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Sample records for prevented virus-induced mortality

  1. Salicylate prevents virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the BBDR rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoxing Yang

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that virus infection plays an important role in human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. We used the virus-inducible BioBreeding Diabetes Resistant (BBDR rat to investigate the ability of sodium salicylate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, to modulate development of type 1 diabetes. BBDR rats treated with Kilham rat virus (KRV and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pIC, a TLR3 agonist develop diabetes at nearly 100% incidence by ~2 weeks. We found distinct temporal profiles of the proinflammatory serum cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-12, and haptoglobin (an acute phase protein in KRV+pIC treated rats. Significant elevations of IL-1β and IL-12, coupled with sustained elevations of haptoglobin, were specific to KRV+pIC and not found in rats co-treated with pIC and H1, a non-diabetogenic virus. Salicylate administered concurrently with KRV+pIC inhibited the elevations in IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ and haptoglobin almost completely, and reduced IL-12 levels significantly. Salicylate prevented diabetes in a dose-dependent manner, and diabetes-free animals had no evidence of insulitis. Our data support an important role for innate immunity in virus-induced type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. The ability of salicylate to prevent diabetes in this robust animal model demonstrates its potential use to prevent or attenuate human autoimmune diabetes.

  2. A Recombinant Adenovirus Expressing Ovine Interferon Tau Prevents Influenza Virus-Induced Lethality in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, V; Pascual, E; Avia, M; Rangel, G; de Molina, A; Alejo, A; Sevilla, N

    2016-01-06

    Ovine interferon tau (IFN-τ) is a unique type I interferon with low toxicity and a broad host range in vivo. We report the generation of a nonreplicative recombinant adenovirus expressing biologically active IFN-τ. Using the B6.A2G-Mx1 mouse model, we showed that single-dose intranasal administration of recombinant Ad5-IFN-τ can effectively prevent lethality and disease induced by highly virulent hv-PR8 influenza virus by activating the interferon response and preventing viral replication. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Induced Stromal Keratitis by a Glycoprotein B-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dirks, Miriam; Kasper, Maren; Buch, Anna; Dittmer, Ulf; Giebel, Bernd; Wildschütz, Lena; Busch, Martin; Goergens, Andre; Schneweis, Karl E.; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M.; Sodeik, Beate; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Roggendorf, Michael; Bauer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV) and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK) is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c) that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis) or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy). Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day) of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c) was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans. PMID:25587898

  4. Prevention of herpes simplex virus induced stromal keratitis by a glycoprotein B-specific monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Krawczyk

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy. Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans.

  5. Prevention of immunodeficiency virus induced CD4+ T-cell depletion by prior infection with a non-pathogenic virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TerWee, Julie A.; Carlson, Jennifer K.; Sprague, Wendy S.; Sondgeroth, Kerry S.; Shropshire, Sarah B.; Troyer, Jennifer L.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Immune dysregulation initiated by a profound loss of CD4+ T-cells is fundamental to HIV-induced pathogenesis. Infection of domestic cats with a non-pathogenic lentivirus prevalent in the puma (puma lentivirus, PLV or FIV PCO ) prevented peripheral blood CD4+ T-cell depletion caused by subsequent virulent FIV infection. Maintenance of this critical population was not associated with a significant decrease in FIV viremia, lending support to the hypothesis that direct viral cytopathic effect is not the primary cause of immunodeficiency. Although this approach was analogous to immunization with a modified live vaccine, correlates of immunity such as a serum-neutralizing antibody or virus-specific T-cell proliferative response were not found in protected animals. Differences in cytokine transcription profile, most notably in interferon gamma, were observed between the protected and unprotected groups. These data provide support for the importance of non-adaptive enhancement of the immune response in the prevention of CD4+ T-cell loss

  6. Growth of transplantable melanoma and leukaemia and prevention of virus-induced leukaemia in long lived radiation chimeras constructed with unmanipulated bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierpaoli, W.

    1985-01-01

    Haemopoietic radiation chimeras across the H-2 barrier (BALB/c → C57B1/6; H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b) chimeras and vice versa) have been studied for their capacity to suppress the growth, or to reject, transplantable B16 melanotic melanoma and radiation leukaemia virus-induced, transplantable leukaemia. Also, radiation leukaemia virus (RadLV) obtained from the thymus of leukaemic C57B1/6 mice was injected i.p. into established chimeras (H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b)). As expected, long lived, graft versus host disease free allogeneic chimeras constructed with intact bone marrow were unable to reject the tumours both when recipients were BALB/c → C57B1/6 or C57B1/6 → BALB/c chimeras. However, inoculation of a large number of immunocompetent cells from normal BALB/c mice into BALB/c → C57B1/6 chimeras failed to promote a rejection of the tumours. On the contrary, the same amount of syngeneic (BALB/c) immunocompetent cells prevented growth of melanoma when transferred into athymic nude BALB/c mice, while the tumour grew unimpaired in untreated athymic nude BALB/c mice. The same type of H-2sup(d) → H-2sup(b) chimeras displayed complete resistance to inoculation of leukaemogenic H-2sup(b) restricted RadLV while all H-2sup(b) → H-2sup(b), syngeneically reconstituted mice developed disseminated leukaemia. (author)

  7. Clinicians' perception of the preventability of inpatient mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Robert; Srinivasan, Ramya; Kenway, Bruno; Quinn, James

    2018-03-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess whether clinicians have an accurate perception of the preventability of their patients' mortality. Case note review estimates that approximately 5 percent of inpatient deaths are preventable. Design/methodology/approach The design involved in the study is a prospective audit of inpatient mortality in a single NHS hospital trust. The case study includes 979 inpatient mortalities. A number of outcome measures were recorded, including a Likert scale of the preventability of death- and NCEPOD-based grading of care quality. Findings Clinicians assessed only 1.4 percent of deaths as likely to be preventable. This is significantly lower than previously published values ( p<0.0001). Clinicians were also more likely to rate the quality of care as "good," and less likely to identify areas of substandard clinical or organizational management. Research limitations/implications The implications of objective assessment of the preventability of mortality are essential to drive quality improvement in this area. Practical implications There is a wide disparity between independent case note review and clinicians assessing the care of their own patients. This may be due to a "knowledge gap" between reviewers and treating clinicians, or an "objectivity gap" meaning clinicians may not recognize preventability of death of patients under their care. Social implications This study gives some insight into deficiencies in clinical governance processes. Originality/value No similar study has been performed. This has significant implications for the idea of the preventability of mortality.

  8. NuMA and nuclear lamins are cleaved during viral infection - inhibition of caspase activity prevents cleavage and rescues HeLa cells from measles virus-induced but not from rhinovirus 1B-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taimen, Pekka; Berghaell, Heidi; Vainionpaeae, Raija; Kallajoki, Markku

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear matrix is a structural framework of important nuclear processes. We studied the effect of two different types of viral infections on nuclear matrix. HeLa cells were infected with human rhinovirus 1B (HRV 1B) or measles virus (MV), and Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus protein (NuMA) and lamins A/C and B were used as markers for internal nuclear matrix and peripheral nuclear lamina, respectively. We show that NuMA, lamins, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 are cleaved during viral infection in a virus family-specific manner suggesting that these viruses activate different sets of proteases. Morphologically, NuMA was excluded from the condensed chromatin, lamins showed a folded distribution, and both proteins finally remained around the nuclear fragments. A general caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) prevented the nuclear disintegration and the cleavage of the proteins studied. Interestingly, z-VAD-FMK rescued MV-infected but not HRV 1B-infected cells from cell death. These results show for the first time that NuMA and lamins are specific target proteins during virus-induced programmed cell death

  9. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  10. The potential for preventing the delivery and perinatal mortality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the potentiaJ for preventing the delivery and perinatal mortality of low-birth-weight (LBW) babies in a black urban population. Design. Cross-sectionaJ descriptive study. Setting. All women delivering babies weighing less than 2 500 g at Kalafong Hospital in a 6-month period (December 1991 - May ...

  11. Smoking as the main factor of preventable mortality in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Ivan

    2017-01-01

    to smoking. Besides Hungary, where mortality in men is also relatively high (42%, other countries have significantly lower shares. Observed at the level of the entire continent, countries of the Balkan Peninsula (and their neighbours have the highest shares of smoking-attributable death. Women in Serbia have a moderately high share of 9% and are among the ten most vulnerable countries in Europe. The biggest difference in smoking-related mortality by gender is observed in the Pyrenees Peninsula and in the eastern and south-eastern parts of Europe. These are also the countries with the largest absolute difference in the mortality rate of men and women, thus confirming the hypothesis that tobacco smoke, as a single mortality factor, plays the most important role in establishing a different gender mortality pattern. A high percentage of smokers in the total population limits the growth of life expectancy and affects the difference in gender mortality rate. If a certain mortality factor potentially affects the life expectancy of up to three years for men in Serbia, as shown in the paper, then it is especially important to pay attention to measures of prevention and awareness of the population regarding this issue. Moreover, it is particularly important to recognise the consequences of passive smoking the youth and children are exposed to, since in Serbia there is a great deal of tolerance for smoking indoors. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III47006

  12. Postpartum haemorrhage: a preventable cause of maternal mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaheen, B.; Hassan, L.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the preventable predictors of severe postpartum haemorrhage and the adverse outcome associated with it. All the admitted patients who developed severe postpartum haemorrhage (>1500 ml) were included in the study. Clinical and sociodemographic data was obtained along with results of investigations to categorize the complications encountered. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were determined. During the study period, 75 out of 4683 obstetrical admissions, developed severe postpartum haemorrhage (1.6 %). About 65% of the patients were admitted with some other complications including obstructed labour, antepartum haemorrhage and eclampsia. The risk factors were grand multiparity (OR=3.4), pre-eclampsia (OR=2.75), antepartum haemorrhage (OR=13.35), active labour of more than 10 hours (OR=46.92), twin delivery (OR=3.25), instrumental delivery (OR=8.62) and caesarean section (OR=9.74). Maternal mortality in these cases was 2.66% and residual morbidity being 40%. Birth attendant other than doctor and delivery outside the study unit were significantly associated with the adverse outcome in these patients. Maternal outcome associated with postpartum haemorrhage is a function of care given during labour and postnatal period with early diagnosis and management of the complication and its risk factors, being the key of good maternal outcome. (author)

  13. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2014-01-01

    Available evidence on the effects of vitamin D on mortality has been inconclusive. In a recent systematic review, we found evidence that vitamin D3 may decrease mortality in mostly elderly women. The present systematic review updates and reassesses the benefits and harms of vitamin D...

  14. Conservative fluid management prevents age-associated ventilator induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Joseph A; Valentine, Michael S; Saravanan, Nivi; Schneck, Matthew B; Pidaparti, Ramana; Fowler, Alpha A; Reynolds, Angela M; Heise, Rebecca L

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 800 thousand patients require mechanical ventilation in the United States annually with an in-hospital mortality rate of over 30%. The majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are over the age of 65 and advanced age is known to increase the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and in-hospital mortality rates. However, the mechanisms which predispose aging ventilator patients to increased mortality rates are not fully understood. Ventilation with conservative fluid management decreases mortality rates in acute respiratory distress patients, but to date there has been no investigation of the effect of conservative fluid management on VILI and ventilator associated mortality rates. We hypothesized that age-associated increases in susceptibility and incidence of pulmonary edema strongly promote age-related increases in ventilator associated mortality. 2month old and 20month old male C57BL6 mice were mechanically ventilated with either high tidal volume (HVT) or low tidal volume (LVT) for up to 4h with either liberal or conservative fluid support. During ventilation, lung compliance, total lung capacity, and hysteresis curves were quantified. Following ventilation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for total protein content and inflammatory cell infiltration. Wet to dry ratios were used to directly measure edema in excised lungs. Lung histology was performed to quantify alveolar barrier damage/destruction. Age matched non-ventilated mice were used as controls. At 4h, both advanced age and HVT ventilation significantly increased markers of inflammation and injury, degraded pulmonary mechanics, and decreased survival rates. Conservative fluid support significantly diminished pulmonary edema and improved pulmonary mechanics by 1h in advanced age HVT subjects. In 4h ventilations, conservative fluid support significantly diminished pulmonary edema, improved lung mechanics, and resulted in significantly lower mortality rates in

  15. Autopsy as a tool in the prevention of maternal mortality | Daramola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal mortality rates are an index of the state of a nation's health system. Maternal autopsies help to determine these rates, provide information on avoidable/unavoidable causes of mortality, consequently leading to the development of strategies for treatment and prevention ofmaternalmortality andmorbidity. The lesson ...

  16. Virus-induced exacerbations in asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke eKurai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and/or airflow limitation due to pulmonary emphysema. Chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema, and bronchial asthma may all be associated with airflow limitation; therefore, exacerbation of asthma may be associated with the pathophysiology of COPD. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that the exacerbation of asthma, namely virus-induced asthma, may be associated with a wide variety of respiratory viruses.COPD and asthma have different underlying pathophysiological processes and thus require individual therapies. Exacerbation of both COPD and asthma, which are basically defined and diagnosed by clinical symptoms, is associated with a rapid decline in lung function and increased mortality. Similar pathogens, including human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and coronavirus, are also frequently detected during exacerbation of asthma and/or COPD. Immune response to respiratory viral infections, which may be related to the severity of exacerbation in each disease, varies in patients with both COPD and asthma. In this regard, it is crucial to recognize and understand both the similarities and differences of clinical features in patients with COPD and/or asthma associated with respiratory viral infections, especially in the exacerbative stage.In relation to definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology, this review aims to summarize current knowledge concerning exacerbation of both COPD and asthma by focusing on the clinical significance of associated respiratory virus infections.

  17. Impact of Secondary Prevention on Mortality after a First Ischemic Stroke in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Maria E; Marsh, Wallace; Felici-Giovanini, Marcos E; Rodríguez-Benitez, Rosa J; Zevallos, Juan C

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the prescription of secondary prevention therapies on mortality in Puerto Rican patients hospitalized with a first ischemic stroke. This was a retrospective secondary data analysis of the 2007 and 2009 Puerto Rico Stroke Registry electronic database. Information was obtained from the medical charts of patients discharged with ICD-9 codes 434 and 436 from 20 hospitals located in Puerto Rico. Descriptive analyses were conducted for demographics and comorbidities. Chi2 statistics compared the proportion of patients prescribed secondary prevention therapy and the proportion of patients not prescribed secondary prevention therapy. Lastly, survival rates were calculated from 2007 up to and including December 2010. The mean age of the 3,965 patients was 70 (±14) years. Secondary prevention therapy was prescribed to only 1% of the patients. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (85%), diabetes (52%), and hyperlipidemia (25%). The case fatality rate for patients prescribed secondary prevention therapy was 16%, compared to 26% for patients not prescribed secondary prevention therapy (p<0.01). The mean survival for stroke patients prescribed secondary preventions was 450 days (95% CI;182−718), compared to 266 days (95% CI; 244−287) for those not prescribed secondary prevention therapy (p = 0.175). A low percentage of patients with a first ischemic stroke were prescribed secondary prevention therapy. While not statistically significant, survival analysis suggests that secondary prevention therapy decreased mortality in patients with a stroke.

  18. Antiviral therapy for prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality in chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Dahl, Emilie K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of antiviral therapy on clinical outcomes in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not established. We aimed to assess the effects of interferon and/or nucleos(t)ide analogues versus placebo or no intervention on prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mortality in chronic HBV....

  19. Impact of the Garrett Lee Smith youth suicide prevention program on suicide mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walrath, Christine; Garraza, Lucas Godoy; Reid, Hailey; Goldston, David B; McKeon, Richard

    2015-05-01

    We examined whether a reduction in youth suicide mortality occurred between 2007 and 2010 that could reasonably be attributed to Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) program efforts. We compared youth mortality rates across time between counties that implemented GLS-funded gatekeeper training sessions (the most frequently implemented suicide prevention strategy among grantees) and a set of matched counties in which no GLS-funded training occurred. A rich set of background characteristics, including preintervention mortality rates, was accounted for with a combination of propensity score-based techniques. We also analyzed closely related outcomes that we did not expect to be affected by GLS as control outcomes. Counties implementing GLS training had significantly lower suicide rates among the population aged 10 to 24 years the year after GLS training than similar counties that did not implement GLS training (1.33 fewer deaths per 100 000; P = .02). Simultaneously, we found no significant difference in terms of adult suicide mortality rates or nonsuicide youth mortality the year after the implementation. These results support the existence of an important reduction in youth suicide rates resulting from the implementation of GLS suicide prevention programming.

  20. Prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis in septic mice with cancer increases mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Amy C; Breed, Elise R; Liang, Zhe; Clark, Andrew T; Zee-Cheng, Brendan R; Chang, Katherine C; Dominguez, Jessica A; Jung, Enjae; Dunne, W Michael; Burd, Eileen M; Farris, Alton B; Linehan, David C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-08-15

    Lymphocyte apoptosis is thought to have a major role in the pathophysiology of sepsis. However, there is a disconnect between animal models of sepsis and patients with the disease, because the former use subjects that were healthy prior to the onset of infection while most patients have underlying comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis prevention is effective in preventing mortality in septic mice with preexisting cancer. Mice with lymphocyte Bcl-2 overexpression (Bcl-2-Ig) and wild type (WT) mice were injected with a transplantable pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line. Three weeks later, after development of palpable tumors, all animals received an intratracheal injection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite having decreased sepsis-induced T and B lymphocyte apoptosis, Bcl-2-Ig mice had markedly increased mortality compared with WT mice following P. aeruginosa pneumonia (85 versus 44% 7-d mortality; p = 0.004). The worsened survival in Bcl-2-Ig mice was associated with increases in Th1 cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased production of the Th2 cytokine IL-10 in stimulated splenocytes. There were no differences in tumor size or pulmonary pathology between Bcl-2-Ig and WT mice. To verify that the mortality difference was not specific to Bcl-2 overexpression, similar experiments were performed in Bim(-/-) mice. Septic Bim(-/-) mice with cancer also had increased mortality compared with septic WT mice with cancer. These data demonstrate that, despite overwhelming evidence that prevention of lymphocyte apoptosis is beneficial in septic hosts without comorbidities, the same strategy worsens survival in mice with cancer that are given pneumonia.

  1. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2012-01-01

    and secondary prevention randomised clinical trials on antioxidant supplements (beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) versus placebo or no intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors extracted data. Random-effects and fixed-effect model meta-analyses were conducted. Risk......BACKGROUND: Our systematic review has demonstrated that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. We have now updated this review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched...... years). The mean proportion of women was 46%. Of the 78 trials, 46 used the parallel-group design, 30 the factorial design, and 2 the cross-over design. All antioxidants were administered orally, either alone or in combination with vitamins, minerals, or other interventions. The duration...

  2. Shock to the System: Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and Child Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Wilson

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of introducing a new HIV/AIDS service, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), on overall quality of prenatal and postnatal care. My results suggest that local PMTCT introduction in Zambia may have actually increased all cause child mortality in the short term. There is some evidence that vaccinations may have declined in the short term in association with local PMTCT introduction, suggesting that the new service may have partly crowded out ex...

  3. Alcohol intake and mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer: The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baiyu; Gapstur, Susan M; Newton, Christina C; Jacobs, Eric J; Campbell, Peter T

    2017-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer, but to the authors' knowledge its influence on survival after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is unclear. The authors investigated associations between prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol intake with mortality among survivors of colorectal cancer. The authors identified 2458 men and women who were diagnosed with invasive, nonmetastatic colorectal cancer between 1992 (enrollment into the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort) and 2011. Alcohol consumption was self-reported at baseline and updated in 1997, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Postdiagnosis alcohol data were available for 1599 participants. Of the 2458 participants diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 1156 died during follow-up through 2012. Prediagnosis and postdiagnosis alcohol consumption were not found to be associated with all-cause mortality, except for an association between prediagnosis consumption of colorectal cancer-specific mortality, although there was some suggestion of increased colorectal cancer-specific mortality with postdiagnosis drinking (RR, 1.27 [95% CI, 0.87-1.86] for current drinking of colorectal cancer. The association between postdiagnosis drinking and colorectal cancer-specific mortality should be examined in larger studies of individuals diagnosed with nonmetastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:2006-2013. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Risk assessment for prevention of morbidity and mortality: lessons for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T M

    2008-11-01

    Medicine has changed from being a reactive process that attempts to alleviate disease only when it is clinically evident to a proactive one in which it is hoped that early intervention may reduce the impact of disease or even it developing at all. In moving the focus of treatment, this inevitably means that a greater number of individuals with lesser disease burdens are treated. The logical end-point of this process is to provide preventative measures for the entire population but this can only be done if the economic costs and negative effects of treatment are out-weighed by the benefits. In the case of pressure ulcers, it is self-evident that prevention is extremely beneficial to patients. However, the cost of some of the equipment used for prevention can be high, and therefore, the balance between the optimum level of provision, the purposes of prevention and the available funding becomes critical. Consequently a screening mechanism to better match susceptible patients with resources is essential. There are, however, many problems with such screening techniques. By looking at other specialties, we can see that it is vital to know the natural history of the disease: PSA testing reveals many men who would have died never having known they had prostate cancer, thus giving them years of worry and morbidity they would probably not previously have suffered; cardiovascular risk screening is so imprecise that risk estimates are of questionable utility; antenatal Down's syndrome risk screening is prone to data-related problems that can unexpectedly reduce the effectiveness of the test. In pressure ulcer screening, there are many tools currently in use, but few (possibly none) are really effective. Finally, this paper details some suggestions for future research to combine risk tests that may offer a prospect for improving ulcer risk screening tools.

  5. Effectiveness of National Weather Service heat alerts in preventing mortality in 20 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Kate R; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2018-04-09

    Extreme heat is a well-documented public health threat. The US National Weather Service (NWS) issues heat advisories and warnings (collectively, "heat alerts") in advance of forecast extreme heat events. The effectiveness of these alerts in preventing deaths remains largely unknown. To quantify the change in mortality rates associated with heat alerts in 20 US cities between 2001 and 2006. Because NWS heat alerts are issued based on forecast weather and these forecasts are imperfect, in any given location there exists a set of days of similar observed heat index in which heat alerts have been issued for some days but not others. We used a case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression to compare mortality rates on days with versus without heat alerts among such eligible days, adjusting for maximum daily heat index and temporal factors. We combined city-specific estimates into a summary measure using standard random-effects meta-analytic techniques. Overall, NWS heat alerts were not associated with lower mortality rates (percent change in rate: -0.5% [95% CI: -2.8, 1.9]). In Philadelphia, heat alerts were associated with a 4.4% (95% CI: -8.3, -0.3) lower mortality rate or an estimated 45.1 (95% empirical CI: 3.1, 84.1) deaths averted per year if this association is assumed to be causal. No statistically significant beneficial association was observed in other individual cities. Our results suggest that between 2001 and 2006, NWS heat alerts were not associated with lower mortality in most cities studied, potentially missing a valuable opportunity to avert a substantial number of heat-related deaths. These results highlight the need to better link alerts to effective communication and intervention strategies to reduce heat-related mortality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influenza virus induces apoptosis via BAD-mediated mitochondrial dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T; Cortens, John P; Du, Qiujiang; Wilkins, John A; Coombs, Kevin M

    2013-01-01

    Influenza virus infection results in host cell death and major tissue damage. Specific components of the apoptotic pathway, a signaling cascade that ultimately leads to cell death, are implicated in promoting influenza virus replication. BAD is a cell death regulator that constitutes a critical control point in the intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which occurs through the dysregulation of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization and the subsequent activation of downstream apoptogenic factors. Here we report a novel proviral role for the proapoptotic protein BAD in influenza virus replication. We show that influenza virus-induced cytopathology and cell death are considerably inhibited in BAD knockdown cells and that both virus replication and viral protein production are dramatically reduced, which suggests that virus-induced apoptosis is BAD dependent. Our data showed that influenza viruses induced phosphorylation of BAD at residues S112 and S136 in a temporal manner. Viral infection also induced BAD cleavage, late in the viral life cycle, to a truncated form that is reportedly a more potent inducer of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that knockdown of BAD resulted in reduced cytochrome c release and suppression of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway during influenza virus replication, as seen by an inhibition of caspases-3, caspase-7, and procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) cleavage. Our data indicate that influenza viruses carefully modulate the activation of the apoptotic pathway that is dependent on the regulatory function of BAD and that failure of apoptosis activation resulted in unproductive viral replication.

  7. Antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in healthy participants and patients with various diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Bjelakovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our previous systematic review has demonstrated that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. We have now updated this review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of antioxidant supplements for prevention of mortality in adults. METHODS: Search methods: We searched The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Lilacs, the Science Citation Index Expanded, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science to February 2011. We scanned bibliographies of relevant publications and asked pharmaceutical companies for additional trials. Selection criteria: We included all primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials on antioxidant supplements (beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium versus placebo or no intervention. Data collection and analysis: Three authors extracted data. Random-effects and fixed-effect model meta-analyses were conducted. Risk of bias was considered in order to minimize the risk of systematic errors. Trial sequential analyses were conducted to minimize the risk of random errors. Random effects model meta-regression analyses were performed to assess sources of intertrial heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: Seventy-eight randomized trials with 296,707 participants were included. Fifty-six trials including 244,056 participants had low risk of bias. Twenty-six trials included 215,900 healthy participants. Fifty-two trials included 80,807 participants with various diseases in a stable phase. The mean age was 63 years (range 18 to 103 years. The mean proportion of women was 46%. Of the 78 trials, 46 used the parallel-group design, 30 the factorial design, and 2 the cross-over design. All antioxidants were administered orally, either alone or in combination with vitamins, minerals, or other interventions. The duration of supplementation varied from 28 days to 12 years (mean duration 3 years; median duration 2 years. Overall, the antioxidant supplements had no significant effect

  8. Coho salmon spawner mortality in western US urban watersheds: bioinfiltration prevents lethal storm water impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spromberg, Julann A; Baldwin, David H; Damm, Steven E; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Huff, Michael; Sloan, Catherine A; Anulacion, Bernadita F; Davis, Jay W; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2016-04-01

    Adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch return each autumn to freshwater spawning habitats throughout western North America. The migration coincides with increasing seasonal rainfall, which in turn increases storm water run-off, particularly in urban watersheds with extensive impervious land cover. Previous field assessments in urban stream networks have shown that adult coho are dying prematurely at high rates (>50%). Despite significant management concerns for the long-term conservation of threatened wild coho populations, a causal role for toxic run-off in the mortality syndrome has not been demonstrated.We exposed otherwise healthy coho spawners to: (i) artificial storm water containing mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons, at or above concentrations previously measured in urban run-off; (ii) undiluted storm water collected from a high traffic volume urban arterial road (i.e. highway run-off); and (iii) highway run-off that was first pre-treated via bioinfiltration through experimental soil columns to remove pollutants.We find that mixtures of metals and petroleum hydrocarbons - conventional toxic constituents in urban storm water - are not sufficient to cause the spawner mortality syndrome. By contrast, untreated highway run-off collected during nine distinct storm events was universally lethal to adult coho relative to unexposed controls. Lastly, the mortality syndrome was prevented when highway run-off was pretreated by soil infiltration, a conventional green storm water infrastructure technology.Our results are the first direct evidence that: (i) toxic run-off is killing adult coho in urban watersheds, and (ii) inexpensive mitigation measures can improve water quality and promote salmon survival. Synthesis and applications . Coho salmon, an iconic species with exceptional economic and cultural significance, are an ecological sentinel for the harmful effects of untreated urban run-off. Wild coho populations cannot withstand the high rates of

  9. Modeling maternal mortality in Bangladesh: the role of misoprostol in postpartum hemorrhage prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Bell, Suzanne; Quaiyum, Md Abdul

    2014-02-20

    Bangladesh is one of the few countries that may actually achieve the fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) in time, despite skilled birth attendance remaining low. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential role misoprostol can play in the decline of maternal deaths attributed to postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in Bangladesh. Using data from a misoprostol and blood loss measurement tool feasibility study in Bangladesh, observed cause specific maternal mortality ratios (MMRs) were estimated and contrasted with expected ratios using estimates from the Bangladesh Maternal Mortality Survey (BMMS) data. Using Crystal Ball 7 we employ Monte Carlo simulation techniques to estimate maternal deaths in four scenarios, each with different levels of misoprostol coverage. These scenarios include project level misoprostol coverage (69%), no (0%), low (40%), and high (80%) misoprostol coverage. Data on receipt of clean delivery kit, use of misoprostol, experience of PPH, and cause of death were used in model assumptions. Using project level misoprostol coverage (69%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 40 (standard deviation = 8.01) per 100,000 live births. Assuming no misoprostol coverage (0%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 51 (standard deviation = 9.30) per 100,000 live births. For low misoprostol coverage (40%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 45 (standard deviation = 8.26) per 100,000 live births, and for high misoprostol coverage (80%), the mean number of PPH deaths expected was 38 (standard deviation = 7.04) per 100,000 live births. This theoretical exercise hypothesizes that prophylactic use of misoprostol at home births may contribute to a reduction in the risk of death due to PPH, in addition to reducing the incidence of PPH. If findings from this modeling exercise are accurate and uterotonics can prevent maternal death, misoprostol could be the tool countries need to further reduce maternal mortality at home births.

  10. Which strategies reduce breast cancer mortality most? Collaborative modeling of optimal screening, treatment, and obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien; Schechter, Clyde; Chang, Yaojen; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee M; de Koning, Harry; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-07-15

    US breast cancer mortality is declining, but thousands of women still die each year. Two established simulation models examine 6 strategies that include increased screening and/or treatment or elimination of obesity versus continuation of current patterns. The models use common national data on incidence and obesity prevalence, competing causes of death, mammography characteristics, treatment effects, and survival/cure. Parameters are modified based on obesity (defined as BMI  ≥  30 kg/m(2) ). Outcomes are presented for the year 2025 among women aged 25+ and include numbers of cases, deaths, mammograms and false-positives; age-adjusted incidence and mortality; breast cancer mortality reduction and deaths averted; and probability of dying of breast cancer. If current patterns continue, the models project that there would be about 50,100-57,400 (range across models) annual breast cancer deaths in 2025. If 90% of women were screened annually from ages 40 to 54 and biennially from ages 55 to 99 (or death), then 5100-6100 fewer deaths would occur versus current patterns, but incidence, mammograms, and false-positives would increase. If all women received the indicated systemic treatment (with no screening change), then 11,400-14,500 more deaths would be averted versus current patterns, but increased toxicity could occur. If 100% received screening plus indicated therapy, there would be 18,100-20,400 fewer deaths. Eliminating obesity yields 3300-5700 fewer breast cancer deaths versus continuation of current obesity levels. Maximal reductions in breast cancer deaths could be achieved through optimizing treatment use, followed by increasing screening use and obesity prevention. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  11. Enterocyte-specific epidermal growth factor prevents barrier dysfunction and improves mortality in murine peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jessica A; Gan, Heng; Samocha, Alexandr J; Fox, Amy C; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-09-01

    Systemic administration of epidermal growth factor (EGF) decreases mortality in a murine model of septic peritonitis. Although EGF can have direct healing effects on the intestinal mucosa, it is unknown whether the benefits of systemic EGF in peritonitis are mediated through the intestine. Here, we demonstrate that enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF is sufficient to prevent intestinal barrier dysfunction and improve survival in peritonitis. Transgenic FVB/N mice that overexpress EGF exclusively in enterocytes (IFABP-EGF) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to either sham laparotomy or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Intestinal permeability, expression of the tight junction proteins claudins-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -7, and -8, occludin, and zonula occludens-1; villus length; intestinal epithelial proliferation; and epithelial apoptosis were evaluated. A separate cohort of mice was followed for survival. Peritonitis induced a threefold increase in intestinal permeability in WT mice. This was associated with increased claudin-2 expression and a change in subcellular localization. Permeability decreased to basal levels in IFABP-EGF septic mice, and claudin-2 expression and localization were similar to those of sham animals. Claudin-4 expression was decreased following CLP but was not different between WT septic mice and IFABP-EGF septic mice. Peritonitis-induced decreases in villus length and proliferation and increases in apoptosis seen in WT septic mice did not occur in IFABP-EGF septic mice. IFABP-EGF mice had improved 7-day mortality compared with WT septic mice (6% vs. 64%). Since enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF is sufficient to prevent peritonitis-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and confers a survival advantage, the protective effects of systemic EGF in septic peritonitis appear to be mediated in an intestine-specific fashion.

  12. Prevention of Prespawning Mortality: Cause of Salmon Headburns and Cranial Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Elston, R A.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-06-01

    This project was to undertaken to provide information about a condition known as ''headburn''. Information from the project will enable U.S. Corps of Engineers managers to make adjustments in operational procedures or facilities on the Columbia and Snake rivers to prevent loss of pre-spawning adult salmonids that migrate through the facilities. Headburn is a descriptive clinical term used by fishery biologists to describe scalping or exfoliation of skin and ulceration of underlying connective tissue and muscle, primarily of the jaw and cranial region of salmonids observed at fish passage facilities. Headburn lesions are primarily caused when fish collide with concrete or other structures at dams and fish passage facilities, and may be exacerbated in some fish that ''fallback'' or pass over spillways or through turbine assemblies after having passed the dam through a fish ladder. Prespawning mortality of headburned salmonids can be prevented or greatly reduced by therapeutic treatment of both hatchery and wild fish. Treatments would consist of topical application of an anti-fungal agent, injection of replacement plasma electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity, and injection of a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent at fish passage and trapping facilities or hatcheries.

  13. An Ultrasensitive Mechanism Regulates Influenza Virus-Induced Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Shoemaker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses present major challenges to public health, evident by the 2009 influenza pandemic. Highly pathogenic influenza virus infections generally coincide with early, high levels of inflammatory cytokines that some studies have suggested may be regulated in a strain-dependent manner. However, a comprehensive characterization of the complex dynamics of the inflammatory response induced by virulent influenza strains is lacking. Here, we applied gene co-expression and nonlinear regression analysis to time-course, microarray data developed from influenza-infected mouse lung to create mathematical models of the host inflammatory response. We found that the dynamics of inflammation-associated gene expression are regulated by an ultrasensitive-like mechanism in which low levels of virus induce minimal gene expression but expression is strongly induced once a threshold virus titer is exceeded. Cytokine assays confirmed that the production of several key inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and monocyte chemotactic protein 1, exhibit ultrasensitive behavior. A systematic exploration of the pathways regulating the inflammatory-associated gene response suggests that the molecular origins of this ultrasensitive response mechanism lie within the branch of the Toll-like receptor pathway that regulates STAT1 phosphorylation. This study provides the first evidence of an ultrasensitive mechanism regulating influenza virus-induced inflammation in whole lungs and provides insight into how different virus strains can induce distinct temporal inflammation response profiles. The approach developed here should facilitate the construction of gene regulatory models of other infectious diseases.

  14. A canine distemper model of virus-induced anergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangi, R J; Munyer, T P; Krakowka, S; Jacoby, R O; Kantor, F S

    1976-05-01

    For development of an animal model of virus-induced anergy, the effect of canine distemper virus (CDV) upon cell-mediated immunity in dogs was investigated. First, canine cutaneous reactions and in vitro lymphocyte responses to soluble protein antigens were characterized. Dogs immunized with picryl guinea pig albumin and with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (both in complete Freund's adjuvant) responded reproducibly to intracutaneous challenge with these antigens. Reactivity peaked in 20-40 days (maximal induration, 6-50 mm). Lymphocytes from these animals responded in vitro to stimulation with keyhole limpet hemocyanin or purified protein derivative. This stimulation was antigen-specific and was maximal on day 6 of culture. Infection with CDV depressed cutaneous reactivity and lymphocyte response in vitro to antigens and mitogens. This effect was transient in animals previously vaccinated with attenuated CDV; however, gnotobiotic puppies (susceptible to CDV) had prolonged depression of cell-mediated immunity and lymphopenia. Some of these animals developed neurologic symptoms and died. The findings indicate that CDV infection is a potentially useful model for study of virus-induced depression of T (thymus)-cell responses and support the hypothesis that there is more than one mechanism responsible for this phenomenon.

  15. Associations of Coffee Drinking and Cancer Mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapstur, Susan M; Anderson, Rebecca L; Campbell, Peter T; Jacobs, Eric J; Hartman, Terryl J; Hildebrand, Janet S; Wang, Ying; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2017-10-01

    Background: Associations of coffee consumption with cancer mortality are inconsistent for many types of cancer, and confounding by smoking is an important concern. Methods: Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs for coffee consumption associated with death from all cancers combined and from specific cancer types among 922,896 Cancer Prevention Study-II participants ages 28-94 years who completed a four-page questionnaire and were cancer free at baseline in 1982. Results: During follow-up through 2012, there were 118,738 cancer-related deaths. There was a nonlinear association between coffee consumption and all-cancer death among current smokers and former smokers and no association among never smokers. Among nonsmokers, a 2 cup/day increase in coffee consumption was inversely associated with death from colorectal [HR = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95-0.99], liver [HR = 0.92; 95% CI, 0.88-0.96], and female breast (HR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99) cancers, and positively associated with esophageal cancer-related death (HR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12). For head and neck cancer, a nonlinear inverse association was observed starting at 2-3 cups per day (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.95), with similar associations observed at higher levels of consumption. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with many other studies that suggest coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of colorectal, liver, female breast, and head and neck cancer. The association of coffee consumption with higher risk of esophageal cancer among nonsmokers in our study should be confirmed. Impact: These results underscore the importance of assessing associations between coffee consumption and cancer mortality by smoking status. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(10); 1477-86. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. [The medical organizational aspects of decreasing of preventable mortality in the case of traffic accident in municipal district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshina, L V; Plutnitskiĭ, A N

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the results of the study of such actual issue as decreasing of preventable mortality in the case of traffic accident in municipal district. The analysis was based on the mortality statistical data and the expertise of causes of lethal outcomes of traffic accidents. The results are used to develop the measures of improving the organization and quality of medical care of victims of road accident on the pre-hospital and hospital stages on the level of municipal health care to decrease the human losses caused by traffic accident.

  17. Perioperative beta-blockers for preventing surgery-related mortality and morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessberger, Hermann; Kammler, Juergen; Domanovits, Hans; Schlager, Oliver; Wildner, Brigitte; Azar, Danyel; Schillinger, Martin; Wiesbauer, Franz; Steinwender, Clemens

    2018-03-13

    Randomized controlled trials have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of beta-blockers to influence perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus routine prescription of these drugs in unselected patients remains a controversial issue. The objective of this review was to systematically analyse the effects of perioperatively administered beta-blockers for prevention of surgery-related mortality and morbidity in patients undergoing any type of surgery while under general anaesthesia. We identified trials by searching the following databases from the date of their inception until June 2013: MEDLINE, Embase , the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Biosis Previews, CAB Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Derwent Drug File, Science Citation Index Expanded, Life Sciences Collection, Global Health and PASCAL. In addition, we searched online resources to identify grey literature. We included randomized controlled trials if participants were randomly assigned to a beta-blocker group or a control group (standard care or placebo). Surgery (any type) had to be performed with all or at least a significant proportion of participants under general anaesthesia. Two review authors independently extracted data from all studies. In cases of disagreement, we reassessed the respective studies to reach consensus. We computed summary estimates in the absence of significant clinical heterogeneity. Risk ratios (RRs) were used for dichotomous outcomes, and mean differences (MDs) were used for continuous outcomes. We performed subgroup analyses for various potential effect modifiers. We included 88 randomized controlled trials with 19,161 participants. Six studies (7%) met the highest methodological quality criteria (studies with overall low risk of bias: adequate sequence generation, adequate allocation concealment, double/triple-blinded design with a placebo group, intention-to-treat analysis

  18. The Prevention of Prematurity: A Strategy to Reduce Infant Mortality in the District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Joan

    The infant mortality rate in the District of Columbia is higher than that for any other state. This high rate stems from the great number of infants born seriously underweight and reflects the area's high percentage of births to impoverished black women. Efforts to reduce the mortality rate have centered around the medical treatment approach,…

  19. The Geography of the Alzheimer's Disease Mortality in Spain: Should We Focus on Industrial Pollutants Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a high worldwide prevalence but little is known about its aetiology and risk factors. Recent research suggests environmental factors might increase AD risk. We aim to describe the association between AD mortality and the presence of highly polluting industry in small areas in Spain between 1999 and 2010. We calculated AD age-adjusted Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR), stratified by sex, grouped by industrial pollution density, compared for each small area of Spain. In the small areas with the highest mortality, the SMR among women was at least 25% greater than the national average (18% in men). The distribution of AD mortality was generally similar to that of high industrial pollution (higher mortality in the north, the Mediterranean coast and in some southern areas). The risk of AD mortality among women was 140% higher (123% among men) in areas with the highest industrial density in comparison to areas without polluting industries. This study has identified a geographical pattern of small areas with higher AD mortality risk and an ecological positive association with the density of highly polluting industry. Further research is needed on the potential impact of this type of industry pollution on AD aetiology and mortality.

  20. Effectiveness of litter removal to prevent cambial kill-caused mortality in northern Arizona ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Linda L. Wadleigh

    2010-01-01

    Removal of deep litter and duff from the base of mature southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) is commonly recommended to reduce mortality after prescribed burns, but experimental studies that quantify the effectiveness of such practices in reducing mortality are lacking. After a pilot study on each of four sites in northern Arizona, we monitored 15-16...

  1. One-Year Mortality Rates Before and After Implementing Quality-Improvement Initiatives to Prevent Inpatient Falls (2012–2016

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    Inderpal Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-room ward design has previously been associated with increased risk of inpatient falls and adverse outcomes. However, following quality initiatives, the incidence of inpatient falls has shown a sustained reduction. Benefits have also been observed in the reduction of hip fractures. However, one-year mortality trends have not been reported. The aim of this observational study is to report the trends in one-year mortality rates before and after implementing quality-improvement initiatives to prevent inpatient falls over the last 5 years (2012–2016. This retrospective observational study was conducted for all patients who had sustained an inpatient fall between January 2012 and December 2016. All the incident reports in DATIX patient-safety software which were completed for each inpatient fall were studied, and the clinical information was extracted from Clinical Work Station software. Mortality data were collected on all patients for a minimum of one year following the discharge from the hospital. The results show that 95% patients were admitted from their own homes; 1704 patients had experienced 3408 incidents of an inpatient fall over 5 years. The mean age of females (82.61 ± 10.34 years was significantly higher than males (79.36 ± 10.14 years. Mean falls/patient = 2.0 ± 2.16, range 1–33. Mean hospital stay was 45.43 ± 41.42 days. Mean hospital stay to the first fall was 14.5 ± 20.79 days, and mean days to first fall prior to discharge was 30.8 ± 34.33 days. The results showed a significant and sustained reduction in the incidence of inpatient falls. There was a downward trend in the incidence of hip fractures over the last two years. There was no significant difference in the inpatient and 30-day mortality rate over the last five years. However, mortality trends appear to show a significant downward trend in both six-month and one-year mortality rates over the last two years following the implementation of quality initiatives

  2. Decline in Coronary Mortality in Sweden between 1986 and 2002: Comparing Contributions from Primary and Secondary Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Björck

    Full Text Available The relative importance of risk factor reduction in healthy people (primary prevention versus that in patients with coronary heart disease (secondary prevention has been debated. We aimed to quantify the contribution of the two.We used the previously validated IMPACT model to estimate contributions from primary prevention (reducing risk factors in the population, particularly smoking, cholesterol and systolic blood pressure and from secondary prevention (reducing risk factors in coronary heart disease patients in the Swedish population.Between 1986 and 2002, about 8,690 fewer deaths were related to changes in the three major risk factors. Population cholesterol fell by 0.64 mmol/L, with approximately 5,210 fewer deaths attributable to diet changes (4,470 in healthy people740 in patients. plus 810 to statin treatment (200 in healthy people, 610 in patients. Overall smoking prevalence decreased by 10.3%, resulting in 1,195 fewer deaths, attributable to smoking cessation (595 in healthy people, 600 in patients. Mean population systolic blood pressure fell by 2.6 mmHg, resulting in 900 fewer deaths (865 in healthy people, 35 in patients, plus 575 fewer deaths attributable to antihypertensive medication in healthy people. The majority of falls in deaths attributable to risk factors occurred in people without known heart disease: 6,705 fewer deaths compared with 1,985 fewer deaths in patients (secondary prevention, emphasizing the importance of promoting health interventions in the general population.The largest effects on mortality came from primary prevention, giving markedly larger mortality reductions than secondary prevention.

  3. [Reduction of in-hospital mortality and improved secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction. First results from the registry of secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction (SAMI)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, U; Messer, C; Stammwitz, E; The, G S; Dietl, J; Bischoff, K-O; Schulten-Baumer, U; Tebbenjohanns, J; Gohlke, H; Bramlage, P

    2007-07-30

    In hospital mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reduced due to the availability of better therapeutic strategies. But there is still a gap between mortality rates in randomised trials and daily clinical practice. Thus, it was aim of the present registry to document the course and outcome of patients with AMI and to improve patient care by implementing recent guidelines. In a nationwide registry study in hospitals in Germany with a cardiology unit or an internal medicine department data on consecutive patients were recorded for six to twelve months at admission, discharge and during a follow-up of one year. From 02/2003 until 10/2004 a total of 5,353 patients with acute myocardial infarction (65.7 % male, mean age of 67.6 +/- 17.7 years; 55.1 % of them with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) were included in the registry. Of the patients with STEMI, 76.6 % underwent acute intervention, 37.1 % had thrombolysis, 69.7 % percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). 40.0 % of those with non-Stemi (NSTEMI) had an acute intervention, 6.6 % thrombolysis, 73.5 % PTCA. Recommended secondary prevention consisted of ASS (93.2 %), beta-blockers (93.0 %), CSE-inhibitors (83.5 %), ACE-inhibitors (80.9 %) and clopidogrel (74.0 %). In-hospital mortality was 10.5 % (STEMI) and 7.4 % (NSTEMI). The 9 % mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction treated in the hospitals participating in the SAMI registry is low compared to that in similar collectives. The high number of patients who had thrombofibrinolysis and coronary interventions as well as the early initiation of drug therapy contributed to these results. Medical treatment in the prehospital phase of these patients remains still insufficient and to a substantial extent contributes to the mortality of acute myocardial infarction.

  4. Total prevention of folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly would reduce child mortality in India: Implications in achieving Target 3.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Oakley, Godfrey P

    2018-03-15

    The potential to reduce child mortality by preventing folic acid-preventable spina bifida and anencephaly (FAP SBA) is inadequately appreciated. To quantify possible reduction in FAP SBA-associated child mortality in low- and middle-income countries, we conducted an analysis to demonstrate in India, a country with more than 25 million births and 1.2 million under-five deaths each year, the decrease in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would occur through total prevention of FAP SBA. We estimated the percent reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality that would have occurred in India in 2015 had all of FAP SBA been prevented. We also estimated the contributions of these reductions toward India's Sustainable Development Goals on child mortality indicators. We considered the overall prevalence of spina bifida and anencephaly in India as 5 per 1,000 live births, of which 90% were preventable with effective folic acid intervention. In the year 2015, folic acid interventions would have prevented about 116,070 cases of FAP SBA and 101,565 under-five deaths associated with FAP SBA. Prevention of FAP SBA would have reduced annually, neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality by 10.2%, 8.9%, and 8.3%, respectively. These reductions would have contributed 18.5% and 17.2% to the reductions in neonatal and under-five mortality, respectively, needed by India to achieve its 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goal Target 3.2 addressing preventable child mortality. Total prevention of FAP SBA clearly has a significant potential for immediate reductions in neonatal, infant, and under-five mortality in India, and similarly other countries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Reproductive justice & preventable deaths: State funding, family planning, abortion, and infant mortality, US 1980–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Krieger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little current research examines associations between infant mortality and US states’ funding for family planning services and for abortion, despite growing efforts to restrict reproductive rights and services and documented associations between unintended pregnancy and infant mortality. Material and methods: We obtained publicly available data on state-only public funding for family planning and abortion services (years available: 1980, 1987, 1994, 2001, 2006, and 2010 and corresponding annual data on US county infant death rates. We modeled the funding as both fraction of state expenditures and per capita spending (per woman, age 15–44. State-level covariates comprised: Title X and Medicaid per capita funding, fertility rate, and percent of counties with no abortion services; county-level covariates were: median family income, and percent: black infants, adults without a high school education, urban, and female labor force participation. We used Possion log-linear models for: (1 repeat cross-sectional analyses, with random state and county effects; and (2 panel analysis, with fixed state effects. Results: Four findings were robust to analytic approach. First, since 2000, the rate ratio for infant death comparing states in the top funding quartile vs. no funding for abortion services ranged (in models including all covariates between 0.94 and 0.98 (95% confidence intervals excluding 1, except for the 2001 cross-sectional analysis, whose upper bound equaled 1, yielding an average 15% reduction in risk (range: 8–22%. Second, a similar risk reduction for state per capita funding for family planning services occurred in 1994. Third, the excess risk associated with lower county income increased over time, and fourth, remained persistently high for counties with a high percent of black infants. Conclusions: Insofar as reducing infant mortality is a government priority, our data underscore the need, despite heightened contention

  6. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.

  7. Impact of shocks on mortality in patients with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy and defibrillators implanted for primary prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Streitner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging interest is seen in the paradox of defibrillator shocks for ventricular tachyarrhythmia and increased mortality risk. Particularly in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM, the prognostic importance of shocks is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome after shocks in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM or DCM and defibrillators (ICD implanted for primary prevention. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 561 patients were analyzed (mean age 68.6±10.6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 28.6±7.3%. During a median follow-up of 49.3 months, occurrence of device therapies and all-cause mortality were recorded. 74 out of 561 patients (13.2% experienced ≥1 appropriate and 51 out of 561 patients (9.1% ≥1 inappropriate shock. All-cause mortality was 24.2% (136 out of 561 subjects. Appropriate shock was associated with a trend to higher mortality in the overall patient population (HR 1.48, 95% CI 0.96-2.28, log rank p = 0.072. The effect was significant in ICM patients (HR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00-2.59, log rank p = 0.049 but not in DCM patients (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.36-2.96, log rank p = 0.96. Appropriate shocks occurring before the median follow-up revealed a much stronger impact on mortality (HR for the overall patient population 2.12, 95% CI 1.24-3.63, p = 0.005. The effect was driven by ICM patients (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.41-4.37, p = 0.001, as appropriate shocks again did not influence survival of DCM patients (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.083-4.75, p = 0.65. Appropriate shocks occurring after the median follow-up and inappropriate shocks occurring at any time revealed no impact on survival in any of the groups (p = ns. CONCLUSION: Appropriate shocks are associated with reduced survival in patients with ICM but not in patients with DCM and ICDs implanted for primary prevention. Furthermore, the negative effect of appropriate shocks on survival in ICM patients is only evident within the

  8. Coffee consumption, gender, and Parkinson's disease mortality in the cancer prevention study II cohort: the modifying effects of estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G; O'Reilly, Eilis J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Calle, Eugenia E; Rodriguez, Carmen; Thun, Michael J

    2004-11-15

    Caffeine consumption is associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease in men but not in women. This gender difference may be due to an interaction between caffeine and use of postmenopausal estrogens. The authors prospectively assessed the relation between coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease mortality among participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II, a cohort of over 1 million people enrolled in 1982. Causes of deaths were ascertained through death certificates from January 1, 1989, through 1998. Parkinson's disease was listed as a cause of death in 909 men and 340 women. After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol intake, coffee consumption was inversely associated with Parkinson's disease mortality in men (p(trend) = 0.01) but not in women (p = 0.6). In women, this association was dependent on postmenopausal estrogen use; the relative risk for women drinking 4 or more cups (600 ml) of coffee per day compared with nondrinkers was 0.47 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.80; p = 0.006) among never users and 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 0.75, 2.30; p = 0.34) among users. These results suggest that caffeine reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease but that this hypothetical beneficial effect may be prevented by use of estrogen replacement therapy.

  9. [Impact of immunization measures by the Family Health Program on infant mortality from preventable diseases in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Tânia Maria Rocha; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Tavares, Márcia Maia Ferreira

    2009-04-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the Family Health Program (FHP) on infant health in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil, evaluating immunization and infant mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. A time-series study was conducted with data from the principal health information systems, analyzing indicators before and after implementation of the FHP in 1995. The independent variable was year of birth, related to degree of population coverage by the FHP. Three periods were analyzed: 1990-1994 (prior), 1995-1996 (implementation phase: 0 to 30% coverage), and 1997-2002 (intervention: coverage of 38.6% to 54%). Trends in the indicators were analyzed by simple linear regression, testing significance with the t test. During the implementation period there was an increase in all the vaccination coverage rates (176% BCG, 223% polio, 52% DPT, 61% measures) and a decrease in infant mortality from preventable diseases (12.7 deaths/year), even without a decrease in absolute poverty in the municipality or an increase in either coverage by the public health care system or the sewage system. Improvement in the indicators demonstrates the effectiveness of FHP actions in the municipality.

  10. Theoretical Risk and Prevention Model for Secondary Health Conditions and Mortality After SCI: 15 Years of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee L.; DiPiro, Nicole D.; Reed, Karla S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To successfully prevent secondary health conditions (SHCs) and promote longevity after spinal cord injury (SCI), we must first understand the risk factors precipitating their occurrence and develop strategies to address these risk factors. Conceptual models may aid in identifying the nature of SHCs and guide research, clinical practice, and the development of prevention strategies. Objective: Our purpose is to review and refine an existing theoretical risk and prevention model (TRPM) as a means of classifying risk and protective factors for SHCs and mortality after SCI and for identifying points of intervention. Methods: We describe conceptual work within the field of SCI research and SHCs, including a description of the TRPM, a review of research using the TRPM, and conceptual enhancements to the TRPM based on previous research. Conclusions: The enhanced TRPM directs research to the timing and chronicity of the SHCs and their relationship with overall health and physiologic decline. Future research should identify differences in the nature of SHCs, the extent to which they relate to risk and protective factors, and the degree to which they may be prevented with appropriate research-based strategies. PMID:23459002

  11. Ethamsylate for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm or very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Rod; Hey, Edmund

    2010-01-20

    Ethamsylate decreases blood loss in certain clinical situations such as menorrhagia and following some surgical procedures. This potential to reduce bleeding has led to the hypothesis that it may have a role to play in reducing intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm infants. To determine if ethamsylate, when compared to placebo or no treatment, reduces morbidity and/or mortality in preterm infants. We searched the Cochrane Neonatal Group Trials Register (24 August 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 1966 to July 2009) and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. Randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised trials comparing ethamsylate with placebo or no treatment. The initial search for trials enrolling infants born less than 32 weeks gestation was subsequently expanded to include trials enrolling preterm infants ethamsylate and controls. Infants treated with ethamsylate had significantly less intraventricular haemorrhage than controls at ethamsylate identified from this systematic review. Preterm infants treated with ethamsylate showed no reductions in mortality or neurodevelopmental impairment despite the reduction in any grade of intraventricular haemorrhage seen in infants < 35 weeks gestation.

