WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventative strategies present

  1. The Past, Present, and Future of HIV Prevention: Integrating Behavioral, Biomedical, and Structural Intervention Strategies for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028

  2. Strategies to prevent loneliness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Fokkema, T.; Sha'ked, A.; Rokach, A.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention is better than cure’. This also applies to loneliness experiences: preventing people from loneliness is better than helping them to reduce their feelings of loneliness through interventions. In this chapter, we argue the necessity of loneliness prevention strategies for handling future

  3. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7)…

  4. [Preventive strategies for dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Patrick; Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Notger G

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the demographically induced increase in the prevalence of dementia and the simultaneous lack of causal pharmacological therapies, preventive approaches are gaining in importance. By reducing risk factors and with measures which induce neuroplasticity successful aging can be supported. This article summarizes the current developments in preventing dementia by modification of life style factors. The main focus lies on the impact of cognitive and physical activity on neuroprotection. A promising approach combines both activities within a dance training program. Further studies that meet the demanding criteria of a randomized clinical trial are urgently needed.

  5. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    experts, the following recommended actions were outlined: define policy solutions to patent, intellectual property, and liability law barriers; create an advisory document about the approval process for cancer chemopreventive agents and vaccines for the FDA; develop new design models for cancer chemopreventive clinical trials; outline the business case for chemopreventive agents and vaccines for federal research agencies, payors and investors; and implement a communications strategy to increase public awareness about the importance of chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines.

  6. Prevention strategies in child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V

    2010-10-01

    Child maltreatment remains a prevalent problem for which notable best practices such as home visitation can be effective; however, most eligible families do not receive these beneficial services. Additionally, there are other promising prevention interventions to effectively address child maltreatment. This review focuses on the recent advances and strategies for child maltreatment prevention. Although home visiting does not have a single clearly defined methodology of providing service to children and families, the general supportive framework to improve maternal, child, and family factors makes this intervention the most widely studied and accepted prevention strategy. However, there has been limited effectiveness for most models. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) has provided consistently positive results by targeting families with many risk factors by using highly trained professionals when implementing a research-based intervention. A promising public health approach to parent training (Triple P) may reduce maltreatment and out-of-home placement. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), while a treatment model, is becoming an increasingly important approach to child maltreatment prevention. There may be an opportunity to reduce child maltreatment by enhancing care in the pediatric medical home setting. Effective child maltreatment prevention efforts exist; however, not all programs provide the same effectiveness, or target the same maltreatment issues. Pediatricians are in a key position to offer support to families in their own practice, as well as to direct families to the appropriate resources available.

  7. Health promotion and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna; Herman, William H.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Liew, Danny; Ademi, Zanfina; Magliano, Dianna J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective interventions to prevent, delay, or remit diabetes are currently available. However, their impact on the prevalence of diabetes at the population level is unknown. This study aimed to estimate the impact of a range of diabetes interventions on the population prevalence of diabetes for Australian adults between 2010 and 2025. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Australian Diabetes Projection Model to estimate the impact of a population-wide strategy, high-risk preventio...

  9. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  10. [Preventive strategies in prosthetic dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M; Böning, K W; Stark, H; Wolowski, A; Wöstmann, B; Walter, M H

    2011-09-01

    Despite the success in preventing oral diseases, the prevalence of tooth loss in the German population remains high and increases with age. Today, the advances in prosthetic dentistry allow necessary tooth replacement following preventive strategies-after considering benefits and risks. Modern treatment options improve the overall prognosis of the stomatognathic system and the quality of life of the affected patients significantly. Hereby, adverse iatrogenic effects can be minimized or even completely avoided by extending the traditional treatment spectrum, e.g., using adhesively fixed restorations and implant-supported restorations, and refraining from placing restorations that are unnecessary from the medical point of view. Generally, patients benefit greatly from prosthetic treatment and the achieved health gain is remarkably high. It encompasses not only the recovery of the impaired oral functions but also extends to the whole human organism, including nutrition, digestion, musculoskeletal system, as well as mental and social well-being.

  11. The Effect of Summarizing and Presentation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to find out the effect of summarizing and presentation strategies on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ reading comprehension. 61 students were selected and divided into two experimental and control groups. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established using a TOEFL proficiency test. The experimental group used the two strategies three sessions each week for twenty weeks, while the control group was not trained on the strategies. After every two-week instruction, an immediate posttest was administered. At the end of the study, a post-test was administered to both groups. Paired-sample t-test and Independent sample t-test were used for analysis. The results of the study revealed that summarizing and presentation strategies had significant effect on promoting reading comprehension of intermediate EFL learners. It also indicated that the presentation strategy was significantly more effective on students’ reading comprehension.

  12. Preventive strategies in child and adolescent psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescence are periods of growth and development that are critical to the formation of adult personality and psychopathology. Moreover, childhood psychopathology may differ significantly in presentation and risk factors from those seen among adults and may require different preventive strategies. Service-related characteristics such as the shortage of trained child and adolescent mental health professionals also demand that the focus should shift from resource-intensive treatment interventions, toward preventive measures that can be delivered at lower cost in terms of workforce, money, and time; and can lead to improved outcomes for a wide variety of conditions. Preventive strategies that have been implemented in this population have mostly included both preventive measures (aiming at reducing the prevalence of risk factors and promotive components (aimed at increasing resilience and positive mental health characteristics, usually in combination. Interventions have been shown to be most effective when they are targeted at underlying latent structures that predict risk; they are also more effective when delivered over a prolonged period. Interventions must also be formulated such that they are developmentally appropriate, and with clearly stated outcome parameters for evaluation. A few example interventions that have made use of these strategies are discussed in the course of this article.

  13. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro JG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male

  14. Current Evidence Supporting Obstetric Fistula Prevention Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidences from the articles were linked to prevention strategies retrieved from grey literature. The strategies were classified using an innovative target-focused method. Gaps in the literature show the need for fistula prevention research to aim at systematically measuring incidence and prevalence of the disease, identify the ...

  15. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  16. Promising Prevention Strategies for the 90s. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas; Svendsen, Roger

    Alcohol, tobacco, and drug use prevention is a goal shared by many. Prevention strategies aim to both reduce specific problems resulting from substance abuse and promote healthy development. Past efforts at prevention have included a variety of approaches: (1) prohibition; (2) scare tactics; (3) presenting factual information; (4) affective…

  17. Preventive strategies for substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhawan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug use among adolescents is on the rise, posing a great challenge to the health-care providers. The above concerns have led to recent research initiatives aiming at the development of preventive interventions for adolescents. This review gives an overview of such initiatives which target at reducing modifiable risk factors and enhancing protective factors through family, school, and community prevention programs.

  18. The efficient presentation - obstacles, strategies, success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela-Elena Radu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The making of presentations has become an omnipresent act of communication in the companies practice, but also in the didactic one. The notoriety and the increase of the importance of an efficient presentation lie in the transformations felt by a society of knowledge, communication being the answer in front of a constant information wave.Business people look in fear at the preparation of a presentation, the interaction with the audience andtheir feedback, all these leading to a low efficiency in transmitting the message.The speaker must overcome a group of obstacles, the most important being the reduced human capacityto capture the information transmitted orally; in this respect, he has available a group of visual instruments and strategies to capture the attention. In order to achieve efficiency one needs mental and emotional preparation, knowing the audience and the presentation’s objective and eliminating the old listing format in PowerPoint, for focusing the communication of the audience’s necessities. The present essay aims to analyze the verbal, non-verbal and para-verbal communication act that constitutes the base of any presentation, the reasons that lead to failure and the ways to increase efficiency, in order to succeed in transmitting a well structured and easy to remember message.Many researchers and practice workers within the communication, economic but also IT fields, have tried to find the solution for organizing and transmitting the message during a presentation, in accordance with the new technologies. In elaborating the present paper, we have used our personal experience and data obtained through 30 in-depth interviews,with managers in companies such Bostina Asociatii Skoda, Petrom etc.; we have used in our research articles of honored professors in social sciences from the Harvard and Stanford Universities , researches of the Minnesota and Ulster Universities, as well as works of specialists in marketing and information

  19. OBESITY: health prevention strategies in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Ferreira Todendi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.

  20. Suicide prevention strategies--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Kántor, Zsuzsa; Rihmer, Annamária; Seregi, Krisztina

    2004-12-01

    Since suicide is a very complex, multicausal human behaviour, its prevention should also be complex. The prediction of suicide is very difficult at the level of the general population, but it is much easier among patients with certain mental disorders, because most persons who kill themselves have diagnosable and treatable psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the most important biological and non-biological suicide prevention strategies.

  1. Educators' Perceptions on Bullying Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2017-01-01

    I report on an investigation into a group of Free State educators' recognition of bullying, their reactions to incidences of bullying, and their perceptions of the effectiveness of a number of bullying prevention strategies. The research instrument was a synthesis of the Delaware Research Questionnaire and questions based on findings from previous…

  2. Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish anti- and de-radicalization strategy involves three interwoven elements: (a) an early prevention and exit programme, (b) prosecution of radicalized persons who have committed violent crimes (in Denmark or in a foreign country), including measures such as confiscation of passport, and (c...

  3. Strategies for the prevention of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Arden, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    . Instead, OA should be viewed as a chronic condition, where prevention and early comprehensive-care models are the accepted norm, as is the case with other chronic diseases. Joint injury, obesity and impaired muscle function are modifiable risk factors amenable to primary and secondary prevention......Osteoarthritis (OA) has been thought of as a disease of cartilage that can be effectively treated surgically at severe stages with joint arthroplasty. Today, OA is considered a whole-organ disease that is amenable to prevention and treatment at early stages. OA develops slowly over 10-15 years...... strategies. The strategies that are most appropriate for each patient should be identified, by selecting interventions to correct-or at least attenuate-OA risk factors. We must also choose the interventions that are most likely to be acceptable to patients, to maximize adherence to-and persistence with...

  4. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    ; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus...... on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate......Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population...

  5. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blain, H.; Masud, T.; Dargent-Molina, P.

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest group on falls and fracture prevention of the European union geriatric medicine society (EUGMS...... of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (ECCEO), outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people....

  6. Nonpharmacologic treatment and prevention strategies for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Kristine; Hoang, Tina

    2013-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies can provide critical evidence to inform the timing and duration of nonpharmacologic interventions. Although more studies are needed to further determine long-term efficacy, the evidence supporting modifiable risk factors for prevention is compelling, and prevention strategies that incorporate multidomain nonpharmacologic factors may have the most impact. Epidemiologic studies have identified a number of promising nonpharmacologic factors that have the potential to lower the risk of developing dementia. Potential modifiable strategies for dementia prevention include cardiovascular risk factors; lifestyle risk factors such as physical, cognitive, and social activity as well as nutrition, smoking, and alcohol use; and sleep quality. Results of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors have not been consistent, while interventions that increase physical, cognitive, and social activity have demonstrated protective effects for dementia risk. Trials of single-nutrient dietary supplementation have also been conflicting, but focus on multinutrient supplementation shows promise. Observational data also indicate that sleep quality may be a modifiable risk factor for dementia prevention.

  7. Falls: epidemiology and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosenthal, A C; Livingston, D H; Elcavage, J; Merritt, S; Stucker, S

    1995-05-01

    Injury secondary to falls is a largely preventable public health problem. The records of 356 patients admitted following a fall to a level I trauma center over a 32-month period were reviewed to determine the epidemiology and to define possible prevention strategies. Falls constituted 9% of total trauma admissions during this time period and had a mortality of 11% (38 of 356). Two hundred ninety-seven falls were accidental, 36 were due to violent criminal behavior, 16 were from suicide attempts, and 7 were from house fires. Sixty-one children under the age of 13 fell; only one died. Falls out of windows accounted for 36% of these falls with over three-quarters of children falling from three stories or less. Elderly patients (age more than 64 years) accounted for only 44 (14%) of falls but over 50% of the deaths. This mortality rate occurred despite the fact that the majority of these falls were from relatively low heights. There were 224 adult falls (ages 18 to 64 years); 36% were occupation-related, and most were by construction workers, roofers, or painters. The remaining adult fall victims had a high rate of unemployment and alcohol and drug use. This study identified several groups where risk factors for falling permit targeted prevention strategies. A large percentage of children who fell were preschool males who fell from windows and this may be related to the lack of window guard legislation in our area.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Vaccines and immunization strategies for dengue prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Cheng, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is currently the most significant arboviral disease afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. Dengue vaccines, such as the multivalent attenuated, chimeric, DNA and inactivated vaccines, have been developed to prevent dengue infection in humans, and they function predominantly by stimulating immune responses against the dengue virus (DENV) envelope (E) and nonstructural-1 proteins (NS1). Of these vaccines, a live attenuated chimeric tetravalent DENV vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur has been licensed in several countries. However, this vaccine renders only partial protection against the DENV2 infection and is associated with an unexplained increased incidence of hospitalization for severe dengue disease among children younger than nine years old. In addition to the virus-based vaccines, several mosquito-based dengue immunization strategies have been developed to interrupt the vector competence and effectively reduce the number of infected mosquito vectors, thus controlling the transmission of DENV in nature. Here we summarize the recent progress in the development of dengue vaccines and novel immunization strategies and propose some prospective vaccine strategies for disease prevention in the future. PMID:27436365

  9. Vaccines and immunization strategies for dengue prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Jianying; Cheng, Gong

    2016-07-20

    Dengue is currently the most significant arboviral disease afflicting tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. Dengue vaccines, such as the multivalent attenuated, chimeric, DNA and inactivated vaccines, have been developed to prevent dengue infection in humans, and they function predominantly by stimulating immune responses against the dengue virus (DENV) envelope (E) and nonstructural-1 proteins (NS1). Of these vaccines, a live attenuated chimeric tetravalent DENV vaccine developed by Sanofi Pasteur has been licensed in several countries. However, this vaccine renders only partial protection against the DENV2 infection and is associated with an unexplained increased incidence of hospitalization for severe dengue disease among children younger than nine years old. In addition to the virus-based vaccines, several mosquito-based dengue immunization strategies have been developed to interrupt the vector competence and effectively reduce the number of infected mosquito vectors, thus controlling the transmission of DENV in nature. Here we summarize the recent progress in the development of dengue vaccines and novel immunization strategies and propose some prospective vaccine strategies for disease prevention in the future.

  10. Uncovering effective strategies for hearing loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Thais C.; Meinke, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health agencies, researchers and policy makers have recognized the need for evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce or prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. While many workplaces comply with legal or obligatory requirements and implement recommended interventions, few publications exist documenting the effectiveness of these actions. Additionally, some workplaces have discovered through their own processes, novel ways to reduce the risk of injury. Peer-reviewed information on the effectiveness of the many strategies and approaches currently in use could help correct weaknesses, or further encourage their adoption and expansion. The evaluation of intervention effectiveness would certainly contribute to improved worker health and safety. This need is particularly relevant regarding noise exposure in the workplace and hearing loss prevention interventions. In a 2006 review of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hearing Loss Research Program, the independent National Academies of Sciences recommended that NIOSH place greater emphasis on identifying the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention measures on the basis of outcomes that are as closely related as possible to reducing noise exposure and work related hearing loss (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11721). NIOSH used two different approaches to address that recommendation: the first one was to conduct research, including broad systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. The second was to create an award program, the Safe-In-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award™, to identify and honor excellent real-world examples of noise control and other hearing loss prevention practices and innovations. PMID:27397968

  11. Waste prevention strategy for 2007 in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahtala, R.M.; Blauberg, T.; Huu-htanen, S.R.S.; Kajaste, S.; Kemppainen, S.H.; Linsio, O.A.; Sten, S.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, the Board of Directors of Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council (YTV) accepted the Waste Prevention Strategy. The target is to utilise advice and guidance, so as to motivate the residents, enterprises and the public sector to avoid waste production, so that less waste will be produced per resident and workplace in 2007 than in 2000. The main parts to include: 1) Waste prevention in companies, concentrating on co-operation networks to be formed for different sectors and on information acquired and distributed with them, on the use of the waste benchmarking system maintained by YTV. 2) The waste prevention in public administration covers offices, acquisitions and social and health care. The process stared by ecologising YTV's own operations, and proceeds towards waste reduction models to be prepared and introduced in co-operation with the municipalities other regions. 3) The information service and awareness education is directed towards households and schools. An awareness campaign has and will be arranged foe households in order to spread information on the reduction of waste. Education material and methods has produced so far for senior high school and will be produced for primary school and pre-school and vocational institutions together with the authorities in order to promote waste prevention [it

  12. Academic Self-Presentation Strategies and Popularity in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Joan M.; Russotti, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined early adolescents' beliefs about which academic self-presentation strategies hypothetical hard-working, high-achieving students should use with popular peers, adolescents' own use of self-presentation strategies, and links between popularity and self-presentation strategies. In response to scenarios in which popular classmates…

  13. Community Peer-Led Falls Prevention Presentations: What Do the Experts Suggest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, Linda A M; Berlach, Richard G; Hill, Keith D; Hill, Anne-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Falls among older adults are a major problem. Despite considerable progress in falls prevention research, older adults often show low motivation to engage in recommended preventive strategies. Peer-led falls prevention education for older adults may have potential for bridging the research evidence-practice gap, thereby promoting the uptake of falls prevention strategies. We evaluated peer educators' presentations of falls prevention education to community-dwelling older adults in regard to established criteria that were consistent with adult learning principles, the framework of health behaviour change, falls prevention guidelines, and recommendations for providing falls prevention information. We conducted a within-stage mixed model study using purposive and snowball sampling techniques to recruit 10 experts to evaluate video recordings of the delivery of three peer-led falls prevention presentations. Each expert viewed three videos and rated them using a questionnaire containing both open-ended and closed items. There was a good level of expert agreement across the questionnaire domains. Though the experts rated some aspects of the presentations highly, they thought that the presentations were mainly didactic in delivery, not consistently personally relevant to the older adult audience, and did not encourage older adults to engage in the preventive strategies that were presented. Based on the experts' findings, we developed five key themes and recommendations for the effective delivery of peer-led falls prevention presentations. These included recommending that peer educators share falls prevention messages in a more interactive and experiential manner and that uptake of strategies should be facilitated by encouraging the older adults to develop a personalised action plan. Findings suggest that if peer-led falls prevention presentations capitalise on older adults' capability, opportunity, and motivation, the older adults may be more receptive to take up falls

  14. Fall prevention strategy in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muray, Mwali; Bélanger, Charles H; Razmak, Jamil

    2018-02-12

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to document the need for implementing a fall prevention strategy in an emergency department (ED). The paper also spells out the research process that led to approving an assessment tool for use in hospital outpatient services. Design/methodology/approach The fall risk assessment tool was based on the Morse Fall Scale. Gender mix and age above 65 and 80 years were assessed on six risk assessment variables using χ 2 analyses. A logistic regression analysis and model were used to test predictor strength and relationships among variables. Findings In total, 5,371 (56.5 percent) geriatric outpatients were deemed to be at fall risk during the study. Women have a higher falls incidence in young and old age categories. Being on medications for patients above 80 years exposed both genders to equal fall risks. Regression analysis explained 73-98 percent of the variance in the six-variable tool. Originality/value Canadian quality and safe healthcare accreditation standards require that hospital staff develop and adhere to fall prevention policies. Anticipated physiological falls can be prevented by healthcare interventions, particularly with older people known to bear higher risk factors. An aging population is increasing healthcare volumes and medical challenges. Precautionary measures for patients with a vulnerable cognitive and physical status are essential for quality care.

  15. Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population; select...

  17. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan A. Rather

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  18. Prevention and Control Strategies to Counter Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rather, Irfan A; Parray, Hilal A; Lone, Jameel B; Paek, Woon K; Lim, Jeongheui; Bajpai, Vivek K; Park, Yong-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is currently the highest and rapidly spreading vector-borne viral disease, which can lead to mortality in its severe form. The globally endemic dengue poses as a public health and economic challenge that has been attempted to suppress though application of various prevention and control techniques. Therefore, broad spectrum techniques, that are efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable, are proposed and practiced in dengue-endemic regions. The development of vaccines and immunotherapies have introduced a new dimension for effective dengue control and prevention. Thus, the present study focuses on the preventive and control strategies that are currently employed to counter dengue. While traditional control strategies bring temporary sustainability alone, implementation of novel biotechnological interventions, such as sterile insect technique, paratransgenesis, and production of genetically modified vectors, has improved the efficacy of the traditional strategies. Although a large-scale vector control strategy can be limited, innovative vaccine candidates have provided evidence for promising dengue prevention measures. The use of tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) has been the most effective so far in treating dengue infections. Nonetheless, challenges and limitation hinder the progress of developing integrated intervention methods and vaccines; while the improvement in the latest techniques and vaccine formulation continues, one can hope for a future without the threat of dengue virus.

  19. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Clinical presentation, epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuylen, Wendy J; Hamilton, Stuart T; Naing, Zin; Hall, Beverly; Shand, Antonia; Rawlinson, William D

    2014-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common congenital infection causing serious disease in infants. It is the leading infectious cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disability in developed countries. Despite the clinical importance of congenital cytomegalovirus, surveys show there is limited awareness and knowledge in the medical and general community about congenital cytomegalovirus infection. This article reviews the clinical features, global epidemiology, transmission and risk factors for cytomegalovirus infections. It also highlights several major advances made in recent years in the diagnosis and prevention of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy. Although research is ongoing, no therapy is currently proven to prevent or treat maternal, fetal or neonatal cytomegalovirus infection. Education of women regarding hygiene measures can help prevent cytomegalovirus infection and are currently the best strategy to prevent congenital cytomegalovirus disease.

  20. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: Clinical presentation, epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zuylen, Wendy J; Hamilton, Stuart T; Naing, Zin; Hall, Beverly; Shand, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is the most common congenital infection causing serious disease in infants. It is the leading infectious cause of sensorineural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental disability in developed countries. Despite the clinical importance of congenital cytomegalovirus, surveys show there is limited awareness and knowledge in the medical and general community about congenital cytomegalovirus infection. This article reviews the clinical features, global epidemiology, transmission and risk factors for cytomegalovirus infections. It also highlights several major advances made in recent years in the diagnosis and prevention of cytomegalovirus infection during pregnancy. Although research is ongoing, no therapy is currently proven to prevent or treat maternal, fetal or neonatal cytomegalovirus infection. Education of women regarding hygiene measures can help prevent cytomegalovirus infection and are currently the best strategy to prevent congenital cytomegalovirus disease. PMID:27512442

  1. Promising strategies for the prevention of dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Laura E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2009-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of dementia are expected to increase several-fold in the coming decades. Given that the current pharmaceutical treatment of dementia can only modestly improve symptoms, risk factor modification remains the cornerstone for dementia prevention. Some of the most promising strategies for the prevention of dementia include vascular risk factor control, cognitive activity, physical activity, social engagement, diet, and recognition of depression. In observational studies, vascular risk factors-including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity-are fairly consistently associated with increased risk of dementia. In addition, people with depression are at high risk for cognitive impairment. Population studies have reported that intake of antioxidants or polyunsaturated fatty acids may be associated with a reduced incidence of dementia, and it has been reported that people who are cognitively, socially, and physically active have a reduced risk of cognitive impairment. However, results from randomized trials of risk factor modification have been mixed. Most promising, interventions of cognitive and physical activity improve cognitive performance and slow cognitive decline. Future studies should continue to examine the implication of risk factor modification in controlled trials, with particular focus on whether several simultaneous interventions may have additive or multiplicative effects.

  2. Overweight and obesity interventions and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2015-09-01

    To determine what secondary schoolchildren in Jordan want from overweight and obesity intervention strategies and prevention programmes. A school-based, cross-sectional study using a quantitative design was carried out during October 2014. The participants were secondary schoolchildren in grades 11 and 12. Data were analysed using SPSS program version 17. Percentages, standard deviations and means were computed. The main suggestions were for programmes at school, during school hours (n=962, 85.4%), followed by one that involved family and friends (n=951, 84.5%), and a programme at a convenient time free of charge (n=919, 81.6%). The students also suggested many strategies to tackle overweight and obesity, such as: taking more physical exercise (n=925, 82.1%), increasing consumption of more fruit and vegetables (n=712, 63.2%) eating less fast food (n=689, 61.2%). Schools, families, health providers and community organisations should encourage students to adopt healthy lifestyles, and facilitate their selection and participation in health programmes.

  3. A Comprehensive Fracture Prevention Strategy in Older Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS......), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its...

  4. Suicide prevention strategies revisited: 10-year systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalsman, Gil; Hawton, Keith; Wasserman, Danuta; van Heeringen, Kees; Arensman, Ella; Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Höschl, Cyril; Barzilay, Ran; Balazs, Judit; Purebl, György; Kahn, Jean Pierre; Sáiz, Pilar Alejandra; Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Bobes, Julio; Cozman, Doina; Hegerl, Ulrich; Zohar, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Many countries are developing suicide prevention strategies for which up-to-date, high-quality evidence is required. We present updated evidence for the effectiveness of suicide prevention interventions since 2005. We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Library using multiple terms related to suicide prevention for studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2014. We assessed seven interventions: public and physician education, media strategies, screening, restricting access to suicide means, treatments, and internet or hotline support. Data were extracted on primary outcomes of interest, namely suicidal behaviour (suicide, attempt, or ideation), and intermediate or secondary outcomes (treatment-seeking, identification of at-risk individuals, antidepressant prescription or use rates, or referrals). 18 suicide prevention experts from 13 European countries reviewed all articles and rated the strength of evidence using the Oxford criteria. Because the heterogeneity of populations and methodology did not permit formal meta-analysis, we present a narrative analysis. We identified 1797 studies, including 23 systematic reviews, 12 meta-analyses, 40 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), 67 cohort trials, and 22 ecological or population-based investigations. Evidence for restricting access to lethal means in prevention of suicide has strengthened since 2005, especially with regard to control of analgesics (overall decrease of 43% since 2005) and hot-spots for suicide by jumping (reduction of 86% since 2005, 79% to 91%). School-based awareness programmes have been shown to reduce suicide attempts (odds ratio [OR] 0·45, 95% CI 0·24-0·85; p=0·014) and suicidal ideation (0·5, 0·27-0·92; p=0·025). The anti-suicidal effects of clozapine and lithium have been substantiated, but might be less specific than previously thought. Effective pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression are important in prevention. Insufficient evidence exists to assess the

  5. [Integrated prevention and control strategy for dengue in Mesoamerica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; San Martín, José Luis; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Dengue in the Americas is a public health problem in ascent. The control strategies have not been effective when sustained in the intensive use of insecticides and poor community participation. The Mesoamerican Initiative for the Prevention and the Integrated Control of Dengue synthesizes the works generated by the Integrated Strategy of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the risks stratification strategy designed by the countries of the Mesoamerican region. The objective is to progressively reduce the incidence of dengue cases until a 50% reduction is reached over a five years period. This document describes the elements for the risk stratification, the activities for prevention and control organized by levels of intensity and frequency and the indicators used to pursuit the objectives. To face the dispersion of the problem a concentration of efforts for control in the areas of greater risk is presented; the opportunity in the detection of cases is highlighted to tackle the fast dissemination of the infection; focus on the most productive breeding sites is proposed to battle against the vast dissemination of the breeding sites; and the severity of the infection must be addressed by capable clinical human resources. This strategy was designed along with the national representatives of the control programs to create master plans that provided the basis for the integrated prevention and control of dengue in the Mesoamerican region.

  6. Stomal Closure: Strategies to Prevent Incisional Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon L. Harries

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable. There is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that prophylactic mesh reinforcement may be of benefit to reduce the post stoma closure incisional hernia rate but a further large scale randomised controlled trial is due to report in the near future. There appears to be weak evidence to suggest that surgeons should favour circular, or “purse-string” closure of the skin following stoma closure in order to reduce the risk of SSI, which in turn may reduce incisional hernia formation. There remains the need for further evidence in relation to suture technique, skin closure techniques, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prescription focusing on incisional hernia development as an outcome measure. Within this review, we discuss in detail the evidence base for the risk factors for the development of, and the strategies to prevent ostomy reversal site incisional hernias.

  7. Stomal Closure: Strategies to Prevent Incisional Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Rhiannon L.; Torkington, Jared

    2018-01-01

    Incisional hernias following ostomy reversal occur frequently. Incisional hernias at the site of a previous stoma closure can cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life, lead to life-threatening hernia incarceration or strangulation and result in a significant financial burden on health care systems Despite this, the evidence base on the subject is limited. Many recognised risk factors for the development of incisional hernia following ostomy reversal are related to patient factors such as age, malignancy, diabetes, COPD, hypertension and obesity, and are not easily correctable. There is a limited amount of evidence to suggest that prophylactic mesh reinforcement may be of benefit to reduce the post stoma closure incisional hernia rate but a further large scale randomised controlled trial is due to report in the near future. There appears to be weak evidence to suggest that surgeons should favour circular, or “purse-string” closure of the skin following stoma closure in order to reduce the risk of SSI, which in turn may reduce incisional hernia formation. There remains the need for further evidence in relation to suture technique, skin closure techniques, mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotic prescription focusing on incisional hernia development as an outcome measure. Within this review, we discuss in detail the evidence base for the risk factors for the development of, and the strategies to prevent ostomy reversal site incisional hernias. PMID:29670882

  8. High School Teachers' Perceptions of Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Sterling; Heath, Melissa Allen; Coyne, Sarah Marie; Ferrin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses indicate that bully prevention programs produce minimal change in student behavior. This study examined 66 high school teachers' perceptions regarding the effect of cyberbullying on students, which intervening strategies teachers would use when dealing with cyberbullying, and which prevention strategies would assist in…

  9. Influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... Keywords: Faith-based organisations, HIV prevention strategies, systematic review. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i3.18. Cite as: Ochillo MA, Teijlingen EV, Hind M. Influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention strategies in Africa: a systematic review. .... Business Source Complete. 3. 12.

  10. Strategies for the prevention of sudden cardiac death during sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Drezner, Jonathan; Basso, Cristina; Pelliccia, Antonio; Thiene, Gaetano

    2011-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death of a young athlete is the most tragic event in sports and devastates the family, the sports medicine team, and the local community. Such a fatality represents the first manifestation of cardiac disease in up to 80% of young athletes who remain asymptomatic before sudden cardiac arrest occurs; this explains the limited power of screening modalities based solely on history and physical examination. The long-running Italian experience showed that electrocardiogram (ECG) screening definitively improves the sensitivity of pre-participation evaluation for heart diseases and substantially reduces the risk of death in the athletic field (primary prevention). However, some cardiac conditions, such as coronary artery diseases, present no abnormalities on 12-lead ECG. Moreover, cardiac arrest due to non-penetrating chest injury (commotio cordis) cannot be prevented by screening. This justifies the efforts for implementing programmes of early external defibrillation of unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest. This article reviews the epidemiology of sudden cardiac arrest in the athlete in terms of incidence, sport-related risk, underlying causes, and the currently available prevention programmes such as pre-participation screening and early external defibrillation by using automated external defibrillators. The best strategy is to combine synergistically primary prevention of sudden cardiac death by pre-participation identification of athletes affected by at-risk cardiomyopathies and secondary prevention with back-up defibrillation of unpredictable sudden cardiac arrest on the athletic field.

