by the coadministration of CBD+THC, whereas CBD alone did not
Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.; Abell, Melissa
This study recruited 567 African American youth (mean age = 15.27 years; 65.1% girls) to examine the role of parent and peer contexts on drug use among African American adolescents. Data were collected on demographics, drug refusal efficacy, drug use, and various psychosocial factors including family and peer factors. When controlling for age and…
Evans, Suzette M; Reynolds, Brady
This special issue exemplifies one of the major goals of the current editor of Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Dr. Suzette Evans): to increase the number of manuscripts that emphasize females and address sex differences. Taken together, these articles represent a broad range of drug classes and approaches spanning preclinical research to treatment to better understand the role of sex differences in drug abuse. While not all studies found sex differences, we want to emphasize that finding no sex difference is just as important as confirming one, and should be reported in peer-reviewed journals. It is our intention and hope that this special issue will further advance scientific awareness about the importance of accounting for sex differences in the study of substance abuse. Participant sex is an essential variable to consider in developing a more comprehensive understanding of substance abuse. Rather than viewing investigating sex differences as burdensome, investigators should seize this opportune area ripe for innovative research that is long overdue. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Paula Orchiucci Miura
Full Text Available A pregnant adolescent’s vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent’s early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent’s psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent’s vulnerability.
Paul, Anthea B Mahesan; Simms, Lary; Mahesan, Andrew A; Belanger, Eric Charles
Illegal drug abuse, particularly prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States. Research on adolescent drug abuse is based on national self-reported data. Using local coroner data, quantitative prevalence of illegal substance toxicology and trends can be assessed to aid directed outreach and community-based prevention initiatives. Retrospective analysis was conducted on all cases aged 12-17 years referred to the Office of the Medical Examiner, Clark County from 2005 to 2015 (n = 526). The prevalence of illegal opioid use in this population was 13.3%. The most commonly used drug was tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in 29.7%. Illegal-prescription opioids and benzodiazepines were used approximately 1.7 times as much as all other illegal-drugs, excluding THC combined. The largest proportion of illicit prescription drug users were accidental death victims (p = 0.02, OR = 2.02). Drug trends by youth are ever evolving and current specific data is necessary to target prevention initiatives in local communities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R
To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i.
Elliot, Diane L; Lindemulder, Susan J; Goldberg, Linn; Stadler, Diane D; Smith, Jennifer
Teenage survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have increased morbidity likely due to their prior multicomponent treatment. Habits established in adolescence can impact individuals' subsequent adult behaviors. Accordingly, healthy lifestyles, avoiding harmful actions, and appropriate disease surveillance are of heightened importance among teenage survivors. We review the findings from prevention science and their relevance to heath promotion. The capabilities and current uses of eHealth components including e-learning, serious video games, exergaming, behavior tracking, individual messaging, and social networking are briefly presented. The health promotion needs of adolescent survivors are aligned with those eHealth aspects to propose a new paradigm to enhance the wellbeing of adolescent ALL survivors. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Maravilla, Joemer Calderon; Betts, Kim S; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Couto E Cruz, Camila; Alati, Rosa
Intervention by community health workers (CHWs) is believed to prevent repeated childbearing among teenagers. This review investigated the effectiveness of CHWs in reducing repeated pregnancies and births among adolescents aged pregnancies. Studies showed relevant disparities in terms of selected methodological aspects and program characteristics. Although most studies (n = 9) were either of "strong" or of "moderate" quality, only two of five finding a significant reduction exhibited a high level of quality as the other three failed to adjust results for confounders. Random effects modeling revealed an overall 30% decrease in repeated adolescent births (odds ratio = .70, confidence interval = .49-.99) among CHW-visited areas relative to nonvisited sites. On the other hand, no significant association was detected in terms of repeated pregnancies (odds ratio = .96, confidence interval = .70-1.28). Copyright © 2016 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Young, April M.; Glover, Natalie; Havens, Jennifer R.