  12. Preventing infant and child morbidity and mortality due to maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Patel, Shivani A; Rahman, Atif

    2016-10-01

    This review provides an overview of perinatal depression and its impacts on the health of mothers, their newborns, and young children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We define and describe the urgency and scope of the problem of perinatal depression for mothers, while highlighting some specific issues such as suicidal ideation and decreased likelihood to seek health care. Pathways through which stress may link maternal depression to childhood growth and development (e.g., the hypo-pituitary axis) are discussed, followed by a summary of the adverse effects of depression on birth outcomes, parenting practices, and child growth and development. Although preliminary studies on the association between maternal depressive symptoms and maternal and child mortality exist, more research on these topics is needed. We describe the available interventions and suggest strategies to reduce maternal depressive symptoms in LMICs, including integration of services with existing primary health-care systems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Nitrates for the prevention of cardiac morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Xu, Jin; Singh, Balwinder; Yu, Xuerong; Wu, Taixiang; Huang, Yuguang

    2016-08-04

    Cardiac complications are not uncommon in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, especially in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or at high risk of CAD. Perioperative cardiac complications can lead to mortality and morbidity, as well as higher costs for patient care. Nitrates, which are among the most commonly used cardiovascular drugs, perform the function of decreasing cardiac preload while improving cardiac blood perfusion. Sometimes, nitrates are administered to patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery to reduce the incidence of cardiac complications, especially for patients with CAD. However, their effects on patients' relevant outcomes remain controversial. • To assess effects of nitrates as compared with other interventions or placebo in reducing cardiac risk (such as death caused by cardiac factors, angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, acute heart failure and cardiac arrhythmia) in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery.• To identify the influence of different routes and dosages of nitrates on patient outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Chinese BioMedical Database until June 2014. We also searched relevant conference abstracts of important anaesthesiology or cardiology scientific meetings, the database of ongoing trials and Google Scholar.We reran the search in January 2016. We added three potential new studies of interest to the list of 'Studies awaiting classification' and will incorporate them into our formal review findings for the review update. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing nitrates versus no treatment, placebo or other pharmacological interventions in participants (15 years of age and older) undergoing non-cardiac surgery under any type of anaesthesia. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by Cochrane. Two review authors selected trials, extracted data from included studies and assessed risk of bias. We

  14. Specialist teams for neonatal transport to neonatal intensive care units for prevention of morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alvin S M; Berry, Andrew; Jones, Lisa J; Sivasangari, Subramaniam

    2015-10-28

    Maternal antenatal transfers provide better neonatal outcomes. However, there will inevitably be some infants who require acute transport to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Because of this, many institutions develop services to provide neonatal transport by specially trained health personnel. However, few studies report on relevant clinical outcomes in infants requiring transport to NICU. To determine the effects of specialist transport teams compared with non-specialist transport teams on the risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity among high-risk newborn infants requiring transport to neonatal intensive care. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1966 to 31 July 2015), EMBASE (1980 to 31 July 2015), CINAHL (1982 to 31 July 2015), conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials. neonates requiring transport to a neonatal intensive care unit. transport by a specialist team compared to a non-specialist team. any of the following outcomes - death; adverse events during transport leading to respiratory compromise; and condition on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the information provided in the studies and by personal communication with the author. Data on relevant outcomes were extracted and the effect size estimated and reported as risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD), number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) or number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes. Data from cluster randomised trials were not combined for analysis. One trial met the inclusion criteria of this review but was considered ineligible owing to

  15. Mortality and Reinfarction among Patients Using Different Beta-Blockers for Secondary Prevention after a Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Skøtt; Hansen, Morten Lock; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To study differences in the clinical efficacy of various brands of beta-blocker in secondary prevention after a myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: All patients hospitalized with a first MI between 1995 and 2002 who were still alive 30 days after discharge and had had at least one...... prescription for a beta-blocker filled were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalizations and drugs dispensed from pharmacies. A total of 32,259 MI patients were included in the study. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the risks of death...... and recurrent MI related to treatment with different beta-blockers. Results: The risks for death and recurrent MI were similar in patients using different beta-blockers, except that mortality from all causes among patients with a prescription for sotalol was higher. Subgroup analyses of high-risk patients...

  16. Peripheral 5-HT7 receptors as a new target for prevention of lung injury and mortality in septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadirci, Elif; Halici, Zekai; Bayir, Yasin; Albayrak, Abdulmecit; Karakus, Emre; Polat, Beyzagul; Unal, Deniz; Atamanalp, Sabri S; Aksak, Selina; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2013-10-01

    Sepsis is a complex pathophysiological event involving metabolic acidosis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, tissue damage and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Although many new mechanisms are being investigated to enlighten the pathophysiology of sepsis, there is no effective treatment protocol yet. Presence of 5-HT7 receptors in immune tissues prompted us to hypothesize that these receptors have roles in inflammation and sepsis. We investigated the effects of 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists on serum cytokine levels, lung oxidative stress, lung histopathology, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) positivity and lung 5-HT7 receptor density in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) induced sepsis model of rats. Agonist administration to septic rats increased survival time; decreased serum cytokine response against CLP; decreased oxidative stress and increased antioxidant system in lungs; decreased the tissue NF-κB immunopositivity, which is high in septic rats; and decreased the sepsis-induced lung injury. In septic rats, as a result of high inflammatory response, 5-HT7 receptor expression in lungs increased significantly and agonist administration, which decreased inflammatory response and related mortality, decreased the 5-HT7 receptor expression. In conclusion, all these data suggest that stimulation of 5-HT7 receptors may be a new therapeutic target for prevention of impaired inflammatory response related lung injury and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Historical and Projected Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the future contribution of nuclear power to the global energy supply has become somewhat uncertain. Because nuclear power is an abundant, low-carbon source of base-load power, it could make a large contribution to mitigation of global climate change and air pollution. Using historical production data, we calculate that global nuclear power has prevented an average of 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and 64 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent (GtCO2-eq) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that would have resulted from fossil fuel burning. On the basis of global projection data that take into account the effects of the Fukushima accident, we find that nuclear power could additionally prevent an average of 420 000-7.04 million deaths and 80-240 GtCO2-eq emissions due to fossil fuels by midcentury, depending on which fuel it replaces. By contrast, we assess that large-scale expansion of unconstrained natural gas use would not mitigate the climate problem and would cause far more deaths than expansion of nuclear power.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in the prevention of child mortality: an international economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Anushua; Levine, Orin; Knoll, Maria D; Muhib, Farzana; Lieu, Tracy A

    2007-02-03

    Routine vaccination of infants against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) needs substantial investment by governments and charitable organisations. Policymakers need information about the projected health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of vaccination when considering these investments. Our aim was to incorporate these data into an economic analysis of pneumococcal vaccination of infants in countries eligible for financial support from the Global Alliance for Vaccines & Immunization (GAVI). We constructed a decision analysis model to compare pneumococcal vaccination of infants aged 6, 10, and 14 weeks with no vaccination in the 72 countries that were eligible as of 2005. We used published and unpublished data to estimate child mortality, effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and immunisation rates. Pneumococcal vaccination at the rate of diptheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine coverage was projected to prevent 262,000 deaths per year (7%) in children aged 3-29 months in the 72 developing countries studied, thus averting 8.34 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) yearly. If every child could be reached, up to 407,000 deaths per year would be prevented. At a vaccine cost of International 5 dollars per dose, vaccination would have a net cost of 838 million dollars, a cost of 100 dollars per DALY averted. Vaccination at this price was projected to be highly cost-effective in 68 of 72 countries when each country's per head gross domestic product per DALY averted was used as a benchmark. At a vaccine cost of between 1 dollar and 5 dollars per dose, purchase and accelerated uptake of pneumococcal vaccine in the world's poorest countries is projected to substantially reduce childhood mortality and to be highly cost-effective.

  19. Permissive hypercapnia for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in mechanically ventilated newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, P G; Davies, M W

    2001-01-01

    Experimental animal data and uncontrolled, observational studies in human infants have suggested that hyperventilation and hypocapnia may be associated with increased pulmonary and neurodevelopmental morbidity. Protective ventilatory strategies allowing higher levels of arterial CO2 (permissive hypercapnia) are now widely used in adult critical care. The aggressive pursuit of normocapnia in ventilated newborn infants may contribute to the already present burden of lung disease. However, the safe or ideal range for PCO2 in this vulnerable population has not been established. To assess whether, in mechanically ventilated neonates, a strategy of permissive hypercapnia improves short and long term outcomes (esp. mortality, duration of respiratory support, incidence of chronic lung disease and neurodevelopmental outcome). Standard strategies of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Searches were made of the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Current Contents. Searches were also made of previous reviews including cross-referencing, abstracts, and conference and symposia proceedings published in Pediatric Research. All randomised controlled trials in which a strategy of permissive hypercapnia was compared with conventional strategies aimed at achieving normocapnia (or lower levels of hypercapnia) in newborn infants who are mechanically ventilated were eligible. Standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group were used. Trials identified by the search strategy were independently reviewed by each author and assessed for eligibility and trial quality. Data were extracted separately. Differences were compared and resolved. Additional information was requested from trial authors. Only published data were available for review. Results are expressed as relative risk and risk difference for dichotomous outcomes, and weighted mean difference for continuous variables. Two trials involving 269 newborn infants were included. Meta-analysis of

  20. Preventive home visits for mortality, morbidity, and institutionalization in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Mayo-Wilson

    Full Text Available Home visits for older adults aim to prevent cognitive and functional impairment, thus reducing institutionalization and mortality. Visitors may provide information, investigate untreated problems, encourage medication compliance, and provide referrals to services.Ten databases including CENTRAL and Medline searched through December 2012.Randomized controlled trials enrolling community-dwelling persons without dementia aged over 65 years. Interventions included visits at home by a health or social care professional that were not related to hospital discharge.Two authors independently extracted data. Outcomes were pooled using random effects.Mortality, institutionalization, hospitalization, falls, injuries, physical functioning, cognitive functioning, quality of life, and psychiatric illness.Sixty-four studies with 28642 participants were included. Home visits were not associated with absolute reductions in mortality at longest follow-up, but some programs may have small relative effects (relative risk = 0.93 [0.87 to 0.99]; absolute risk = 0.00 [-0.01 to 0.00]. There was moderate quality evidence of no overall effect on the number of people institutionalized (RR = 1.02 [0.88 to 1.18] or hospitalized (RR = 0.96 [0.91 to 1.01]. There was high quality evidence for number of people who fell, which is consistent with no effect or a small effect (odds ratio = 0.86 [0.73 to 1.01], but there was no evidence that these interventions increased independent living. There was low and very low quality evidence of effects for quality of life (standardised mean difference = -0.06 [-0.11 to -0.01] and physical functioning (SMD = -0.10 [-0.17 to -0.03] respectively, but these may not be clinically important.Home visiting is not consistently associated with differences in mortality or independent living, and investigations of heterogeneity did not identify any programs that are associated with consistent benefits. Due to poor reporting

  1. Adult mortality attributable to preventable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries in Japan: a comparative risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayu Ikeda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population of Japan has achieved the longest life expectancy in the world. To further improve population health, consistent and comparative evidence on mortality attributable to preventable risk factors is necessary for setting priorities for health policies and programs. Although several past studies have quantified the impact of individual risk factors in Japan, to our knowledge no study has assessed and compared the effects of multiple modifiable risk factors for non-communicable diseases and injuries using a standard framework. We estimated the effects of 16 risk factors on cause-specific deaths and life expectancy in Japan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained data on risk factor exposures from the National Health and Nutrition Survey and epidemiological studies, data on the number of cause-specific deaths from vital records adjusted for ill-defined codes, and data on relative risks from epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. We applied a comparative risk assessment framework to estimate effects of excess risks on deaths and life expectancy at age 40 y. In 2007, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure accounted for 129,000 deaths (95% CI: 115,000-154,000 and 104,000 deaths (95% CI: 86,000-119,000, respectively, followed by physical inactivity (52,000 deaths, 95% CI: 47,000-58,000, high blood glucose (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 26,000-43,000, high dietary salt intake (34,000 deaths, 95% CI: 27,000-39,000, and alcohol use (31,000 deaths, 95% CI: 28,000-35,000. In recent decades, cancer mortality attributable to tobacco smoking has increased in the elderly, while stroke mortality attributable to high blood pressure has declined. Life expectancy at age 40 y in 2007 would have been extended by 1.4 y for both sexes (men, 95% CI: 1.3-1.6; women, 95% CI: 1.2-1.7 if exposures to multiple cardiovascular risk factors had been reduced to their optimal levels as determined by a theoretical-minimum-risk exposure distribution. CONCLUSIONS

  2. Perforation and mortality after cleansing enema for acute constipation are not rare but are preventable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niv G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Galia Niv,1 Tamar Grinberg,2 Ram Dickman,3 Nir Wasserberg,4 Yaron Niv1,3 1Risk Management and Quality Assurance, 2Emergency Department, 3Department of Gastroenterology, 4Department of Surgery B, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital and Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Objectives: Constipation is a common complaint, frequently treated with cleansing enema. Enemas can be very effective but may cause serious adverse events, such as perforation or metabolic derangement. Our aim was to evaluate the outcome of the use of cleansing enema for acute constipation and to assess adverse events within 30 days of therapy. Methods: We performed a two-phase study: an initial retrospective and descriptive study in 2010, followed by a prospective study after intervention, in 2011. According to the results of the first phase we established guidelines for the treatment of constipation in the Emergency Department and then used these in the second phase. Results: There were 269 and 286 cases of severe constipation in the first and second periods of the study, respectively. In the first study period, only Fleet® Enema was used, and in the second, this was changed to Easy Go enema (free of sodium phosphate. There was a 19.2% decrease in the total use of enema, in the second period of the study (P < 0.0001. Adverse events and especially, the perforation rate and the 30-day mortality in patients with constipation decreased significantly in the second phase: 3 (1.4% versus 0 (P = 0.0001 and 8 (3.9% versus 2 (0.7% (P = 0.0001, for perforation and death in the first and second period of the study, respectively. Conclusion: Enema for the treatment of acute constipation is not without adverse events, especially in the elderly, and should be applied carefully. Perforation, hyperphosphatemia (after Fleet Enema, and sepsis may cause death in up to 4% of cases. Guidelines for the treatment of acute constipation and for enema administration are urgently needed. Keywords

  3. The potential of virus-induced gene silencing for speeding up functional characterization of plant genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benedito, V.A.; Visser, P.B.; Angenent, G.C.; Krens, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has been shown to be of great potential in plant reverse genetics. Advantages of VIGS over other approaches, such as T-DNA or transposon tagging, include the circumvention of plant transformation, methodological simplicity and robustness, and speedy results. These

  4. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced RNA polymerase is associated with Golgi apparatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Polatnick, J; Wool, S H

    1985-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the Golgi apparatus isolated by differential centrifugation from radiolabeled cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus showed about 10 protein bands. The virus-induced RNA polymerase was identified by immunoprecipitation and electron microscope staining procedures. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that the polymerase passed through the Golgi apparatus in less than 1 h.

  5. Multicentric randomised study of Helicobacter pylori eradication and pepsinogen testing for prevention of gastric cancer mortality: the GISTAR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leja, Marcis; Park, Jin Young; Murillo, Raul; Liepniece-Karele, Inta; Isajevs, Sergejs; Kikuste, Ilze; Rudzite, Dace; Krike, Petra; Parshutin, Sergei; Polaka, Inese; Kirsners, Arnis; Santare, Daiga; Folkmanis, Valdis; Daugule, Ilva; Plummer, Martyn; Herrero, Rolando

    2017-08-11

    Population-based eradication of Helicobacter pylori has been suggested to be cost-effective and is recommended by international guidelines. However, the potential adverse effects of widespread antibiotic use that this would entail have not been sufficiently studied. An alternative way to decrease gastric cancer mortality is by non-invasive search for precancerous lesions, in particular gastric atrophy; pepsinogen tests are the best currently available alternative. The primary objective of GISTAR is to determine whether H pylori eradication combined with pepsinogen testing reduces mortality from gastric cancer among 40-64-year-old individuals. The secondary objectives include evaluation of H pylori eradication effectiveness in gastric cancer prevention in patients with precancerous lesions and evaluation of the potential adverse events, including effects on microbiome. Individuals are recruited from general population (50% men) in areas with high gastric cancer risk in Europe and undergo detailed lifestyle and medical history questionnaire before being randomly allocated to intervention or control groups. The intervention group undergoes H pylori testing and is offered eradication therapy if positive; in addition, pepsinogen levels are detected in plasma and those with decreased levels are referred for upper endoscopy. All participants are offered faecal occult blood testing as an incentive for study participation. Effectiveness of eradication and the spectrum of adverse events are evaluated in study subpopulations. A 35% difference in gastric cancer mortality between the groups is expected to be detectable at 90% power after 15 years if 30 000 individuals are recruited. Biological materials are biobanked for the main and ancillary studies. The study procedure and assumptions will be tested during the pilot phase. The study was approved by the respective ethics committees. An independent Data Safety and Monitoring Board has been established. The findings will be

  6. Attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomised prevention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melsen, W.G.; Rovers, M.M.; Groenwold, R.H.; Bergmans, D.C.; Camus, C.; Bauer, T.T.; Hanisch, E.W.; Klarin, B.; Koeman, M.; Krueger, W.A.; Lacherade, J.C.; Lorente, L.; Memish, Z.A.; Morrow, L.E.; Nardi, G.; Nieuwenhoven, C.A. van; O'Keefe, G.E.; Nakos, G.; Scannapieco, F.A.; Seguin, P.; Staudinger, T.; Topeli, A.; Ferrer, M.; Bonten, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estimating attributable mortality of ventilator-associated pneumonia has been hampered by confounding factors, small sample sizes, and the difficulty of doing relevant subgroup analyses. We estimated the attributable mortality using the individual original patient data of published

  7. 'Tweaking' the model for understanding and preventing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Low Income Countries: "inserting new ideas into a timeless wine skin".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwaniki, Michael K; Baya, Evaline J; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Sidebotham, Peter

    2016-01-25

    Maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Low Income Countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa involves numerous interrelated causes. The three-delay model/framework was advanced to better understand the causes and associated Contextual factors. It continues to inform many aspects of programming and research on combating maternal and child morbidity and mortality in the said countries. Although this model addresses some of the core areas that can be targeted to drastically reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, it potentially omits other critical facets especially around primary prevention, and pre- and post-hospitalization continuum of care. The final causes of Maternal and Neonatal mortality and morbidity maybe limited to a few themes largely centering on infections, preterm births, and pregnancy and childbirth related complications. However, to effectively tackle these causes of morbidity and mortality, a broad based approach is required. Some of the core issues that need to be addressed include:-i) prevention of vertically transmitted infections, intra-partum related adverse events and broad primary prevention strategies, ii) overall health care seeking behavior and delays therein, iii) quality of care at point of service delivery, and iv) post-insult treatment follow up and rehabilitation. In this article we propose a five-pronged framework that takes all the above into consideration. This frameworks further builds on the three-delay model and offers a more comprehensive approach to understanding and preventing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in Low Income Countries In shaping the post 2015 agenda, the scope of engagement in maternal and newborn health need to be widened if further gains are to be realized and sustained. Our proposed five pronged approach incorporates the need for continued investment in tackling the recognized three delays, but broadens this to also address earlier aspects of primary prevention, and the

  8. Social autopsy: a potential health-promotion tool for preventing maternal mortality in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahato, Preeti K; Waithaka, Elizabeth; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Pant, Puspa Raj; Biswas, Animesh

    2018-04-01

    Despite significant global improvements, maternal mortality in low-income countries remains unacceptably high. Increasing attention in recent years has focused on how social factors, such as family and peer influences, the community context, health services, legal and policy environments, and cultural and social values, can shape and influence maternal outcomes. Whereas verbal autopsy is used to attribute a clinical cause to a maternal death, the aim of social autopsy is to determine the non-clinical contributing factors. A social autopsy of a maternal death is a group interaction with the family of the deceased woman and her wider local community, where facilitators explore the social causes of the death and identify improvements needed. Although still relatively new, the process has proved useful to capture data for policy-makers on the social determinants of maternal deaths. This article highlights a second aspect of social autopsy - its potential role in health promotion. A social autopsy facilitates "community self-diagnosis" and identification of modifiable social and cultural factors that are attributable to the death. Social autopsy therefore has the potential not only for increasing awareness among community members, but also for promoting behavioural change at the individual and community level. There has been little formal assessment of social autopsy as a tool for health promotion. Rigorous research is now needed to assess the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of social autopsy as a preventive community-based intervention, especially with respect to effects on social determinants. There is also a need to document how communities can take ownership of such activities and achieve a sustainable impact on preventable maternal deaths.

  9. Adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and mortality: a census-linked cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Faeh, David; Bopp, Matthias; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2016-09-01

    Modifiable lifestyle factors linked to cancer offer great potential for prevention. Previous studies suggest an association between adherence to recommendations on healthy lifestyle and cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to examine whether adherence to the cancer prevention recommendations of the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is associated with reduced all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality. We built a lifestyle score that included 3 categories, based on the recommendations of the WCRF/AICR. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, total cancer, and specific cancer type mortality; in addition, we included cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. We used census- and death registry-linked survey data allowing a mortality follow-up for ≤32 y. Our analysis included 16,722 participants. Information on lifestyle score components and confounders was collected at baseline. Over a mean follow-up of 21.7 y, 3730 deaths were observed (1332 cancer deaths). Comparing best with poorest category of the lifestyle score showed an inverse association with all-cause (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.75, 0.89) and total cancer (men only, HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84) mortality. We estimated that ∼13% of premature cancer deaths in men would have been preventable if lifestyle score levels had been high. Inverse associations were observed for lung, upper aerodigestive tract, stomach, and prostate cancer mortality [men and women combined, HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.92; HR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.83; HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82 (men only), respectively]. CVD mortality was not associated with the lifestyle score (men and women combined, HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.13). Our results support the importance of adhering to recommendations for a healthy lifestyle with regard to all-cause and cancer mortality. To reduce the burden of cancer in the

  10. RNase L mediated protection from virus induced demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D C Ireland

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available IFN-alpha/beta plays a critical role in limiting viral spread, restricting viral tropism and protecting mice from neurotropic coronavirus infection. However, the IFN-alpha/beta dependent mechanisms underlying innate anti-viral functions within the CNS are poorly understood. The role of RNase L in viral encephalomyelitis was explored based on its functions in inhibiting translation, inducing apoptosis, and propagating the IFN-alpha/beta pathway through RNA degradation intermediates. Infection of RNase L deficient (RL(-/- mice with a sub-lethal, demyelinating mouse hepatitis virus variant revealed that the majority of mice succumbed to infection by day 12 p.i. However, RNase L deficiency did not affect overall control of infectious virus, or diminish IFN-alpha/beta expression in the CNS. Furthermore, increased morbidity and mortality could not be attributed to altered proinflammatory signals or composition of cells infiltrating the CNS. The unique phenotype of infected RL(-/- mice was rather manifested in earlier onset and increased severity of demyelination and axonal damage in brain stem and spinal cord without evidence for enhanced neuronal infection. Increased tissue damage coincided with sustained brain stem infection, foci of microglia infection in grey matter, and increased apoptotic cells. These data demonstrate a novel protective role for RNase L in viral induced CNS encephalomyelitis, which is not reflected in overall viral control or propagation of IFN-alpha/beta mediated signals. Protective function is rather associated with cell type specific and regional restriction of viral replication in grey matter and ameliorated neurodegeneration and demyelination.

  11. Comparative analysis of radiation- and virus-induced leukemias in BALB/c mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newcomb, E.W.; Binari, R.; Fleissner, E.

    1985-01-01

    Endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviral copies were analyzed in thymomas induced in normal BALB/c (Fv-1b) and in Fv-1n congenic mice by X-irradiation. Both strains of mice developed leukemia with similar kinetics, indicating that N-tropism of endogenous MuLV was not a rate-limiting factor in development of disease. Southern blot analysis, using a probe specific for ecotropic virus and for ecotropic-specific sequences retained in pathogenic, env-recombinant viruses, showed that the majority of radiation leukemias lacked newly acquired, clonally integrated, proviruses. This was in contrast to virus-induced leukemias, which routinely exhibited several new proviral integration sites. When an internal proviral DNA restriction fragment was monitored, some radiation leukemias showed evidence of nonclonal infection, accounting for more frequent isolation of infectious virus from such leukemias. Differences in expression of T-cell surface antigens were found in X-ray-induced and virus-induced leukemias. All radiation leukemias were TL positive, whereas virus-induced leukemias were primarily negative for TL. Some differences were also found in Lyt-1 and Lyt-2 expression. The data as a whole suggest that, in the majority of cases, radiation leukemogenesis is not initiated by a viral route--that is, the sort of viral mechanism for which exogenous infection by known pathogenic MuLV is the paradigm

  12. Influenza Virus Induces Inflammatory Response in Mouse Primary Cortical Neurons with Limited Viral Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gefei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike stereotypical neurotropic viruses, influenza A viruses have been detected in the brain tissues of human and animal models. To investigate the interaction between neurons and influenza A viruses, mouse cortical neurons were isolated, infected with human H1N1 influenza virus, and then examined for the production of various inflammatory molecules involved in immune response. We found that replication of the influenza virus in neurons was limited, although early viral transcription was not affected. Virus-induced neuron viability decreased at 6 h postinfection (p.i. but increased at 24 h p.i. depending upon the viral strain. Virus-induced apoptosis and cytopathy in primary cortical neurons were not apparent at 24 h p.i. The mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and type I interferons were upregulated at 6 h and 24 h p.i. These results indicate that the influenza virus induces inflammatory response in mouse primary cortical neurons with limited viral replication. The cytokines released in viral infection-induced neuroinflammation might play critical roles in influenza encephalopathy, rather than in viral replication-induced cytopathy.

  13. Prophylactic milrinone for the prevention of low cardiac output syndrome and mortality in children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Barbara E U; Rücker, Gerta; Stiller, Brigitte

    2015-03-25

    Children with congenital heart disease often undergo heart surgery at a young age. They are at risk for postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) or death. Milrinone may be used to provide inotropic and vasodilatory support during the immediate postoperative period. This review examines the effectiveness of prophylactic postoperative use of milrinone to prevent LCOS or death in children having undergone surgery for congenital heart disease. Electronic and manual literature searches were performed to identify randomised controlled trials. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science in February 2014 and conducted a top-up search in September 2014 as well as clinical trial registries and reference lists of published studies. We did not apply any language restrictions. Only randomised controlled trials were selected for analysis. We considered studies with newborn infants, infants, toddlers, and children up to 12 years of age. Two review authors independently extracted data according to a pre-defined protocol. We obtained additional information from all study authors. Three of the five included studies compared milrinone versus levosimendan, one study compared milrinone with placebo, and one compared milrinone verus dobutamine, with 101, 242, and 50 participants, respectively. Three trials were at low risk of bias while two were at higher risk of bias. The number and definitions of outcomes were non-uniform as well. In one study comparing two doses of milrinone and placebo, there was some evidence in an overall comparison of milrinone versus placebo that milrinone lowered risk for LCOS (risk ratio (RR) 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28 to 0.96; 227 participants). The results from two small studies do not provide enough information to determine whether milrinone increases the risk of LCOS when compared to levosimendan (RR 1.22, 95% CI 0.32 to 4.65; 59 participants). Mortality rates in the studies were low, and there was insufficient evidence to

  14. Vaccine Mediated Protection Against Zika Virus-Induced Congenital Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richner, Justin M; Jagger, Brett W; Shan, Chao; Fontes, Camila R; Dowd, Kimberly A; Cao, Bin; Himansu, Sunny; Caine, Elizabeth A; Nunes, Bruno T D; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Muruato, Antonio E; Foreman, Bryant M; Luo, Huanle; Wang, Tian; Barrett, Alan D; Weaver, Scott C; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Rossi, Shannan L; Ciaramella, Giuseppe; Mysorekar, Indira U; Pierson, Theodore C; Shi, Pei-Yong; Diamond, Michael S

    2017-07-13

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its association with congenital malformations has prompted the rapid development of vaccines. Although efficacy with multiple viral vaccine platforms has been established in animals, no study has addressed protection during pregnancy. We tested in mice two vaccine platforms, a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated modified mRNA vaccine encoding ZIKV prM and E genes and a live-attenuated ZIKV strain encoding an NS1 protein without glycosylation, for their ability to protect against transmission to the fetus. Vaccinated dams challenged with a heterologous ZIKV strain at embryo day 6 (E6) and evaluated at E13 showed markedly diminished levels of viral RNA in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues, which resulted in protection against placental damage and fetal demise. As modified mRNA and live-attenuated vaccine platforms can restrict in utero transmission of ZIKV in mice, their further development in humans to prevent congenital ZIKV syndrome is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and diabetes incidence after lifestyle intervention for people with impaired glucose tolerance in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study: a 23-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangwei; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Jinping; An, Yali; Gong, Qiuhong; Gregg, Edward W; Yang, Wenying; Zhang, Bo; Shuai, Ying; Hong, Jing; Engelgau, Michael M; Li, Hui; Roglic, Gojka; Hu, Yinghua; Bennett, Peter H

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle interventions among people with impaired glucose tolerance reduce the incidence of diabetes, but their effect on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality is unclear. We assessed the long-term effect of lifestyle intervention on long-term outcomes among adults with impaired glucose tolerance who participated in the Da Qing Diabetes Prevention Study. The study was a cluster randomised trial in which 33 clinics in Da Qing, China-serving 577 adults with impaired glucose tolerance-were randomised (1:1:1:1) to a control group or lifestyle intervention groups (diet or exercise or both). Patients were enrolled in 1986 and the intervention phase lasted for 6 years. In 2009, we followed up participants to assess the primary outcomes of cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and incidence of diabetes in the intention-to-treat population. Of the 577 patients, 439 were assigned to the intervention group and 138 were assigned to the control group (one refused baseline examination). 542 (94%) of 576 participants had complete data for mortality and 568 (99%) contributed data to the analysis. 174 participants died during the 23 years of follow-up (121 in the intervention group vs 53 in the control group). Cumulative incidence of cardiovascular disease mortality was 11.9% (95% CI 8.8-15.0) in the intervention group versus 19.6% (12.9-26.3) in the control group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.36-0.96; p=0.033). All-cause mortality was 28.1% (95% CI 23.9-32.4) versus 38.4% (30.3-46.5; HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99; p=0.049). Incidence of diabetes was 72.6% (68.4-76.8) versus 89.9% (84.9-94.9; HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.40-0.76; p=0.001). A 6-year lifestyle intervention programme for Chinese people with impaired glucose tolerance can reduce incidence of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality and diabetes. These findings emphasise the long-term clinical benefits of lifestyle intervention for patients with impaired glucose tolerance and provide further justification for

  16. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang

    Full Text Available Some oral probiotics have been shown to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC and decrease mortality effectively in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW infants. However, it is unclear whether a single probiotic or a mixture of probiotics is most effective for the prevention of NEC.A meta-analysis was conducted by reviewing the most up to date literature to investigate whether multiple strains probiotics are more effective than a single strain in reducing NEC and death in PVLBW infants.Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, from 2001 to 2016.The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of any enteral probiotic supplementation that was initiated within the first 7 days and continued for at least 14 days in preterm infants (≤ 34 weeks' gestation and/or those of a birth weight ≤1500 g.A total of 25 trials (n = 7345 infants were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model. Multiple strains probiotics were associated with a marked reduction in the incidence of NEC, with a pooled OR of 0.36 (95% CI, 0.24-0.53; P < .00001. Single strain probiotic using Lactobacillus species had a borderline effect in reducing NEC (OR of 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-1.0; P = .05, but not mortality. Multiple strains probiotics had a greater effectiveness in reducing mortality and were associated with a pooled OR of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.43-0.79; P = .0006. Trials using single strain of Bifidobacterium species and Saccharomyces boulardii did not reveal any beneficial effects in terms of reducing NEC or mortality.This updated report found that multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most feasible and effective strategy for the prevention of NEC and reduction of mortality in PVLBW neonates. Further clinical trials should focus on which probiotic combinations are most effective.

  17. Associations of daily levels of PM10 and NO₂ with emergency hospital admissions and mortality in Switzerland: Trends and missed prevention potential over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Laura; Grize, Leticia; Infanger, Denis; Künzli, Nino; Sommer, Hansjörg; Alt, Gian-Marco; Schindler, Christian

    2015-07-01

    In most regions of the world, levels and constituents of the air pollution mixture have substantially changed over the last decades. To evaluate if the effects of PM10 and NO2 on daily emergency hospital admissions and mortality have changed during a ~10 year period in Switzerland; to retrospectively estimate prevention potential of different policy choices. Thirteen Poisson-regression models across Switzerland were developed using daily PM10 and NO2 levels from central monitors and accounting for several temporal and seasonal confounders. Time trends of effects were evaluated with an interaction variable. Distributed lag models with 28 days exposure window were used to retrospectively predict missed prevention potential for each region. Overall, emergency hospitalizations and mortality from any medical cause increased by 0.2% (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]: 0.01, 0.33) and 0.2% (95% CI: -0.1, 0.6) for a 10 µg/m(3) increment of PM10, and 0.7% (95% CI: 0.1, 1.3) for NO2 and mortality. Over the study period, the association between respiratory emergencies and PM10 changed by a factor of 1.017 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.034) and by a factor of 0.977 [95% CI: 0.956, 0.998]) for respiratory mortality among the elderly for NO2. During the study period, abatement strategies targeting a 20% lower overall mean would have prevented four times more cases than abating days exceeding daily standards. During the last decade, the short term effects of PM10 and NO2 on hospitalizations and mortality in Switzerland have almost not changed. More ambitious strategies of air pollutant reduction in Switzerland would have had non negligible public health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yang; Chen, Jin-Hua; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Lin, Hung-Chih; Lin, Chien-Yu; Peng, Chun-Chih

    2017-01-01

    Some oral probiotics have been shown to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and decrease mortality effectively in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. However, it is unclear whether a single probiotic or a mixture of probiotics is most effective for the prevention of NEC. A meta-analysis was conducted by reviewing the most up to date literature to investigate whether multiple strains probiotics are more effective than a single strain in reducing NEC and death in PVLBW infants. Relevant studies were identified by searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases, from 2001 to 2016. The inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials of any enteral probiotic supplementation that was initiated within the first 7 days and continued for at least 14 days in preterm infants (≤ 34 weeks' gestation) and/or those of a birth weight ≤1500 g. A total of 25 trials (n = 7345 infants) were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model. Multiple strains probiotics were associated with a marked reduction in the incidence of NEC, with a pooled OR of 0.36 (95% CI, 0.24-0.53; P probiotic using Lactobacillus species had a borderline effect in reducing NEC (OR of 0.60; 95% CI 0.36-1.0; P = .05), but not mortality. Multiple strains probiotics had a greater effectiveness in reducing mortality and were associated with a pooled OR of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.43-0.79; P = .0006). Trials using single strain of Bifidobacterium species and Saccharomyces boulardii did not reveal any beneficial effects in terms of reducing NEC or mortality. This updated report found that multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most feasible and effective strategy for the prevention of NEC and reduction of mortality in PVLBW neonates. Further clinical trials should focus on which probiotic combinations are most effective.

  19. Implementation of Telephone-Based Secondary Preventive Intervention after Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack - Participation Rate, Reasons for Nonparticipation and One-Year Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lotta Irewall

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Patients who experience a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA are known to be at high risk of subsequent vascular events, underscoring the need for secondary preventive intervention. However, previous studies have indicated insufficiency in the implementation of secondary prevention, emphasizing the need to develop effective methods of follow-up. In the present study, we examined the potential of implementing a telephone-based, nurse-led, secondary preventive follow-up in stroke and TIA patients on a population level by analyzing the participation rate, reasons for nonparticipation, and one-year mortality. Methods: Between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011, all patients admitted to Östersund hospital, Sweden, and diagnosed with either stroke or TIA were considered for inclusion into the secondary preventive follow-up. Baseline data were collected at the hospital, and reasons for nonparticipation were documented. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of the patient decision not to participate and to explore independent associations between baseline characteristics and exclusion. A one-year follow-up of mortality was also performed; the survival functions of the three groups (included, excluded, declining participation was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Results: From a total of 810 identified patients, 430 (53.1% were included in the secondary preventive follow-up, 289 (35.7% were excluded mainly due to physical or cognitive disability, and 91 (11.2% declined participation. Age ≥85 years, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, modified Rankin scale score >3, body mass index ≥25, congestive heart failure, and lower education level were independently associated with exclusion, whereas lower education level was the only factor independently associated with the patient decision not to participate. Exclusion was associated with a more than 12 times higher risk of mortality

  20. Novel aspects of defensins' involvement in virus-induced autoimmunity in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakos, Evangelos I; Kountouras, Jannis; Polyzos, Stergios A; Deretzi, Georgia

    2017-05-01

    Recent research on re-circulation of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma to the periphery and its inferred importance in immune surveillance dysregulation are changing our conceptualization of the pathophysiology of virus-induced autoimmunity. In this context, it is necessary to reassess the immunomodulatory properties of human defensins that are variably expressed by cerebral microglia, astrocytes and choroid plexus epithelial cells and exhibit complex and often confounding roles in neuroinflammatory processes. Therefore, in this review we describe current contributions in this field and we propose novel hypotheses regarding the potential impact of defensin-related pathways on virus-driven autoimmune neurodegeneration. In this regard, we have previously proposed that abnormal expression of defensins by penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) may contribute to the pathophysiology of Helicobacter pylori-related brain neurodegenerative disorders through variable modulations of innate and adaptive immune responses. We hereby propose that impaired expression of defensins by structural components of the BBB may impede glymphatic circulation and disrupt receptor signalling in pericytes that is essential for microvascular stability, thereby retaining blood-derived toxins and bystander activated T-cells in the brain and further impairing BBB integrity and hampering viral clearance. Autoreactive T-cell infiltrates in neuronaxonal lesions characteristic of chronic central nervous system diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, are directed against both, myelin and non-myelin, antigens the precise nature of which remains enigmatic. Inadequate expression of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a gene expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells, induces the recruitment of defensin-specific T-cells. These cells may access the brain, thereby causing a decrease in defensin expression and subsequent down-regulation of CD91/LRP1-mediated clearance of amyloid-β that

  1. The administration of a single dose of a multivalent (DHPPiL4R vaccine prevents clinical signs and mortality following virulent challenge with canine distemper virus, canine adenovirus or canine parvovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2014-01-01

    In conclusion, we demonstrated that a single administration of a minimum titre, multivalent vaccine to dogs of six weeks of age is efficacious and prevents clinical signs and mortality caused by CAV-1 and CDV; prevents clinical signs and significantly reduces virus shedding caused by CAV-2; and prevents clinical signs, leucopoenia and viral excretion caused by CPV.

  2. Ligand Modulation of the Epstein-Barr Virus-induced Seven-transmembrane Receptor EBI2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Smethurst, Christopher; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2011-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus-induced receptor 2 (EBI2) is a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor, which was recently shown to orchestrate the positioning of B cells in the follicle. To date, no ligands, endogenously or synthetic, have been identified that modulate EBI2 activity. Here we...... with similar potency. Overexpression of EBI2 profoundly potentiated antibody-stimulated ex vivo proliferation of murine B cells compared with WT cells, whereas this was equivalently reduced for EBI2-deficient B cells. Inhibition of EBI2 constitutive activity suppressed the proliferation in all cases...

  3. Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    -related and preterm deaths by 10%, facility-based resuscitation would prevent a further 10% of preterm deaths, and community-based resuscitation would prevent further 20% of intrapartum-related and 5% of preterm deaths. Conclusion Neonatal resuscitation training in facilities reduces term intrapartum-related deaths by 30%. Yet, coverage of this intervention remains low in countries where most neonatal deaths occur and is a missed opportunity to save lives. Expert opinion supports smaller effects of neonatal resuscitation on preterm mortality in facilities and of basic resuscitation and newborn assessment and stimulation at community level. Further evaluation is required for impact, cost and implementation strategies in various contexts. Funding This work was supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF, and to the Saving Newborn Lives program of Save the Children, through Save the Children US. PMID:21501429

  4. Principal Results of a Prospective Randomised Controlled Study: Morbidity and Mortality after Stroke — Eprosartan Compared with Nitrendipine for Secondary Prevention (MOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Lüders

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The morbidity and mortality after stroke — eprosartan compared with nitrendipine for secondary prevention (MOSES trial compared the effects of two antihypertensive agents in secondary prevention of stroke. The hypothesis of the trial was that in hypertensive stroke patients, for the same level of blood pressure (BP control, eprosartan would be more effective than nitrendipine in reducing cerebrovascular and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.A total of 710 patients were assigned to an eprosartan-based regimen and 695 to a nitrendipine-based regimen.These patients had hypertension requiring treatment and documented cerebral ischaemia or haemorrhage. They were well matched at baseline in general characteristics, BP and concomitant disease. BP was lowered to the same extent in both treatment arms, with a very similar timeframe. A high proportion of patients in both treatment arms achieved target BP.The combined primary endpoint was a composite of total mortality and total number of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, including recurrent events.There were 206 endpoints in the eprosartan group and 255 endpoints in the nitrendipine group.This represents a statistically significant 21% risk reduction in favour of eprosartan. Eprosartan also had advantages over nitrendipine in respect of all cerebrovascular events and first cardiovascular events.

  5. Leadership, infrastructure and capacity to support child injury prevention: can these concepts help explain differences in injury mortality rankings between 18 countries in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, J Morag; Vincenten, Joanne A

    2012-02-01

    Mortality and morbidity rates, traditionally used indicators for child injury, are limited in their ability to explain differences in child injury between countries, are inadequate in capturing actions to address the problem of child injury and do not adequately identify progress made within countries. There is a need for a broader set of indicators to help better understand the success of countries with low rates of child injury, provide guidance and benchmarks for policy makers looking to make investments to reduce their rates of fatal and non-fatal child injury and allow monitoring of progress towards achieving these goals. This article describes an assessment of national leadership, infrastructure and capacity in the context of child injury prevention in 18 countries in Europe and explores the potential of these to be used as additional indicators to support child injury prevention practice. Partners in 18 countries coordinated data collection on 21 items relating to leadership, infrastructure and capacity. Responses were coded into an overall score and scores for each of the three areas and were compared with child injury mortality rankings using Spearman's rank correlation. Overall score and scores for leadership and capacity were significantly negatively correlated to child injury mortality ranking. Findings of this preliminary work suggest that these three policy areas may provide important guidance for the types of commitments that are needed in the policy arena to support advances in child safety and their assessment a way to measure progress.

  6. Social Interventions to Prevent Heat-Related Mortality in the Older Adult in Rome, Italy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzerilli, Maria Chiara; Palombi, Leonardo; Madaro, Olga; Betti, Daniela; Marazzi, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of a program aimed at reducing heat-related mortality among older adults residing in central Rome by counteracting social isolation. The mortality of citizens over the age of 75 living in three Urban Areas (UAs) located in central Rome is compared with that of the residents of four adjacent UAs during the summer of 2015. The data, broken down by UA, were provided by the Statistical Office of the Municipality of Rome, which gathers them on a routine basis. During the summer of 2015, 167 deaths were recorded in those UAs in which the Long Live the Elderly (LLE) program was active and 169 in those in which it was not, implying cumulative mortality rates of 25‰ (SD ± 1.4; Cl 95%: 23–29) and 29‰ (SD ± 6.7; Cl 95%: 17–43), respectively. Relative to the summer of 2014, the increase of deaths during the summer of 2015 was greater in UAs in which the LLE program had not been implemented (+97.3% vs. +48.8%). In conclusion, the paper shows the impact of a community-based active monitoring program, focused on strengthening individual relationship networks and the social capital of the community, on mortality in those over 75 during heat waves. PMID:29641436

  7. Characteristics associated with clinical severity and inflammatory phenotype of naturally occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Poulsen, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In experimental studies viral infections have been shown to induce type 2 inflammation in asthmatics, but whether this is a feature of naturally occurring virus-induced asthma exacerbations is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) released from the airway epithelium in response...... occurring virus-induced exacerbations of asthma and whether TSLP is associated with this type 2 inflammation. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with acute asthma were examined during the exacerbation, and after 4 weeks recovery. The assessments included spirometry, FeNO and induced sputum...... in patients during virus-induced asthma exacerbations, to the same degree as non-viral exacerbations, and correlate negatively with FEV1. However, in virus-positive patients, high TSLP expression during exacerbation was associated with low sputum eosinophils, suggesting that the effect of TSLP in vivo...

  8. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhan-Qi; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Nan; Cao, Ming-Ya; Dong, Fei-Fan; Jiang, Ya-Ming; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Min-Hui

    2016-06-01

    Although current antiviral strategies can inhibit baculovirus infection and decrease viral DNA replication to a certain extent, novel tools are required for specific and accurate elimination of baculovirus genomes from infected insects. Using the newly developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/associated protein 9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) technology, we disrupted a viral genome in infected insect cells in vitro as a defense against viral infection. We optimized the CRISPR/Cas9 system to edit foreign and viral genome in insect cells. Using Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) as a model, we found that the CRISPR/Cas9 system was capable of cleaving the replication key factor ie-1 in BmNPV thus effectively inhibiting virus proliferation. Furthermore, we constructed a virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 editing system, which minimized the probability of off-target effects and was rapidly activated after viral infection. This is the first report describing the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect antiviral research. Establishment of a highly efficient virus-inducible CRISPR/Cas9 system in insect cells provides insights to produce virus-resistant transgenic strains for future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Animal Models of Virus-Induced Neurobehavioral Sequelae: Recent Advances, Methodological Issues, and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Converging lines of clinical and epidemiological evidence suggest that viral infections in early developmental stages may be a causal factor in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism-spectrum disorders. This etiological link, however, remains controversial in view of the lack of consistent and reproducible associations between viruses and mental illness. Animal models of virus-induced neurobehavioral disturbances afford powerful tools to test etiological hypotheses and explore pathophysiological mechanisms. Prenatal or neonatal inoculations of neurotropic agents (such as herpes-, influenza-, and retroviruses in rodents result in a broad spectrum of long-term alterations reminiscent of psychiatric abnormalities. Nevertheless, the complexity of these sequelae often poses methodological and interpretational challenges and thwarts their characterization. The recent conceptual advancements in psychiatric nosology and behavioral science may help determine new heuristic criteria to enhance the translational value of these models. A particularly critical issue is the identification of intermediate phenotypes, defined as quantifiable factors representing single neurochemical, neuropsychological, or neuroanatomical aspects of a diagnostic category. In this paper, we examine how the employment of these novel concepts may lead to new methodological refinements in the study of virus-induced neurobehavioral sequelae through animal models.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of oral antidiabetic drugs in preventing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity: A network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeongsil Lee

    Full Text Available In the Guidance for Industry from the Food and Drug Administration in 2008, excess cardiovascular risk should be ruled out in trials of all new antidiabetic drugs; however, relatively few studies have focused on cardiovascular safety with antidiabetic drug use. We aimed to examine mortality and cardiovascular risk using a network meta-analysis. We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and ClinicalTrials.gov registry databases in March 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials reporting cardiovascular risk with the following oral antidiabetic drugs: metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinedione (TZD, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4 inhibitors, and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitors. We assessed the differences in the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular-related mortality, acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and myocardial infarction (MI among antidiabetic drugs with fixed effect models for direct pairwise comparisons and Bayesian network meta-analyses to integrate direct and indirect comparisons. Of the 101,183 patients in 73 randomized controlled trials, 3,434 (3.4% died. The relative risks of all-cause mortality with SGLT2 inhibitor use were 0.68 (95% credible interval: 0.57-0.80, 0.74 (0.49-1.10, 0.63 (0.46-0.87, 0.71 (0.55-0.90, and 0.65 (0.54-0.78, compared with placebo, metformin, sulfonylurea, TZD, and DPP4 inhibitor, respectively. The relative risks of cardiovascular-related mortality with SGLT2 inhibitor use were 0.61 (0.50-0.76, 0.81(0.36-1.90, 0.52(0.31-0.88, 0.66(0.49-0.91, and 0.61(0.48-0.77, compared with placebo, metformin, sulfonylurea, TZD, and DPP4 inhibitor, respectively. The relative risks of ACS with SGLT2 inhibitor use was consistent with that of all-cause mortality. SGLT2 inhibitor use was associated with a lower risk of ACS than the other OADs and placebo. The relative risks of MI with SGLT2 inhibitor use were 0.77 (0.63-0.93 and 0.75 (0.60-0.94, compared with placebo and DPP4 inhibitor, respectively. The

  11. Pattern of injury mortality by age-group in children aged 0–14 years in Scotland, 2002–2006, and its implications for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone David H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of injuries in children is essential for the planning, implementation and evaluation of preventive measures but recent epidemiological information on injuries in children both in general and by age-group in Scotland is scarce. This study examines the recent pattern of childhood mortality from injury by age-group in Scotland and considers its implications for prevention. Methods Routine mortality data for the period 2002–2006 were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland and were analysed in terms of number of deaths, mean annual mortality rates per 100,000 population, leading causes of death, and causes of injury death. Mid-year population estimates were used as the denominator. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results 186 children aged 0–14 died from an injury in Scotland during 2002–06 (MR 4.3 per 100,000. Injuries were the leading cause of death in 1–14, 5–9 and 10–14 year-olds (causing 25%, 29% and 32% of all deaths respectively. The leading individual causes of injury death (0–14 years were pedestrian and non-pedestrian road-traffic injuries and assault/homicide but there was variation by age-group. Assault/homicide, fire and suffocation caused most injury deaths in young children; road-traffic injuries in older ones. Collectively, intentional injuries were a bigger threat to the lives of under-15s than any single cause of unintentional injury. The mortality rate from assault/homicide was highest in infants ( Conclusion Injuries continue to be a leading cause of death in childhood in Scotland. Variation in causes of injury death by age-group is important when targeting preventive efforts. In particular, the threats of assault/homicide in infants, fire in 1–4 year-olds, pedestrian injury in 5–14 year-olds, and suicide in 10–14 year-olds need urgent consideration for preventive action.

  12. Morbidity and mortality risk among patients with screening-detected severe hypertension in the Malmö Preventive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Zöller, Bengt; Arslan, Eren; Erdine, Serap; Nilsson, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    Screening of hypertension has been advocated for early detection and treatment. Severe hypertension (grade 3 hypertension) is a strong predictor for cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to evaluate not only the risk factors for developing severe hypertension, but also the prospective morbidity and mortality risk associated with severe hypertension in a population-based screening and intervention programme. In all, 18,200 individuals from a population-based cohort underwent a baseline examination in 1972-1992 and were re-examined in 2002-2006 in Malmö, Sweden. In total, 300 (1.6%) patients with severe hypertension were identified at re-examination, and predictive risk factors from baseline were calculated. Total and cause-specific morbidity and mortality were followed in national registers in all severe hypertension patients, as well as in age and sex-matched normotensive controls. Cox analyses for hazard ratios were used. Men developing severe hypertension differed from matched controls in baseline variables associated with the metabolic syndrome, as well as paternal history of hypertension (P < 0.001). Women with later severe hypertension were characterized by elevated BMI and a positive maternal history for hypertension at baseline. The risk of mortality, coronary events, stroke and diabetes during follow-up was higher among severe hypertension patients compared to controls. For coronary events, the risk remained elevated adjusted for other risk factors [hazard ratio 2.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-4.40, P = 0.011]. Family history and variables associated with metabolic syndrome are predictors for severe hypertension after a long-term follow-up. Severe hypertension is associated with increased mortality, cardiovascular morbidity and incident diabetes in spite of treatment. This calls for improved risk factor control in patients with severe hypertension.

  13. Statin treatment prevents increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality associated with clarithromycin in patients with stable coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gorm B; Hilden, Jørgen; Als-Nielsen, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    In the CLARICOR trial, significantly increased cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in stable patients with coronary heart disease were observed after a short course of clarithromycin. We report on the impact of statin treatment at entry on the CV and all-cause mortality. The multicenter...... CLARICOR trial randomized patients to oral clarithromycin (500 mg daily; n = 2172) versus matching placebo (daily; n = 2201) for 2 weeks. Patients were followed through public databases. In the 41% patients on statin treatment at entry, no significant effect of clarithromycin was observed on CV (hazard...... ratio [HR], 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-1.22; P = 0.20) or all-cause mortality (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.71-1.65; P = 0.72) at 2.6-year follow up. In the patients not on statin treatment at entry, clarithromycin was associated with a significant increase in CV (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.34-2.67; P = 0...

  14. Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza a virus-induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros Selemidis

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus infection is an ongoing clinical problem and thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanisms that regulate the lung inflammation in order to unravel novel generic pharmacological strategies. Evidence indicates that the Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase enzyme promotes influenza A virus-induced lung oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunction via ROS generation. In addition, lung epithelial and endothelial cells express the Nox1 isoform of NADPH oxidase, placing this enzyme at key sites to regulate influenza A virus-induced lung inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Nox1 oxidase regulates the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress to influenza infection in vivo in mice. Male WT and Nox1-deficient (Nox1(-/y mice were infected with the moderately pathogenic HkX-31 (H3N2, 1×10(4 PFU influenza A virus for analysis of bodyweight, airways inflammation, oxidative stress, viral titre, lung histopathology, and cytokine/chemokine expression at 3 and 7 days post infection. HkX-31 virus infection of Nox1(-/y mice resulted in significantly greater: loss of bodyweight (Day 3; BALF neutrophilia, peri-bronchial, peri-vascular and alveolar inflammation; Nox2-dependent inflammatory cell ROS production and peri-bronchial, epithelial and endothelial oxidative stress. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IL-1β, IL-6, GM-CSF and TNF-α was higher in Nox1(-/y lungs compared to WT mice at Day 3, however, the expression of CCL2, CCL3, CXCL2, IFN-γ and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were lower in lungs of Nox1(-/y mice vs. WT mice at Day 7. Lung viral titre, and airways infiltration of active CD8(+ and CD4(+ T lymphocytes, and of Tregs were similar between WT and Nox1(-/y mice. In conclusion, Nox1 oxidase suppresses influenza A virus induced lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice particularly at the early phases of the infection. Nox1 and Nox2 oxidases appear

  15. Applying preoperative dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy for preventing cardiac mortality and complications for patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-min Yin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: To evaluate the value of preoperative dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy for reducing cardiovascular complication in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH patients. Methods: Thallium scintigraphy was arranged for all dialysis patients who underwent parathyroidectomy from Jan 2011 to July 2015. Management of defects on thallium scintigraphy included cardiac catheterization and ultrasonography. Analysis includes 30-day mortality, morbidity and the predicting factors for thallium scintigraphy defect. Results: Of 249 patients with SHPTH, 19 (7.6% had defects on thallium scintigraphy, 15 (88% of whom had coronary artery disease on angiography. History of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, p < 0.001, diabetes mellitus (DM, p = 0.03, male sex (p = 0.03, and higher body mass index (BMI, p = 0.001 were significant predictors of positive thallium scintigraphy results. History of ACS was the most significant predictor after adjustment in the multivariate logistic analysis (odds ratio, 22.56; 95% confidence interval, 7.02–72.53. All the patients survived the 30-day postoperative period, with minimal cardiovascular morbidity. Conclusion: Preoperative dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy is useful for SHPTH patients to minimized surgical mortality and morbidity. Keywords: Secondary hyperparathyroidism, Dialysis, Coronary artery disease (CAD, Dipyridamole thallium-201 scintigraphy

  16. Disruption of plant carotenoid biosynthesis through virus-induced gene silencing affects oviposition behaviour of the butterfly Pieris rapae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Snoeren, T.A.L.; Hogewoning, S.W.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2010-01-01

    Optical plant characteristics are important cues to plant-feeding insects. In this article, we demonstrate for the first time that silencing the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene, encoding a key enzyme in plant carotenoid biosynthesis, affects insect oviposition site selection behaviour. Virus-induced

  17. Molecular characterization of oxysterol binding to the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (GPR183)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Norn, Christoffer; Laurent, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    , the family of G protein-coupled seven transmembrane-spanning receptors (7TM receptors) was added to this group. Specifically, the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2 or GPR183) was shown to be activated by several oxysterols, most potently by 7α,25-dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC). Nothing is known about...