  11. Basketball Coaches’ Utilization of Ankle Injury Prevention Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    McGuine, Timothy A.; Hetzel, Scott; Pennuto, Anthony; Brooks, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ankle injuries are the most common high school basketball injury. Little is known regarding the utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies in high school settings. Objective: To determine high school basketball coaches’ utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies, including prophylactic ankle bracing (PAB) or an ankle injury prevention exercise program (AIEPP). Study Design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: The survey was distributed to all high school basketball coac...

  12. Strategies for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal

    2012-10-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the main causes of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in countries with restrictive abortion laws. In 2007, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) created a Working Group on the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences (WGPUA). This led to a FIGO initiative with that aim which has the active participation of 43 FIGO member societies. The WGPUA has recommended that the plans of action of the countries participating in the initiative consider several levels of prevention shown to have the potential to successfully reduce unsafe abortions: (1) primary prevention of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion; (2) secondary prevention to ensure the safety of an abortion procedure that could not be avoided; (3) tertiary prevention of further complications of an unsafe abortion procedure that has taken place already, through high-quality postabortion care; and (4) quaternary prevention of repeated abortion procedures through postabortion family planning counseling and contraceptive services. This paper reviews these levels of prevention and the evidence that they can be effective. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicide Prevention Strategies for Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Present and New Treatment Strategies in the Management of Glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    of RGCs. In this matter, recent approaches aim to rescue RGCs and regenerate axons in order to restore visual function in glaucoma. The present review seeks to provide an overview of the present and new treatment strategies in the management of glaucoma. The treatment strategies are divided into current...... risk factor for progression of the disease. However, it is clear that a significant number of glaucoma patients show disease progression despite of pressure lowering treatments. Much attention has been given to the development of neuroprotective treatment strategies, but the identification of such has...... been hampered by lack of understanding of the etiology of glaucoma. Hence, in spite of many attempts no neuroprotective drug has yet been clinically approved. Even though neuroprotection is without doubt an important treatment strategy, many glaucoma subjects are diagnosed after substantial loss...

  15. Sexual Violence on Campus: Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... org/ 2016/ 05/ sexual- assault- prevention- on- u- s- college- campuses- a- national- scan/ n Not Alone www. notalone. gov n CDC’s Report to the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual ... ...

  16. Prevent: A Fragmented Counter-Terrorism Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    pollination of Islamic extremism to Islamic terrorism, and an inability to promote progressive Muslim thought. Moreover, Prevent suffers from wider...Programs Robert F. Baumann, PhD The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student author and do not necessarily...cross pollination of Islamic extremism to Islamic terrorism, and an inability to promote progressive Muslim thought. Moreover, Prevent suffers from

  17. Self-determination and the use of self-presentation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Neighbors, Clayton

    2005-08-01

    The authors evaluated the relationships among individual differences in self-determination and self-presentation. The authors expected less self-determined individuals to report engaging in self-presentation strategies more frequently. To be more specific, the authors expected higher autonomy scores to be associated with the use of fewer self-presentation strategies, whereas they expected higher controlled and higher impersonal orientation scores to be associated with the use of more self-presentation strategies, but for different reasons. Participants (141 women, 111 men, 1 person of unreported gender) completed self-report measures of self-determination and self-presentation. The results indicated that higher autonomy scores were related to the use of fewer self-presentation tactics. Being more controlled was associated with engaging in more self-presentation across the board. Higher impersonal scores were primarily associated with engaging in strategies to gain assistance or prevent high expectations.

  18. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2011-01-01

    on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate...

  19. Sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakerveld, Brug J, Bot S, Teixeira P, Rutter H, Woodward E, Samdal O, Stockley L, De Bourdeaudhuij I, van Assema P, Robertson A, Lobstein T, Oppert JM, Adány R, Nijpels G., Jeroen; Robertson, Aileen

    2012-01-01

    and instead embrace system-based multi-level intervention approaches that address both the individual and environment. The EU-funded project “sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies” (SPOTLIGHT) aims to increase and combine knowledge on the wide range of determinants of obesity...

  20. Present and future strategies for neutrinoless double beta decay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The scope of this paper is not only to review the present results reached in the field by the different groups and technologies worldwide, but also to illustrate and comment on the (near and long-term) future strategies that experimentalists are trying to pursue to reach the needed sensitivity required to explore the inverted ...

  1. Present and future strategies for neutrinoless double beta decay ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. August 2010 physics pp. 271–280. Present and future strategies for neutrinoless double beta decay searches. C BROFFERIO. Physics Department ..... by one electron and the other, can be of extreme importance in the comprehension .... The idea is to read both the scintillation channel, with a light detector.

  2. Law Enforcement Strategies for Preventing Rail Trespassing Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Volpe Center has investigated law enforcement methods that have successfully prevented trespassing along the railroad right of way. The types of law enforcement strategies currently being used and procedures followed in the field are documented, ...

  3. Strategies to prevent oral disease in dependent older people (Protocol).

    OpenAIRE

    Brocklehurst, Paul; Williams, Lynne; Hoare, Zoe; Goodwin, Tom; McKenna, Gerry; Tsakos, Georgios; Chesnutt, Ivor G.; Pretty, Iain; Wassell, Rebecca; Jerkovic-Cosic, Katrina; Hayes, Martina; Watt, Richard G.; Burton, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows:To assess the effects and costs of primary, secondary and tertiary strategies to prevent oral disease in dependent older people.

  4. Strategies to prevent oral disease in dependent older people

    OpenAIRE

    Brocklehurst, P.; Williams, L.; Hoare, Z.; Goodwin, T.; Mckenna, G.; Tsakos, G.; Chestnutt, I. G.; Pretty, I.; Wassall, R.; Jerković-Ćosić, K.; Hayes, M.; Watt, R. G.; Burton, C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects and costs of primary, secondary and tertiary strategies to prevent oral disease in dependent older people.

  5. Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Judy A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant feeding strategies to prevent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness analysis of infant feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa. Mandy Maredza, Melanie Y Bertram, Haroon Saloojee, Matthew F Chersich, Stephen M Tollman, Karen J Hofman ...

  7. Preventing and Coping Strategies for Cyber Bullying and Cyber Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Erdinc Ozturk; Gizem Akcan

    2016-01-01

    Although there are several advantages of information and communication technologies, they cause some problems like cyber bullying and cyber victimization. Cyber bullying and cyber victimization have lots of negative effects on people. There are lots of different strategies to prevent cyber bullying and victimization. This study was conducted to provide information about the strategies that are used to prevent cyber bullying and cyber victimization. 120 (60 women, 60 men) university students w...

  8. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, HIV is having a devastating impact on young people. Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are unique challenges to implementing adolescent-friendly policies and HIV prevention programs. More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on ...

  9. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, HIV is having a devastating impact on young people. Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are unique challenges to implementing adolescent-friendly policies and HIV prevention programs. More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on ...

  10. Necessity of Rethinking about the Preventive Strategies of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Riasaty

    2017-01-01

    According to the last official statistics of national organization, there are nearly 220 million addicted people in the world until 2008. Therefore, it seems that addiction has become a scourge of the world which cannot be dealt with by countries alone. Generally, social damages prevention has priority over other methods, especially in addiction. We can see two approaches in this field: community based and risk-awareness preventive strategies.1‎ Obviously, prevention approaches are develop...

  11. Environmental Strategies for Prevention of Drug Use and Risks in Clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Holder, Harold D; Voas, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Environmental prevention strategies in club settings where music and dance events are featured could provide an important new arena for the prevention of drug use and other risky behaviors (e.g., sexual risk taking, intoxication and drug use, aggression, and driving under the influence). Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) occur in clubs that attract young, emerging adults (18-25 years of age) and attract individuals who engage in various types of drug use. Borrowing from the environmental prevention studies that focus on reducing alcohol use and related problems, a model for drug prevention in the club setting is proposed. Initially, an overview of the relationships between EMDEs and drug use and other risky behaviors are presented. Next, rationales for environmental strategies are provided. Finally, an environmental approach to prevention of drug use and risky behaviors in clubs is described. This comprehensive set of environmental strategies, is designed to be mutually supportive and interactive. Environmental strategies are believed to provide potential for developing an efficacious prevention strategy. The environmental prevention approach presented here is composed of three intervention domains: (1) Mobilization, (2) Strategies for the Exterior Environment, and (3) Strategies for the Interior Environment.

  12. Seeking HIV prevention strategies for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, S

    1993-05-01

    Women are biologically more susceptible to HIV infection than men through heterosexual penile-vaginal intercourse, and transmission by heterosexual means seems to be increasing. The use of male condoms and partner reduction are currently recommended to reduce the risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. Women can, however, only indirectly influence these behaviors. Many face social and emotional factors which make it impossible to negotiate condom use with an unwilling partner. Scientists are therefore paying greater attention to female barrier methods such as the female condom and spermicides as potential female- controlled ways to help women avoid infection. Noncontraceptive chemical methods in the form of jellies and topical creams are being explored. Limited in vivo scientific data exists on how these methods may prevent the transmission of HIV. The female condom is a thin, plastic sheath which covers the cervix, vagina, and women's external genitalia. It has gone to clinical trials in 1700 women at 71 sites. While many women are in favor of the method, objections to its use have been voiced due to its appearance, the noise made during intercourse, slippage, how it feels during intercourse, expense, reduced sensitivity, and embarrassment. Its potential for re-use must be explored. Only inconclusive results are available on the effectiveness of spermicides. While lab and animal research show nonoxynol-9 can kill HIV, it remains to be seen how much or how often it may be used before mucosal linings become irritated and potentially facilitate the entry of HIV. Many unresolved questions about the mechanics of HIV infection remain to be answered before these methods may be fully endorsed by a wide array of scientists.

  13. [Prevention of reinfarction: a global strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevi, G; D'Annunzio, E; Di Giovanni, P; Gallina, S; Di Fonzo, G; Manuppelli, V; Gorni, R; Barsotti, A

    1993-12-01

    Reinfarction occurs in approximately 10-20% of patients with acute myocardial infarction with an year incidence of about 3% for males and 9% for females. The reinfarction induces a worsen prognosis by producing arrhythmias and a new ventricular "remodelling" with an increase in sudden death and cardiogenic shock. The new event may occur, early or later, in regions either adjacent to or remote from the initial myocardial infarction. Among all the patients admitted to our coronary care unit (1181) during the last 6 years, the overall reinfarction rate was 11.4%; among these, 46% were in the same side (SSMI), while 54% in the distant side (DSMI). The SSMI occurred more often during early months after infarction, while the DSMI occurred significantly later. Cigarettes smoking has been shown to be a common and often the only risk factor in patients with early reinfarction; while arterial hypertension, mostly associated with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, was found the most important risk factor in later reinfarctions. SSMI was strongly related to one coronary vessel disease or to a double vessel disease (especially with interventricular artery and right coronary artery); while DSMI occurred in presence of triple coronary vessel disease involving secondary branches. The later SSMI is related to serious impairment of left ventricular function in 30% of patients, with cardiogenic shock and death evolution in 25%. The clinical trials for prevention of reinfarction showed that the correction of risk factors and the use of anticoagulation and/or antiaggregation therapy, beta-blockers or Ca(++)-antagonist drugs, must be chosen in relation to the myocardial damage related to previous infarct. In all the patients follow-up during the acute, subacute and chronic phases, must be performed by clinical and instrumental controls able to evidence the developing new cardiovascular events in order to decision making.

  14. Defending children's rights: an AIDS prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, A

    1993-12-01

    In Brazil, the murder of seven homeless children sleeping near a cathedral in the heart of Rio de Janeiro shocked the international community but came as no surprise to Brazilians who were aware of the risks faced by their country's approximately seven million street children. Now, in addition to the threat of violence and abuse, street children in cities around the world also face the danger of becoming infected with HIV. Estimates of seroprevalence in Rio range from 1.5% to 7.5%, and the children place themselves at risk by engaging in prostitution for survival as well as by having sex with each other. Their vulnerability is also increased by their use of inhalant drugs, which can lead to a loss of control. The Brazilian Center for the Defense of Children and Adolescents (CDCA), which has been working with street children since 1987, added HIV prevention to its mandate in 1989. CDCA gets each youth a birth certificate as a first step in building self-esteem. For a time, CDCA operated a permanent "drop-in" center that offered health treatment and counseling and provided special services to young transvestites and girls. Local authorities forced CDCA to close the center when the children began sleeping in its doorway (indicating that their primary need was for shelter). After the drop-in center closed, CDCA began identifying health professionals in governmental and nongovernmental clinics who agreed to treat the street children. In return, CDCA shares its resources with clinic staff. CDCA also encouraged the government to open its first shelters for the children and advised shelter staff on how to work with the children. In 1990, CDCA achieved legislation that requires the government to give the children access to free medical care, food, and shelter. This action has multiplied the number of youth who receive services and the number of professionals trained to work with them.

  15. Campus HIV Prevention Strategies: Planning for Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoban, Mary T.; Ottenritter, Nan W.; Gascoigne, Jan L.; Kerr, Dianne L.

    This document presents the results of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) that pertain to HIV transmission. These results include sexual assault, alcohol and other drug use, and sexual behaviors. The survey was administered to a nationally representative random sample of…

  16. Translation of biomedical prevention strategies for HIV: prospects and pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermund, Sten H; Tique, José A; Cassell, Holly M; Pask, Megan E; Ciampa, Philip J; Audet, Carolyn M

    2013-06-01

    Early achievements in biomedical approaches for HIV prevention included physical barriers (condoms), clean injection equipment (both for medical use and for injection drug users), blood and blood product safety, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. In recent years, antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of transmission (when the infected person takes the medicines; treatment as prevention) or reduce the risk of acquisition (when the seronegative person takes them; preexposure prophylaxis) have proven to be efficacious. Circumcision of men has also been a major tool relevant for higher prevalence regions such as sub-Saharan Africa. Well-established prevention strategies in the control of sexually transmitted diseases and tuberculosis are highly relevant for HIV (ie, screening, linkage to care, early treatment, and contact tracing). Unfortunately, only slow progress is being made in some available HIV-prevention strategies such as family planning for HIV-infected women who do not want more children and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Current studies seek to integrate strategies into approaches that combine biomedical, behavioral, and structural methods to achieve prevention synergies. This review identifies the major biomedical approaches demonstrated to be efficacious that are now available. We also highlight the need for behavioral risk reduction and adherence as essential components of any biomedical approach.

  17. [Prevention strategies for testicular and penile cancer: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Kelly Wanessa; dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Gomes, Isabelle Pimentel; de Carvalho, Emília Campos

    2011-03-01

    Testicular and penile cancers are genital disorders that affect a small part of population, but are generally aggressive mainly because of the dramatic psychological effect they impose over patients. The purpose of this study was to identify evidence concerning preventing strategies for the referred types of cancer. An integrative literature review was performed on the COCHRANE, PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF and CINAHL databases using the following controlled descriptors: health promotion, risk factors, primary prevention, and urogenital neoplasms; and uncontrolled descriptors: prevention, penile cancer, testicle cancer. The studies were unanimous in concluding that self-examination of testicles is the best way to identify a possible event of testicular cancer. Circumcision, prevention for sexual transmission diseases and adequate hygiene were the most important manners for penile cancer prevention. Nurses should assume the role for general and specific health promotion, considering the major impact it would have for prevention of diseases, especially for the urogenital cancers studied in this review.

  18. Humblebragging: A distinct-and ineffective-self-presentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Ovul; Gino, Francesca; Norton, Michael I

    2018-01-01

    Self-presentation is a fundamental aspect of social life, with myriad critical outcomes dependent on others' impressions. We identify and offer the first empirical investigation of a prevalent, yet understudied, self-presentation strategy: humblebragging. Across 9 studies, including a week-long diary study and a field experiment, we identify humblebragging-bragging masked by a complaint or humility-as a common, conceptually distinct, and ineffective form of self-presentation. We first document the ubiquity of humblebragging across several domains, from everyday life to social media. We then show that both forms of humblebragging-complaint-based or humility-based-are less effective than straightforward bragging, as they reduce liking, perceived competence, compliance with requests, and financial generosity. Despite being more common, complaint-based humblebrags are less effective than humility-based humblebrags, and are even less effective than simply complaining. We show that people choose to deploy humblebrags particularly when motivated to both elicit sympathy and impress others. Despite the belief that combining bragging with complaining or humility confers the benefits of each strategy, we find that humblebragging confers the benefits of neither, instead backfiring because it is seen as insincere. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yanikkerem

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364

  20. Basketball coaches' utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; Pennuto, Anthony; Brooks, Alison

    2013-09-01

    Ankle injuries are the most common high school basketball injury. Little is known regarding the utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies in high school settings. To determine high school basketball coaches' utilization of ankle injury prevention strategies, including prophylactic ankle bracing (PAB) or an ankle injury prevention exercise program (AIEPP). Cross-sectional survey. The survey was distributed to all high school basketball coaches in Wisconsin. Fisher exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to determine if the injury prevention strategies utilized differed according to school size, sex of the team, years of coaching experience, and the coach's education level. Four hundred eighty (55%) coaches from 299 (74%) high schools completed the survey. Thirty-seven percent of the coaches encouraged or required their players to use PAB. School enrollment of the coaches' teams did not affect their stance on the use of PAB (P = 0.30), neither did the sex of the team (P = 0.16), years coaching (P = 0.09), nor the coach's education (P = 0.49). Fifty percent (n = 242) of the coaches indicated they do not utilize an AIEPP, with no difference based on school enrollment (P = 0.47), team sex (P = 0.41), years coaching (P = 0.78), or the education level (P = 0.44). Barriers to utilization of AIEPP included a lack of time, awareness, and expertise. Coaches preferred an AIEPP that was specific to basketball, combined injury prevention and performance enhancement components, was performed 2 to 3 days per week, and lasted 5 to 15 minutes. Less than half of the coaches encouraged use of PAB, and half did not utilize an AIEPP. Coaches had specific preferences for the type of AIEPP they would implement. Sports medicine providers should promote ankle injury prevention strategies but need to address why prevention strategies may not be utilized in high school basketball settings.

  1. Dental caries: strategies to control this preventable disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man's most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm) metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth's resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: 'automatic', 'home care' and 'professional care': the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Dental caries is preventable - individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  2. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  3. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN TEACHING ENGLISH UNIVERSITY STUDENT: LECTURER PRESENTATION VERSUS STUDENTS PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Nur Wasiah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the students‘ perspective and to know which strategy is more preferred by the students and to know some benefits after implementing the two strategies. The subjects of the research were nineteen students of master degree program of State University of Semarang in the second semester. The instruments of the research were interview guidance, field notes and questionnaire. The data of the research were collected by doing observation, conducting interview, and giving questionnaire. The data were analyzed by using the triangulation technique. The result showed that there are 37% students who prefer lecturer presentation, 37% students who prefer students presentation and 26% students who prefer both of lecturer and students presentation. This research also found that the students got some benefits in increasing their motivation in learning English independently, increasing their knowledge, increasing their vocabulary mastery. In conclusion, the students preferred student presentation to increase their English skills and they preferred lecturer presentation to increase their knowledge.

  4. Mitigating concerns and maximizing returns: social media strategies for injury prevention non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-08-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  5. Treatment strategies for inherited optic neuropathies: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Wai-Man, P; Votruba, M; Moore, A T; Chinnery, P F

    2014-05-01

    Bilateral visual loss secondary to inherited optic neuropathies is an important cause of registrable blindness among children and young adults. The two prototypal disorders seen in clinical practice are Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA). About 90% of LHON cases are due to one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C, which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The majority of patients with DOA harbour pathogenic mutations within OPA1, a nuclear gene that codes for a multifunctional inner mitochondrial membrane protein. Despite their contrasting genetic basis, LHON and DOA share overlapping pathological and clinical features that serve to highlight the striking tissue-specific vulnerability of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer to disturbed mitochondrial function. In addition to severe visual loss secondary to progressive optic nerve degeneration, a subgroup of patients will also develop a more aggressive syndromic phenotype marked by significant neurological deficits. The management of LHON and DOA remains largely supportive, but major advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underpinning RGC loss in these two disorders are paving the way for novel forms of treatment aimed at halting or reversing visual deterioration at different stages of the disease process. In addition to neuroprotective strategies for rescuing RGCs from irreversible cell death, innovative in vitro fertilisation techniques are providing the tantalising prospect of preventing the germline transmission of pathogenic mtDNA mutations, eradicating in so doing the risk of disease in future generations.

  6. Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...

  7. Cancer in Nigerian Women: A Critical Need for Prevention Strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer in Nigeria is assuming an alarming proportion. Recent public awareness on common female cancer such as breast, cervix, liver etc has shown an upsurge of cancer in women. This study aims to describe common cancers in Nigerian women and highlight strategy for cancer prevention. All records of histologically ...

  8. Awareness and acceptability of strategies for preventing mother to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: Majority of the respondents (94.7%) were aware of transmission of HIV from an infected mother to her child. Respondents were more aware of the use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy (63.2%) than they were of avoiding breastfeeding (58.5%) and Cesarean delivery (22.8%) as strategies for preventing mother to ...

  9. Comparison of Two Educational Strategies in Teaching Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup-Benham, Christine A.; And Others

    This study assessed the impact of two educational strategies: text only versus text plus small group discussion, among two groups of third-year internal medicine clerkship students in a preventive cardiology course. The course was a required, 12-week Internal Medical clerkship at the University of Texas Medical Branch. The first group reviewed…

  10. [The new German prevention act: an effective strategy?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlichs, Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    The new German prevention act attempts to deal with the influx of obesity and chronic diseases by educating and informing. It seeks to change individual behaviour and supress lifestyle-related risk factors. In the past, however this behavioural prevention strategy has proved ineffective. A structural prevention strategy, as requested by the WHO, should additionally be put into effect with measures that reach all walks of life, not just the health-conscious people in society. It proposes the following: · At least one hour of daily physical activity or sport at school and kindergarten. · A differential food tax that makes unhealthy foods more expensive and healthy foods cheaper (taxing sugary / fatty foods). · Mandatory quality standards for kindergarten and school meals. · Banning food advertising targeted at children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Productivity savings from colorectal cancer prevention and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Cathy J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Yabroff, K Robin; Dahman, Bassam; Mariotto, Angela; Feuer, Eric J; Brown, Martin L

    2011-08-01

    Lost productivity represents a considerable portion of the total economic burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), but cost-effectiveness studies of CRC prevention and control have not included these costs and therefore underestimate potential savings from CRC prevention and control. To use microsimulation modeling study to estimate and project productivity costs of CRC and to model the savings from four approaches to reducing CRC incidence and mortality: risk factor reduction, improved screening, improved treatment, and a simultaneous approach where all three strategies are implemented. A model was developed to project productivity losses from CRC using the U.S. population with CRC incidence and mortality projected through the year 2020. Outcome measures were CRC mortality, morbidity, and productivity savings. With 2005 levels in risk factors, screening, and treatment, 48,748 CRC deaths occurred in 2010, amounting to $21 billion of lost productivity. Using prevention and treatment strategies simultaneously, 3586 deaths could have been avoided in 2010, leading to a savings of $1.4 billion. Cumulatively, by 2020, simultaneous strategies that reduce risk factors and increase screening and treatment could result in 101,353 deaths avoided and $33.9 billion in savings in reduced productivity loss. Improved screening rates alone led to nearly $14.7 billion in savings between 2005 and 2020, followed by risk factor reduction ($12.4 billion) and improved treatment ($8.4 billion). The savings in productivity loss from strategies to reduce CRC incidence and mortality are substantial, providing evidence that CRC prevention and control strategies are likely to be cost-saving. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies for dementia prevention: latest evidence and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh, Gopalkumar; Szabo, Steven T.; Alexopoulos, George S.; Zannas, Anthony S.

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a common and debilitating syndrome with enormous impact on individuals and societies. Preventing disease onset or progression would translate to public health and societal benefits. In this review, we discuss the latest evidence on interventions that may show promise for the prevention of cognitive decline. We appraise existing evidence primarily drawn from randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, but also highlight observational studies in humans and relevant work in model organisms. Overall, there is currently limited evidence to support a cause–effect relationship between any preventive strategy and the development or progression of dementia. However, studies to date suggest that a multifactorial intervention comprising regular exercise and healthy diet, along with the amelioration of vascular risk factors, psychosocial stress, and major depressive episodes may be most promising for the prevention of cognitive decline. We discuss the challenges, future directions, and implications of this line of research. PMID:28815009

  13. Therapeutic and prevention strategies against human enterovirus 71 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Chee Choy

    2015-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is the cause of hand, foot and mouth disease and associated neurological complications in children under five years of age. There has been an increase in HEV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region in the past decade, and it is predicted to replace poliovirus as the extant neurotropic enterovirus of highest global public health significance. To date there is no effective antiviral treatment and no vaccine is available to prevent HEV71 infection. The increase in prevalence, virulence and geographic spread of HEV71 infection over the past decade provides increasing incentive for the development of new therapeutic and prevention strategies against this emerging viral infection. The current review focuses on the potential, advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Since the explosion of outbreaks leading to large epidemics in China, research in natural therapeutic products has identified several groups of compounds with anti-HEV71 activities. Concurrently, the search for effective synthetic antivirals has produced promising results. Other therapeutic strategies including immunotherapy and the use of oligonucleotides have also been explored. A sound prevention strategy is crucial in order to control the spread of HEV71. To this end the ultimate goal is the rapid development, regulatory approval and widespread implementation of a safe and effective vaccine. The various forms of HEV71 vaccine designs are highlighted in this review. Given the rapid progress of research in this area, eradication of the virus is likely to be achieved. PMID:25964873

  14. Illness Among Paralympic Athletes: Epidemiology, Risk Markers, and Preventative Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Dina Christina; Schwellnus, Martin; Derman, Wayne; Webborn, Nick

    2018-05-01

    Paralympic athletes have unique preexisting medical conditions that predispose them to increased risk of illness, but data are limited to studies conducted during the last 3 Paralympic Games. This article reviews the epidemiology of illness (risk, patterns, and predictors) in Paralympic athletes and provides practical guidelines for illness prevention. The incidence rate of illness (per 1000 athlete-days) in Paralympic athletes is high in Summer (10.0-13.2) and Winter (18.7) Paralympic Games. The authors propose general and specific guidelines on preventative strategies regarding illness in these athletes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Organisational strategies to implement hospital pressure ulcer prevention programmes: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soban, Lynn M; Kim, Linda; Yuan, Anita H; Miltner, Rebecca S

    2017-09-01

    To describe the presence and operationalisation of organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programmes across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated health-care system. Comprehensive pressure ulcer programmes include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organisational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programmes. Data were collected by an e-mail survey to all chief nursing officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarise survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Organisational strategies that support implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention programme (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalised within individual hospitals. Organisational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programmes are often not optimally operationalised to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. The results of the present study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder: Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, Maria; Bonnin, Caterina del Mar; Torres, Imma; Varo, Cristina; Grande, Iria; Valls, Elia; Salagre, Estela; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade, there has been a growing appreciation of the importance of identifying and treating cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, since it persists in remission periods. Evidence indicates that neurocognitive dysfunction may significantly influence patients’ psychosocial outcomes. An ever-increasing body of research seeks to achieve a better understanding of potential moderators contributing to cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder in order to develop prevention strategies and effective treatments. This review provides an overview of the available data from studies examining treatments for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder as well as potential novel treatments, from both pharmacological and psychological perspectives. All these data encourage the development of further studies to find effective strategies to prevent and treat cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder. These efforts may ultimately lead to an improvement of psychosocial functioning in these patients. PMID:28498954

  17. Prevention of OHSS: Current strategies and new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano E. Busso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is an iatrogenic and potentially life threatening condition that affects young healthy patients. Many strategies have been proposed to prevent this syndrome. However, to avoid OHSS without compromising on IVF outcome is still a challenge. The most important action is to identify patients at risk even before ovarian stimulation is initiated and to give them special attention. Coasting is the most popular method to avoid/minimize OHSS. Cycle cancellation, cryopreservation, GnRH antagonists, GnRH agonists, i.v. albumin are other strategies that can provide some kind of benefit but do not completely avoid both early and late forms of OHSS and/or cannot be applied to every patient. Recent studies demonstrate that dopamine agonists can prevent or minimize OHSS without affecting IVF outcome but clinical protocols are not well established yet.

  18. Prevention strategies for ureteral stricture following ureteroscopic lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ureteral stricture formation after ureteroscopic lithotripsy is a late complication that can lead to hydronephrosis and a subsequent risk of renal deterioration. The specific incidence is unknown, and the mechanism of stricture formation has not been completely explained. In this review, we summarize the current evidence regarding the incidence of this condition and discuss its pathogenesis. We then list preventive strategies to reduce the morbidity of ureteral strictures. Keywords: Ureteroscopy, Ureteral stricture, Lithotripsy, Complications

  19. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111

  20. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-07-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse.

  1. Bifurcation analysis of vertical transmission model with preventive strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosalamang Ricardo Kelatlhegile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We formulate and analyze a deterministic mathematical model for the prevention of a disease transmitted horizontally and vertically in a population of varying size. The model incorporates prevention of disease on individuals at birth and adulthood and allows for natural recovery from infection. The main aim of the study is to investigate the impact of a preventive strategy applied at birth and at adulthood in reducing the disease burden. Bifurcation analysis is explored to determine existence conditions for establishment of the epidemic states. The results of the study showed that in addition to the disease-free equilibrium there exist multiple endemic equilibria for the model reproduction number below unity. These results may have serious implications on the design of intervention programs and public health policies. Numerical simulations were carried out to illustrate analytical results.

  2. Therapeutic strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle, Cristina; Donnarumma, Elvira; Fiore, Danilo; Briguori, Carlo; Condorelli, Gerolama

    2013-11-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) accounts for approximately 10% of all causes of hospital-acquired renal failure, causes a prolonged in-hospital stay, and represents a powerful predictor of poor early and late outcome. Here, we highlight endpoints used to assess major strategies to prevent CI-AKI. A general consensus exists on the beneficial prophylactic effect of hydration. This seems to act by increasing urine flow rate and, thereby, by limiting the time of contact between the contrast media and the epithelial tubular cells. On the contrary, both observational trials and randomized studies are often controversial in their conclusions on the efficacy of several drugs tested to prevent CI-AKI. Compounds evaluated include diuretics (furosemide), antioxidants (i.e., N-acetylcysteine and statins), and vasodilators (i.e., calcium antagonists, dopamine, and fenoldopam). Due to the negative and/or controversial clinical results, none of these drugs has been currently recommended to prevent CI-AKI. More reliable markers of acute kidney injury and new prophylactic strategies are warranted to prevent the incidence of CI-AKI.