Rural communities often have distinct contextual factors that impact residents' substance abuse behavior. However, most studies to date have focused either exclusively on urban populations or neglected to analyze data in a way that allows any rural/urban comparison. This is especially true for research examining nonmedical prescription drug use…
Winters, K C; Stinchfield, R D; Opland, E; Weller, C; Latimer, W W
The treatment outcome of drug-abusing adolescents treated with a 12-Step approach. The study compares drug use outcome data at 6 and 12 months post-treatment among three groups of adolescents: those who completed treatment, those who did not and those on a waiting list. Also, among treatment completers, residential and outpatient samples were compared on outcome. The treatment site is located in the Minneapolis/St Paul area of Minnesota. Two hundred and forty-five drug clinic-referred adolescents (12-18 years old), all of whom met at least one DSM-III-R substance dependence disorder. One hundred and seventy-nine subjects received either complete or incomplete 12-Step, Minnesota Model treatment and 66 were waiting list subjects. In addition to demographics and clinical background variables, measures included treatment involvement, treatment setting and drug use frequency at intake and follow-up. Absolute and relative outcome analyses indicated that completing treatment was associated with far superior outcome compared to those who did not complete treatment or receive any at all. The percentage of treatment completers who reported either abstinence or a minor lapse for the 12 months following treatment was 53%, compared to 15 and 28% for the incompleter and waiting list groups, respectively. Favorable treatment outcome for drug abuse was about two to three times more likely if treatment was completed. Also, there were no outcome differences between residential and outpatient groups. Alcohol was the most common drug used during the follow-up period, despite cannabis being the preferred drug at intake.
Full Text Available Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years. The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time, while five of seven studies which assessed dietary
Wodarski, John S
"Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple
Gaspar, N; Marshall, L V; Binner, D; Herold, R; Rousseau, R; Blanc, P; Capdeville, R; Carleer, J; Copland, C; Kerloeguen, Y; Norga, K; Pacaud, L; Sevaux, M-A; Spadoni, C; Sterba, J; Ligas, F; Taube, T; Uttenreuther-Fischer, M; Chioato, S; O'Connell, M A; Geoerger, B; Blay, J-Y; Soria, J C; Kaye, S; Wulff, B; Brugières, L; Vassal, G; Pearson, A D J
The impressive progress recently observed in adult cancers through the introduction of new drugs has not yet been translated to adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Currently adolescents are grouped with children, so their access to new, effective drugs already available for adults is delayed because paediatric drug development starts late relative to adult programmes. Moreover, specific early phase trials designed exclusively for adolescents in rare diseases recruit poorly, even if conducted internationally. Evidence has shown that adolescents demonstrate similar toxicity profiles, maximum tolerated doses and pharmacokinetic parameters to adults. Although they may have specific vulnerabilities and their interests should be protected, they are, in many countries in Europe, entitled to provide informed consent themselves. There are no insurmountable scientific, medical, or regulatory barriers to their participation in Phase-I to III adult trials. Based on a review of the literature, the multi-stakeholder platform ACCELERATE, with representatives from academia, patient/parent advocacy groups, regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies, proposes the inclusion of adolescents in adult Phase-I to III trials of cancer drugs targeting a relevant disease or mechanism of action, without requiring preceding specific paediatric trials. The trials, however, should be delivered in age-appropriate clinical care settings by clinicians with adolescent trial expertise. Joint adolescent-adult trials will not exclude adolescents from participating in paediatric trials, as these approaches are complementary. This strategy is considered to be safe, rational, efficient and would provide more clinical trial options and accelerate drug development for adolescents with cancer. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.
Ruby, Eugene; Sher, Leo
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior among adolescents. Suicide is one of the top three causes of adolescent deaths worldwide. Despite the strong relationship between PTSD and suicidal behavior, precise causal pathways linking PTSD to suicide in adolescents remains unclear. A slew of mediating factors and variables commonly present themselves with both suicide and PTSD, including co-morbid psychiatric disorders, exposure to different forms of trauma and stressful life events, core neurobiological changes, and mental, emotional, and physiological states such as hyperarousal, impulsivity, and aggression. Because youth is such a critical stage of development, it is very important that at-risk adolescents are identified and referred for treatment. With many treatment challenges in these populations, effective implementation and use of prevention methods are of increasing importance. The most proven prevention methods include physician education, means restriction, and gatekeeper training. Other strategies that have received empirical support are public education campaigns and implementing guidelines for the media, including those for television, print media, and the Internet.