  18. Virus-induced gene silencing in diverse maize lines using the Brome Mosaic virus-based silencing vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a widely used tool for gene function studies in many plant species, though its use in monocots has been limited. Using a Brome mosaic virus (BMV) vector designed to silence the maize phytoene desaturase gene, a genetically diverse set of maize inbred lines was ...

  19. Small molecule antagonism of oxysterol-induced Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Madsen, Christian M; Arfelt, Kristine N

    2013-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2) was recently identified as the first oxysterol-activated 7TM receptor. EBI2 is essential for B cell trafficking within lymphoid tissues and thus the humoral immune response in general. Here we characterize the antagonism of the non-peptide molecule GSK...

  20. Development of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system for Spinacia oleracea L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jungmin; Cao, Dang Viet; Kim, Jiwon

    2017-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is known as a rapid and efficient system for studying functions of interesting genes in plants. Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) is widely applied for the gene silencing of many plants. Although spinach is a TRV-susceptible plant, a TRV-based VIGS system has not yet ...

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Piednoir, Elodie

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an important reverse genetics tool for functional genomics. VIGS vectors based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV, genus Tobravirus) and Bean pod mottle virus (genus Comovirus) are available for the legume species Pisum sativum and Glycine max, respec...

  2. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a reverse genetic tool to study development of symbiotic root nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Grønlund, Mette; Stougaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) can provide a shortcut to plants with altered expression of specific genes. Here, we report that VIGS of the Nodule inception gene (Nin) can alter the nodulation phenotype and Nin gene expression in Pisum sativum. PsNin was chosen as target because of the disti...

  3. DNA Oncogenic Virus-Induced Oxidative Stress, Genomic Damage, and Aberrant Epigenetic Alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankgopo Magdeline Kgatle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of human cancers is attributable to DNA oncogenic viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. Unrepaired DNA damage is the most common and overlapping feature of these DNA oncogenic viruses and a source of genomic instability and tumour development. Sustained DNA damage results from unceasing production of reactive oxygen species and activation of inflammasome cascades that trigger genomic changes and increased propensity of epigenetic alterations. Accumulation of epigenetic alterations may interfere with genome-wide cellular signalling machineries and promote malignant transformation leading to cancer development. Untangling and understanding the underlying mechanisms that promote these detrimental effects remain the major objectives for ongoing research and hope for effective virus-induced cancer therapy. Here, we review current literature with an emphasis on how DNA damage influences HPV, HVB, and EBV replication and epigenetic alterations that are associated with carcinogenesis.

  4. Epstein–Barr Virus-Induced Metabolic Rearrangements in Human B-Cell Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier P. Piccaluga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumor metabolism has been the object of several studies in the past, leading to the pivotal observation of a consistent shift toward aerobic glycolysis (so-called Warburg effect. More recently, several additional investigations proved that tumor metabolism is profoundly affected during tumorigenesis, including glucose, lipid and amino-acid metabolism. It is noticeable that metabolic reprogramming can represent a suitable therapeutic target in many cancer types. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was the first virus linked with cancer in humans when Burkitt lymphoma (BL was described. Besides other well-known effects, it was recently demonstrated that EBV can induce significant modification in cell metabolism, which may lead or contribute to neoplastic transformation of human cells. Similarly, virus-induced tumorigenesis is characterized by relevant metabolic abnormalities directly induced by the oncoviruses. In this article, the authors critically review the most recent literature concerning EBV-induced metabolism alterations in lymphomas.

  5. Pleiotropic Effects of Levofloxacin, Fluoroquinolone Antibiotics, against Influenza Virus-Induced Lung Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Enoki

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO are major pathogenic molecules produced during viral lung infections, including influenza. While fluoroquinolones are widely used as antimicrobial agents for treating a variety of bacterial infections, including secondary infections associated with the influenza virus, it has been reported that they also function as anti-oxidants against ROS and as a NO regulator. Therefore, we hypothesized that levofloxacin (LVFX, one of the most frequently used fluoroquinolone derivatives, may attenuate pulmonary injuries associated with influenza virus infections by inhibiting the production of ROS species such as hydroxyl radicals and neutrophil-derived NO that is produced during an influenza viral infection. The therapeutic impact of LVFX was examined in a PR8 (H1N1 influenza virus-induced lung injury mouse model. ESR spin-trapping experiments indicated that LVFX showed scavenging activity against neutrophil-derived hydroxyl radicals. LVFX markedly improved the survival rate of mice that were infected with the influenza virus in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the LVFX treatment resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (a marker of oxidative stress and nitrotyrosine (a nitrative marker in the lungs of virus-infected mice, and the nitrite/nitrate ratio (NO metabolites and IFN-γ in BALF. These results indicate that LVFX may be of substantial benefit in the treatment of various acute inflammatory disorders such as influenza virus-induced pneumonia, by inhibiting inflammatory cell responses and suppressing the overproduction of NO in the lungs.

  6. Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from 6 months to 5 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imdad, Aamer; Herzer, Kurt; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a major public health problem in low and middle income countries affecting 190 million children under 5. VAD can lead to many adverse health consequences, including death. Objectives To evaluate the effect of vitamin A supplementation (VAS) for preventing

  7. Grazer and virus-induced mortality of bacterioplankton accelerates development of .i.Flectobacillus./i. populations in a freshwater community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Weinbauer, M.G.; Horňák, Karel; Jezbera, Jan; Nedoma, Jiří; Dolan, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2007), s. 789-800 ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504 Grant - others:MŠMT(CZ) Barrande 2004-004-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : bacterioplankton community composition * virus lysis * flagellate bacterivory * reservoir * FISH analysis of food vacuoles * microautoradiography Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.929, year: 2007

  8. Singapore grouper iridovirus, a large DNA virus, induces nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion and evokes ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Xu, Lixiao; Yan, Yang; Cui, Huachun; Han, Xin; Qin, Qiwei

    2011-08-01

    Virus induced cell death, including apoptosis and nonapoptotic cell death, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), a novel iridovirus of genus Ranavirus, causes high mortality and heavy economic losses in grouper aquaculture. Here, using fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and biochemical assays, we found that SGIV infection in host (grouper spleen, EAGS) cells evoked nonapoptotic programmed cell death (PCD), characterized by appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles and distended endoplasmic reticulum, in the absence of DNA fragmentation, apoptotic bodies and caspase activation. In contrast, SGIV induced typical apoptosis in non-host (fathead minnow, FHM) cells, as evidenced by caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death by a cell type dependent fashion. Furthermore, viral replication was essential for SGIV induced nonapoptotic cell death, but not for apoptosis. Notably, the disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) were not detected in EAGS cells but in FHM cells after SGIV infection. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling was involved in SGIV infection induced nonapoptotic cell death and viral replication. This is a first demonstration of ERK-mediated nonapoptotic cell death induced by a DNA virus. These findings contribute to understanding the mechanisms of iridovirus pathogenesis.

  9. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  10. High fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophils are associated with an increased risk of future virus-induced exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, A; Laing, I A; Backer, V

    2017-01-01

    the follow-up period. Of these, 15 (68%) had a respiratory virus detected at exacerbation. Sputum eosinophils >1% at baseline increased the risk of having a subsequent virus-induced exacerbation (HR 7.6 95% CI: 1.6-35.2, P=.010) as did having FeNO >25 ppb (HR 3.4 95% CI: 1.1-10.4, P=.033). CONCLUSION...... AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Established type 2 inflammation during stable disease is a risk factor for virus-induced exacerbations in a real-life setting. Measures of type 2 inflammation, such as sputum eosinophils and FeNO, could be included in the risk assessment of patients with asthma in future studies....

  11. An Optimized Protocol to Increase Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Efficiency and Minimize Viral Symptoms in Petunia

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, Shaun R.; Jones, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used to down-regulate endogenous plant genes. VIGS efficiency depends on viral proliferation and systemic movement throughout the plant. Although tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-based VIGS has been successfully used in petunia (Petunia × hybrida), the protocol has not been thoroughly optimized for efficient and uniform gene down-regulation in this species. Therefore, we evaluated six parameters that improved VIGS in petunia. Inoculation of mechanically wounde...

  12. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Zhang, Chunquan; Kernodle, Bliss M; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A

    2016-06-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. A Foxtail mosaic virus Vector for Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Maize1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yu; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Hill, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV genome. To demonstrate VIGS applications of this FoMV vector system, four genes, phytoene desaturase (functions in carotenoid biosynthesis), lesion mimic22 (encodes a key enzyme of the porphyrin pathway), iojap (functions in plastid development), and brown midrib3 (caffeic acid O-methyltransferase), were silenced and characterized in the sweet corn line Golden × Bantam. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the FoMV infectious clone establishes systemic infection in maize inbred lines, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and green foxtail (Setaria viridis), indicating the potential wide applications of this viral vector system for functional genomics studies in maize and other monocots. PMID:27208311

  14. Virus-induced apoptosis and phosphorylation form of metacaspase in the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwen; Cai, Weicong; Fang, Xian; Wang, Xueting; Li, Guiling

    2018-04-01

    Lytic viral infection and programmed cell death (PCD) are thought to represent two distinct death mechanisms in phytoplankton, unicellular photoautotrophs that drift with ocean currents. PCD (apoptosis) is mainly brought about by the activation of caspases, a protease family with unique substrate selectivity. Here, we demonstrated that virus infection induced apoptosis of marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi BOF92 involving activation of metacaspase. E. huxleyi cells exhibited cell death process akin to that of apoptosis when exposed to virus infection. We observed typical hallmarks of apoptosis including cell shrinkage, associated nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Immunoblotting revealed that antibody against human active-caspase-3 shared epitopes with a protein of ≈ 23 kDa; whose pattern of expression correlated with the onset of cell death. Moreover, analysis on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that two spots of active caspase-3 co-migrated with the different isoelectric points. Phosphatase treatment of cytosolic extracts containing active caspases-3 showed a mobility shift, suggesting that phosphorylated form of this enzyme might be present in the extracts. Computational prediction of phosphorylation sites based on the amino acid sequence of E. huxleyi metacaspase showed multiple phosphorylated sites for serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. This is the first report showing that phosphorylation modification of metacaspase in E. huxleyi might be required for certain biochemical and morphological changes during virus induced apoptosis.

  15. Functional analyses of cellulose synthase genes in flax (Linum usitatissimum) by virus-induced gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantreau, Maxime; Chabbert, Brigitte; Billiard, Sylvain; Hawkins, Simon; Neutelings, Godfrey

    2015-12-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum) bast fibres are located in the stem cortex where they play an important role in mechanical support. They contain high amounts of cellulose and so are used for linen textiles and in the composite industry. In this study, we screened the annotated flax genome and identified 14 distinct cellulose synthase (CESA) genes using orthologous sequences previously identified. Transcriptomics of 'primary cell wall' and 'secondary cell wall' flax CESA genes showed that some were preferentially expressed in different organs and stem tissues providing clues as to their biological role(s) in planta. The development for the first time in flax of a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to functionally evaluate the biological role of different CESA genes in stem tissues. Quantification of transcript accumulation showed that in many cases, silencing not only affected targeted CESA clades, but also had an impact on other CESA genes. Whatever the targeted clade, inactivation by VIGS affected plant growth. In contrast, only clade 1- and clade 6-targeted plants showed modifications in outer-stem tissue organization and secondary cell wall formation. In these plants, bast fibre number and structure were severely impacted, suggesting that the targeted genes may play an important role in the establishment of the fibre cell wall. Our results provide new fundamental information about cellulose biosynthesis in flax that should facilitate future plant improvement/engineering. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Distinct cellular responses differentiating alcohol- and hepatitis C virus-induced liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boix Loreto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known at the molecular level concerning the differences and/or similarities between alcohol and hepatitis C virus induced liver disease. Global transcriptional profiling using oligonucleotide microarrays was therefore performed on liver biopsies from patients with cirrhosis caused by either chronic alcohol consumption or chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV. Results Global gene expression patterns varied significantly depending upon etiology of liver disease, with a greater number of differentially regulated genes seen in HCV-infected patients. Many of the gene expression changes specifically observed in HCV-infected cirrhotic livers were expectedly associated with activation of the innate antiviral immune response. We also compared severity (CTP class of cirrhosis for each etiology and identified gene expression patterns that differentiated ethanol-induced cirrhosis by class. CTP class A ethanol-cirrhotic livers showed unique expression patterns for genes implicated in the inflammatory response, including those related to macrophage activation and migration, as well as lipid metabolism and oxidative stress genes. Conclusion Stages of liver cirrhosis could be differentiated based on gene expression patterns in ethanol-induced, but not HCV-induced, disease. In addition to genes specifically regulating the innate antiviral immune response, mechanisms responsible for differentiating chronic liver damage due to HCV or ethanol may be closely related to regulation of lipid metabolism and to effects of macrophage activation on deposition of extracellular matrix components.

  17. Virus-Induced Type I Interferon Deteriorates Control of Systemic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Merches

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type I interferon (IFN-I predisposes to bacterial superinfections, an important problem during viral infection or treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α. IFN-I-induced neutropenia is one reason for the impaired bacterial control; however there is evidence that more frequent bacterial infections during IFN-α-treatment occur independently of neutropenia. Methods: We analyzed in a mouse model, whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa control is influenced by co-infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV. Bacterial titers, numbers of neutrophils and the gene-expression of liver-lysozyme-2 were determined during a 24 hours systemic infection with P. aeruginosa in wild-type and Ifnar-/- mice under the influence of LCMV or poly(I:C. Results: Virus-induced IFN-I impaired the control of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This was associated with neutropenia and loss of lysozyme-2-expression in the liver, which had captured P. aeruginosa. A lower release of IFN-I by poly(I:C-injection also impaired the bacterial control in the liver and reduced the expression of liver-lysozyme-2. Low concentration of IFN-I after infection with a virulent strain of P. aeruginosa alone impaired the bacterial control and reduced lysozyme-2-expression in the liver as well. Conclusion: We found that during systemic infection with P. aeruginosa Kupffer cells quickly controlled the bacteria in cooperation with neutrophils. Upon LCMV-infection this cooperation was disturbed.

  18. A CRISPR-Based Screen Identifies Genes Essential for West-Nile-Virus-Induced Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongming; Dang, Ying; Wu, Yonggan; Jia, Gengxiang; Anaya, Edgar; Zhang, Junli; Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Shi, Guojun; Qi, Ling; Manjunath, N; Wu, Haoquan

    2015-07-28

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes an acute neurological infection attended by massive neuronal cell death. However, the mechanism(s) behind the virus-induced cell death is poorly understood. Using a library containing 77,406 sgRNAs targeting 20,121 genes, we performed a genome-wide screen followed by a second screen with a sub-library. Among the genes identified, seven genes, EMC2, EMC3, SEL1L, DERL2, UBE2G2, UBE2J1, and HRD1, stood out as having the strongest phenotype, whose knockout conferred strong protection against WNV-induced cell death with two different WNV strains and in three cell lines. Interestingly, knockout of these genes did not block WNV replication. Thus, these appear to be essential genes that link WNV replication to downstream cell death pathway(s). In addition, the fact that all of these genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway suggests that this might be the primary driver of WNV-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigating Gene Function in Cereal Rust Fungi by Plant-Mediated Virus-Induced Gene Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Vinay; Bakkeren, Guus

    2017-01-01

    Cereal rust fungi are destructive pathogens, threatening grain production worldwide. Targeted breeding for resistance utilizing host resistance genes has been effective. However, breakdown of resistance occurs frequently and continued efforts are needed to understand how these fungi overcome resistance and to expand the range of available resistance genes. Whole genome sequencing, transcriptomic and proteomic studies followed by genome-wide computational and comparative analyses have identified large repertoire of genes in rust fungi among which are candidates predicted to code for pathogenicity and virulence factors. Some of these genes represent defence triggering avirulence effectors. However, functions of most genes still needs to be assessed to understand the biology of these obligate biotrophic pathogens. Since genetic manipulations such as gene deletion and genetic transformation are not yet feasible in rust fungi, performing functional gene studies is challenging. Recently, Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) has emerged as a useful tool to characterize gene function in rust fungi while infecting and growing in host plants. We utilized Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated virus induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) to induce HIGS of candidate rust fungal genes in the wheat host to determine their role in plant-fungal interactions. Here, we describe the methods for using BSMV-VIGS in wheat for functional genomics study in cereal rust fungi.

  20. Outer nuclear membrane fusion of adjacent nuclei in varicella-zoster virus-induced syncytia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Lianwei; Huang, Xiumin; Fu, Wenkun; Pan, Dequan; Cai, Linli; Ye, Jianghui; Liu, Jian; Xia, Ningshao; Cheng, Tong; Zhu, Hua

    2017-12-01

    Syncytia formation has been considered important for cell-to-cell spread and pathogenesis of many viruses. As a syncytium forms, individual nuclei often congregate together, allowing close contact of nuclear membranes and possibly fusion to occur. However, there is currently no reported evidence of nuclear membrane fusion between adjacent nuclei in wild-type virus-induced syncytia. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one typical syncytia-inducing virus that causes chickenpox and shingles in humans. Here, we report, for the first time, an interesting observation of apparent fusion of the outer nuclear membranes from juxtaposed nuclei that comprise VZV syncytia both in ARPE-19 human epithelial cells in vitro and in human skin xenografts in the SCID-hu mouse model in vivo. This work reveals a novel aspect of VZV-related cytopathic effect in the context of multinucleated syncytia. Additionally, the information provided by this study could be helpful for future studies on interactions of viruses with host cell nuclei. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to prevent mortality in children with complicated severe acute malnutrition: a multicentre, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, James A; Ngari, Moses; Thitiri, Johnstone; Mwalekwa, Laura; Timbwa, Molline; Hamid, Fauzat; Ali, Rehema; Shangala, Jimmy; Mturi, Neema; Jones, Kelsey D J; Alphan, Hassan; Mutai, Beatrice; Bandika, Victor; Hemed, Twahir; Awuondo, Ken; Morpeth, Susan; Kariuki, Samuel; Fegan, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM. We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study in four hospitals in Kenya (two rural hospitals in Kilifi and Malindi, and two urban hospitals in Mombasa and Nairobi) with children aged 60 days to 59 months without HIV admitted to hospital and diagnosed with SAM. We randomly assigned eligible participants (1:1) to 6 months of either daily oral co-trimoxazole prophylaxis (given as water-dispersible tablets; 120 mg per day for age malnutrition (kwashiorkor), and 1221 (69%) were stunted (length-for-age Z score child-years of observation, 122 (14%) of 887 children in the co-trimoxazole group died, compared with 135 (15%) of 891 in the placebo group (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·90, 95% CI 0·71-1·16, p=0·429; 16·0 vs 17·7 events per 100 child-years observed (CYO); difference -1·7 events per 100 CYO, 95% CI -5·8 to 2·4]). In the first 6 months of the study (while participants received study medication), 63 suspected grade 3 or 4 associated adverse events were recorded among 57 (3%) children; 31 (2%) in the co-trimoxazole group and 32 (2%) in the placebo group (incidence rate ratio 0·98, 95% CI 0·58-1·65). The most common adverse events of these grades were urticarial rash (grade 3, equally common in both groups), neutropenia (grade 4, more common in the co-trimoxazole group), and anaemia (both grades equally common in both groups). One child in the placebo group had fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis with concurrent Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteraemia. Daily co

  2. Infant Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infant Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... differences in rates among population groups. About Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death of an infant ...

  3. Canine distemper virus induces apoptosis in cervical tumor derived cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajão Daniela S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apoptosis can be induced or inhibited by viral proteins, it can form part of the host defense against virus infection, or it can be a mechanism for viral spread to neighboring cells. Canine distemper virus (CDV induces apoptotic cells in lymphoid tissues and in the cerebellum of dogs naturally infected. CDV also produces a cytopathologic effect, leading to apoptosis in Vero cells in tissue culture. We tested canine distemper virus, a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, for the ability to trigger apoptosis in HeLa cells, derived from cervical cancer cells resistant to apoptosis. To study the effect of CDV infection in HeLa cells, we examined apoptotic markers 24 h post infection (pi, by flow cytometry assay for DNA fragmentation, real-time PCR assay for caspase-3 and caspase-8 mRNA expression, and by caspase-3 and -8 immunocytochemistry. Flow cytometry showed that DNA fragmentation was induced in HeLa cells infected by CDV, and immunocytochemistry revealed a significant increase in the levels of the cleaved active form of caspase-3 protein, but did not show any difference in expression of caspase-8, indicating an intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Confirming this observation, expression of caspase-3 mRNA was higher in CDV infected HeLa cells than control cells; however, there was no statistically significant change in caspase-8 mRNA expression profile. Our data suggest that canine distemper virus induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, triggering apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway, with no participation of the initiator caspase -8 from the extrinsic pathway. In conclusion, the cellular stress caused by CDV infection of HeLa cells, leading to apoptosis, can be used as a tool in future research for cervical cancer treatment and control.

  4. Prophylactic levosimendan for the prevention of low cardiac output syndrome and mortality in paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Johanna; Rücker, Gerta; Stiller, Brigitte

    2017-08-02

    Low cardiac output syndrome remains a serious complication, and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality in the postoperative course of paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Standard prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for low cardiac output syndrome are based mainly on catecholamines, which are effective drugs, but have considerable side effects. Levosimendan, a calcium sensitiser, enhances the myocardial function by generating more energy-efficient myocardial contractility than achieved via adrenergic stimulation with catecholamines. Thus potentially, levosimendan is a beneficial alternative to standard medication for the prevention of low cardiac output syndrome in paediatric patients after open heart surgery. To review the efficacy and safety of the postoperative prophylactic use of levosimendan for the prevention of low cardiac output syndrome and mortality in paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. We identified trials via systematic searches of CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science, as well as clinical trial registries, in June 2016. Reference lists from primary studies and review articles were checked for additional references. We only included randomised controlled trials (RCT) in our analysis that compared prophylactic levosimendan with standard medication or placebo, in infants and children up to 18 years of age, who were undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias according to a pre-defined protocol. We obtained additional information from all but one of the study authors of the included studies. We used the five GRADE considerations (study limitations, consistency of effect, imprecision, indirectness, and publication bias) to assess the quality of evidence from the studies that contributed data to the meta-analyses for the prespecified outcomes. We created a 'Summary of findings' table to

  5. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  6. Virus-induced asthma attack: The importance of allergic inflammation in response to viral antigen in an animal model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skappak, Christopher; Ilarraza, Ramses; Wu, Ying-Qi; Drake, Matthew G; Adamko, Darryl J

    2017-01-01

    Asthma exacerbation can be a life-threatening condition, and is most often triggered by common respiratory viruses. Poor asthma control and worsening of respiratory function is associated with increased airway inflammation, including eosinophilia. Prevention of asthma exacerbation relies on treatment with corticosteroids, which preferentially inhibit allergic inflammation like eosinophils. Human studies demonstrate that inactivated virus can trigger eosinophil activation in vitro through antigen presentation and memory CD4+ lymphocytes. We hypothesized that animals with immunologic memory to a respiratory virus would also develop airway hyperresponsiveness in response to a UV-inactivated form of the virus if they have pre-existing allergic airway inflammation. Guinea pigs were ovalbumin-sensitized, infected with live parainfluenza virus (PIV), aerosol-challenged with ovalbumin, and then re-inoculated 60 days later with live or UV-inactivated PIV. Some animals were either treated with dexamethasone prior to the second viral exposure. Lymphocytes were isolated from parabronchial lymph nodes to confirm immunologic memory to the virus. Airway reactivity was measured and inflammation was assessed using bronchoalveolar lavage and lung histology. The induction of viral immunologic memory was confirmed in infected animals. Allergen sensitized and challenged animals developed airway hyperreactivity with eosinophilic airway inflammation when re-exposed to UV-inactivated PIV, while non-sensitized animals did not. Airway hyperreactivity in the sensitized animals was inhibited by pre-treatment with dexamethasone. We suggest that the response of allergic inflammation to virus antigen is a significant factor causing asthma exacerbation. We propose that this is one mechanism explaining how corticosteroids prevent virus-induced asthma attack.

  7. Disruption of the Opal Stop Codon Attenuates Chikungunya Virus-Induced Arthritis and Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer E; Long, Kristin M; Whitmore, Alan C; Sanders, Wes; Thurlow, Lance R; Brown, Julia A; Morrison, Clayton R; Vincent, Heather; Peck, Kayla M; Browning, Christian; Moorman, Nathaniel; Lim, Jean K; Heise, Mark T

    2017-11-14

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for several significant outbreaks of debilitating acute and chronic arthritis and arthralgia over the past decade. These include a recent outbreak in the Caribbean islands and the Americas that caused more than 1 million cases of viral arthralgia. Despite the major impact of CHIKV on global health, viral determinants that promote CHIKV-induced disease are incompletely understood. Most CHIKV strains contain a conserved opal stop codon at the end of the viral nsP3 gene. However, CHIKV strains that encode an arginine codon in place of the opal stop codon have been described, and deep-sequencing analysis of a CHIKV isolate from the Caribbean identified both arginine and opal variants within this strain. Therefore, we hypothesized that the introduction of the arginine mutation in place of the opal termination codon may influence CHIKV virulence. We tested this by introducing the arginine mutation into a well-characterized infectious clone of a CHIKV strain from Sri Lanka and designated this virus Opal524R. This mutation did not impair viral replication kinetics in vitro or in vivo Despite this, the Opal524R virus induced significantly less swelling, inflammation, and damage within the feet and ankles of infected mice. Further, we observed delayed induction of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as reduced CD4 + T cell and NK cell recruitment compared to those in the parental strain. Therefore, the opal termination codon plays an important role in CHIKV pathogenesis, independently of effects on viral replication. IMPORTANCE Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes significant outbreaks of viral arthralgia. Studies with CHIKV and other alphaviruses demonstrated that the opal termination codon within nsP3 is highly conserved. However, some strains of CHIKV and other alphaviruses contain mutations in the opal termination codon. These mutations alter the virulence

  8. Lycopene, tomato products and prostate cancer-specific mortality among men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jacobs, Eric J; Newton, Christina C; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2016-06-15

    While dietary lycopene and tomato products have been inversely associated with prostate cancer incidence, there is limited evidence for an association between consumption of lycopene and tomato products and prostate-cancer specific mortality (PCSM). We examined the associations of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis dietary lycopene and tomato product intake with PCSM in a large prospective cohort. This analysis included men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between enrollment in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort in 1992 or 1993 and June 2011. Prediagnosis dietary data, collected at baseline, were available for 8,898 men, of whom 526 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Postdiagnosis dietary data, collected on follow-up surveys in 1999 and/or 2003, were available for 5,643 men, of whom 363 died of prostate cancer through 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PCSM. Neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis dietary lycopene intake was associated with PCSM (fourth vs. first quartile HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.78-1.28; HR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.91-1.64, respectively). Similarly, neither prediagnosis nor postdiagnosis consumption of tomato products was associated with PCSM. Among men with high-risk cancers (T3-T4 or Gleason score 8-10, or nodal involvement), consistently reporting lycopene intake ≥ median on both postdiagnosis surveys was associated with lower PCSM (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.99, based on ten PCSM cases consistently ≥ median intake) compared to consistently reporting intake lycopene intake with PCSM among men with high-risk prostate cancers. © 2016 UICC.

  9. Mesenchymal stromal cell treatment prevents H9N2 avian influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian influenza virus (AIV can cross species barriers and expand its host range from birds to mammals, even humans. Avian influenza is characterized by pronounced activation of the proinflammatory cytokine cascade, which perpetuates the inflammatory response, leading to persistent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and pulmonary infection in animals and humans. There are currently no specific treatment strategies for avian influenza. Methods We hypothesized that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs would have beneficial effects in the treatment of H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice. Six- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with 1 × 104 MID50 of A/HONG KONG/2108/2003 [H9N2 (HK] H9N2 virus to induce acute lung injury. After 30 min, syngeneic MSCs were delivered through the caudal vein. Three days after infection, we measured the survival rate, lung weight, arterial blood gas, and cytokines in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum, and assessed pathological changes to the lungs. Results MSC administration significantly palliated H9N2 AIV-induced pulmonary inflammation by reducing chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines levels, as well as reducing inflammatory cell recruit into the lungs. Thus, H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury was markedly alleviated in mice treated with MSCs. Lung histopathology and arterial blood gas analysis were improved in mice with H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury following MSC treatment. Conclusions MSC treatment significantly reduces H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice and is associated with reduced pulmonary inflammation. These results indicate a potential role for MSC therapy in the treatment of clinical avian influenza.

  10. Campaign for the prevention of maternal mortality and morbidity. Abortion: we shall no longer be silent about it] Sixth call for action, International Day of Action for Women's Health, May 28, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The annual Campaign for the Prevention of Maternal Mortality and Morbidity to be held on May 28 will focus upon abortion-related maternal mortality with the goal of mobilizing women to discuss abortion and turn it into an issue of public debate. First, however, people must stop blaming women for abortion. People say women are responsible for abortion because they failed to use contraception, they had sexual intercourse outside of marriage, they were behaving immorally, and/or they violated religious precepts. However, blaming women for abortion simply denies reality. This paper explains what is known and not known about abortion and its related maternal morbidity and mortality, and counters some myths about the criminalization and legalization of abortion, religious prohibition of abortion, who has abortions, whether women will always be traumatized by an abortion, the health risks of induced abortion, and the need for abortion services. The history of the campaign is also described.

  11. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as an early and sensitive marker for virus-induced T cell activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Johansen, J; Marker, O

    1995-01-01

    mice, clearly demonstrating that T cells were mandatory. Analysis of MHC class I and MHC class II-deficient mice revealed that either CD4+ or CD8+ T cells alone are sufficient, despite a markedly reduced inflammatory exudate in the former animals. These results indicate that virus-activated T cells......The effect of systemic virus infection on the level of circulating ICAM-1 (cICAM-1) in serum, and the role of virus-activated T cells in this context, were studied using the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection as primary model system. A marked virus-induced elevation in cICAM-1...... in serum was revealed, the presence of which coincided with the phase of virus-induced T cell activation. However, high levels of cICAM-1 in serum were observed well before maximal T cell activation could be demonstrated. No increase in cICAM-1 was observed in the serum of infected T cell-deficient nude...

  12. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality and all intensive care unit acquired infections by topically applied antimicrobial or antiseptic agents: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Flotta, Domenico; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pavia, Maria

    2011-06-24

    Given the high morbidity and mortality attributable to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, prevention plays a key role in the management of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. One of the candidate preventive interventions is the selective decontamination of the digestive or respiratory tract (SDRD) by topical antiseptic or antimicrobial agents. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of topical digestive or respiratory tract decontamination with antiseptics or antibiotics in the prevention of VAP, of mortality and of all ICU-acquired infections in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was performed. The U.S. National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, Embase, and Cochrane Library computerized bibliographic databases, and reference lists of selected studies were used. Selection criteria for inclusion were: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); primary studies; examining the reduction of VAP and/or mortality and/or all ICU-acquired infections in ICU patients by prophylactic use of one or more of following topical treatments: 1) oropharyngeal decontamination using antiseptics or antibiotics, 2) gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics, 3) oropharyngeal plus gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics and 4) respiratory tract decontamination using antibiotics; reported enough data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) and their variance; English language; published through June 2010. A total of 28 articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The overall estimate of efficacy of topical SDRD in the prevention of VAP was 27% (95% CI of efficacy = 16% to 37%) for antiseptics and 36% (95% CI of efficacy = 18% to 50%) for antibiotics, whereas in none of the meta-analyses conducted on mortality was a significant effect found. The effect of topical SDRD in the prevention of all ICU

  13. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    -1975 revealed a considerable social class gradient in male mortality where university teachers and farmers had a 40% lower mortality and waiters and seamen had an about 100% higher mortality than the average for economically active men. The social class gradient was less steep for women. A similar pattern...

  14. Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: A decrease in lung cancer mortality among females below 50 years of age has been reported for countries with significant tobacco control efforts. The aim of this study was to describe the lung cancer deaths, including the mortality rates and proportions among total deaths, for females and males by age at death in a country with a high smoking prevalence (Germany) over a time period of 62 years. Methods: The vital statistics data were analyzed using a joinpoint regression analysis stratified by age and sex. An age-period-cohort analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of sex and school education on mortality. Results: After an increase, lung cancer mortality among women aged 35–44 years remained stable from 1989 to 2009 and decreased by 10.8% per year from 2009 to 2013. Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. PMID:27023582

  15. Solanum venturii, a suitable model system for virus-induced gene silencing studies in potato reveals StMKK6 as an important player in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobnik, David; Lazar, Ana; Stare, Tjaša; Gruden, Kristina; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Žel, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an optimal tool for functional analysis of genes in plants, as the viral vector spreads throughout the plant and causes reduced expression of selected gene over the whole plant. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is one of the most important food crops,

  16. Induction and maintenance of DNA methylation in plant promoter sequences by apple latent spherical virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya eKon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV is an efficient virus-induced gene silencing vector in functional genomics analyses of a broad range of plant species. Here, an Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation (agroinoculation system was developed for the ALSV vector, and virus-induced transcriptional gene silencing (VITGS is described in plants infected with the ALSV vector. The cDNAs of ALSV RNA1 and RNA2 were inserted between the CaMV 35S promoter and the NOS-T sequences in a binary vector pCAMBIA1300 to produce pCALSR1 and pCALSR2-XSB or pCALSR2-XSB/MN. When these vector constructs were agroinoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a construct expressing a viral silencing suppressor, the infection efficiency of the vectors was 100%. A recombinant ALSV vector carrying part of the 35S promoter sequence induced transcriptional gene silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene in a line of N. benthamiana plants, resulting in the disappearance of green fluorescence of infected plants. Bisulfite sequencing showed that cytosine residues at CG and CHG sites of the 35S promoter sequence were highly methylated in the silenced generation 0 plants infected with the ALSV carrying the promoter sequence as well as in progeny. The ALSV-mediated VITGS state was inherited by progeny for multiple generations. In addition, induction of VITGS of an endogenous gene (chalcone synthase-A was demonstrated in petunia plants infected with an ALSV vector carrying the native promoter sequence. These results suggest that ALSV-based vectors can be applied to study DNA methylation in plant genomes, and provide a useful tool for plant breeding via epigenetic modification.

  17. Efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets in the prevention of mortality in young children in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips-Howard, Penelope A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Kolczak, Margarette S.; Hightower, Allen W.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Alaii, Jane A.; Gimnig, John E.; Arudo, John; Vulule, John M.; Odhacha, Amos; Kachur, S. Patrick; Schoute, Erik; Rosen, Daniel H.; Sexton, John D.; Oloo, Aggrey J.; Hawley, William A.

    2003-01-01

    A group-randomized controlled trial of insecticide (permethrin)-treated bed nets (ITNs) was conducted in an area of high perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya to test the effect of ITNs on all-cause mortality in children 1-59 months of age. Child deaths were monitored over a two-year

  18. [Probiotic associations in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis and the reduction of late-onset sepsis and neonatal mortality in preterm infants under 1,500g: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucells, Benjamin James; Mercadal Hally, Maria; Álvarez Sánchez, Airam Tenesor; Figueras Aloy, Josep

    2016-11-01

    Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most common and serious acquired bowel diseases a premature newborn can face. This meta-analysis was performed comparing different probiotic mixtures to ascertain their benefits as a routine tool for preventing necrotising enterocolitis and reducing late-onset sepsis and mortality in premature neonates of less than 1500g. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials, between January 1980 and March 2014, on MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, together with EMBASE, was carried out. Studies with infants Probiotics were found to reduce the NEC incidence (RR 0.39; 95%CI: 0.26-0.57) and mortality (RR 0.70; 95%CI: 0.52-0.93), with no difference to placebo regarding late-onset sepsis (RR 0.91; 95%CI: 0.78-1.06). Finally, when analysing the different strands, the use of a 2-probiotic combination (Lactobacillus acidophilus with Bifidobacterium bifidum) proved to be statistically significant in reducing all-cause mortality when compared to other probiotic combinations (RR 0.32; 95%CI: 0.15-0.66, NNT 20; 95%CI: 12-50). Probiotics are a beneficial tool in the prevention of NEC and mortality in preterm neonates. Moreover, the combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus with Bifidobacterium bifidum) seems to produce the greatest benefits. However, due to the differences in probiotic components and administration, it would be wise to perform a randomised controlled trial comparing different probiotic mixtures. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive Impairment, Vulnerability, and Mortality Post Ischemic Stroke: A Five-Year Follow-Up of the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke (ASPIRE-S) Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, Eva; Rohde, Daniela; Large, Margaret; Mellon, Lisa; Hall, Patricia; Brewer, Linda; Conway, Orla; Hickey, Anne; Bennett, Kathleen; Dolan, Eamon; Callaly, Elizabeth; Williams, David

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to examine predictors of mortality in patients 5 years after ischemic stroke, focusing on cognitive impairment, vulnerability, and vascular risk factors assessed at 6 months post stroke. Patients from the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke (ASPIRE-S) cohort were followed up 5 years post ischemic stroke. Vascular risk factors, cognitive impairment, and vulnerability were assessed at 6 months post stroke. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a cutoff score lower than 26 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Vulnerability was defined as a score of 3 or higher on the Vulnerable Elders Scale (VES). Mortality and date of death were ascertained using hospital records, death notifications, and contact with general practitioners. Predictors of mortality were explored using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are presented. Sixty-three of 256 patients (24.6%) assessed at 6 months post stroke had died within 5 years. Cognitive impairment (HR [95% CI]: 2.19 [1.42-3.39]), vulnerability (HR [95% CI]: 5.23 [2.92-9.36]), atrial fibrillation (AF) (HR [95% CI]: 2.31 [1.80-2.96]), and dyslipidemia (HR [95% CI]: 1.90 [1.10-3.27]) were associated with increased risk of 5-year mortality. Vulnerability, cognitive impairment, AF, and dyslipidemia at 6 months were associated with increased risks of mortality 5 years post ischemic stroke. Identification and management of these risk factors should be emphasized in poststroke care. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Canine distemper virus-induced disease in vaccinated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wayne A; Totten, Janet S; Lappin, Michael R; Schultz, Ronald D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether detection of Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific serum antibodies correlates with resistance to challenge with virulent virus. Virus neutralization (VN) assay results were compared with resistance to viral challenge in 2 unvaccinated Beagle puppies, 9 unvaccinated Beagle dogs (4.4-7.2 years of age), and 9 vaccinated Beagle dogs (3.7-4.7 years of age). Eight of 9 (89%) unvaccinated adult dogs exhibited clinical signs after virus challenge, and 1 (13%) dog died. As compared to adult dogs, the 2 unvaccinated puppies developed more severe clinical signs and either died or were euthanized after challenge. In contrast, no clinical signs were detected after challenge of the 9 adult vaccinated dogs with post-vaccination intervals of up to 4.4 years. In vaccinated dogs, the positive and negative predictive values of VN assay results for resistance to challenge were 100% and 0%, respectively. Results indicate that dogs vaccinated with modified live CDV can be protected from challenge for ≤4.4 years postvaccination and that detection of virus-specific antibodies is predictive of whether dogs are resistant to challenge with virulent virus. Results also indicate that CDV infection in unvaccinated dogs results in age-dependent morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of age-dependent morbidity and mortality, duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the positive and negative predictive values of detection of virus-specific serum antibodies are useful in development of rational booster vaccination intervals for the prevention of CDV-mediated disease in adult dogs. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia”) in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth). We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA) training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental), and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental). Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%), basic emergency obstetric care (40%), and skilled birth care (25%). For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational). There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for evidence interpretation

  2. Care during labor and birth for the prevention of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths: a systematic review and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moran Neil F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our objective was to estimate the effect of various childbirth care packages on neonatal mortality due to intrapartum-related events (“birth asphyxia” in term babies for use in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review to identify studies or reviews of childbirth care packages as defined by United Nations norms (basic and comprehensive emergency obstetric care, skilled care at birth. We also reviewed Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA training. Data were abstracted into standard tables and quality assessed by adapted GRADE criteria. For interventions with low quality evidence, but strong GRADE recommendation for implementation, an expert Delphi consensus process was conducted to estimate cause-specific mortality effects. Results We identified evidence for the effect on perinatal/neonatal mortality of emergency obstetric care packages: 9 studies (8 observational, 1 quasi-experimental, and for skilled childbirth care: 10 studies (8 observational, 2 quasi-experimental. Studies were of low quality, but the GRADE recommendation for implementation is strong. Our Delphi process included 21 experts representing all WHO regions and achieved consensus on the reduction of intrapartum-related neonatal deaths by comprehensive emergency obstetric care (85%, basic emergency obstetric care (40%, and skilled birth care (25%. For TBA training we identified 2 meta-analyses and 9 studies reporting mortality effects (3 cRCT, 1 quasi-experimental, 5 observational. There was substantial between-study heterogeneity and the overall quality of evidence was low. Because the GRADE recommendation for TBA training is conditional on the context and region, the effect was not estimated through a Delphi or included in the LiST tool. Conclusion Evidence quality is rated low, partly because of challenges in undertaking RCTs for obstetric interventions, which are considered standard of care. Additional challenges for

  3. Mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis no Brasil: um estudo ecológico no período 2000-2002 Infant mortality from preventable causes in Brazil: an ecological study in 2000-2002

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    Antonio Fernando Boing

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi testar as associações entre a mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis no Brasil com indicadores sócio-econômicos e de serviços e investimentos em saúde. Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, cujas unidades de análise foram os 296 municípios brasileiros com população superior a 80 mil habitantes. Realizaram-se os testes de Kruskall-Wallis e ANOVA para identificar diferenças significativas entre os quartis de mortalidade infantil segundo as variáveis independentes, e foram calculados os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson e de Spearman para testar as associações entre todas as variáveis. Os municípios que compuseram os quartis com maior mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis apresentaram também menor Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano Municipal, Produto Interno Bruto per capita, pessoas que vivem em domicílios com banheiro e água encanada, despesa total com saúde por habitante e médicos por mil habitantes; e maior coeficiente de Gini. A compreensão do papel protagonista das condições sócio-econômicas e de investimentos em saúde sobre a mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis deve permear as ações que visem à minimização da magnitude e da desigualdade desses óbitos.This study aims to test the associations between infant mortality from preventable causes in Brazil and socioeconomic factors, including those pertaining to health services and investments. This was an ecological study using 296 Brazilian counties (municipalities with more than 80,000 inhabitants each as the analytical units. Kruskall-Wallis and ANOVA tests were performed to compare independent variables according to infant mortality quartile, and Pearson and Spearman's correlation coefficients were computed to test the associations. As the infant mortality quartile from preventable causes increases, there is a gradual decrease in the municipal human development index, per capita gross domestic product, households with

  4. DNA vaccination protects mice against Zika virus-induced damage to the testes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Bryan D.; Muthumani, Kar; Warner, Bryce M.; Majer, Anna; Hagan, Mable; Audet, Jonathan; Stein, Derek R.; Ranadheera, Charlene; Racine, Trina; De La Vega, Marc-Antoine; Piret, Jocelyne; Kucas, Stephanie; Tran, Kaylie N.; Frost, Kathy L.; De Graff, Christine; Soule, Geoff; Scharikow, Leanne; Scott, Jennifer; McTavish, Gordon; Smid, Valerie; Park, Young K.; Maslow, Joel N.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Kim, J. Joseph; Yao, Xiao-jian; Bello, Alexander; Lindsay, Robbin; Boivin, Guy; Booth, Stephanie A.; Kobasa, Darwyn; Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Safronetz, David; Weiner, David B.; Kobinger, Gary P.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen causally associated with serious sequelae in fetuses, inducing fetal microcephaly and other neurodevelopment defects. ZIKV is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, but can persist in human semen and sperm, and sexual transmission has been documented. Moreover, exposure of type-I interferon knockout mice to ZIKV results in severe damage to the testes, epididymis and sperm. Candidate ZIKV vaccines have shown protective efficacy in preclinical studies carried out in animal models, and several vaccines have entered clinical trials. Here, we report that administration of a synthetic DNA vaccine encoding ZIKV pre-membrane and envelope (prME) completely protects mice against ZIKV-associated damage to the testes and sperm and prevents viral persistence in the testes following challenge with a contemporary strain of ZIKV. These data suggest that DNA vaccination merits further investigation as a potential means to reduce ZIKV persistence in the male reproductive tract. PMID:28589934

  5. Identification of an attenuated barley stripe mosaic virus for the virus-induced gene silencing of pathogenesis-related wheat genes

    OpenAIRE

    Buhrow, Leann M.; Clark, Shawn M.; Loewen, Michele C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an emerging technology for the rapid, efficient functional genomic screening of monocot and dicot species. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) has been described as an effective VIGS vehicle for the evaluation of genes involved in wheat and barley phytopathogenesis; however, these studies have been obscured by BSMV-induced phenotypes and defense responses. The utility of BSMV VIGS may be improved using a BSMV genetic background which...

  6. High fractional exhaled nitric oxide and sputum eosinophils are associated with an increased risk of future virus-induced exacerbations: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, A; Laing, I A; Backer, V; Sverrild, A; Khoo, S-K; Chidlow, G; Sikazwe, C; Smith, D W; Le Souëf, P; Porsbjerg, C

    2017-08-01

    The major trigger of asthma exacerbations is infection with a respiratory virus, most commonly rhinovirus. Type 2 inflammation is known to be associated with an increased risk of exacerbations in general. Whether type 2 inflammation at baseline increases the risk of future virus-induced exacerbations is unknown. To assess whether type 2 inflammation is associated with an increased risk of virus-induced exacerbations of asthma. Stable asthmatics had spirometry, skin prick test, measurement of FeNO and sputum induced for differential cell counts. Patients were followed up for 18 months, during which they were assessed at the research unit when they had symptoms of an exacerbation. Nasal swabs collected at these assessments underwent viral detection by PCR. A total of 81 asthma patients were recruited, of which 22 (27%) experienced an exacerbation during the follow-up period. Of these, 15 (68%) had a respiratory virus detected at exacerbation. Sputum eosinophils >1% at baseline increased the risk of having a subsequent virus-induced exacerbation (HR 7.6 95% CI: 1.6-35.2, P=.010) as did having FeNO >25 ppb (HR 3.4 95% CI: 1.1-10.4, P=.033). Established type 2 inflammation during stable disease is a risk factor for virus-induced exacerbations in a real-life setting. Measures of type 2 inflammation, such as sputum eosinophils and FeNO, could be included in the risk assessment of patients with asthma in future studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Systemic virus-induced gene silencing allows functional characterization of maize genes during biotrophic interaction with Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Kastner, Christine; Kumlehn, Jochen; Kahmann, Regine; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Infection of maize (Zea mays) plants with the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on the stem, leaves and inflorescences. In this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed massive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression. To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) for maize. Conditions were established that allowed successful U. maydis infection of BMV-preinfected maize plants. This set-up enabled quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-based readout. In proof-of-principle experiments, an U. maydis-induced terpene synthase was shown to negatively regulate disease development while a protein involved in cell death inhibition was required for full virulence of U. maydis. The results suggest that this system is a versatile tool for the rapid identification of maize genes that determine compatibility with U. maydis. © (2010) Max Planck Society. Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  8. Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3) polymorphisms and expression are associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruijuan; Liu, Haipeng; Song, Peng; Feng, Yonghong; Qin, Lianhua; Huang, Xiaochen; Chen, Jianxia; Yang, Hua; Liu, Zhonghua; Cui, Zhenglin; Hu, Zhongyi; Ge, Baoxue

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and host genetic factors play a critical role in susceptibility and resistance to TB. The aim of this study was to identify novel candidate genes associated with TB susceptibility. We performed a population-based case-control study to genotype 13 tag SNPs spanning Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3), colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2), IL-4, interferon beta 1 (IFNB1), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 (CXCL14) and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88) genes in 435 pulmonary TB patients and 375 health donors from China. We observed that EBI3 gene rs4740 polymorphism was associated with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and the allele G was associated with a protective effect against PTB. Furthermore, EBI3 deficiency led to reduced bacterial burden and histopathological impairment in the lung of mice infected with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Meanwhile, higher abundance of EBI3 was observed in the granuloma of PTB patients and in the lung tissue of BCG-infected mice. Of note, the expression of EBI3 in macrophages was remarkably induced by mycobacteria infection at both mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, EBI3 gene rs4740 polymorphism is closely associated with susceptibility to PTB and the elevation and enrichment of EBI3 in the lung which at least partially derived from macrophages may contribute to the exacerbation of mycobacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Influenza Virus-Induced Lung Inflammation Was Modulated by Cigarette Smoke Exposure in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Ling, Man To; Mao, Huawei; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Ming; Lam, Kwok Tai; Liu, Yuan; Tu, Wenwei; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2014-01-01

    Although smokers have increased susceptibility and severity of seasonal influenza virus infection, there is no report about the risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1) or avian H9N2 (H9N2/G1) virus infection in smokers. In our study, we used mouse model to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 days and then infected with pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus. Control mice were exposed to air in parallel. We found that cigarette smoke exposure alone significantly upregulated the lung inflammation. Such prior cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced the disease severity of subsequent pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. For pdmH1N1 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice had significantly lower mortality than the control mice, possibly due to the significantly decreased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, after H9N2 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice displayed significantly less weight loss, which might be attributed to lower cytokines and chemokines production, less macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltration and reduced lung damage compared to the control mice. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we used nicotine to mimic the effect of cigarette smoke both in vitro and in vivo. Pre-treating the primary human macrophages with nicotine for 72 h significantly decreased their expression of cytokines and chemokines after pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. The mice subcutaneously and continuously treated with nicotine displayed significantly less weight loss and lower inflammatory response than the control mice upon pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. Moreover, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice had more body weight loss than wild-type mice after cigarette smoke exposure and H9N2 infection. Our study provided the first evidence that the pathogenicity of both pdmH1N1 and H9N2 viruses was alleviated in cigarette smoke exposed mice, which might

  10. Influenza virus-induced lung inflammation was modulated by cigarette smoke exposure in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Han

    Full Text Available Although smokers have increased susceptibility and severity of seasonal influenza virus infection, there is no report about the risk of 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pdmH1N1 or avian H9N2 (H9N2/G1 virus infection in smokers. In our study, we used mouse model to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke on pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. Mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 21 days and then infected with pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus. Control mice were exposed to air in parallel. We found that cigarette smoke exposure alone significantly upregulated the lung inflammation. Such prior cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced the disease severity of subsequent pdmH1N1 or H9N2 virus infection. For pdmH1N1 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice had significantly lower mortality than the control mice, possibly due to the significantly decreased production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Similarly, after H9N2 infection, cigarette smoke exposed mice displayed significantly less weight loss, which might be attributed to lower cytokines and chemokines production, less macrophages, neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltration and reduced lung damage compared to the control mice. To further investigate the underlying mechanism, we used nicotine to mimic the effect of cigarette smoke both in vitro and in vivo. Pre-treating the primary human macrophages with nicotine for 72 h significantly decreased their expression of cytokines and chemokines after pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. The mice subcutaneously and continuously treated with nicotine displayed significantly less weight loss and lower inflammatory response than the control mice upon pdmH1N1 or H9N2 infection. Moreover, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout mice had more body weight loss than wild-type mice after cigarette smoke exposure and H9N2 infection. Our study provided the first evidence that the pathogenicity of both pdmH1N1 and H9N2 viruses was alleviated in cigarette smoke exposed

  11. Intestine-Specific Mttp Deletion Decreases Mortality and Prevents Sepsis-Induced Intestinal Injury in a Murine Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Xie, Yan; Dunne, W. Michael; Yoseph, Benyam P.; Burd, Eileen M.; Coopersmith, Craig M.; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2012-01-01

    Background The small intestine plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and has been referred to as the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. One proposed mechanism is that toxic gut-derived lipid factors, transported in mesenteric lymph, induce systemic injury and distant organ failure. However, the pathways involved are yet to be defined and the role of intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion in transporting these lipid factors is unknown. Here we studied the outcome of sepsis in mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO), which exhibit a block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption. Methodology/Principal Findings Mttp-IKO mice and controls underwent intratracheal injection with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or sterile saline. Mttp-IKO mice exhibited decreased seven-day mortality, with 0/20 (0%) dying compared to 5/17 (29%) control mice (p<0.05). This survival advantage in Mttp-IKO mice, however, was not associated with improvements in pulmonary bacterial clearance or neutrophil infiltration. Rather, Mttp-IKO mice exhibited protection against sepsis-associated decreases in villus length and intestinal proliferation and were also protected against increased intestinal apoptosis, both central features in control septic mice. Serum IL-6 levels, a major predictor of mortality in human and mouse models of sepsis, were elevated 8-fold in septic control mice but remained unaltered in septic Mttp-IKO mice. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were reduced in septic control mice but were increased in septic Mttp-IKO mice. The decreased levels of HDL were associated with decreased hepatic expression of apolipoprotein A1 in septic control mice. Conclusions/Significance These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects mediated by

  12. Intestine-specific Mttp deletion decreases mortality and prevents sepsis-induced intestinal injury in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Dominguez

    Full Text Available The small intestine plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of sepsis and has been referred to as the "motor" of the systemic inflammatory response. One proposed mechanism is that toxic gut-derived lipid factors, transported in mesenteric lymph, induce systemic injury and distant organ failure. However, the pathways involved are yet to be defined and the role of intestinal chylomicron assembly and secretion in transporting these lipid factors is unknown. Here we studied the outcome of sepsis in mice with conditional, intestine-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-IKO, which exhibit a block in chylomicron assembly together with lipid malabsorption.Mttp-IKO mice and controls underwent intratracheal injection with either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or sterile saline. Mttp-IKO mice exhibited decreased seven-day mortality, with 0/20 (0% dying compared to 5/17 (29% control mice (p<0.05. This survival advantage in Mttp-IKO mice, however, was not associated with improvements in pulmonary bacterial clearance or neutrophil infiltration. Rather, Mttp-IKO mice exhibited protection against sepsis-associated decreases in villus length and intestinal proliferation and were also protected against increased intestinal apoptosis, both central features in control septic mice. Serum IL-6 levels, a major predictor of mortality in human and mouse models of sepsis, were elevated 8-fold in septic control mice but remained unaltered in septic Mttp-IKO mice. Serum high density lipoprotein (HDL levels were reduced in septic control mice but were increased in septic Mttp-IKO mice. The decreased levels of HDL were associated with decreased hepatic expression of apolipoprotein A1 in septic control mice.These studies suggest that strategies directed at blocking intestinal chylomicron secretion may attenuate the progression and improve the outcome of sepsis through effects mediated by metabolic and physiological adaptations in both intestinal and

  13. Cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), have conducted mortality surveillance on a fixed sample, the Life Span Study (LSS), of 82,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 nonexposed residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki since 1950. The results of the most recent analysis of the LSS are summarized

  14. Mortality Implications of Mortality Plateaus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missov, T. I.; Vaupel, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe in a unified framework all plateau-generating random effects models in terms of (i) plausible distributions for the hazard (baseline mortality) and the random effect (unobserved heterogeneity, frailty) as well as (ii) the impact of frailty on the baseline hazard...