  3. Coagulation factor XI vaccination: an alternative strategy to prevent thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, C; Zhang, L; Chen, L; Deng, L; Li, R

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Coagulation Factor (F) XI is a safe target for the development of antithrombotics. We designed an antigen comprising the human FXI catalytic domain and diphtheria toxin T domain. Antigen immunization reduced plasma FXI activity by 54% and prevented thrombosis in mice. FXI vaccination can serve as an effective strategy for thrombosis prevention. Background Coagulation factor XI serves as a signal amplifier in the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Blockade of FXI by mAbs or small-molecule inhibitors inhibits thrombosis without causing severe bleeding, which is an inherent risk of currently available antithrombotic agents. Objectives To design an FXI vaccine and assess its efficacy in inhibiting FXI activity and preventing thrombosis. Methods An FXI antigen was generated by fusing the catalytic domain of human FXI to the C-terminus of the transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin. The anti-FXI antibody response, plasma FXI activity and antithrombotic efficacy in mice immunized with the FXI antigen were examined. Results The antigen elicited a significant antibody response against mouse FXI, and reduced the plasma FXI activity by 54.0% in mice. FXI vaccination markedly reduced the levels of coagulation and inflammation in a mouse model of inferior vena cava stenosis. Significant protective effects were also observed in mouse models of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that FXI vaccination can serve as an effective strategy for thrombosis prevention. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  4. Primary Prevention and Screening Strategies for Colorectal Cancer: Which Strategy Should Take?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzón Florez, Carlos Eduardo; Vargas Barato, Felipe; Barriga, Juan Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore and define the utility of different strategies for primary prevention (ASA, diet, physical activity) and strategies of screening test (FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, etc.) for colorectal cancer. Data source: Databases consulted were MEDLINE (1966 to 2006), DARE (1980 to 2006), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Collaboration’s Registry of Clinical Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and LILACS. Study selection: Studies such clinical t...

  5. Design strategies for pollution prevention in industries (life cycle design)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleemi, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Pollution prevention and adoption of clean technologies in the industry are to be the proper strategies to flight against the growing industrial pollution in Pakistan. These strategies will not only reduce the existing pollution load and will also help to have sustainable industrial development in Pakistan in is well established that the concept of pollution prevention demands use of minimum, resources with maximum efficiency to achieve double benefits such as resource conservation and environmental protection. The application of cleaner production and waste minimization in thousand of industries in other part of world has proved beyond doubt that the use of cleaner technology is cheaper as compared to installation of waste treatment plants for end of pipe treatment. Waste treatment plants have been blamed not to solve any pollution problem, but only to transfer pollution from one environmental media to another. The adoption of waste treatment technologies have also created lot of other problems. Thousand of industries in the world have change their focus of activities from end of pipe treatment to pollution prevention techniques. It is the right time to start pollution prevention activities in industry. The design of a product system in the industry can be represented logically as a series of decision and choices made individually and collectively by design participant. The choices range from the selection of materials and manufacturing processes to choices relating to shape, from and function of a product. The product life cycle design provides a logical system for addressing pollution prevention because the full range of environmental consequence associated with the product can be considered and it is a powerful tool for identifying and maximizing the environmental benefits of pollution prevention. The life cycle assesment (LCA) concept suggests that decision making should be based on consideration of the cradle-to grave characteristics of the product, process

  6. Understanding the determinants and preventative strategies for high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The narrow external layer presents the main theme being addressed, i.e. school violence in South Africa and the various forms of violent behaviour being perpetuated by ... The second layer presents the two sub-themes, the determinants and preventive measures.

  7. Educational strategies for the prevention of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre Paulo; Lima, Bruno Muniz; Laureano, Monique Guilharducci; Silva, Pedro Henrique Bauth; Tardin, Giovanna Pereira; Reis, Paulo Silva; Santos, Joyce Sammara; Jácomo, Domingos; D'Artibale, Eliziana Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    The main goal of this work was to produce a review of educational strategies to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. PubMed database was consulted using combined descriptors such as [Prevention], [Educational Activities], [Diabetes], [Hypertension], and [Obesity]. Data from randomized trials published between 2002 and 2014 were included in spreadsheets for analysis in duplicate by the reviewers. A total of 8,908 articles were found, of which 1,539 were selected about diabetes mellitus (DM, n=369), arterial systemic hypertension (ASH, n=200), and obesity (OBES, n=970). The number of free full text articles available was 1,075 (DM = 276, ASH = 118 and OBES = 681). In most of these studies, demographic characteristics such as gender and age were randomized, and the population mainly composed by students, ethnic groups, family members, pregnant, health or education professionals, patients with chronic diseases (DM, ASH, OBES) or other comorbidities. Group dynamics, physical activity practices, nutritional education, questionnaires, interviews, employment of new technologies, people training and workshops were the main intervention strategies used. The most efficient interventions occurred at community level, whenever the intervention was permanent or maintained for long periods, and relied on the continuous education of community health workers that had a constant interference inside the population covered. Many studies focused their actions in children and adolescents, especially on students, because they were more influenced by educational activities of prevention, and the knowledge acquired by them would spread more easily to their family and to society.

  8. Educational strategies for the prevention of diabetes, hypertension, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paulo Machado

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The main goal of this work was to produce a review of educational strategies to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Method: PubMed database was consulted using combined descriptors such as [Prevention], [Educational Activities], [Diabetes], [Hypertension], and [Obesity]. Data from randomized trials published between 2002 and 2014 were included in spreadsheets for analysis in duplicate by the reviewers. Results: A total of 8,908 articles were found, of which 1,539 were selected about diabetes mellitus (DM, n=369, arterial systemic hypertension (ASH, n=200, and obesity (OBES, n=970. The number of free full text articles available was 1,075 (DM = 276, ASH = 118 and OBES = 681. In most of these studies, demographic characteristics such as gender and age were randomized, and the population mainly composed by students, ethnic groups, family members, pregnant, health or education professionals, patients with chronic diseases (DM, ASH, OBES or other comorbidities. Group dynamics, physical activity practices, nutritional education, questionnaires, interviews, employment of new technologies, people training and workshops were the main intervention strategies used. Conclusion: The most efficient interventions occurred at community level, whenever the intervention was permanent or maintained for long periods, and relied on the continuous education of community health workers that had a constant interference inside the population covered. Many studies focused their actions in children and adolescents, especially on students, because they were more influenced by educational activities of prevention, and the knowledge acquired by them would spread more easily to their family and to society.

  9. Coccidiosis in poultry: anticoccidial products, vaccines and other prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, H W; Landman, W J M

    2011-09-01

    Coccidiosis in chickens is a parasitic disease with great economic significance, which has been controlled successfully for decades using mainly anticoccidial products. However, large-scale and long-term use of anticoccidial drugs has led to the worldwide development of resistance against all these drugs. In order to minimize the occurrence of resistance, the rotation of various anticoccidial drugs in single and/or shuttle programmes is used. Unfortunately, this has not solved the anticoccidial resistance problem. Recently, live anticoccidial vaccines have been incorporated into rotation programmes, resulting in an increasing incidence of anticoccidial drug-sensitive Eimeria spp. field isolates, which may ameliorate the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs. Nevertheless, possible upcoming bans restricting the use of anticoccidials as feed additives, consumer concerns on residues and increasing regulations have prompted the quest for alternative coccidiosis control strategies. Although management and biosecurity measures could halt the introduction of Eimeria spp. to a farm, in practice they do not suffice to prevent coccidiosis outbreaks. Phytotherapy, aromatherapy and pre- and probiotics either show conflicting, non-consistent or non-convincing results, and have therefore not been applied at a large scale in the field. So far, live attenuated and non-attenuated anticoccidial vaccines have proved to be the most solid and successful coccidiosis prevention and control strategy. Despite the drawbacks associated with their production and use, their popularity is increasing. If with time, the immunogenicity of subunit vaccines can be improved, they could represent the next generation of highly efficient and low-cost anticoccidial strategies.

  10. Strategies for the prevention of autoimmune type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J A; Knip, M; Mathieu, C

    2011-10-01

    European experts on autoimmune Type 1 diabetes met for 2 days in October 2010 in Cambridge, to review the state-of-the-art and to discuss strategies for prevention of Type 1 diabetes (http://www-gene.cimr.cam.ac.uk/todd/sub_pages/T1D_prevention_Cambridge_workshop_20_21Oct2010.pdf). Meeting sessions examined the epidemiology of Type 1 diabetes; possible underlying causes of the continuing and rapid increase in Type 1 diabetes incidence at younger ages; and lessons learned from previous prevention trials. Consensus recommendations from the meeting were: 1. Resources such as national diabetes registries and natural history studies play an essential role in developing and refining assays to be used in screening for risk factors for Type 1 diabetes. 2. It is crucial to dissect out the earliest physiological events after birth, which are controlled by the susceptibility genes now identified in Type 1 diabetes, and the environmental factors that might affect these phenotypes, in order to bring forward a mechanistic approach to designing future prevention trials. 3. Current interventions at later stages of disease, such as in newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetes, have relied mainly on non-antigen-specific mechanisms. For primary prevention-preventing the onset of autoimmunity-interventions must be based on knowledge of the actual disease process such that: participants in a trial would be stratified according the disease-associated molecular phenotypes; the autoantigen(s) and immune responses to them; and the manipulation of the environment, as early as possible in life. Combinations of interventions should be considered as they may allow targeting different components of disease, thus lowering side effects while increasing efficacy. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  11. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  12. EDUCATIONAL ACTIONS TO PREVENT DENGUE: EXPERIENCES AND STRATEGIES WITH ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamaria Rodrigues Garcia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the activities performed on apublic specialized ambulatory care for dengue prevention among elderly. Case report: the epidemiological outlook of dengue is scaring being characterized as a public health problem. The elderly are most at risk for hospitalization and severe forms of the disease, thus health education activities are essential to improve awareness of the need to fight and prevent the disease. A Health Education project was created, evolving communication strategies to raise awareness on the issue. They were performed by a post graduate Gerontology group in activities such as interactive puppet show, myths and truths dynamic, informative folder, parody, posters, training seniors, caregivers and family members, internal and external health professionals, staff and residents of nearby long term care facilities. The materials were available in print and digital version. 2,500 elderly and 350 professionals were trained and encouraged to multiply the information and inspire adoption of preventive measures. The actions provided intergenerational interaction and empowerment of the elderly, whom trained, had the opportunity to exercise social participation and disseminate recommendations for other users. Conclusion: the project enabled the construction of knowledge through interactive educational activities that contributed to strengthen the individual and collective awareness, awareopinion leaderstothe importance of communication/education in the fight against dengue, which emphasized social responsibility in rescuing citizenship in a perspective thateach citizen is responsible for himself and for community. DESCRIPTORS: Dengue. Aged. Disease prevention. Health education.

  13. Positive strategies men regularly use to prevent and manage depression: a national survey of Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea S; McTigue, Isabel; Nathan, Sally; Whittle, Erin L; Christensen, Helen; Player, Michael J; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-11-16

    Men are at greater risk than women of dying by suicide. One in eight will experience depression--a leading contributor to suicide--in their lifetime and men often delay seeking treatment. Previous research has focused on men's use of unhelpful coping strategies, with little emphasis on men's productive responses. The present study examines the positive strategies men use to prevent and manage depression. A national online survey investigated Australian men's use of positive strategies, including 26 strategies specifically nominated by men in a previous qualitative study. Data were collected regarding frequency of use or openness to using untried strategies, depression risk, depression symptoms, demographic factors, and other strategies suggested by men. Multivariate regression analyses explored relationships between regular use of strategies and other variables. In total, 465 men aged between 18 and 74 years participated. The mean number of strategies used was 16.8 (SD 4.1) for preventing depression and 15.1 (SD 5.1) for management. The top five prevention strategies used regularly were eating healthily (54.2 %), keeping busy (50.1 %), exercising (44.9 %), humour (41.1 %) and helping others (35.7 %). The top five strategies used for management were taking time out (35.7 %), rewarding myself (35.1 %), keeping busy (35.1 %), exercising (33.3 %) and spending time with a pet (32.7 %). With untried strategies, a majority (58 %) were open to maintaining a relationship with a mentor, and nearly half were open to using meditation, mindfulness or gratitude exercises, seeing a health professional, or setting goals. In multivariate analyses, lower depression risk as measured by the Male Depression Risk Scale was associated with regular use of self-care, achievement-based and cognitive strategies, while lower scores on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was associated with regular use of cognitive strategies. The results demonstrate that the men in the study currently use, and

  14. Strategy for preventing the waste of human resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William E.

    1992-05-01

    Rapid technological advances and the declining educational preparedness of industrial workers has established a need for new training strategies and initiatives regarding human resource development. The productivity, competitiveness, motivation, and creativity of our people determines whether our business enterprises succeed or fail during the next decade. Due to a change process that many organizations have undertaken to become more competitive toward the year 2000, many of the previous styles of engineering leadership that involves the management of projects and human resources require new approaches. It is also important to recognize that technology has its limits and a broader focus to include the human aspects of accomplishing jobs over the long term is more critical than ever before. More autonomy and the responsibility for broader practices by the professional staff requires that the professional worker operate differently. Business planning and development of the organization's future strategic intent requires a high priority on the human resource linkage to the business plans and strategies. A review of past practices to motivate the worker toward higher productivity clearly shows that past techniques are not as effective in today's work environment. Many practices of organizational and individual leadership don't fit today's approach of worker involvement because they were designed for administrative supervisory control processes. Therefore, if we are going to organize a business strategy that prevents the `waste of human resources,' we need to develop a strategy that is appropriate for the times which considers the attitude of the employees and their work environment. Having worked with scientists and engineers for the majority of my twenty-five year career, I know they see and appreciate the logic of a formula. A formula fits when developing a future strategy because a formula can become a model to enhance balanced planning. In this paper, I want to

  15. Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, Rajesh V; Patton, Lauren L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis.

  16. Assessing implementation of evidence-based childhood obesity prevention strategies in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M.W. Totura

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Obesity prevention strategy implementation relies on the supportiveness and structure of school climates. Barriers to prevention can impede efforts despite school commitment toward prevention, while stakeholder collaboration can enhance the likelihood that practices are in place.

  17. Material and fabrication strategies for artificial muscles (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Geoffrey M.

    2017-04-01

    Soft robotic and wearable robotic devices seek to exploit polymer based artificial muscles and sensor materials to generate biomimetic movements and forces. A challenge is to integrate the active materials into a complex, three-dimensional device with integrated electronics, power supplies and support structures. Both 3D printing and textiles technologies offer attractive fabrication strategies, but require suitable functional materials. 3D printing of actuating hydrogels has been developed to produce simple devices, such as a prototype valve. Tough hydrogels based on interpenetrating networks of ionicially crosslinked alginate and covalently crosslinked polyacrylamide and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) have been developed in a form suitable for extrusion printing with UV curing. Combined with UV-curable and extrudable rigid acrylated urethanes, the tough hydrogels can be 3D printed into composite materials or complex shapes with multiple different materials. An actuating valve was printed that operated thermally to open or close the flow path using 6 parallel hydrogel actuators. Textile processing methods such as knitting and weaving can be used to generate assemblies of actuating fibres. Low cost and high performance coiled fibres made from oriented polymers have been used for developing actuating textiles. Similarly, braiding methods have been developed to fabricate new forms of McKibben muscles that operate without any external apparatus, such as pumps, compressors or piping.

  18. [Strategies for obesity prevention in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Souza, Rita Adriana de

    2008-01-01

    Few studies on treatment or prevention of obesity have shown significant results. Theoretically, in children and adolescents as compared to adults, prevention of excessive weight gain should be easy due to the energy expended during growth, associated with more time spent in leisure-time activities. However, numerous factors that stimulate overeating and sedentary behaviors are difficult to overcome. Additionally, most intervention studies have focused on a minor portion of the many factors associated with obesity. Important aspects of the obesity epidemic such as the role of the food industry, fast food chains, advertising, and a lifestyle that limits children to sedentary activities and overeating cannot be explored by a traditional clinical trial design. At any rate, among the published interventions, those including the family in weight-reduction strategies have shown the best results, as compared to children-centered approaches. Meanwhile, studies on specific nutrient or dietary composition (such as calcium, protein, or glycemic index) related to prevention or treatment of obesity have failed to yield good results. Reducing the intake of high-sugar carbonated drinks and juices has shown promising but still inconclusive results.

  19. Immunomodulatory strategies prevent the development of autoimmune emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraskauskiene Vita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of anti-endothelial cell antibodies and pathogenic T cells may reflect an autoimmune component in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Whether immune modulatory strategies can protect against the development of emphysema is not known. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were immunized with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC to induce autoimmune emphysema and treated with intrathymic HUVEC-injection and pristane. Measurements of alveolar airspace enlargement, cytokine levels, immuno histochemical, western blot analysis, and T cell repertoire of the lung tissue were performed. Results The immunomodulatory strategies protected lungs against cell death as demonstrated by reduced numbers of TUNEL and active caspase-3 positive cells and reduced levels of active caspase-3, when compared with lungs from HUVEC-immunized rats. Immunomodulatory strategies also suppressed anti-endothelial antibody production and preserved CNTF, IL-1alpha and VEGF levels. The immune deviation effects of the intrathymic HUVEC-injection were associated with an expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Pristane treatment decreased the proportion of T cells expressing receptor beta-chain, Vβ16.1 in the lung tissue. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that interventions classically employed to induce central T cell tolerance (thymic inoculation of antigen or to activate innate immune responses (pristane treatment can prevent the development of autoimmune emphysema.

  20. Dissecting antigen processing and presentation routes in dermal vaccination strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Henri, Sandrine; Zaiss, Dietmar M; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2017-01-01

    The skin is an attractive site for vaccination due to its accessibility and presence of immune cells surveilling this barrier. However, knowledge of antigen processing and presentation upon dermal vaccination is sparse. In this study we determined antigen processing routes that lead to CD8(+) T cell

  1. Online Series presents Cancer Prevention Through Immunomodulation. Does Diet Play a Role? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists are increasingly harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent cancer. Nutrition provides an opportunity for a generalized immune activation and reduction of cancer risk in certain populations. Research on several foods and bioactive food components as immunologic modulators is showing promising results. |

  2. Intangible and Economic Impacts of Hendra Virus Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S-J; Ward, M P

    2016-08-01

    Hendra virus (HeV), a potentially fatal zoonotic disease spread by flying foxes, to date has always infected humans via a spillover event from equine HeV infection. In a theoretical case study, we compared the impacts of two different HeV prevention strategies - vaccination and flying fox roost removal - using a recently developed framework that considers different stakeholder group perspectives. The perspectives of the four selected stakeholder groups regarding intangibles were inferred from public discussions and coverage in the media. For all stakeholder groups, the option to vaccinate horses was found to add value to the economic results when the intangible impacts were included in the analysis, while the option for roost removal unanimously detracted from economic analysis value when the intangible impacts were included. Both the mean and median stakeholder-adjusted value ratios (2.25 and 2.12, respectively) for vaccination were inflated when intangible impacts were included, by value-adding to the results of a traditional economic analysis. In the roost removal strategy, these ratios (1.19 and 1.16, respectively) were deflated when intangible impacts were included. Results of this theoretical study suggest that the inclusion of intangible impacts promotes the value of a two-dose initial vaccination protocol using a subunit vaccination considered to offer complete protection for horses, as a strategy to control HeV, whereas roost removal becomes an even more costly strategy. Outcome of the analysis is particularly sensitive to the intangible value placed on human health. Further evaluation - via sociological methods - of values placed on intangibles by various stakeholder groups is warranted. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Uranium exploration in India: present status and future strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maithani, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration for Uranium in India dates back to 1949, where surveys to locate atomic minerals were initiated in the well established Copper Thrust Belt (CTB) of Singhbhum, in the present day Jharkhand state. Based on the limited understanding on uranium geology, the thrust zones of Singhbhum which were popularly known for hosting Copper mineralization were targeted presuming sympathetic relation between Copper and Uranium. Exploration for uranium over the past six decades has resulted in identifying eleven major uranium deposits distributed in varied geological environs all over the country. Apart from conventional uranium mineralization, non-conventional resources like phosphorite, black shale etc. have immense potential. Even though their uranium grades will be of lower order, their uranium content will be huge due to their extensive size. In addition to intensifying uranium exploration in potential geological domains, AMD also plans to tap the non-conventional resources which will add substantially to the resource base

  4. Nonpharmacological Strategies to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweena Susantitaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI has been one of the leading causes for hospital-acquired AKI and is associated with independent risk for adverse clinical outcomes including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the studies that focus on nonpharmacological strategies to prevent CI-AKI, including routine identification of at-risk patients, use of appropriate hydration regimens, withdrawal of nephrotoxic drugs, selection of low-osmolar contrast media or isoosmolar contrast media, and using the minimum volume of contrast media as possible. There is no need to schedule dialysis in relation to injection of contrast media or injection of contrast agent in relation to dialysis program. Hemodialysis cannot protect the poorly functioning kidney against CI-AKI.

  5. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus: current strategies and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K. Bhattacharya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to find evidence for primary prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, and the feasibility of applying these interventions in resource limited countries. T2DM, which accounts for more than nine-tenths of all diabetics, results from inadequate insulin secretion or underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of diabetes, mainly T2DM, has increased rapidly during the last few decades worldwide. Since the genetic background is unlikely to change during this short time period, the growing epidemic of T2DM is more likely due to changes in environmental or lifestyle risk factors including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and stress. The scope and feasibility for primary prevention of T2DM is based on elimination of these risk factors. This evidence that T2DM is preventable comes from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials of effect of lifestyle changes and drugs in development of T2DM. The positive effects are more profound and safer with lifestyle modifications (LSM compared to medications. This is shown to be effective globally, across various ethnicities and races and sustainable on long-term follow-up. However, there is a major challenge in translating this evidence into economically viable and sustained community programs, as these LSM interventions are expensive, even from western standards point of view. Future plan should focus on health education of the public, improving the national capacity to detect and manage the environmental risks including strategies to reduce stress, and development of innovative, cost effective, and scalable methodologies.

  6. Obesity Prevention and Management Strategies in Canada: Shifting Paradigms and Putting People First.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arya M; Ramos Salas, Ximena

    2018-04-17

    The purpose of this study was to review public and private sector obesity policies in Canada and to make recommendations for future evidence-based obesity prevention and management strategies. Synthesis of obesity prevention and management policies and research studies are presented in three primary themes: (1) Increased awareness about the impact of weight bias and obesity stigma in Canada; (2) Inadequate government obesity prevention and management policies and strategies; and (3) Lack of comprehensive private sector obesity prevention and management policies. Findings suggest that in Canada, obesity continues to be treated as a self-inflicted risk factor, which affects the type of interventions and approaches that are implemented by governments or covered by private health plans. The lack of recognition of obesity as a chronic disease by Canadian public and private payers, health systems, employers, and the public, has a trickle-down effect on access to evidence-based prevention and treatment. Although there is increasing recognition and awareness about the impact of weight bias and obesity stigma on the health and social well-being of Canadians, interventions are urgently needed in education, healthcare, and public policy sectors. We conclude by making recommendations for the advancement of evidence-based obesity prevention and management policies that can improve the lives of Canadians affected by obesity.

  7. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  8. Present and future of desertification in Spain: Implementation of a surveillance system to prevent land degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Ibáñez, Javier; Del Barrio, Gabriel; Sanjuán, Maria E; Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Vicente, Silvio; Ruiz, Alberto; Puigdefábregas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Mitigation strategies are crucial for desertification given that once degradation starts, other solutions are extremely expensive or unworkable. Prevention is key to handle this problem and solutions should be based on spotting and deactivating the stressors of the system. Following this topic, the Spanish Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (SPACD) created the basis for implementing two innovative approaches to evaluate the threat of land degradation in the country. This paper presents tools for preventing desertification in the form of a geomatic approach to enable the periodic assessments of the status and trends of land condition. Also System Dynamics modelling has been used to integrate bio-physical and socio-economic aspects of desertification to explain and analyse degradation in the main hot spots detected in Spain. The 2dRUE procedure was implemented to map the land-condition status by comparing potential land productivity according to water availability, the limiting factor in arid lands, with plant-biomass data. This assessment showed that 20% of the territory is degraded and an additional 1% is actively degrading. System Dynamics modelling was applied to study the five desertification landscapes identified by the SPACD. The risk analysis, implemented on these models, concluded that 'Herbaceous crops affected by soil erosion' is the landscape most at risk, while the Plackett-Burman sensitivity analysis used to rank the factors highlighted the supremacy of climatic factors above socioeconomic drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fouling Issues in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs for Wastewater Treatment: Major Mechanisms, Prevention and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros K. Gkotsis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling is one of the most important considerations in the design and operation of membrane systems as it affects pretreatment needs, cleaning requirements, operating conditions, cost and performance. Given that membrane fouling represents the main limitation to membrane process operation, it is unsurprising that the majority of membrane material and process research and development conducted is dedicated to its characterization and amelioration. This work presents the fundamentals of fouling issues in membrane separations, with specific regard to membrane fouling in Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs and the most frequently applied preventive-control strategies. Feed pretreatment, physical and chemical cleaning protocols, optimal operation of MBR process and membrane surface modification are presented and discussed in detail. Membrane fouling is the major obstacle to the widespread application of the MBR technology and, therefore, fouling preventive-control strategies is a hot issue that strongly concerns not only the scientific community, but industry as well.

  10. Current strategies for preventing renal dysfunction in patients with heart failure: a heart failure stage approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Victor Sarli; Andrade, Lúcia; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is common during episodes of acute decompensated heart failure, and historical data indicate that the mean creatinine level at admission has risen in recent decades. Different mechanisms underlying this change over time have been proposed, such as demographic changes, hemodynamic and neurohumoral derangements and medical interventions. In this setting, various strategies have been proposed for the prevention of renal dysfunction with heterogeneous results. In the present article, we review and discuss the main aspects of renal dysfunction prevention according to the different stages of heart failure. PMID:23644863

  11. [Social marketing: applying commercial strategies to the prevention of nosocomial infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Hugo; Longtin, Yves; Alvarez-Ceyssat, Raymonde; Bonfillon, Chantal; Cavallero, Sabrina; Dayer, Pierre; Ginet, Claude; Herrault, Pascale

    2009-04-01

    Although a large proportion of healthcare-associated infections are avoidable, healthcare workers do not always practice evidence-based preventive strategies. Marketing technologies might help to improve patient safety. This article presents the basic principles of marketing and its potential use to promote good infection control practices. The marketing mix (Product, Price, Place, and Promotion) should be taken into account to induce behaviour change. By placing the emphasis on the perceived "profits" for healthcare workers the approach might lose its moral aspect and gain in effectiveness. VigiGerme, a non-commercial registered trademark, applies social marketing techniques to infection control and prevention.

  12. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Advancing prevention research on child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence: emerging strategies and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B

    2004-03-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves.

  14. [Congenital toxoplasmosis: randomised comparison of strategies for retinochoroiditis prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Martine; Kieffer, François; Binquet, Christine; Thulliez, Philippe; Garcia-Méric, Patricia; Dureau, Pascal; Franck, Jacqueline; Peyron, François; Bonnin, Alain; Villena, Isabelle; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Gouyon, Jean-Bernard; Masson, Sandrine; Félin, Alexandrin; Cornu, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In France, children with confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis receive a treatment for a period of 12 to 24 months. Such prolonged treatment may generate potentially severe risks, in particular hematologic and cutaneous. Our objective is to compare the effectiveness of two therapeutic strategies on the prevention of retinochoroiditis by a randomized, non-inferiority, open-label, parallel study including 486 children, 3 to 6 months of age with a non-severe form of congenital toxoplasmosis. Following randomization, pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment is initiated for a period of three months, followed by a treatment with Fansidar(®) for 9 months, or therapeutic abstention. Follow-up visits during a two-year period will include an examination of the eye, a blood test, and questionnaires to evaluate the children's quality of life and their parents' anxiety. Confirming the non-inferiority of the effectiveness of a short-term treatment will improve the quality of life of parents and children. © 2011 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease: links and prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745

  16. Complications of thoracentesis: incidence, risk factors, and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Eric P; Walter, James M; Corbridge, Thomas; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-01

    Although thoracentesis is generally considered safe, procedural complications are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. In this article, we review the risk factors and prevention of the most common complications of thoracentesis including pneumothorax, bleeding (chest wall hematoma and hemothorax), and re-expansion pulmonary edema. Recent data support the importance of operator expertise and the use of ultrasound in reducing the risk of iatrogenic pneumothorax. Although coagulopathy or thrombocytopenia and the use of anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications have traditionally been viewed as contraindications to thoracentesis, new evidence suggests that patients may be able to safely undergo thoracentesis without treating their bleeding risk. Re-expansion pulmonary edema, a rare complication of thoracentesis, is felt to result in part from the generation of excessively negative pleural pressure. When and how to monitor changes in pleural pressure during thoracentesis remains a focus of ongoing study. Major complications of thoracentesis are uncommon. Clinician awareness of risk factors for procedural complications and familiarity with strategies that improve outcomes are essential components for safely performing thoracentesis.

  17. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claudi, R.

    1998-01-01

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the external structures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  18. Prevention and control of zebra mussels: proactive and reactive strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudi, R. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Most plant people would agree that having zebra mussels in any raw water system is not desirable. System blockage, loss of heat transfer and other associated safety hazards are not pleasant to deal with. Therefore most industries strive to minimise the effect of infestation. Opinions differ as to how to do this most efficiently and economically. Some facilities are committed to preventing the settlement of veligers in their piping systems and on some of the externalstructures they consider critical. This is the proactive approach. Others allow settlement and only treat the system or surface after fouling has occurred. This is the reactive approach. Which is the best and most economical treatment will depend on the individual facility and sometimes on the individual system. The paper examines the different proactive and reactive strategies available to-date and how they are being used. It will also discuss some of the criteria for choosing a proactive vs. reactive approach and why the decision has to be made individually by each facility. (author)

  19. The Relationship of Abortion and Violence Against Women: Violence Prevention Strategies and Research Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.