Bachanas, Pamela J; Morris, Mary K; Lewis-Gess, Jennifer K; Sarett-Cuasay, Eileen J; Sirl, Kimberly; Ries, Julie K; Sawyer, Mary K
To describe empirically the risky sexual behavior of an at-risk sample of adolescent girls, to assess psychosocial correlates of risky behavior, and to examine the utility of applying a risk and protective model to predicting teens' risky sexual behavior. Participants included 158 African American girls, ages 12 to 19, who were receiving medical care in an adolescent primary care clinic. Teens completed measures of depression, conduct problems, substance use, peer norms, social support, HIV knowledge, sexual self-efficacy, and sexual behavior. Teens in this sample reported high rates of risky sexual behaviors, including early sexual debuts and frequent unprotected sexual encounters with multiple partners. African American girls who reported high rates of substance use and who reported that their peers engaged in risky behaviors also reported engaging in high rates of risky sexual behaviors. Little support was obtained for protective factors (HIV knowledge, social support, sexual self-efficacy) moderating the relations between risk factors and adolescents' risky sexual behavior in this sample. Teens presenting in primary care settings in urban environments seem to be at high risk for HIV, STDs, and substance abuse, and risk reduction strategies should be introduced during the preteen years. An interdisciplinary model of care in primary care settings serving adolescents is clearly indicated, and prevention-oriented interventions aimed at reducing risky behaviors and preventing the development of more significant health, mental health, or substance abuse disorders are needed.
Nagai, Roberta; Lefèvre, Ana Maria C; Lefèvre, Fernando; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Liliane R; Zinn, Lílian C S; Soares, Nilson S; Fischer, Frida M
To describe knowledge and practices adopted by high school students to prevent occupational injuries. The study was carried out in a public school located in São Paulo, in 2003. Fifty-three evening students aged 14 to 21 years old participated the study, they were divided into two groups with and without job experience (32 and 21 students, respectively). The students answered two questions: "Why do occupational injuries occur?" and "How do you avoid occupational injuries?" Analyses were performed using the software "Quali-quanti" to structure collective discourses. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSES: Adolescents with work experience reported that occupational injuries occur due to carelessness of the employee, bad luck of the employee, employer's negligence, lack of training, and unsafe workplace. Adolescents without work experience reported that the main causes of work injuries were carelessness of the employee and employer's negligence. Regarding the ways to protect themselves against occupational injuries, both groups reported that: they pay attention (would pay attention) and wear safety equipment (would wear) safety equipment. Adolescents from both groups showed limited knowledge about occupational injuries and prevention methods. Students "blamed the victim" to explain the injuries and considered "paying attention to work" as the best way to protect themselves. These facts showed that the culture of blaming the victim is present since adolescence and probably it is an outcome of a learning process of the society.
Southerland, Jodi L; Williams, Christian L; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Slawson, Deborah Leachman
Coordinated School Health (CSH) is a systematic approach to improving the health and well-being of school-age children. It is recommended for its potential to promote healthy weight in adolescents through strategic programming. Resources and programming for adolescent obesity prevention varies among schools, thereby limiting the intended benefits of CSH. The purpose of this study was to understand gaps in schools' approaches to healthy weight promotion and support for overweight/obese students. We evaluated perceptions of adolescent obesity and environmental factors and programs facilitating healthy weight in high schools in Appalachian Tennessee. In 2012, 17 key school personnel from 5 randomly selected high schools were interviewed. Questions addressed their perceptions of adolescent obesity, school-based physical activity and nutrition programming, and support available to overweight/obese students. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes. Participants consistently identified adolescent obesity and/or associated risk factors as major health problems within their schools. Barriers to physical activity and healthful eating were identified at multiple levels. Because of the sensitivity surrounding overweight/obesity, no particular programs or curricula targeted overweight/obese adolescents specifically, but they were available to all students. Support is not explicitly available; therefore, overweight/obese students must seek out these resources. Findings suggest that although school personnel are concerned about the impact of adolescent obesity on health outcomes, there is wide variation across schools on the types and quality of programming available to address the issue. Results can be used to encourage school-based strengths and identify gaps in the CSH infrastructure in school systems.
Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Sritanyarat, Wanapa; Ayuwat, Dusadee
Since adolescents are now engaging in sexual activity in their early years, sexual behavior needs to be explored to prevent contact with HPVs and other sexually transmitted diseases (STD), including cervical cancer. This qualitative study aimed to explore this question from adolescents' view points in their natural context. The participants were 19 individuals aged 13-19 years living in rural families in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. The preliminary findings indicated that factors contributing to low sexual risk behavior were helping family to do housework, an emphasis on learning, listening to parents, and following their advice. Adolescent behavior leading to high sexual risk included being very close to friends, having a wide social circle, going out for enjoyment at night time, returning home late at night, drinking alcohol, smoking, paying less attention to learning, not listening to parents, and not following their advice. Adolescent sexual behavior was found to comprise: 1) sexual activities themselves; 2) non-disclosure of having sex; and 3) protective behavior. Sexual activities were ranked from low risk to high risk of sexual health. Low risk included having a steady boy/girlfriend, hugging, and kissing. High risk sexual behavior featured unprotected sex, abuse or rape, and abortion. Important influences were: eagerness to learn and try to have sex, mens' sexual desire, peer group value of having sex, and material value. The adolescents demonstrated no willingness to disclose having a boy/girl friend, having sex and negative consequences like becoming pregnant. Sexual protective behavior was up to males, whether they were willing to use a condom, with females having little power to negotiate. The study suggests that inappropriate adolescent risk behavior and social values need to be a focus of attention for education. In particular, families need to take action by early detection of adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Full Text Available Sexual and reproductive health is a critical focus area for adolescents and young adults (AYAs. Of the 20 million newly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs annually, nearly half of them are contracted by young people between the ages of 15 to 24. It has become increasingly necessary to improve awareness and prevention of STIs during adolescent years. The knowledge gained through appropriately relevant sexual and reproductive health education may persist as adolescents transition into adulthood. Community pharmacists interact with AYAs frequently and are therefore well positioned to engage this vulnerable population in conversations about their sexual and reproductive health through use innovative and interactive technologies. For instance, mobile applications are easily accessible to AYAs and can allow pharmacists to disseminate relevant medication information to smartphone users that download adolescent-tailored mobile applications. Although many medication adherence apps are currently available on the market, none of these apps are tailored towards sexual reproductive health information for female AYAs. A mobile-based program designed to provide a pharmacist-guided sexual and reproductive health education to female AYAs may help to address the lapses in current adolescent-aged school health classes. In the future, usage of this intervention would improve the accuracy and comprehension of female adolescents and young adults’ awareness and knowledge of their sexual and reproductive health. As a result, further research should be conducted to develop mobile applications conducive to adolescent and young adults to address sexual and reproductive health issues. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or
Mallet, Pascal; Herbé, Dominique
Believing that rape is acceptable in some situations may account for adolescent boys' perpetration of forced sex on girls. This study was intended to examine two hypothesized cognitive factors of adolescents' rape-supportive beliefs: general knowledge, measured with grade point average (GPA); and specific knowledge about sexuality, measured with a newly devised questionnaire. Fourteen-year-old adolescents (N = 248) participated in a short-term longitudinal study. They completed questionnaires designed to assess sexual knowledge and rape-supportive beliefs, and six months later completed them again. Sexual knowledge increased sharply between Time 1 and Time 2, whereas rape-supportive beliefs decreased during the same time. Boys obtained higher rape-supportive belief scores than girls. Regression analyses showed that sexual knowledge significantly predicted the level of rape-supportive beliefs six months later, independent of GPA and sex of participants. GPA accounted for a greater part of the variance in rape-supportive beliefs. This article discusses the importance of paying attention to the level of academic achievement of adolescents, as well as to their sexuality-specific knowledge, as a way of improving the efficiency of programs specializing in the prevention of adolescent sexual violence.
Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.
Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…
Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others
Compares the extent to which adolescents worry about nuclear war to their frequency of worry about other issues. Looks at the empirical relationships among worry and grade level, gender, trait emotionality, and drug use. Results indicate that adolescents worry more often about school performance and social interactions than about nuclear war.…
Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.
In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…
Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary F; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Fongkaew, Warunee; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee
This study investigates the influences of a family's spiritual beliefs and practices on substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adolescents 13-14 years old in Bangkok, Thailand. Independent predictor variables are the parents' and teens' spiritual beliefs and practices in Buddhism and parental monitoring behaviors. The study uses data from the 2007 Baseline Survey of the Thai Family Matters Project, which adapted a U.S. based family prevention program for Thai culture. A representative sample of 420 pairs of parents and teens from the Bangkok metropolitan area was recruited to participate in the study. Structural equation models indicate that positive direct and indirect associations of the spirituality of parents and teens within a family and the prevention of adolescent risk behaviors are significant and consistent. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.