  15. Development of Agrobacterium-mediated virus-induced gene silencing and performance evaluation of four marker genes in Gossypium barbadense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhuan Pang

    Full Text Available Gossypiumbarbadense is a cultivated cotton species and possesses many desirable traits, including high fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, especially Verticilliumdahliae (a devastating pathogen of Gossypium hirsutum, the main cultivated species. These elite traits are difficult to be introduced into G. hirsutum through classical breeding methods. In addition, genetic transformation of G. barbadense has not been successfully performed. It is therefore important to develop methods for evaluating the function and molecular mechanism of genes in G. barbadense. In this study, we had successfully introduced a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS system into three cultivars of G. barbadense by inserting marker genes into the tobacco rattle virus (TRV vector. After we optimized the VIGS conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, seedling age and Agrobacterium strain, 100% of plants agroinfiltrated with the GaPDS silencing vector showed white colored leaves. Three other marker genes, GaCLA1, GaANS and GaANR, were employed to further test this VIGS system in G. barbadense. The transcript levels of the endogenous genes in the silenced plants were reduced by more than 99% compared to control plants; these plants presented phenotypic symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation. We introduced a fusing sequence fragment of GaPDS and GaANR gene silencing vectors into a single plant, which resulted in both photobleaching and brownish coloration. The extent of silencing in plants agroinfiltrated with fusing two-gene-silencing vector was consistent with plants harboring a single gene silencing vector. The development of this VIGS system should promote analysis of gene function in G. barbadense, and help to contribute desirable traits for breeding of G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.

  16. Bradykinin-induced lung inflammation and bronchoconstriction: role in parainfluenze-3 virus-induced inflammation and airway hyperreactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Kenneth J; Blair, Alan E; Kidd, Emma J; Bugert, Joachim J; Ford, William R

    2010-12-01

    Inhaled bradykinin causes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects but not nonasthmatics. To date, animal studies with inhaled bradykinin have been performed only in anesthetized guinea pigs and rats, where it causes bronchoconstriction through sensory nerve pathways. In the present study, airway function was recorded in conscious guinea pigs by whole-body plethysmography. Inhaled bradykinin (1 mM, 20 s) caused bronchoconstriction and influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs, but only when the enzymatic breakdown of bradykinin by angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase was inhibited by captopril (1 mg/kg i.p.) and phosphoramidon (10 mM, 20-min inhalation), respectively. The bronchoconstriction and cell influx were antagonized by the B(2) kinin receptor antagonist 4-(S)-amino-5-(4-{4-[2,4-dichloro-3-(2,4-dimethyl-8-quinolyloxymethyl)phenylsulfonamido]-tetrahydro-2H-4-pyranylcarbonyl}piperazino)-5-oxopentyl](trimethyl)ammonium chloride hydrochloride (MEN16132) when given by inhalation (1 and 10 μM, 20 min) and are therefore mediated via B(2) kinin receptors. However, neither intraperitioneal MEN16132 nor the peptide B(2) antagonist icatibant, by inhalation, antagonized these bradykinin responses. Sensitization of guinea pigs with ovalbumin was not sufficient to induce airway hyperreactivity (AHR) to the bronchoconstriction by inhaled bradykinin. However, ovalbumin challenge of sensitized guinea pigs caused AHR to bradykinin and histamine. Infection of guinea pigs by nasal instillation of parainfluenza-3 virus produced AHR to inhaled histamine and lung influx of inflammatory cells. These responses were attenuated by the bradykinin B(2) receptor antagonist MEN16132 and H-(4-chloro)DPhe-2'(1-naphthylalanine)-(3-aminopropyl)guanidine (VA999024), an inhibitor of tissue kallikrein, the enzyme responsible for lung synthesis of bradykinin. These results suggest that bradykinin is involved in virus-induced inflammatory cell influx and AHR.

  17. JC virus induces altered patterns of cellular gene expression: Interferon-inducible genes as major transcriptional targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Saguna; Ziegler, Katja; Ananthula, Praveen; Co, Juliene K.G.; Frisque, Richard J.; Yanagihara, Richard; Nerurkar, Vivek R.

    2006-01-01

    Human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects 80% of the population worldwide. Primary infection, typically occurring during childhood, is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals and results in lifelong latency and persistent infection. However, among the severely immunocompromised, JCV may cause a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well understood, although significant regulation of JCV activity is thought to occur at the level of transcription. Regulation of the JCV early and late promoters during the lytic cycle is a complex event that requires participation of both viral and cellular factors. We have used cDNA microarray technology to analyze global alterations in gene expression in JCV-permissive primary human fetal glial cells (PHFG). Expression of more than 400 cellular genes was altered, including many that influence cell proliferation, cell communication and interferon (IFN)-mediated host defense responses. Genes in the latter category included signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon stimulating gene 56 (ISG56), myxovirus resistance 1 (MxA), 2'5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS), and cig5. The expression of these genes was further confirmed in JCV-infected PHFG cells and the human glioblastoma cell line U87MG to ensure the specificity of JCV in inducing this strong antiviral response. Results obtained by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analyses supported the microarray data and provide temporal information related to virus-induced changes in the IFN response pathway. Our data indicate that the induction of an antiviral response may be one of the cellular factors regulating/controlling JCV replication in immunocompetent hosts and therefore constraining the development of PML

  18. Bioinformatics analysis of the factors controlling type I IFN gene expression in autoimmune disease and virus-induced immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di eFeng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS display increased levels of type I IFN-induced genes. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs are natural interferon producing cells and considered to be a primary source of IFN-α in these two diseases. Differential expression patterns of type I IFN inducible transcripts can be found in different immune cell subsets and in patients with both active and inactive autoimmune disease. A type I IFN gene signature generally consists of three groups of IFN-induced genes - those regulated in response to virus-induced type I IFN, those regulated by the IFN-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK pathway, and those by the IFN-induced phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K pathway. These three groups of type I IFN-regulated genes control important cellular processes such as apoptosis, survival, adhesion, and chemotaxis, that when dysregulated, contribute to autoimmunity. With the recent generation of large datasets in the public domain from next-generation sequencing and DNA microarray experiments, one can perform detailed analyses of cell type-specific gene signatures as well as identify distinct transcription factors that differentially regulate these gene signatures. We have performed bioinformatics analysis of data in the public domain and experimental data from our lab to gain insight into the regulation of type I IFN gene expression. We have found that the genetic landscape of the IFNA and IFNB genes are occupied by transcription factors, such as insulators CTCF and cohesin, that negatively regulate transcription, as well as IRF5 and IRF7, that positively and distinctly regulate IFNA subtypes. A detailed understanding of the factors controlling type I IFN gene transcription will significantly aid in the identification and development of new therapeutic strategies targeting the IFN pathway in autoimmune disease.

  19. Characteristics of adipose tissue macrophages and macrophage-derived insulin-like growth factor-1 in virus-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S; Park, H-L; Lee, S-Y; Nam, J-H

    2016-03-01

    Various pathogens are implicated in the induction of obesity. Previous studies have confirmed that human adenovirus 36 (Ad36) is associated with increased adiposity, improved glycemic control and induction of inflammation. The Ad36-induced inflammation is reflected in the infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue. However, the characteristics and role of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and macrophage-secreted factors in virus-induced obesity (VIO) are unclear. Although insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is involved in obesity metabolism, the contribution of IGF secreted by macrophages in VIO has not been studied. Four-week-old male mice were studied 1 week and 12 weeks after Ad36 infection for determining the characteristics of ATMs in VIO and diet-induced obesity (DIO). In addition, macrophage-specific IGF-1-deficient (MIKO) mice were used to study the involvement of IGF-1 in VIO. In the early stage of VIO (1 week after Ad36 infection), the M1 ATM sub-population increased, which increased the M1/M2 ratio, whereas DIO did not cause this change. In the late stage of VIO (12 weeks after Ad36 infection), the M1/M2 ratio did not change because the M1 and M2 ATM sub-populations increased to a similar extent, despite an increase in adiposity. By contrast, DIO increased the M1/M2 ratio. In addition, VIO in wild-type mice upregulated angiogenesis in adipose tissue and improved glycemic control. However, MIKO mice showed no increase in adiposity, angiogenesis, infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue, or improvement in glycemic control after Ad36 infection. These data suggest that IGF-1 secreted by macrophages may contribute to hyperplasia and hypertrophy in adipose tissue by increasing angiogenesis, which helps to maintain the 'adipose tissue robustness'.

  20. Virus-Induced Silencing of Key Genes Leads to Differential Impact on Withanolide Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Plant, Withania somnifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Aditya Vikram; Singh, Deeksha; Dhar, Yogeshwar Vikram; Michael, Rahul; Gupta, Parul; Chandra, Deepak; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Withanolides are a collection of naturally occurring, pharmacologically active, secondary metabolites synthesized in the medicinally important plant, Withania somnifera. These bioactive molecules are C28-steroidal lactone triterpenoids and their synthesis is proposed to take place via the mevalonate (MVA) and 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathways through the sterol pathway using 24-methylene cholesterol as substrate flux. Although the phytochemical profiles as well as pharmaceutical activities of Withania extracts have been well studied, limited genomic information and difficult genetic transformation have been a major bottleneck towards understanding the participation of specific genes in withanolide biosynthesis. In this study, we used the Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-mediated virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach to study the participation of key genes from MVA, MEP and triterpenoid biosynthesis for their involvement in withanolide biosynthesis. TRV-infected W. somnifera plants displayed unique phenotypic characteristics and differential accumulation of total Chl as well as carotenoid content for each silenced gene suggesting a reduction in overall isoprenoid synthesis. Comprehensive expression analysis of putative genes of withanolide biosynthesis revealed transcriptional modulations conferring the presence of complex regulatory mechanisms leading to withanolide biosynthesis. In addition, silencing of genes exhibited modulated total and specific withanolide accumulation at different levels as compared with control plants. Comparative analysis also suggests a major role for the MVA pathway as compared with the MEP pathway in providing substrate flux for withanolide biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of selected Withania genes of the triterpenoid biosynthetic pathway critically affects withanolide biosynthesis, providing new horizons to explore this process further, in planta.

  1. Virus-induced plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 silencing inhibits plant water transport of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juanjuan; Ye, Guoliang; Qian, Zhengjiang; Ye, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are known to facilitate water transport across cell membranes, but the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport, particularly in plants other than Arabidopsis remains largely unexplored. In the present study, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique was employed to suppress the expression of a specific plasma membrane aquaporin PsPIP2;1 of Pea plants (Pisum sativum), and subsequent effects of the gene suppression on root hydraulic conductivity (Lp r ), leaf hydraulic conductivity (K leaf ), root cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp rc ), and leaf cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp lc ) were investigated, using hydroponically grown Pea plants. Compared with control plants, VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants displayed a significant suppression of PsPIP2;1 in both roots and leaves, while the expression of other four PIP isoforms (PsPIP1;1, PsPIP1;2, PsPIP2;2, and PsPIP2;3) that were simultaneously monitored were not altered. As a consequence, significant declines in water transport of VIGS-PsPIP2;1 plants were observed at both organ and cell levels, i.e., as compared to control plants, Lp r and K leaf were reduced by 29 %, and Lp rc and Lp lc were reduced by 20 and 29 %, respectively. Our results demonstrate that PsPIP2;1 alone contributes substantially to root and leaf water transport in Pea plants, and highlight VIGS a useful tool for investigating the role of a single AQP in regulating plant water transport.

  2. Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains function as nuclear protein quality control centers during HSV-1 infection.

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    Christine M Livingston

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Virus-Induced Chaperone-Enriched (VICE domains form adjacent to nuclear viral replication compartments (RC during the early stages of HSV-1 infection. Between 2 and 3 hours post infection at a MOI of 10, host protein quality control machinery such as molecular chaperones (e.g. Hsc70, the 20S proteasome and ubiquitin are reorganized from a diffuse nuclear distribution pattern to sequestration in VICE domains. The observation that VICE domains contain putative misfolded proteins suggests that they may be similar to nuclear inclusion bodies that form under conditions in which the protein quality control machinery is overwhelmed by the presence of misfolded proteins. The detection of Hsc70 in VICE domains, but not in nuclear inclusion bodies, indicates that Hsc70 is specifically reorganized by HSV-1 infection. We hypothesize that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of nuclear protein quality control centers to remodel or degrade aberrant nuclear proteins that would otherwise interfere with productive infection. Detection of proteolytic activity in VICE domains suggests that substrates may be degraded by the 20S proteasome in VICE domains. FRAP analysis reveals that GFP-Hsc70 is dynamically associated with VICE domains, suggesting a role for Hsc70 in scanning the infected nucleus for misfolded proteins. During 42 degrees C heat shock, Hsc70 is redistributed from VICE domains into RC perhaps to remodel viral replication and regulatory proteins that have become insoluble in these compartments. The experiments presented in this paper suggest that VICE domains are nuclear protein quality control centers that are modified by HSV-1 to promote productive infection.

  3. A Virus-Induced Assay for Functional Dissection and Analysis of Monocot and Dicot Flowering Time Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Chen, Weiwei; Shen, Jiajia; Cheng, Linming; Akande, Femi; Zhang, Ke; Yuan, Chen; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Pengcheng; Shi, Nongnong; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Yule; Jackson, Stephen; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-06-01

    Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T ( FT ) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth. Ectopic delivery of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) AtFT by PVX/AtFT did not induce the expression of the endogenous FT ortholog NtFT4 ; however, it was sufficient to trigger flowering in Maryland Mammoth plants grown under noninductive long-day conditions. Infected tobacco plants developed no systemic symptoms, and the PVX-based VIF did not cause transgenerational flowering. We showed that the PVX-based VIF is a much more rapid method to examine the impacts of single amino acid mutations on AtFT for floral induction than making individual transgenic Arabidopsis lines for each mutation. We also used the PVX-based VIF to demonstrate that adding a His- or FLAG-tag to the N or C terminus of AtFT could affect its florigenic activity and that this system can be applied to assay the function of FT genes from heterologous species, including tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) SFT and rice ( Oryza sativa ) Hd3a Thus, the PVX-based VIF represents a simple and efficient system to identify individual amino acids that are essential for FT-mediated floral induction and to test the ability of mono- and dicotyledonous FT genes and FT fusion proteins to induce flowering. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. GM-CSF overexpression after influenza a virus infection prevents mortality and moderates M1-like airway monocyte/macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, E Scott; Umstead, Todd M; Davies, Michael L; Kawasawa, Yuka Imamura; Silveyra, Patricia; Howyrlak, Judie; Yang, Linlin; Guo, Weichao; Hu, Sanmei; Hewage, Eranda Kurundu; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2018-01-05

    Influenza A viruses cause life-threatening pneumonia and lung injury in the lower respiratory tract. Application of high GM-CSF levels prior to infection has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality from pathogenic influenza infection in mice, but the mechanisms of protection and treatment efficacy have not been established. Mice were infected intranasally with influenza A virus (PR8 strain). Supra-physiologic levels of GM-CSF were induced in the airways using the double transgenic GM-CSF (DTGM) or littermate control mice starting on 3 days post-infection (dpi). Assessment of respiratory mechanical parameters was performed using the flexiVent rodent ventilator. RNA sequence analysis was performed on FACS-sorted airway macrophage subsets at 8 dpi. Supra-physiologic levels of GM-CSF conferred a survival benefit, arrested the deterioration of lung mechanics, and reduced the abundance of protein exudates in bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid to near baseline levels. Transcriptome analysis, and subsequent validation ELISA assays, revealed that excess GM-CSF re-directs macrophages from an "M1-like" to a more "M2-like" activation state as revealed by alterations in the ratios of CXCL9 and CCL17 in BAL fluid, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis predicted that GM-CSF surplus during IAV infection elicits expression of anti-inflammatory mediators and moderates M1 macrophage pro-inflammatory signaling by Type II interferon (IFN-γ). Our data indicate that application of high levels of GM-CSF in the lung after influenza A virus infection alters pathogenic "M1-like" macrophage inflammation. These results indicate a possible therapeutic strategy for respiratory virus-associated pneumonia and acute lung injury.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilli, Ennio; Sozio, Federica; Di Stefano, Paola; Clerico, Luigi; Di Iorio, Giancarlo; Parruti, Giustino

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1±13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67%) were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33%) patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p=0.01) and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p=0.02) were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (pWeb-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Variación de los indicadores de mortalidad evitable entre comunas chilenas como aproximación a las desigualdades de salud Using different indicators of preventable mortality as an approach to measuring health inequalities in Chilean municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Gattini

    2002-12-01

    from specific avoidable causes. The use of three reference values (the mean, the quintile with the greatest SEDI, and the optimal empirical reference value makes it possible to measure gaps that could be avoided. The ratio of the lowest SEDI quintile to the empirical optimal reference value was 2.1 for AM, 2.0 for PYLL, 1.7 for infant mortality, and 1.5 for HCAMR. CONCLUSIONS: These results, which are consistent with those found in previous published sources, estimate the magnitude and pattern of variations among communes. The results also provide information, based on data for 1992, with which to start monitoring health inequalities among small geographic areas, which were communes in this particular case. Although interventions for promoting equity tend to focus exclusively on communes having lower socioeconomic development and higher rates of avoidable mortality, reducing the latter implies a two-pronged approach: prioritizing interventions targeting underprivileged communes so as to foster equity, while attempting to cover the majority of communes in an effort to prevent avoidable mortality.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the impact of a Web-based HIV testing programme in Abruzzo Region on the prevention of late HIV presentation and associated mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennio Polilli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of a Web-based testing programme in terms of the prevention of late HIV presentation. The clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV via the Web-based testing programme were compared to those of patients diagnosed in parallel via standard diagnostic care procedures. Methods: This study included the clinical and demographic data of newly diagnosed HIV patients enrolled at the study clinic between February 2014 and June 2017. These patients were diagnosed either via standard diagnostic procedures or as a result of the Web-based testing programme. Results: Eighty-eight new cases of HIV were consecutively enrolled; their mean age was 39.1 ± 13.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (67% were diagnosed through standard diagnostic procedures and 29 (33% patients came from the Web-based testing programme. Late presentation (62% vs. 34%, p = 0.01 and AIDS-defining conditions at presentation (13 vs. 1, p = 0.02 were significantly more frequent in the standard care group than in the Web-based group; four of 13 patients with AIDS diagnosed under standard diagnostic procedures died, versus none in the Web-based testing group (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Web-based recruitment for voluntary and free HIV testing helped to diagnose patients with less advanced HIV disease and no risk of death, from all at-risk groups, in comparison with standard care testing. Keywords: AIDS, HIV, Late presentation, Voluntary and free testing, HIV diagnosis, Sexually transmitted infections

  8. Cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin 20 mg for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: a Swedish economic evaluation of the JUPITER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsfeldt, Robert L; Olsson, Anders G; Jensen, Marie M; Gandhi, Sanjay K; Paulsson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study estimated the long-term health outcomes, healthcare costs, and cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin 20 mg therapy in primary prevention of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a Swedish population. Based on data from the JUPITER trial, long-term CVD outcomes with rosuvastatin vs no active treatment were estimated for patients with an elevated baseline CVD risk (Framingham CVD score >20%, sub-population of JUPITER population) and for a population similar to the total JUPITER population. Using a decision-analytic model, trial CVD event rates were combined with epidemiological and cost data specific for Sweden. First and subsequent CVD events and death were estimated over a lifetime perspective. The observed relative risk reduction was extrapolated beyond the trial duration. Incremental effectiveness was measured as life-years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. Treating 100,000 patients with rosuvastatin 20 mg was estimated to avoid 14,692 CVD events over the lifetime (8021 non-fatal MIs, 3228 non-fatal strokes, and 4924 CVD deaths) compared to placebo. This translated into an estimated gain of 42,122 QALYs and 36,865 total life years (LYG). Rosuvastatin was both more effective and less costly over a lifetime perspective, and rosuvastatin is subsequently a dominant alternative compared to no treatment in the assessed population. Using the overall JUPITER population, rosuvastatin was dominant for the lifetime horizon. In the sensitivity analysis, rosuvastatin was the dominant treatment strategy over a 20-year time horizon, and cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (cost per QALY) of SEK 1783 over a 10-year time horizon. Some model inputs were derived from literature or other data sources, but uncertainty was controlled by sensitivity analyses. Results indicate that rosuvastatin 20 mg treatment is a cost-effective option vs no-treatment in patients with Framingham CVD risk >20% in Sweden and might even be

  9. Intervenções benéficas no pré-natal para prevenção da mortalidade materna Beneficial interventions for maternal mortality prevention in the prenatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema de Mattos Paranhos Calderon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A razão de mortalidade materna (MM é indicador da qualidade de saúde, influenciada diretamente pelo grau de desenvolvimento econômico-cultural-tecnológico de um país. Os dados oficiais de MM no Brasil, ainda que subestimados, sinalizam a falta de qualidade dos serviços de assistência à gestação, parto e puerpério. Esta característica é comum entre os países em desenvolvimento, onde estão as gestantes mais necessitadas e com maior dificuldade de acesso a assistência de qualidade. A assistência pré-natal não pode prevenir as principais complicações do parto, causas importantes de MM, mas algumas intervenções no pré-natal poderão favorecer o prognóstico materno e prevenir a MM. Neste contexto, o artigo faz uma atualização, embasada em evidências científicas, sobre intervenções efetivas no pré-natal para prevenção da mortalidade materna. As estratégias mais importantes constituem um tripé, com intervenções específicas relacionadas a promoção da saúde materna, prevenção dos riscos e garantia de suporte nutricional durante a gestação, além de critérios para investigação do risco gestacional e inclusão da gestante no componente básico do modelo de assistência pré-natal. Finaliza com a definição de prioridades na prevenção de MM relacionada à eclâmpsia/pré-eclâmpsia e reforça a importância da normatização dos sistemas de referência para os casos de emergência obstétrica.Maternal mortality rate (MM is a health quality indicator that is directly influenced by the economic, cultural and technological level of a country. Official data of MM in Brazil, although underestimated, point to the lack of quality in pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium care services. This characteristic is common in developing countries, where poorer pregnant women as well as those facing greater difficulty to quality care access are found. Prenatal care cannot prevent major childbirth complications, which are

  10. Mortality, Morbidity, and Developmental Outcomes in Infants Born to Women Who Received Either Mefloquine or Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine as Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rupérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp on the health of sub-Saharan African infants. We have evaluated the safety of IPTp with mefloquine (MQ compared to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for important infant health and developmental outcomes.In the context of a multicenter randomized controlled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of IPTp with MQ compared to SP in pregnancy carried out in four sub-Saharan countries (Mozambique, Benin, Gabon, and Tanzania, 4,247 newborns, 2,815 born to women who received MQ and 1,432 born to women who received SP for IPTp, were followed up until 12 mo of age. Anthropometric parameters and psychomotor development were assessed at 1, 9, and 12 mo of age, and the incidence of malaria, anemia, hospital admissions, outpatient visits, and mortality were determined until 12 mo of age. No significant differences were found in the proportion of infants with stunting, underweight, wasting, and severe acute malnutrition at 1, 9, and 12 mo of age between infants born to women who were on IPTp with MQ versus SP. Except for three items evaluated at 9 mo of age, no significant differences were observed in the psychomotor development milestones assessed. Incidence of malaria, anemia, hospital admissions, outpatient visits, and mortality were similar between the two groups. Information on the outcomes at 12 mo of age was unavailable in 26% of the infants, 761 (27% from the MQ group and 377 (26% from the SP group. Reasons for not completing the study were death (4% of total study population, study withdrawal (6%, migration (8%, and loss to follow-up (9%.No significant differences were found between IPTp with MQ and SP administered in pregnancy on infant mortality, morbidity, and nutritional outcomes. The poorer performance on certain psychomotor development milestones at 9 mo of age in children born to women in the MQ group compared to those in the SP group may deserve

  11. IL-36 receptor deletion attenuates lung injury and decreases mortality in murine influenza pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, T; Newstead, M W; Zeng, X; Kunkel, S L; Kaku, M; Standiford, T J

    2017-07-01

    Influenza virus causes a respiratory disease in humans that can progress to lung injury with fatal outcome. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are newly described IL-1 family cytokines that promote inflammatory responses via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). The mechanism of expression and the role of IL-36 cytokines are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of IL-36 cytokines in modulating the innate inflammatory response during influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mice. The intranasal administration of influenza virus upregulated IL-36α mRNA and protein production in the lungs. In vitro, influenza virus-mediated IL-36α but not IL-36γ is induced and secreted from alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) through both a caspase-1 and caspase-3/7 dependent pathway. IL-36α was detected in microparticles shed from AECs and promoted the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in respiratory cells. IL-36R-deficient mice were protected from influenza virus-induced lung injury and mortality. Decreased mortality was associated with significantly reduced early accumulation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, activation of lymphocytes, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and permeability of the alveolar-epithelial barrier in despite impaired viral clearance. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-36 ligands exacerbate lung injury during influenza virus infection.

  12. Prevenção da mortalidade materna: desafio para o enfermeiro Prevención de la mortalidad materna: un desafío para la enfermera Maternal mortality prevention: a challenge for nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Santos Barbastefano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analisamos os principais aspectos sobre a mortalidade materna, tendo como objetivo a promoção de ações preventivas para a morte materna evitável. Verifica-se que entidades como a ADVOCACY têm significativa participação nos projetos visando redução das taxas de mortalidade materna e o ajustamento de condutas de proteção aos direitos da mulher. Observa-se ainda que a SES, através das Resoluções nº 1.052/95 e nº 1.642/2001, expressa a política estadual para redução do problema. Conclui-se que há indícios de vontade política nas propostas e projetos para redução das taxas de mortalidade materna evitável, porém não há cobrança da sua efetividade. Profissionais da saúde como o enfermeiro, precisam reunir esforços, conscientização e sensibilização em suas ações preventivas.En este artículo se analizan los aspectos principales sobre mortalidad maternal que tiene como objetivo la promoción de acciones preventivas para la muerte materna evitable. Se verifica que las entidades como la ADVOCACY tienen participación significante en los proyectos que buscan la reducción de la tasa de mortalidad materna y el ajuste de procedimientos de protección de los derechos de la mujer. También se observa que la Secretaria Estatal de Salud, a través de las Resoluciones nº 1.052/95 y nº1.642/2001, expresa las políticas estatales para la reducción del problema. Se concluye que hay indicaciones de voluntad política sobre las propuestas y proyectos para reducir las tasas de mortalidad materna evitables. Sin embargo no hay demandas sobre su efectividad. Los profesionales de salud como enfermeras necesitan recoger los esfuerzos, y también una actitud de comprensión y sensibilidad en sus acciones preventivas.In this article theprincipal aspects about maternal mortality are analyzed, with the objective the promotion of preventive actions for the avoidable maternal death. It is verified that entities as ADVOCACY have

  13. High mortality in HIV-infected children diagnosed in hospital underscores need for faster diagnostic turnaround time in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anjuli; Slyker, Jennifer; Langat, Agnes; Inwani, Irene; Adhiambo, Judith; Benki-Nugent, Sarah; Tapia, Ken; Njuguna, Irene; Wamalwa, Dalton; John-Stewart, Grace

    2015-02-15

    Despite expanded programs for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), HIV-infected infants may not be diagnosed until they are ill. Comparing HIV prevalence and outcomes in infants diagnosed in PMTCT programs to those in hospital settings may improve pediatric HIV diagnosis strategies. HIV-exposed infants turnaround time for tests were compared between PMTCT programs and hospital sites. Among the enrolled cohort, baseline characteristics, survival, and timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation were compared between infants diagnosed in PMTCT programs versus hospital. Among 1,923 HIV-exposed infants, HIV prevalence was higher among infants tested in hospital than PMTCT early infant diagnosis (EID) sites (41% vs. 11%, p 3 times as likely to die (HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.3-7.6). Among HIV-exposed infants, hospital-based testing was more likely to detect an HIV-infected infant than PMTCT testing. Because young symptomatic infants diagnosed with HIV during hospitalization have very high mortality, every effort should be made to diagnose HIV infections before symptom onset. Systems to expedite turnaround time at PMTCT EID sites and to routinize inpatient pediatric HIV testing are necessary to improve pediatric HIV outcomes.

  14. Derivation of chicken induced pluripotent stem cells tolerant to Newcastle disease virus-induced lysis through multiple rounds of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Newcastle disease (ND), caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a devastating disease of poultry and wild birds. ND is prevented by rigorous biocontainment and vaccination. One potential approach to prevent spread of the virus is production of birds that show innate resistance to NDV...

  15. Suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 are up-regulated in brain resident cells in response to virus induced inflammation of the CNS via at least two distinctive pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Maria Abildgaard; Fenger, Christina; Christensen, Jeanette Erbo

    2014-01-01

    underlie a virus induced up-regulation of SOCS in the CNS. We found that i.c. infection with either lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) or yellow fever virus (YF) results in gradual up-regulation of SOCS1/3 mRNA expression peaking at day 7 post infection (p.i.). In the LCMV model, SOCS m...

  16. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  17. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R....... Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer...... are small and appear to be explicable. The Prevent model can be used for more general scenarios of effective health promotion, but it requires more data than the Peto et al method, which can be used only to estimate mortality related to smoking....

  18. Multiple granulomatous lung lesions in a patient with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai Aki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Granulomatous lesions are commonly encountered abnormalities in pulmonary pathology, and often pose a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of granulomatous lung disease with uncommon characteristics, which developed following Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. We aim to highlight a diagnostic approach for the condition and to raise awareness of the possibility of it being related to the immunological reaction caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Case presentation A 36-year-old Japanese man, who had been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome three weeks previously, presented to our facility with fever and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple small nodules in both lungs. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytosis with predominance of T lymphocytes. A histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracic surgery showed randomly distributed tiny granulomatous lesions with infiltration of eosinophils. The differential diagnoses included hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary involvement of Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren’s syndrome, but the clinical and pathological findings were not consistent with any of these. Our patient’s condition did not improve; therefore, prednisolone therapy was started because of the possibility of specific immunological reactions associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. After steroid treatment, our patient showed radiological and clinical improvement. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing randomly distributed multiple granulomatous lung lesions with eosinophilic infiltrates after Epstein-Barr virus infection and systemic

  19. NS Segment of a 1918 Influenza A Virus-Descendent Enhances Replication of H1N1pdm09 and Virus-Induced Cellular Immune Response in Mammalian and Avian Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Henning; Mostafa, Ahmed; Tantawy, Mohamed A.; Iqbal, Azeem A.; Hoffmann, Donata; Tallam, Aravind; Selvakumar, Balachandar; Pessler, Frank; Beer, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke; Pleschka, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    The 2009 pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) H1N1 strain (H1N1pdm09) has widely spread and is circulating in humans and swine together with other human and avian IAVs. This fact raises the concern that reassortment between H1N1pdm09 and co-circulating viruses might lead to an increase of H1N1pdm09 pathogenicity in different susceptible host species. Herein, we explored the potential of different NS segments to enhance the replication dynamics, pathogenicity and host range of H1N1pdm09 strain A/Giessen/06/09 (Gi-wt). The NS segments were derived from (i) human H1N1- and H3N2 IAVs, (ii) highly pathogenic- (H5- or H7-subtypes) or (iii) low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H7- or H9-subtypes). A significant increase of growth kinetics in A549 (human lung epithelia) and NPTr (porcine tracheal epithelia) cells was only noticed in vitro for the reassortant Gi-NS-PR8 carrying the NS segment of the 1918-descendent A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8-wt, H1N1), whereas all other reassortants showed either reduced or comparable replication efficiencies. Analysis using ex vivo tracheal organ cultures of turkeys (TOC-Tu), a species susceptible to IAV H1N1 infection, demonstrated increased replication of Gi-NS-PR8 compared to Gi-wt. Also, Gi-NS-PR8 induced a markedly higher expression of immunoregulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and interferon-stimulated genes in A549 cells, THP-1-derived macrophages (dHTP) and TOC-Tu. In vivo, Gi-NS-PR8 induced an earlier onset of mortality than Gi-wt in mice, whereas, 6-week-old chickens were found to be resistant to both viruses. These data suggest that the specific characteristics of the PR8 NS segments can impact on replication, virus induced cellular immune responses and pathogenicity of the H1N1pdm09 in different avian and mammalian host species. PMID:29623073

  20. Infection of mice with a human influenza A/H3N2 virus induces protective immunity against lethal infection with influenza A/H5N1 virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Bodewes, R; van den Brand, J M A; de Mutsert, G; Baas, C; van Amerongen, G; Fouchier, R A M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2009-08-06

    The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A viruses of the H5N1 subtype from poultry to man and the high case fatality rate fuels the fear for a pandemic outbreak caused by these viruses. However, prior infections with seasonal influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses induce heterosubtypic immunity that could afford a certain degree of protection against infection with the HPAI A/H5N1 viruses, which are distantly related to the human influenza A viruses. To assess the protective efficacy of such heterosubtypic immunity mice were infected with human influenza virus A/Hong Kong/2/68 (H3N2) 4 weeks prior to a lethal infection with HPAI virus A/Indonesia/5/05 (H5N1). Prior infection with influenza virus A/Hong Kong/2/68 reduced clinical signs, body weight loss, mortality and virus replication in the lungs as compared to naive mice infected with HPAI virus A/Indonesia/5/05. Priming by infection with respiratory syncytial virus, a non-related virus did not have a beneficial effect on the outcome of A/H5N1 infections, indicating that adaptive immune responses were responsible for the protective effect. In mice primed by infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for NP(366-374) epitope ASNENMDAM and PA(224-232) SCLENFRAYV were observed. A small proportion of these CTL was cross-reactive with the peptide variant derived from the influenza A/H5N1 virus (ASNENMEVM and SSLENFRAYV respectively) and upon challenge infection with the influenza A/H5N1 virus cross-reactive CTL were selectively expanded. These CTL, in addition to those directed to conserved epitopes, shared by the influenza A/H3N2 and A/H5N1 viruses, most likely contributed to accelerated clearance of the influenza A/H5N1 virus infection. Although also other arms of the adaptive immune response may contribute to heterosubtypic immunity, the induction of virus-specific CTL may be an attractive target for development of broad protective vaccines. Furthermore the

  1. Chapter 5 - Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. Extremely high mortality, however, can also be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  2. Mortality table construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutawanir

    2015-12-01

    Mortality tables play important role in actuarial studies such as life annuities, premium determination, premium reserve, valuation pension plan, pension funding. Some known mortality tables are CSO mortality table, Indonesian Mortality Table, Bowers mortality table, Japan Mortality table. For actuary applications some tables are constructed with different environment such as single decrement, double decrement, and multiple decrement. There exist two approaches in mortality table construction : mathematics approach and statistical approach. Distribution model and estimation theory are the statistical concepts that are used in mortality table construction. This article aims to discuss the statistical approach in mortality table construction. The distributional assumptions are uniform death distribution (UDD) and constant force (exponential). Moment estimation and maximum likelihood are used to estimate the mortality parameter. Moment estimation methods are easier to manipulate compared to maximum likelihood estimation (mle). However, the complete mortality data are not used in moment estimation method. Maximum likelihood exploited all available information in mortality estimation. Some mle equations are complicated and solved using numerical methods. The article focus on single decrement estimation using moment and maximum likelihood estimation. Some extension to double decrement will introduced. Simple dataset will be used to illustrated the mortality estimation, and mortality table.

  3. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  4. [Mortality cost of smoking in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobacho Tornel, Ma Belén; López Nicolás, Angel; Ramos Parreño, José María

    2010-01-01

    Public policies are crucial for smoking prevention and improving health among the population. Despite the positive impact in Spain of the law for smoking prevention in 2006, there is room for further improvement in this area of public policy. The estimate of the mortality cost per pack of cigarretes is a crucial factor in cost-benefit analysis for policies aimed to reducing smoking induced mortality. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we estimate the Value of Statistical Life (VSL) among Spanish smokers. Secondly, we quantify the mortality cost of smoking. We use a hedonic wage model to quantify the marginal value of an increase in the mortality risk in monetary terms. We estimate the model for the Spanish labour market using the European Community Household Data and the Encuesta de Accidentes de Trabajo from the Ministerio de Trabajo e Inmigración. We estimate a VSL of 3.78 million Euros for Spanish smokers. Using this value, in conjunction with the increase in the mortality risk over the life cycle due to smoking, the private mortality cost of smoking is 78 Euros per pack for men, and 54 Euros per pack for women (in 2000 Euros). The mortality cost per pack of cigarettes is highly above its market price.

  5. Excess mortality in hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind; Christensen, Kaare

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding.......Hyperthyroidism is associated with severe comorbidity, such as stroke, and seems to confer increased mortality. However, it is unknown whether this increased mortality is explained by hyperthyroidism per se, comorbidity, and/or genetic confounding....

  6. Effect of healthcare on mortality: trends in avoidable mortality in Umbria, Italy, 1994-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Stracci

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Avoidable mortality trends over the period 1994-2009 were calculated to evaluate health intervention by the health system of Umbria, a region of central Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mortality data were supplied by the regional causes of death registry. Rates were standardized to the 2001 census Italian population. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze the trends. RESULTS: Overall avoidable mortality rates decreased significantly both in males (-3.9% per year and in females (-3.6% per year. Mortality rates from ischemic heart and cerebrovascular disease about halved in the study period in both sexes. Avoidable mortality increased slightly only for a few causes (e.g. lung cancer in females. CONCLUSION: The overall trend of avoidable mortality indicates that the regional health/ preventive system is performing well.

  7. Inducible Major Vault Protein Plays a Pivotal Role in Double-Stranded RNA- or Virus-Induced Proinflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Nanfang; Liu, Shi; Xia, Zhangchuan; Ren, Sheng; Feng, Jian; Jing, Mingzhen; Gao, Xin; Wiemer, Erik A C; Zhu, Ying

    2016-03-15

    Pathogen invasion triggers robust antiviral cytokine production via different transcription factor signaling pathways. We have previously demonstrated that major vault protein (MVP) induces type I IFN production during viral infection; however, little is known about the role of MVP in proinflammatory responses. In this study, we found in vitro that expression of MVP, IL-6, and IL-8 was inducible upon dsRNA stimulation or viral infection. Moreover, MVP was essential for the induction of IL-6 and IL-8, as impaired expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in MVP-deficient human PBMCs, human lung epithelial cells (A549), and THP-1 monocytes, as well as in murine splenocytes, peritoneal macrophages, and PBMCs from MVP-knockout (MVP(-/-)) mice, was observed. Upon investigation of the underlying mechanisms, we demonstrated that MVP acted in synergy with AP-1 (c-Fos) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)β-liver-enriched transcriptional activating protein to activate the IL6 and IL8 promoters. Introduction of mutations into the AP-1 and C/EBPβ binding sites on the IL6 and IL8 promoters resulted in the loss of synergistic activation with MVP. Furthermore, we found that MVP interacted with both c-Fos and C/EBPβ. The interactions promoted nuclear translocation and recruitment of these transcription factors to IL6 and IL8 promoter regions. In the MVP(-/-) mouse model, significantly decreased expression of early antiviral cytokines resulted in higher viral titer in the lung, higher mortality, and heavier lung damage after infection with lethal influenza A virus. Taken together, our findings help to delineate a novel role of MVP in host proinflammatory response. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. White spot syndrome virus induces metabolic changes resembling the warburg effect in shrimp hemocytes in the early stage of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Tung; Aoki, Takashi; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Hirono, Ikuo; Chen, Tsan-Chi; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Chang, Geen-Dong; Lo, Chu-Fang; Wang, Han-Ching

    2011-12-01

    The Warburg effect is an abnormal glycolysis response that is associated with cancer cells. Here we present evidence that metabolic changes resembling the Warburg effect are induced by a nonmammalian virus. When shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), changes were induced in several metabolic pathways related to the mitochondria. At the viral genome replication stage (12 h postinfection [hpi]), glucose consumption and plasma lactate concentration were both increased in WSSV-infected shrimp, and the key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), showed increased activity. We also found that at 12 hpi there was no alteration in the ADP/ATP ratio and that oxidative stress was lower than that in uninfected controls. All of these results are characteristic of the Warburg effect as it is present in mammals. There was also a significant decrease in triglyceride concentration starting at 12 hpi. At the late stage of the infection cycle (24 hpi), hemocytes of WSSV-infected shrimp showed several changes associated with cell death. These included the induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), increased oxidative stress, decreased glucose consumption, and disrupted energy production. A previous study showed that WSSV infection led to upregulation of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), which is known to be involved in both the Warburg effect and MMP. Here we show that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing of the VDAC reduces WSSV-induced mortality and virion copy number. For these results, we hypothesize a model depicting the metabolic changes in host cells at the early and late stages of WSSV infection.

  9. Utilizing virus-induced gene silencing for the functional characterization of maize genes during infection with the fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Karina; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    While in dicotyledonous plants virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is well established to study plant-pathogen interaction, in monocots only few examples of efficient VIGS have been reported so far. One of the available systems is based on the brome mosaic virus (BMV) which allows gene silencing in different cereals including barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays).Infection of maize plants by the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis leads to the formation of large tumors on stem, leaves, and inflorescences. During this biotrophic interaction, plant defense responses are actively suppressed by the pathogen, and previous transcriptome analyses of infected maize plants showed comprehensive and stage-specific changes in host gene expression during disease progression.To identify maize genes that are functionally involved in the interaction with U. maydis, we adapted a VIGS system based on the Brome mosaic virus (BMV) to maize at conditions that allow successful U. maydis infection of BMV pre-infected maize plants. This setup enables quantification of VIGS and its impact on U. maydis infection using a quantitative real-time PCR (q(RT)-PCR)-based readout.

  10. Tumor-specific CD4+ T cells develop cytotoxic activity and eliminate virus-induced tumor cells in the absence of regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzyanova, Ilseyar; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy; Schimmer, Simone; Brandau, Sven; Altenhoff, Petra; Sparwasser, Tim; Dittmer, Ulf

    2013-02-01

    The important role of tumor-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells is well defined in the immune control of the tumors, but the role of effector CD4(+) T cells is poorly understood. In the current research, we have used a murine retrovirus-induced tumor cell line of C57BL/6 mouse origin, namely FBL-3 cells, as a model to study basic mechanisms of immunological control and escape during tumor formation. This study shows that tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells are able to protect against virus-induced tumor cells. We show here that there is an expansion of tumor-specific CD4(+) T cells producing cytokines and cytotoxic molecule granzyme B (GzmB) in the early phase of tumor growth. Importantly, we demonstrate that in vivo depletion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and CD8(+) T cells in FBL-3-bearing DEREG transgenic mice augments IL-2 and GzmB production by CD4(+) T cells and increases FV-specific CD4(+) T-cell effector and cytotoxic responses leading to the complete tumor regression. Therefore, the capacity to reject tumor acquired by tumor-reactive CD4(+) T cells largely depends on the direct suppressive activity of Tregs. We suggest that a cytotoxic CD4(+) T-cell immune response may be induced to enhance resistance against oncovirus-associated tumors.

  11. Identification of Proteins Using iTRAQ and Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Reveals Three Bread Wheat Proteins Involved in the Response to Combined Osmotic-Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Lingran; Shi, Chaonan; Zhao, Lei; Cui, Dangqun; Chen, Feng

    2018-05-25

    Crops are often subjected to a combination of stresses in the field. To date, studies on the physiological and molecular responses of common wheat to a combination of osmotic and cold stresses, however, remain unknown. In this study, wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress for 24 h showed inhibited growth, as well as increased lipid peroxidation, relative electrolyte leakage, and soluble sugar contents. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteome method was employed to determine the proteomic profiles of the roots and leaves of wheat seedlings exposed to osmotic-cold stress conditions. A total of 250 and 258 proteins with significantly altered abundance in the roots and leaves were identified, respectively, and the majority of these proteins displayed differential abundance, thereby revealing organ-specific differences in adaptation to osmotic-cold stress. Yeast two hybrid assay examined five pairs of stress/defense-related protein-protein interactions in the predicted protein interaction network. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that abiotic stresses increased the expression of three candidate protein genes, i.e., TaGRP2, CDCP, and Wcor410c in wheat leaves. Virus-induced gene silencing indicated that three genes TaGRP2, CDCP, and Wcor410c were involved in modulating osmotic-cold stress in common wheat. Our study provides useful information for the elucidation of molecular and genetics bases of osmotic-cold combined stress in bread wheat.

  12. Enterovirus 71 antagonizes the antiviral activity of host STAT3 and IL-6R with partial dependence on virus-induced miR-124.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhangmei; Wang, Yan; Bian, Liang; Liu, Qingqing; Long, Jian-Er

    2017-12-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has caused major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease. EV71 infections increase the production of many host cytokines and pro-inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and COX-2. Some of these molecules could stimulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which plays a key role in regulating host immune responses and several viral diseases. However, the role of STAT3 in EV71 infection remains unknown. This study found that the phosphorylation levels of STAT3 (p Y705 -STAT3) are closely related to EV71 infection. Further experiments revealed that STAT3 exerts an anti-EV71 activity. However, the antiviral activity of STAT3 is partially antagonized by EV71-induced miR-124, which directly targets STAT3 mRNA. Similarly, IL-6R, the α-subunit of the IL-6 receptor complex, exhibits anti-EV71 activity and is directly targeted by the virus-induced miR-124. These results indicate that EV71 can evade host IL-6R- and STAT3-mediated antiviral activities by EV71-induced miR-124. This suggests that controlling miR-124 and the downstream targets, IL-6R and STAT3, might benefit the antiviral treatment of EV71 infection.

  13. Does conversion and prevention of atrial fibrillation enhance survival in patients with left ventricular dysfunction? Evidence from the Danish Investigations of Arrhythmia and Mortality ON Dofetilide/(DIAMOND) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Brendorp, Bente; Elming, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    treatment) was associated with a significant reduction in mortality (risk ratio [RR], 0.44; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.64; P therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk ratio versus placebo for either all-cause (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.89; P

  14. Fish consumption and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeset, Dagrun; Braaten, Tonje; Teucher, Birgit; Kühn, Tilman; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Leenders, Max; Agudo, Antonio; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Valanou, Elisavet; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Key, Timothy J.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Overvad, Kim; Sonestedt, Emily; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H.; Wennberg, Maria; Jansson, Jan Håkan; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Barricarte, Aurelio; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Agnoli, Claudia; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María José; Tumino, Rosario; Altzibar, Jone M.; Vineis, Paolo; Masala, Giovanna; Ferrari, Pietro; Muller, David C.; Johansson, Mattias; Luisa Redondo, M.; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Olsen, Karina Standahl; Brustad, Magritt; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv

    2015-01-01

    Fish is a source of important nutrients and may play a role in preventing heart diseases and other health outcomes. However, studies of overall mortality and cause-specific mortality related to fish consumption are inconclusive. We examined the rate of overall mortality, as well as mortality from

  15. Virus-induced dysfunction of CD4+CD25+ T cells in patients with HTLV-I-associated neuroimmunological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamano, Yoshihisa; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Li, Hong-Chuan; Tomaru, Utano; Yao, Karen; Grant, Christian W; Maric, Dragan A; Jacobson, Steven

    2005-05-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs are important in the maintenance of immunological self tolerance and in the prevention of autoimmune diseases. As the CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population in patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-associated (HTLV-I-associated) myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) has been shown to be a major reservoir for this virus, it was of interest to determine whether the frequency and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs in HAM/TSP patients might be affected. In these cells, both mRNA and protein expression of the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3, a specific marker of Tregs, were lower than those in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells from healthy individuals. The virus-encoded transactivating HTLV-I tax gene was demonstrated to have a direct inhibitory effect on Foxp3 expression and function of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells. This is the first report to our knowledge demonstrating the role of a specific viral gene product (HTLV-I Tax) on the expression of genes associated with Tregs (in particular, foxp3) resulting in inhibition of Treg function. These results suggest that direct human retroviral infection of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells may be associated with the pathogenesis of HTLV-I-associated neurologic disease.

  16. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  17. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  18. Prevention of malignant neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Zaridze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in processed meat and poor in vegetables and fruits, certain types of viral and bacterial infection, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, ambient air pollution, carcinogens at workplace, exogenous hormones.Cancer mortality is decreasing in majority of developed countries, including Russia. This mortality trend is mostly due to decrease in incidence and death rates of lung and other smoking related cancers and is caused by decline in smoking prevalence and change in tar content of cigarette smoke.In Russia trend in mortality from all cancers is as well determined by decrease in incidence and mortality from gastric cancer, which is due to decline in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and improvement of diet, increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables. Thus the decline in cancer mortality is mostly the result of primary prevention which is the most effective avenue of cancer control. 

  19. Loneliness, health and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J; Larsen, E R; Mattisson, C

    2017-01-01

    Aims.: Literature suggests an association between loneliness and mortality for both males and females. Yet, the linkage of loneliness to mortality is not thoroughly examined, and need to be replicated with a long follow-up time. This study assessed the association between loneliness and mortality...... not been previously reported. If replicated, our results indicate that loneliness may have differential physical implications in some subgroups. Future studies are needed to further investigate the influence of gender on the relationship....

  20. Cardiovascular disease mortality in Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Powell O; Frank, Ariel T H; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Eggleston, Karen; Hastings, Katherine G; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2014-12-16

    Asian Americans are a rapidly growing racial/ethnic group in the United States. Our current understanding of Asian-American cardiovascular disease mortality patterns is distorted by the aggregation of distinct subgroups. The purpose of the study was to examine heart disease and stroke mortality rates in Asian-American subgroups to determine racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease mortality within the United States. We examined heart disease and stroke mortality rates for the 6 largest Asian-American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) from 2003 to 2010. U.S. death records were used to identify race/ethnicity and cause of death by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision coding. Using both U.S. Census data and death record data, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), relative SMRs (rSMRs), and proportional mortality ratios were calculated for each sex and ethnic group relative to non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). In this study, 10,442,034 death records were examined. Whereas NHW men and women had the highest overall mortality rates, Asian Indian men and women and Filipino men had greater proportionate mortality burden from ischemic heart disease. The proportionate mortality burden of hypertensive heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, especially hemorrhagic stroke, was higher in every Asian-American subgroup compared with NHWs. The heterogeneity in cardiovascular disease mortality patterns among diverse Asian-American subgroups calls attention to the need for more research to help direct more specific treatment and prevention efforts, in particular with hypertension and stroke, to reduce health disparities for this growing population. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer Prevention Recommendations: Impact of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Hawk, Ernest

    2016-08-01

    To review the relationship between adherence to cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research and reductions in cancer incidence, cancer mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and overall mortality. Current cancer prevention guidelines published by the American Cancer Society and the American Institute for Cancer Research, journal articles published between 2004 and 2016, and internet resources. Evidence from a number of large observational studies indicates that following current cancer prevention recommendations in a comprehensive manner results in significant reductions in both cancer risk and cancer mortality, as well as in cardiovascular mortality and overall mortality. Nurses can take the lead in familiarizing patients and families with established cancer prevention recommendations and resources that may assist patients in implementing them comprehensively in their daily lives, as well as in discussing the substantial health benefits of adhering to the recommendations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of an attenuated barley stripe mosaic virus for the virus-induced gene silencing of pathogenesis-related wheat genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrow, Leann M; Clark, Shawn M; Loewen, Michele C

    2016-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an emerging technology for the rapid, efficient functional genomic screening of monocot and dicot species. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) has been described as an effective VIGS vehicle for the evaluation of genes involved in wheat and barley phytopathogenesis; however, these studies have been obscured by BSMV-induced phenotypes and defense responses. The utility of BSMV VIGS may be improved using a BSMV genetic background which is more tolerable to the host plant especially upon secondary infection of highly aggressive, necrotrophic pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum. BSMV-induced VIGS in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) cv. 'Fielder' was assessed for the study of wheat genes putatively related to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), the necrotrophism of wheat and other cereals by F. graminearum. Due to the lack of 'Fielder' spike viability and increased accumulation of Fusarium-derived deoxynivalenol contamination upon co-infection of BSMV and FHB, an attenuated BSMV construct was generated by the addition of a glycine-rich, C-terminal peptide to the BSMV γ b protein. This attenuated BSMV effectively silenced target wheat genes while limiting disease severity, deoxynivalenol contamination, and yield loss upon Fusarium co-infection compared to the original BSMV construct. The attenuated BSMV-infected tissue exhibited reduced abscisic, jasmonic, and salicylic acid defense phytohormone accumulation upon secondary Fusarium infection. Finally, the attenuated BSMV was used to investigate the role of the salicylic acid-responsive pathogenesis-related 1 in response to FHB. The use of an attenuated BSMV may be advantageous in characterizing wheat genes involved in phytopathogenesis, including Fusarium necrotrophism, where minimal viral background effects on defense are required. Additionally, the attenuated BSMV elicits reduced defense hormone accumulation, suggesting that this genotype may have applications for the

  3. Antibody response is required for protection from Theiler's virus-induced encephalitis in C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CD8+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, B.-S.; Palma, Joann P.; Lyman, Michael A.; Dal Canto, Mauro; Kim, Byung S.