  20. Necessity of Rethinking about the Preventive Strategies of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riasaty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the last official statistics of national organization, there are nearly 220 million addicted people in the world until 2008. Therefore, it seems that addiction has become a scourge of the world which cannot be dealt with by countries alone. Generally, social damages prevention has priority over other methods, especially in addiction. We can see two approaches in this field: community based and risk-awareness preventive strategies.1‎ Obviously, prevention approaches are developed on theoretical basis. Some of the theories on which the first strategy is based are as follows: Talkot Parsons had the opinion that if social institutions like family, school and media don’t have proper functioning, the society will be suffering from the ravages and it will be deviant. Travis Hirsch’s social control theory is generally based on the Durkheim’s social cohesion. Social control theory, instead of focusing on the main causes of social deviations, focuses on the explanation of the need to avoid criminal activities: interest, obligation, partnership, and belief. Sutherland believes that more criminal behaviors prevail among the first groups, such as peer groups. Delinquency primarily takes place through social interaction with intimate groups. One of the important theories was suggested by Lyder. He combined theories of sociology and social psychology. He processed the difficulty of distinguishing individual and social fields; the concept of a bio-psycho refers to the “personality as a unique individual identity who immersed in social processes”. Various elements such as mental bio-psycho, social reality of social domain theory and bio-psychological domain will be used in developing a prevention program which is based on social harms of this theory.2,3 On the other hand,‎ awareness-raising approaches are developed on the basis of theories such as “Rational Choice Theory”, “Value-Rational Action”, “Health Belief Model”, and

  1. [Composite prevention strategy for shoulder dystocia: meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaowei; Zhao, Xiaodong; Chu, Defa; Li, Min; Liang, Lin; Zhang, Junrong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the composite prevention strategy for shoulder dystocia. The published articles of randomized controlled trial (RCT) of comparison about the prevention of shoulder dystocia were searched in PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO databases and Cochrane Library, and these studies were screened under inclusion and exclusion criteria. The quality of included studies were evaluated. And the Meta-analysis using statistic software RevMan 5.1 was completed. Totally 16 articles, all English published with no one Chinese article being searched out, were included in this analysis, published from 1993 to 2009. ( 1)To the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients, reviewed from 2 articles, it was found that the incidence of shoulder dystocia was reduced significantly by prenatal intervention versus usual care (OR = 0.40, 95% CI:0.21- 0.75, P = 0.004). (2)To the GDM patients with intensive prenatal intervention, reviewed form 5 articles, it was found that the incidence of shoulder dystocia was reduced significantly by intensive intervention(diet control combined with insulin if necessary)versus less intensive intervention (only diet control), OR = 0.29 (95%CI:0.11-0.73, P = 0.009). (3) To the non-GDM patients with suspected macrosomia, reviewed from 4 articles, it was found that the incidence of shoulder dystocia was not reduced by early artificial induction of parturition (OR = 0.85, 95%CI:0.41-1.75, P = 0.660). (4)To the GDM patients, reviewed form 2 articles, it was found that the incidence of shoulder dystocia was reduced marginal significantly by artificial induction of parturition in 38-39 gestational weeks compared with all spontaneous parturition patients (OR = 0.18, 95%CI:0.03-0.97, P = 0.050) and significantly reduced when compared with those spontaneous parturition patients after 40 gestational weeks (OR = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.02-0.75, P = 0.020). (5)To the GDM patients with suspected macrosomia, reviewed from only one article, it was found that the incidence of shoulder

  2. Estrategia educativa para el control y prevención del maltrato infantil dirigida a padres de niños con síndrome de Down Educational strategy for control and prevention of infantile maltreatment aimed to parents of children presenting with Dow's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Pineda Pérez

    2011-03-01

    the "Zunzún" nursery school there are children with Dow's syndrome and some of them have suffered some way of maltreatment caused by a family's member, thus, we made present research to know some characteristics of the child family environment, information on different ways of maltreatment known by family and to try to eliminate it after application of the designed educational strategy. METHOD. An educational intervention with a before-after design applied in 28 parents (24 mothers and 4 fathers; a progenitor by child of children with Down's syndrome going to this institution. It had three phases and the application of three workshops. RESULTS. Most of parents recognized to have some information on this subject. Some associated risk factors were detected. Before workshops the maltreatment ways generally know by parents were the physical and sexual maltreatment; the actions inciting to infantile maltreatment included the failure to fulfill orders and other related to sexuality. After workshops the parent's knowledge improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS. The workshops were a significant educational strategy for a great knowledge of parents on the infantile maltreatment and its associated risk factors. Also, there was improvement in the possibility of families to control and to prevent the maltreatment. These strategies may be used for a harmonic education of parents of these children and they may be spread to other institutions where Down's children are treated or with specific adaptations to centers where handicapped children assist.

  3. Reviewing the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawattananon Yot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following universal access to antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, evidence from National AIDS Spending Assessment indicates a decreasing proportion of expenditure on prevention interventions. To prompt policymakers to revitalize HIV prevention, this study identifies a comprehensive list of HIV/AIDs preventive interventions that are likely to be effective and cost-effective in Thailand. Methods A systematic review of the national and international literature on HIV prevention strategies from 1997 to 2008 was undertaken. The outcomes used to consider the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions were changes in HIV risk behaviour and HIV incidence. Economic evaluations that presented their results in terms of cost per HIV infection averted or cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained were also included. All studies were assessed against quality criteria. Results The findings demonstrated that school based-sex education plus life-skill programs, voluntary and routine HIV counselling and testing, male condoms, street outreach programs, needle and syringe programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, male circumcision, screening blood products and donated organs for HIV, and increased alcohol tax were all effective in reducing HIV infection among target populations in a cost-effective manner. Conclusion We found very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions amongst specific high risk populations. This underlines the urgent need to prioritise health research resources to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups in Thailand.

  4. Reviewing the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention strategies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaphesaj, Juntana; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2010-07-07

    Following universal access to antiretroviral therapy in Thailand, evidence from National AIDS Spending Assessment indicates a decreasing proportion of expenditure on prevention interventions. To prompt policymakers to revitalize HIV prevention, this study identifies a comprehensive list of HIV/AIDs preventive interventions that are likely to be effective and cost-effective in Thailand. A systematic review of the national and international literature on HIV prevention strategies from 1997 to 2008 was undertaken. The outcomes used to consider the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions were changes in HIV risk behaviour and HIV incidence. Economic evaluations that presented their results in terms of cost per HIV infection averted or cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained were also included. All studies were assessed against quality criteria. The findings demonstrated that school based-sex education plus life-skill programs, voluntary and routine HIV counselling and testing, male condoms, street outreach programs, needle and syringe programs, programs for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, male circumcision, screening blood products and donated organs for HIV, and increased alcohol tax were all effective in reducing HIV infection among target populations in a cost-effective manner. We found very limited local evidence regarding the effectiveness of HIV interventions amongst specific high risk populations. This underlines the urgent need to prioritise health research resources to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV interventions aimed at reducing HIV infection among high risk groups in Thailand.

  5. A qualitative study of rural black adolescents' perspectives on primary STD prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Aletha Y; Gold, Melanie A; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2012-06-01

    Primary STD prevention relies on five key strategies: practicing abstinence, choosing low-risk partners, discussing partners' sexual history, using condoms consistently and not having multiple partners. Few studies have examined all of these strategies simultaneously, and few have focused on rural black adolescents, whose rates of early sexual initiation and STDs are among the highest in the nation. In 2006, a sample of 37 black adolescents (20 female, 17 male) from two rural North Carolina counties participated in focus groups that explored their understanding of how primary prevention strategies reduce STD transmission, the common barriers they encounter in trying to adopt these strategies and the risk reduction strategies that they employ. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Adolescents understood how primary prevention strategies reduce STD transmission. However, they perceived sex as normal and abstinence as unlikely during adolescence. Furthermore, they considered the remaining primary prevention strategies difficult to implement because these strategies depend on partner cooperation and incorrectly assume that STD prevention is paramount when adolescents make sexual decisions. Adolescents reported using alternative strategies to reduce their STD risk; the most commonly used approaches were indirect assessments of partner characteristics (e.g., evaluating partners' physical appearance and sexual history) and STD testing (to identify and treat infections). Adolescents try to reduce their STD risk, but do so by using ineffective practices. Promoting primary prevention strategies requires helping adolescents to identify opportunities to successfully employ these strategies. Copyright © 2012 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  6. Considerations for biomarker-targeted intervention strategies for tuberculosis disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore-Gartland, Andrew; Carpp, Lindsay N; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Thompson, Ethan; Zak, Daniel E; Self, Steve; Churchyard, Gavin; Walzl, Gerhard; Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Scriba, Thomas J; Hatherill, Mark

    2018-03-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection have low prognostic specificity for identifying individuals who will develop tuberculosis (TB) disease, making mass preventive therapy strategies targeting all MTB-infected individuals impractical in high-burden TB countries. Here we discuss general considerations for a risk-targeted test-and-treat strategy based on a highly specific transcriptomic biomarker that can identify individuals who are most likely to progress to active TB disease as well as individuals with TB disease who have not yet presented for medical care. Such risk-targeted strategies may offer a rapid, ethical and cost-effective path towards decreasing the burden of TB disease and interrupting transmission and would also be critical to achieving TB elimination in countries nearing elimination. We also discuss design considerations for a Correlate of Risk Targeted Intervention Study (CORTIS), which could provide proof-of-concept for the strategy. One such study in South Africa is currently enrolling 1500 high-risk and 1700 low-risk individuals, as defined by biomarker status, and is randomizing high-risk participants to TB preventive therapy or standard of care treatment. All participants are monitored for progression to active TB with primary objectives to assess efficacy of the treatment and performance of the biomarker. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. POLLUTION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR THE MINIMIZING OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES IN THE VCM-PVC INDUSTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many U.S. companies, pollution prevention strategies coincide with economic interests. Typically a company strives to be the lowest-cost producer, to be competitive, and to reduce wastes. In this paper, the author reviews pollution prevention strategies in the vinyl chloride m...

  8. Alcohol Prevention Strategies on College Campuses and Student Alcohol Abuse and Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…

  9. A Bioterrorism Prevention Strategy for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-19

    several sections from the following two articles: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “ Biological and Chemical Terrorism : Strategic Plan for...2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “ Biological and Chemical Terrorism : Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response. Recommendations of

  10. [Health issues and preventive health strategies for adolescent girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Chao, Fen-Hao; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2009-12-01

    As adolescent girls have specific healthcare needs, this paper was designed to provide a better understanding of their healthcare needs in both physical and psychosocial terms. After conducting a targeted review of the literature on children and adolescents, we identified factors of importance to physical health as body weight, physical activity, menstruation, sexual knowledge and attitude and to psychosocial health as anxiety, interpersonal relationships, depression, and suicide behavior. Reflecting these factors, this paper presents four preventive suggestions to clinical practice, education, and research to facilitate improvements in adolescent girl's health. These suggestions include: 1) strengthening health education and media responsibility with regard to adolescent girl health; 2) improving awareness of the needs of adolescent girls within healthcare and education organizations; 3) making health guidelines for promoting proper health behavior in adolescent girls; and 4) mobilizing nurses to assert the health of adolescent girls in clinical, education, and research fields. This is the first paper that focuses on the health needs of adolescent Taiwanese girls. The authors hope that more people become involved in the care of adolescent girl's health in Taiwan.

  11. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hazardous health effects of smoking and second hand smoke have been confirmed in numerous studies. For Germany, the mortality attributable to smoking is estimated at 110,000 to 140,000 deaths per year, associated with annual smoking-related costs of 17 to 21 billion euro. Because the majority of smokers initiate this habit early in life, behavioural preventive strategies usually tried to prevent the uptake of smoking among children and youths. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to summarise the current literature on behavioural strategies for smoking prevention and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of smoking prevention programs. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the reliability of results in the German context. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI. In addition a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between August 2001 and August 2006 targeting youths up to 18 years old. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: Among 3,580 publications 37 medical studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality was satisfactory but only half the studies reported smoking uptake as an outcome, while the remaining studies reported alternative outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varied between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of prevention programs showed considerable heterogeneity, there was evidence for the long-term effectiveness of behavioural smoking prevention programs. However, the

  12. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  13. Methods and Strategies for Overvoltage Prevention in Low Voltage Distribution Systems with PV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    to handle a high share of PV power. This paper provides an in-depth review of methods and strategies proposed to prevent overvoltage in LV grids with PV, and discusses the effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages of them in detail. Based on the mathematical framework presented in the paper......, the overvoltage caused by high PV penetration is described, solutions to facilitate higher PV penetration are classified, and their effectiveness, advantages, and disadvantages are illustrated. The investigated solutions include the grid reinforcement, electrical energy storage application, reactive power...

  14. the evolution of strategy: thinking war from antiquity to the present

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    The Evolution of Strategy: Thinking War from Antiquity to the Present is another welcome addition to the field of War Studies with its particular focus on strategy. The publication adds to a growing body of literature that explores new historical sources to anchor the theoretical departure of the work further, and attends.

  15. "Healthy Eating - Healthy Action": evaluating New Zealand's obesity prevention strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuvasa Ausaga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous Māori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA Strategy ('the Strategy', launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. Methods This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement, to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. Discussion This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations.

  16. Can GWOT Primary Prevention Strategy More Effectively Impede Religious Extremism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyers, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    .... This concept, when related to the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) in the Middle East, provides insights on the current strategy's effort and effectiveness in staying ahead of religious extremism expansion. Current U.S...

  17. Counterproliferation Strategy: The Role of Preventive War, Preventive Strikes, and Interdiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rak, Claire

    2003-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the potential effectiveness of preventive war, preventive strikes, and interdiction as tools for the United States to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  18. Who Am I? Identity and the Facilitation of Local Youth Lives within Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality education as an HIV prevention strategy is positioned as a way to empower youth in relation to their sexual identities and behaviours. While the youth subject is recognized as complex, the underlying premise is that identity can be targeted "through" sexuality education. In this paper, I present data from an ethnographic…

  19. RT-ABCDE strategy for management and prevention of human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-song

    2008-06-01

    In this article, the authors summarized the RT-ABCDE strategy for the management and prevention of human diseases, which includes ReTro-ABCDE (Examination regularity, Disease and risk factor control, Changing lifestyle and reducing pathways of infection and spread, Biochemical and Antagonistic index control and therapeutic treatment as well as RT--Routine and Right Treatment). The RT-ABCDE strategy, a novel concept and an essential method, should be a routine strategy for disease control and prevention. It should be proposed and applied in both clinical and preventive medicine.

  20. Falls in older people: risk factors and strategies for prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lord, Stephen R. (Stephen Ronald)

    2007-01-01

    ... on visual, neuropsychological and medical risk factors. The book also reviews the numerous new randomized controlled trials that have examined the effects of exercise, visual, cardiovascular and environmental interventions in preventing falls. The new edition will be an invaluable update for medical practitioners, physiotherapists, occupational therap...

  1. Educators' perceptions on bullying prevention strategies | de Wet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I rep ort on an inve stigatio n into a group of Free State educators' recognition of bullying, their reaction s to incidences of b ullying, and the ir perceptions of the effectiveness of a number o f bul lying prevention s trategies. The research instrument was a synthesis of the Delaware Research Questionnaire and questions ...

  2. Snip and prevent! Medically performed circumcision – a strategy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male circumcision has been practised for thousands of years as part of a religious ceremony shortly after birth, as a traditional 'coming of age' at puberty in some cultures and as a medical procedure to prevent urinary tract and sexually transmitted infections, and for the treatment of phimosis. Simply put, male circumcision is ...

  3. Environmental Strategies to Prevent Alcohol Problems on College Campuses. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol problems on campuses cannot be solved with simple solutions, such as an alcohol awareness campaign. Instead, dangerous college drinking can be prevented with an array of protective measures that deal with alcohol availability, enforcement of existing laws and rules, and changes in how alcohol is promoted, sold and served. Many people,…

  4. Prevention and Firesetting: Juvenile Justice and Intervention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavkin, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the literature on preventing firesetting behavior in preadolescents and adolescents, suggesting the need for policies and programs designed to help juveniles by providing community support and stability. Alternatives to juvenile justice interventions include making changes in the home environment, acquiring a greater sense of self, and…

  5. Teen Depression and Suicide: Effective Prevention and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Teen depression and suicidal behaviors are intricately intertwined, with untreated depression being a leading cause of adolescent suicide. Most depressed or suicidal teens tend to show warning signs and possess specific risk factors. A key component to preventing teen depression is for adults to remain aware of such warning signs and risk factors…

  6. Risk Factors and Prevention Strategies for Suicide among the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Rebecca; Burnett, Donna O.; Evans, Retta R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is a preventable public health concern affecting the nation as the 10th leading cause of death. The prevalence of suicide among the elderly is higher than any other group. Risk factors attributed to this phenomenon are depression, social isolation, substance abuse, poor physical health or function, financial stress, and access to lethal…

  7. Strategy and Management Guideline on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    An action-oriented and practical guideline for the planning, organisation and management of preventive school maintenance in Eritrea. The manual is the result of a participatory planning process which has involved actors at the school and community level, district levels and the national policy...

  8. Violence Prevention Strategies of Inner-City Student Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovholt, Thomas; Cognetta, Phillip; Ye, Gretchen; King, Lolita

    1997-01-01

    Reports on violence prevention in an inner-city middle school. Interviews of students, deemed by peers and teachers as good at managing conflict, revealed eight themes. For example, student experts inoculated themselves in attitude to avoid violence; de-escalated situations when provoked; and believed the cost of fighting exceeds the reward. (RJM)

  9. The national suicide prevention strategy for England: the reality of a national strategy for the nursing profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M; Jenkins, R

    2006-12-01

    Suicide is recognized as a global phenomenon and many countries now have national suicide prevention strategies. International guidance on suicide prevention and accepted epidemiological and treatment-based research underpins healthcare policy relating to suicide reduction. There has been an established comprehensive strategy in England since 2002. However, the rate of suicide continues to be a concern and nurses hold a key role in the implementation of national, regional and local policy into practice. The aim of this paper is to consider the current implications of the national suicide prevention strategy in England for nursing. This discussion paper draws upon both empirical evidence-based literature, governmental guidance and policy-related documentation. The national suicide prevention strategy for England currently continues to have a multifaceted impact on the nursing profession. This ranges from clinical practice issues such as risk assessment through to broader public health responsibilities. If nurses and allied health professionals are to be effective in their role within suicide prevention, they will need to be supported in building awareness of the wider context of the national policy. In particular, this will mean working effectively and collaboratively with the voluntary sector, service users and other non-medical agencies.

  10. Acceptability of early infant male circumcision among chinese parents: strategy implications of HIV prevention for china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Lianjun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence has confirmed that circumcision can be performed as a preventive strategy for HIV and early infant male circumcision (EIMC is regarded to be safer than circumcision in adulthood; however, limited data are available in the literature about EIMC in China. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the willingness and attitudes of Chinese parents on newborn male circumcision so as to provide data for exploring the feasibility of implementing EIMC as an HIV prevention strategy in China. Methods Simple random sampling was used to draw participants from parents who had a newborn son delivered at Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, which is affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, between March and December 2010. A questionnaire was used to determine general medical knowledge or information about circumcision, attitudes about EIMC, and level of decision-making on circumcision for the newborn son. Results Data derived from 558 responses were analyzed and the ratio of respondents was 56.3% for fathers and 43.6% for mothers. Of the respondents, 34.4% agreed to circumcise their newborn son, and the level of agreement was 3.25 ± 1.17 (range, 1–5 with “1” being “reluctantly agree” and “5” being “very strongly agree”. The major reason for EIMC was for health (44.8%, followed by doctor’s advice (31.2%. The major reason not to agree to EIMC was concern about pain (50.5%, followed by the risk of the procedure (23.5%. Conclusion The willingness and acceptability of EIMC in China is low and the parents of newborn sons are usually not very affirmative when making a decision on such a procedure, suggesting that significant effort will be needed if EIMC is to be implemented as an HIV prevention strategy for China.

  11. Strategies for the prevention and containment of antibiotic resistance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic resistance may emerge by antibiotic selection pressure but is perpetuated by diverse risk factors and maintained within environments as a result of poor infection control. Population-specific drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics also play a role. The WHO, US, UK and EU have initiated strategies for the ...

  12. Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the ...

  13. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The second study will use a health behaviour survey to evaluate risk-taking behaviours among school-based adolescents in Entebbe, Uganda. Researchers will conduct interviews with health and education officials in Entebbe to assess acceptance levels for school-based HIV intervention strategies. Both studies will inform ...

  14. Evaluating the combined effectiveness of influenza control strategies and human preventive behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Mao

    Full Text Available Control strategies enforced by health agencies are a major type of practice to contain influenza outbreaks. Another type of practice is the voluntary preventive behavior of individuals, such as receiving vaccination, taking antiviral drugs, and wearing face masks. These two types of practices take effects concurrently in influenza containment, but little attention has been paid to their combined effectiveness. This article estimates this combined effectiveness using established simulation models in the urbanized area of Buffalo, NY, USA. Three control strategies are investigated, including: Targeted Antiviral Prophylaxis (TAP, workplace/school closure, community travel restriction, as well as the combination of the three. All control strategies are simulated with and without regard to individual preventive behavior, and the resulting effectiveness are compared. The simulation outcomes suggest that weaker control strategies could suffice to contain influenza epidemics, because individuals voluntarily adopt preventive behavior, rendering these weaker strategies more effective than would otherwise have been expected. The preventive behavior of individuals could save medical resources for control strategies and avoid unnecessary socio-economic interruptions. This research adds a human behavioral dimension into the simulation of control strategies and offers new insights into disease containment. Health policy makers are recommended to review current control strategies and comprehend preventive behavior patterns of local populations before making decisions on influenza containment.

  15. The cost-effectiveness of competing strategies for the prevention of recurrent peptic ulcer hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, Joshua; Wallace, Joel; Badamgarav, Enkhe; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Henning, James; Laine, Loren

    2002-08-01

    Several strategies exist for the prevention of recurrent ulcer-related hemorrhage, yet the cost-effectiveness has not been evaluated and remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of competing management strategies considering both nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs status and the accuracy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) testing. Decision analysis was used to compare the cost-per-recurrent hemorrhage prevented for 11 strategies over 1 yr. Clinical and costs estimates were derived from a systematic review of the medical literature and the Medicare Fee Schedule and Drug Topics Redbook. Sensitivity analyses were performed for important variables. The test/retest eradication strategy with maintenance proton pump inhibitor therapy for H. pylori-negative patients was most effective (prevention of recurrence in 96.0%). The test/retest eradication strategy with maintenance histamine-2 receptor antagonist therapy for H. pylori-negative patients was least costly ($1070). The test/retest strategies were dominant with average cost-effectiveness ratios of $1118-1310/recurrent hemorrhage prevented with maintenance antisecretory therapy. The average cost-effectiveness ratios for "selective" H. pylori eradication strategies with maintenance antisecretory therapy were $1263-1673. The model was robust to varying estimates over prespecified ranges. Test/retest strategies for H. pylori are cost-effective for the prevention of recurrent ulcer-related hemorrhage because they maximize H. pylori detection and eradication, resulting in fewer recurrent hemorrhages and fewer patients requiring antisecretory therapy.

  16. The Effect of Presentation Strategy on Reading Comprehension of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study primarily aimed at examining the effect of presentation strategy on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. To determine the effect of this strategy, 61 students who enrolled in English Language Center of Chabahar Maritime University were initially selected and then divided randomly into two classes one as an experimental group and the other one as the control group. The homogeneity of their proficiency level was established via the administration of a TOEFL (the PBT proficiency test. A reading comprehension test as pre-test administered to the subjects of both groups one week before the initiation of the study. The experimental group used the strategy three sessions each week for ten weeks, while the control group was trained based on the ordinary approaches of teaching reading comprehension. Presentation strategy was worked for every two weeks during the experiment and then at the end of each two-week instruction, an immediate posttest was administered according to the strategy worked. At the end of the study, a post-test was administered to both groups. The statistical techniques being applied were Paired Sample t-test and Independent Sample t-test. The results of the study revealed that presentation strategy had significant effect on promoting reading comprehension of intermediate EFL learners.

  17. Gamification strategy on prevention of STDs for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Schopf, Thomas; Serrano, J Artur; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Dorronzoro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and especially chlamydia is a worrying problem among North-Norwegian youngsters. Gamified web applications should be valued for sexual health education, and thus STDs prevention, for their potential to get users engaged and involved with their healthcare. Aiming to achieve that youngsters become more aware of STDs we have developed "sjekkdeg.no", a gamified web application focused on sexual health targeting North-Norwegian youngsters. Gamification techniques like avatars, achievement-based gifts and social network sharing buttons have been implemented in the site that includes educational content on sexual health and a STDs symptom checker. Preliminary results show that the game-style web app could be useful to encourage users to learn more on sexual health and STDs and thus changing their risky behaviors and preventing sexually transmitted diseases.

  18. Gender Differences in the Strategies and Tactics of Self-Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurysheva Olga Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the results of empirical study of gender differences in the strategies, tactics, importance and effectiveness of self-presentation. Participants (25 women and 25 men completed self-report measures of self-presentation (self-presentation tactics scale, self-control (self-monitoring scale, importance of self-presentation in various fields of communication. The results indicated that feminine individuals are significantly more likely to use defensive tactics of self-presentation, such as an “apology” and a “supplication”. They also use the strategies of “attractive behavior”. Masculine individuals are more likely to use the strategy “power influence” and the corresponding tactic “intimidation”. Androgynous individuals are significantly more likely to use the strategy “refusal” and some other tactics, such as “excuse”, “justification” and “denying responsibility”. It was revealed that the self-presentation is more important for feminine and androgynous individuals, than masculine individuals. In addition to this, self-presentation in the family is more important for androgynous individuals, while in professional and interpersonal spheres self-presentation is very important for feminine individuals. Gender differences do not affect the effectiveness of self-presentation. The results reflect the stereotypical characteristics and social expectations regarding the conduct of a person of a particular gender.

  19. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Thakore, Rachel V.; Apfeld, Jordan C.; Johnson, Ronald K.; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A. Alex; Sethi, Manish K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Methods: Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussi...

  20. Cancer risk and preventive behavior: persuasion as an intervention strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tonani,Marcela; Carvalho,Emilia Campos de

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of interventions for health promotion, protection, and early diagnosis may include the process of persuasion employed. This study aims to evaluate the risk level of developing cancer, considering the pertinent risk factors, and the presence of persuasion and characteristics in communication regarding cancer prevention and early detection. It is an observational study, conducted among 110 inhabitants of a neighborhood in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil. It was confirmed tha...

  1. A Strategy for Conflict Prevention and Management in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwahad Biad

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The author states that the conflicts in the Mediterranean are put down to interrelated factors –frontier disputes, ethnic-cultural rivalries, low-intensity violence– that make them appear to be “intractable conflicts”, specific to the area, and to which it cannot be automatically applied the model of conflict prevention and management that marked East-West relations during the Cold War. But the author’s analysis goes farther: Biad argues that the initiatives of conflict prevention and management have not done well because of the inadequate definition of objectives (Euro-Arab Dialogue, CSCM,Mediterranean Forum, as well as for the discrimination against some of the southern members and the lack of clearly identified principles and rules for a security dialogue (WEU, NATO, and the OSCE. The Barcelona Process appears to offer a much broader framework as it does underline the need for common action in the prevention of conflicts based on the principles of transparency and sufficiency. Nevertheless, after an analysis of both which focuses on the military dimension of security, the author reminds us that the Barcelona Declaration does not include institutional mechanisms for the application of these principles.

  2. Prevention of Rheumatic Diseases: Strategies, Caveats and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckh, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases affect a significant portion of the population and lead to increased health care costs, disability and even premature mortality; as such, effective preventive measures for these diseases could lead to substantial improvements in public health. Importantly, established and emerging data from natural history studies show that for most rheumatic diseases there is a period of ‘preclinical’ disease development during which abnormal biomarkers or other processes can be detected. These changes are useful to understand mechanisms of disease pathogenesis; in addition, they may be applied to estimate a personal risk of future disease, while individuals are still relatively asymptomatic. Based on this, a hope is to implement effective screening and preventive approaches for some rheumatic diseases, perhaps in the near future. However, a key part of such approaches is a deep understanding of the mechanisms of disease development as well as evidence-based and effective screening and preventive interventions that incorporate disease biology as well as ethical and public health concerns. PMID:25437291

  3. Gender Differences in the Strategies and Tactics of Self-Presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Kurysheva Olga Vasilyevna; Voznesenskaya Anastasiya Vitalyevna

    2015-01-01

    The article represents the results of empirical study of gender differences in the strategies, tactics, importance and effectiveness of self-presentation. Participants (25 women and 25 men) completed self-report measures of self-presentation (self-presentation tactics scale), self-control (self-monitoring scale), importance of self-presentation in various fields of communication. The results indicated that feminine individuals are significantly more likely to use defensive tactics of self-pre...

  4. Calibration Techniques and Strategies for the Present and Future LHC Electromagnetic Calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksa, Martin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarizes an invited talk on ``Calibration Techniques and Strategies for the Present and Future LHC Electromagnetic Calorimeters'' at the Calorimetry for the High Energy Frontier (CHEF) Conference in Lyon, France in October 2017. It describes the different calibration strategies and techniques applied by the two big experiments at the LHC, ATLAS and CMS and discusses them underlining their respective strengths and weaknesses from the view of the author. The resulting performances of both calorimeters are described and compared on the basis of selected physics results. Future upgrade plans for High Luminosity (HL) LHC are briefly introduced and planned calibration strategies for those new detectors are shown.

  5. Reducing medication errors: Teaching strategies that increase nursing students' awareness of medication errors and their prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Sharon; Hewitt, Jayne; Stanbrough, Rebecca; McAndrew, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Medication errors are a patient safety and quality of care issue. There is evidence to suggest many undergraduate nursing curricula do not adequately educate students about the factors that contribute to medication errors and possible strategies to prevent them. We designed and developed a suite of teaching strategies that raise students' awareness of medication error producing situations and their prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Opportunity of Joint Venture Strategies in the Present Economic Context

    OpenAIRE

    Kardos Mihaela; Zegrean Adela

    2011-01-01

    Even if most successful joint ventures are created when economy is in glorious times, the reality of the last years has shown true possibilities of obtaining advantages by considering joint venture strategies during economic crisis. Some Romanian companies, as presented in the paper, have noticed that could transform the crisis into an opportunity, by offering foreign investors the perfect place to implement a joint venture strategy. Consequently, under the name of a joint venture agreement, ...