    2005-01-01

    Intracerebral infection of susceptible mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induces immune-mediated demyelinating disease and this system serves as a relevant infectious model for human multiple sclerosis. It was previously shown that β 2 M-deficient C57BL/6 mice lacking functional CD8 + T cells display increased viral persistence and enhanced susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelination, and yet the majority of mice are free of clinical signs. To understand the mechanisms involved in this general resistance of C57BL/6 mice in the absence of CTL responses, mice (μMT) deficient in the B-cell compartment lacking membrane IgM molecules were treated with anti-CD8 antibody and then infected with TMEV. Although little difference in the proliferative responses of peripheral T cells to UV-inactivated TMEV and the resistance to demyelinating disease was observed between virus-infected μMT and control B6 mice, the levels of CD4 + T cells were higher in the CNS of μMT mice. However, after treatment with anti-CD8 antibody, 100% of the mice displayed clinical gray matter disease and prolonged viral persistence in μMT mice, while only 10% of B6 mice showed clinical symptoms and very low viral persistence. Transfusion of sera from TMEV-infected B6 mice into anti-CD8 antibody-treated μMT mice partially restored resistance to virus-induced encephalitis. These results indicate that the early anti-viral antibody response is also important in the protection from TMEV-induced encephalitis particularly in the absence of CD8 + T cells

  4. Novel cytotoxic exhibition mode of antimicrobial peptide anoplin in MEL cells, the cell line of murine Friend leukemia virus-induced leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Na; Fu, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Shi-Fu; Chen, Wei; Jin, Yuan-Ting; Zhao, Fu-Kun

    2013-09-01

    Anoplin is a recently discovered antimicrobial peptide (AMP) isolated from the venom sac of the spider wasp Anoplius samariensis, and it is one of the shortest α-helical AMP found naturally to date consisting of only ten amino acids. Previous results showed that anoplin exhibits potent antimicrobial activity but little hemolytic activity. In this study, we synthesized anoplin, studied its cytotoxicity in Friend virus-induced leukemia cells [murine erythroleukemia (MEL) cells], and proposed its possible mechanism. Our results showed that anoplin could inhibit the proliferation of MEL cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner via disrupting the integrity of cell membrane, which indicated that anoplin exerts its cytotoxicity efficacy. In addition, the cell cycle distribution of MEL cells was arrested in the G₀/G₁ phase significantly. However, anoplin could not induce obvious apoptosis in MEL cells, as well as anoplin could not induce visible changes on morphology and quantity in the bone marrow cells isolated from normal mice. All of these results indicate that anoplin, as generally believed, is a selective AMP, a value characteristic in the design of safe therapeutic agents. The cytotoxicity of anoplin on MEL cells was mainly attributable to the plasma membrane perturbation and also to the intracellular events such as the arrest of cell cycle. Although this is an initial study that explored the activity of anoplin in vitro rather than in vivo, with the increasing resistance of conventional chemotherapy, there is no doubt that anoplin has desirable feature to be developed as a novel and selective anticancer agent. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  6. Early Mortality Experience in a Large Military Cohort and a Comparison of Mortality Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    population-based cohort study. Ann Epidemiol 2007, 17(7):525-532. 9. Wentworth DN, Neaton JD, Rasmussen WL: An evaluation of the Social Security...Health 1992, 82(8):1145-1447. 13. Calle EE, Terrell DD: Utility of the National Death Index for ascertainment of mortality among Cancer Prevention Study...Hynes DM: A primer and comparative review of major US mortality databases. Ann Epidemiol 2002, 12(7):462-468. 18. Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS, Lee

  7. Prevention of COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is eviden...

  8. Impact of influenza vaccination on mortality risk among the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, R. H. H.; Hoes, A. W.; Hak, E.

    Estimates of influenza vaccine effectiveness have mostly been derived from nonrandomised studies and therefore are potentially confounded. The aim of the current study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness in preventing mortality among the elderly, taking both measured and unmeasured

  9. Under-Five Mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    under-five mortality rate (U5MR) by two thirds between. 1990 and 2015. For Zambia, this means ... 1Institute of Economic and Social Research, University of Zambia ... live births;. 2. Neonatal mortality: Deaths during the first 28 days of life. 3. Post-neonatal ... children born/woman) and rapid (3%) population growth on living ...

  10. Mortality in ankylosing spondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exarchou, Sofia; Lie, Elisabeth; Lindström, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Information on mortality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is scarce. Our study therefore aimed to assess: (1) mortality in AS versus the general population, and (2) predictors of death in the AS population. METHODS: Nationwide cohorts of patients with AS diagnosed at rheumatology or int...

  11. Mortality associated with phaeochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejbisz, A; Lenders, J W M; Eisenhofer, G; Januszewicz, A

    2013-02-01

    Two major categories of mortality are distinguished in patients with phaeochromocytoma. First, the effects of excessive circulating catecholamines may result in lethal complications if the disease is not diagnosed and/or treated timely. The second category of mortality is related to development of metastatic disease or other neoplasms. Improvements in disease recognition and diagnosis over the past few decades have reduced mortality from undiagnosed tumours. Nevertheless, many tumours remain unrecognised until they cause severe complications. Death resulting from unrecognised or untreated tumour is caused by cardiovascular complications. There are also numerous drugs and diagnostic or therapeutic manipulations that can cause fatal complications in patients with phaeochromocytoma. Previously it has been reported that operative mortality was as high as 50% in unprepared patients with phaeochromocytoma who were operated and in whom the diagnosis was unsuspected. Today mortality during surgery in medically prepared patients with the tumour is minimal. Phaeochromocytomas may be malignant at presentation or metastases may develop later, but both scenarios are associated with a potentially lethal outcome. Patients with phaeochromocytoma run an increased risk to develop other tumours, resulting in an increased mortality risk compared to the general population. Phaeochromocytoma during pregnancy represents a condition with potentially high maternal and foetal mortality. However, today phaeochromocytoma in pregnancy is recognised earlier and in conjunction with improved medical management, maternal mortality has decreased to less than 5%. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Surgical inpatient cancer-related mortality in a Nigerian tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cancer is a distressing condition that imposes so much physical, psychological and economic burden on the patients. Knowledge of the mortality pattern of cancers in any institution will enable the development of tailored preventive and therapeutic strategies. Aim: To present the cancer mortality patterns of ...

  13. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Gallstone disease and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cohort study was to determine whether subjects with gallstone disease identified by screening of a general population had increased overall mortality when compared to gallstone-free participants and to explore causes of death. METHODS: The study population (N...... built. RESULTS: Gallstone disease was present in 10%. Mortality was 46% during median 24.7 years of follow-up with 1% lost. Overall mortality and death from cardiovascular diseases were significantly associated to gallstone disease. Death from unknown causes was significantly associated to gallstone...... disease and death from cancer and gastrointestinal disease was not associated. No differences in mortality for ultrasound-proven gallstones or cholecystectomy were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Gallstone disease is associated with increased overall mortality and to death from cardiovascular disease. Gallstones...

  15. Kaempferol ameliorates H9N2 swine influenza virus-induced acute lung injury by inactivation of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruihua; Ai, Xia; Duan, Yongjie; Xue, Man; He, Wenxiao; Wang, Cunlian; Xu, Tong; Xu, Mingju; Liu, Baojian; Li, Chunhong; Wang, Zhijun; Zhang, Ruihong; Wang, Guohua; Tian, Shufei; Liu, Huifeng

    2017-05-01

    Kaempferol, a very common type of dietary flavonoids, has been found to exert antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of kaempferol on H9N2 influenza virus-induced inflammation in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, BALB/C mice were infected intranasally with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. In vitro, MH-S cells were infected with H9N2 influenza virus with or without kaempferol treatment. In vivo, kaempferol treatment attenuated pulmonary edema, the W/D mass ratio, pulmonary capillary permeability, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the numbers of inflammatory cells. Kaempferol reduced ROS and Malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and increased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Kaempferol also reduced overproduction of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, kaempferol decreased the H9N2 viral titre. In vitro, ROS, MDA, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 was also reduced by kaempferol. Moreover, our data showed that kaempferol significantly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκBα and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, and phosphorylation level of MAPKs, both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that kaempferol exhibits a protective effect on H9N2 virus-induced inflammation via suppression of TLR4/MyD88-mediated NF-κB and MAPKs pathways, and kaempferol may be considered as an effective drug for the potential treatment of influenza virus-induced ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  17. Mortality after shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Alexander; Rasmussen, Jeppe Vejlgaard; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The primary aim was to quantify the 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year mortality rates after primary shoulder replacement. The secondary aims were to assess the association between mortality and diagnoses and to compare the mortality rate with that of the general population. METHODS: The study...... included 5853 primary operations reported to the Danish Shoulder Arthroplasty Registry between 2006 and 2012. Information about deaths was obtained from the Danish Cause of Death Register and the Danish Civil Registration System. Age- and sex-adjusted control groups were retrieved from Statistics Denmark...

  18. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Favaro, Carla F; Azevedo, Kamila E X; Landi, Carolina H; Maluta, Nathalie K P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Lopes, Joao R S

    2016-08-11

    , this type of virus-induced manipulation of vector behaviour was not observed for the semi persistent crinivirus, ToCV, which is not specifically transmitted by B. tabaci and has a much less intimate virus-vector relationship.

  19. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fereres

    2016-08-01

    spread. However, this type of virus-induced manipulation of vector behaviour was not observed for the semi persistent crinivirus, ToCV, which is not specifically transmitted by B. tabaci and has a much less intimate virus-vector relationship.

  20. Replication and virus-induced transcriptome of HAdV-5 in normal host cells versus cancer cells--differences of relevance for adenoviral oncolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik E Dorer

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses (Ads, especially HAdV-5, have been genetically equipped with tumor-restricted replication potential to enable applications in oncolytic cancer therapy. Such oncolytic adenoviruses have been well tolerated in cancer patients, but their anti-tumor efficacy needs to be enhanced. In this regard, it should be considered that cancer cells, dependent on their tissue of origin, can differ substantially from the normal host cells to which Ads are adapted by complex virus-host interactions. Consequently, viral replication efficiency, a key determinant of oncolytic activity, might be suboptimal in cancer cells. Therefore, we have analyzed both the replication kinetics of HAdV-5 and the virus-induced transcriptome in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC in comparison to cancer cells. This is the first report on genome-wide expression profiling of Ads in their native host cells. We found that E1A expression and onset of viral genome replication are most rapid in HBEC and considerably delayed in melanoma cells. In squamous cell lung carcinoma cells, we observed intermediate HAdV-5 replication kinetics. Infectious particle production, viral spread and lytic activity of HAdV-5 were attenuated in melanoma cells versus HBEC. Expression profiling at the onset of viral genome replication revealed that HAdV-5 induced the strongest changes in the cellular transcriptome in HBEC, followed by lung cancer and melanoma cells. We identified prominent regulation of genes involved in cell cycle and DNA metabolism, replication and packaging in HBEC, which is in accord with the necessity to induce S phase for viral replication. Strikingly, in melanoma cells HAdV-5 triggered opposing regulation of said genes and, in contrast to lung cancer cells, no weak S phase induction was detected when using the E2F promoter as reporter. Our results provide a rationale for improving oncolytic adenoviruses either by adaptation of viral infection to target tumor cells or by

  1. Coral Reefs: Beyond Mortality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Sheppard

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The scale of the collapse of coral reef communities in 1998 following a warming episode (Wilkinson, 2000 was unprecedented, and took many people by surprise. The Indian Ocean was the worst affected with a coral mortality over 75% in many areas such as the Chagos Archipelago (Sheppard, 1999, Seychelles (Spencer et al., 2000 and Maldives (McClanahan, 2000. Several other locations were affected at least as much, with mortality reaching 100% (to the nearest whole number; this is being compiled by various authors (e.g., CORDIO, in press. For example, in the Arabian Gulf, coral mortality is almost total across many large areas of shallow water (Sheppard, unpublished; D. George and D. John, personal communication. The mortality is patchy of course, depending on currents, location inside or outside lagoons, etc., but it is now possible to swim for over 200 m and see not one remaining living coral or soft coral on some previously rich reefs.

  2. Reducing infant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T R

    1994-01-01

    Public health and social policies at the population level (e.g., oral rehydration therapy and immunization) are responsible for the major reduction in infant mortality worldwide. The gap in infant mortality rates between developing and developed regions is much less than that in maternal mortality rates. This indicates that maternal and child health (MCH) programs and women's health care should be combined. Since 1950, 66% of infant deaths occur in the 1st 28 days, indicating adverse prenatal and intrapartum events (e.g., congenital malformation and birth injuries). Infection, especially pneumonia and diarrhea, and low birth weight are the major causes of infant mortality worldwide. An estimated US$25 billion are needed to secure the resources to control major childhood diseases, reduce malnutrition 50%, reduce child deaths by 4 million/year, provide potable water and sanitation to all communities, provide basic education, and make family planning available to all. This cost for saving children's lives is lower than current expenditures for cigarettes (US$50 billion in Europe/year). Vitamin A supplementation, breast feeding, and prenatal diagnosis of congenital malformations are low-cost strategies that can significantly affect infant well-being and reduce child mortality in many developing countries. The US has a higher infant mortality rate than have other developed countries. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the US National Institutes of Health are focusing on prematurity, low birth weight, multiple pregnancy, violence, alcohol abuse, and poverty to reduce infant mortality. Obstetricians should be important members of MCH teams, which also include traditional birth attendants, community health workers, nurses, midwives, and medical officers. We have the financial resources to allocate resources to improve MCH care and to reduce infant mortality.

  3. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Flavonoid intake and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Kerry L; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R; Prince, Richard L

    2015-05-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive compounds found in foods such as tea, chocolate, red wine, fruit, and vegetables. Higher intakes of specific flavonoids and flavonoid-rich foods have been linked to reduced mortality from specific vascular diseases and cancers. However, the importance of flavonoids in preventing all-cause mortality remains uncertain. The objective was to explore the association between flavonoid intake and risk of 5-y mortality from all causes by using 2 comprehensive food composition databases to assess flavonoid intake. The study population included 1063 randomly selected women aged >75 y. All-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortalities were assessed over 5 y of follow-up through the Western Australia Data Linkage System. Two estimates of flavonoid intake (total flavonoidUSDA and total flavonoidPE) were determined by using food composition data from the USDA and the Phenol-Explorer (PE) databases, respectively. During the 5-y follow-up period, 129 (12%) deaths were documented. Participants with high total flavonoid intake were at lower risk [multivariate-adjusted HR (95% CI)] of 5-y all-cause mortality than those with low total flavonoid consumption [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.37 (0.22, 0.58); total flavonoidPE: 0.36 (0.22, 0.60)]. Similar beneficial relations were observed for both cardiovascular disease mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.34 (0.17, 0.69); flavonoidPE: 0.32 (0.16, 0.61)] and cancer mortality [total flavonoidUSDA: 0.25 (0.10, 0.62); flavonoidPE: 0.26 (0.11, 0.62)]. Using the most comprehensive flavonoid databases, we provide evidence that high consumption of flavonoids is associated with reduced risk of mortality in older women. The benefits of flavonoids may extend to the etiology of cancer and cardiovascular disease. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Intervenções benéficas durante o parto para a prevenção da mortalidade materna Beneficial interventions during delivery for the prevention of maternal mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guilherme Cecatti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O caráter multifatorial das complicações e da mortalidade materna torna difícil e demorada a tarefa de seu controle a longo prazo. A atenção profissional à mulher gestante e/ou parturiente representa seguramente elemento chave para a obtenção de bons resultados, tanto maternos quanto perinatais. Partindo-se do pressuposto de que atenção médica profissional ao parto de maneira adequada tem a capacidade de diminuir a ocorrência de complicações associadas à morbidade e mortalidade materna, são apresentadas resumidamente as evidências sobre algumas intervenções incluídas nesta atenção. São enfocadas as evidências derivadas de estudos realizados com extremo rigor metodológico e científico, os ensaios controlados randomizados, sobre intervenções capazes de reduzir as complicações e a mortalidade materna. Estas principais intervenções referem-se basicamente a: atenção institucional ao parto, atendimento profissional capacitado, utilização de parteiras tradicionais em determinados contextos, uso de tecnologias apropriadas incluindo o partograma, local do parto, posição para o parto, uso de episiotomia, tipo de parto, uso de ocitócicos na fase ativa do parto, realização de esforços de puxo no período expulsivo, manejo da dequitação e profilaxia da hemorragia puerperal. Ainda que o efeito de prevenir mortes seja difícil de ser avaliado pela baixa freqüência, sua utilização de forma racional e padronizada, por meio de manuais e normatizações de condutas de serviços, tem um efeito positivo sobre a qualidade da atenção ao nascimento. Isso faz parte do contexto técnico e humano do direito que toda mulher tem ao melhor atendimento possível nesse momento tão especial de sua vida.The multiple factors involved in maternal complications and maternal mortality make the task of their long-term control difficult and time-consuming. Professional care for pregnant women and/or those in labor certainly

  6. Maternal mortality following caesarean sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, K; Kundu, S; Mandal, G S

    1979-08-01

    A study of 26 maternal deaths following 3647 caesarean sections was conducted in Eden Hospital from 1974-1977. During the time period there were 35,544 births and 308 total maternal deaths (8.74/1000). Indications for Caesarean sections included: 1) abnormal presentation; 2) cephalopelvic disproportion; 3) toxemia; 4) prolonged labor; 5) fetal distress; and 6) post-caesarean pregnancies. Highest mortality rates were among cephalopelvic disproportion, toxemia, and prolonged labor patients. 38.4% of the patients died due to septicaemia and peritonitis, but other deaths were due to preclampsia, shock, and hemorrhage. Proper antenatal care may have prevented anemia and preclampsia and treated other pre-existing or superimposed diseases.

  7. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  8. Maternal mortality: a global overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choolani, M; Ratnam, S S

    1995-02-01

    Reduction of maternal mortality in developing countries is possible through elimination of unsafe abortion, active management of labor, appropriate management of pregnancy complications, and availability of adequate facilities. Prevention and early recognition are key factors in preventing maternal deaths due to ruptured uteri. A well equipped hospital is the appropriate place for delivery of mothers with a history of previous cesarean sections, a grossly contracted pelvis, previous myomectomies, previous multiple births, and previous abnormal births or complications during delivery. Complicated procedures, use of oxytocins, and administration of anesthesia should be performed with experienced, trained medical personnel. Surveillance of and correction for anemia should occur during the course of the pregnancy. Infections can be controlled with tetanus toxoid immunization and use of chest X-rays. The health care system should be tiered with primary health care services located in suburbs and rural districts. Services should be situated to account for population distribution, extent of maternal mortality in the region, transportation facilities, and the nearest secondary hospital. Birthing homes with sanitary facilities are an option for rural districts. A two-way referral system should be established between the primary, secondary, and tertiary level hospitals. Audits should be conducted as a means of checking for needed improvements in the system. Planning that includes proper roads, transportation, and communication facilities is important. Funding can come in the form of money, materials, and manpower. Safe motherhood requires the commitment of local people and local governments. The first step in a safe motherhood program is creating awareness among the political and economic elite. Governments are encouraged to shift resources from the military to housing, transportation, communications, education, and health during peace-times. Local professional associations

  9. Mutagenesis of Dengue Virus Protein NS2A Revealed a Novel Domain Responsible for Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effect and Interactions between NS2A and NS2B Transmembrane Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Han; Tsai, Kuen-Nan; Tian, Jia Ni; Wu, Jian-Sung; Wu, Su-Ying; Chern, Jyh-Haur; Chen, Chun-Hong; Yueh, Andrew

    2017-06-15

    The NS2A protein of dengue virus (DENV) has eight predicted transmembrane segments (pTMS1 to -8) and participates in RNA replication, virion assembly, and host antiviral response. However, the roles of specific amino acid residues within the pTMS regions of NS2A during the viral life cycle are not clear. Here, we explore the function of DENV NS2A by introducing a series of alanine substitutions into the N-terminal half (pTMS1 to -4) of the protein in the context of a DENV infectious clone or subgenomic replicon. Six NS2A mutants (NM5, -7, -9, and -17 to -19) around pTMS1 and -2 displayed a novel phenotype showing a >1,000-fold reduction in virus yield, an absence of plaque formation despite wild-type-like replicon activity, and infectious-virus-like particle yields. HEK-293 cells infected with the six NS2A mutant viruses failed to cause a virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) by MitoCapture staining, cell proliferation, and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Sequencing analyses of pseudorevertant viruses derived from lethal-mutant viruses revealed two consensus reversion mutations, leucine to phenylalanine at codon 181 (L181F) within pTMS7 of NS2A and isoleucine to threonine at codon 114 (I114T) within NS2B. The introduction of an NS2A-L181F mutation into the lethal (NM15, -16, -25, and -33) and CPE-defective (NM7, -9, and -19) mutants substantially rescued virus infectivity and virus-induced CPE, respectively, whereas the NS2B-L114T mutation rescued the NM16, -25, and -33 mutants. In conclusion, the results revealed the essential roles of the N-terminal half of NS2A in RNA replication and virus-induced CPE. Intramolecular interactions between pTMSs of NS2A and intermolecular interactions between the NS2A and NS2B proteins were also implicated. IMPORTANCE The characterization of the N-terminal (current study) and C-terminal halves of DENV NS2A is the most comprehensive mutagenesis study to date to investigate the function of NS2A during the flaviviral life cycle

  10. The contribution of smoking to regional mortality differences in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; Spriensma, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is an important preventable determinant of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge about its role in regional mortality differences can help us to identify relevant policy areas, and to explain national mortality differences. OBJECTIVE: We explored the extent to which the regional

  11. The contribution of smoking to regional mortality differences in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Fanny; Spriensma, Alette Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is an important preventable determinant of morbidity and mortality. Knowledge about its role in regional mortality differences can help us to identify relevant policy areas, and to explain national mortality differences. OBJECTIVE We explored the extent to which the regional

  12. Mortality in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitiris, Nikolas; Mohanraj, Rajiv; Norrie, John; Brodie, Martin J

    2007-05-01

    All studies report an increased mortality risk for people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Population-based studies have demonstrated that the increased mortality is often related to the cause of the epilepsy. Common etiologies include neoplasia, cerebrovascular disease, and pneumonia. Deaths in selected cohorts, such as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), status epilepticus (SE), suicides, and accidents are more frequently epilepsy-related. SUDEP is a particular cause for concern in younger people, and whether and when SUDEP should be discussed with patients with epilepsy remain problematic issues. Risk factors for SUDEP include generalized tonic-clonic seizures, increased seizure frequency, concomitant learning disability, and antiepileptic drug polypharmacy. The overall incidence of SE may be increasing, although case fatality rates remain constant. Mortality is frequently secondary to acute symptomatic disorders. Poor compliance with treatment in patients with epilepsy accounts for a small proportion of deaths from SE. The incidence of suicide is increased, particularly for individuals with epilepsy and comorbid psychiatric conditions. Late mortality figures in patients undergoing epilepsy surgery vary and are likely to reflect differences in case selection. Future studies of mortality should be prospective and follow agreed guidelines to better quantify risk and causation in individual populations.

  13. Effects of women's groups practising participatory learning and action on preventive and care-seeking behaviours to reduce neonatal mortality: A meta-analysis of cluster-randomised trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends participatory learning and action (PLA in women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health, particularly in rural settings with low access to health services. There have been calls to understand the pathways through which this community intervention may affect neonatal mortality. We examined the effect of women's groups on key antenatal, delivery, and postnatal behaviours in order to understand pathways to mortality reduction.We conducted a meta-analysis using data from 7 cluster-randomised controlled trials that took place between 2001 and 2012 in rural India (2 trials, urban India (1 trial, rural Bangladesh (2 trials, rural Nepal (1 trial, and rural Malawi (1 trial, with the number of participants ranging between 6,125 and 29,901 live births. Behavioural outcomes included appropriate antenatal care, facility delivery, use of a safe delivery kit, hand washing by the birth attendant prior to delivery, use of a sterilised instrument to cut the umbilical cord, immediate wrapping of the newborn after delivery, delayed bathing of the newborn, early initiation of breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding. We used 2-stage meta-analysis techniques to estimate the effect of the women's group intervention on behavioural outcomes. In the first stage, we used random effects models with individual patient data to assess the effect of groups on outcomes separately for the different trials. In the second stage of the meta-analysis, random effects models were applied using summary-level estimates calculated in the first stage of the analysis. To determine whether behaviour change was related to group attendance, we used random effects models to assess associations between outcomes and the following categories of group attendance and allocation: women attending a group and allocated to the intervention arm; women not attending a group but allocated to the intervention arm; and women allocated to the control arm

  14. Neonatal mortality in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, F R; Schuman, K L; Lyon, J L

    1982-09-01

    A cohort study of neonatal mortality (N = 106) in white singleton births (N = 14,486) in Utah for January-June 1975 was conducted. Using membership and activity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon) as a proxy for parental health practices, i.e., tobacco and alcohol abstinence, differential neonatal mortality rates were calculated. The influence of potential confounding factors was evaluated. Low activity LDS members were found to have an excess risk of neonatal death five times greater than high activity LDS, with an upper bound of a two-sided 95% confidence interval of 7.9. The data consistently indicate a lower neonatal mortality rate for active LDS members. Non-LDS were found to have a lower rate than either medium or low activity LDS.

  15. Occupational Mortality, Background on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    in England and Wales from 1851 to 1979–1983, and these studies have provided key data on social inequalities in health. Death certificate studies have been used for identification of occupational groups with high excess risks from specific diseases. Follow-up studies require linkage of individual records......The study of occupational mortality involves the systematic tabulation of mortality by occupational or socioeconomic groups. Three main methods are used to conduct these studies: cross-sectional studies, death certificate studies, and follow-up studies. Cross-sectional studies were undertaken...

  16. Affine stochastic mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new model for stochastic mortality. The model is based on the literature on affine term structure models. It satisfies three important requirements for application in practice: analytical tractibility, clear interpretation of the factors and compatibility with financial option pricing

  17. Mortality and GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    into childhood onset (CO) and adult onset (AO), discriminated by an age cutoff below or above 18 years at onset of GHD. METHOD: Data on death were identified in national registries. Sex- and cause-specific mortalities were identified in CO and AO GHD when compared with controls. RESULTS: Mortality was increased......OBJECTIVE: To estimate the mortality in Denmark in patients suffering from GH deficiency (GHD). DESIGN: Mortality was analyzed in 1794 GHD patients and 8014 controls matched on age and gender. All records in GHD patients were studied and additional morbidity noted. Patients were divided...... in CO and AO GHD in both genders, when compared with controls. The hazard ratio (HR) for CO males was 8.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.5-15.1) and for females 9.4 (CI 4.6-19.4). For AO males, HR was 1.9 (CI 1.7-2.2) and for females 3.4 (CI 2.9-4.0). We found a significantly higher HR in AO females...

  18. Caesarean section and mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hawkins JL, Gibbs CP, Orleans M, et al. Obstetric anesthesia work force survey, versus 1992. Anesthesiology. 1981;1997(87):135–43. 2. Bert CJ, Atrash HK, Koonin KM, et al. Pregnacy related mortality in the. United States, 1987–1990. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:161–7. Received: 10-08-2015 Accepted: 14-08-2015.

  19. Stillbirth and Infant Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms behind these associations remain largely unknown. Although maternal obesity is associated with a wide range of complications in the mother and neonate that may impair fetal and infant survival, the increased risk of stillbirth and infant mortality is virtually unchanged when accounting...

  20. Sex differentials in mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-06-01

    The questions leing considered are whether a higher female than male mortality rate exists in Ceylon, India, and Pakistan, and whether this sex differential can account for the observed high male sex ratios. There is a choice between explaining the recorded masculinity of the Indian population by assuming that the subordinate position of women caused their omission from the census or that it caused their unrecorded death in childhood. The 1951 census report of India states that there is a traditional fondness for male issues in most parts of the country and a corresponding dislike for female children. However, a life table for India applied to the 1951 census gave a higher average female age at death 34.7 years as opposed to 33.5 years for male. Other estimates for India and Pakistan for the period 1951-1961 give 37.8 years for life expectancy for males and 36.98 for females. In 1953 the female death rate in Ceylon was over 80% higher than that of the males in the most reproductive ages, 20-29. In 1963 the female excess mortality at the same ages was still 25%, and in the age group 30-34 almost a 1/3 higher. In India the female death rate at ages 15-44 was 38% higher than that of the males in the 1958-1959 survey and as much as 174% higher in the Khanna rural survey, 1956-1960. In Pakistan a Population growth Estimate experiment conducted during 1962-1965 on a national probability sample has shown that in the ages 15-44 the female death rate was 75% higher than that of the males. High maternal mortality was the major reason. In addition, female mortality among young children over age 1 year was 24% higher in 1965 and 1963. There was little difference between the rates of mortality of the 2 sexes at age 45 and above. Recent trends in Ceylon show considerable improvement in maternal mortality which has reduced by 22% the ratio of female to male mortality at age 15-44. Also the ratio at ages 1-9 fell by 8%. to .1 of a year for every calendar year to 1980.

  1. Mingled Mortality: the Interplay Between Protist Grazing and Viral Lysis on Emiliania huxleyi Cell Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E.; Bidle, K. D.; Johnson, M. D.

    2016-02-01

    The coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi plays a prominent role in global carbon cycling, as their calcite coccoliths account for a third of all oceanic calcite production. Mortality due to grazing by microzooplankton is the largest contributor to phytoplankton loss in the marine environment. However, viral infection of E. huxleyi is now thought to be as important as grazing pressure in contributing to its mortality. To understand the influence of viral infection on grazing dynamics, we examined the response of the dinoflagellate predator, Oxyrrhis marina to E. huxleyi infected with four different strains of the E. huxleyi virus (EhV). Grazing rate was significantly slower on E. huxleyi cultures that had been infected for 48 h compared to an uninfected control and this reduction in grazing rate was dependent on the strain identity of infecting EhVs. Additional experimentation indicated that grazing was the primary source of E. huxleyi loss ( 78-98%) during the first 24 h of exposure to both predator and virus. However, as viral infection progressed into the late lytic phase (48 h hour post infection), the relative contribution of grazing to total E. huxleyi mortality decreased ( 5-60%). These results suggest that mortality is partitioned along a gradient between predator-based consumption and virus-induced cell lysis, dependent on the timing of infection. Deciphering the relative importance and interactive nature of these alga-predator-viral interactions will help to elucidate the mechanisms that drive bulk measurements of phytoplankton loss, a necessary understanding to interpret and predict phytoplankton population dynamics and associated biogeochemical cycling.

  2. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    dairy cows. The final model also predicted that increased proportions of dairy cows with clinical mastitis and infertility problems were associated with increased mortality. Finally, an increase in mortality was predicted to be associated with an increase in the proportion of lame or injured permanently removed dairy cows. In general terms, this model identified that mortality was associated with reproductive problems, non-infectious postpartum disease, infectious disease and infectious disease prevention, and information derived from postmortem evaluations. Ultimately, addressing excessive mortality levels requires a concerted effort that recognizes and appropriately manages the numerous and diverse underlying risks.

  3. Low birthweight and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakketeig, Leiv S.; Jacobsen, Geir; Skjærven, Rolv

    2006-01-01

    . The analysis considered 7 803 of these births, as 8 were excluded due to insufficient information. 30% of these second order LBW children had an older sibling who was also LBW. Early neonatal mortality of a “repeat” LBW birth was about 13% lower than among “non-repeat” LBW births (p..., the infant mortality was significantly higher among non-repeat LBW births (78.4 vs 60.8 per 1000, RR 1.30, CI 1.06, 1.56). Both after 1 and 5 minutes a significantly greater proportion of LBW repeat births had Apgar scores of 7 or above. Repeat second order LBW births weighed on average 68 grams more than...... non-repeat LBW births (pvs 2...

  4. Maternal Mortality – A Challenge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shital G. Sonone

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The current maternal mortality rate (MMR in Maharashtra is 104/100000 live births, ranking 3rd in India. There is scope for reducing it as majority of the causes of MMR are preventable and curable. Aims and Objectives: To study the sociodemographic profile and causes of maternal deaths at Dr. V. M. Govt. Medical College, Solapur. Material and Methods: The study population included all deliveries i.e. women admitted in the hospital during pregnancy, child-birth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated due to pregnancy during the period of 2 years from 1st August 2009 to 31st July 2011. IPD case records and autopsy reports of all maternal deaths were taken and various variables were studied. The present study is prospective study of maternal mortality conducted in Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dr. V. M. Medical College Solapur. Cases were distributed ac-cording to their age, literacy rate, residence,socioeconomic status, ante-natal care, gestational age, gravida/parity, place of referral, pregnancy outcome, and place of delivery, perinatal outcome and etiological factors. This study also suggests the measures to reduce maternal mortality. Results: The total number of live births during the study period were 13,188 and total number of maternal deaths were 63 and MMR was 477 per 1, 00,000 live births. In the maternal deaths studied, 1/3rd of the women were illiterate, half of the women belonged to urban slum areas and of lower socioeconomic class.1/3rd of the deaths occurred in primigravida,within 24 hrs from admission, 58.73% of the patients were referred from outside. Out of that 86.49% of women were sent from private hospital and died in post partum period, having poor perinatal outcome. Haemorrhage (28.57% and hypertension (12.69% are two direct causes and severe anemia (33.33% is most common in direct cause of maternal death in our study.

  5. Regional inequalities in mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Illsley, R; Le Grand, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the hypothesis of sustained and persistent inequalities in health between British regions and to ask how far they are a consequence of using standardised mortality ratios as the tool of measurement. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS--Data are regional, age specific death rates at seven points in time from 1931 to 1987-89 for the British regions, reconstructed to make them comparable with the 1981 regional definitions. Log variance is used to measure inequality; regi...

  6. Mortality in necrotizing fasciitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, A.R.; Samad, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the mortality rate in patients presenting with Necrotizing Fasciitis. This prospective study was conducted at ward 26, JPMC Karachi over a period of two years from March 2001 to Feb 2003. All patients above the age of 12 years diagnosed to be having Necrotizing Fasciitis and admitted through the Accident and emergency department were included in this study. After resuscitation, the patients underwent the emergency exploration and aggressive surgical debridement. Post-operatively, the patients were managed in isolated section of the ward. The patients requiring grafting were referred to plastic surgery unit. The patients were followed up in outpatients department for about two years. Over all, 25 male and 5 female patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The common clinical manifestations include redness, swelling, discharging abscess, pain, fever, skin necrosis and foul smelling discharge etc. The most common predisposing factor was Diabetes mellitus whereas the most commonly involved site was perineum. All patients underwent aggressive and extensive surgical debridements. The common additional procedures included Skin grafting, Secondary suturing, Cystostomy and Orchidectomy. Bacteroides and E. coli were the main micro-organisms isolated in this study. Bacteroides was the most common microorganism isolated among the eight patients who died. Necrotizing Fasciitis is a potentially life threatening emergency condition and carries the mortality rate of about 26.6%. The major contributing factors to increase the mortality missed initially diagnosed, old age, diabetes mellitus truncal involvement and late presentation. Anorectal involvement of disease carry worse prognosis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and proper use of unprocessed honey reduced the mortality rate. (author)

  7. Deciphering infant mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, Sylvie; Pouillard, Violette; Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is about infant mortality. In line with reliability theory, "infant" refers to the time interval following birth during which the mortality (or failure) rate decreases. This definition provides a systems science perspective in which birth constitutes a sudden transition falling within the field of application of the Transient Shock (TS) conjecture put forward in Richmond and Roehner (2016c). This conjecture provides predictions about the timing and shape of the death rate peak. It says that there will be a death rate spike whenever external conditions change abruptly and drastically and also predicts that after a steep rise there will be a much longer hyperbolic relaxation process. These predictions can be tested by considering living organisms for which the transient shock occurs several days after birth. Thus, for fish there are three stages: egg, yolk-sac and young adult phases. The TS conjecture predicts a mortality spike at the end of the yolk-sac phase and this timing is indeed confirmed by observation. Secondly, the hyperbolic nature of the relaxation process can be tested using very accurate Swiss statistics for postnatal death rates spanning the period from one hour immediately after birth through to age 10 years. It turns out that since the 19th century despite a significant and large reduction in infant mortality, the shape of the age-specific death rate has remained basically unchanged. Moreover the hyperbolic pattern observed for humans is also found for small primates as recorded in the archives of zoological gardens. Our overall objective is to identify a series of cases which start from simple systems and move step by step to more complex organisms. The cases discussed here we believe represent initial landmarks in this quest.

  8. [Tobacco consumption, mortality and fiscal policy in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-López, Carlos Manuel; Muños-Hernández, José Alberto; Sáenz de Miera-Juárez, Belén; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam

    2013-01-01

    To analyze tobacco consumption in the last 12 years, its impact on chronic diseases mortality and the potential benefits of fiscal policy in Mexico. Through the analysis of national health surveys (ENSA, ENSANUT), records of mortality and economic surveys between 2000 and 2012, smoking prevalence, chronic diseases mortality and consumption were estimated. In 2012, 9.2% and 19% of Mexican youths and adults were current smokers. Between 2000 and 2012, smoking prevalence did not change. However, the average consumption among adolescents and adults declined whilst the special tobacco tax has being increased. Mortality attributable to tobacco consumption for four diseases was estimated in 60 000 in 2010. Tobacco consumption remains the leading cause of preventable death. Increasing taxes on tobacco products could deter the tobacco epidemic and consequently chronic diseases mortality in Mexico.

  9. Assessing the relationship between global warming and mortality: Lag effects of temperature fluctuations by age and mortality categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Weiwei, E-mail: weiwei.yu@qut.edu.au [School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4050, Brisbane (Australia); Mengersen, Kerrie [Discipline of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia); Hu Wenbiao [School of Population Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Guo Yuming [School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4050, Brisbane (Australia); Pan Xiaochuan [School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Tong Shilu, E-mail: s.tong@qut.edu.au [School of Public Health and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD 4050, Brisbane (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Although interests in assessing the relationship between temperature and mortality have arisen due to climate change, relatively few data are available on lag structure of temperature-mortality relationship, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. This study identified the lag effects of mean temperature on mortality among age groups and death categories using polynomial distributed lag models in Brisbane, Australia, a subtropical city, 1996-2004. For a 1 deg. C increase above the threshold, the highest percent increase in mortality on the current day occurred among people over 85 years (7.2% (95% CI: 4.3%, 10.2%)). The effect estimates among cardiovascular deaths were higher than those among all-cause mortality. For a 1 deg. C decrease below the threshold, the percent increases in mortality at 21 lag days were 3.9% (95% CI: 1.9%, 6.0%) and 3.4% (95% CI: 0.9%, 6.0%) for people aged over 85 years and with cardiovascular diseases, respectively. These findings may have implications for developing intervention strategies to reduce and prevent temperature-related mortality. - Highlights: > A longer lag effects in cold days and shorter lag effects in hot days. > The very old people were most vulnerable to temperature stress. > The cardiovascular mortality was also sensitive to the temperature variation. - In Brisbane, the lag effects lasted longer for cold temperatures, and shorter for hot temperatures. Elderly people and cardiovascular mortality were vulnerable to temperature stress.

  10. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... 2004 [accessed 2015 Aug 17]. National Cancer Institute. Cigars: Health Effects and Trends [ PDF –2.93 MB] . ...

  11. Determining Mortality Causes in East Azerbaijan in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Farah Bakhsh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and Objectives : Reliable information about mortality causes are necessary for planning in prevention and control of diseases and injuries. Estimation methods of mortality are different in various countries based on data sources and quality assessment methods. This study was designed to determine the causes of mortality in East Azerbaijan province. Materials and Methods : This is a cross sectional study and was conducted through population data from 2006 demographic census and mortality data from 2007. Mortality data were obtained from death registry system of East Azerbaijan. Data were presented with cumulative incidence, Age Standardized Mortality Rate (ASMR and specific death causes in separate age groups, residency place of deceased persons and their gender. Results : ASMR in both genders was 6.2 per 1000 population. %81 of deaths were due to non communicable diseases, %11 due to injuries, %7 due to perinatal conditions and %1 due to communicable diseases. Ischemic heart diseases in %43.7, cerebrovascular disease in% 11.7, hypertension related conditions in %7.55, accidents in% 7, diabetes in %3.5 and asthma in %1.93  for med mortality causes. Conclusion : Non communicable diseases especially cardiovascular disorders are the main challenge of health system. Some causes of death like injuries, diabetes and hypertension are remarkably preventable with appropriate life style.

  12. Income related inequalities in avoidable mortality in Norway: A population-based study using data from 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinge, Jonas Minet; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Morris, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality in Norway over the period 1994-2011. We undertook a register-based population study of Norwegian residents aged 18-65 years between 1994 and 2011, using data from the Norwegian Income Register and the Cause of Death Registry. Concentration indices were used to measure income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality for each year. We compared the trend in income-related inequality in avoidable mortality with the trend in income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient for income. Avoidable, amenable and preventable deaths in Norway have declined over time. There were persistent pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality, and the degree of inequality was larger in preventable mortality than in amenable mortality throughout the period. The income-avoidable mortality association was positively correlated with income inequalities in avoidable mortality over time. There was little or no relationship between variations in the Gini coefficient due to tax reforms and socioeconomic inequalities in avoidable mortality. Income-related inequalities in avoidable, amenable and preventable mortality have remained relatively constant between 1994 and 2011 in Norway. They were mainly correlated with the relationship between income and avoidable mortality rather than with variations in the Gini coefficient of income inequality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mortality in acromegaly: a metaanalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, O. M.; Biermasz, N. R.; Pereira, A. M.; Romijn, J. A.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have assessed mortality risk in patients treated for acromegaly. All studies found a mortality that was higher than expected for the general population, but most of these increases were not statistically significant. For this reason, it is not formally established whether mortality

  14. Age dependent mortality in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert E.; Deshpande, Laxmikant S.; Holbert, William H.; Churn, Severn B.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute neurological emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Age has been shown to be a critical factor in determining outcome after SE. Understanding the causes of this increased mortality with aging by developing an animal model to study this condition would play a major role in studying mechanisms to limit the mortality due to SE. Here we employed pilocarpine to induce SE in rats aged between 5 to 28 weeks. Similar to clinical studies in man, we observed that age was a significant predictor of mortality following SE. While no deaths were observed in 5-week old animals, mortality due to SE increased progressively with age and reached 90% in 28-week old animals. There was no correlation between the age of animals and severity of SE. With increasing age mortality occurred earlier after the onset of SE. These results indicate that pilocarpine-induced SE in the rat provides a useful model to study age-dependent SE-induced mortality and indicates the importance of using animal models to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to SE-induced mortality and the development of novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SE-induced death. PMID:19429042

  15. Mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Jason P; Gross, Cary P

    2014-01-01

    The mortality burden from nonneoplastic skin disease in the United States is unknown. We sought to estimate mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease as underlying and contributing causes of death. Population-based death certificate data detailing mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease for years 1999 to 2009 were used to calculate absolute numbers of death and age-adjusted mortality by year, patient demographics, and 10 most commonly reported diagnoses. Nonneoplastic skin diseases were reported as underlying and contributing causes of mortality for approximately 3948 and 19,542 patients per year, respectively. Age-adjusted underlying cause mortality (per 100,000 persons) were significantly greater (P deaths occurred in patients ages 65 years and older (34,248 total deaths). Common underlying causes of death included chronic ulcers (1789 deaths/y) and cellulitis (1348 deaths/y). Errors in death certificate data and inability to adjust for patient-level confounders may limit the accuracy and generalizability of our results. Mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease is uncommon yet potentially preventable. The elderly bear the greatest burden of mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease. Chronic ulcers and cellulitis constitute frequent causes of death. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Leopoldo Palheta; Pignaton, Wangles; Kusano, Priscila Sayuri; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; Braz, José Reinaldo Cerqueira; Braz, Leandro Gobbo

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review of the Brazilian and worldwide literature aimed to evaluate the incidence and causes of perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients. Studies were identified by searching EMBASE (1951-2011), PubMed (1966-2011), LILACS (1986-2011), and SciElo (1995-2011). Each paper was revised to identify the author(s), the data source, the time period, the number of patients, the time of death, and the perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality rates. Twenty trials were assessed. Studies from Brazil and developed countries worldwide documented similar total anesthesia-related mortality rates (anesthesia-related mortality rates in the past decade. Higher anesthesia-related mortality rates (2.4-3.3 per 10,000 anesthetics) were found in studies from developing countries over the same time period. Interestingly, pediatric perioperative mortality rates have increased over the past decade, and the rates are higher in Brazil (9.8 per 10,000 anesthetics) and other developing countries (10.7-15.9 per 10,000 anesthetics) compared with developed countries (0.41-6.8 per 10,000 anesthetics), with the exception of Australia (13.4 per 10,000 anesthetics). The major risk factors are being newborn or less than 1 year old, ASA III or worse physical status, and undergoing emergency surgery, general anesthesia, or cardiac surgery. The main causes of mortality were problems with airway management and cardiocirculatory events. Our systematic review of the literature shows that the pediatric anesthesia-related mortality rates in Brazil and in developed countries are similar, whereas the pediatric perioperative mortality rates are higher in Brazil compared with developed countries. Most cases of anesthesia-related mortality are associated with airway and cardiocirculatory events. The data regarding anesthesia-related and perioperative mortality rates may be useful in developing prevention strategies.

  17. Anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Palheta Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review of the Brazilian and worldwide literature aimed to evaluate the incidence and causes of perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients. Studies were identified by searching EMBASE (1951-2011, PubMed (1966-2011, LILACS (1986-2011, and SciElo (1995-2011. Each paper was revised to identify the author(s, the data source, the time period, the number of patients, the time of death, and the perioperative and anesthesia-related mortality rates. Twenty trials were assessed. Studies from Brazil and developed countries worldwide documented similar total anesthesia-related mortality rates (<1 death per 10,000 anesthetics and declines in anesthesia-related mortality rates in the past decade. Higher anesthesia-related mortality rates (2.4-3.3 per 10,000 anesthetics were found in studies from developing countries over the same time period. Interestingly, pediatric perioperative mortality rates have increased over the past decade, and the rates are higher in Brazil (9.8 per 10,000 anesthetics and other developing countries (10.7-15.9 per 10,000 anesthetics compared with developed countries (0.41-6.8 per 10,000 anesthetics, with the exception of Australia (13.4 per 10,000 anesthetics. The major risk factors are being newborn or less than 1 year old, ASA III or worse physical status, and undergoing emergency surgery, general anesthesia, or cardiac surgery. The main causes of mortality were problems with airway management and cardiocirculatory events. Our systematic review of the literature shows that the pediatric anesthesia-related mortality rates in Brazil and in developed countries are similar, whereas the pediatric perioperative mortality rates are higher in Brazil compared with developed countries. Most cases of anesthesiarelated mortality are associated with airway and cardiocirculatory events. The data regarding anesthesia-related and perioperative mortality rates may be useful in developing prevention

  18. Risk factors of neonatal mortality and child mortality in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniruzzaman, Md; Suri, Harman S; Kumar, Nishith; Abedin, Md Menhazul; Rahman, Md Jahanur; El-Baz, Ayman; Bhoot, Makrand; Teji, Jagjit S; Suri, Jasjit S

    2018-06-01

    Child and neonatal mortality is a serious problem in Bangladesh. The main objective of this study was to determine the most significant socio-economic factors (covariates) between the years 2011 and 2014 that influences on neonatal and child mortality and to further suggest the plausible policy proposals. We modeled the neonatal and child mortality as categorical dependent variable (alive vs death of the child) while 16 covariates are used as independent variables using χ 2 statistic and multiple logistic regression (MLR) based on maximum likelihood estimate. Using the MLR, for neonatal mortality, diarrhea showed the highest positive coefficient (β = 1.130; P  economic conditions for neonatal mortality. For child mortality, birth order between 2-6 years and 7 and above years showed the highest positive coefficients (β = 1.042; P  economic conditions for child mortality. This study allows policy makers to make appropriate decisions to reduce neonatal and child mortality in Bangladesh. In 2014, mother's age and father's education were also still significant covariates for child mortality. This study allows policy makers to make appropriate decisions to reduce neonatal and child mortality in Bangladesh.

  19. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  20. Mortality among discharged psychiatric patients in Florence, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Debora; Miccinesi, Guido; Bencini, Andrea; Conte, Michele; Crocetti, Emanuele; Zappa, Marco; Ferrara, Maurizio

    2006-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders involve an increased risk of mortality. In Italy psychiatric services are community based, and hospitalization is mostly reserved for patients with acute illness. This study examined mortality risk in a cohort of psychiatric inpatients for 16 years after hospital discharge to assess the association of excess mortality from natural or unnatural causes with clinical and sociodemographic variables and time from first admission. At the end of 2002 mortality and cause of death were determined for all patients (N=845) who were admitted during 1987 to the eight psychiatric units active in Florence. The mortality risk of psychiatric patients was compared with that of the general population of the region of Tuscany by calculating standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Poisson multivariate analyses of the observed-to-expected ratio for natural and unnatural deaths were conducted. The SMR for the sample of psychiatric patients was threefold higher than that for the general population (SMR=3.0; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]=2.7-3.4). Individuals younger than 45 years were at higher risk (SMR=11.0; 95 percent CI 8.0-14.9). The SMR for deaths from natural causes was 2.6 (95 percent CI=2.3-2.9), and for deaths from unnatural causes it was 13.0 (95 percent CI=10.1-13.6). For deaths from unnatural causes, the mortality excess was primarily limited to the first years after the first admission. For deaths from natural causes, excess mortality was more stable during the follow-up period. Prevention of deaths from unnatural causes among psychiatric patients may require promotion of earlier follow-up after discharge. Improving prevention and treatment of somatic diseases of psychiatric patients is important to reduce excess mortality from natural causes.

  1. Intramuscular DNA Vaccination of Juvenile Carp against Spring Viremia of Carp Virus Induces Full Protection and Establishes a Virus-Specific B and T Cell Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embregts, Carmen W. E.; Rigaudeau, Dimitri; Veselý, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Although spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) can cause high mortalities in common carp, a commercial vaccine is not available for worldwide use. Here, we report a DNA vaccine based on the expression of the SVCV glycoprotein (G) which, when injected in the muscle even at a single low dose of 0.1 μg...... DNA/g of fish, confers up to 100% protection against a subsequent bath challenge with SVCV. Importantly, to best validate vaccine efficacy, we also optimized a reliable bath challenge model closely mimicking a natural infection, based on a prolonged exposure of carp to SVCV at 15°C. Using...... this optimized bath challenge, we showed a strong age-dependent susceptibility of carp to SVCV, with high susceptibility at young age (3 months) and a full resistance at 9 months. We visualized local expression of the G protein and associated early inflammatory response by immunohistochemistry and described...

  2. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: a cause of preventable morbidity and mortality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brady, A P

    2012-01-31

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant condition whose effects are mediated through deficient blood vessel formation and regeneration, with multisystem involvement. Patients are usually aware of resulting skin telangiectasia and epistaxis, but are also exposed to dangers posed by occult vascular malformations in other organs. About 15-35% of HHT patients have pulmonary AVMs (PAVMs), 10% have cerebral AVMs (CAVMs), 25-33% suffer significant GI blood loss from GI tract telangiectasia, and an unknown but high percentage have liver involvement. In total, 10% of affected individuals die prematurely or suffer major disability from HHT, largely because of bleeding from CAVMs and PAVMs, or paradoxical embolization through PAVMs. Screening for and early intervention to treat occult PAVMs and CAVMs can largely eliminate these risks, and should be undertaken in a specialist centre. The National HHT Center in The Mercy University Hospital in Cork is the referral centre for HHT screening in Ireland.

  3. Midwives’ Professional Competency for Preventing Neonatal Mortality in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The average scores of professional competency of midwives to deliver reproductive health service to infants in disasters shows the necessity of related and integrated education. It is recommended that by holding training exercises and simulations, midwives be educated with regard to disasters and how to respond in these situations.

  4. Child mortality: preventing future child deaths and optimizing family support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff-Gijzen, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide 6.1 million live-born children under the age of five died from natural and external causes in 2014. According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child appropriate measures should be taken by State Parties to ensure the survival and development of the child to a maximum extent and to

  5. Midwives’ Professional Competency for Preventing Neonatal Mortality in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infants are the most vulnerable people with special needs in natural disasters. Since midwives are responsible for providing reproductive health services to infants in disastrous situations, assessing their professional competence is of great importance. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran, Iran. A total of 361 midwives were selected by cluster sampling method. After giving their informed consents, they participated in the study and completed the researcher-made questionnaire about providing health services to infants in natural disasters. Midwives’ professional competence was investigated through self-assessment in terms of their perceived importance, knowledge, and skill. Then, the data were analyzed using SPSS. Results: Mean(SD total score of professional competency of midwives in providing services to infants in disasters was 91.95(20.2 obtained from 3 subcategories: perceived importance, 39.83(9.55; knowledge, 22.5(5.06; and skill 30.16(6.86. There were significant relationships between the scores of professional competency of midwives with age (P=0.053, degree of education (P=0.028, the workplace (P=0.053, and experience in disaster (P=0.047. About 49.86% of midwives demonstrated middle level of professional competency. The lowest knowledge and skill score were reported in managing common neonatal problems such as asphyxia, sepsis, physical trauma, which requires referral and stability. Conclusion: The average scores of professional competency of midwives to deliver reproductive health service to infants in disasters shows the necessity of related and integrated education. It is recommended that by holding training exercises and simulations, midwives be educated with regard to disasters and how to respond in these situations.

  6. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M

    2013-01-01

    % CI: 0.70, 1.54), and with a preventable proportion of 2.95%. This association was driven mainly by cardiovascular disease mortality (for the highest quartile, hazard ratio = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.93). Stronger inverse associations were observed for participants with high alcohol consumption or high...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  7. Cancer risk and mortality after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Wehberg, Sonja; Bistrup, Claus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Kidney recipients receive immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection, and long-term outcomes such as post-transplant cancer and mortality may vary according to the different protocols of immunosuppression. METHODS: A national register-based historical cohort study was conducted......, the Danish National Cancer Registry and the Danish National Patient Register were used. A historical cohort of 1450 kidney recipients transplanted in 1995-2005 was followed up with respect to post-transplant cancer and death until 31 December 2011. RESULTS: Compared with Center 1 the adjusted post...

  8. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agho Kingsley

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia, for a nationally representative sample of births from 1997 to 2002. Methods The data source for the analysis was the 2002–2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey from which survival information of 15,952 singleton live-born infants born between 1997 and 2002 was examined. Multilevel logistic regression using a hierarchical approach was performed to analyze the factors associated with neonatal deaths, using community, socio-economic status and proximate determinants. Results At the community level, the odds of neonatal death was significantly higher for infants from East Java (OR = 5.01, p = 0.00, and for North, Central and Southeast Sulawesi and Gorontalo combined (OR = 3.17, p = 0.03 compared to the lowest neonatal mortality regions of Bali, South Sulawesi and Jambi provinces. A progressive reduction in the odds was found as the percentage of deliveries assisted by trained delivery attendants in the cluster increased. The odds of neonatal death were higher for infants born to both mother and father who were employed (OR = 1.84, p = 0.00 and for infants born to father who were unemployed (OR = 2.99, p = 0.02. The odds were also higher for higher rank infants with a short birth interval (OR = 2.82, p = 0.00, male infants (OR = 1.49, p = 0.01, smaller than average-sized infants (OR = 2.80, p = 0.00, and infant's whose mother had a history of delivery complications (OR = 1.81, p = 0.00. Infants receiving any postnatal care were significantly protected from neonatal death (OR = 0.63, p = 0.03. Conclusion Public health interventions directed at reducing neonatal death should

  9. Determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Dibley, Michael J; Agho, Kingsley; Roberts, Christine L; Hall, John

    2008-07-09

    Neonatal mortality accounts for almost 40 per cent of under-five child mortality, globally. An understanding of the factors related to neonatal mortality is important to guide the development of focused and evidence-based health interventions to prevent neonatal deaths. This study aimed to identify the determinants of neonatal mortality in Indonesia, for a nationally representative sample of births from 1997 to 2002. The data source for the analysis was the 2002-2003 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey from which survival information of 15,952 singleton live-born infants born between 1997 and 2002 was examined. Multilevel logistic regression using a hierarchical approach was performed to analyze the factors associated with neonatal deaths, using community, socio-economic status and proximate determinants. At the community level, the odds of neonatal death was significantly higher for infants from East Java (OR = 5.01, p = 0.00), and for North, Central and Southeast Sulawesi and Gorontalo combined (OR = 3.17, p = 0.03) compared to the lowest neonatal mortality regions of Bali, South Sulawesi and Jambi provinces. A progressive reduction in the odds was found as the percentage of deliveries assisted by trained delivery attendants in the cluster increased. The odds of neonatal death were higher for infants born to both mother and father who were employed (OR = 1.84, p = 0.00) and for infants born to father who were unemployed (OR = 2.99, p = 0.02). The odds were also higher for higher rank infants with a short birth interval (OR = 2.82, p = 0.00), male infants (OR = 1.49, p = 0.01), smaller than average-sized infants (OR = 2.80, p = 0.00), and infant's whose mother had a history of delivery complications (OR = 1.81, p = 0.00). Infants receiving any postnatal care were significantly protected from neonatal death (OR = 0.63, p = 0.03). Public health interventions directed at reducing neonatal death should address community, household and individual level factors

  10. Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foppa Ivo M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its 1999 emergence in New York City, West Nile virus (WNV has become the most important and widespread cause of mosquito-transmitted disease in North America. Its sweeping spread from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast was accompanied by widespread mortality among wild birds, especially corvids. Only sporadic avian mortality had previously been associated with this infection in the Old World. Here, we examine the possibility that reservoir host mortality may intensify transmission, both by concentrating vector mosquitoes on remaining hosts and by preventing the accumulation of "herd immunity". Results Inspection of the Ross-Macdonald expression of the basic reproductive number (R0 suggests that this quantity may increase with reservoir host mortality. Computer simulation confirms this finding and indicates that the level of virulence is positively associated with the numbers of infectious mosquitoes by the end of the epizootic. The presence of reservoir incompetent hosts in even moderate numbers largely eliminated the transmission-enhancing effect of host mortality. Local host die-off may prevent mosquitoes to "waste" infectious blood meals on immune host and may thus facilitate perpetuation and spread of transmission. Conclusion Under certain conditions, host mortality may enhance transmission of WNV and similarly maintained arboviruses and thus facilitate their emergence and spread. The validity of the assumptions upon which this argument is built need to be empirically examined.

  11. [Epidemiological analysis on mortality of cancer in China, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, L; Zhao, F; Cai, Y; Wu, R X; Meng, Q

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To understand the distribution of cancer deaths in China in 2015 and provide reference for the prevention and control of cancer. Methods: Based on the results of Global Burden of Disease 2015, the cancer death distributions in different age groups, sex groups, provinces or by different malignant tumor in Chinese were described. Results: The age-standardized mortality rate of cancer was 159.01/100 000 in China in 2015. The mortality rate was highest in age group ≥70 years (1 102.73/100 000), and lowest in age group 5-14 years (5.40/100 000). The mortality rate in males was 2.15 times higher than that in females. The first 5 provinces with high cancer mortality rate were Anhui, Qinghai, Sichuan, Guangxi and Henan. Lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer and colorectal cancer ranked 1-5 in term of mortality rate. Conclusion: The cancer mortality differed with age, gender, area and different malignant tumors, suggesting the necessity to develop targeted prevention and control strategies.

  12. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term case fatality and long-term mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using data from The Health Improvement Network database. METHODS: Thirty-day case fatality was stratified by age, sex, and calendar year after ICH...... = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of individuals die in the first month after hemorrhagic stroke, and patients younger than 50 years are more likely to die after ICH than SAH. Short-term case fatality has decreased over time. Patients who survive hemorrhagic stroke have a continuing elevated......, 54.6% for 80-89 years; SAH: 20.3% for 20-49 years, 56.7% for 80-89 years; both p-trend stroke patients...

  13. Excess Early Mortality in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is often referred to as one of the most severe mental disorders, primarily because of the very high mortality rates of those with the disorder. This article reviews the literature on excess early mortality in persons with schizophrenia and suggests reasons for the high mortality...... as well as possible ways to reduce it. Persons with schizophrenia have an exceptionally short life expectancy. High mortality is found in all age groups, resulting in a life expectancy of approximately 20 years below that of the general population. Evidence suggests that persons with schizophrenia may...... not have seen the same improvement in life expectancy as the general population during the past decades. Thus, the mortality gap not only persists but may actually have increased. The most urgent research agenda concerns primary candidates for modifiable risk factors contributing to this excess mortality...

  14. Anxiety Predicts Mortality in ICD Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Caspar Thygesen, Lau; Hastrup Svendsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although highly effective in preventing arrhythmic death, patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may still experience psychological difficulties such as anxiety, depression, and reduced quality of life. The objectives of this study were to describe patient...... receiving ICD between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2011 (n = 499). The following instruments were used: SF-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HeartQoL, EQ-5D, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. RESULTS: The response rate was 72%. Mean age was 65.5 years and 82% patients were males. Fifty...... of perceived health, quality of life, and fatigue; for example, physical health 39.8 versus 44.3 points, compared to secondary prevention indication. Anxiety, poor perceived health, fatigue, and low quality of life were all predictors of mortality, anxiety being the strongest with an adjusted odds ratio of 4...

  15. Antioxidant supplements and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative damage to cells and tissues is considered involved in the aging process and in the development of chronic diseases in humans, including cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the leading causes of death in high-income countries. This has stimulated interest in the preventive potential of a...... of antioxidant supplements. Today, more than one half of adults in high-income countries ingest antioxidant supplements hoping to improve their health, oppose unhealthy behaviors, and counteract the ravages of aging....

  16. Ecological aspects of historical and contemporary Swedish and Danish mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Oluf

    2014-01-01

    preventive and curative measures introduced in the second half of the twentieth century? Hansen (2013) proposed a multivariate hazard model aiming at separating ecological factors in terms of endogenous biological from exogenous effects in human mortality. He explored some of its analytic potentials...

  17. Predictors of maternal mortality in institutional deliveries in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Departmentof Emergency Preparedness and Capacity Building, World Health Organization, ... Four-fifths (80.5%) of all deliveries were normal deliveries. ... disorders, and obstructed labour are preventable3. ... also reflects disparities in socio-economic ... characteristics associated with maternal mortality in. Nigeria. Methods.

  18. Adult mortality in preindustrial Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Lacroix - - - Bertrand Desjardins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the main results of a detailed study on adult mortality in French Canadians born before 1750 and having married inthe colony of New France. Using data from parish registers, mortality is studied using abridged life tables, with staggered entries according to age at first marriage. Survival tables and log-Rank tests are used to support the results. Three features were selected for the study of differential mortality: gender, type of residence area (urban or rural, and cohort. The mortality of French Canadians is compared to that of their French contemporaries.

  19. Minimization of heatwave morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Abernethy, Amy P; Fawzy, Maria; Lyerly, H Kim

    2013-03-01

    Global climate change is projected to increase the frequency and duration of periods of extremely high temperatures. Both the general populace and public health authorities often underestimate the impact of high temperatures on human health. To highlight the vulnerable populations and illustrate approaches to minimization of health impacts of extreme heat, the authors reviewed the studies of heat-related morbidity and mortality for high-risk populations in the U.S. and Europe from 1958 to 2012. Heat exposure not only can cause heat exhaustion and heat stroke but also can exacerbate a wide range of medical conditions. Vulnerable populations, such as older adults; children; outdoor laborers; some racial and ethnic subgroups (particularly those with low SES); people with chronic diseases; and those who are socially or geographically isolated, have increased morbidity and mortality during extreme heat. In addition to ambient temperature, heat-related health hazards are exacerbated by air pollution, high humidity, and lack of air-conditioning. Consequently, a comprehensive approach to minimize the health effects of extreme heat is required and must address educating the public of the risks and optimizing heatwave response plans, which include improving access to environmentally controlled public havens, adaptation of social services to address the challenges required during extreme heat, and consistent monitoring of morbidity and mortality during periods of extreme temperatures. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A recombinant influenza A virus expressing domain III of West Nile virus induces protective immune responses against influenza and West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Byron E E; van den Doel, Petra; Koraka, Penelope; van Amerongen, Geert; Spohn, Gunther; Haagmans, Bart L; Provacia, Lisette B V; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2011-04-26

    West Nile virus (WNV) continues to circulate in the USA and forms a threat to the rest of the Western hemisphere. Since methods for the treatment of WNV infections are not available, there is a need for the development of safe and effective vaccines. Here, we describe the construction of a recombinant influenza virus expressing domain III of the WNV glycoprotein E (Flu-NA-DIII) and its evaluation as a WNV vaccine candidate in a mouse model. FLU-NA-DIII-vaccinated mice were protected from severe body weight loss and mortality caused by WNV infection, whereas control mice succumbed to the infection. In addition, it was shown that one subcutaneous immunization with 10(5) TCID(50) Flu-NA-DIII provided 100% protection against challenge. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that protection was mediated by antibodies and CD4+T cells. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with FLU-NA-DIII developed protective influenza virus-specific antibody titers. It was concluded that this vector system might be an attractive platform for the development of bivalent WNV-influenza vaccines.

  1. A recombinant influenza A virus expressing domain III of West Nile virus induces protective immune responses against influenza and West Nile virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron E E Martina

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV continues to circulate in the USA and forms a threat to the rest of the Western hemisphere. Since methods for the treatment of WNV infections are not available, there is a need for the development of safe and effective vaccines. Here, we describe the construction of a recombinant influenza virus expressing domain III of the WNV glycoprotein E (Flu-NA-DIII and its evaluation as a WNV vaccine candidate in a mouse model. FLU-NA-DIII-vaccinated mice were protected from severe body weight loss and mortality caused by WNV infection, whereas control mice succumbed to the infection. In addition, it was shown that one subcutaneous immunization with 10(5 TCID(50 Flu-NA-DIII provided 100% protection against challenge. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that protection was mediated by antibodies and CD4+T cells. Furthermore, mice vaccinated with FLU-NA-DIII developed protective influenza virus-specific antibody titers. It was concluded that this vector system might be an attractive platform for the development of bivalent WNV-influenza vaccines.

  2. Radix isatidis Polysaccharides Inhibit Influenza a Virus and Influenza A Virus-Induced Inflammation via Suppression of Host TLR3 Signaling In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengtu Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza remains one of the major epidemic diseases worldwide, and rapid virus replication and collateral lung tissue damage caused by excessive pro-inflammatory host immune cell responses lead to high mortality rates. Thus, novel therapeutic agents that control influenza A virus (IAV propagation and attenuate excessive pro-inflammatory responses are needed. Polysaccharide extract from Radix isatidis, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, exerted potent anti-IAV activity against human seasonal influenza viruses (H1N1 and H3N2 and avian influenza viruses (H6N2 and H9N2 in vitro. The polysaccharides also significantly reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and chemokines (IP-10, MIG, and CCL-5 stimulated by A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 at a range of doses (7.5 mg/mL, 15 mg/mL, and 30 mg/mL; however, they were only effective against progeny virus at a high dose. Similar activity was detected against inflammation induced by avian influenza virus H9N2. The polysaccharides strongly inhibited the protein expression of TLR-3 induced by PR8, suggesting that they impair the upregulation of pro-inflammatory factors induced by IAV by inhibiting activation of the TLR-3 signaling pathway. The polysaccharide extract from Radix isatidis root therefore has the potential to be used as an adjunct to antiviral therapy for the treatment of IAV infection.

  3. Inequalities in mortality: study rates, not standardised mortality ratios [Letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonneux, L.G.A.

    2010-01-01

    In their study from 1921 to 2007 Thomas and colleagues conclude on the basis of standardised mortality ratios that inequalities in mortality continue to rise and are now almost as high as in the 1930s. Relative ratios are, however, misleading when absolute rates change strongly. I calculated the

  4. Impacto das ações de imunização pelo Programa Saúde da Família na mortalidade infantil por doenças evitáveis em Olinda, Pernambuco, Brasil Impact of immunization measures by the Family Health Program on infant mortality from preventable diseases in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Rocha Guimarães

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda o impacto do Programa Saúde da Família (PSF na saúde infantil no Município de Olinda, Pernambuco, Brasil, por meio da avaliação da vacinação e mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis. Realizou-se um estudo de série temporal com os dados dos principais sistemas de informação em saúde, usando-se a análise dos indicadores ex-ante e ex-post da implantação do PSF, em 1995. A variável independente foi o ano de nascimento relacionado com grau de cobertura da população pelo PSF. Analisou-se três períodos: 1990/1994 (anterior, 1995/1996 (implantação: cobertura de 0% a 30%, 1997/2002 (intervenção: cobertura de 38,6% a 54%. A tendência dos indicadores foi analisada pela regressão linear simples, sendo testada a significância pelo teste t. No período de implantação houve aumento de todas as médias das coberturas vacinais (176% BCG, 223% pólio, 52% DPT, 61% sarampo e redução da mortalidade infantil por causas evitáveis (12,7 óbitos/ano, mesmo não havendo diminuição da pobreza absoluta no município ou aumento das coberturas das redes públicas de saúde nem de esgotamento. A melhoria nos indicadores demonstra a efetividade das ações do PSF no município.This article analyzes the impact of the Family Health Program (FHP on infant health in Olinda, Pernambuco State, Brazil, evaluating immunization and infant mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. A time-series study was conducted with data from the principal health information systems, analyzing indicators before and after implementation of the FHP in 1995. The independent variable was year of birth, related to degree of population coverage by the FHP. Three periods were analyzed: 1990-1994 (prior, 1995-1996 (implementation phase: 0 to 30% coverage, and 1997-2002 (intervention: coverage of 38.6% to 54%. Trends in the indicators were analyzed by simple linear regression, testing significance with the t test. During the implementation period

  5. [Maternal mortality: the demographic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanogo, D

    1989-10-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has defined maternal mortality (MM) as a death following a delivery or during the 42 day period following a prolonged or complicated delivery. This definition is ambiguous because it does not take into account the institutional causes (deficiencies) that lead to MM in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) nor does it reflect all the reasons leading to MM because of the lack of nationwide health information systems and the lack of accurate statistics. While developed countries can depend on the state to provide accurate statistics, developing countries depend on hospitals, health training centers and special surveys to provide such data which often leads to 25-50% gross underestimations of MM. The most recent WHO data (1989) shows that SSA has the highest MM rates worldwide, ranging from 500- 700/100,000 as compared to Asia with 55-650; Latin America with 110-210 and the developed countries with 10-48. The data for SSA doesn't reflect the true situation in the rural areas where MM rates are over 1000/1000,000. MM is a symptom of poor countries where women contribute to their own deaths through repeated pregnancies, causing significant socioeconomic losses to society. UNICEF (1988) has categorized the demographic factors as high risk for women based on: 1) the age of the mother, and 2) the number of pregnancies. Family planning (FP) reduces MM by preventing illegal abortions; it reduces the number of unwanted pregnancies and increases the earnings of a community by reducing the number of pregnant women. The experience of developed countries demonstrates how women have avoided high-risk and unwanted pregnancies.

  6. Comitês de prevenção da mortalidade infantil no Paraná, Brasil: implantação e operacionalização Committees for the prevention of infant mortality in the State of Paraná, Brazil: implementation and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Henrique Mansano

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo relatar a experiência de implantação e funcionamento dos Comitês de Prevenção da Mortalidade Infantil no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, apresentando as estratégias de operacionalização, composição e fluxo dos três níveis: estadual, regional e municipal. Para a efetiva implantação dessa proposta, foi necessário preparar profissionais para investigar o óbito infantil e, portanto, foram realizados treinamentos de Multiplicadores para Investigação dos Óbitos Infantis. Em dois anos, os comitês analisaram 50% dos óbitos do Estado. Pretende-se ampliar gradativamente o número de óbitos analisados, bem como dar continuidade ao acompanhamento e à reestruturação dos comitês, visando a obter melhor desempenho, mais agilidade e melhor qualidade dos dados.This article reports on the implementation and operation of committees for the prevention of infant mortality in the State of Paraná, Brazil, with the operational strategies, formation, and relations at three levels: State, regional, and municipal. To implement the committees it was necessary to train professionals to investigate infant deaths. In two years the committees analyzed 50% of the infant deaths occurring in the State. The goal is to increase the number of cases analyzed and to continue to monitor the committees' work, seeking improved performance, agility, and data quality.

  7. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern

    OpenAIRE

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. Objectives This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  9. Meta-analysis : High-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, ER; Pastor-Barriuso, R; Dalal, D; Riemersma, RA; Appel, LJ; Guallar, E

    2005-01-01

    Background: Experimental models and observational studies suggest that vitamin E supplementation may prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, several trials of high-dosage vitamin E supplementation showed non-statistically significant increases in total mortality. Purpose: To perform a

  10. Suicide Mortality Across Broad Occupational Groups in Greece: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos C. Alexopoulos

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Further research is needed into the work-related stressors of occupations with high suicide mortality risk and focused suicide prevention strategies should be applied within vulnerable working age populations.

  11. Chronic pain and mortality: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Smith

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is common, often widespread and has a substantial impact on health and quality of life. The relationship between chronic pain and mortality is unclear. This systematic review aimed to identify and evaluate evidence for a relationship between chronic pain and mortality.A search of ten electronic databases including EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted in March 2012, and updated until March 2014. Observational studies investigating the association between chronic or widespread pain (including fibromyalgia and mortality were included. Risk of bias was assessed and a meta-analysis was undertaken to quantify heterogeneity and pool results. A narrative review was undertaken to explore similarities and differences between the included studies.Ten studies were included in the review. Three reported significant associations between chronic or widespread pain and mortality in unadjusted results. In adjusted analyses, four studies reported a significant association. The remaining studies reported no statistically significant association. A meta-analysis showed statistically significant heterogeneity of results from studies using comparable outcome measures (n = 7(I2 = 78.8% and a modest but non-significant pooled estimate (MRR1.14,95%CI 0.95-1.37 for the relationship between chronic pain and all-cause mortality. This association was stronger when analysis was restricted to studies of widespread pain (n = 5,I2 = 82.3% MRR1.22(95%CI 0.93-1.60. The same pattern was observed with deaths from cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Heterogeneity is likely to be due to differences in study populations, follow-up time, pain phenotype, methods of analysis and use of confounding factors.This review showed a mildly increased risk of death in people with chronic pain, particularly from cancer. However, the small number of studies and methodological differences prevented clear conclusions from being drawn. Consistently applied definitions of

  12. Mortality, fog and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A E; Bradley, W H

    1960-01-01

    A study was made associating climate and atmospheric pollution with excess mortality in greater London during the winter of 1958 and 1959. It was a particularly foggy winter with 6 major episodes, 4 of which resembled previous dangerous smogs. There were two additional periods of high pollution without fog. Excess mortality during these 8 periods ranged from 70 to 230. During one period, a flu epidemic accompanied the fog. In 4 to 6 foggy periods, morbidity (hospital bed demand) also increased. This small number of observations indicates mortality association: on 2/3 of days with high SO/sub 2/ (2.5 pphM) or high particulate soot (10 mg/m/sup 3/), and on all days with thick fog, there was an increase in mortality (20 deaths more than previous day) on that or the following day. Fifteen-day moving mortality index and bronchitis mortality index were significantly correlated with black suspended matter and SO/sub 2/; association with pneumonia was not significant. Also little or no relation between mortality and humidity, mean temperature, or barometric pressure was found. Rapid response of mortality to air pollution may indicate that pollution affects mostly those already ill.

  13. Infant Mortality and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports . Table 5. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr64/nvsr64_09.pdf [PDF | 994KB] Infant deaths and mortality rates for the top 4 leading cause of death ...

  14. Hostility, drinking pattern and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Stephen H; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality.......This study examined the association of hostility to drinking pattern and whether this association mediated the relation of hostility to mortality....

  15. Mortality spectrum among adult surgical in-patients at the Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the common causes of death in a particular locality is important. This would help in planning interventions aimed at preventing and adequately managing such diseases to reduce mortality. Aims: To document the common disease conditions which cause mortality in adult surgical in-patients and ...

  16. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However......, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well...... as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic...

  17. Virus-induced down-regulation of GmERA1A and GmERA1B genes enhances the stomatal response to abscisic acid and drought resistance in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Ogata

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to global soybean production. The limited transformation potential and polyploid nature of soybean have hindered functional analysis of soybean genes. Previous research has implicated farnesylation in the plant's response to abscisic acid (ABA and drought tolerance. We therefore used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS to evaluate farnesyltransferase genes, GmERA1A and GmERA1B (Glycine max Enhanced Response to ABA1-A and -B, as potential targets for increasing drought resistance in soybean. Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV-mediated GmERA1-down-regulated soybean leaves displayed an enhanced stomatal response to ABA and reduced water loss and wilting under dehydration conditions, suggesting that GmERA1A and GmERA1B negatively regulate ABA signaling in soybean guard cells. The findings provide evidence that the ALSV-VIGS system, which bypasses the need to generate transgenic plants, is a useful tool for analyzing gene function using only a single down-regulated leaf. Thus, the ALSV-VIGS system could constitute part of a next-generation molecular breeding pipeline to accelerate drought resistance breeding in soybean.

  18. Down-regulation of osmotin (PR5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) leads to susceptibility of resistant Piper colubrinum Link. to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, K; Jessymol, K K; Chidambareswaren, M; Gayathri, G S; Manjula, S

    2015-06-01

    Piper colubrinum Link., a distant relative of Piper nigrum L., is immune to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leonian that causes 'quick wilt' in cultivated black pepper (P. nigrum). The osmotin, PR5 gene homologue, earlier identified from P. colubrinum, showed significant overexpression in response to pathogen and defense signalling molecules. The present study focuses on the functional validation of P. colubrinum osmotin (PcOSM) by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) using Tobacco Rattle Virus (TRV)-based vector. P. colubrinum plants maintained under controlled growth conditions in a growth chamber were infiltrated with Agrobacterium carrying TRV empty vector (control) and TRV vector carrying PcOSM. Three weeks post infiltration, viral movement was confirmed in newly emerged leaves of infiltrated plants by RT-PCR using TRV RNA1 and TRV RNA2 primers. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant down-regulation of PcOSM gene in TRV-PcOSM infiltrated plant compared with the control plants. The control and silenced plants were challenged with Phytophthora capsici which demonstrated that knock-down of PcOSM in P. colubrinum leads to increased fungal mycelial growth in silenced plants compared to control plants, which was accompanied by decreased accumulation of H2O2 as indicated by 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) staining. Thus, in this study, we demonstrated that Piper colubrinum osmotin gene is required for resisting P. capsici infection and has possible role in hypersensitive cell death response and oxidative burst signaling during infection.

  19. Risk factors for mortality during the 2002 landslides in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Carlos; Lee, Tze-San; Young, Stacy; Batts, Dahna; Benjamin, Jefferson; Malilay, Josephine

    2009-10-01

    This study examines health effects resulting from landslides in Chuuk during Tropical Storm Chata'an in July 2002, and suggests strategies to prevent future mortality. In August 2002, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to identify risk factors for mortality during landslides, which included 52 survivors and 40 surrogates for 43 decedents to identify risk factors for death. Findings suggest that 1) females had a higher mortality rate from this event than males, and 2) children aged 5-14 years had a 10-fold increase in mortality when compared with annual mortality rates from all causes. Awareness of landslides occurring elsewhere and knowledge of natural warning signs were significantly associated with lower risks of death; being outside during landslides was not associated with reduced mortality. In Chuuk, improving communication systems during tropical storms and increasing knowledge of natural warnings can reduce the risk for mortality during landslides.

  20. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  1. Mortality trend by dengue in Mexico 1980 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Celis, Alfredo; Serrano-Pinto, Vania; Orozco-Valerio, María de Jesús; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2012-01-01

    To describe the mortality of dengue in Mexico during 1980 to 2009. Dengue mortality data for Mexico were obtained from Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografía e Informática. We used standardized and non-standardized dengue mortality rates per 1,000,000 people and determined the mortality trend. The groups were based on International Classification of Diseases coding criteria (ICD-9 E061 and ICD-10 A91X). The results were stratified by age groups and the frequencies of dengue deaths were compared using relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval. During 1980 to 2009 in Mexico, 549 deaths due to dengue were reported. We found an important variation in the mortality rates during the years studied. We were able to identify three periods: 1980 to 1992, 1994 to 2000, and 2001 to 2009. The mortality rates found are from 0.88/1,000,000 through 0.00/1,000,000. The average mortality rates by decade: 1980 to 1989: 0.53/1,000,000; 1990 to 1999: 0.06/1,000,000; 2000 to 2009: 0.12/1,000,000. In the analysis of mortality by community size during 2000 to 2009, we observed in the small communities with < 2,499 people, the risk is 1.25 times higher than in those with more than 20,000 people. We found, in general, a sustained decline in the number of deaths by dengue over the last 30 years in Mexico. However, a slow increase was observed since 1994, which may be related to the circulation of DENV2 and DENV3, among other factors. We need to strengthen prevention programs in smaller communities (< 2,499) where we found a higher risk of mortality due to dengue.

  2. Bladder cancer mortality after spinal cord injury over 4 decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahm, Laura S; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Lloyd, L Keith

    2015-06-01

    We estimate bladder cancer mortality in people with spinal cord injury compared to the general population. Data and statistics were retrieved from the National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center and the National Center for Health Statistics. The mortality experience of the 45,486 patients with traumatic spinal cord injury treated at a Spinal Cord Injury Model System or Shriners Hospital was compared to the general population using a standardized mortality ratio. The standardized mortality ratio data were further stratified by age, gender, race, time since injury and injury severity. Our study included 566,532 person-years of followup between 1960 and 2009, identified 10,575 deaths and categorized 99 deaths from bladder cancer. The expected number of deaths from bladder cancer would have been 14.8 if patients with spinal cord injury had the same bladder cancer mortality as the general population. Thus, the standardized mortality ratio is 6.7 (95% CI 5.4-8.1). Increased mortality risk from bladder cancer was observed for various ages, races and genders, as well as for those injured for 10 or more years and with motor complete injuries. Bladder cancer mortality was not significantly increased for ventilator users, those with motor incomplete injuries or those injured less than 10 years. Individuals with a spinal cord injury can potentially live healthier and longer by reducing the incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. Study findings highlight the need to identify at risk groups and contributing factors for bladder cancer death, leading to the development of prevention, screening and management strategies. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Jouni; Holstila, Ansku; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a major public health problem associated with increased mortality risk. It is, however, poorly understood whether vigorous physical activity is more beneficial for reducing mortality risk than activities of lower intensity. The aim of this study was to examine associations of the intensity and volume of leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among middle-aged women and men while considering sociodemographic and health related factors as covariates. Questionnaire survey data collected in 2000-02 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (N = 8960) were linked with register data on mortality (74% gave permission to the linkage) providing a mean follow-up time of 12-years. The analysis included 6429 respondents (79% women). The participants were classified into three groups according to intensity of physical activity: low moderate, high moderate and vigorous. The volume of physical activity was classified into three groups according to tertiles. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality. During the follow up 205 participants died. Leisure-time physical activity was associated with reduced risk of mortality. After adjusting for covariates the vigorous group (HR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86) showed a reduced risk of mortality compared with the low moderate group whereas for the high moderate group the reductions in mortality risk (HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.48-1.08) were less clear. Adjusting for the volume of physical activity did not affect the point estimates. Higher volume of leisure-time physical activity was also associated with reduced mortality risk; however, adjusting for the covariates and the intensity of physical activity explained the differences. For healthy middle-aged women and men who engage in some physical activity vigorous exercise may provide further health benefits preventing premature deaths.

  4. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brum, Camila de Andrade [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Stein, Airton Tetelbom [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Grupo Hospitalar Conceição (GHC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%), which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  5. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Andrade Brum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. Objective: To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. Methods: This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Results: Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%, which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. Conclusion: It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality.

  6. Infant Mortality in Novo Hamburgo: Associated Factors and Cardiovascular Causes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brum, Camila de Andrade; Stein, Airton Tetelbom; Pellanda, Lucia Campos

    2015-01-01

    Infant mortality has decreased in Brazil, but remains high as compared to that of other developing countries. In 2010, the Rio Grande do Sul state had the lowest infant mortality rate in Brazil. However, the municipality of Novo Hamburgo had the highest infant mortality rate in the Porto Alegre metropolitan region. To describe the causes of infant mortality in the municipality of Novo Hamburgo from 2007 to 2010, identifying which causes were related to heart diseases and if they were diagnosed in the prenatal period, and to assess the access to healthcare services. This study assessed infants of the municipality of Novo Hamburgo, who died, and whose data were collected from the infant death investigation records. Of the 157 deaths in that period, 35.3% were reducible through diagnosis and early treatment, 25% were reducible through partnership with other sectors, 19.2% were non-preventable, 11.5% were reducible by means of appropriate pregnancy monitoring, 5.1% were reducible through appropriate delivery care, and 3.8% were ill defined. The major cause of death related to heart disease (13.4%), which was significantly associated with the variables ‘age at death’, ‘gestational age’ and ‘birth weight’. Regarding access to healthcare services, 60.9% of the pregnant women had a maximum of six prenatal visits. It is mandatory to enhance prenatal care and newborn care at hospitals and basic healthcare units to prevent infant mortality

  7. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Martin; Es-Saad, Salwa; Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fink, Karin; Pham, Tram; Raymond, Valérie-Ann; Audette, Karine; Guenier, Anne-Sophie; Duchaine, Jean; Servant, Marc; Bilodeau, Marc; Cohen, Eric; Grandvaux, Nathalie; Lamarre, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1) promoter following Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor (RLR)-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1) upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  8. Genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a new role of a WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway as negative regulator of virus-induced innate immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Baril

    Full Text Available To identify new regulators of antiviral innate immunity, we completed the first genome-wide gene silencing screen assessing the transcriptional response at the interferon-β (IFNB1 promoter following Sendai virus (SeV infection. We now report a novel link between WNT signaling pathway and the modulation of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptor (RLR-dependent innate immune responses. Here we show that secretion of WNT2B and WNT9B and stabilization of β-catenin (CTNNB1 upon virus infection negatively regulate expression of representative inducible genes IFNB1, IFIT1 and TNF in a CTNNB1-dependent effector mechanism. The antiviral response is drastically reduced by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 inhibitors but restored in CTNNB1 knockdown cells. The findings confirm a novel regulation of antiviral innate immunity by a canonical-like WNT/CTNNB1 signaling pathway. The study identifies novel avenues for broad-spectrum antiviral targets and preventing immune-mediated diseases upon viral infection.

  9. Mortality and Clostridium difficile infection in an Australian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brett G; Gardner, Anne; Hiller, Janet E

    2013-10-01

    To quantify the risk of death associated with Clostridium difficile infection, in an Australian tertiary hospital. Two reviews examining Clostridium difficile infection and mortality indicate that Clostridium difficile infection is associated with increased mortality in hospitalized patients. Studies investigating the mortality of Clostridium difficile infection in settings outside of Europe and North America are required, so that the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in these regions can be understood and appropriate prevention strategies made. An observational non-concurrent cohort study design was used. Data from all persons who had (exposed) and a matched sample of persons who did not have Clostridium difficile infection, for the calendar years 2007-2010, were analysed. The risk of dying within 30, 60, 90 and 180 days was compared using the two groups. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and conditional logistic regression models were applied to the data to examine time to death and mortality risk adjusted for comorbidities using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. One hundred and fifty-eight cases of infection were identified. A statistically significant difference in all-cause mortality was identified between exposed and non-exposed groups at 60 and 180 days. In a conditional regression model, mortality in the exposed group was significantly higher at 180 days. In this Australian study, Clostridium difficile infection was associated with increased mortality. In doing so, it highlights the need for nurses to immediately instigate contact precautions for persons suspected of having Clostridium difficile infection and to facilitate a timely faecal collection for testing. Our findings support ongoing surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection and associated prevention and control activities. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  11. MORTALITY MODELING WITH LEVY PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Serhat Yucel, FRM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mortality and longevity risk is usually one of the main risk components ineconomic capital models of insurance companies. Above all, future mortalityexpectations are an important input in the modeling and pricing of long termproducts. Deviations from the expectation can lead insurance company even todefault if sufficient reserves and capital is not held. Thus, Modeling of mortalitytime series accurately is a vital concern for the insurance industry. The aim of thisstudy is to perform distributional and spectral testing to the mortality data andpracticed discrete and continuous time modeling. We believe, the results and thetechniques used in this study will provide a basis for Value at Risk formula incase of mortality.

  12. Influenza A Virus-Induced Expression of a GalNAc Transferase, GALNT3, via MicroRNAs Is Required for Enhanced Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shoko; Horie, Masayuki; Daidoji, Tomo; Honda, Tomoyuki; Yasugi, Mayo; Kuno, Atsushi; Komori, Toshihisa; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Nakaya, Takaaki; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-02-15

    Influenza A virus (IAV) affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts and rapidly induces the expression of mucins, which are common O-glycosylated proteins, on the epithelial surfaces of the respiratory tract. Although mucin production is associated with the inhibition of virus transmission as well as characteristic clinical symptoms, little is known regarding how mucins are produced on the surfaces of respiratory epithelial cells and how they affect IAV replication. In this study, we found that two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR-17-3p and miR-221, which target GalNAc transferase 3 (GALNT3) mRNA, are rapidly downregulated in human alveolar basal epithelial cells during the early stage of IAV infection. We demonstrated that the expression of GALNT3 mRNA is upregulated in an IAV replication-dependent fashion and leads to mucin production in bronchial epithelial cells. A lectin microarray analysis revealed that the stable expression of GALNT3 by human alveolar basal epithelial cells induces mucin-type O-glycosylation modifications similar to those present in IAV-infected cells, suggesting that GALNT3 promotes mucin-type O-linked glycosylation in IAV-infected cells. Notably, analyses using short interfering RNAs and miRNA mimics showed that GALNT3 knockdown significantly reduces IAV replication. Furthermore, IAV replication was markedly decreased in embryonic fibroblast cells obtained from galnt3-knockout mice. Interestingly, IAV-infected galnt3-knockout mice exhibited high mortality and severe pathological alterations in the lungs compared to those of wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate not only the molecular mechanism underlying rapid mucin production during IAV infection but also the contribution of O-linked glycosylation to the replication and propagation of IAV in lung cells. Viral infections that affect the upper or lower respiratory tracts, such as IAV, rapidly induce mucin production on the epithelial surfaces of respiratory cells. However, the details of how

  13. Sedentary lifestyle and state variation in coronary heart disease mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, K K; Anda, R F; Macera, C A; Donehoo, R S; Eaker, E D

    1995-01-01

    Using linear regression, the authors demonstrated a strong association between State-specific coronary heart disease mortality rates and State prevalence of sedentary lifestyle (r2 = 0.34; P = 0.0002) that remained significant after controlling for the prevalence of diagnosed hypertension, smoking, and overweight among the State's population. This ecologic analysis suggests that sedentary lifestyle may explain State variation in coronary heart disease mortality and reinforces the need to include physical activity promotion as a part of programs in the States to prevent heart disease. PMID:7838933

  14. [Trend of cancer mortality in Hebei province, 1973-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D; Li, D J; Shi, J; Zhang, Y C; Guo, T T; He, Y T

    2018-01-10

    Objective: To analyze the data of malignant tumor mortality and change in disease burden in Hebei province from 1973 to 2013. Methods: Cancer mortality rate, age-standardized mortality rate and the years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs) were calculated by using the data from three rounds of all death causes survey and database of cancer registry in Hebei during 1973-2013. Results: From 1973 to 2013, a linear upward of malignant tumor mortality was observed, with a 51.57% increase. The mortality rate during 1973-1975 was 98.52/100 000 and it was 149.33/100 000 during 2011-2013. During 1973-1975, the YLLs was 17.0/1 000 in males and 12.8/1 000 in females. While during 2011-2013, the YLLs was 23.2/1 000 in males and 15.9/1 000 in females. During 1973-1975, esophagus cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were top three leading causes of deaths. During 2011-2013, lung cancer, stomach cancer and liver cancer were main leading causes of deaths. During the past 40 years, the deaths of esophagus cancer and cervix cancer decreased dramatically, but the deaths of lung cancer and breast cancer increased sharply. Conclusions: The disease burden caused by malignant tumor is becoming more serious in Hebei. It is necessary to strengthen the primary prevention and screening of malignant tumor.

  15. Is patriarchy the source of men's higher mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, D; Bambra, C; Scott-Samuel, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relation between levels of patriarchy and male health by comparing female homicide rates with male mortality within countries. Hypothesis: High levels of patriarchy in a society are associated with increased mortality among men. Design: Cross sectional ecological study design. Setting: 51 countries from four continents were represented in the data—America, Europe, Australasia, and Asia. No data were available for Africa. Results: A multivariate stepwise linear regression model was used. Main outcome measure was age standardised male mortality rates for 51 countries for the year 1995. Age standardised female homicide rates and GDP per capita ranking were the explanatory variables in the model. Results were also adjusted for the effects of general rates of homicide. Age standardised female homicide rates and ranking of GDP were strongly correlated with age standardised male mortality rates (Pearson's r = 0.699 and Spearman's 0.744 respectively) and both correlations achieved significance (ppatriarchy, the higher is the rate of mortality among men. Conclusion: These data suggest that oppression and exploitation harm the oppressors as well as those they oppress, and that men's higher mortality is a preventable social condition, which could be tackled through global social policy measures. PMID:16166362

  16. NSs protein of rift valley fever virus induces the specific degradation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habjan, Matthias; Pichlmair, Andreas; Elliott, Richard M; Overby, Anna K; Glatter, Timo; Gstaiger, Matthias; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Unger, Hermann; Weber, Friedemann

    2009-05-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to cause large outbreaks of acute febrile and often fatal illness among humans and domesticated animals in Africa, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. The high pathogenicity of this bunyavirus is mainly due to the viral protein NSs, which was shown to prevent transcriptional induction of the antivirally active type I interferons (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-alpha/beta]). Viruses lacking the NSs gene induce synthesis of IFNs and are therefore attenuated, whereas the noninducing wild-type RVFV strains can only be inhibited by pretreatment with IFN. We demonstrate here in vitro and in vivo that a substantial part of the antiviral activity of IFN against RVFV is due to a double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). PKR-mediated virus inhibition, however, was much more pronounced for the strain Clone 13 with NSs deleted than for the NSs-expressing strain ZH548. In vivo, Clone 13 was nonpathogenic for wild-type (wt) mice but could regain pathogenicity if mice lacked the PKR gene. ZH548, in contrast, killed both wt and PKR knockout mice indiscriminately. ZH548 was largely resistant to the antiviral properties of PKR because RVFV NSs triggered the specific degradation of PKR via the proteasome. The NSs proteins of the related but less virulent sandfly fever Sicilian virus and La Crosse virus, in contrast, had no such anti-PKR activity despite being efficient suppressors of IFN induction. Our data suggest that RVFV NSs has gained an additional anti-IFN function that may explain the extraordinary pathogenicity of this virus.

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  18. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  19. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  20. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  3. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  6. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  7. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  8. Physical activity, obesity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...

  9. Predictors of paediatric injury mortality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PTS) and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were tested against outcome by binary logistic regression analysis. Results. Five hundred and seventy-six children presented with injury during the study period with 22 deaths, giving an injury mortality ...

  10. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  11. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-03-01

    The relationships of cancer mortality with radiation exposure as influenced by age, sex, follow-up time length of employment, and job category are discussed in relation to workers at the Hanford facilities

  12. Stressful social relations and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship between stressful social relations in private life and all-cause mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between stressful social relations (with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively) and all...... men and women aged 36-52 years, linked to the Danish Cause of Death Registry for information on all-cause mortality until 31 December 2011. Associations between stressful social relations with partner, children, other family, friends and neighbours, respectively, and all-cause mortality were examined....... CONCLUSIONS: Stressful social relations are associated with increased mortality risk among middle-aged men and women for a variety of different social roles. Those outside the labour force and men seem especially vulnerable to exposure....

  13. Intense cold and mortality in Castile-La Mancha (Spain): study of mortality trigger thresholds from 1975 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Isidro J.; Montero, Juan Carlos; Criado-Alvarez, Juan José; Linares, Cristina; Díaz, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Studies on temperature-mortality time trends especially address heat, so that any contribution on the subject of cold is necessarily of interest. This study describes the modification of the lagged effects of cold on mortality in Castile-La Mancha from 1975 to 2003, with the novelty of also approaching this aspect in terms of mortality trigger thresholds. Cross-correlation functions (CCFs) were thus established with 15 lags, after application of ARIMA models to the mortality data and minimum daily temperatures (from November to March), and the results for the periods 1975-1984, 1985-1994 and 1995-2003 were then compared. In addition, daily mortality residuals for the periods 1975-1989 and 1990-2003 were related to minimum temperatures grouped in 2°C intervals, with a cold threshold temperature being obtained in cases where such residuals increased significantly ( p economic conditions over the study period. Evidence was shown of the effects of cold on mortality, a finding that renders the adoption of preventive measures advisable in any case where intense cold is forecast.

  14. Policy lessons from comparing mortality from two global forces: international terrorism and tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Nick

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the mortality burdens from two global impacts on mortality: international terrorism and the major cause of preventable death in developed countries – tobacco use. We also sought to examine the similarities and differences between these two causes of mortality so as to better inform the policy responses directed at prevention. Methods Data on deaths from international terrorism were obtained from a US State Department database for 1994–2003. Estimates for tobacco-attributable deaths were based on Peto et al 2003. The countries were 37 developed and East European countries. Results and discussion The collective annualized mortality burden from tobacco was approximately 5700 times that of international terrorism. The ratio of annual tobacco to international terrorism deaths was lowest for the United States at 1700 times, followed by Russia at 12,900 times. The tobacco death burden in all these countries was equivalent to the impact of an 11 September type terrorist attack every 14 hours. Different perceptions of risk may contribute to the relative lack of a policy response to tobacco mortality, despite its relatively greater scale. The lack is also despite tobacco control having a stronger evidence base for the prevention measures used. Conclusion This comparison highlights the way risk perception may determine different policy responses to global forces causing mortality. Nevertheless, the large mortality differential between international terrorism and tobacco use has policy implications for informing the rational use of resources to prevent premature death.

  15. Cancer mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1978-01-01

    Personnel and radiation exposure data for past and present employees of the Hanford plant have been collected and analysed for a possible relationship of exposure to mortality. The occurrence of death in workers was established by the Social Security Administration and the cause of death obtained from death certificates. Mortality from all causes, all cancer cases and specific cancer types was related to the population at risk. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated for white males, using age- and calendar year-specific mortality rates for the U.S. population in the calculation of expected deaths. This analysis showed a substantial 'healthy worker effect' and no significantly high standardized mortality ratios for specific disease categories. A test for association of mortality with levels of radiation exposure revealed no correlation for all causes and all cancer. In carrying out this test, adjustment was made for age and calendar year of death, length of employment and occupational category. A statistically significant test for trend was obtained for multiple myeloma and carcinoma of the pancreas. However, in view of the absence of such a correlation for diseases more commonly associated with radiation exposure such as myeloid leukaemia, as well as the small number of deaths in higher exposure groups, the results cannot be considered definitive. Any conclusions based on these associations should be viewed in relation to the results of other studies. These results are compared with those of other investigators who have analysed the Hanford data. (author)

  16. High mortality in the Thule cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to study mortality in the Thule cohort in order to clarify whether it is a selected population and to ascertain the possibility of misinterpretation when national mortality rates are used as reference in the analysis of occupational mortality.......The objective was to study mortality in the Thule cohort in order to clarify whether it is a selected population and to ascertain the possibility of misinterpretation when national mortality rates are used as reference in the analysis of occupational mortality....

  17. Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeon Seok

    2018-03-01

    Bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Although there has been significance improvement in the prognosis of variceal bleeding with advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for its management, mortality rate still remains high. Therefore, appropriate prevention and rapid, effective management of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is very important. Recently, various studies about management of gastoesophageal varices, including prevention of development and aggravation of varices, prevention of first variceal bleeding, management of acute variceal bleeding, and prevention of variceal rebleeding, have been published. The present article reviews published articles and practice guidelines to present the most optimal management of patients with gastroesophageal varices.

  18. Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2015-01-01

    What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

  19. Virus-induced gene silencing of the two squalene synthase isoforms of apple tree (Malus × domestica L.) negatively impacts phytosterol biosynthesis, plastid pigmentation and leaf growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Gallón, Sandra M; Elejalde-Palmett, Carolina; Daudu, Dimitri; Liesecke, Franziska; Jullien, Frédéric; Papon, Nicolas; Dugé de Bernonville, Thomas; Courdavault, Vincent; Lanoue, Arnaud; Oudin, Audrey; Glévarec, Gaëlle; Pichon, Olivier; Clastre, Marc; St-Pierre, Benoit; Atehortùa, Lucia; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie; Besseau, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    The use of a VIGS approach to silence the newly characterized apple tree SQS isoforms points out the biological function of phytosterols in plastid pigmentation and leaf development. Triterpenoids are beneficial health compounds highly accumulated in apple; however, their metabolic regulation is poorly understood. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key branch point enzyme involved in both phytosterol and triterpene biosynthesis. In this study, two SQS isoforms were identified in apple tree genome. Both isoforms are located at the endoplasmic reticulum surface and were demonstrated to be functional SQS enzymes using an in vitro activity assay. MdSQS1 and MdSQS2 display specificities in their expression profiles with respect to plant organs and environmental constraints. This indicates a possible preferential involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and/or triterpene metabolic pathways as further argued using RNAseq meta-transcriptomic analyses. Finally, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) approach was used to silence MdSQS1 and MdSQS2. The concomitant down-regulation of both MdSQS isoforms strongly affected phytosterol synthesis without alteration in triterpene accumulation, since triterpene-specific oxidosqualene synthases were found to be up-regulated to compensate metabolic flux reduction. Phytosterol deficiencies in silenced plants clearly disturbed chloroplast pigmentation and led to abnormal development impacting leaf division rather than elongation or differentiation. In conclusion, beyond the characterization of two SQS isoforms in apple tree, this work brings clues for a specific involvement of each isoform in phytosterol and triterpene pathways and emphasizes the biological function of phytosterols in development and chloroplast integrity. Our report also opens the door to metabolism studies in Malus domestica using the apple latent spherical virus-based VIGS method.

  20. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  1. Prevalence and Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy in Edo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Prevention used against malaria in pregnancy is a sure safe guard against maternal morbidity/mortality and should be ... This acquired anti- malarial immunity ... her family by reducing malaria related ... complications arising during pregnancy,.

  2. Mortality and morbidity in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Anne; Deaton, Angus

    2017-01-01

    there any evidence in the European data that mortality trends match income trends, in spite of sharply different patterns of median income across countries after the Great Recession. We propose a preliminary but plausible story in which cumulative disadvantage from one birth cohort to the next, in the labor market, in marriage and child outcomes, and in health, is triggered by progressively worsening labor market opportunities at the time of entry for whites with low levels of education. This account, which fits much of the data, has the profoundly negative implication that policies, even ones that successfully improve earnings and jobs, or redistribute income, will take many years to reverse the mortality and morbidity increase, and that those in midlife now are likely to do much worse in old age than those currently older than 65. This is in contrast to an account in which resources affect health contemporaneously, so that those in midlife now can expect to do better in old age as they receive Social Security and Medicare. None of this implies that there are no policy levers to be pulled; preventing the over-prescription of opioids is an obvious target that would clearly be helpful.

  3. Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality among Ischemic Stroke Patients in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheung-Ter Ong

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Nearly 30% of in-hospital mortality is associated with preventable factors. The prognosis of acute stroke can be improved by increased focus on reducing serious complications after stroke, particularly on the prevention of infection, heart disease, and increased intracranial pressure.

  4. Respiratory tract mortality in cement workers: a proportionate mortality study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The evidence regarding the association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to cement is controversial. This study investigated causes of deaths from cancer of respiratory tract among cement workers. Methods The deaths of the Greek Cement Workers Compensation Scheme were analyzed covering the period 1969-1998. All respiratory, lung, laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer proportionate mortality were calculated for cement production, maintenance, and office workers in the cement industry. Mortality from urinary bladder cancer was used as an indirect indicator of the confounding effect of smoking. Results Mortality from all respiratory cancer was significantly increased in cement production workers (PMR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.54 to 2.33). The proportionate mortality from lung cancer was significantly elevated (PMR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.65 to 2.52). A statistically significant increase in proportionate mortality due to respiratory (PMR = 1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.34). and lung cancer (PMR = 1.67;95% CI = 1.15-2.34) among maintenance workers has been observed. The PMR among the three groups of workers (production, maintenance, office) did differ significantly for lung cancer (p = 0.001), while the PMR for urinary bladder cancer found to be similar among the three groups of cement workers. Conclusion Cement production, and maintenance workers presented increased lung and respiratory cancer proportionate mortality, and this finding probably cannot be explained by the confounding effect of smoking alone. Further research including use of prospective cohort studies is needed in order to establish a causal association between occupational exposure to cement and risk of lung cancer. PMID:22738120

  5. Decline in Cardiovascular Mortality: Possible Causes and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, George A; Wei, Gina S; Sorlie, Paul D; Fine, Lawrence J; Rosenberg, Yves; Kaufmann, Peter G; Mussolino, Michael E; Hsu, Lucy L; Addou, Ebyan; Engelgau, Michael M; Gordon, David

    2017-01-20

    If the control of infectious diseases was the public health success story of the first half of the 20th century, then the decline in mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke has been the success story of the century's past 4 decades. The early phase of this decline in coronary heart disease and stroke was unexpected and controversial when first reported in the mid-1970s, having followed 60 years of gradual increase as the US population aged. However, in 1978, the participants in a conference convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute concluded that a significant recent downtick in coronary heart disease and stroke mortality rates had definitely occurred, at least in the US Since 1978, a sharp decline in mortality rates from coronary heart disease and stroke has become unmistakable throughout the industrialized world, with age-adjusted mortality rates having declined to about one third of their 1960s baseline by 2000. Models have shown that this remarkable decline has been fueled by rapid progress in both prevention and treatment, including precipitous declines in cigarette smoking, improvements in hypertension treatment and control, widespread use of statins to lower circulating cholesterol levels, and the development and timely use of thrombolysis and stents in acute coronary syndrome to limit or prevent infarction. However, despite the huge growth in knowledge and advances in prevention and treatment, there remain many questions about this decline. In fact, there is evidence that the rate of decline may have abated and may even be showing early signs of reversal in some population groups. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, through a request for information, is soliciting input that could inform a follow-up conference on or near the 40th anniversary of the original landmark conference to further explore these trends in cardiovascular mortality in the context of what has come before and what may lie ahead. © 2017 American Heart

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality reunited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Jacob J E; Wensink, Maarten J; Rozing, Maarten P; van Bodegom, David; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2015-07-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic mortality are often separated in order to understand and measure aging. Intrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of aging and to increase over age, whereas extrinsic mortality is assumed to be a result of environmental hazards and be constant over age. However, allegedly intrinsic and extrinsic mortality have an exponentially increasing age pattern in common. Theories of aging assert that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors underlies the increasing risk of death. Epidemiological and biological data support that the control of intrinsic as well as extrinsic stressors can alleviate the aging process. We argue that aging and death can be better explained by the interaction of intrinsic and extrinsic stressors than by classifying mortality itself as being either intrinsic or extrinsic. Recognition of the tight interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic stressors in the causation of aging leads to the recognition that aging is not inevitable, but malleable through the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Epidemiological characteristics of neonatal mortality in Peru, 2011-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, Jeannette; Tavera, Mario; Carrasco, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Describe the epidemiological characteristics of neonatal deaths in Peru. Descriptive study based on notifications to the Perinatal and Neonatal National Epidemiological Surveillance Subsystem (PNNESS) made in 2011-2012. The capture-recapture method was used to calculate the registration of the notification and estimate the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) nationally and by regions. Responses were made to the questions: where, when, who and why the newborns died. 6,748 neonatal deaths were reported to PNNESS, underreport 52.9%. A national NMR of 12.8 deaths/1,000 live births was estimated. 16% of deaths occurred at home and 74.2% of these were in the highlands region, predominantly in rural areas and poor districts. 30% died in the first 24 hours and 42% between 1 and 7 days of life. 60.6% were preterm infants and 39.4% were term infants. 37% had normal weight, 29.4% low weight, and 33.6% very low weight. Preventable neonatal mortality was 33%, being higher in urban and highland areas. 25.1% died of causes related with prematurity-immaturity; 23.5% by infections; 14.1% by asphyxiation and causes related to care during childbirth and 11% by lethal congenital malformation. Neonatal mortality in Peru is differentiated by setting; harms related to prematurity-immaturity dominated on the coast, while the highlands and jungle recorded more preventable neonatal mortality with a predominance of asphyxia and infections.