  7. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  8. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: An International Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    A review of international research literature on teacher strategies for effective intervention with students presenting social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) is presented. Particular attention is given to evidence defining the qualities and skills of effective teachers and the value of behavioural and cognitive behavioural…

  9. Reading Time Allocation Strategies and Working Memory Using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busler, Jessica N.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a useful method for controlling the timing of text presentations and studying how readers' characteristics, such as working memory (WM) and reading strategies for time allocation, influence text recall. In the current study, a modified version of RSVP (Moving Window RSVP [MW-RSVP]) was used to induce…

  10. Fluorides and Other Preventive Strategies for Tooth Decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Jeremy A; Tanzer, Jason M; Milgrom, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    We focus on scalable public health interventions that prevent and delay the development of caries and enhance resistance to dental caries lesions. These interventions should occur throughout the life cycle, and need to be age appropriate. Mitigating disease transmission and enhancing resistance are achieved through use of various fluorides, sugar substitutes, mechanical barriers such as pit-and-fissure sealants, and antimicrobials. A key aspect is counseling and other behavioral interventions that are designed to promote use of disease transmission-inhibiting and tooth resistance-enhancing agents. Advocacy for public water fluoridation and sugar taxes is an appropriate dental public health activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gastric explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, John Saul; Hampe, Toni

    2014-12-01

    We describe the occurrence of an iatrogenic explosion induced by argon plasma coagulation in a 70-year-old man undergoing gastroscopy. Combustible gases in the stomach may have been released by bacterial overgrowth as a result of partial gastric outlet obstruction (caused by a gastric tumor) and reduced acidity (from proton pump inhibitor therapy). We propose a stepwise process during upper endoscopy to prevent this devastating complication, comprising aspiration, preinsufflation with CO2, and then coagulation. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Hansen, Håvard

    2015-01-01

    There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT) derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (un)healthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1) child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2) child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents' major driving forces behind reducing children's consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents' provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  13. Promotion and Prevention Focused Feeding Strategies: Exploring the Effects on Healthy and Unhealthy Child Eating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth L. Melbye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general lack of research addressing the motivations behind parental use of various feeding practices. Therefore, the present work aims to extend the current literature on parent-child feeding interactions by integrating the traditional developmental psychological perspective on feeding practices with elements of Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT derived from the field of motivational psychology. In this paper, we seek to explain associations between parental feeding practices and child (unhealthy eating behaviors by categorizing parental feeding practices into promotion and prevention focused strategies, thus exploring parent-child feeding interactions within the framework of RFT. Our analyses partly supported the idea that (1 child healthy eating is positively associated with feeding practices characterized as promotion focused, and (2 child unhealthy eating is negatively associated with feeding practices characterized as prevention focused. However, a general observation following from our results suggests that parents’ major driving forces behind reducing children’s consumption of unhealthy food items and increasing their consumption of healthy food items are strategies that motivate rather than restrict. In particular, parents’ provision of a healthy home food environment seems to be essential for child eating.

  14. Strategies for the prevention and control of cervical cancer in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  15. The Unequal Burden of Suicide among Minnesotans: Three Strategies for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nate; Roesler, Jon; Heinen, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    Minnesota's suicide rate has been increasing for more than 10 years. This article describes the demographic groups at highest risk for suicide and suicide attempts in the state. It also highlights prevention strategies outlined in the Minnesota State Suicide Prevention Plan 2015-2020.

  16. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  17. Strategies for the Prevention and Control of Cervical Cancer in Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Majority of “most-at-risk” women for cervical cancer disease who reside in rural communities of low and middle income countries (LMIC) do not have access to cervical cancer prevention programmes. This paper reviews epidemiology, recommendations, implementation strategies for prevention and control of cervical cancer ...

  18. Motivations and self-presentation strategies on Korean-based "Cyworld" weblog format personal homepages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Taejin; Youn, Hyunsook; McClung, Steven

    2007-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to find out individuals' motives and interpersonal self-presentation strategies on constructing Korean weblog format personal homepage (e.g., "Cyworld mini-homepage"). The study also attempts to find predictor motives that lead to the activities of posting and maintaining a homepage and compare the self-presentation strategies used on the Web with those commonly used in interpersonal situations. By using a principal component factor analysis, four salient self-presentation strategy factors and five interpretable mini-homepage hosting motive factors were identified. Accompanying multiple regression analysis shows that entertainment and personal income factors are major predictors in explaining homepage maintenance expenditures and frequencies of updating.

  19. Choosing Effective Youth-Focused Prevention Strategies: A Practical Guide for Applied Family Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of prevention science have resulted in strategies that target various youth outcomes. In recent years, numerous "best practices" lists have been developed to help professionals identify such strategies. Some scholars have questioned the quality of these lists and cautioned that there are flaws in evaluations of many…

  20. Cultural Strategies for Teaching HIV/AIDS Prevention to American Indians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Dannette R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe what tools and strategies Native Americans who live in Oklahoma believe are important in learning about HIV/AIDS, to determine if culturally specific information is important in developing prevention programs, and to ascertain learning strategies. Data collection was a two-part process. First, the Cultural…

  1. National Strategy for Violence Prevention in the Austrian Public School System: Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, Christiane; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a quick succession of several spectacular events in schools, and the ensuing public discussion on the high rates of bullying in Austria, a national strategy for violence prevention in schools and preschools has been developed. In formulating the strategy, a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local…

  2. Obesity prevention strategies: could food or soda taxes improve health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S

    2016-03-01

    Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales?

  3. [Communication skills and their influence on prevention strategies in workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, A; Sanna, S; Dimitri, L; Di Geronimo, M

    2010-01-01

    Communication is a process which enables groups and individuals to increase their control over determining health factors acting on people's lifestyles to promote health. Good communication is fundamental to the health sector in a globalized world, since it may influence national and local policies, health promotion campaigns and correct operational practices. Our study analyses four significant incidents related to instances of bad communication and covers questions which have produced rather incoherent results provoking unjustified alarm. It is therefore necessary to prescribe a way of approaching these issues which will firstly lead to a more careful analysis of the risk involved and therefore to make known correct public information. It is necessary to improve the skills of experts in prevention, to promote educational initiatives at school, universities and in workplaces always focussing more on interdisciplinarity and developing new ways of approaching problems concerning health and safety.

  4. Hypoglycaemia in anesthesiology practice: Diagnostic, preventive, and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has emerged as one of the fastest growing non communicable diseases worldwide. Management of diabetic patients during surgical and critically illness is of paramount challenge to anesthesiologist and intensivist. Among its major acute complications, hypoglycemia has been given lesser attention as compared to other major acute complications; diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar non ketotic coma. However, newer studies and literary evidence have established the serious concerns of morbidity and mortality, both long- and short-term, related to hypoglycemia. basis. Invariably, diabetic patients are encountered in our daily routine practice of anesthesia. During fasting status as well as the perioperative period, it is hypoglycemia that is of high concern to anesthesiologist. Management has to be based on clinical, pharmacological, social, and psychological basis, so as to completely prevent the complications arising from an acute episode of hypoglycemia. This review aims to highlight various aspects of hypoglycemia and its management both from endocrine and anesthesia perspective.

  5. Exosomes: A Novel Strategy for Treatment and Prevention of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An “exosome” is a nanoscale membrane vesicle derived from cell endocytosis that functions as an important intercellular communication mediator regulating the exchange of proteins and genetic materials between donor and surrounding cells. Exosomes secreted by normal and cancer cells participate in tumor initiation, progression, invasion, and metastasis. Furthermore, immune cells and cancer cells exert a two-way bidirectional regulatory effect on tumor immunity by exchanging exosomes. Current studies on exosomes have further expanded their known functions in physiological and pathological processes. The purpose of this review is to describe their discovery and biological functions in the context of their enormous potential in the clinical diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cancer as well as bacterial and viral infectious diseases.

  6. Medication reconciliation as a strategy for preventing medication errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana de Rezende Spalla

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT One of the current barriers proposed to avoid possible medication errors, and consequently harm to patients, is the medication reconciliation, a process in which drugs used by patients prior to hospitalization can be compared with those prescribed in the hospital. This study describes the results of a pharmacist based reconciliation conducted during six months in clinical units of a university hospital. Fourteen patients (23.33% had some kind of problem related to medicine. The majority (80% of medication errors were due to medication omission. Pharmaceutical interventions acceptance level was 90%. The results suggest that pharmacists based reconciliation can have a relevant role in preventing medication errors and adverse events. Moreover, the detailed interview, conducted by the pharmacist, is able to rescue important information regarding the use of drugs, allowing to avoid medications errors and patient injury.

  7. Health Literacy: Cancer Prevention Strategies for Early Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S

    2017-09-01

    Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Online Series presents The Impact of Obesity on Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and future directions of research for this important topic. |

  9. Creating a comprehensive strategy to prevent nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luongo, K.

    1998-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has raised awareness in the international community about the threat posed by large, global stockpiles of weapon usable nuclear material. Particular focus has been directed at the level of protection provided to the fissile materials produced by the Soviet Union and concern has been raised about the growing stockpile of plutonium worldwide. Reported incidents of the diversion of nuclear material have raised the specter of potential nuclear terrorism and of countries of proliferation concern being provided a shortcut to the bomb. In order to address this problem, the international community needs to agree on the rapid implementation of a comprehensive, mutually reinforcing strategy to control existing stockpiles of fissile material, constrain future production and use of these materials, and address the underlying causes of this threat

  10. Organizational Strategies to Implement Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOBAN, LYNN M.; KIM, LINDA; YUAN, ANITA H.; MILTNER, REBECCA S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim To describe the presence and operationalization of organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programs across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated healthcare system. Background Comprehensive pressure ulcer programs include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organizational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programs. Methods Data were collected by an email survey to all Chief Nursing Officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarize survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Results Organizational strategies that support pressure ulcer prevention program implementation (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalized within individual hospitals. Conclusion Organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programs are often not optimally operationalized to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. Implications for Nursing Management The results of this study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. PMID:27487972

  11. Buckling prevention strategies in nature as inspiration for improving percutaneous instruments: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakes, Aimée; Dodou, Dimitra; Breedveld, Paul

    2016-02-18

    A typical mechanical failure mode observed in slender percutaneous instruments, such as needles and guidewires, is buckling. Buckling is observed when the axial compressive force that is required to penetrate certain tissue types exceeds the critical load of the instrument and manifests itself by sudden lateral deflection of the instrument. In nature, several organisms are able to penetrate substrates without buckling while using apparatuses with diameters smaller than those of off-the-shelf available percutaneous needles and guidewires. In this study we reviewed the apparatuses and buckling prevention strategies employed by biological organisms to penetrate substrates such as wood and skin. A subdivision is made between buckling prevention strategies that focus on increasing the critical load of the penetration tool and strategies that focus on decreasing the penetration load of the substrate. In total, 28 buckling prevention strategies were identified and categorized. Most organisms appear to be using a combination of buckling prevention strategies simultaneously. Integration and combination of these biological buckling prevention strategies in percutaneous instruments may contribute to increasing the success rate of percutaneous interventions.

  12. Clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael; Bostick, Roberd M; Kucuk, Omer; Jones, Dean P

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the most important human clinical trials of antioxidants as cancer prevention agents conducted to date, provide an overview of currently ongoing studies, and discuss future steps needed to advance research in this field. To date there have been several large (at least 7000 participants) trials testing the efficacy of antioxidant supplements in preventing cancer. The specific agents (diet-derived direct antioxidants and essential components of antioxidant enzymes) tested in those trials included β-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin C, selenium, retinol, zinc, riboflavin, and molybdenum. None of the completed trials produced convincing evidence to justify the use of traditional antioxidant-related vitamins or minerals for cancer prevention. Our search of ongoing trials identified six projects at various stages of completion. Five of those six trials use selenium as the intervention of interest delivered either alone or in combination with other agents. The lack of success to date can be explained by a variety of factors that need to be considered in the next generation research. These factors include lack of good biological rationale for selecting specific agents of interest; limited number of agents tested to date; use of pharmacological, rather than dietary, doses; and insufficient duration of intervention and follow-up. The latter consideration underscores the need for alternative endpoints that are associated with increased risk of neoplasia (i.e., biomarkers of risk), but are detectable prior to tumor occurrence. Although dietary antioxidants are a large and diverse group of compounds, only a small proportion of candidate agents have been tested. In summary, the strategy of focusing on large high-budget studies using cancer incidence as the endpoint and testing a relatively limited number of antioxidant agents has been largely unsuccessful. This lack of success in previous trials should not preclude us from seeking novel

  13. Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Lange, Joep; Gerstoft, Jan

    2010-01-01

    HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment...... of late-presenting patients by reviewing strategies that might be considered. Such strategies could include routine provider-initiated HIV testing of at-risk groups in settings such as sexually transmitted infection clinics, drug dependency programmes or antenatal care. Healthcare providers might also...... consider routine HIV testing in all healthcare facilities, in settings including emergency and primary care, where local HIV prevalence is above a threshold that should be further evaluated. They should also take advantage of rapid testing technologies and be aware of barriers to HIV testing among specific...

  14. Canine-Based Strategies for Prevention and Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá P Sevá

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a zoonosis found worldwide. Its incidence has increased in Brazil in recent years, representing a serious public and animal health problem. The strategies applied in Brazil are questionable and are not sufficient to control the disease. Thus, we have compared the efficacy of some of the currently available strategies focused on dogs to prevent and control zoonotic VL in endemic areas by optimizing a mathematical model. The simulations showed that the elimination of seropositive dogs, the use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars, and the vaccination of dogs significantly contribute to reducing the prevalence of infection in both canines and humans. The use of insecticide-impregnated collars presented the highest level of efficacy mainly because it directly affected the force of infection and vector-dog contact. In addition, when used at a coverage rate of 90%, insecticide-impregnated collar was able to decrease the prevalence of seropositive dogs and humans to zero; moreover, because of the easy application and acceptance by the targeted population, these collars may be considered the most feasible for inclusion in public policies among the three simulated measures. Vaccination and euthanasia were efficacious, but the latter method is strongly criticized on ethical grounds, and both methods present difficulties for inclusion in public policies. When we compared the use of euthanasia and vaccination at coverages of 70 and 90%, respectively, the proportion of infected populations were similar. However, on evaluating the implications of both of these methods, particularly the negative aspects of culling dogs and the proportion of animals protected by vaccination, the latter measure appears to be the better option if the total cost is not significantly higher. The comparison of complications and advantages of different control strategies allows us to analyze the optimal measure and offer strategies to veterinary and

  15. Photocarcinogenesis and Skin Cancer Prevention Strategies: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marie Christine; Seebode, Christina; Lehmann, Janin; Emmert, Steffen

    2018-02-01

    UV radiation is acknowledged as the primary cause of photocarcinogenesis and therefore contributes to the development of skin cancer entities such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and melanoma. Typical DNA photoproducts and indirect DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species are the result of UV radiation. UV-induced DNA damage is repaired by nucleotide excision repair, which consequently counteracts the development of mutations and skin carcinogenesis. Tumour-suppressor genes are inactivated by mutation and growth-promoting pathways are activated leading to disruption of cell-cycle progression. Depending on the skin cancer entity, some genes are more frequently affected than others. In BCC mutations in Patched or Smoothened are common and affect the Sonic hedgehog pathway. In SCC, cell regulator protein p53 (TP53) mutations are prevalent, as well as mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin-dependent kinase 2A (CDKN2A), Rat sarcoma (RAS), or the tyrosine kinase Fyn (FYN). UV-induced mutations in TP53 and CDKN2A are frequent in melanoma. UV-induced inflammatory processes also facilitate photocarcinogenesis. Recent studies showed a connection between photocarcinogenesis and citrus consumption, phytochemicals, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy, as well as oral contraceptive use. Preventative measures include adequate use of sun protection and skin cancer screening at regular intervals, as well as the use of chemopreventative agents. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity: strategy for prevention and proposed mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Idiosyncratic drug toxicity has led to the market withdrawal of many drugs in the past. Since animal experiments are not predictive of such toxicity, the pharmaceutical industry continues to seek new methodologies for the prevention of such effects. Although the mechanism of idiosyncratic drug toxicity remains unclear, immune reactions are likely involved. Although drugs with low molecular weights are typically not themselves immunogenic, these drugs may become haptens after being converted to chemically reactive metabolites and becoming covalently cross-linked to proteins. Therefore, screening tests to detect chemically reactive metabolites, most typically by trapping with glutathione, are carried out at early stages of drug development. More quantitative methods are used in later stages of drug development; radioassays for covalent binding (using (14)Cor (3)H-labeled compounds) are most frequently employed. A zone classification system created by combining previous assessment criteria for the chemically reactive metabolites in vitro (assessment of drug candidates. A mechanism for idiosyncratic, drug-induced hepatotoxicity is proposed by analogy to virus-induced hepatitis, where cytotoxic T lymphocytes play an important role; we suggest that idiosyncrasy reflects the involvement of polymorphisms in the human leucocyte antigen-encoding loci. In fact, a strong correlation has been found between of idiosyncratic drug toxicity and specific human leucocyte antigen genotypes. Therefore, screening of patients for gene biomarkers is expected to reduce the clinical risk of idiosyncratic drug toxicity, thereby prolonging the life cycle of otherwise useful drugs.

  17. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  18. Strategies for cancer prevention: the role of diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, J A

    2002-05-01

    Linkages between diet habits and cancer risk have surfaced from a multitude of epidemiological and preclinical studies. Collectively these studies provide rather compelling evidence that dietary components modify the incidence and biological behavior of tumors. While the risk of breast, prostate, colon, lung and liver cancers are frequently associated with dietary patterns, inconsistencies are not uncommon. These inconsistencies likely reflect the multi-factorial and complex nature of cancer and the specificity that individual dietary constituents have in modifying cancer related genetic pathways. The complexity of defining the role of diet is underscored by the numerous and diverse essential and non-essential components that may alter one or more phases of the cancer process. The explosive increase in the recognition of genes and pathways for regulating cell growth and development, and evaluating the response to hormones and other chemicals synthesized by the body, offers exciting opportunities for unraveling the molecular targets by which dietary components influence cancer prevention. It is recognized that all cells have unique 'signatures' that are characterized by active and inactive genes and cellular products. It is certainly plausible that bridging knowledge about these unique cellular characteristics with the molecular targets for nutrients can be used to assist in optimizing nutrition and minimizing cancer risk.

  19. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  20. Radiotherapy of brain metastases of a breast cancer: present strategies, technological innovations and biological perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargari, C.; Vedrine, L.; Bauduceau, O.; Jacob, J.; Fayolle, M.; Chargari, C.; Campana, F.; Pierga, J.Y.; Idrissi, H.R.; Fourquet, A.; Kirova, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose an overview of strategies which are presently used for the treatment of brain metastases related to a breast cancer. They outline the perspectives and recent developments of encephalic irradiation with new technologies allowing an increased conformation to be obtained, and also in terms of radiosensitization and radioprotection experiences. Short communication

  1. Social Utility versus Social Desirability of Students' Attributional Self-Presentation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Research on impression management has shown that students can manage their social images by providing attributional self-presentation strategies (ASPSs). Based on the distinction between social desirability judgments and social utility judgments, two studies were conducted to examine the students' understanding of the impact of ASPSs both on…

  2. Antibody-Based Strategies to Prevent and Treat Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram eSasisekharan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunization using antibodies has been suggested to offer several benefits in comparison to other antiviral treatment options. The potential for seasonal protection arising from a single injection of antibodies is appealing and has been pursued for a number of infectious agents. However, until recently, antibody-based strategies to combat infectious agents has been hampered due to the fact that typical antibodies have been found to be strain-specific, with the virus evolving resistance in many cases. The discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs in, for example, influenza, dengue virus, and HIV, which bind to multiple, structurally-diverse strains has provided renewed interest in this area. This review will focus on new technologies that enable the discovery of bNAbs, the challenges and opportunities of immunotherapies as an important addition to existing antiviral therapy, and the role of antibody discovery in informing rational vaccine discovery – with agents targeting influenza specifically addressed. Multiple agents have entered the clinic and raise the possibility that a single antibody or small combination of antibodies can effectively neutralize a wide variety of strains. However, challenges remain - including combating escape variants, pharmacodynamics of antibody distribution, and development of efficacy biomarkers beyond virologic endpoints.

  3. Mine water pollution in Scotland. Nature, extent and preventative strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, P.L. [Water Resource Systems Research Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Newcastle, NE1 7RU Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2001-01-29

    Scotland was one of the world's first industrialised countries, and has therefore also been one of the first countries to experience wholesale post-industrial dereliction. Water pollution arising from abandoned mines, particularly abandoned coal mines, is second only to sewage as a source of freshwater pollution nation-wide, and in many coalfield catchments it is the pre-eminent source. Most of the pollution is due to net-alkaline ferruginous waters emerging from deep mines. Scrutiny of records from 80 deep mine discharges reveals that iron concentrations in these waters are only likely to exceed 20 mg/l, and the pH to be below 6.5, where the discharge emerges within 0.5 km of the outcrop of the shallowest mined seam. The bulk of mature near-outcrop mine water discharges in Scotland have<50 mg/l total Fe, and concentrations>100 mg/l are only likely where a marine bed lies within 25 m of the worked seam. Where the nearest marine bed is more than 80 m above or below the seam, then the total iron will be less than 4 mg/l, and in most cases less than 1 mg/l. Net-acidic mine waters are far more rare than net-alkaline waters in Scotland, and are most commonly associated with unreclaimed spoil heaps (bings). Both net-alkaline and net-acidic discharges have detrimental effects on the hydrochemistry and biological integrity of receiving waters. Scotland has recently pioneered the use of pre-emptive pump-and-treat solutions to prevent mine water pollution, and has also experienced the successful introduction of passive treatment technology for both abandoned and active workings.

  4. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siminelakis Stavros N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

  5. The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: nurse practitioners using behaviour modification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Todd Charles; Keeping-Burke, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) places great financial strain on the health care system and dramatically affects individual quality of life. As primary health care providers, nurse practitioners (NPs) are ideally positioned to advise clients on risk factor and lifestyle modifications that ameliorate the impact of CVD. While the lifestyle targets for CVD prevention are established, the most effective means of achieving these goals remain uncertain. Behaviour modification strategies, including motivational interviewing (MI) and the transtheoretical model (TTM), have been suggested, but neither approach is established as being more efficacious than the other. In this paper, evidence on the effectiveness of the two approaches for modifying smoking, diet, and exercise behaviour are presented, and a recommendation for NP practice is made.

  6. Persistent pain after breast cancer treatment: a critical review of risk factors and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    . This review is a systematic analysis on methodology and evidence in research into persistent pain after breast cancer treatment during the period 1995 to 2010, in order to clarify the significance and relative role of potential risk factors. Literature was identified by a search in PubMed and OVID, as well...... principles of surgical and adjuvant therapy. In summary, the data show inconsistencies in definition of chronic pain and treatment groups, as well as in the collection of pre- intra- and post-operative data, precluding conclusions with regard to pathophysiologic mechanisms as well as rational strategies...... for prevention and treatment. However, nerve damage and radiotherapy appear to be significant risk factors for chronic pain. A proposal for the design of future prospective studies is presented. PERSPECTIVE: A comprehensive and systematic approach to research in chronic pain after breast cancer treatment...

  7. What drives successful implementation of pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategy? The role of innovative capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupendra, Kumar Verma; Sangle, Shirish

    2015-05-15

    Firms that are dynamic and prepared to implement environmental strategies have a potential competitive advantage over their industry counterparts. Therefore, it is important to understand, what capabilities are required to implement proactive environmental strategies. The paper discusses the attributes of innovative capability required by firms in order to adopt pollution prevention and cleaner technology strategies. Empirical results show that process and behavioral innovativeness are required by firms to implement a pollution prevention strategy. In addition to process and behavioral innovativeness, firms need a top management with high risk-taking ability as well as market, product, and strategic innovativeness to implement a cleaner technology strategy. The paper proposes some important managerial implications on the basis of the above research findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevention and control strategies for ticks and pathogen transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Contreras, M

    2015-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens have evolved together, resulting in a complex relationship in which the pathogen's life cycle is perfectly coordinated with the tick's feeding cycle, and the tick can harbour high pathogen levels without affecting its biology. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) continue to emerge and/or spread, and pose an increasing threatto human and animal health. The disruptive impacts of global change have resulted in ecosystem instability and the future outcomes of management and control programmes for ticks and TBDs are difficult to predict. In particular, the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks has reduced the value of acaricides as a sole means of tick control. Vaccines provide an alternative control method, but the use of tick vaccines has not advanced since the first vaccines were registered in the early 1990s. An understanding of the complex molecular relationship between hosts, ticks and pathogens and the use of systems biology and vaccinomics approaches are needed to discover proteins with the relevant biological function in tick feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, the subversion of host immunity and pathogen transmission, all of which mediate tick and pathogen success. The same approaches will also be required to characterise candidate protective antigens and to validate vaccine formulations. Tick vaccines with a dual effect on tick infestations and pathogen transmission could reduce both tick infestations and their vector capacity for humans, animals and reservoir hosts. The development of integrated tick control strategies, including vaccines and synthetic and botanical acaricides, in combination with managing drug resistance and educating producers, should lead to the sustainable control of ticks and TBDs.

  9. Adolescents’ Perceptions Regarding Effective Tobacco Use Prevention Strategies for their Younger Counterparts: A Qualitative Study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Faridah Mohd; Hillaluddin, Azlin Hilma; Mustaffa, Jamaludin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present qualitative study explored adolescents’ perceptions regarding effective strategies to prevent adolescents from using tobacco products (TP). Apart from the commercial TPs, there has been emerging use of alternatives such as vapes, e-cigarettes and shisha. This unfortunate phenomenon continues despite the currently available preventive strategies. Thus, understanding of the perceptions of the current generation would be valuable to provide new insights. Methods: Purposive sampling was utilized to recruit 40 adolescents between the age of 15 and 16 years old attending public daily secondary schools. Eight focus group discussions were conducted among the TP users, ex-users and non-users. Data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis procedure with NVivo. Results: Among barriers with the currently available strategies were having teachers who smoke tobacco, addiction to nicotine and self-perceptions of being healthy. The content of any program should include knowledge on negative outcomes of using tobacco products and awareness of the legislation together with ways to overcome peer and family influence including improving self-efficacy and refusal skills. Strategies were suggested to be delivered using information technology which provides interactive learning and visual effects. Conclusions: Adolescents agreed that the content and delivery of tobacco use prevention strategies need to be revised to suit the current generation to ensure sustainability. PMID:28122443

  10. Adolescents’ Perceptions Regarding Effective Tobacco Use Prevention Strategies for their Younger Counterparts: A Qualitative Study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zin, Faridah; Hillaluddin, Azlin Hilma; Mustaffa, Jamaludin

    2016-12-01

    Purpose:The present qualitative study explored adolescents’ perceptions regarding effective strategies to prevent adolescents from using tobacco products (TP). Apart from the commercial TPs, there has been emerging use of alternatives such as vapes, e-cigarettes and shisha. This unfortunate phenomenon continues despite the currently available preventive strategies. Thus, understanding of the perceptions of the current generation would be valuable to provide new insights. Methods: Purposive sampling was utilized to recruit 40 adolescents between the age of 15 and 16 years old attending public daily secondary schools. Eight focus group discussions were conducted among the TP users, ex-users and non-users. Data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis procedure with NVivo. Results: Among barriers with the currently available strategies were having teachers who smoke tobacco, addiction to nicotine and self-perceptions of being healthy. The content of any program should include knowledge on negative outcomes of using tobacco products and awareness of the legislation together with ways to overcome peer and family influence including improving self-efficacy and refusal skills. Strategies were suggested to be delivered using information technology which provides interactive learning and visual effects. Conclusions: Adolescents agreed that the content and delivery of tobacco use prevention strategies need to be revised to suit the current generation to ensure sustainability. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. Implementing exertional heat illness prevention strategies in US high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 6500 high school football athletes are treated annually for exertional heat illness (EHI). In 2009, the National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA)-led Inter-Association Task Force (NATA-IATF) released preseason heat acclimatization guidelines to help athletes become accustomed to environmental factors contributing to EHI. This study examines compliance with NATA-IATF guidelines and related EHI prevention strategies. The study used a cross-sectional survey completed by 1142 certified athletic trainers (AT), which captured compliance with 17 NATA-IATF guidelines and EHI prevention strategies in high school football during the 2011 preseason. On average, AT reported football programs complying with 10.4 NATA-IATF guidelines (SD = 3.2); 29 AT (2.5%) reported compliance with all 17. Guidelines with the lowest compliance were as follows: "Single-practice days consisted of practice no more than three hours in length" (39.7%); and "During days 3-5 of acclimatization, only helmets and shoulder pads should be worn" (39.0%). An average of 7.6 EHI prevention strategies (SD = 2.5) were used. Common EHI prevention strategies were as follows: having ice bags/cooler available (98.5%) and having a policy with written instructions for initiating emergency medical service response (87.8%). Programs in states with mandated guidelines had higher levels of compliance with guidelines and greater prevalence of EHI prevention strategies. A low proportion of surveyed high school football programs fully complied with all 17 NATA-IATF guidelines. However, many EHI prevention strategies were voluntarily implemented. State-level mandated EHI prevention guidelines may increase compliance with recognized best practices recommendations. Ongoing longitudinal monitoring of compliance is also recommended.

  12. A systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2018-01-01

    This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003).

  13. Assessment of Food Waste Prevention and Recycling Strategies Using a Multilayer Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Helen A; Peverill, M Samantha; Müller, Daniel B; Brattebø, Helge

    2015-12-15

    Food waste (FW) generates large upstream and downstream emissions to the environment and unnecessarily consumes natural resources, potentially affecting future food security. The ecological impacts of FW can be addressed by the upstream strategies of FW prevention or by downstream strategies of FW recycling, including energy and nutrient recovery. While FW recycling is often prioritized in practice, the ecological implications of the two strategies remain poorly understood from a quantitative systems perspective. Here, we develop a multilayer systems framework and scenarios to quantify the implications of food waste strategies on national biomass, energy, and phosphorus (P) cycles, using Norway as a case study. We found that (i) avoidable food waste in Norway accounts for 17% of sold food; (ii) 10% of the avoidable food waste occurs at the consumption stage, while industry and retailers account for only 7%; (iii) the theoretical potential for systems-wide net process energy savings is 16% for FW prevention and 8% for FW recycling; (iv) the theoretical potential for systems-wide P savings is 21% for FW prevention and 9% for FW recycling; (v) while FW recycling results in exclusively domestic nutrient and energy savings, FW prevention leads to domestic and international savings due to large food imports; (vi) most effective is a combination of prevention and recycling, however, FW prevention reduces the potential for FW recycling and therefore needs to be prioritized to avoid potential overcapacities for FW recycling.