  8. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  10. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  11. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  12. Geographic Variations in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Asian American Subgroups, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jia; Hastings, Katherine G; Boothroyd, Derek; Jose, Powell O; Chung, Sukyung; Shah, Janki B; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-07-12

    There are well-documented geographical differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality for non-Hispanic whites. However, it remains unknown whether similar geographical variation in CVD mortality exists for Asian American subgroups. This study aims to examine geographical differences in CVD mortality among Asian American subgroups living in the United States and whether they are consistent with geographical differences observed among non-Hispanic whites. Using US death records from 2003 to 2011 (n=3 897 040 CVD deaths), age-adjusted CVD mortality rates per 100 000 population and age-adjusted mortality rate ratios were calculated for the 6 largest Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) and compared with non-Hispanic whites. There were consistently lower mortality rates for all Asian American subgroups compared with non-Hispanic whites across divisions for CVD mortality and ischemic heart disease mortality. However, cerebrovascular disease mortality demonstrated substantial geographical differences by Asian American subgroup. There were a number of regional divisions where certain Asian American subgroups (Filipino and Japanese men, Korean and Vietnamese men and women) possessed no mortality advantage compared with non-Hispanic whites. The most striking geographical variation was with Filipino men (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio=1.18; 95% CI, 1.14-1.24) and Japanese men (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio=1.05; 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) in the Pacific division who had significantly higher cerebrovascular mortality than non-Hispanic whites. There was substantial geographical variation in Asian American subgroup mortality for cerebrovascular disease when compared with non-Hispanic whites. It deserves increased attention to prioritize prevention and treatment in the Pacific division where approximately 80% of Filipinos CVD deaths and 90% of Japanese CVD deaths occur in the United States. © 2017 The Authors

  13. Widening Geographical Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in the United States, 1969-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh, PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined trends in geographical disparities in cardiovascular-disease (CVD mortality in the United States between 1969 and 2011. Methods: National vital statistics data and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were used to estimate regional, state, and county-level disparities in CVD mortality over time. Log-linear, weighted least squares, and Cox regression were used to analyze mortality trends and differentials. Results: During 1969-2011, CVD mortality rates declined fastest in New England and Mid-Atlantic regions and slowest in the Southeast and Southwestern regions. In 1969, the mortality rate was 9% higher in the Southeast than in New England, but the differential increased to 48% in 2011. In 2011, Southeastern states, Mississippi and Alabama, had the highest CVD mortality rates, nearly twice the rates for Minnesota and Hawaii. Controlling for individual-level covariates reduced state differentials. State- and county-level differentials in CVD mortality rates widened over time as geographical disparity in CVD mortality increased by 50% between 1969 and 2011. Area deprivation, smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diabetes prevalence, urbanization, lack of health insurance, and lower access to primary medical care were all significant predictors of county-level CVD mortality rates and accounted for 52.7% of the county variance. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Although CVD mortality has declined for all geographical areas in the United States, geographical disparity has widened over time as certain regions and states, particularly those in the South, have lagged behind in mortality reduction. Geographical disparities in CVD mortality reflect inequalities in socioeconomic conditions and behavioral risk factors. With the global CVD burden on the rise, monitoring geographical disparities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, could indicate the extent to which reductions in CVD mortality are

  14. Trends in cancer mortality in Mexico: 1990–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rizo-Ríos

    2015-04-01

    Discussion: In Mexico, cancer is a major public health problem. Although mortality is an indicator of the access and effectiveness of medical care, it is necessary to create population-based cancer registries to have basic information in the planning and quality assessment of medical services such as prevention, early diagnosis and treatment, as well as to develop strategies to allocate resources and necessities to fulfil the population's demand for medical assistance.

  15. Universal mortality law and immortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  16. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  17. Predicting mortality from human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykiert, Dominika; Bates, Timothy C; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether and to what extent mortality is predictable from facial photographs of older people. High-quality facial photographs of 292 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, taken at the age of about 83 years, were rated in terms of apparent age, health, attractiveness, facial symmetry, intelligence, and well-being by 12 young-adult raters. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to study associations between these ratings and mortality during a 7-year follow-up period. All ratings had adequate reliability. Concurrent validity was found for facial symmetry and intelligence (as determined by correlations with actual measures of fluctuating asymmetry in the faces and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices score, respectively), but not for the other traits. Age as rated from facial photographs, adjusted for sex and chronological age, was a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.65) and remained significant even after controlling for concurrent, objectively measured health and cognitive ability, and the other ratings. Health as rated from facial photographs, adjusted for sex and chronological age, significantly predicted mortality (hazard ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.99) but not after adjusting for rated age or objectively measured health and cognition. Rated attractiveness, symmetry, intelligence, and well-being were not significantly associated with mortality risk. Rated age of the face is a significant predictor of mortality risk among older people, with predictive value over and above that of objective or rated health status and cognitive ability.

  18. Clostridium Difficile Infection Due to Pneumonia Treatment: Mortality Risk Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, M; Zycinska, K; Lenartowicz, B; Hadzik-Błaszczyk, M; Cieplak, M; Kur, Z; Wardyn, K A

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common gastrointestinal infection after the antibiotic treatment of community or nosocomial pneumonia is caused by the anaerobic spore Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess mortality due to C. difficile infection (CDI) in patients treated for pneumonia. We identified 94 cases of post-pneumonia CDI out of the 217 patients with CDI. The mortality issue was addressed by creating a mortality risk models using logistic regression and multivariate fractional polynomial analysis. The patients' demographics, clinical features, and laboratory results were taken into consideration. To estimate the influence of the preceding respiratory infection, a pneumonia severity scale was included in the analysis. The analysis showed two statistically significant and clinically relevant mortality models. The model with the highest prognostic strength entailed age, leukocyte count, serum creatinine and urea concentration, hematocrit, coexisting neoplasia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In conclusion, we report on two prognostic models, based on clinically relevant factors, which can be of help in predicting mortality risk in C. difficile infection, secondary to the antibiotic treatment of pneumonia. These models could be useful in preventive tailoring of individual therapy.

  19. Epidemiology, Incidence and Mortality of Breast Cancer in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women around the world. Information on the incidence and mortality of breast cancer is essential for planning health measures. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and mortality of breast cancer in the world using age-specific incidence and mortality rates for the year 2012 acquired from the global cancer project (GLOBOCAN 2012) as well as data about incidence and mortality of the cancer based on national reports. It was estimated that 1,671,149 new cases of breast cancer were identified and 521,907 cases of deaths due to breast cancer occurred in the world in 2012. According to GLOBOCAN, it is the most common cancer in women, accounting for 25.1% of all cancers. Breast cancer incidence in developed countries is higher, while relative mortality is greatest in less developed countries. Education of women is suggested in all countries for early detection and treatment. Plans for the control and prevention of this cancer must be a high priority for health policy makers; also, it is necessary to increase awareness of risk factors and early detection in less developed countries.

  20. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risk factors in peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dijana B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CVS morbidity and mortality in the endstage renal disease (ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis therapy is 10-30 folds higher than in general population. The prevalence of well known traditional risk factors such as age, sex, race, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity is higher in the uraemic patients. Besides these, there are specific, nontraditional risk factors for dialysis patients. Mild inflammation present in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients which can be confirmed by specific inflammatory markers is the cause of CVS morbidity and mortality in these patients. Hypoalbuminaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia and a higher level of leptin are important predictors of vascular complications as well as CVS events in the PD patients. Plasma norepinephrine, an indicator of sympathetic activity, is high in the ESRD patients and higher in the PD patients than in the patients on haemodialysis (HD. Therefore, norepinephrine may be a stronger risk factor in the PD patients. The same applies to asymmetric dimethylargine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, which is an important risk factor of CVS morbidity and mortality 15 % higher in the PD than the HD patients. Hyperphosphataemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism and high calcium x phosphate product have been associated with the progression of the coronary artery calcification and valvular calcifications and predict all-cause CVS mortality in the PD patients. Residual renal function (RRF declines with time on dialysis but is slower in the PD than the HD patients. RRF decline is associated with the rise of proinflammatory cytokines and the onset of hypervolaemia and hypertension which increase the risk of CVS diseases, mortality in general and CVS mortality. In conclusion, it is very important to establish all CVS risk factors in the PD patients to prevent CVS diseases and CVS mortality in this population.

  1. [Adult mortality differentials in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofman, R

    1994-06-01

    Adult mortality differentials in Argentina are estimated and analyzed using data from the National Social Security Administration. The study of adult mortality has attracted little attention in developing countries because of the scarcity of reliable statistics and the greater importance assigned to demographic phenomena traditionally associated with development, such as infant mortality and fertility. A sample of 39,421 records of retired persons surviving as of June 30, 1988, was analyzed by age, sex, region of residence, relative amount of pension, and social security fund of membership prior to the consolidation of the system in 1967. The thirteen former funds were grouped into the five categories of government, commerce, industry, self-employed, and other, which were assumed to be proxies for the activity sector in which the individual spent his active life. The sample is not representative of the Argentine population, since it excludes the lowest and highest socioeconomic strata and overrepresents men and urban residents. It is, however, believed to be adequate for explaining mortality differentials for most of the population covered by the social security system. The study methodology was based on the technique of logistic analysis and on the use of regional model life tables developed by Coale and others. To evaluate the effect of the study variables on the probability of dying, a regression model of maximal verisimilitude was estimated. The model relates the logit of the probability of death between ages 65 and 95 to the available explanatory variables, including their possible interactions. Life tables were constructed by sex, region of residence, previous pension fund, and income. As a test of external consistency, a model including only age and sex as explanatory variables was constructed using the methodology. The results confirmed consistency between the estimated values and other published estimates. A significant conclusion of the study was that

  2. [Pressure sensors to prevent cardiac decompensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Didier

    2017-11-01

    Most cases of hospitalisation for heart failure are preceded by episodes of cardiac decompensation. Preventing these episodes would improve quality of life and reduce mortality and treatment costs. The monitoring of intracardiac pressures, using innovative sensors, coupled with telemedicine, offers interesting perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous preterm birth : prevention, management and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Gustaaf Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Preterm birth (birth before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy) is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Strategies to prevent and adequately treat preterm labour, in order to postpone birth and to identify risk factors for neonatal damage due to preterm birth, have to be developed by

  4. . ORIGINAL ARTICLES Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons for high morbidity and mortality associated with ... particular reference to the management of haemodynainic instability. S Afr Med! ... (iii) the performance of both anaesthesia and surgery by the ... Safe practice of spinal anaesthesia includes both prevention of ... Despite a prior obstetric or general medical work-.

  5. Meta-regression analyses, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses of the effects of supplementation with Beta-carotene, vitamin a, and vitamin e singly or in different combinations on all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Gluud, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias.......Evidence shows that antioxidant supplements may increase mortality. Our aims were to assess whether different doses of beta-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E affect mortality in primary and secondary prevention randomized clinical trials with low risk of bias....

  6. Premature mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mathew; Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-05-01

    American Indians in South Dakota have the highest mortality rates in the nation compared to other racial and ethnic groups and American Indians in other states. Cause-related and age-specific mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota are identified to guide prevention planning and policy efforts designed to reduce mortality within this population, in both South Dakota and other parts of the U.S. Death certificate data from South Dakota (2000-2010), on 5738 American Indians and 70,580 whites, were used to calculate age-specific mortality rates and rate ratios. These values were examined in order to identify patterns among the leading causes of death. Analyses were completed in 2011 and 2012. Within the South Dakota population, 70% of American Indians died before reaching age 70 years, compared to 25% of whites. Fatal injuries and chronic diseases were the leading causes of premature mortality. Nine leading causes of death showed consistent patterns of mortality disparity between American Indians and whites, with American Indians having significantly higher rates of mortality at lower ages. Premature mortality among American Indians in South Dakota is a serious public health problem. Unified efforts at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels are needed to reduce premature death within this population. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos using New York City (NYC Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001–2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate, but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver. Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.. Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites. Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  8. Research Article Cancer Mortality among Asians and Pacific Islanders in New York City, 2001–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, V.; Li, W.; Tsai, J.; Begier, E.

    2013-01-01

    Asians and Pacific Islanders’ (APIs) leading cause of death is cancer. We compared APIs’ age-adjusted cancer mortality rates to other racial/ethnic groups and by API subgroup (i.e., Chinese, Koreans, Asian Indians, and Filipinos) using New York City (NYC) Mortality data and Census Bureau population estimates for 2001-2010. While other racial/ethnic groups’ overall cancer mortality rates declined in NYC during the last decade, APIs remained stable. APIs overall had the lowest mortality rates for more common cancer types (i.e., lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate), but the highest mortality rates for certain less common cancers (i.e., nasopharyngeal, stomach, and liver). Chinese New Yorkers’ lung cancer death rates were very high compared to other APIs and comparable to non-Hispanic whites (47.1/100,000 versus 49.5/100,000, resp.). Chinese men had much higher nasopharyngeal cancer mortality rates (4.5/100,000 versus 0.3/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Korean men had the highest liver and stomach cancer mortality rates (25.3/100,000 and 27.7/100,000, resp., versus 7.9/100,000 and 6.0/100,000 for non-Hispanic whites). Analysis of cancer rates by API subgroup provides the detailed information needed to plan cancer prevention efforts. These findings warrant consideration of targeted cancer mortality prevention efforts for affected subgroups, including hepatitis vaccination, screening, and treatment; smoking cessation; and cancer screening.

  9. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; Wang, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated using the

  10. Child mortality in rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van der Klaauw (Bas); L. Wang (Lihong)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on infant and child mortality in rural areas of India. We construct a flexible duration model, which allows for frailty at multiple levels and interactions between the child's age and individual, socioeconomic, and environmental characteristics. The model is estimated

  11. Educational differences in cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøllesdal, M. K. R.; Ariansen, I.; Mortensen, L. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To explore the confounding effects of early family factors shared by siblings and cardiovascular risk factors in midlife on the educational differences in mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: Data from national and regional health surveys in Norway (1974–2003) were linked...

  12. Oral health problems and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ki Kim

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying.

  13. [Beer, wine, spirits and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbaek, M N; Sørensen, T I; Johansen, D; Becker, U; Gottschau, A; Schnohr, P; Hein, H O; Jensen, G

    2001-05-23

    A population based cohort study investigates the association between alcohol intake and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease and cancer. The design is prospective with baseline assessment of intake of beer, wine and spirits, smoking habits, educational level, physical activity, and body mass index and a total of 257,859 person-years follow-up on mortality. A total of 4,833 participants died, of these 1,075 from coronary heart disease and 1,552 of cancer. Compared with non-drinkers, light drinkers who avoided wine, had a relative risk of death from all causes of 0.90 (0.82-0.99) and those who drank wine had a relative risk of 0.66 (0.55-0.77). Heavy drinkers who avoided wine were at higher risk of death from all causes than were heavy drinkers who included wine in their alcohol intake. Wine drinkers had significantly lower mortality from both coronary heart disease and cancer than did non-wine drinkers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. This effect may be attributable to a reduction in death from both coronary heart disease and cancer.

  14. Manatee mortality in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Jimenez-Marrero, N. M.; Rodriguez-Lopez, M.; Williams, E.H.; Bonde, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    The most pressing problem in the effective management of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Puerto Rico is mortality due to human activities. We assessed 90 cases of manatee strandings in Puerto Rico based on historical data and a coordinated carcass salvage effort from 1990 through 1995. We determined patterns of mortality, including type of event, condition of carcasses, spatial and temporal distribution, gender, size/age class, and the cause of death. The spatial distribution of stranding events was not uniform, with the north, northeast, and south coasts having the highest numbers. Six clusters representing the highest incidence included the areas of Fajardo and Ceiba, Bahia de Jobos, Toa Baja, Guayanilla, Cabo Rojo, and Rio Grande to Luquillo. The number of reported cases has increased at an average rate of 9.6%/yr since 1990. The seasonality of stranding events showed a bimodal pattern, from February through April and in August and September. Most identified causes of death were due to human interaction, especially captures and watercraft collisions. Natural causes usually involved dependent calves. From 1990 through 1995, most deaths were attributed to watercraft collisions. A reduction in anthropogenic mortality of this endangered species can be accomplished only through education and a proactive management and conservation plan that includes law enforcement, mortality assessment, scientific research, rescue and rehabilitation, and inter- and intraagency cooperation.

  15. Infant Mortality: An American Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Christiane B.

    1990-01-01

    Assesses the complex problem of infant deaths in America and reviews the policy options before the nation. High infant mortality rates have been attributed to population heterogeneity, poverty, or differences in the way health services are organized. Links health policy issues to the larger issue of social and economic equity. (AF)

  16. Time trends of esophageal and gastric cancer mortality in China, 1991?2009: an age-period-cohort analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengmeng; Wan, Xia; Wang, Yanhong; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers share some risk factors. This study aimed to compare the long-term trends in mortality rates of esophageal and gastric cancers in China to provide evidence for cancer prevention and control. Mortality data were derived from 103 continuous points of the Disease Surveillance Points system during 1991?2009, stratified by gender and urban-rural locations. Age-period-cohort models were used to disentangle the time trends of esophageal and gastric cancer mortality. Th...

  17. Virus-induced Gene Silencing-based Functional Analyses Revealed the Involvement of Several Putative Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase/Phosphatase Genes in Disease Resistance against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose and its metabolism have been demonstrated to play important roles in control of plant growth, development and stress responses. However, direct genetic evidence supporting the functions of trehalose and its metabolism in defense response against pathogens is lacking. In the present study, genome-wide characterization of putative trehalose-related genes identified 11 SlTPSs for trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, 8 SlTPPs for trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase and one SlTRE1 for trehalase in tomato genome. Nine SlTPSs, 4 SlTPPs and SlTRE1 were selected for functional analyses to explore their involvement in tomato disease resistance. Some selected SlTPSs, SlTPPs and SlTRE1 responded with distinct expression induction patterns to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst DC3000 as well as to defense signaling hormones (e.g. salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and a precursor of ethylene. Virus-induced gene silencing-mediated silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4 or SlTPS7 led to deregulation of ROS accumulation and attenuated the expression of defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and thus deteriorated the resistance against B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. By contrast, silencing of SlTPS5 or SlTPP2 led to an increased expression of the defense-related genes upon pathogen infection and conferred an increased resistance against Pst DC3000. Silencing of SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7 or SlTPP2 affected trehalose level in tomato plants with or without infection of B. cinerea or Pst DC3000. These results demonstrate that SlTPS3, SlTPS4, SlTPS5, SlTPS7 and SlTPP2 play roles in resistance against B. cinerea and Pst DC3000, implying the importance of trehalose and tis metabolism in regulation of defense response against pathogens in tomato.

  18. Immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus Induced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the generic name for treatment modalities aiming to reinforce the immune system against diseases in which the immune system plays a role. The design of an optimal immunotherapeutic treatment against chronic viruses and associated diseases requires a detailed understanding of the interactions between the target virus and its host, in order to define the specific strategies that may have the best chance to deliver success at each stage of disease. Recently, a first series of successes was reported for the immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-induced premalignant diseases but there is definitely room for improvement. Here I discuss a number of topics that in my opinion require more study as the answers to these questions allows us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and as such to tailor treatment. PMID:23341861

  19. A Mechanism of Virus-Induced Demyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri Das Sarma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin forms an insulating sheath surrounding axons in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is essential for rapid propagation of neuronal action potentials. Demyelination is an acquired disorder in which normally formed myelin degenerates, exposing axons to the extracellular environment. The result is dysfunction of normal neuron-to-neuron communication and in many cases, varying degrees of axonal degeneration. Numerous central nervous system demyelinating disorders exist, including multiple sclerosis. Although demyelination is the major manifestation of most of the demyelinating diseases, recent studies have clearly documented concomitant axonal loss to varying degrees resulting in long-term disability. Axonal injury may occur secondary to myelin damage (outside-in model or myelin damage may occur secondary to axonal injury (inside-out model. Viral induced demyelination models, has provided unique imminent into the cellular mechanisms of myelin destruction. They illustrate mechanisms of viral persistence, including latent infections, virus reactivation and viral-induced tissue damage. These studies have also provided excellent paradigms to study the interactions between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS. In this review we will discuss potential cellular and molecular mechanism of central nervous system axonal loss and demyelination in a viral induced mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

  20. Achalasia: virus-induced euthanasia of neurons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2008-01-01

    Achalasia, a motor disorder of the esophagus, is characterized by myenteric plexitis leading to neuronal loss. Cytotoxic T cells, isolated from the lower esophageal sphincter of achalasia patients, respond to human herpes virus-1 (HSV-1) with gamma-IFN (and to a lesser extent IL-2) production and

  1. Mortality among California highway workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizlish, N; Beaumont, J; Singleton, J

    1988-01-01

    Standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMR) were computed for a population of highway workers. Hazards of highway maintenance work include exposure to solvents, herbicides, asphalt and welding fumes, diesel and auto exhaust, asbestos, abrasive dusts, hazardous material spills, and moving motor vehicles. Underlying cause of death was obtained for 1,570 workers who separated from the California Department of Transportation between 1970 and 1983, and who died in California between 1970 and 1983 (inclusive). Among 1,260 white males, the major findings were statistically significant excesses of cancers of digestive organs (PMR = 128), skin (PMR = 218), lymphopoietic cancer (PMR = 157), benign neoplasms (PMR = 343), motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 141), and suicide (PMR = 154). Black males (N = 66) experienced nonsignificant excesses of cancer of the digestive organs (PMR = 191) and arteriosclerotic heart disease (PMR = 143). Among 168 white females, deaths from lung cancer (PMR = 189) and suicide (PMR = 215) were elevated. White male retirees, a subgroup with 5 or more years of service, experienced excess mortality due to cancers of the colon (PMR = 245), skin (PMR = 738), brain (PMR = 556), and lymphosarcomas and reticulosarcomas (PMR = 514). Deaths from external causes (PMR = 135) and cirrhosis of the liver (PMR = 229) were elevated among white males with a last job in landscape maintenance. White males whose last job was highway maintenance experienced a deficit in mortality from circulatory diseases (PMR = 83) and excess mortality from emphysema (PMR = 250) and motor vehicle accidents (PMR = 196). Further epidemiologic and industrial hygiene studies are needed to confirm the apparent excess mortality and to quantify occupational and nonoccupational exposures. However, reduction of recognized hazards among highway maintenance workers is a prudent precautionary measure.

  2. Lower Mortality in Magnet Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Matthew D.; Kelly, Lesly A.; Smith, Herbert L.; Wu, Evan S.; Vanak, Jill M.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although there is evidence that hospitals recognized for nursing excellence—Magnet hospitals—are successful in attracting and retaining nurses, it is uncertain whether Magnet recognition is associated with better patient outcomes than non-Magnets, and if so why. Objectives To determine whether Magnet hospitals have lower risk-adjusted mortality and failure-to-rescue compared with non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the most likely explanations. Method and Study Design Analysis of linked patient, nurse, and hospital data on 56 Magnet and 508 non-Magnet hospitals. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the odds of mortality and failure-to-rescue for surgical patients treated in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, and to determine the extent to which differences in outcomes can be explained by nursing after accounting for patient and hospital differences. Results Magnet hospitals had significantly better work environments and higher proportions of nurses with bachelor's degrees and specialty certification. These nursing factors explained much of the Magnet hospital effect on patient outcomes. However, patients treated in Magnet hospitals had 14% lower odds of mortality (odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.98; P = 0.02) and 12% lower odds of failure-to-rescue (odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.77–1.01; P = 0.07) while controlling for nursing factors as well as hospital and patient differences. Conclusions The lower mortality we find in Magnet hospitals is largely attributable to measured nursing characteristics but there is a mortality advantage above and beyond what we could measure. Magnet recognition identifies existing quality and stimulates further positive organizational behavior that improves patient outcomes. PMID:24022082

  3. Marital status, health and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2012-12-01

    Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Morbidity and mortality of very low birth weight infants in Taiwan—Changes in 15 years: A population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yu Su

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Although the mortality and most of the morbidity of VLBW infants improved over time, the incidence of ROP remained constant. This requires us to further evaluate our strategy for preventing ROP in the future.

  5. DEVTA: vit A vs control mortality ratio R, = 3.01/3.15 = 0.96 (99% CI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. DEVTA on its own is consistent both. DEVTA on its own is consistent both. with little effect on mortality and with. prevention of >10% of all mortality. So, DEVTA must be considered not on. its own but with the other relevant trials. (which collectively show definite benefit)

  6. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  7. OCCUPATION AND MORTALITY RELATED TO ALCOHOL DRUGS AND SEXUAL HABITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Harris, E. Clare; Brown, Terry; Rice, Simon; Palmer, Keith T

    2011-01-01

    AIms To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Methods Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardised proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. Results The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes), and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters, and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), “other alcohol-related diseases” (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267), and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for HIV/AIDS were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95%CI 369-1890, in men; 804, 95%CI 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95%CI 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Conclusions Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers. PMID:20407041

  8. Occupation and mortality related to alcohol, drugs and sexual habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, D; Harris, E C; Brown, T; Rice, S; Palmer, K T

    2010-08-01

    To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes) and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), 'other alcohol-related diseases' (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267) and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95% CI: 369-1890, in men; 804, 95% CI: 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95% CI: 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers.

  9. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  10. Maternal mortality: a cross-sectional study in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajedinejad, Sima; Majdzadeh, Reza; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-02-12

    Although most of maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality reduction programs have not been completely successful. As targeting individuals alone does not seem to be an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Millennium Development Goal 5), the present study sought to reveal the role of many distant macrostructural factors affecting maternal mortality at the global level. After preparing a global dataset, 439 indicators were selected from nearly 1800 indicators based on their relevance and the application of proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to assess the relationship between these indicators and maternal mortality. Only indicators with statistically significant correlation more than 0.2, and missing values less than 20% were maintained. Due to the high multicollinearity among the remaining indicators, after missing values analysis and imputation, factor analysis was performed with principal component analysis as the method of extraction. Ten factors were finally extracted and entered into a multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study not only consolidated the results of earlier studies about maternal mortality, but also added new evidence. Education (std. B = -0.442), private sector and trade (std. B = -0.316), and governance (std. B = -0.280) were found to be the most important macrostructural factors associated with maternal mortality. Employment and labor structure, economic policy and debt, agriculture and food production, private sector infrastructure investment, and health finance were also some other critical factors. These distal factors explained about 65% of the variability in maternal mortality between different countries. Decreasing maternal mortality requires dealing with various factors other than individual determinants including political will, reallocation of national resources (especially health resources) in the governmental sector, education

  11. Mortality among white, black, and Hispanic male and female state prisoners, 2001–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wildeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although much research considers the relationship between imprisonment and mortality, little existing research has tested whether the short-term mortality advantage enjoyed by prisoners extends to Hispanics. We compared the mortality rates of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic male and female state prisoners to mortality rates in the general population using data from the Deaths in Custody Reporting Program, the National Prisoner Statistics, the National Corrections Reporting Program, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The results indicate that the mortality advantage for prisoners was greatest for black males, followed by black females, Hispanic males, white females, and white males. Hispanic female prisoners were the only group not at a mortality advantage relative to the general population, with an SMR of 1.18 [95% CI: 0.93–1.43]. Taken together, the results suggest that future research should seek to better understand the curious imprisonment–mortality relationship among Hispanic females, although given the small number of inmate deaths that happen to this group (~0.6%, this research should not detract from broader research on imprisonment and mortality. Keywords: Imprisonment, Mortality, Population health, Racial disparities

  12. Reflections on the maternal mortality millennium goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Gerald W; Keirse, Marc J N C

    2013-06-01

    Nearly every 2 minutes, somewhere in the world, a woman dies because of complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Every such death is an overwhelming catastrophe for everyone confronted with it. Most deaths occur in developing countries, especially in Africa and southern Asia, but a significant number also occur in the developed world. We examined the available data on the progress and the challenges to the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal of achieving a 75 percent worldwide reduction in the maternal mortality by 2015 from what it was in 1990. Some countries, such as Belarus, Egypt, Estonia, Honduras, Iran, Lithuania, Malaysia, Romania, Sri Lanka and Thailand, are likely to meet the target by 2015. Many poor countries with weak health infrastructures and high fertility rates are unlikely to meet the goal. Some, such as Botswana, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Guyana, Lesotho, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, Swaziland and Zimbabwe, had worse maternal mortality ratios in 2010 than in 1990, partially because of wars and civil strife. Worldwide, the leading causes of maternal death are still hemorrhage, hypertension, sepsis, obstructed labor, and unsafe abortions, while indirect causes are gaining in importance in developed countries. Maternal death is especially distressing if it was potentially preventable. However, as there is no single cause, there is no silver bullet to correct the problem. Many countries also face new challenges as their childbearing population is growing in age and in weight. Much remains to be done to make safe motherhood a reality. © 2013, Copyright the Authors, Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Worldwide application of prevention science in adolescent health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Richard F; Fagan, Abigail A; Gavin, Loretta E; Greenberg, Mark T; Irwin, Charles E; Ross, David A; Shek, Daniel T L

    2015-01-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality from non-communicable disease has risen worldwide and is accelerating in low-income and middle-income countries, whereas the burden from infectious diseases has declined. Since this transition, the prevention of non-communicable disease as well as communicable disease causes of adolescent mortality has risen in importance. Problem behaviours that increase the short-term or long-term likelihood of morbidity and mortality, including alcohol, tobacco, and other drug misuse, mental health problems, unsafe sex, risky and unsafe driving, and violence are largely preventable. In the past 30 years new discoveries have led to prevention science being established as a discipline designed to mitigate these problem behaviours. Longitudinal studies have provided an understanding of risk and protective factors across the life course for many of these problem behaviours. Risks cluster across development to produce early accumulation of risk in childhood and more pervasive risk in adolescence. This understanding has led to the construction of developmentally appropriate prevention policies and programmes that have shown short-term and long-term reductions in these adolescent problem behaviours. We describe the principles of prevention science, provide examples of efficacious preventive interventions, describe challenges and potential solutions to take efficacious prevention policies and programmes to scale, and conclude with recommendations to reduce the burden of adolescent mortality and morbidity worldwide through preventive intervention. PMID:22538180

  14. Overview and Prevention of Cervical Cancer | Ogu | Nigerian Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer though a preventable disease, still has an estimated mortality of 80% from invasive cervical cancer in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of cervical cancer and the various modalities available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. Methodology: ...

  15. Postoperative mortality after inpatient surgery: Incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Anne T Lunney1, Philip G Boysen1, Peter Rock2, Edward A Norfleet11Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USAPurpose: This study determined the incidence of and identified risk factors for 48 hour (h and 30 day (d postoperative mortality after inpatient operations.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Anesthesiology’s Quality Indicator database as the main data source. The database was queried for data related to the surgical procedure, anesthetic care, perioperative adverse events, and birth/death/operation dates. The 48 h and 30 d cumulative incidence of postoperative mortality was calculated and data were analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test and generalized estimating equations.Results: The 48 h and 30 d incidence of postoperative mortality was 0.57% and 2.1%, respectively. Higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scores, extremes of age, emergencies, perioperative adverse events and postoperative Intensive Care Unit admission were identified as risk factors. The use of monitored anesthesia care or general anesthesia versus regional or combined anesthesia was a risk factor for 30 d postoperative mortality only. Time under anesthesia care, perioperative hypothermia, trauma, deliberate hypotension and invasive monitoring via arterial, pulmonary artery or cardiovascular catheters were not identified as risk factors.Conclusions: Our findings can be used to track postoperative mortality rates and to test preventative interventions at our institution and elsewhere.Keywords: postoperative mortality, risk factors, operations, anesthesia, inpatient surgery

  16. Female breast cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Ting‐Ting; Zheng, Rong‐Shou; Zeng, Hong‐Mei; Zhang, Si‐Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. Population‐based cancer registration data from the National Central Cancer Registry were used to analyze and evaluate the incidence and mortality rates in China in 2013, providing scientific information for cancer prevention and control. Methods Pooled data were stratified by area (urban/rural), gender, and age group. National new cases and deaths were estimated using age‐specific rates and the corresponding population in 2013. The Chinese population in 2000 and Segi's world population were used to calculate age‐standardized rates. Results The estimated number of new breast cancer cases was about 278 800 in China in 2013. The crude incidence, age‐standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population, and age‐standardized rate of incidence by world standard population were 42.02/100 000, 30.41/100 000, and 28.42/100 000, respectively. The estimated number of breast cancer deaths was about 64 600 in China in 2013. The crude mortality, age‐standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population, and age‐standardized rate of mortality by world standard population were 9.74/100 000, 6.54/100 000, and 6.34/100 000, respectively. Both incidence and mortality were higher in urban than in rural areas. Age‐specific breast cancer incidence significantly increased with age, particularly after age 20, and peaked at 50–55 years, while age‐specific mortality increased rapidly after 25 years, peaking at 85+ years. Conclusions Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Chinese women, especially women in urban areas. Comprehensive measures are needed to reduce the heavy burden of breast cancer. PMID:28296260

  17. Ovary cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kuangrong; Li, Yuanming; Zheng, Rongshou; Zhang, Siwei; Liang, Zhiheng; Cen, Huishan; Chen, Wanqing

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate and analyze ovary cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2011 using ovary cancer data from population-based cancer registration in China, and to provide scientific information for its control and prevention. Invasive cases of ovary cancer were extracted and analyzed from the overall Chinese cancer database in 2011, which were based on data from 177 population-based cancer registries distributing in 28 provinces. The crude, standardized, and truncated incidences and mortalities et al. were calculated and new and deaths cases from ovary cancer throughout China and in different regions in 2011 were estimated using Chinese practical population. The estimates of new ovary cancer cases and deaths were 45,223 and 18,430, respectively, in China in 2011. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese standard population (ASR-C) and age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASR-W) incidence were 6.89/100,000, 5.35/100,000 and 5.08/100,000, respectively; the crude, ASR-C and ASR-W mortalities were 2.81/100,000, 2.01/100,000 and 1.99/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. The age-specific incidence and mortality increased rapidly from age 35-39 and peaked at age 60-64 or 75-79 years. After age 45 or 55, the age-specific incidence and death rates in urban were much higher than those in rural areas. Compared with GLOBOCAN 2012 data, the ovary cancer incidence in China in 2011 was at middle level, but its mortality was at low level worldwide.

  18. Mortality and health policy: main issues for the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress and prospects for mortality reduction in the major regions of the world. The goals for mortality reduction as expressed in the World Population Plan of Action and other official international documents are presented and progress towards the attainment of those goals at the regional level is appraised. A quick review of trends in life expectancy at birth is then presented and major causes of death for developing and developed countries are summarized. The interrelationships between mortality and health levels and differentials, and development are considered. Factors leading to a sustained high mortality level or contributing to its decrease are investigated. Some factors reviewed are gross national product (GNP), structure of economic growth, dependency on foreign economies, recession, development strategies, education and agricultural development. For developed countries, focus is on per capita GNP, life styles associated with development and industrial pollution. Demographic, economic and social consequences of mortality and health improvement are then examined and main findings on differentials in mortality by sex, socioeconomic characteristics and geographical location are presented for developed and developing countries. The effects of selected health programs in areas like immunization, nutrition, maternal and child health, sanitation, environmental control and life-style interventions are considered and basic elements of primary health care strategy discussed. Primary health care strategies are characterized by some basic elements, including active community participation, provision of curative, preventive and health promotion services and use of paramedical personnel. The obstacles for health policy implementation are examined. A review is made of characteristics of the social system e.g. power structure, and a closer look is taken at specific characteristics of the health system such as health care management, planning and

  19. Mortality of Hanford radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Mortality from all causes for white males employed at Hanford for at least two years is 75 percent of that expected on the basis of US vital statistics. Mortality from cancer is 85 percent of that expected. These results are typical of a working population. Neither death from all causes nor death from all cancer types shows a positive correlation with external radiation exposures. Myeloid leukemia, the disease that several studies have found to be associated most strongly with radiation exposure, is not correlated with external radiation exposure of Hanford workers. Two specific cancers, multiple myeloma and to a lesser extent cancer of the pancreas, were found to be positively correlated with radiation exposure. The correlations identified result entirely from a small number of deaths (3 each for multiple myeloma and cancer of the pancreas) with cumulative exposure greater than 15 rem

  20. Classification differences and maternal mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanave, B; Bouvier-Colle, M H; Varnoux, N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the ways maternal deaths are classified in national statistical offices in Europe and to evaluate the ways classification affects published rates. METHODS: Data on pregnancy-associated deaths were collected in 13 European countries. Cases were classified by a European panel....... This change was substantial in three countries (P statistical offices appeared to attribute fewer deaths to obstetric causes. In the other countries, no differences were detected. According to official published data, the aggregated maternal mortality rate for participating countries was 7.7 per...... of experts into obstetric or non-obstetric causes. An ICD-9 code (International Classification of Diseases) was attributed to each case. These were compared to the codes given in each country. Correction indices were calculated, giving new estimates of maternal mortality rates. SUBJECTS: There were...

  1. Physical Inactivity and Mortality Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kokkinos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a plethora of epidemiologic evidence accumulated supports a strong, independent and inverse, association between physical activity and the fitness status of an individual and mortality in apparently healthy individuals and diseased populations. These health benefits are realized at relatively low fitness levels and increase with higher physical activity patterns or fitness status in a dose-response fashion. The risk reduction is at least in part attributed to the favorable effect of exercise or physical activity on the cardiovascular risk factors, namely, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and obesity. In this review, we examine evidence from epidemiologic and interventional studies in support of the association between exercise and physical activity and health. In addition, we present the exercise effects on the aforementioned risk factors. Finally, we include select dietary approaches and their impact on risk factors and overall mortality risk.

  2. Factors associated with mortality in tuberculosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in different societies. Understanding factors leading to death following diagnosis of TB is important to predict prognosis in TB patients. The aim of this study was to identify common risk factors associated with death in patients with an in-hospital diagnosis of TB, in a city in Iran with the highest prevalence and incidence of TB in the country. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at a university-affiliated hospital, Zahedan, in the south-east of Iran, which is a referral center for TB. To identify factors leading to death, medical records of 715 patients ≥15 years old with pulmonary TB from February 2002 to February 2011 have been evaluated. Registered factors included smoking, human immune deficiency virus (HIV infection, using drugs, lung cancer, drug hepatitis following anti-TB medications, diabetes mellitus, previous TB treatment, anemia; and results of sputum smears. Univariate comparison and multiple logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with mortality in TB patients. Results: Among 715 registered TB patients, 375 (52.5% patients were male; among those, 334 (53% were in the alive group and 41 (54% in the death group. Seventy-five (10.5% of the total number of TB patients died during TB treatment. The multivariate model showed that anemia (AOR: 19.8, 95% CI: 5.6-35.5, positive sputum smear (AOR: 13.4, 95% CI: 6.8-33.6, smoking (AOR: 12.9, 95% CI: 3.9-27.3, drug hepatitis (AOR: 12.3, 95% CI: 6.7-24.7, diabetes mellitus (AOR: 9.7, 95% CI: 2.9-32.0, drug use (AOR: 7.8, 95% CI: 2.4-25.5, and history of previous TB (AOR: 6.8, 95% CI: 2.2-21.3 were major risk factors for death in TB patients. Conclusion: Monitoring co-morbid conditions like diabetes mellitus and anemia are important to reduce death rate in TB patients. Preventive measures for smoking and drug addiction also play an important role to decrease

  3. Reduction of infant mortality in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Datta, N

    1982-01-01

    In India the infant mortality rate (IMR) registered an impressive decline during the first 5-6 decades of the 20th century, but in the last 30 years a significant decline has not been documented. The IMR continues to be in the range of 120-130/1000. In many developed countries it is reported as less than 20/1000. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that by the year 2000 the IMR should be reduced to below 50/1000. India's government has set a target of 60/1000 to be reached by 2000. In Kerala this target has already been achieved. Several projects throughout India have indicated that this task can be accomplished. Many lessons can be learned from Kerala and the successful projects. 1 major constraint in information on IMR in India is the lack of uniformity and reliability in the system of recording vital events. Mere knowledge of IMR is insufficient for planning and execution of an appropriate intervention strategy. It is also important to understand the various causes of death. Based on the available information and a review of the literature, it is clear that 50% of the deaths in infancy occurred during the neonatal period. The common preventable causes of death in infancy identified are acute respiratory infections, acute diarrheal disease, low birth weight, protein energy malnutrition, tetanus neonatorum, and communicable diseases like measles, whooping cough, and typhoid. The high IMR can be reduced by general measures which can only be recommended as medium-term and longterm plans. These include an increase in the gross national product and female literacy, a decreasing birthrate, and an increasing capita food intake. At this time India is not experiencing rapid gains in any of these areas. Many of the strategies to reduce IMR have been reviewed objectively by Bhargava et al. Each strategy has merit, but, due to limited resources, it is essential to set priorities. The selection of priorities should be based on 4 basic questions: how common is

  4. Management and Prevention of Dystocia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Bethany J; Hilton, W Mark

    2016-07-01

    Dystocia is an inevitable challenge in the livestock industries, particularly with primiparous female animals. Prevention and appropriate management will decrease cow and calf morbidity and mortality, which will improve the economic status of the beef or dairy operation. Early identification and proper intervention improves outcomes, and the use of selection tools to decrease the potential for dystocia will have positive returns. Assisted reproductive technologies present a unique set of challenges to the calving process that both the producer and practitioner should be prepared to address. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. PREVENTIVE PAEDIATRICS — NEW CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baranov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article takes up priority directions of preventive paediatrics concerning health formation of rising generation, organization of health care for children, decrease of morbidity, disability and mortality rate. The authors mention the importance of vaccination in control of the most common infections, base the necessity of complex rehabilitation health care system organization for disable children and need of wide spreading of developed and used in practical Russian health care types and methods of prophylaxis of rare (orphan diseases. The ways of prophylaxis, maintenance, strengthening and recovery of children’s health are suggested in this article.

  6. Population growth and infant mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Fabella, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and economic outcomes is an issue of great policy significance. In the era of the Millennium Development Goals, poverty and its correlates have become the compelling issues. Economic growth may not automatically translate into reductions in poverty and its correlates (may not trickle down) if income distribution is at the same time worsening. We therefore investigate the direct effect of population growth on infant mortality for various income catego...

  7. Mortality of nitrate fertiliser workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, S; Forman, D; Bryson, D; Stratton, I; Doll, R

    1986-01-01

    An epidemiological cohort study was conducted to investigate the mortality patterns among a group of workers engaged in the production of nitrate based fertilisers. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that individuals exposed to high concentrations of nitrates might be at increased risk of developing cancers, particularly gastric cancer. A total of 1327 male workers who had been employed in the production of fertilisers between 1946 and 1981 and who had been occupationally exposed to nitrates for at least one year were followed up until 1 March 1981. In total, 304 deaths were observed in this group and these were compared with expected numbers calculated from mortality rates in the northern region of England, where the factory was located. Analysis was also carried out separately for a subgroup of the cohort who had been heavily exposed to nitrates--that is, working in an environment likely to contain more than 10 mg nitrate/m3 for a year or longer. In neither the entire cohort nor the subgroup was any significant excess observed for all causes of mortality or for mortality from any of five broad categories of cause or from four specific types of cancer. A small excess of lung cancer was noted more than 20 years after first exposure in men heavily exposed for more than 10 years. That men were exposed to high concentrations of nitrate was confirmed by comparing concentrations of nitrates in the saliva of a sample of currently employed men with control men, employed at the same factory but not in fertiliser production. The men exposed to nitrate had substantially raised concentrations of nitrate in their saliva compared with both controls within the industry and with men in the general population and resident nearby. The results of this study therefore weight against the idea that exposure to nitrates in the environment leads to the formation in vivo of material amounts of carcinogens. PMID:3015194

  8. Macroeconomic Conditions, Health and Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher J. Ruhm

    2004-01-01

    Although health is conventionally believed to deteriorate during macroeconomic downturns, the empirical evidence supporting this view is quite weak and comes from studies containing methodological shortcomings that are difficult to remedy. Recent research that better controls for many sources of omitted variables bias instead suggests that mortality decreases and physical health improves when the economy temporarily weakens. This partially reflects reductions in external sources of death, suc...

  9. 30-Day, 90-day and 1-year mortality after emergency colonic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T; Watt, S K; Tolstrup, M-B

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Emergency surgery is an independent risk factor in colonic surgery resulting in high 30-day mortality. The primary aim of this study was to report 30-day, 90-day and 1-year mortality rates after emergency colonic surgery, and to report factors associated with 30-day, 90-day and 1-year...... mortality. Second, the aim was to report 30-day postoperative complications and their relation to in-hospital mortality. METHODS: All patients undergoing acute colonic surgery in the period from May 2009 to April 2013 at Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark, were identified. Perioperative data...... postoperative deaths. CONCLUSION: Mortality and complication rates after emergency colonic surgery are high and associated with patient related risk factors that cannot be modified, but also treatment related outcomes that are modifiable. An increased focus on medical and other preventive measures should...

  10. Fifty consecutive pancreatectomies without mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Campos Amico

    Full Text Available Objective: to report the group's experience with a series of patients undergoing pancreatic resection presenting null mortality rates. Methods: we prospectively studied 50 consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic resections for peri-ampullary or pancreatic diseases. Main local complications were defined according to international criteria. In-hospital mortality was defined as death occurring in the first 90 postoperative days. Results: patients' age ranged between 16 and 90 years (average: 53.3. We found anemia (Hb < 12g/dl and preoperative jaundice in 38% and 40% of cases, respectively. Most patients presented with peri-ampullary tumors (66%. The most common surgical procedure was the Kausch - Whipple operation (70%. Six patients (12% needed to undergo resection of a segment of the mesenteric-portal axis. The mean operative time was 445.1 minutes. Twenty two patients (44% showed no clinical complications and presented mean hospital stay of 10.3 days. The most frequent complications were pancreatic fistula (56%, delayed gastric emptying (17.1% and bleeding (16%. Conclusion : within the last three decades, pancreatic resection is still considered a challenge, especially outside large specialized centers. Nevertheless, even in our country (Brazil, teams seasoned in such procedure can reach low mortality rates.

  11. Excess cardiovascular mortality associated with cold spells in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyncl Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between cardiovascular mortality and winter cold spells was evaluated in the population of the Czech Republic over 21-yr period 1986–2006. No comprehensive study on cold-related mortality in central Europe has been carried out despite the fact that cold air invasions are more frequent and severe in this region than in western and southern Europe. Methods Cold spells were defined as periods of days on which air temperature does not exceed -3.5°C. Days on which mortality was affected by epidemics of influenza/acute respiratory infections were identified and omitted from the analysis. Excess cardiovascular mortality was determined after the long-term changes and the seasonal cycle in mortality had been removed. Excess mortality during and after cold spells was examined in individual age groups and genders. Results Cold spells were associated with positive mean excess cardiovascular mortality in all age groups (25–59, 60–69, 70–79 and 80+ years and in both men and women. The relative mortality effects were most pronounced and most direct in middle-aged men (25–59 years, which contrasts with majority of studies on cold-related mortality in other regions. The estimated excess mortality during the severe cold spells in January 1987 (+274 cardiovascular deaths is comparable to that attributed to the most severe heat wave in this region in 1994. Conclusion The results show that cold stress has a considerable impact on mortality in central Europe, representing a public health threat of an importance similar to heat waves. The elevated mortality risks in men aged 25–59 years may be related to occupational exposure of large numbers of men working outdoors in winter. Early warnings and preventive measures based on weather forecast and targeted on the susceptible parts of the population may help mitigate the effects of cold spells and save lives.

  12. Rotavirus vaccine and diarrhea mortality: quantifying regional variation in effect size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Black Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. New data suggest vaccine efficacy may vary by region. Methods We reviewed published vaccine efficacy trials to estimate a regional-specific effect of vaccine efficacy on severe rotavirus diarrhea and hospitalizations. We assessed the quality of evidence using a standard protocol and conducted meta-analyses where more than 1 data point was available. Results Rotavirus vaccine prevented severe rotavirus episodes in all regions; 81% of episodes in Latin America, 42.7% of episodes in high-mortality Asia, 50% of episodes in sub-Saharan Africa, 88% of episodes low-mortality Asia and North Africa, and 91% of episodes in developed countries. The effect sizes observed for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea will be used in LiST as the effect size for rotavirus vaccine on rotavirus-specific diarrhea mortality. Conclusions Vaccine trials have not measured the effect of vaccine on diarrhea mortality. The overall quality of the evidence and consistency observed across studies suggests that estimating mortality based on a severe morbidity reduction is highly plausible.

  13. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  14. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  15. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE DIPHTHERIA MORTALITY IN NIGERIA: THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY MAY 2011 ... RESULTS: Nine cases of diphtheria were seen and three mortalities were recorded giving a mortality rate ... tissue edema and airway obstruction by the.

  17. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant mortality rates than the overall population, however statistics for Asian American subgroups are very limited for ... 1 0.4 Source: CDC 2015. Infant Mortality Statistics from the 2013 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death ...

  18. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  19. Continuing study of mortality in Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-10-01

    The mortality of workers at the Hanford Plant in southeastern Washington who have been exposed to penetrating external ionizing radiation is studied. Deaths are analyzed statistically and compared to standardized mortality ratios. Cancer deaths in particular are examined

  20. Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Volcano Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid representing global volcano mortality risks. The data set was constructed using historical...

  1. Mortality rates in people with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael Williams

    2017-04-01

    National English data confirm that patients with ID have higher mortality rates than those without. Mortality rates for patients with ID were higher across all age/sex groups and causes, with almost half of deaths classified as avoidable.

  2. Computational Intelligence. Mortality Models for the Actuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis applies computational intelligence to the field of actuarial (insurance) science. In particular, this thesis deals with life insurance where mortality modelling is important. Actuaries use ancient models (mortality laws) from the nineteenth century, for example Gompertz' and Makeham's

  3. Global Drought Mortality Risks and Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Mortality Risks and Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought mortality risks. Gridded Population of the World, Version 3 (GPWv3) data...

  4. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric Milicevic, Milena; Bjegovic, Vesna; Terzic, Zorica; Vukovic, Dejana; Kocev, Nikola; Marinkovic, Jelena; Vasic, Vladimir

    2009-08-05

    Based on the global predictions majority of deaths will be collectively caused by cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and traffic accidents over the coming 25 years. In planning future national health policy actions, inter - regional assessments play an important role. The purpose of the study was to analyze similarities and differences in premature mortality between Serbia, EURO A, EURO B, and EURO C regions in 2000. Mortality and premature mortality patterns were analysed according to cause of death, by gender and seven age intervals. The study results are presented in relative (%) and absolute terms (age-specific and age-standardized death rates per 100,000 population, and age-standardized rates of years of life lost - YLL per 1,000). Direct standardization of rates was undertaken using the standard population of Europe. The inter-regional comparison was based on a calculation of differences in YLL structures and with a ratio of age-standardized YLL rates per 1,000. A multivariate generalized linear model was used to explore mortality of Serbia and Europe sub-regions with ln age-specific death rates. The dissimilarity was achieved with a p financial and human resources incorporated in the prevention of disease and injury burden.

  5. Neonatal tetanus mortality in coastal Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Steinglass, R; Mutie, D M

    1993-01-01

    In a house-to-house survey in Kilifi District, Kenya, mothers of 2556 liveborn children were interviewed about neonatal mortality, especially from neonatal tetanus (NNT). The crude birth rate was 60.5 per 1000 population, the neonatal mortality rate 21.1 and the NNT mortality rate 3.1 per 1000 li...... indicates that over the past decade the surveyed area has greatly reduced neonatal and NNT mortality. Possible strategies for accelerated NNT control have been identified by the survey....

  6. [Mortality after the Second World War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovics, E

    1999-01-01

    Mortality trends in Hungary since the Second World War are analyzed. Two periods are distinguished; the first, from 1946 to 1966, was a period of declining mortality and increasing life expectancy, and the second, from 1966 until the present, a period of rising mortality and declining life expectancy, particularly for males, coupled with relatively stable mortality levels for females. The author analyzes differences in causes of death by age in these two periods. (ANNOTATION)

  7. [Incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Sun, K X; Xia, C F; Yang, Z X; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-03-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer in China based on the cancer registration data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR), and to provide support data for breast cancer prevention and control in China. Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitting female breast cancer incidence and deaths data occurred in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of female breast cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas) in 2014. The morphology verified cases (MV%) accounted for 87.42% and 0.59% of incident cases were identified through death certifications only (DCO%), with mortality to incidence ratio of 0.24. The estimates of new breast cancer cases were about 278 900 in China in 2014, accounting for 16.51% of all new cases in female. The crude incidence rate, age-standardized rate of incidence by Chinese standard population (ASRIC), and age-standardized rate of incidence by world standard population (ASRIW) of breast cancer were 41.82/100 000, 30.69/100 000, and 28.77/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) of 3.12%. The crude incidence rates and ASRIC in urban areas were 49.94 per 100 000 and 34.85 per 100 000, respectively, whereas those were 31.72 per 100 000 and 24.89 per 100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of breast cancer deaths were about 66 000 in China in 2014, accounting for 7.82% of all the cancer-related deaths in female. The crude mortality rate, age-standardized rate of mortality by Chinese standard population(ASRMC) and age

  8. Fatores de risco cardiovascular e mortalidade: seguimento em longo prazo (até 20 anos em programa preventivo realizado pela medicina ocupacional Cardiovascular risk factors and mortality: long-term follow-up (up to 20 years in a preventive program carried out by occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto de Souza Ciorlia

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A queda da mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV está sendo conseguida nos Estados Unidos e o mesmo declínio está ocorrendo em países em desenvolvimento, graças a mudanças favoráveis alcançadas no estilo de vida e nos fatores de risco. Apesar dessa consideração, o volume de informações de que se dispõe sobre a distribuição e comportamento desse tipo de doença e seus fatores de risco no Brasil ainda é pequeno. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada avaliação das alterações do colesterol total (CT, níveis de pressão arterial (PA, índice de massa corporal (IMC e tabagismo, além da ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares fatais (F e não fatais (NF, sob intervenção dietética e comportamental e seguimento em longo prazo (até 20 anos em um grupo fechado, composto por 621 eletricitários de ambos os sexos, com idade média de 29,1±7,1 anos, variando de 15 a 59 anos. Foram construídas curvas atuariais para analisar os eventos cardiovasculares F e NF. RESULTADOS: A média do CT apresentou redução significativa por efeito da orientação dietética. O hábito de fumar diminuiu significativamente com mudanças comportamentais. A média das PAs diminuiu significativamente com uma melhor detecção e medidas higiênicas, e a adesão dos hipertensos definitivos ao tratamento mostrou um índice de 56,6%. Por outro lado, o IMC apresentou um aumento expressivo e gradativo. A probabilidade de os indivíduos continuarem livres de qualquer evento cardiovascular foi de 98,1%, enquanto que para os eventos fatais foi de 99,2%. CONCLUSÃO: Esses resultados comprovam que iniciativas voltadas para a prevenção devem ser prioritárias, com a intenção de se modificar as taxas de morbimortalidade das DCV.OBJECTIVE: The decrease in mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD has been achieved in the United States and the same decrease has been happening in developing countries, thanks to favorable changes in lifestyle and risk

  9. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  10. GULF OF MEXICO AQUATIC MORTALITY NETWORK (GMNET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five U.S. states share the northern coast of the Gulf, and each has a program to monitor mortalities of aquatic organisms (fish, shellfish, birds). However, each state has different standards, procedures, and documentation of mortality events. The Gulf of Mexico Aquatic Mortality...

  11. Rise in maternal mortality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, J. M.; Steegers, E. A. P.; Schuitemaker, N. W. E.; Santema, J. G.; de Boer, K.; Pel, M.; Vermeulen, G.; Visser, W.; van Roosmalen, J.