  14. Economic Evaluations of Strategies to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Wrechelle; Cheung, Amanda; Baylis, Barry; Clayden, Nancy; Conly, John M; Ghali, William A; Ho, Chester H; Kaufman, Jaime; Stelfox, Henry T; Hogan, David B

    2017-07-01

    To provide information from a review of literature about economic evaluations of preventive strategies for pressure injuries (PIs). This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify the purpose and methods used for this study.2. Compare costs and effectiveness related to preventative strategies for PIs. BACKGROUND: Pressure injuries (PIs) are a common and resource-intensive challenge for acute care hospitals worldwide. While a number of preventive strategies have the potential to reduce the cost of hospital-acquired PIs, it is unclear what approach is the most effective. The authors performed a narrative review of the literature on economic evaluations of preventive strategies to survey current findings and identify important factors in economic assessments. Ovid, MEDLINE, NHS Economic Evaluation Databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic ReviewsSELECTION CRITERIA: Potentially relevant original research articles and systematic reviews were considered. Selection criteria included articles that were written in English, provided data on cost or economic evaluations of preventive strategies of PIs in acute care, and published between January 2004 and September 2015. Data were abstracted from the articles using a standardized approach to evaluate how the items on the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist were addressed. The searches identified 192 references. Thirty-three original articles were chosen for full-text reviews. Nineteen of these articles provided clear descriptions of interventions, study methods, and outcomes considered. Limitations in the available literature prevent firm conclusions from being reached about the relative economic merits of the various approaches to the prevention of PIs. The authors' review

  15. National strategy for suicide prevention in Japan: impact of a national fund on progress of developing systems for suicide prevention and implementing initiatives among local authorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Yamauchi, Takashi; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the Cabinet Office released the 'General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy' in 2007 and suggested nine initiatives. In 2009, a national fund was launched to help prefectures (the administrative divisions of Japan) and local authorities implement five categories of suicide-prevention programs. This paper examines the impact of the national fund on the establishment of the systems for suicide prevention and the implementation of these initiatives among local authorities. The present study included 1385 local authorities (79.5%) from all 47 prefectures that responded to the cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Improved suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives in April 2013 were observed among 265 local authorities (19.1%) that implemented 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; 178 local authorities (12.9%) that implemented 'Face-to-face counseling', 'Training of community service providers' and 'Public awareness campaigns'; and 324 local authorities (23.4%) that implemented 'Trauma-informed policies and practices'. There was no significant difference in suicide-prevention systems and the implementation of nine initiatives between 203 local authorities (14.7%) that implemented only 'Public awareness campaigns' and 231 local authorities (16.7%) that did not implement any suicide-prevention programs. The results of our study suggest that the national fund promoted the establishment of community systems for suicide prevention and helped implement initiatives among local authorities. The national suicide-prevention strategy in Japan should explore a standard package of programs to guide community suicide-prevention efforts with a sustained workforce among local authorities. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  16. Fire prevention in industrial installations presenting a risk for man and environment (ICPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moche, L.

    2000-01-01

    The most likely accident in industrial installations is fire. 59 out of 100 accidents reported in 1999 describe a fire outbreak, the fire is either the initiating cause of the accident or the form into which the event eventually evolves. This article briefly describes the why and the wherefore of French regulations on fire prevention in installations presenting a risk for man and environment. The French system is based on the responsibility of the plant operator and on the result of inspections performed by authorities to check the conformity of the installation with current regulations. (A.C.)

  17. The Impacts of Self-Presentation Strategies and Social Support on Tourism Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jeongmi; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of how tourists’ self-presentation is managed on Social Networking Sites (SNS). Specifically, the study investigated the effects of SNS use on social support and tourism experience and the moderating role of the different tourists’ self-presentation...... likely they are to have a positive tourism experience. Also, it is argued that social support does not always directly result from the intense SNS use, but rather moderated by tourists’ self-presentation strategies....

  18. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  19. Future trends in environmental mercury concentrations: implications for prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunderland Elsie M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their new paper, Bellanger and coauthors show substantial economic impacts to the EU from neurocognitive impairment associated with methylmercury (MeHg exposures. The main source of MeHg exposure is seafood consumption, including many marine species harvested from the global oceans. Fish, birds and other wildlife are also susceptible to the impacts of MeHg and already exceed toxicological thresholds in vulnerable regions like the Arctic. Most future emissions scenarios project a growth or stabilization of anthropogenic mercury releases relative to present-day levels. At these emissions levels, inputs of mercury to ecosystems are expected to increase substantially in the future, in part due to growth in the legacy reservoirs of mercury in oceanic and terrestrial ecosystems. Seawater mercury concentration trajectories in areas such as the North Pacific Ocean that supply large quantities of marine fish to the global seafood market are projected to increase by more than 50% by 2050. Fish mercury levels and subsequent human and biological exposures are likely to also increase because production of MeHg in ocean ecosystems is driven by the supply of available inorganic mercury, among other factors. Analyses that only consider changes in primary anthropogenic emissions are likely to underestimate the severity of future deposition and concentration increases associated with growth in mercury reservoirs in the land and ocean. We therefore recommend that future policy analyses consider the fully coupled interactions among short and long-lived reservoirs of mercury in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial ecosystems. Aggressive anthropogenic emission reductions are needed to reduce MeHg exposures and associated health impacts on humans and wildlife and protect the integrity of one of the last wild-food sources globally. In the near-term, public health advice on safe fish consumption choices such as smaller species, younger fish, and harvests

  20. Microbiological Surveillance and State of the Art Technological Strategies for the Prevention of Dialysis Water Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Galfrè

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Methods: The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Results: Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Conclusions: Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  1. Microbiological surveillance and state of the art technological strategies for the prevention of dialysis water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Contu, Antonio; Meloni, Patrizia; Vacca, Dorio; Galfrè, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The present report attempts to illustrate the positive impact on the microbiological quality of dialysis patients over a 15-year period through the progressive implementation of state-of-the-art technological strategies and the optimization of microbiological surveillance procedures in five dialysis units in Sardinia. Following on better microbiological, quality controls of dialysis water and improvement of procedures and equipment, a drastic improvement of microbiological water quality was observed in a total of 945 samples. The main aim was to introduce the use of microbiological culture methods as recommended by the most important guidelines. The microbiological results obtained have led to a progressive refining of controls and introduction of new materials and equipment, including two-stage osmosis and piping distribution rings featuring a greater capacity to prevent biofilm adhesion. The actions undertaken have resulted in unexpected quality improvements. Dialysis water should be viewed by the nephrologist as a medicinal product exerting a demonstrable positive impact on microinflammation in dialysis patients. A synergic effort between nephrologists and microbiologists undoubtedly constitutes the most effective means of preventing dialysis infections.

  2. Nonpharmacological, blood conservation techniques for preventing neonatal anemia--effective and promising strategies for reducing transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Patrick D; Widness, John A

    2012-08-01

    The development of anemia after birth in very premature, critically ill newborn infants is a universal well-described phenomenon. Although preventing anemia in this population, along with efforts to establish optimal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and pharmacologic therapy continue to be actively investigated, the present review focuses exclusively on nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of neonatal anemia. We begin with an overview of topics relevant to nonpharmacological techniques. These topics include neonatal and fetoplacental hemoglobin levels and blood volumes, clinical and laboratory practices applied in critically ill neonates, and current RBC transfusion practice guidelines. This is followed by a discussion of the most effective and promising nonpharmacological blood conservation strategies and techniques. Fortunately, many of these techniques are feasible in most neonatal intensive care units. When applied together, these techniques are more effective than existing pharmacotherapies in significantly decreasing neonatal RBC transfusions. They include increasing hemoglobin endowment and circulating blood volume at birth; removing less blood for laboratory testing; and optimizing nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonpharmacological, Blood Conservation Techniques for Preventing Neonatal Anemia—Effective and Promising Strategies for Reducing Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Patrick D.; Widness, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of anemia after birth in very premature, critically ill newborn infants is a universal well-described phenomenon. Although preventing anemia in this population, along with efforts to establish optimal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and pharmacologic therapy continue to be actively investigated, the present review focuses exclusively on nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of neonatal anemia. We begin with an overview of topics relevant to nonpharmacological techniques. These topics include neonatal and fetoplacental hemoglobin levels and blood volumes, clinical and laboratory practices applied in critically ill neonates, and current RBC transfusion practice guidelines. This is followed by a discussion of the most effective and promising nonpharmacological blood conservation strategies and techniques. Fortunately, many of these techniques are feasible in most neonatal intensive care units. When applied together, these techniques are more effective than existing pharmacotherapies in significantly decreasing neonatal RBC transfusions. They include increasing hemoglobin endowment and circulating blood volume at birth; removing less blood for laboratory testing; and optimizing nutrition. PMID:22818543

  4. Strategies for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, A; Stronati, M

    2008-04-01

    Nosocomial infections are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Prevention of healthcare-associated infections is based on strategies that aim to limit susceptibility to infections by enhancing host defences, interrupting transmission of organisms by healthcare workers and by promoting the judicious use of antimicrobials. Several strategies are available and include: hand hygiene practices; prevention of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections; judicious use of antimicrobials for therapy and prophylaxis; enhancement of host defences; skin care; and early enteral feeding with human milk.

  5. Is the high-risk strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach Kildemoes, Helle; Diderichsen, Finn; Krasnik, Allan

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in asymptomatic individuals. Yet, it is unknown whether those at higher CVD risk - i.e. individuals in lower socio-economic position (SEP) - are adequately reached by this high-risk strategy. Aim......: To examine whether the Danish implementation of the strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) by initiating statin (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) therapy in high-risk individuals is equitable across socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Design: Cohort study. Setting and participants: Applying individual...

  6. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  7. Recruitment strategies for a hand dermatitis prevention programme in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, Martin; Ladermann, Regina; Stadeler, Martina; Fluhr, Joachim Wilhelm; Elsner, Peter; Bauer, Andrea

    2008-09-01

    An interdisciplinary 'Skin Disease Prevention Programme (SDPP) in the baking, hotel, and catering industries' was established. However, only 30% of the eligible employees suffering from occupational hand dermatitis (OHD) participated in the programme. The aim of the present study was to increase the participation rate in the SDPP from 30% to 50% by specific recruitment strategies. Two hundred and twenty five baker and catering trade employees suffering from OHD were included in a prospective controlled intervention study. The employees were invited to take part in the SDPP using (i) a standard invitation letter (n = 40), (ii) a newly developed, personalized, and targeted invitation letter (n = 52), (iii) the new invitation letter and a case report (n = 75), and (iv) the new invitation letter, the case report, and the additional information (n = 58). The commitment of the employees to join the SDPP increased significantly from 30% to 54% (P < 0.02) in the group receiving the new personalized targeted invitation letter. Neither the additional case report nor the supplementation with additional information concerning the SDPP did further increase the recruitment. The strategy to personalize and target the new invitation letter was successful to influence the employees' commitment to participate in the SDPP.

  8. Pressure injury prevention strategies in acute medical inpatients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Sharon; Chaboyer, Wendy; Gillespie, Brigid

    2016-01-01

    Pressure injuries are a patient safety issue. Despite the suite of prevention strategies, sustained reductions in pressure injury prevalence rates have not been achieved. Generally, nurses are usually responsible for assessing patients' pressure injury risk, and then implementing appropriate prevention strategies. The study aim was to describe five planned and implemented pressure injury prevention strategies (risk assessment, management plan, support surface, repositioning, and education), and determine if a relationship existed between the planning and implementation of support surfaces and regular repositioning. An observational study collecting data using chart audits and semi-structured observations. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. This study was set in four medical units across two Australian metropolitan hospitals. The sample comprised adult medical inpatients with reduced mobility. A subsample of participants assessed at pressure injury risk on admission was drawn from this sample. Participants were aged ≥18 years, had a hospital length of stay of ≥3 days prior to recruitment, provided an informed consent, and had reduced mobility. There was suboptimal planning and implementation of pressure injury prevention strategies for the sample and subsample. There was a significant relationship between planned and implemented support surfaces at both hospitals; however, no relationship existed between the planned and implemented of regular repositioning at either site. The planning and implementation of pressure injury strategies is haphazard. Patients received support surfaces; however, gaps exist in pressure injury risk assessment, management planning, regular repositioning, and patient education.

  9. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  10. Setting strategy for system change: using concept mapping to prioritise national action for chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutzke, Sonia; Roberts, Nick; Willis, Cameron; Best, Allan; Wilson, Andrew; Trochim, William

    2017-08-08

    Chronic diseases are a serious and urgent problem, requiring at-scale, multi-component, multi-stakeholder action and cooperation. Despite numerous national frameworks and agenda-setting documents to coordinate prevention efforts, Australia, like many countries internationally, is yet to substantively impact the burden from chronic disease. Improved evidence on effective strategies for the prevention of chronic disease is required. This research sought to articulate a priority set of important and feasible action domains to inform future discussion and debate regarding priority areas for chronic disease prevention policy and strategy. Using concept mapping, a mixed-methods approach to making use of the best available tacit knowledge of recognised, diverse and well-experienced actors, and national actions to improve the prevention of chronic disease in Australia were identified and then mapped. Participants (ranging from 58 to 78 in the various stages of the research) included a national sample of academics, policymakers and practitioners. Data collection involved the generation and sorting of statements by participants. A series of visual representations of the data were then developed. A total of 95 statements were distilled into 12 clusters for action, namely Inter-Sectoral Partnerships; Systems Perspective/Action; Governance; Roles and Responsibilities; Evidence, Feedback and Learning; Funding and Incentive; Creating Demand; Primary Prevention; Social Determinants and Equity; Healthy Environments; Food and Nutrition; and Regulation and Policy. Specific areas for more immediate national action included refocusing the health system to prevention over cure, raising the profile of public health with health decision-makers, funding policy- and practice-relevant research, improving communication about prevention, learning from both global best-practice and domestic successes and failures, increasing the focus on primary prevention, and developing a long-term prevention

  11. LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES OF HIGH PROFICIENCY STUDENTS IN THEIR ORAL PRESENTATION AT ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION OF PGRI RONGGOLAWE UNIVERSITY TUBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina I.T. Panggabean

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to describe 1 the language learning strategies used by male and female students with high speaking performance in their oral presentation and 2 their reasons of using certain language learning strategies. This study used descriptive qualitative method. The subject of the study were ten high proficiency students consisting of four male students and six female students. Questionnaire and interview were used to collect the data. The data from the questionnaire and the interview were analyzed descriptively. The result indicated that all of the students from high proficiency level used all learning strategies, including memory strategy, cognitive strategy, compensation strategy, metacognitive strategy, affective strategy, and social strategy. The students were categorized as medium users of language learning strategy. High proficiency male students used compensation strategy (3.85 the most frequently, followed by meta-cognitive strategy (3.63 and social strategy (3.37. Meanwhile, high proficiency female students used cognitive strategy (4.02 the most frequently, followed by compensation strategy (3.77 and metacognitive strategy (3.72. Both male and female students had some different and similar reasons of using certain language learning strategies for their oral presentation task.

  12. Prioritizing strategies for preventing medication errors and adverse drug events in pediatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortescue, Elizabeth B; Kaushal, Rainu; Landrigan, Christopher P; McKenna, Kathryn J; Clapp, Margaret D; Federico, Frank; Goldmann, Donald A; Bates, David W

    2003-04-01

    Medication errors in pediatric inpatients occur at similar rates as in adults but have 3 times the potential to cause harm. Error prevention strategies in this setting remain largely untested. The objective of this study was to classify the major types of medication errors in pediatric inpatients and to determine which strategies might most effectively prevent them. A prospective cohort study was conducted of 1020 patients who were admitted to 2 academic medical centers during a 6-week period in April and May 1999. Medication errors were characterized by subtype. Physician raters evaluated error prevention strategies and identified those that might be most effective in preventing errors. Of 10 778 medication orders reviewed, 616 contained errors. Of these, 120 (19.5%) were classified as potentially harmful, including 115 potential adverse drug events (18.7%) and 5 preventable adverse drug events (0.8%). Most errors occurred at the ordering stage (74%) and involved errors in dosing (28%), route (18%), or frequency (9%). Three interventions might have prevented most potentially harmful errors: 1) computerized physician order entry with clinical decision support systems (76%); 2) ward-based clinical pharmacists (81%); and 3) improved communication among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists (86%). Interrater reliability of error prevention strategy assignment was good (agreement: 0.92; kappa: 0.82). Of the assessed interventions, computerized physician order entry with clinical decision support systems; ward-based clinical pharmacists; and improved communication among physicians, nurses, and pharmacists had the greatest potential to reduce medication errors in pediatric inpatients. Development, implementation, and assessment of such interventions in the pediatric inpatient setting are needed.

  13. Present status of Tomari No.3 unit construction and efforts for preventing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Inc. (HEPCO) supplies electricity to almost all area of Hokkaido. Its service area accounts for about one-fifth of Japan's area, on the other hand, the population of the service area only accounts for 4.4% of the nation. This means Hokkaido's nature is precious, and one of HEPCO's missions is to protect such environment, with providing stable electricity. Therefore, nuclear power, which does not emit greenhouse effect gas for generation, is becoming more important. HEPCO's operating nuclear power stations are Tomari No.1 unit and No.2 unit. Their generation capacity is 579 MW respectively. Now, No.3 unit is under construction. Its generation capacity is 912 MW and it will be operational in December 2009. In Hokkaido, about one fourth of electricity is now produced by nuclear power, however, after Tomari No.3 is completed, about 40% of electricity will be produced by nuclear. So, Tomari No.3 unit will contribute stable supply of electricity in the first half of 21st century and prevent global warming in Hokkaido. This paper describes the present status of Tomari No.3 unit construction with major specifications and our efforts to prevent global warming. (author)

  14. Prevention of congenital defects induced by prenatal alcohol exposure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2017-02-01

    Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.

  15. Policy and governance to address depression and suicide in Bhutan: The national suicide-prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorji, Gampo; Choki, Sonam; Jamphel, Kinga; Wangdi, Yeshi; Chogyel, Tandin; Dorji, Chencho; Nirola, Damber Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Suicide and mental disorders are a growing public health issue in Bhutan, due in part to a rapidly transitioning society. The burden of suicide has been recognized by the Royal Government of Bhutan and, as a result, it introduced the country's first ever national suicide-prevention plan in 2015. The 3-year action plan takes a holistic approach to making suicide-prevention services a top social priority, through strengthening suicide-prevention policies, promoting socially protective measures, mitigating risk factors and reaching out to individuals who are at risk of suicide or affected by incidents of suicide. This article documents Bhutan's policy and governance for addressing depression and suicide within the context of its national suicide-prevention strategy, examines progress and highlights lessons for future directions in suicide prevention. Since the endorsement of the 3-year action plan by the prime minister's cabinet, the implementation of suicide-prevention measures has been accelerated through a high-level national steering committee. Activities include suicide-prevention actions by sectors such as health, education, monastic communities and police; building capacity of gatekeepers; and improving the suicide information system to inform policies and decision-making. Suicide-prevention activities have become the responsibility of local governments, paving the way for suicide prevention as an integral mandate across sectors and at grass-root levels in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

  16. [Public health strategies in the prevention of induced abortion. An experience of interprofessional education based strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitini, E; Russo, M L; Civitelli, G; Pizzini, E; Marceca, M; Di Foggia, F; Marceca Iascone, M

    2014-01-01

    In Italy recent statistics show a huge difference between abortion rate among Italian and migrant women: is it an inequity in health? The Italian Ministry of Health / Center for Disease Prevention and Control, which recognized this issue as a specific public health problem, has financed a national Project whose aim was the prevention of abortion among migrant women. The Project was characterized by a multitasking approach: 1) information and health education of migrant women and their communities; 2) education of health and social care professionals; 3) analysis and development of new proposals for the networks of services directed towards the improvement of woman's health. In this article the Authors describe the main characteristics of the realized intervention of inter-professional education. It began with a multidisciplinary process for the identification of educational needs which has allowed the identification of educational goals. A Training of Trainers event was then organized in order to involve and make the ten Italian Regions partners of the Project aware of their responsibilities. A DVD collecting all the material of the course and other useful resources was produced in order to support the educational process. At the moment it is not possible to evaluate the medium- and long-time results of the process (e.g. the efficacy of educational interventions or the health outcomes related to the reduction of abortion among migrant women). Nevertheless all the actors involved have made positive evaluations on the usefulness of the process.

  17. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Laura Calderón- Garcidueñas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  18. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth

  19. Progress on new vaccine strategies for the immunotherapy and prevention of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Berzofsky, Jay A.; Terabe, Masaki; Oh, SangKon; Belyakov, Igor M.; Ahlers, Jeffrey D.; Janik, John E.; Morris, John C.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, great strides in understanding and regulating the immune system have led to new hope for harnessing its exquisite specificity to destroy cancer cells without affecting normal tissues. This review examines the fundamental immunologic advances and the novel vaccine strategies arising from these advances, as well as the early clinical trials studying new approaches to treat or prevent cancer.

  20. Carpal tunnel syndrome. Risk factors and preventive strategies for the dental hygienist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwatowski, L J; McFall, D B; Stach, D J

    1992-02-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is well recognized as an occupational risk for dental hygienists. The contributing risk factors fall primarily into two categories: medical and occupational. The purposes of this paper are to examine the factors that predispose one to CTS in order to increase awareness among dental hygienists, and to offer preventive strategies that can be incorporated into daily practice.

  1. Perceived Stressors of Suicide and Potential Prevention Strategies for Suicide among Youths in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jin Kuan; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Chan, Andrea Huan Wen

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate among youths in Malaysia has increased over the years, giving rise to considerable public concern. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe potential stressors of suicide and suicide prevention strategies as perceived by youths in Malaysia aged 15-25 years. A qualitative approach was adopted and 625 students from…

  2. Children, Teachers, and Families Working Together to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…

  3. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  4. Strategies for prevention of urinary tract infections in neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Lance L; Klausner, Adam P

    2014-08-01

    In this article, the problem of urinary tract infections (UTIs) after spinal cord injury and disorders is defined, the relationship of bladder management to UTIs is discussed, and mechanical and medical strategies for UTI prevention in spinal cord injury and disorders are described. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Experiences of Peer Evaluation of the Leicester Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Jennie; Chong, Hannah Goodman; Skinner, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The Centre for Social Action was commissioned by the Leicester City Council to evaluate its Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Strategy. This was a multi-stage project with a central element of consulting with young people. This article outlines the process that was followed in order to recruit, train and support young people through the process of…

  6. Eating Issues and Body Image in Elementary School: Detection and Prevention Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sarah I.; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2016-01-01

    Body image disturbance continues to be recognized in increasingly younger populations. Eating issues among elementary school children have become more overt and statistically prevalent in recent years. Elementary school counselors are in important positions to provide their communities with early detection information and prevention strategies.…

  7. Strategies Texas Superintendents Use to Prevent and Resolve Conflicts with School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hector Jose

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the strategies Texas superintendents use to both prevent and resolve conflicts between the school board-superintendent leadership team and to examine the effects of gender, age, ethnicity, level of education, experience in education, tenure as a superintendent, leadership style, and type and…

  8. Strategies for Preventing and Resolving Temporary Fossilization in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Manqiu; Xiao, Zhihong

    2010-01-01

    Based on the practice of college English teaching and learning in China, the paper reviews the phenomenon and causes of the temporary fossilization in second language acquisition and offers some corresponding strategies for preventing and surmounting the obstacles in the hope of promoting the reactivation of the next climax.

  9. FUNCTIONAL STRATEGIES OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN POLICESERVICEIN PREVENTION AND COMBATING OF SUBSTANCEABUSEIN A SOUTH AFRICAN TOWNSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Machethe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focused on the functional strategies and initiatives takenby SouthAfrican Police Service(SAPStowards prevention and combating of substanceabusein a South African Township. The study made useof mainly quantitative(survey methodto collect relevant data from 80participants who were selectedfrom the SAPS, local churches,Non-governmental organisations (NGOsandcommunity members.The findings of this study indicate an array of strategies inuse. Police regular conduct of stop and search in certain sectors than others,regular patrols, use of reliable volunteer informants (informants, secret detection,tracking and investigation, sharing of crime information tips and education ofpublic, and police partnership with civilorganisations were revealed as thesustaining strategies by the SAPS.Critical analysis of these strategies in the studyrevealed a mixed bag of functionality. Pragmaticsuggestions to improve on thelagging strategies were made by this study.

  10. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Astrid; Wellmann, Kai

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player’s perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer) club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%). It included categories with (1) history of lower extremity injuries, (2) perceptions regarding risk factors and (3) regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2%) had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1%) and environmental factors (25.9%). The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25%) and uninjured players (0.0%). Nearly all players (91.5%) perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%). Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes. PMID:28459845

  11. Perceptions of football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zech

    Full Text Available Current approaches regarding injury prevention focus on the transfer of evidence into daily practice. One promising approach is to influence attitudes and beliefs of players. The objective of this study was to record player's perceptions on injury prevention. A survey was performed among players of one German high-level football (soccer club. 139 professional and youth players between age 13 and 35 years completed a standardized questionnaire (response rate = 98%. It included categories with (1 history of lower extremity injuries, (2 perceptions regarding risk factors and (3 regularly used prevention strategies. The majority of players (84.2% had a previous injury. 47.5% of respondents believe that contact with other players is a risk factor, followed by fatigue (38.1% and environmental factors (25.9%. The relevance of previous injuries as a risk factor is differently perceived between injured (25% and uninjured players (0.0%. Nearly all players (91.5% perform stretching to prevent injuries, followed by neuromuscular warm up exercises (54.0%. Taping is used by 40.2% of previously injured players and 13.6% of players without a history of injuries. In conclusion, the perception of risk factors and performed preventive strategies are inconsistent with scientific evidence. Future transfer strategies should incorporate the players beliefs and attitudes.

  12. Sexual Behavior and Vaginal Practices During Pregnancy and Postpartum: Implications for HIV Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinuthia, John; Richardson, Barbra A; Drake, Alison L; Matemo, Daniel; Unger, Jennifer A; McClelland, Raymond S; John-Stewart, Grace

    2017-02-01

    Understanding sexual behaviors and vaginal practices of pregnant and breastfeeding women in sub-Saharan Africa is critical to inform HIV prevention strategies during these periods. HIV-uninfected women presenting for antenatal care in western Kenya were enrolled and followed through 36 weeks postpartum. Sexual behavior and vaginal practices were ascertained by structured questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to assess correlates of unprotected sex, vaginal washing, and vaginal drying. Among 1252 women enrolled, 78.4% were married (of whom 15.1% were in polygamous unions), 1.4% had a known HIV-infected partner, and 33.6% had a partner of unknown HIV status. At enrollment, 58.5% reported sex in the past month (94.3% unprotected) and 4.5% reported forced sex. Odds of unprotected sex at enrollment was >11-fold higher in married than in unmarried women (P < 0.001) and lower among women who reported partners of unknown HIV status or HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected partners. Median time to postpartum resumption of sex was 7 weeks (interquartile range 4-12). Prevalence of unprotected sex in the past week increased from 6.6% to 60.0% between 2 and 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing was reported by 60.1% of women at enrollment and prevalence remained stable postpartum; vaginal drying was reported by 17.9% at enrollment and decreased to 6.1% at 36 weeks postpartum (P < 0.001). Vaginal washing and drying were associated with forced sex. High rates of unknown partner HIV status, polygamy, and less frequent condom use among pregnant/postpartum women underscore the need for female-controlled HIV prevention interventions. Vaginal washing and drying may present challenges to microbicide use.

  13. Prevention strategies for esophageal cancer: Perspectives of the East vs. West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are the two major phenotypes in Western and Eastern countries, respectively. Because of different pathways in carcinogenesis, the risk factors and effective steps for prevention of esophageal cancer are different between EAC and ESCC. The carcinogenesis of EAC is initiated by the acid exposure of the esophageal mucosa from stomach while that of the ESCC are related to the chronic irritation of carcinogens mainly by the alcohol, cigarette, betel quid, and hot beverage. To eliminate the burden of esophageal cancer on the global health, the effective strategy should be composed of the primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. In this article, we perform a systematic review of the preventive strategies for esophageal cancer with special emphasis on the differences from the perspectives of Western and Eastern countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in dentistry professionals. 2. Prevention, ergonomic strategies and therapeutic programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, F; Franchignoni, F; Ferriero, G; Vercelli, S; Odescalchi, L; Augusti, D; Migliario, M

    2005-01-01

    In dental professionals the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) can be minimized through a combination of prevention, ergonomic strategies, and specific therapeutic programs. Prevention includes early identification of symptoms, analysis of working posture and activity, and the evaluation of equipment (such as dental instruments, position of the dental unit, patient and operator chairs, and lighting). The ergonomic strategies are based on identifying the best daily timetable (including periodic pauses) and most efficient team organization, as well as establishing the correct position that should be held at the patient chair. Finally specific therapeutic programs are very important in preventing or treating WMSD. In fact, fitness exercises such as mobilization, stretching or muscular and cardiovascular training are recognized as fundamental for dental professionals, and when WMSD occurs physiatric care and physical therapy are recommended.

  15. Strategies to prevent the occurrence of resistance against antibiotics by using advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassegoda, Arnau; Ivanova, Kristina; Ramon, Eva; Tzanov, Tzanko

    2018-03-01

    Drug resistance occurrence is a global healthcare concern responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality in hospitals, time of hospitalisation and huge financial loss. The failure of the most antibiotics to kill "superbugs" poses the urgent need to develop innovative strategies aimed at not only controlling bacterial infection but also the spread of resistance. The prevention of pathogen host invasion by inhibiting bacterial virulence and biofilm formation, and the utilisation of bactericidal agents with different mode of action than classic antibiotics are the two most promising new alternative strategies to overcome antibiotic resistance. Based on these novel approaches, researchers are developing different advanced materials (nanoparticles, hydrogels and surface coatings) with novel antimicrobial properties. In this review, we summarise the recent advances in terms of engineered materials to prevent bacteria-resistant infections according to the antimicrobial strategies underlying their design.

  16. Effectiveness of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Strategies for Adult Patients in Intensive Care Units: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-12-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with substantial health burden, but could be preventable. Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) prevention has become a priority for all healthcare settings, as it is considered a sign of quality of care providing. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are at higher risk for HAPUs development. Despite the availability of published prevention strategies, there is a little evidence about which strategies can be safely integrated into routine standard care and have an impact on HAPUs prevention. The aim was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of single strategies designed to reduce the incidence and prevalence of HAPUs development in ICUs. The search strategy was designed to retrieve studies published in English across CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Scopus, and Mednar between 2000 and 2015. All adult ICU participants were aged 18 years or over. This review included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental and comparative studies. The studies that were selected for retrieval were assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review using standardized critical-appraisal instruments. The review included 25 studies, and the meta-analysis revealed a statistically significant effect of a silicon foam dressing strategy in reducing HAPUs incidence (effect size = 4.62; 95% CI: 0.05-0.29; p prevention of HAPUs development in the ICU was limited, which precludes strong conclusions. The review provides an evidence-based guide to future priorities for clinical practice. In particular, a silicone foam dressing has positive impact in reducing sacrum and heel HAPUs incidence in the ICU. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  17. Hydrocarbons and conflicts in the world - Energy strategies and present stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardillier-Carras, Francoise; Boulanger, Philippe; Ortolland, Didier

    2012-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the authors discuss the role of energy resources as factors of tension or conflicts between countries. After an overview of the issue of energy geo-strategy, they describe the geography of conflict sources in terms of territories, energy fields, reserves and exploitation. Then, they address the case hydrocarbons which are a matter of conflicts and strategic tensions in the world, and notably between States and non-State actors. They identify different types of conflicts about hydrocarbons, and their role in peace and reconstruction. In a third part, they address the issue of energy routes: the big game about pipelines, and maritime routes

  18. Evidence-based Update of Pediatric Dental Restorative Procedures: Preventive Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinanoff, N; Coll, J A; Dhar, V; Maas, W R; Chhibber, S; Zokaei, L

    2015-01-01

    There has been significant advances in the understanding of preventive restorative procedures regarding the advantages and disadvantages for restorative procedures; the evidence for conservative techniques for deep carious lesions; the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants; and the evidence for use of resin infiltration techniques. The intent of this review is to help practitioners use evidence to make decisions regarding preventive restorative dentistry in children and young adolescents. This evidence-based review appraises the literature, primarily between the years 1995-2013, on preventive restorative strategies. The evidence was graded as to strong evidence, evidence in favor, or expert opinion by consensus of authors Results: The preventive strategy for dental caries includes individualized assessment of disease progression and management with appropriate preventive and restorative therapy. There is strong evidence that restoration of teeth with incomplete caries excavation results in fewer signs and symptoms of pulpal disease than complete excavation. There is strong evidence that sealants should be placed on pit and fissure surfaces judged to be at risk for dental caries, and surfaces that already exhibit incipient, non-cavitated carious lesions. There is evidence in favor for resin infiltration to improve the clinical appearance of white spot lesions. Substantial evidence exists in the literature regarding the value of preventive dental restorative procedures.

  19. Clean Energy Manufacturing: U.S. Competitiveness and State Policy Strategies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2014-02-01

    The capital intensive nature of clean energy technologies suggests that manufacturing clean energy equipment has the potential to support state and local economic development efforts. However, manufacturing siting decisions tend to be complex and multi-variable decision processes that require in-depth knowledge of specific markets, the logistical requirements of a given technology, and insight into global clean tech trends. This presentation highlights the potential of manufacturing in supporting economic development opportunities while also providing examples of the financial considerations affecting manufacturing facility siting decisions for wind turbine blades and solar PV. The presentation also includes discussion of other more qualitative drivers of facility siting decisions as gleaned from NREL industry interviews and discusses strategies state and local policymakers may employee to bolster their chances of successfully attracting clean energy manufacturers to their localities.

  20. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  1. Triple surveillance: a proposal for an integrated strategy to support and accelerate birth defect prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroiacovo, Pierpaolo

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) easily qualifies as a high‐value opportunity to improve childhood survival and health: the unmet need is significant (major preventable burden), the intervention is transformative (providing sufficient folic acid), and delivery strategies (e.g., fortification) are effective in low‐resource countries. Yet, NTD prevention is lagging. Can public health surveillance help fix this problem? Critics contend that surveillance is largely unnecessary, that limited resources are best spent on interventions, and that surveillance is unrealistic in developing countries. The counterargument is twofold: (1) in the absence of surveillance, interventions will provide fewer benefits and cost more and (2) effective surveillance is likely possible nearly everywhere, with appropriate strategies. As a base strategy, we propose “triple surveillance:” integrating surveillance of cause (folate insufficiency), of disease occurrence (NTD prevalence), and of health outcomes (morbidity, mortality, and disability). For better sustainability and usefulness, it is crucial to refocus and streamline surveillance activities (no recreational data collection), weave surveillance into clinical care (integrate in clinical workflow), and, later, work on including additional risk factors and pediatric outcomes (increase benefits at low marginal cost). By doing so, surveillance becomes not a roadblock but a preferential path to prevention and better care. PMID:29532515

  2. Whole of Systems Trial of Prevention Strategies for Childhood Obesity: WHO STOPS Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Allender

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based initiatives show promise for preventing childhood obesity. They are characterized by community leaders and members working together to address complex local drivers of energy balance. Objectives: To present a protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial in ten communities in the Great South Coast Region of Victoria, Australia to test whether it is possible to: (1 strengthen community action for childhood obesity prevention, and (2 measure the impact of increased action on risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods: The WHO STOPS intervention involves a facilitated community engagement process that: creates an agreed systems map of childhood obesity causes for a community; identifies intervention opportunities through leveraging the dynamic aspects of the system; and, converts these understandings into community-built, systems-oriented action plans. Ten communities will be randomized (1:1 to intervention or control in year one and all communities will be included by year three. The primary outcome is childhood obesity prevalence among grade two (ages 7–8 y, grade four (9–10 y and grade six (11–12 y students measured using our established community-led monitoring system (69% school and 93% student participation rate in government and independent schools. An additional group of 13 external communities from other regions of Victoria with no specific interventions will provide an external comparison. These communities will also allow us to assess diffusion of the intervention to control communities during the first three years of the trial. Conclusion: This trial will test effectiveness, over a five-year period, of community-owned, -supported and -led strategies designed to address complex and dynamic causes of childhood obesity.

  3. Whole of Systems Trial of Prevention Strategies for Childhood Obesity: WHO STOPS Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Steven; Millar, Lynne; Hovmand, Peter; Bell, Colin; Moodie, Marj; Carter, Rob; Swinburn, Boyd; Strugnell, Claudia; Lowe, Janette; de la Haye, Kayla; Orellana, Liliana; Morgan, Sue

    2016-11-16

    Background : Community-based initiatives show promise for preventing childhood obesity. They are characterized by community leaders and members working together to address complex local drivers of energy balance. Objectives : To present a protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomized trial in ten communities in the Great South Coast Region of Victoria, Australia to test whether it is possible to: (1) strengthen community action for childhood obesity prevention, and (2) measure the impact of increased action on risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods: The WHO STOPS intervention involves a facilitated community engagement process that: creates an agreed systems map of childhood obesity causes for a community; identifies intervention opportunities through leveraging the dynamic aspects of the system; and, converts these understandings into community-built, systems-oriented action plans. Ten communities will be randomized (1:1) to intervention or control in year one and all communities will be included by year three. The primary outcome is childhood obesity prevalence among grade two (ages 7-8 y), grade four (9-10 y) and grade six (11-12 y) students measured using our established community-led monitoring system (69% school and 93% student participation rate in government and independent schools). An additional group of 13 external communities from other regions of Victoria with no specific interventions will provide an external comparison. These communities will also allow us to assess diffusion of the intervention to control communities during the first three years of the trial. Conclusion : This trial will test effectiveness, over a five-year period, of community-owned, -supported and -led strategies designed to address complex and dynamic causes of childhood obesity.

  4. Strategies to Build Readiness in Community Mobilization Efforts for Implementation in a Multi-Year Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Implemented Crime Prevention Strategies of PNP in Salug Valley, Zamboanga Del Sur, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark E. Patalinghug

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed primarily to determine the effectiveness of crime prevention strategies implemented by the Salug Valley Philippine National Police (PNP in terms of Police Integrated Patrol System, Barangay Peacekeeping Operation, Anti - Criminality Operation, Integrated Area Community Public Safety services, Bantay Turista and Scho ol Safety Project as evaluated by 120 inhabitants and 138 PNP officers from four Municipalities of Salug Valley Zamboanga del Sur. Stratified random sampling was utilized in determining the respondents. Index crime rate were correlated with the crime preve ntion strategies of the PNP in town of Salug Valley. A descriptive method of research was applied in this study utilizing self - made questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using the main statistical tools like frequency count, percentage, mean com putation, Kruskal Wallis Analysis of Variance and simple correlation. Findings of the study revealed that the crime prevention strategies in four (4 municipalities were “much effective” to include Integrated Patrol System, Barangay Peace Keeping Operation s, Anti - Criminality Operations, Integrated Area Community Public Safety Services, Bantay Turista and School Safety Project in connection to the responses of 158 participants. There is a significant relationship between crime prevention strategies employed and index crime rate.

  6. Dairy farmers' perceptions toward the implementation of on-farm Johne's disease prevention and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Jansen, J; Roth, K; Kastelic, J P; Adams, C L; Barkema, H W

    2016-11-01

    Implementation of specific management strategies on dairy farms is currently the most effective way to reduce the prevalence of Johne's disease (JD), an infectious chronic enteritis of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). However, dairy farmers often fail to implement recommended strategies. The objective of this study was to assess perceptions of farmers participating in a JD prevention and control program toward recommended practices, and explore factors that influence whether or not a farmer adopts risk-reducing measures for MAP transmission. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 25 dairy farmers enrolled in a voluntary JD control program in Alberta, Canada. Principles of classical grounded theory were used for participant selection, interviewing, and data analysis. Additionally, demographic data and MAP infection status were collected and analyzed using quantitative questionnaires and the JD control program database. Farmers' perceptions were distinguished according to 2 main categories: first, their belief in the importance of JD, and second, their belief in recommended JD prevention and control strategies. Based on these categories, farmers were classified into 4 groups: proactivists, disillusionists, deniers, and unconcerned. The first 2 groups believed in the importance of JD, and proactivists and unconcerned believed in proposed JD prevention and control measures. Groups that regarded JD as important had better knowledge about best strategies to reduce MAP transmission and had more JD risk assessments conducted on their farm. Although not quantified, it also appeared that these groups had more JD prevention and control practices in place. However, often JD was not perceived as a problem in the herd and generally farmers did not regard JD control as a "hot topic" in communications with their herd veterinarian and other farmers. Recommendations regarding how to communicate with farmers and motivate various

  7. Direct marketing of parenting programs: comparing a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Backman, Anna

    2017-06-01

    : For parenting programs to achieve a public health impact, it is necessary to develop more effective marketing strategies to increase public awareness of these programs and promote parental participation. In this article, we compared a promotion-focused and a prevention-focused strategy via two studies. : We designed two ads inviting parents to participate in a universal parenting program; one ad focused on the program increasing the likelihood of positive outcomes for children (promotion-focused) and the other on the program reducing the likelihood of negative outcomes (prevention-focused). In study I, the two ads were run online simultaneously. Those who clicked on an ad were directed to a website where they could read about and sign up for the program. In study II, a community sample of 706 parents answered a questionnaire about the ads. : In study I, over 85 days, the prevention ad generated more clicks. There was no difference in the number of pages visited on the website nor in the number of parents who signed up for the program. In study II, parents showed a preference for the promotion ad, perceiving it as more relevant and rating it as more effective in getting them interested in the program. : A prevention strategy may be more effective in drawing public attention, in general. However, a promotion strategy is more likely to reach parents, in particular, and inspire them to consider participating in parenting programs. These strategies should be developed further and tested in both general and clinical populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Behavioral change communication strategy vital in malaria prevention interventions in rural communities: Nakasongola district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisa, Margaret; Muzoora, Abel

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a leading killer disease in Uganda and it accounts for significant morbidity in pregnant women and children. Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which causes adverse effects including abortion, low birth weight and maternal anaemia. Children with severe malaria frequently develop one of these symptoms including: severe anaemia, respiratory distress, Prostration, convulsions and cerebral malaria. Due to the severity of the disease there is need for multiple interventions to reduce the disease burden. African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) adopted community based approaches to improve malaria prevention. Behavioral change communication (BCC) was fundamental at every process of Project implementation. This paper shares AMREF's experience in using BCC strategies amidst other interventions in malaria prevention approaches involving use of insecticide treated nets and environment management. AMREF through a Malaria project (2007-2010) in Nakasongola district supported BCC activities through training, community mobilization, mass media, health promotion and advocacy. Program performance was measured through baseline and evaluation surveys in 2007 and 2010. The final project evaluation indicated improvement from baseline values as follows: knowledge on prevention of malaria among school children from 76.6% to 90%, under five children sleeping under bed net the previous night from 51% to 74.7%, and from 24% to 78% among pregnant women. Mobilization of malaria prevention interventions can be successful once BCC approaches are adequately planned and coordinated. Malaria prevention through BCC strategies are likely to be more effective with integration of other malaria interventions, and involvement of community based structures.

  9. Fouling on ion-exchange membranes: Classification, characterization and strategies of prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The environmentally friendly ion-exchange membrane (IEM) processes find more and more applications in the modern industries in order to demineralize, concentrate and modify products. Moreover, these processes may be applied for the energy conversion and storage. However, the main drawback of the IEM processes is a formation of fouling, which significantly decreases the process efficiency and increases the process cost. The present review is dedicated to the problematic of IEM fouling phenomena. Firstly, the major types of IEM fouling such as colloidal fouling, organic fouling, scaling and biofouling are discussed along with consideration of the main factors affecting fouling formation and development. Secondly, the review of the possible methods of IEM fouling characterization is provided. This section includes the methods of fouling visualization and characterization as well as methods allowing investigations of characteristics of the fouled IEMs. Eventually, the reader will find the conventional and modern strategies of prevention and control of different fouling types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Is traditional male circumcision effective as an HIV prevention strategy? Evidence from Lesotho.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa M Maffioli

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, male circumcision has been promoted as an effective HIV prevention strategy, and medical randomized controlled trials have indeed shown a causal link. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support this conclusion in countries where individuals can voluntary opt for different types of circumcision. The present study considers male circumcision in Lesotho, where HIV prevalence is among the highest in the world (23%. Here, men can opt for one of two types of circumcision: traditional male circumcision in initiation schools, or the medical option in health clinics. This paper investigates whether the former has medical effects on individual HIV status that are as beneficial as those shown for the latter. Controlling for the potential individual behavioral response after the operation, it was found that circumcision performed in initiation schools wholly offset the medical benefits of the surgical procedure. This supports anecdotal evidence that the operation performed by traditional circumcisers does not have the same protective effect against HIV transmission as the medical operation. No evidence of "disinhibition" behavior among circumcised men was found, nor differential risky sexual behavior among men circumcised, traditionally or medically. Considering that, in Lesotho, traditional male circumcision is undertaken by more than 90% of circumcised men, the findings highlight the need for further research into how the operation in initiation schools is performed and its medical benefits.

  11. A review of 'green' strategies to prevent or mitigate microbiologically influenced corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Brenda; Lee, Jason; Ray, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Two approaches to control microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) have been developed that do not require the use of biocides. These strategies include the following: i) use of biofilms to inhibit or prevent corrosion, and ii) manipulation (removal or addition) of an electron acceptor, (e.g. oxygen, sulphate or nitrate) to influence the microbial population. In both approaches the composition of the microbial community is affected by small perturbations in the environment (e.g. temperature, nutrient concentration and flow) and the response of microorganisms cannot be predicted with certainty. The following sections will review the literature on the effectiveness of these environmentally friendly, "green," strategies for controlling MIC.

  12. Willingness of Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to use antiretroviral-based HIV-1 prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Renee; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Kurth, Ann; Curran, Kathryn; Baeten, Jared M

    2012-09-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy as new human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) prevention approaches for HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Among Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples participating in a clinical trial of PrEP, we conducted a cross-sectional study and used descriptive statistical methods to explore couples' willingness to use antiretrovirals for HIV-1 prevention. The study was conducted before July 2011, when studies among heterosexual populations reported that ART and PrEP reduced HIV-1 risk. For 181 couples in which the HIV-1-infected partner had a CD4 count ≥350 cells per microliter and had not yet initiated ART (and thus did not qualify for ART under Kenyan guidelines), 60.2% of HIV-1 infected partners (69.4% of men and 57.9% of women) were willing to use early ART (at CD4 ≥350 cells per microliter) for HIV-1 prevention. Among HIV-1 uninfected partners, 92.7% (93.8% of men and 86.1% of women) reported willingness to use PrEP. When given a hypothetical choice of early ART or PrEP for HIV-1 prevention, 52.5% of HIV-1-infected participants would prefer to initiate ART early and 56.9% of HIV-1-uninfected participants would prefer to use PrEP. Nearly 40% of Kenyan HIV-1-infected individuals in known HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships reported reservations about early ART initiation for HIV-1 prevention. PrEP interest in this PrEP-experienced population was high. Strategies to achieve high uptake and sustained adherence to ART and PrEP for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples will require responding to couples' preferences for prevention strategies.

  13. Healthy Aging Actions to Advance the National Prevention Strategy: Healthy Heart-- Powerpoint presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Society on Aging is an association of professionals in the field of aging including practitioners, educators, administrators, policymakers, researchers and students. Attendees at this session will receive 1.5 Continuing educational credits and will have a better u...

  14. Strategies for medical data extraction and presentation part 1: current limitations and deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Data overload is a burgeoning challenge for the medical imaging community; with resulting technical, clinical, and economic ramifications. A primary concern for radiologists is the timely, efficient, and accurate extraction of imaging and clinical data, which collectively are essential in determining accurate diagnosis. In current practice, imaging data retrieval is limited by the fact that imaging and report data are de-coupled from one another, along with the non-standardized and often ambiguous free text data contained within narrative radiology reports. Clinical data retrieval is equally challenging and flawed by the lack of information system integration, paucity of clinical order entry data, and diminished role of the technologist in providing clinical data. These combined factors have the potential to adversely affect radiologist performance and clinical outcomes by diminishing workflow, report accuracy, and diagnostic confidence. New and innovative strategies are required to improve and automate data extraction and presentation, in a context- and user-specific fashion.

  15. Evaluating Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs: Decades of Evolving Strategies and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Philliber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the changing strategies for both process and outcome evaluations of teen pregnancy prevention programs over the past few decades. Implementation evaluations have emphasized discovery of what program attributes are most effective in reducing teen pregnancy and its antecedents. Outcome evaluations have moved from collecting data to measure knowledge, attitudes, and program satisfaction to measuring behavior change including postponement of sexual involvement, increased used of contraception, or reduction in teen pregnancy. High quality randomized control trials or quasi-experimental designs are being increasingly emphasized, as are sophisticated analysis techniques using multi-variate analyses, controls for cluster sampling, and other strategies designed to build a more solid knowledge base about how to prevent early pregnancy.

  16. Strategies for prevention of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Pakistan: situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adeel Ahmed; Fatmi, Zafar

    2014-05-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the leading causes of death among productive age group. Using systems approach framework (SAF), current preventive strategies for RTI control were reviewed in Pakistan. A review of the literature was done using four international search engines. Only ten studies on preventive strategies for RTI stemming from Pakistan were found. The first Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) surveillance system for road traffic injuries was established in urban city (Karachi) in Pakistan has shown promise for injury control and should be scaled up to other cities. Enforcement of traffic laws on seat-belt and helmet wearing is poor. National Highway and Motorway Police Ordinance (2000) was one of the few legislative measure so far taken in Pakistan. Using SAF, efforts are required to implement interventions targeting human, vehicle design and also making environment safer for road users.

  17. Effect of Nevirapine Toxicity on Choice of Perinatal HIV Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Jeffrey S. A.; Sinkala, Moses; Rouse, Dwight J.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Vermund, Sten H.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the validity of concerns about the toxicity of nevirapine (NVP) that have delayed its implementation as a perinatal HIV prevention strategy. Methods. A decision analysis model compared 3 strategies: single-dose NVP, short-course zidovudine (ZDV), and no intervention. Results. NVP would prevent more deaths than ZDV and no intervention as long as the rate of NVP toxicity did not exceed, respectively, 9 times that observed in the earlier NVP clinical trial and 42 times that observed in the clinical trial. NVP would be economically preferable to ZDV as long as the rate of toxicity did not exceed 22 times that observed in the clinical trial. Conclusions. Field implementation of NVP should not be delayed by concerns about its toxicity. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:365–366) PMID:11867311

  18. Foodborne enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: from gut pathogenesis to new preventive strategies involving probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Charlène; Sivignon, Adeline; de Wiele, Tom Van; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are a major cause of traveler's diarrhea and infant mortality in developing countries. Given the rise of antibiotic resistance worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of new preventive strategies. Among them, a promising approach is the use of probiotics. Although many studies, mostly performed under piglet digestive conditions, have shown the beneficial effects of probiotics on ETEC by interfering with their survival, virulence or adhesion to mucosa, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This review describes ETEC pathogenesis, its modulation by human gastrointestinal cues as well as novel preventive strategies with a particular emphasis on probiotics. The potential of in vitro models simulating human digestion in elucidating probiotic mode of action will be discussed.

  19. Using first nations children's perceptions of food and activity to inform an obesity prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Willows, Noreen D; Holt, Nicholas L; Newton, Amanda S; Ball, Geoff D C

    2012-07-01

    Obesity and associated health risks disproportionately affect Aboriginal (First Nations) children in Canada. The purpose of this research study was to elicit First Nations children's perceptions of food, activity, and health to inform a community-based obesity prevention strategy. Fifteen 4th- and 5th-Grade students participated in one of three focus group interviews that utilized drawing and pile-sorting activities. We used an ecological lens to structure our findings. Analyses revealed that a variety of interdependent sociocultural factors influenced children's perceptions. Embedded within a cultural/traditional worldview, children indicated a preference for foods and activities from both contemporary Western and traditional cultures, highlighted family members as their main sources of health information, and described information gaps in their health education. Informed by children's perspectives, these findings offer guidance for developing an obesity prevention strategy for First Nations children in this community.

  20. HIV prevention where it is needed most: comparison of strategies for the geographical allocation of interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Ghys, Peter D; Ombam, Regina; Hallett, Timothy B

    2017-12-01

    A strategic approach to the application of HIV prevention interventions is a core component of the UNAIDS Fast Track strategy to end the HIV epidemic by 2030. Central to these plans is a focus on high-prevalence geographies, in a bid to target resources to those in greatest need and maximize the reduction in new infections. Whilst this idea of geographical prioritization has the potential to improve efficiency, it is unclear how it should be implemented in practice. There are a range of prevention interventions which can be applied differentially across risk groups and locations, making allocation decisions complex. Here, we use mathematical modelling to compare the impact (infections averted) of a number of different approaches to the implementation of geographical prioritization of prevention interventions, similar to those emerging in policy and practice, across a range of prevention budgets. We use geographically specific mathematical models of the epidemic and response in 48 counties and major cities of Kenya to project the impact of the different geographical prioritization approaches. We compare the geographical allocation strategies with a nationally uniform approach under which the same interventions must be applied across all modelled locations. We find that the most extreme geographical prioritization strategy, which focuses resources exclusively to high-prevalence locations, may substantially restrict impact (41% fewer infections averted) compared to a nationally uniform approach, as opportunities for highly effective interventions for high-risk populations in lower-prevalence areas are missed. Other geographical allocation approaches, which intensify efforts in higher-prevalence areas whilst maintaining a minimum package of cost-effective interventions everywhere, consistently improve impact at all budget levels. Such strategies balance the need for greater investment in locations with the largest epidemics whilst ensuring higher-risk groups in lower

  1. Reaalsuse re/presenteerimise strateegiad etenduskunstides / Strategies to Re-(Present Reality in the Performing Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneli Saro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary theatre, and performing arts in general, no longer seems to be interested in the representation of illusion and reality. There seems to be an increasing emphasis on free play or/and an immediate presentation of reality. And, thus, the mainstream is moving towards the aesthetics of performance art and happenings, where recurrence is shunned and improvisation is emphasized on one hand, while the boundary between performance and reality is obscured on the other. This means that representative theatre, where performers and objects signify someone/something other, is retreating to give way to presentative theatre, where the performers and objects primarily signify themselves.  In the light of the aforementioned, this paper attempts to answer the following questions: how has the presentation of reality in theatre changed over the last forty years, how does presentative theatre differ from representative theatre and does presentative theatre arrive at a deeper/more objective understanding of reality or merely create yet another illusion? In order to answer these questions, the complicated relationship between art and reality as well as issues intrinsic to realist theatre are analysed. The author attempts to prove that it is difficult to find anything fundamentally new in 21st century theatre practice. A lot of the currently fashionable strategies are further developments of older waves, such as realism, or experiments placed in a new temporal and cultural context.  Considering the physical relationship between performing arts and reality, the third section of the paper analyses three strategies of (re-presenting reality: 1. Presenting the elements of reality on stage: performances of documentary material in as authentic a manner as possible, i.e. the self-presentations of so-called regular people or actors, etc. 2. Giving reality an artistic framework: audience tours through the city led by guide(s/performer(s or audio guides. 3

  2. Optimizing Preventive Strategies and Malaria Diagnostics to Reduce the Impact of Malaria on US Military Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    quinine (Q), intramuscular artemether, intravenous AS, and AS suppositories are used to treat severe malaria ; all are efficacious and should be...DOD Malaria Stakeholder Meeting May 30-31, 2012 Bethesda, MD Optimizing Preventive Strategies and Malaria Diagnostics to Reduce the Impact...of Malaria on US Military Forces The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and OSD/Health

  3. Drug-related falls in older patients: implicated drugs, consequences, and possible prevention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Marlies R.; Van der Elst, Maarten; Hartholt, Klaas A.

    2013-01-01

    Falls are the leading cause of injuries among older adults, aged 65 years and older. Furthermore, falls are an increasing public health problem because of ageing populations worldwide due to an increase in the number of older adults, and an increase in life expectancy. Numerous studies have identified risk factors and investigated possible strategies to prevent (recurrent) falls in community-dwelling older people and those living in long-term care facilities. Several types of drugs have been ...

  4. Drug-related falls in older patients: Implicated drugs, consequences, and possible prevention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Marlies R.; Elst, Maarten; Hartholt, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    textabstractFalls are the leading cause of injuries among older adults, aged 65 years and older. Furthermore, falls are an increasing public health problem because of ageing populations worldwide due to an increase in the number of older adults, and an increase in life expectancy. Numerous studies have identified risk factors and investigated possible strategies to prevent (recurrent) falls in community-dwelling older people and those living in long-term care facilities. Several types of drug...

  5. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different repositioning strategies for the prevention of pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Grace; Jones, Katie; Neilson, Julie; Avital, Liz; Collier, Mark; Stansby, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    To assess the cost effectiveness of two repositioning strategies and inform the 2014 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guideline recommendations on pressure ulcer prevention. Pressure ulcers are distressing events, caused when skin and underlying tissues are placed under pressure sufficient to impair blood supply. They can have a substantial impact on quality of life and have significant resource implications. Repositioning is a key prevention strategy, but can be resource intensive, leading to variation in practice. This economic analysis was conducted to identify the most cost-effective repositioning strategy for the prevention of pressure ulcers. The economic analysis took the form of a cost-utility model. The clinical inputs to the model were taken from a systematic review of clinical data. The population in the model was older people in a nursing home. The economic model was developed with members of the guideline development group and included costs borne by the UK National Health Service. Outcomes were expressed as costs and quality adjusted life years. Despite being marginally more clinically effective, alternating 2 and 4 hourly repositioning is not a cost-effective use of UK National Health Service resources (compared with 4 hourly repositioning) for this high risk group of patients at a cost-effectiveness threshold of £20,000 per quality adjusted life years. These results were used to inform the clinical guideline recommendations for those who are at high risk of developing pressure ulcers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Neighborhood Environment: Perceived Fall Risk, Resources, and Strategies for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chippendale, Tracy; Boltz, Marie

    2015-08-01

    To explore the experience of older adults in their neighborhood in relation to perceived fall risk, fear of falling (FOF), and resources/strategies for fall prevention. Fourteen older adults, 65 years of age and older from 3 urban senior centers, participated in this qualitative study. The semistructured interview guidelines and background questionnaire were developed by the researchers based on the literature and an existing measure of walkability. Both tools were refined based on pilot interviews with seniors. Collaizzi's phenomenological method was used for data analysis. Five themes emerged from the data: (a) The built environment contributes to perceived fall risk and FOF, (b) personal strategies used to adapt to perceived neighborhood fall risks-behavioral approaches, (c) resources for physical activity and safety, (d) barriers to physical activity and exercise, and (e) neighborhood features as a motivator. Urban-dwelling seniors perceive that neighborhood features contribute to or mitigate fall risk and FOF. Behavioral strategies are used by seniors to prevent outdoor falls. The findings can help clinicians develop targeted fall prevention interventions for well elders and help urban planners to design and retrofit urban environments to reduce fall risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Old Disease and New Challenges: Major Obstacles of Current Strategies in the Prevention of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Iraj; Karimi, Abdollah; Amanati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context Universal immunization against Bordetella pertussis has partially controlled the burden of the disease and its transmission. However, according to recent data, the epidemiology of this vaccine-preventable disease has changed. Now, younger infants, adolescents, and adults are at greater risk of infection. This article has studied the interaction between the various factors involved in the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the major obstacles faced by the current strategies in its prevention. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, the most recently published sources of information on pertussis control measures, consisting of textbooks and articles, have been reviewed. We focused on the more recent data about the changing epidemiology or pertussis in Scopus through the use of the MeSH-term words [pertussis] or [whooping cough] and [epidemiology] or [outbreak] or [resurgence], but our search was not restricted to this particular strategy; we also tried to find all of the most recent available data in the general field through other means. Results Primary and booster doses of the pertussis vaccine seem to partially control transmission of the disease, but despite the different preventive strategies available, pertussis continues to cause mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups. Conclusions Adding booster doses of acellular pertussis vaccine to the current national immunization practices with whole-cell vaccines for young adults and pregnant women seems to be a good option for controlling mortality and morbidity among high-risk groups such as very young infants. PMID:27729960

  8. Chemical Plaque Control Strategies in the Prevention of Biofilm-associated Oral Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafer, Mohammed; Patil, Shankargouda; Hosmani, Jagadish; Bhandi, Shilpa H; Chalisserry, Elna P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-04-01

    Dental plaque is a biofilm that forms naturally on the surfaces of exposed teeth and other areas of the oral cavity. It is the primary etiological factor for the most frequently occurring oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specific, nonspecific, and ecologic plaque hypothesis explains the causation of dental and associated diseases. Adequate control of biofilm accumulation on teeth has been the cornerstone of prevention of periodontitis and dental caries. Mechanical plaque control is the mainstay for prevention of oral diseases, but it requires patient cooperation and motivation; therefore, chemical plaque control agents act as useful adjuvants for achieving the desired results. Hence, it is imperative for the clinicians to update their knowledge in chemical antiplaque agents and other developments for the effective management of plaque biofilm-associated diseases. This article explores the critical analysis of various chemical plaque control strategies and the current trends in the control and prevention of dental plaque biofilm.

  9. Effectiveness of pressure ulcer prevention strategies for adult patients in intensive care units: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of pressure ulcer (PU) prevention strategies on the incidence of hospital-acquired PUs in the intensive care unit (ICU).More specifically, the objectives are to identify the effectiveness of utilizing PU prevention strategies such as risk assessment, skin assessment, skin care, nutrition, position and repositioning, education and training, medical devices care or other strategies designed to manage the risk factors for PU development and reduce the incidence of PUs in ICUs.

  10. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  11. Stroke prevention by direct revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tackeun; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Cho, Won-Sang; Bang, Jae Seung

    2016-06-01

    . CONCLUSIONS Direct or combined revascularization for patients with adult-onset moyamoya disease presenting with ischemia can prevent further stroke.

  12. Building communication strategy on health prevention through the human-centered design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine de Mello Freire

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been identified a latent need for developing efficient communication strategies for prevention of diseases and also, design as a potential agent to create communications artifacts that are able to promote self-care. In order to analyze a design process that develops this kind of artifact, an action research in IAPI Health Center in Porto Alegre was done. The action’s goal was to design a strategy to promote self-care to prevent cervical cancer. The process was conducted from the human centered design approach - HCD, which seeks to create solutions desirable for people and feasible for organizations from three main phases: a Hear, in which inspirations are originated from stories collected from people; b Create, which aims to translate these knowledge into prototypes; and, c Deliver, where the prototypes are tested and developed with users. Communication strategies were supported by design studies about visual-verbal rhetoric. As results, this design approach has shown adequate to create communication strategies targeted at self-care behaviors, aiming to empower users to change their behavior.