    2010-01-01

    To assess causes, trends and substandard care factors in maternal mortality in the Netherlands. Design Confidential enquiry into the causes of maternal mortality. Nationwide in the Netherlands. 2,557,208 live births. Data analysis of all maternal deaths in the period 1993-2005. Maternal mortality.

  12. Plaice egg mortality: can we determine survivorschip?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey-Collas, M.; Fox, C.J.; Nash, R.D.M.; O'Brien, C.M.

    2003-01-01

    The daily mortality rate of cohorts of plaice eggs in the Irish Sea is estimated throughout the spawning season in 1995 and 2000, using general additive models of egg production. Daily mortality (z) was found to vary between 0.15 and 0.29. Mortality rates declined through the season in 1995 but not

  13. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  14. Comparison of child mortality by characteristics at birth in England and in Sweden using linked administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zylbersztejn

    2017-04-01

    Our preliminary results suggest that the disparities in early-childhood mortality were partly driven by increased prevalence of congenital malformations in England relative to Sweden, as mortality rates within this group were comparable. Individual-level data from birth cohorts constructed using linked administrative health databases enable comparing mortality among children with the same combinations of risk factors at birth. Such analyses can inform policy makers whether resources to prevent early-life mortality are most effectively targeted at improving the health of pregnant women, neonatal care, or supporting families with young children.

  15. [Incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, X Y; Zheng, R S; Sun, K X; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Chen, W Q; He, J

    2018-04-23

    Objective: To estimate the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in China based on the cancer registry data in 2014, collected by the National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR). Methods: There were 449 cancer registries submitted cervical cancer incidence and deaths in 2014 to NCCR. After evaluating the data quality, 339 registries' data were accepted for analysis and stratified by areas (urban/rural) and age group. Combined with data on national population in 2014, the nationwide incidence and mortality of cervical cancer were estimated. Chinese population census in 2000 and Segi's population were used for age-standardized incidence/mortality rates. Results: Qualified 339 cancer registries covered a total of 288 243 347 populations (144 061 915 in urban and 144 181 432 in rural areas). The percentage of morphologically verified cases and death certificate-only cases were 86.07% and 1.01%, respectively. The mortality to incidence ratio was 0.30. The estimates of new cases were about 102 000 in China in 2014, with a crude incidence rate of 15.30/100 000. The age-standardized incidence rates by China standard population (ASR China) and world standard population (ASR world) of cervical cancer were 11.57/100 000 and 10.61/100 000, respectively. Cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer in China was 1.11%. The crude and ASR China incidence rates in urban areas were 15.27/100 000 and 11.16/100 000, respectively, whereas those were 15.34/100 000 and 12.14/100 000 in rural areas. The estimates of cervical cancer deaths were about 30 400 in China in 2014, with a crude mortality rate of 4.57/100 000. The ASR China and ASR world mortality rates were 3.12/100 000 and 2.98/100 000, respectively, with a cumulative mortality rate (0-74 years old) of 0.33%. The crude and ASR China mortality rates were 4.44/100 000 and 2.92/100 000 in urban areas, respectively, whereas those were 4.72/100 000 and 3.39/100 000 in rural areas. Conclusions: There is still a heavy burden of

  16. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  17. Midlife insomnia and subsequent mortality: the Hordaland health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Pallesen, Ståle; Glozier, Nick; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Salo, Paula; Tell, Grethe S; Ursin, Reidun; Øverland, Simon

    2014-07-15

    Previous research suggests a possible link between insomnia and mortality, but findings are mixed and well-controlled studies are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of insomnia in middle age on all-cause mortality. Using a cohort design with 13-15 years follow-up, mortality registry data were linked to health information obtained during 1997-99, as part of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), in Western Norway. 6,236 participants aged 40-45 provided baseline information on self- reported insomnia using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire Scale (defined according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, shift/night-work, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, sleep duration, sleep medication use, anxiety, depression, as well as a range of somatic diagnoses and symptoms. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Information on mortality was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Insomnia was reported by 5.6% (349/6236) at baseline and a significant predictor of all-cause-mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.74 [95% CI:1.75-4.30]). Adjusting for all confounders did not attenuate the effect (HR = 3.34 [95% CI:1.67-6.69]). Stratifying by gender, the effect was especially strong in men (HR = 4.72 [95% CI:2.48-9.03]); but also significant in women (adjusted HR = 1.96 [95% CI:1.04-3.67]). The mortality risk among participants with both insomnia and short sleep duration (insomnia in combination with normal/greater sleep duration was not associated with mortality. Insomnia was associated with a three-fold risk of mortality over 13-15 years follow-up. The risk appeared even higher in males or when insomnia was combined with short sleep duration, although such unadjusted subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution. Establishing prevention strategies and low-threshold interventions should consequently be a prioritized task

  18. Midlife insomnia and subsequent mortality: the Hordaland health study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests a possible link between insomnia and mortality, but findings are mixed and well-controlled studies are lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of insomnia in middle age on all-cause mortality. Methods Using a cohort design with 13-15 years follow-up, mortality registry data were linked to health information obtained during 1997-99, as part of the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK), in Western Norway. 6,236 participants aged 40–45 provided baseline information on self- reported insomnia using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire Scale (defined according to the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, shift/night-work, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, sleep duration, sleep medication use, anxiety, depression, as well as a range of somatic diagnoses and symptoms. Height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Information on mortality was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Results Insomnia was reported by 5.6% (349/6236) at baseline and a significant predictor of all-cause-mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.74 [95% CI:1.75-4.30]). Adjusting for all confounders did not attenuate the effect (HR = 3.34 [95% CI:1.67-6.69]). Stratifying by gender, the effect was especially strong in men (HR = 4.72 [95% CI:2.48-9.03]); but also significant in women (adjusted HR = 1.96 [95% CI:1.04-3.67]). The mortality risk among participants with both insomnia and short sleep duration (insomnia in combination with normal/greater sleep duration was not associated with mortality. Conclusions Insomnia was associated with a three-fold risk of mortality over 13-15 years follow-up. The risk appeared even higher in males or when insomnia was combined with short sleep duration, although such unadjusted subgroup analyses should be interpreted with caution. Establishing prevention strategies and low

  19. Serbia within the European context: An analysis of premature mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkovic Jelena

    2009-08-01

    diabetes mellitus. The results may be used for assessment of unacceptable social risks resulting from health inequalities. Within intentions to reduce an unfavourable premature mortality gap, it is necessary to reconsider certain local polices and practices as well as financial and human resources incorporated in the prevention of disease and injury burden.

  20. Asthma mortality in Uruguay, 1984-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baluga, J C; Sueta, A; Ceni, M

    2001-08-01

    Asthma mortality rates have increased worldwide during the past several years despite the increased availability of new and effective medications. Few studies show reliable data from Latin American countries. To determine asthma mortality rates from 1984 to 1998 and to relate mortality to sales of asthma medications. We conducted a retrospective epidemiologic study in the total population of Uruguay. Data were obtained from the Department of Statistics of the Ministry of Public Health. Trends in mortality rates were analyzed using linear regression procedures. Spearman rank correlations were used to relate mortality rates to sales of asthma medications. The mean overall mortality rate was 5.10 per 100,000 during the period 1984 to 1998, (range 6.08 to 3.39) and showed a decreasing trend (P = 0.001). During the period 1995 to 1998, a more pronounced decrease was observed (mean mortality rate, 4.10 per 100,000). In the 5- to 34-year-old age group the mean mortality rate was 0.43 (range 0.65 to 0.13). Similarly, the mortality rate in this age group decreased particularly in the 1994 to 1998 period (mean 0.19; P = 0.005). Finally, the mortality rate was inversely correlated with sales of inhaled corticosteroids; for the overall mortality rate, p = -0.71, P = 0.003; for 5- to 34-year-old age group, p = -0.63, P = 0.01. Although mortality attributable to asthma seems to be decreasing, the overall mortality rate is still high compared with more economically developed countries. A more pronounced decrease in asthma mortality has been seen in the 5- to 34-year-old group. At present, Uruguay is a Latin American country with a low rate of asthma mortality. This is probably related to the use of new therapies to treat asthma.

  1. Burden of mortality in Greenland--today and tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Christian; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Nielsen, Ulla Ringgren

    2004-01-01

    : Concerted multi-sectoral approaches and broad holistic health strategies related to health promotion and prevention today will strategically improve the capability of the Greenlandic society to manage the future disease burden from ageing via its health care sector and the institutional sector for care......OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the relative impact of three factors expected to influence the future mortality burden in Greenland: demographic change, epidemiological transition and behavioural patterns. STUDY DESIGN: To identify general trends in public health status, evaluating the effect...... of public health campaigns and providing the basis for making predictions of future trends in the mortality burden data from the Greenlandic Death Causes Register to estimate Years of Life Lost (YLL) in the period 1976-1998 has been used. METHODS: YLL were estimated according to the Burden of Disease Method...

  2. Russian mortality beyond vital statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of routine data have established that the extreme mortality fluctuations among young and middle-aged men are the most important single component of both temporal changes in Russian life expectancy at birth and in the gap between male and female life expectancy. It is also responsible for the largest share of the life expectancy gap between Russia and other industrialised countries. A case-control study has been used to identify factors associated with mortality among men aged 20 to 55 in the five major cities of the Udmurt Republic in 1998-99. Men dying from external causes and circulatory disease are taken as cases. Matched controls were selected from men of the same age living in the same neighbourhood of residence. Information about characteristics of cases and controls was obtained by interviewing proxies who were family members or friends of the subjects. After exclusion of those deaths for which proxy informant could not be identified, a total of 205 circulatory disease and 333 external cause cases were included together with the same number of controls. Educational level was significantly associated with mortality from circulatory diseases and external causes in a crude analysis. However, this could largely be explained by adjustment for employment, marital status, smoking and alcohol consumption. Smoking was associated with mortality from circulatory disease (crude OR=2.44, 95% CI 1.36-4.36, this effect being slightly attenuated after adjustment for socio-economic factors and alcohol consumption. Unemployment was associated with a large increase in the risk of death from external causes (crude OR=3.63, 95% CI 2.17-6.08, an effect that was still substantial after adjustment for other variables (adjusted OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.43-4.43. A reported history of periods of heavy drinking was linked to both deaths from circulatory disease (crude OR=4.21, 95% CI 2.35-7.55 and external cause mortality (crude OR=2.65, 95% CI 1

  3. Human mortality improvement in evolutionary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Oskar; Baudisch, Annette; Vaupel, James W

    2012-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing in most countries and has exceeded 80 in several, as low-mortality nations continue to make progress in averting deaths. The health and economic implications of mortality reduction have been given substantial attention, but the observed malleability of human mortality...... about 4 of the roughly 8,000 human generations that have ever lived. Moreover, mortality improvement in humans is on par with or greater than the reductions in mortality in other species achieved by laboratory selection experiments and endocrine pathway mutations. This observed plasticity in age...

  4. Mortality in Patients with Endogenous Cushing's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmard, Pedram; Duan, Daisy; Geer, Eliza B

    2018-06-01

    Cushing's syndrome is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular events, sepsis, and thromboembolism are the leading causes of mortality. Patient's with Cushing's due to a pituitary adenoma and those with Cushing's due to benign adrenal adenoma have relatively good survival outcomes often mirroring that of the general population. Persistent or recurrent disease is associated with high mortality risk. Ectopic Cushing's syndrome and Cushing's due to adrenocortical carcinoma confer the highest mortality risk among Cushing's etiologies. Prompt diagnosis and treatment, and specific monitoring for and treatment of associated comorbidities are essential to decrease the burden of mortality from Cushing's. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of morbidity from mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Massé, H; Aubenque, M

    1983-01-01

    The authors have attempted to measure morbidity involved in mortality, from French regional statistics of causes of death, for the 1968-1970 period. Particularly, they have estimated prevalence rates (proportion of patients at a given moment) and incidence rates (annual proportion of new patients). These rates have been assessed by sex, and for age groups: 15-44 years, 45-64 years, 65-74 years, 75 years and more, and for 18 leading causes of death, according to the International Classification of Diseases (1965). Statistics of causes of deaths have been corrected to take into account non specified causes of death.

  6. Morbidity and mortality following poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, L; Nielsen, N M; Wanscher, B

    2017-01-01

    : Data from official registers for a cohort of 3606 Danes hospitalized for PM in the period 1940-1954 were compared with 13 762 age- and gender-matched controls. RESULTS: Compared with controls, mortality was moderately increased for both paralytic as well as non-paralytic PM cases; Hazard Ratio, 1.......31 (95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.44) and 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.19), respectively. Hospitalization rates were approximately 1.5 times higher among both paralytic and non-paralytic PM cases as compared with controls. Discharge diagnoses showed a broad spectrum of diseases. There were...

  7. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  8. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  9. Age-dependent mortality in the pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert E; Deshpande, Laxmikant S; Holbert, William H; Churn, Severn B; DeLorenzo, Robert J

    2009-04-10

    Status epilepticus (SE) is an acute neurological emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Age has been shown to be a critical factor in determining outcome after SE. Understanding the causes of this increased mortality with aging by developing an animal model to study this condition would play a major role in studying mechanisms to limit the mortality due to SE. Here we employed pilocarpine to induce SE in rats aged between 5 and 28 weeks. Similar to clinical studies in man, we observed that age was a significant predictor of mortality following SE. While no deaths were observed in 5-week-old animals, mortality due to SE increased progressively with age and reached 90% in 28-week-old animals. There was no correlation between the age of animals and severity of SE. With increasing age mortality occurred earlier after the onset of SE. These results indicate that pilocarpine-induced SE in the rat provides a useful model to study age-dependent SE-induced mortality and indicates the importance of using animal models to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to SE-induced mortality and the development of novel therapeutic interventions to prevent SE-induced death.

  10. Incidence and mortality trends of gastric and colorectal cancers in Croatia, 1988-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirac, Iva; Šekerija, Mario; Šimunović, Iva; Zgaga, Lina; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir; Kovačević, Dujo; Kuliš, Tomislav; Znaor, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    Aim To estimate the incidence and mortality trends of gastric and colorectal cancers in Croatia between 1988 and 2008. Methods Incidence data for the period 1988-2008 were obtained from the Croatian National Cancer Registry. The number of deaths from gastric and colorectal cancers was obtained from the World Health Organization mortality database. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to describe changes in trends by sex. Results Gastric cancer incidence rates declined steadily during the study period, with estimated annual percent change (EAPC) of -3.2% for men and -2.8% for women. Mortality rates in men decreased, with EAPC of -5.0% from 1988-1995 and -2.5% from 1995-2008. Mortality rates in women decreased, with EAPC of -3.2% throughout the study period. For colorectal cancer in men, joinpoint analysis revealed increasing trends of both incidence (EAPC 2.9%) and mortality (EAPC 2.1%).In women, the increase in incidence was not significant, but mortality in the last 15 years showed a significant increase of 1.1%. Conclusion The incidence and mortality trends of gastric cancer in Croatia are similar to other European countries, while the still increasing colorectal cancer mortality calls for more efficient prevention and treatment. PMID:22522990

  11. Timing of mortality in pediatric trauma patients: A National Trauma Data Bank analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cory; Zagory, Jessica A; Fenlon, Michael; Park, Caron; Lane, Christianne J; Meeker, Daniella; Burd, Randall S; Ford, Henri R; Upperman, Jeffrey S; Jensen, Aaron R

    2018-02-01

    The classic "trimodal" distribution of death has been described in adult patients, but the timing of mortality in injured children is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to define the temporal distribution of mortality in pediatric trauma patients. A retrospective cohort of patients with mortality from the National Trauma Data Bank (2007-2014) was analyzed. Categorical comparison of 'dead on arrival', 'death in the emergency department', and early (≤24h) or late (>24h) inpatient death was performed. Secondary analyses included mortality by pediatric age, predictors of early mortality, and late complication rates. Children (N=5463 deaths) had earlier temporal distribution of death compared to adults (n=104,225 deaths), with 51% of children dead on arrival or in ED compared to 44% of adults (p<0.001). For patients surviving ED resuscitation, children and adolescents had a shorter median time to death than adults (1.2 d and 0.8 days versus 1.6 days, p<0.001). Older age, penetrating mechanism, bradycardia, hypotension, tube thoracostomy, and thoracotomy were associated with early mortality in children. Injured children have higher incidence of early mortality compared to adults. This suggests that injury prevention efforts and strategies for improving early resuscitation have potential to improve mortality after pediatric injury. Level III: Retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Farmers' perceptions of goat kid mortality under communal farming in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayi, Mhlangabezi; Maphosa, Viola; Fayemi, Olutope Peter; Mapfumo, Lizwell

    2014-10-01

    Rearing of goats under communal farming conditions is characterised by high kid mortality and low weaning percentages. A survey was conducted to determine farmers' perceptions on the causes of kid mortality during summer under the communal farming system in Nkonkobe Local Municipality in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This was done by administering questionnaires to a total of 162 respondents in 14 villages around Nkonkobe Local Municipality. The study showed that majority of farmers (75 %) keep flock sizes of less than 10 goats and kids, and this indicates that goat production in Nkonkobe Local Municipality is suppressed. According to the farmers, diseases (89 %), endo-parasites (72 %) and ecto-parasites (68 %) were perceived as the major causes of kid mortality. Other causes reported include starvation (15 %), extreme weather conditions (28 %), abortion (7 %), theft (35 %), diarrhoea (43 %), accidents (10 %) and wounds (9 %). The low number of goats could be attributed to high mortalities. It was also found that all causes reported by farmers played a role in high kid mortality in Nkonkobe Local Municipality. However, the causes which require more emphasis to formulate extension support were tick-borne diseases and parasites. This study provided baseline information on possible causes of kid mortalities in Nkonkobe Local Municipality. There is, however, a need to conduct further studies to determine actual causes of high kid mortalities so as to develop preventive strategies that would minimize kid mortality for good economic returns.

  13. Dzuds, droughts, and livestock mortality in Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palat Rao, Mukund; Davi, Nicole K.; D'Arrigo, Rosanne D.; Skees, Jerry; Nachin, Baatarbileg; Leland, Caroline; Lyon, Bradfield; Wang, Shih-Yu; Byambasuren, Oyunsanaa

    2015-07-01

    Recent incidences of mass livestock mortality, known as dzud, have called into question the sustainability of pastoral nomadic herding, the cornerstone of Mongolian culture. A total of 20 million head of livestock perished in the mortality events of 2000-2002, and 2009-2010. To mitigate the effects of such events on the lives of herders, international agencies such as the World Bank are taking increasing interest in developing tailored market-based solutions like index-insurance. Their ultimate success depends on understanding the historical context and underlying causes of mortality. In this paper we examine mortality in 21 Mongolian aimags (provinces) between 1955 and 2013 in order to explain its density independent cause(s) related to climate variability. We show that livestock mortality is most strongly linked to winter (November-February) temperatures, with incidences of mass mortality being most likely to occur because of an anomalously cold winter. Additionally, we find prior summer (July-September) drought and precipitation deficit to be important triggers for mortality that intensifies the effect of upcoming winter temperatures on livestock. Our density independent mortality model based on winter temperature, summer drought, summer precipitation, and summer potential evaporanspiration explains 48.4% of the total variability in the mortality dataset. The Mongolian index based livestock insurance program uses a threshold of 6% mortality to trigger payouts. We find that on average for Mongolia, the probability of exceedance of 6% mortality in any given year is 26% over the 59 year period between 1955 and 2013.

  14. Migrant mortality from diabetes mellitus across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Stirbu, Irina

    2012-01-01

    ) is more affluent than the country of birth (COB). We obtained mortality data from 7 European countries. To assess migrant diabetes mortality, we used direct standardization and Poisson regression. First, migrant mortality was estimated for each country separately. Then, we merged the data from all......The first objective of this study was to determine and quantify variations in diabetes mortality by migrant status in different European countries. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that diabetes mortality is higher in migrant groups for whom the country of residence (COR...... mortality registers. Subsequently, to examine the second hypothesis, we introduced gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of COB in the models, as an indicator of socio-economic circumstances. The overall pattern shows higher diabetes mortality in migrant populations compared to local-born populations...

  15. Extreme all-cause mortality in JUPITER requires reexamination of vital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L

    2011-01-01

    To compare all-cause mortality in JUPITER with other statin trials at 21 months of follow-up. Outcome advantages including all-cause mortality reduction yielded from the JUPITER trial support aggressive use of rosuvastatin and, perhaps by extension, other statins for primary prevention. Despite enrolling apparently healthy subjects and early trial termination at 21 months of mean follow-up, JUPITER revealed very high all-cause mortality in both the placebo (2.8%) and rosuvastatin (2.2%) arms. Comparison of all-cause mortality prorated for 21 months in 10 primary prevention studies and 1 acute coronary syndromes statin trial. The all-cause mortality in JUPITER was more than twice that of the average of primary prevention studies, matching well only with specific trials designed in diabetics (ASPEN or CARDS), early hypertension studies (ALLHAT-LLT) or a trial in patients with acute coronary syndromes (PROVE IT). Since the 'play of chance' is unlikely to explain these discrepancies due to excellent baseline match, excess death rates and all-cause mortality rates in both JUPITER arms must be questioned. It may be important that the study sponsor self-monitored sites. Excess all-cause mortality rates in the apparently relatively healthy JUPITER population are alarming and require independent verification. If, indeed, the surprising outcomes in JUPITER are successfully challenged, and considering established harm of statins with regard to rhabdomyolysis as well as, potentially, diabetes, millions of patients may find better and safer options for primary prevention of vascular events. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%. Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries.

  17. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conigliaro Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male. There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%, drug dependence or abuse (21.8%, psychoses (21.2%, depression (18.5%, and hypertension (14.2%. A total of 1,836 (18.1% veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years. The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1. Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22

  18. Mortality study of lead workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W C; Gaffey, W R

    1975-01-01

    The mortality of 7,032 men employed for one or more years in lead production facilities or battery plants was followed over a 23-year period, 1947-70. Lead absorption in many of these men was greatly in excess of currently accepted standards based upon urinary and blood lead concentrations available for a portion of the group. There were 1,356 deaths reported. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes was 107 for smelter workers and 99 for battery plant workers. Death from neoplasms were in slight excess in smelters, but not significantly increased in battery plants. There were no excess deaths from kidney tumors. The SMR for cardiovascular-renal disease was 96 for smelter workers and 101 for battery plant workers. There was definitely no excess in deaths from either stroke or hypertensive heart disease; however, deaths classified as other hypertensive disease and unspecified nephritis or renal sclerosis were higher than expected. The life expectancy of lead workers was calculated to be approximately the same as that of all U.S. males.

  19. Renal resistive index and mortality in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Clarisse; Thomas, George; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L; Nally, Joseph V; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2015-08-01

    Renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive, diabetic, and elderly patients. We studied the factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its associations with mortality in chronic kidney disease patients without renal artery stenosis. We included 1962 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) who also had RRI measured (January 1, 2005, to October 2011) from an existing chronic kidney disease registry. Participants with renal artery stenosis (60%-99% or renal artery occlusion) were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70), and its association with mortality was studied using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards model. Hypertension was prevalent in >90% of the patients. In the multivariable logistic regression, older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, higher systolic blood pressure, and the use of β blockers were associated with higher odds of having RRI≥0.70. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 428 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, RRI≥0.70 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.65; Pchronic kidney disease. Noncardiovascular/non-malignancy-related deaths were higher in those with RRI≥0.70. RRI≥0.70 is associated with higher mortality in hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients without clinically significant renal artery stenosis after accounting for other significant risk factors. Its evaluation may allow early identification of those who are at risk thereby potentially preventing or delaying adverse outcomes. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Population assessment of future trajectories in coronary heart disease mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Björk Thorolfsdottir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD mortality rates have been decreasing in Iceland since the 1980s, largely reflecting improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. The purpose of this study was to predict future CHD mortality in Iceland based on potential risk factor trends. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The previously validated IMPACT model was used to predict changes in CHD mortality between 2010 and 2040 among the projected population of Iceland aged 25-74. Calculations were based on combining: i data on population numbers and projections (Statistics Iceland, ii population risk factor levels and projections (Refine Reykjavik study, and iii effectiveness of specific risk factor reductions (published meta-analyses. Projections for three contrasting scenarios were compared: (1 If the historical risk factor trends of past 30 years were to continue, the declining death rates of past decades would level off, reflecting population ageing. (2 If recent trends in risk factors (past 5 years continue, this would result in a death rate increasing from 49 to 70 per 100,000. This would reflect a recent plateau in previously falling cholesterol levels and recent rapid increases in obesity and diabetes prevalence. 3 Assuming that in 2040 the entire population enjoys optimal risk factor levels observed in low risk cohorts, this would prevent almost all premature CHD deaths before 2040. CONCLUSIONS: The potential increase in CHD deaths with recent trends in risk factor levels is alarming both for Iceland and probably for comparable Western populations. However, our results show considerable room for reducing CHD mortality. Achieving the best case scenario could eradicate premature CHD deaths by 2040. Public health policy interventions based on these predictions may provide a cost effective means of reducing CHD mortality in the future.

  1. Projecting productivity losses for cancer-related mortality 2011 - 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alison; Bradley, Cathy; Hanly, Paul; O'Neill, Ciaran; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Molcho, Michal; Sharp, Linda

    2016-10-18

    When individuals stop working due to cancer this represents a loss to society - the loss of productivity. The aim of this analysis was to estimate productivity losses associated with premature mortality from all adult cancers and from the 20 highest mortality adult cancers in Ireland in 2011, and project these losses until 2030. An incidence-based method was used to estimate the cost of cancer deaths between 2011 and 2030 using the Human Capital Approach. National data were used for cancer, population and economic inputs. Both paid work and unpaid household activities were included. Sensitivity analyses estimated the impact of assumptions around future cancer mortality rates, retirement ages, value of unpaid work, wage growth and discounting. The 233,000 projected deaths from all invasive cancers in Ireland between 2011 and 2030 will result in lost productivity valued at €73 billion; €13 billion in paid work and €60 billion in household activities. These losses represent approximately 1.4 % of Ireland's GDP annually. The most costly cancers are lung (€14.4 billion), colorectal and breast cancer (€8.3 billion each). However, when viewed as productivity losses per cancer death, testis (€364,000 per death), cervix (€155,000 per death) and brain cancer (€136,000 per death) are most costly because they affect working age individuals. An annual 1 % reduction in mortality reduces productivity losses due to all invasive cancers by €8.5 billion over 20 years. Society incurs substantial losses in productivity as a result of cancer-related mortality, particularly when household production is included. These estimates provide valuable evidence to inform resource allocation decisions in cancer prevention and control.

  2. Mortality after hip fracture: regional variations in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, N; Norton, R; Vander Hoorn, S; Rodgers, A; MacMahon, S; Clark, T; Gray, H

    1999-07-23

    To determine the 35-day and one-year mortality rates following a hospital admission for hip fracture, among individuals aged 60 years or older in New Zealand. New Zealand Health Information Service mortality data for the years 1988 to 1992 were examined to determine the case fatality rate among individuals aged 60 years or older admitted to hospital for fractures of the neck of femur (ICD-9 N-code 820). Case fatality rates assessed at 35 days and one year after admission to hospital were examined by age, gender, year of admission, place of residence, area health board region and cause of death. Between 1988 and 1992, the case fatality rate was 8% within 35 days of admission to hospital and 24% within one year of admission. Case fatality rates were found to be twice as high in men compared to women and four to five times higher in individuals aged 85 years and older, compared to people aged between 60 and 64 years. The only regional difference in hip fracture mortality was found in the Canterbury area health board region, which had a 30% higher rate of hip fracture mortality compared to all regions combined. The two main cited underlying causes of death after hip fracture were accidental falls (ICD E880-E888) and ischaemic heart disease (ICD 410-414). Over three-quarters of individuals aged 60 years or older who are hospitalised with a hip fracture in New Zealand survive for at least one year after admission. However, significant variations in mortality exist with age and gender. These data highlight the importance of preventive strategies for hip fracture in older people and the need to identify ways of improving post-admission care.

  3. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A

    1981-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach

  4. Determinants of all cause mortality in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genowska, Agnieszka; Jamiołkowski, Jacek; Szpak, Andrzej; Pajak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate quantitatively the relationship between demographic characteristics, socio-economic status and medical care resources with all cause mortality in Poland. Ecological study was performed using data for the population of 66 subregions of Poland, obtained from the Central Statistical Office of Poland. The information on the determinants of health and all cause mortality covered the period from 1st January 2005 to 31st December 2010. Results for the repeated measures were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations GEE model. In the model 16 independent variables describing health determinants were used, including 6 demographic variables, 6 socio-economic variables, 4 medical care variables. The dependent variable, was age standardized all cause mortality rate. There was a large variation in all cause mortality, demographic features, socio-economic characteristics, and medical care resources by subregion. All cause mortality showed weak associations with demographic features, among which only the increased divorce rate was associated with higher mortality rate. Increased education level, salaries, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, local government expenditures per capita and the number of non-governmental organizations per 10 thousand population was associated with decrease in all cause mortality. The increase of unemployment rate was related with a decrease of all cause mortality. Beneficial relationship between employment of medical staff and mortality was observed. Variation in mortality from all causes in Poland was explained partly by variation in socio-economic determinants and health care resources.

  5. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  6. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  7. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains

  8. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, summer 2015 was the second warmest summer for 150 years (after summer 2003). For summer 2003, a 6.9% excess mortality was estimated for Switzerland, which corresponded to 975 extra deaths. The impact of the heat in summer 2015 in Switzerland has not so far been evaluated. Daily age group-, gender- and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer (June-August) 2015 was estimated, based on predictions derived from quasi-Poisson regression models fitted to the daily mortality data for the 10 previous years. Estimates of excess mortality were derived for 1 June to 31 August, at national and regional level, as well as by month and for specific heat episodes identified in summer 2015 by use of seven different definitions. 804 excess deaths (5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0‒7.9%) were estimated for summer 2015 compared with previous summers, with the highest percentage obtained for July (11.6%, 95% CI 3.7‒19.4%). Seventy-seven percent of deaths occurred in people aged 75 years and older. Ticino (10.3%, 95% CI -1.8‒22.4%), Northwestern Switzerland (9.5%, 95% CI 2.7‒16.3%) and Espace Mittelland (8.9%, 95% CI 3.7‒14.1%) showed highest excess mortality during this three-month period, whereas fewer deaths than expected (-3.3%, 95% CI -9.2‒2.6%) were observed in Eastern Switzerland, the coldest region. The largest excess estimate of 23.7% was obtained during days when both maximum apparent and minimum night-time temperature reached extreme values (+32 and +20 °C, respectively), with 31.0% extra deaths for periods of three days or more. Heat during summer 2015 was associated with an increase in mortality in the warmer regions of Switzerland and it mainly affected older people. Estimates for 2015 were only a little lower compared to those of summer 2003, indicating that mitigation measures to prevent heat-related mortality in Switzerland have not become noticeably effective in the last 10 years.

  9. [China faces a challenge of breast cancer prevention and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B N; Chen, W Q; Zhang, X; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer is in an increasing trend. In contrast to the global breast cancer situation, the prevention and control is challenging in China. Some suggestions are presented to the project of breast cancer prevention and control in China. Combining the global screening experiences with the epidemiological features of Chinese female breast cancer, aims to improve the population screening and early detection rate. Standardizing clinical diagnosis and treatment practice, aims to increase the efficacy and decrease the mortality. Intervening lifestyle and dietary behaviors, and intends to reduce risk exposure and incidence. Building national breast cancer registry provides preventive strategies. Great efforts should be made to carry out large sample multicenter clinical trails and translational research on the prevention and cotrol of breast cancer coordiated by health care service and science and technology administrations. Breast cancer prevention and control has a long way to go in China.

  10. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastam Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD, mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. Methods The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Results Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81% of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Conclusion Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  11. Explaining the increase in coronary heart disease mortality in Syria between 1996 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastam, Samer; Al Ali, Radwan; Maziak, Wasim; Mzayek, Fawaz; Fouad, Fouad M; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2012-09-09

    Despite advances made in treating coronary heart disease (CHD), mortality due to CHD in Syria has been increasing for the past two decades. This study aims to assess CHD mortality trends in Syria between 1996 and 2006 and to investigate the main factors associated with them. The IMPACT model was used to analyze CHD mortality trends in Syria based on numbers of CHD patients, utilization of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy persons and CHD patients. Data sources for the IMPACT model included official statistics, published and unpublished surveys, data from neighboring countries, expert opinions, and randomized trials and meta-analyses. Between 1996 and 2006, CHD mortality rate in Syria increased by 64%, which translates into 6370 excess CHD deaths in 2006 as compared to the number expected had the 1996 baseline rate held constant. Using the IMPACT model, it was estimated that increases in cardiovascular risk factors could explain approximately 5140 (81%) of the CHD deaths, while some 2145 deaths were prevented or postponed by medical and surgical treatments for CHD. Most of the recent increase in CHD mortality in Syria is attributable to increases in major cardiovascular risk factors. Treatments for CHD were able to prevent about a quarter of excess CHD deaths, despite suboptimal implementation. These findings stress the importance of population-based primary prevention strategies targeting major risk factors for CHD, as well as policies aimed at improving access and adherence to modern treatments of CHD.

  12. [Report of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in China, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W Q; Li, H; Sun, K X; Zheng, R S; Zhang, S W; Zeng, H M; Zou, X N; Gu, X Y; He, J

    2018-01-23

    the cumulative incidence rate (0-74 age years old) was 12.00%. The cancer mortality and ASMRC in urban areas were 174.34/100, 000 and 103.49/100, 000, respectively, whereas in rural areas, those were 160.07/100, 000 and 111.57/100, 000, respectively. Lung cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, esophageal cancer, thyroid cancer, cervical cancer, encephala and pancreas cancer, were the most common cancers in China, accounting for about 77.00% of the new cancer cases. Lung cancer, liver cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, encephala, leukemia and lymphoma were the leading causes of death and accounted for about 83.36% of cancer deaths. Conclusions: The progression of cancer registry in China develops rapidly in these years, with the coverage of registrations is expanded and the data quality was improved steadily year by year. As the basis of cancer prevention and control program, cancer registry plays an important role in making the medium and long term of anti-cancer strategies in China. As China is still facing the serious cancer burden and the cancer patterns varies differently according to the locations and genders, effective measures and strategies of cancer prevention and control should be implemented based on the practical situation.

  13. Data base on animal mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A data base on animal mortality has been compiled. The literature on LD 50 and the dose-response function for radiation-induced lethality, reflect several inconsistencies - primarily due to dose assignments and to analytical methods and/or mathematical models used. Thus, in order to make the individual experiments which were included in the data base as consistent as possible, an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment group was made so that the interspecies differences are minimized. The LD 50 was recalculated using a single estimation procedure for all studies for which sufficient experimental data are available. For small animals such as mice, the dose to the hematopoietic system is approximately equal to the treatment dose, but for large animals the marrow dose may be about half of the treatment dose

  14. Cancer mortality around nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, C.; LaPlanche, A.

    1991-01-01

    Studies (including that of Gardner) of cancer mortality around individual nuclear sites in Britain show an excess of childhood leukemia near such sites. These have been attributed to radioactive discharges, increased radiation doses and radiation doses to the fathers of affected children. However, no such excess has been found in studies in other countries including France, Canada and the USA where similar radiation doses could have been received. Several explanations of this discrepancy are reviewed. It is possible that results from the small UK samples may be due to chance. A difference in external and internal doses for reprocessing plant workers may also be a factor. The possibility of a viral infection for leukemia spreading in new town populations is also mentioned. Whilst the studies in other countries are reassuring, the childhood leukemia excesses found in Britain round nuclear sites are still unexplained. (UK)

  15. Air pollution and human mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L B [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Economics; Seskin, E P [Department of Commerce, Washington, DC (USA). Environmental and Nonmarket Economics Div.

    1979-11-01

    Investigations have been made on the quantitative relationship between air pollution and human mortality. While primary focus has been on suspended particulates and sulfates from stationary sources of pollution, the evidence relating to air pollutants attributed to mobile sources was also examined. Using statistical analyses for a large number of US metropolitan areas, it was concluded that the benefits associated with a substantial abatement of air pollution from stationary sources are greater than the costs of such abatement. In contrast, the situation for mobile sources-chiefly cars and trucks is less clear-cut. That is, the costs of implementing the currently mandated US standards for automobile emissions probably exeed their potential health benefits.

  16. Cancer mortality studied by Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, R.; Smith, N.D.

    1986-01-01

    A report is given of a cancer mortality study in Caithness, Sutherland, Orkney and Shetland between 1958 and 1982. For Caithness and Sutherland, the numbers of male deaths from all kinds of cancer was significantly less than the numbers expected from figures for Scotland as a whole; for females no difference was observed; the parish of Latheron showed an excess of leukaemia cases. For Orkney and Shetland, the total number of cancer deaths for both sexes was significantly less than for Scotland as a whole. In Shetland, there was an excess of lymphatic leukaemia in Northmaven based on four deaths observed. In Orkney, one parish showed an excess of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers. (UK)

  17. Birth dimensions, parental mortality, and mortality in early adult age: a cohort study of Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    liver cirrhosis. Offspring birth dimensions showed an inverse association with parental mortality, which was most pronounced for maternal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The strong inverse association between birth dimensions and adult mortality, but lack of association between ponderal index and mortality...

  18. Seven challenges in modeling vaccine preventable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.E. Metcalf

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination has been one of the most successful public health measures since the introduction of basic sanitation. Substantial mortality and morbidity reductions have been achieved via vaccination against many infections, and the list of diseases that are potentially controllable by vaccines is growing steadily. We introduce key challenges for modeling in shaping our understanding and guiding policy decisions related to vaccine preventable diseases.

  19. Secondary stroke prevention: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Esenwa, Charles; Gutierrez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Charles Esenwa, Jose GutierrezDepartment of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Stroke is the leading cause of disability in the USA and a major cause of mortality worldwide. One out of four strokes is recurrent. Secondary stroke prevention starts with deciphering the most likely stroke mechanism. In general, one of the main goals in stroke reduction is to control vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dy...

  20. Primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2017-12-23

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.

  1. Air pollution and mortality in Barcelona.

    OpenAIRE

    Sunyer, J; Castellsagué, J; Sáez, M; Tobias, A; Antó, J M

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Studies conducted in Barcelona reported a short term relation between daily air pollutant values and emergency department admissions for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and asthma. Air pollution in Barcelona is mainly generated by vehicle exhaust and is below the World Health Organization air quality guidelines. The acute relation between air pollution and mortality was assessed. DESIGN: Daily variations in total mortality, mortality in subjects older ...

  2. Thymus size at 6 months of age and subsequent child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garly, M.L.; Trautner, S.L.; Marx, C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine determinants of thymus size at age 6 months and investigate whether thymus size at this age is a determinant of subsequent mortality. STUDY DESIGN: Thymus size was measured by transsternal sonography in 923 6-month-old children participating in a measles vaccination trial...... in Guinea-Bissau. RESULTS: Thymus size was strongly associated with anthropometric measurements. Boys had larger thymuses than girls, controlling for anthropometry. Crying during sonography made the thymus appear smaller. Children who were not vaccinated with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or were vaccinated...... thymus size remained a strong and independent risk factor for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.31; 95% confidence interval = 0.18 to 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Small thymus size at age 6 months is a strong risk factor for mortality. To prevent unnecessary deaths, it is important to identify preventable factors...

  3. Health Care Disparity and Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; Dildy, Gary A; Brown, Haywood L; Bateni, Zhoobin H; Belfort, Michael A; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Clark, Steven L

    2018-04-01

    To quantitate the contribution of various demographic factors to the U.S. maternal mortality ratio. This was a retrospective observational study. We analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics database and the Detailed Mortality Underlying Cause of Death database (CDC WONDER) from 2005 to 2014 that contains mortality and population counts for all U.S. counties. Bivariate correlations between the maternal mortality ratio and all maternal demographic, lifestyle, health, and medical service utilization characteristics were calculated. We performed a maximum likelihood factor analysis with varimax rotation retaining variables that were significant (Pmulticollinearity among the existing variables. The United States has experienced an increase in maternal mortality ratio since 2005 with rates increasing from 15 per 100,00 live births in 2005 to 21-22 per 100,000 live births in 2013 and 2014. (P<.001) This increase in mortality was most pronounced in non-Hispanic black women, with ratios rising from 39 to 49 per 100,000 live births. A significant correlation between state mortality ranking and the percentage of non-Hispanic black women in the delivery population was demonstrated. Cesarean deliveries, unintended births, unmarried status, percentage of deliveries to non-Hispanic black women, and four or fewer prenatal visits were significantly (P<.05) associated with the increased maternal mortality ratio. The current U.S. maternal mortality ratio is heavily influenced by a higher rate of death among non-Hispanic black or unmarried patients with unplanned pregnancies. Racial disparities in health care availability and access or utilization by underserved populations are important issues faced by states seeking to decrease maternal mortality.

  4. When did HIV incidence peak in Harare, Zimbabwe? Back-calculation from mortality statistics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Lopman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence has recently begun to decline in Zimbabwe, a result of both high levels of AIDS mortality and a reduction in incident infections. An important component in understanding the dynamics in HIV prevalence is knowledge of past trends in incidence, such as when incidence peaked and at what level. However, empirical measurements of incidence over an extended time period are not available from Zimbabwe or elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. Using mortality data, we use a back-calculation technique to reconstruct historic trends in incidence. From AIDS mortality data, extracted from death registration in Harare, together with an estimate of survival post-infection, HIV incidence trends were reconstructed that would give rise to the observed patterns of AIDS mortality. Models were fitted assuming three parametric forms of the incidence curve and under nine different assumptions regarding combinations of trends in non-AIDS mortality and patterns of survival post-infection with HIV. HIV prevalence was forward-projected from the fitted incidence and mortality curves. Models that constrained the incidence pattern to a cubic spline function were flexible and produced well-fitting, realistic patterns of incidence. In models assuming constant levels of non-AIDS mortality, annual incidence peaked between 4 and 5% between 1988 and 1990. Under other assumptions the peak level ranged from 3 to 8% per annum. However, scenarios assuming increasing levels of non-AIDS mortality resulted in implausibly low estimates of peak prevalence (11%, whereas models with decreasing underlying crude mortality could be consistent with the prevalence and mortality data. HIV incidence is most likely to have peaked in Harare between 1988 and 1990, which may have preceded the peak elsewhere in Zimbabwe. This finding, considered alongside the timing and location of HIV prevention activities, will give insight into the decline of HIV prevalence in Zimbabwe.

  5. Seasonality in mortality and its relationship to temperature among the older population in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have established a relationship between temperature and mortality. In particular, older populations have been shown to be vulnerable to temperature effects. However, little information exists on the temperature–mortality relationship in Vietnam. Objectives: This article aims to examine the monthly temperature–mortality relationship among older people in Hanoi, Vietnam, over the period between 2005 and 2010, and estimate seasonal patterns in mortality. Methods: We employed Generalized Additive Models, including smooth functions, to model the temperature–mortality relationships. A quasi-Poisson distribution was used to model overdispersion of death counts. Temporal trends, seasonality, and population size were adjusted for while estimating changes in monthly mortality over the study period. A cold month was defined as a month with a mean temperature below 19°C. Results: This study found that the high peak of mortality coincided with low temperatures in the month of February 2008, during which the mean temperature was the lowest in the whole study period. There was a significant relationship between mean monthly temperature and mortality among the older people (p<0.01. Overall, there was a significant decrease in the number of deaths in the year 2009 during the study period. There was a 21% increase in the number of deaths during the cold season compared to the warm season. The increase in mortality during the cold period was higher among females compared to males (female: IRR [incidence relative risk] =1.23; male: IRR=1.18. Conclusions: Cold temperatures substantially increased mortality among the older population in Hanoi, Vietnam, and there were gender differences. Necessary preventive measures are required to mitigate temperature effects with greater attention to vulnerable groups.

  6. Postneonatal mortality impacts following grants from the Gavi Vaccine Alliance: an econometric analysis from 2000 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, R J; Audibert, M

    2017-12-01

    We completed a retrospective multivariate panel study to evaluate the effect of Gavi Vaccine Alliance grants on vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) postneonatal mortality. We separately tested a composite VPD mortality rate and five vaccine-preventable mortality rates: pertussis, meningitis, measles, diarrhea, and pneumonia (lower-respiratory infection) as dependent variables. All 77 countries eligible for Gavi assistance from 2000 to 2014 were included in the study. To isolate the effect of Gavi funding in our primary model, we controlled for known and likely predictors of child mortality. We found evidence that, among other factors, Gavi investment, antenatal care access, and girls' primary education are important elements to reduce vaccine-preventable mortality rates. For every $1 per capita invested by the Gavi Vaccine Alliance, there are statistically significant effects decreasing the VPD postneonatal mortality rate by 1.848 per 1000 live births. We also found Gavi investments to be significantly associated with reductions in three VPD-specific rates: pertussis, meningitis, and pneumonia. We conclude that Gavi investments in developing country immunization programs have measurably contributed to reductions in postneonatal VPD mortality rates. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  8. Preventing invasive breast cancer using endocrine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Mangesh A; Cuzick, Jack

    2017-08-01

    Developments in breast cancer treatment have resulted in reduction in breast cancer mortality in the developed world. However incidence continues to rise and greater use of preventive interventions including the use of therapeutic agents is needed to control this burden. High quality evidence from 9 major trials involving more than 83000 participants shows that selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 38%. Combined results from 2 large trials with 8424 participants show that aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduce breast cancer incidence by 53%. These benefits are restricted to prevention of ER positive breast cancers. Restricting preventive therapy to high-risk women improves the benefit-harm balance and many guidelines now encourage healthcare professionals to discuss preventive therapy in these women. Further research is needed to improve our risk-prediction models for the identification of high risk women for preventive therapy with greater accuracy and to develop surrogate biomarkers of response. Long-term follow-up of the IBIS-I trial has provided valuable insights into the durability of benefits from preventive therapy, and underscores the need for such follow up to fully evaluate other agents. Full utilisation of preventive therapy also requires greater knowledge and awareness among both doctors and patients about benefits, harms and risk factors. Healthcare professionals should routinely discuss preventive therapy with women at high-risk of breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Major decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in the Union of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major decline in malaria morbidity and mortality in the Union of Comoros between 2010 and 2014: The effect of a combination of prevention and control ... malaria incidence and case fatality rates for all age groups, including under-5 children and pregnant women, were analysed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 16.

  10. Road traffic collisions in Malawi: Trends and patterns of mortality on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    deaths at the scene of RTCs divided by the total number of ... Compared to drivers; pedestrians had the highest odds of mortality (OR 39, 95% CI 34, 45) followed by bicyclists .... attention has been paid to the management and prevention of.

  11. Increased long-term mortality after a high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction during abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyhoff, Christian Sylvest; Jorgensen, Lars N; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (80%) has been recommended to prevent postoperative wound infections. However, the most recent and one of the largest trials, the PROXI trial, found no reduction in surgical site infection, and 30-day mortality was higher in patients given 80% oxygen...

  12. The burden of premature mortality of epilepsy in high-income countries: A systematic review from the Mortality Task Force of the International League Against Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, David J; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Beghi, Ettore; Hauser, W Allen; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Newton, Charles R; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Sander, Josemir W; Tomson, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    Since previous reviews of epidemiologic studies of premature mortality among people with epilepsy were completed several years ago, a large body of new evidence about this subject has been published. We aim to update prior reviews of mortality in epilepsy and to reevaluate and quantify the risks, potential risk factors, and causes of these deaths. We systematically searched the Medline and Embase databases to identify published reports describing mortality risks in cohorts and populations of people with epilepsy. We reviewed relevant reports and applied criteria to identify those studies likely to accurately quantify these risks in representative populations. From these we extracted and summarized the reported data. All population-based studies reported an increased risk of premature mortality among people with epilepsy compared to general populations. Standard mortality ratios are especially high among people with epilepsy aged <50 years, among those whose epilepsy is categorized as structural/metabolic, those whose seizures do not fully remit under treatment, and those with convulsive seizures. Among deaths directly attributable to epilepsy or seizures, important immediate causes include sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), status epilepticus, unintentional injuries, and suicide. Epilepsy-associated premature mortality imposes a significant public health burden, and many of the specific causes of death are potentially preventable. These require increased attention from healthcare providers, researchers, and public health professionals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Mortality, morbidity and health in developed societies: a review of data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Guillaume; Gourbin, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the major sources of data on mortality, morbidity and health in Europe and in other developed regions in order to examine their potential for analysing mortality and morbidity levels and trends. The review is primarily focused on routinely collected information covering a whole country. No attempt is made to draw up an inventory of sources by country; the paper deals instead with the pros and cons of each source for mortality and morbidity studies in demography. While each source considered separately can already yield useful, though partial, results, record linkage among data sources can significantly improve the analysis. Record linkage can also lead to the detection of possible causal associations that could eventually be confirmed. More generally, Big Data can reveal changing mortality and morbidity trends and patterns that could lead to preventive measures being taken rather than more costly curative ones.

  14. Infection increases mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werge, Mikkel; Novovic, Srdjan; Schmidt, Palle N

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of infection on mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis. METHODS: Eligible prospective and retrospective studies were identified through manual and electronic searches (August 2015). The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Meta...... sterile necrosis and organ failure was associated with a mortality of 19.8%. If the patients had infected necrosis without organ failure the mortality was 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with necrotizing pancreatitis are more than twice as likely to die if the necrosis becomes infected. Both organ failure...... and infected necrosis increase mortality in necrotizing pancreatitis....

  15. Disparities in Smoking-Related Mortality Among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Paul D; Dube, Shanta R; Thorne, Stacy L; Garrett, Bridgette E; Homa, David M; Nez Henderson, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Smoking-related disparities continue to be a public health problem among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population groups and data documenting the health burden of smoking in this population are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among AI/AN adults relative to non-Hispanic white adults (whites) by calculating and comparing smoking-attributable fractions and mortality. Smoking-attributable fractions and mortality among AI/ANs (n=1.63 million AI/ANs) and whites were calculated for people living in 637 Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in the U.S., from mortality data collected during 2001-2009. Differences in smoking-attributable mortality between AI/ANs and whites for five major causes of smoking-related deaths were examined. All data analyses were carried out in 2013-2014. Overall, from 2001 to 2009, age-adjusted death rates, smoking-attributable fractions, and smoking-attributable mortality for all-cause mortality were higher among AI/ANs than among whites for adult men and women aged ≥35 years. Smoking caused 21% of ischemic heart disease, 15% of other heart disease, and 17% of stroke deaths in AI/AN men, compared with 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, for white men. Among AI/AN women, smoking caused 18% of ischemic heart disease deaths, 13% of other heart diseases deaths, and 20% of stroke deaths, compared with 9%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, among white women. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive tobacco control and prevention efforts that can effectively reach and impact the AI/AN population to prevent and reduce smoking. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Moreira Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000 was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000 and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000 were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8% and preventable causes (51.6% were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6% and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%, suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  17. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000) was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000) and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000) were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8%) and preventable causes (51.6%) were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%), suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  18. Inotropes do not increase mortality in advanced heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglin M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maya Guglin, Marc KaufmanUniversity of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Inotrope use is one of the most controversial topics in the management of heart failure. While the heart failure community utilizes them and recognizes the state of inotrope dependency, retrospective analyses and registry data have overwhelmingly suggested high mortality, which is logically to be expected given the advanced disease states of those requiring their use. Currently, there is a relative paucity of randomized control trials due to the ethical dilemma of creating control groups by withholding inotropes from patients who require them. Nonetheless, results of such trials have been mixed. Many were also performed with agents no longer in use, on patients without an indication for inotropes, or at a time before automatic cardio-defibrillators were recommended for primary prevention. Thus, their results may not be generalizable to current clinical practice. In this review, we discuss current indications for inotrope use, specifically dobutamine and milrinone, depicting their mechanisms of action, delineating their patterns of use in clinical practice, defining the state of inotrope dependency, and ultimately examining the literature to ascertain whether evidence is sufficient to support the current view that these agents increase mortality in patients with heart failure. Our conclusion is that the evidence is insufficient to link inotropes and increased mortality in low output heart failure.Keywords: inotropes, dobutamine, milrinone, heart failure

  19. Maternal Mortality In Pakistan: Is There Any Metamorphosis Towards Betterment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Nusrat; Abbasi, Razia Mustafa; Chana, Shehla Raza; Rizwan, Noushaba; Badar, Razia

    2017-01-01

    Every year more than half million mother die due to pregnancy related preventable causes like haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, sepsis, and obstructed labour and unsafe abortion. Among these deaths 99% occur in developing countries. The study was conducted to assess the maternal death rate and to analyse its trends over a period of 20 years in tertiary care hospital in Sindh Province Pakistan. A retrospective analysis of maternal mortality records were carried out for a period of 20 years from 1986-1995 and 2011-2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and gynaecology Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hyderabad Sindh Pakistan. The record retrieved was categorized into four 5 yearly periods 1986- 1990, 1991-995, 2006-2010 and 2011-2015 for comparison of trends. The cumulative maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 1521.5 per 100,000 live births. The comparison of first 5 years' period (1986-1990) and last 5 years (2011-2015) showed downward trend in maternal mortality rate from 2368.6-1265.1. Direct causes of death have accounted for 2820 (84.78%) of total maternal death. Sepsis was the major cause of death for first 5 years accounted for 196(35.1%) of maternal death while in the last 5 years' eclampsia causes 284 (27.84%) of direct maternal deaths. The reduction in the maternal deaths has been very slow. The direct causes were still the main reasons for obstetrical deaths.

  20. Quantification of the heat wave effect on mortality in nine French cities during summer 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mathilde; Le Tertre, Alain; Saoudi, Abdessattar

    2012-02-23

    July 2006 was the first major heat wave in France after the creation of a heat prevention plan. Understanding its impacts on health will help improving the efficiency of this plan. We assessed the mortality impact of the heat wave, and investigated the influence of the heat prevention plan. The study focused on nine French cities. A Poisson regression model was used to analyze the correlation between temperature, air quality and mortality. An additional spline of time was introduced to capture an additional heat wave effect. Heat-action days defined by the prevention plan were introduced as a dummy variable. 411 extra deaths were observed in the nine cities during the 2006 heat wave. Unlike the 2003 heat wave, no additional heat wave effect was observed in 2006. The maximum daily relative risk of mortality varied from 1.45 in Strasbourg (IC 95% [1.01-2.08]) to 1.04 in Lille (IC 95% [0.92-1.18]). The impact on mortality of the implementation of heat-action days was non-significant and highly variable depending on the cities, with a combined excess of relative risk of -3.3% (IC 95% [-10.3%; 4.4%]). Although no specific heat wave effect was observed, warm temperatures and air pollution were still responsible for a significant excess mortality in France. The absence of a specific heat wave effect may be partly explained by the prevention plan. It may also indicate that higher temperatures are required to observe a mortality outburst.