  13. Performance deterioration modeling and optimal preventive maintenance strategy under scheduled servicing subject to mission time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dawei

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Servicing is applied periodically in practice with the aim of restoring the system state and prolonging the lifetime. It is generally seen as an imperfect maintenance action which has a chief influence on the maintenance strategy. In order to model the maintenance effect of servicing, this study analyzes the deterioration characteristics of system under scheduled servicing. And then the deterioration model is established from the failure mechanism by compound Poisson process. On the basis of the system damage value and failure mechanism, the failure rate refresh factor is proposed to describe the maintenance effect of servicing. A maintenance strategy is developed which combines the benefits of scheduled servicing and preventive maintenance. Then the optimization model is given to determine the optimal servicing period and preventive maintenance time, with an objective to minimize the system expected life-cycle cost per unit time and a constraint on system survival probability for the duration of mission time. Subject to mission time, it can control the ability of accomplishing the mission at any time so as to ensure the high dependability. An example of water pump rotor relating to scheduled servicing is introduced to illustrate the failure rate refresh factor and the proposed maintenance strategy. Compared with traditional methods, the numerical results show that the failure rate refresh factor can describe the maintenance effect of servicing more intuitively and objectively. It also demonstrates that this maintenance strategy can prolong the lifetime, reduce the total lifetime maintenance cost and guarantee the dependability of system.

  14. Stability Analysis and Optimal Control Strategy for Prevention of Pine Wilt Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Sung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mathematical model of pine wilt disease (PWD which is caused by pine sawyer beetles carrying the pinewood nematode (PWN. We calculate the basic reproduction number R0 and investigate the stability of a disease-free and endemic equilibrium in a given mathematical model. We show that the stability of the equilibrium in the proposed model can be controlled through the basic reproduction number R0. We then discuss effective optimal control strategies for the proposed PWD mathematical model. We demonstrate the existence of a control problem, and then we apply both analytical and numerical techniques to demonstrate effective control methods to prevent the transmission of the PWD. In order to do this, we apply two control strategies: tree-injection of nematicide and the eradication of adult beetles through aerial pesticide spraying. Optimal prevention strategies can be determined by solving the corresponding optimality system. Numerical simulations of the optimal control problem using a set of reasonable parameter values suggest that reducing the number of pine sawyer beetles is more effective than the tree-injection strategy for controlling the spread of PWD.

  15. Defining a strategy to evaluate cervical cancer prevention and early detection in the era of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Roberta I; Miller, Anthony B; Pasut, George; Mai, Verna

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the short-, medium- and long-term requirements of a strategy to evaluate the impact of HPV immunization and to define a framework to facilitate planning and evaluation. This strategy was developed in Ontario from January to August 2008. Literature review was completed to assess existing material relevant to vaccine evaluation, and HPV vaccine specifically. Scientists and epidemiologists within our organization attended meetings to brainstorm and identify key requirements for vaccine evaluation. Other selected internal and external experts were consulted to review preliminary lists of potential indicators and questions for inclusion in an evaluation strategy. Results are reported in three sections--literature review, proposed evaluation framework and data requirements. The first vaccine evaluation strategy that integrates primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer is presented. Among women who are neither screened nor immunized, customized interventions will be required to ensure that they are aware of potential risks and benefits. This evaluation strategy may serve as a useful outline for jurisdictions in Canada and elsewhere. This new paradigm of combined primary and secondary intervention will encourage cooperation for effective evaluation of an integrated approach for control of cervical cancer and other HPV-related disease.

  16. Coping with oral pain: lay management strategies adopted by patients prior to presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofola, Oyinkansola O; Uti, Omolara G

    2009-01-01

    To identify lay measures taken by patients in response to oral pain before seeking professional care and to determine factors leading to demand for professional oral health care. A cross-sectional survey of patients aged 16 years and above who presented with oral pain at the oral diagnosis clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital was carried out. Data was collected by means of questionnaires which sought information on onset and duration of pain, character, aggravating and relieving factors and actions taken by the patients before presentation at the dental clinic. A total of 215 patients participated. More than half of them described their pain as severe to very severe with 106 (49.3%) and 21 (9.8%) reporting sleep disruptions and severe agony respectively. Delay in presentation range from over a month in 56 (26%) patients to years in 85 (39.5%). Responses to pain symptoms included, communication with different persons for advice in 192 (89.3%) and application of at least one lay measure in 183 (85.1%) patients. Duration and persistence of pain was associated significantly with the use of more than one measure. There was no association between gender or age and the use of lay measures. Use of measures with possible adverse effects like petrol and acid was reported in 5 (2.7%) of the respondents. Lay strategies in response to oral pain are common in this Nigerian population and appear to be used as an alternative to professional oral health care.

  17. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    OpenAIRE

    Tressie McMillan-Cottom

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants.Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationshipmanagement. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerablepopulations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. Thisvariability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injuryprevention ...

  18. Nonpharmacological, Blood Conservation Techniques for Preventing Neonatal Anemia—Effective and Promising Strategies for Reducing Transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Patrick D.; Widness, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of anemia after birth in very premature, critically ill newborn infants is a universal well-described phenomenon. Although preventing anemia in this population, along with efforts to establish optimal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and pharmacologic therapy continue to be actively investigated, the present review focuses exclusively on nonpharmacological approaches to the prevention and treatment of neonatal anemia. We begin with an overview of topics relevant to nonpharmaco...

  19. Genome-based nutrition: An intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sonia; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are increasing in westernized countries, regardless of their geographic location. In Latin America, most countries, including Mexico, have a heterogeneous admixture genome with Amerindian, European and African ancestries. However, certain high allelic frequencies of several nutrient-related polymorphisms may have been achieved by past gene-nutrient interactions. Such interactions may have promoted the positive selection of variants adapted to regional food sources. At present, the unbalanced diet composition of the Mexicans has led the country to a 70% prevalence rate of overweightness and obesity due to substantial changes in food habits, among other factors. International guidelines and intervention strategies may not be adequate for all populations worldwide because they do not consider disparities in genetic and environmental factors, and thus there is a need for differential prevention and management strategies. Here, we provide the rationale for an intervention strategy for the prevention and management of obesity-related diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a regionalized genome-based diet. The components required to design such a diet should focus on the specific ancestry of each population around the world and the convenience of consuming traditional ethnic food. PMID:25834309

  20. Neuromuscular training injury prevention strategies in youth sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem

    2015-07-01

    Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. HIV sexual transmission risk among serodiscordant couples: assessing the effects of combining prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Sansom, Stephanie L; Wolitski, Richard J; Green, Timothy A; Borkowf, Craig B; Patel, Pragna; Mermin, Jonathan

    2014-06-19

    The number of strategies to prevent HIV transmission has increased following trials evaluating antiretroviral therapy (ART), preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and male circumcision. Serodiscordant couples need guidance on the effects of these strategies alone, and in combination with each other, on HIV transmission. We estimated the sexual risk of HIV transmission over 1-year and 10-year periods among male-male and male-female serodiscordant couples. We assumed the following reductions in transmission: 80% from consistent condom use; 54% from circumcision in the negative male partner of a heterosexual couple; 73% from circumcision in the negative partner of a male-male couple; 71% from PrEP in heterosexual couples; 44% from PrEP in male-male couples; and 96% from ART use by the HIV-infected partner. For couples using any single prevention strategy, a substantial cumulative risk of HIV transmission remained. For a male-female couple using only condoms, estimated risk over 10 years was 11%; for a male-male couple using only condoms, estimated risk was 76%. ART use by the HIV-infected partner was the most effective single strategy in reducing risk; among male-male couples, adding consistent condom use was necessary to keep the 10-year risk below 10%. Focusing on 1-year and longer term transmission probabilities gives couples a better understanding of risk than those illustrated by data for a single sexual act. Long-term transmission probabilities to the negative partner in serodiscordant couples can be high, though these can be substantially reduced with the strategic use of preventive methods, especially those that include ART.

  2. The Effectiveness of Peer-Led FAS/FAE Prevention Presentations in Middle and High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulter, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women and women who might become pregnant, including middle school- and high school-age adolescents, continue to consume alcohol, placing themselves at risk of having a child with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. However, most prevention programs that attempt to increase public awareness and knowledge of FAS and related disorders…

  3. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Ronald J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and

  4. Economic appraisal of the public control and prevention strategy against the 2010 West Nile Virus outbreak in Central Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolimenakis, A; Bithas, K; Richardson, C; Latinopoulos, D; Baka, A; Vakali, A; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Mourelatos, S; Kalaitzopoulou, S; Gewehr, S; Michaelakis, A; Koliopoulos, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the economic efficiency of the public control and prevention strategies to tackle the 2010 West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. Efficiency is examined on the basis of the public prevention costs incurred and their potential in justifying the costs arising from health and nuisance impacts in the succeeding years. Economic appraisal of public health management interventions. Prevention and control cost categories including control programmes, contingency planning and blood safety testing, are analyzed based on market prices. A separate cost of illness approach is conducted for the estimation of medical costs and productivity losses from 2010 to 2013 and for the calculation of averted health impacts. The averted mosquito nuisance costs to households are estimated on the basis of a contingent valuation study. Based on these findings, a limited cost-benefit analysis is employed in order to evaluate the economic efficiency of these strategies in 2010-2013. Results indicate that cost of illness and prevention costs fell significantly in the years following the 2010 outbreak, also as a result of the epidemic coming under control. According to the contingent valuation survey, the annual average willingness to pay to eliminate the mosquito problem in the study area ranged between 22 and 27 € per household. Cost-benefit analysis indicates that the aggregate benefit of implementing the previous 3-year strategy creates a net socio-economic benefit in 2013. However the spread of the WNV epidemic and the overall socio-economic consequences, had the various costs not been employed, remain unpredictable and extremely difficult to calculate. The application of a post epidemic strategy appears to be of utmost importance for public health safety. An updated well designed survey is needed for a more precise definition of the optimum prevention policies and levels and for the establishment of the various

  5. Which strategies reduce breast cancer mortality most? Collaborative modeling of optimal screening, treatment, and obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien; Schechter, Clyde; Chang, Yaojen; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee M; de Koning, Harry; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-07-15

    US breast cancer mortality is declining, but thousands of women still die each year. Two established simulation models examine 6 strategies that include increased screening and/or treatment or elimination of obesity versus continuation of current patterns. The models use common national data on incidence and obesity prevalence, competing causes of death, mammography characteristics, treatment effects, and survival/cure. Parameters are modified based on obesity (defined as BMI  ≥  30 kg/m(2) ). Outcomes are presented for the year 2025 among women aged 25+ and include numbers of cases, deaths, mammograms and false-positives; age-adjusted incidence and mortality; breast cancer mortality reduction and deaths averted; and probability of dying of breast cancer. If current patterns continue, the models project that there would be about 50,100-57,400 (range across models) annual breast cancer deaths in 2025. If 90% of women were screened annually from ages 40 to 54 and biennially from ages 55 to 99 (or death), then 5100-6100 fewer deaths would occur versus current patterns, but incidence, mammograms, and false-positives would increase. If all women received the indicated systemic treatment (with no screening change), then 11,400-14,500 more deaths would be averted versus current patterns, but increased toxicity could occur. If 100% received screening plus indicated therapy, there would be 18,100-20,400 fewer deaths. Eliminating obesity yields 3300-5700 fewer breast cancer deaths versus continuation of current obesity levels. Maximal reductions in breast cancer deaths could be achieved through optimizing treatment use, followed by increasing screening use and obesity prevention. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  6. Strategies for the prevention of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnt, Nicole; Stapleton, Fiona

    2016-03-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a severe, often sight threatening, corneal infection which in Western countries is predominantly seen in daily wear of contact lenses. This review aims to summarise the pathobiology and epidemiology of contact lens-related Acanthamoeba keratitis, and to present strategies for prevention, particularly with respect to modifiable risk factors in contact lens wear. The virulence of Acanthamoeba and resistance to treatment in keratitis appears to be linked with the production of a low molecular weight protease MIP133 by the organism, in response to binding to corneal epithelial cells through a mannose binding protein, and to the ability of the organism to convert from the trophozoite to the resistant cyst form. Recent epidemiological studies in contact lens relate disease have confirmed the link between solution topping up and Acanthamoeba keratitis and have reinforced the importance of avoidance of tap water, either as part of the care for the contact lens or storage case, handling lenses with wet hands or showering while wearing lenses. In the most recent analysis from the USA, there were no strong effects for solution type, water source or water disinfection process. Wearer age, lens wear time and history to appear to be linked with Acanthamoeba keratitis. Daily disposable contact lens use would be expected to reduce the prevalence of Acanthamoeba disease although this is unproven. While Acanthamoeba keratitis remains challenging to diagnose and manage, strategies to limit the disease severity in contact lens wearers should include attention to recently identified risk factors, particularly those related to water contact. Public health awareness measures, the use of daily disposable contact lenses, a better understanding of the contribution of the host immunity and the development of standardised methods for culture of amoeba and testing of contact lens care systems against Acanthamoeba in the licensing process may be of value. Alternative

  7. Breast cancer prevention strategies in lobular carcinoma in situ: A decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephanie M; Stout, Natasha K; Punglia, Rinaa S; Prakash, Ipshita; Sagara, Yasuaki; Golshan, Mehra

    2017-07-15

    Women diagnosed with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) have a 3-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing invasive breast cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the life expectancy (LE) and differences in survival offered by active surveillance, risk-reducing chemoprevention, and bilateral prophylactic mastectomy among women with LCIS. A Markov simulation model was constructed to determine average LE and quality-adjusted LE (QALE) gains for hypothetical cohorts of women diagnosed with LCIS at various ages under alternative risk-reduction strategies. Probabilities for invasive breast cancer, breast cancer-specific mortality, other-cause mortality and the effectiveness of preventive strategies were derived from published studies and from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Assuming a breast cancer incidence from 1.02% to 1.37% per year under active surveillance, a woman aged 50 years diagnosed with LCIS would have a total LE of 32.78 years and would gain 0.13 years (1.6 months) in LE by adding chemoprevention and 0.25 years (3.0 months) in LE by adding bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. After quality adjustment, chemoprevention resulted in the greatest QALE for women ages 40 to 60 years at LCIS diagnosis, whereas surveillance remained the preferred strategy for optimizing QALE among women diagnosed at age 65 years and older. In this model, among women with a diagnosis of LCIS, breast cancer prevention strategies only modestly affected overall survival, whereas chemoprevention was modeled as the preferred management strategy for optimizing invasive disease-free survival while prolonging QALE form women younger than 65 years. Cancer 2017;123:2609-17. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  8. HIV treatment as prevention: debate and commentary--will early infection compromise treatment-as-prevention strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myron S Cohen

    Full Text Available Universal HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy for infected individuals has been proposed as a way of reducing the transmission of HIV and thereby bringing the HIV epidemic under control. It is unclear whether transmission during early HIV infection--before individuals are likely to have been diagnosed with HIV and started on antiretroviral therapy--will compromise the effectiveness of treatment as prevention. This article presents two opposing viewpoints by Powers, Miller, and Cohen, and Williams and Dye, followed by a commentary by Fraser.

  9. Pharmacologic strategies in the prevention and treatment of corneal transplant rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khalid F

    2008-06-01

    Corneal transplantation remains one of the most successful organ transplantation procedures in humans. The unique structure of the cornea, with its absence of blood vessels and corneal lymphatic, allows the survival of corneal allograft. Recent advances in sutures, storage media, microsurgical instrumentation, and new pharmacological strategies have greatly improved the success of corneal transplantation and the prevention of corneal allograft rejection. Our strategies in the management and prevention of corneal graft rejection can modify and improve the survival of corneal allografts. Preoperative evaluation, understanding the risk factors, and management of ocular surface disorders may greatly improve the survival of the corneal transplant. Early recognition of corneal allograft rejection and aggressive treatment may improve the survival of the corneal graft. Furthermore, patients who undergo corneal transplantation should be maintained under close ophthalmic surveillance and patients should be informed to report immediately whenever symptoms of corneal graft rejection occur. The mainstay of therapy is topical corticosteroids. In severe cases, periocular, intravenous, and oral corticosteroids therapy can be rendered. New therapeutic modalities such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus, daclizumab, mycophenolate mofetil, leflunomide, rapamycin, and others may prove to be of help in the prevention and treatment of corneal graft rejection. Early recognition of corneal graft rejection and prompt treatment are mandatory for the successful survival of the corneal allograft.

  10. Awareness among Indian professional football players about injury prevention strategies: A national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rohit; Rajasekar, Sannasi; Abraham, Allan; Samuel, Asir John

    2018-03-01

    To determine the awareness and application of the injury prevention strategies by professional Indian football players through Standard Questionnaire Based Survey. Descriptive Epidemiological Study. Professional football clubs in India. Among 150 professional footballers playing in India, 109 football players participated.. The online questionnaire was made in the Google drive application. An online URL (www.tinyurl.com/futbolscptrc) was made in Google accounts by Google drive. 150 professional footballers playing in India were identified and invited to participate in this descriptive epidemiological online survey. All duly filled questionnaire responses were automatically reached in the Google drive inbox. Descriptive analysis was used for the data analysis. Questionnaires were distributed to 150 professional players at nine Indian League clubs. 109 players responded, which represents a response rate of 73%. The player age and number of years as a professional footballers were 25 (4) years (range 18-38 years) and 6 (4) years (range 1-16 years) respectively. The players were from one Premier (9), two Division One (6 and 16), and two Division Two (9 and 15) teams. Most of the professional Indian football players are aware about the injury prevention strategies. However, the application of these strategies is consistently followed by Premier division players.

  11. Implementation of physiotherapeutic shares in the prevention of diabetes complications in a Family Health Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Coelho Figueira Freire

    Full Text Available Introduction In the Family Health Strategy (FHS, the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (DM includes education and lifestyle change strategies. Physiotherapists have a key role in this health setting. Objectives To implement actions of evaluation and guidelines for patients with type 2 DM who attend a Family Health Strategy (FHS, regarding diabetic foot and the practice of regular physical exercise in the control and prevention of the complications of Diabetes Mellitus. Methods 17 individuals from an FHS were evaluated, with the following procedures: clinical and anthropometric parameters, inspection, a questionnaire on diabetic neuropathy, tests of vibratory and tactile sensitivity, muscle function, range of motion, functional analysis, questions about exercise practice and guidance regarding controlling blood glucose and foot care. Results Deformities, dry skin, calluses, dehydration, ulceration, cracking and brittle nails were found. Peripheral neuropathy was not observed; tactile sensitivity was altered in the heel region and the vibratory sense was absent in 5% of individuals. A decrease in functionality of ankle movements was verified. Of the participants, 76% were sedentary, 24% knew about the benefits of practicing regular exercise, 25% had undergone a medical evaluation prior to performing physical exercise and, of these, 25% were supervised by a qualified professional. Discussion The implementation of physiotherapy actions in diabetics from an FHS was important for highlighting the presence of risk factors for diabetic complications. Conclusions Individuals attending the FHS need more information and programs for the prevention of diabetic complications.

  12. Global Climate Change and Children’s Health: Threats and Strategies for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Global climate change will have multiple effects on human health. Vulnerable populations—children, the elderly, and the poor—will be disproportionately affected. Objective We reviewed projected impacts of climate change on children’s health, the pathways involved in these effects, and prevention strategies. Data sources We assessed primary studies, review articles, and organizational reports. Data synthesis Climate change is increasing the global burden of disease and in the year 2000 was responsible for > 150,000 deaths worldwide. Of this disease burden, 88% fell upon children. Documented health effects include changing ranges of vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue; increased diarrheal and respiratory disease; increased morbidity and mortality from extreme weather; changed exposures to toxic chemicals; worsened poverty; food and physical insecurity; and threats to human habitation. Heat-related health effects for which research is emerging include diminished school performance, increased rates of pregnancy complications, and renal effects. Stark variation in these outcomes is evident by geographic region and socioeconomic status, and these impacts will exacerbate health disparities. Prevention strategies to reduce health impacts of climate change include reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation through multiple public health interventions. Conclusions Further quantification of the effects of climate change on children’s health is needed globally and also at regional and local levels through enhanced monitoring of children’s environmental health and by tracking selected indicators. Climate change preparedness strategies need to be incorporated into public health programs. PMID:20947468

  13. Global climate change and children's health: threats and strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E; Landrigan, Philip J

    2011-03-01

    Global climate change will have multiple effects on human health. Vulnerable populations-children, the elderly, and the poor-will be disproportionately affected. We reviewed projected impacts of climate change on children's health, the pathways involved in these effects, and prevention strategies. We assessed primary studies, review articles, and organizational reports. Climate change is increasing the global burden of disease and in the year 2000 was responsible for > 150,000 deaths worldwide. Of this disease burden, 88% fell upon children. Documented health effects include changing ranges of vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue; increased diarrheal and respiratory disease; increased morbidity and mortality from extreme weather; changed exposures to toxic chemicals; worsened poverty; food and physical insecurity; and threats to human habitation. Heat-related health effects for which research is emerging include diminished school performance, increased rates of pregnancy complications, and renal effects. Stark variation in these outcomes is evident by geographic region and socioeconomic status, and these impacts will exacerbate health disparities. Prevention strategies to reduce health impacts of climate change include reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation through multiple public health interventions. Further quantification of the effects of climate change on children's health is needed globally and also at regional and local levels through enhanced monitoring of children's environmental health and by tracking selected indicators. Climate change preparedness strategies need to be incorporated into public health programs.

  14. Strategies for the prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infections among women in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huong, Nguyen My; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents selected findings from a larger study on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women seeking abortion in Northern Vietnam. In particular it focuses on women's experience of RTIs within the context of their perceptions of female physiology and what women do to prevent and ...... system, while also pointing to important cultural paradoxes in the understanding of womanhood in contemporary Vietnam.......This paper presents selected findings from a larger study on reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among women seeking abortion in Northern Vietnam. In particular it focuses on women's experience of RTIs within the context of their perceptions of female physiology and what women do to prevent...

  15. A Systematic Review of Strategies to Prevent Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crona, Daniel J; Faso, Aimee; Nishijima, Tomohiro F; McGraw, Kathleen A; Galsky, Matthew D; Milowsky, Matthew I

    2017-05-01

    Cisplatin, a platinum-based antineoplastic agent, is the cornerstone for the treatment of many malignancies. Nephrotoxicity is the primary dose-limiting toxicity, and various hydration regimens and supplementation strategies are used to prevent cisplatin-induced kidney injury. However, evidence-based recommendations on specific hydration regimens are limited. A systematic review was performed to evaluate clinical studies that have examined hydration and supplementation strategies to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. PubMed and Excerpta Medica databases were searched from 1966 through October 2015 for clinical trials and other studies focused on hydration regimens to prevent nephrotoxicity in cancer patients treated with cisplatin. The University of Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria were used to grade level of evidence. Among the 1,407 identified studies, 24 were included in this systematic review. All studies differed on type, volume, and duration of hydration. Among the 24 studies, 5 evaluated short-duration hydration, 4 evaluated low-volume hydration, 4 investigated magnesium supplementation, and 7 reviewed forced diuresis with hydration. Short-duration and lower-volume hydration regimens are effective in preventing cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Magnesium supplementation may have a role as a nephroprotectant, and forced diuresis may be appropriate in some patients receiving cisplatin. Hydration is essential for all patients to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Specifically, short-duration, low-volume, outpatient hydration with magnesium supplementation and mannitol forced diuresis (in select patients) represent best practice principles for the safe use of cisplatin. The Oncologist 2017;22:609-619 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The findings contained within this systematic review show that (a) hydration is essential for all patients to prevent cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, (b) short-duration, low-volume, outpatient hydration

  16. Accidental iatrogenic intoxications by cytotoxic drugs: error analysis and practical preventive strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zernikow, B; Michel, E; Fleischhack, G; Bode, U

    1999-07-01

    Drug errors are quite common. Many of them become harmful only if they remain undetected, ultimately resulting in injury to the patient. Errors with cytotoxic drugs are especially dangerous because of the highly toxic potential of the drugs involved. For medico-legal reasons, only 1 case of accidental iatrogenic intoxication by cytotoxic drugs tends to be investigated at a time, because the focus is placed on individual responsibility rather than on system errors. The aim of our study was to investigate whether accidental iatrogenic intoxications by cytotoxic drugs are faults of either the individual or the system. The statistical analysis of distribution and quality of such errors, and the in-depth analysis of contributing factors delivered a rational basis for the development of practical preventive strategies. A total of 134 cases of accidental iatrogenic intoxication by a cytotoxic drug (from literature reports since 1966 identified by an electronic literature survey, as well as our own unpublished cases) underwent a systematic error analysis based on a 2-dimensional model of error generation. Incidents were classified by error characteristics and point in time of occurrence, and their distribution was statistically evaluated. The theories of error research, informatics, sensory physiology, cognitive psychology, occupational medicine and management have helped to classify and depict potential sources of error as well as reveal clues for error prevention. Monocausal errors were the exception. In the majority of cases, a confluence of unfavourable circumstances either brought about the error, or prevented its timely interception. Most cases with a fatal outcome involved erroneous drug administration. Object-inherent factors were the predominant causes. A lack of expert as well as general knowledge was a contributing element. In error detection and prevention of error sequelae, supervision and back-checking are essential. Improvement of both the individual

  17. Examination of sustainability indicators for fall prevention strategies in three states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Durrett, Nicholas K; Schneider, Ellen C; Byers, Imani N; Shubert, Tiffany E; Wilson, Ashley D; Towne, Samuel D; Ory, Marcia G

    2018-02-13

    With 1-in-4 older adults suffering a fall each year, fall prevention efforts have emerged as a public health priority. Multi-level, evidence-based fall prevention programs have been promoted by the CDC and other government agencies. To ensure participants and communities receive programs' intended benefits, organizations must repeatedly deliver the programs over time and plan for program sustainability as part of 'scaling up' the initiative. The State Falls Prevention Project (SFPP) began in 2011 when the CDC provided 5 years of funding to State Departments of Health in Colorado, New York, and Oregon to simultaneously implement four fall prevention strategies: 1) Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance; 2) Stepping On; 3) Otago Exercise Program; and 4) STEADI (STopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths, and Injuries) toolkit. Surveys were performed to examine systems change and perceptions about sustainability across states. The purposes of this study were to: 1) examine how funding influenced the capacity for program implementation and sustainability within the SFPP; and 2) assess reported Program Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT) scores to learn about how best to sustain fall preventing efforts after funding ends. Data showed that more organizations offered evidence-based fall prevention programs in participants' service areas with funding, and the importance of programming implementation, evaluation, and reporting efforts were likely to diminish once funding concluded. Participants' reported PSAT scores about perceived sustainability capacity did not directly align with previously reported perceptions about PSAT domain importance or modifiability. Findings suggest the importance of grantees to identify potential barriers and enablers influencing program sustainability during the planning phase of the programs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Preventing Death by PowerPoint[R]: Tips for Effective Presentations that Inform and Engage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Chip

    2009-01-01

    PowerPoint[R] and other familiar presentation graphics programs like Apple[R] Keynote, Corel[R] Presentations[TM], Harvard Graphics[R] Pro Presentations, Lotus[R] Freelance Graphics, and OpenOffice Impress can help one become a more effective presenter. These programs are designed to organize words and images to create slides, speaker notes, and…

  19. Prevention strategies for antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney P Caron

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Whitney P Caron1, Shaker A Mousa1,21The Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Center of Excellence of Infection Prevention (CEIP, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA; 2King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Antibiotics offer great benefits by reducing the duration and severity of illnesses and aiding in infection transmission control. With this being said, the inexorable process of antimicrobial drug resistance is to some degree unavoidable. Although drug resistance will likely persist and is to be expected, the overall level can be dramatically decreased with increased attention to antibiotic overuse and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of different drug formulations, and the use of proper hygiene and protective barriers. Implementation of such practices as microbial surveillance and prophylaxis has been shown to result in decreased hospital length of stay, health care costs and mortality due to drug-resistant infections. This review will summarize current progress in preventative techniques aimed at reducing the incidence of infection by antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. By employing a variety of prevention strategies, including proper personal hygiene, prescreening for carrier status before hospital admission, disinfection of hospital rooms, and careful monitoring of antimicrobial prescribing, marked progress can be achieved in the control of drug-resistant pathogens, which can translate into more effective antimicrobial therapy.Keywords: infection prevention, antibiotic, personal hygiene, disinfection, microbial surveillance, drug-resistant pathogen

  20. Calibration techniques and strategies for the present and future LHC electromagnetic calorimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksa, M.

    2018-02-01

    This document describes the different calibration strategies and techniques applied by the two general purpose experiments at the LHC, ATLAS and CMS, and discusses them underlining their respective strengths and weaknesses from the view of the author. The resulting performances of both calorimeters are described and compared on the basis of selected physics results. Future upgrade plans for High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) are briefly introduced and planned calibration strategies for the upgraded detectors are shown.

  1. The global problem of childhood diarrhoeal diseases: emerging strategies in prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokomane, Margaret; Kasvosve, Ishmael; de Melo, Emilia; Pernica, Jeffrey M; Goldfarb, David M

    2018-01-01

    Acute diarrhoeal diseases remain a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality particularly among young children in resource-limited countries. Recent large studies utilizing case-control design, prospective sampling and more sensitive and broad diagnostic techniques have shed light on particular pathogens of importance and highlighted the previously under recognized impact of these infections on post-acute illness mortality and growth. Vaccination, particularly against rotavirus, has emerged as a key effective means of preventing significant morbidity and mortality from childhood diarrhoeal disease. Other candidate vaccines against leading diarrhoeal pathogens, such as enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella spp., also hold significant promise in further ameliorating the burden of enteric infections in children. Large studies are also currently underway evaluating novel and potential easy-to-implement water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) preventive strategies. Given the ongoing global burden of this illness, the paucity of new advances in case management over the last several decades remains a challenge. The increasing recognition of post-acute illness mortality and growth impairment has highlighted the need for interventions that go beyond management of dehydration and electrolyte disturbances. The few trials of novel promising interventions such as probiotics have mainly been conducted in high-income settings. Trials of antimicrobials have also been primarily conducted in high-income settings or in travellers from high-income settings. Bloody diarrhoea has been shown to be a poor marker of potentially treatable bacterial enteritis, and rising antimicrobial resistance has also made empiric antimicrobial therapy more challenging in many settings. Novel effective and sustainable interventions and diagnostic strategies are clearly needed to help improve case management. Diarrhoeal disease and other enteric infections remain an unmet challenge in global

  2. The pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: its relevance to developing effective strategies for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, Nasia; Crnich, Christopher J; Maki, Dennis G

    2005-06-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit and is associated with major morbidity and attributable mortality. Strategies to prevent VAP are likely to be successful only if based upon a sound understanding of pathogenesis and epidemiology. The major route for acquiring endemic VAP is oropharyngeal colonization by the endogenous flora or by pathogens acquired exogenously from the intensive care unit environment, especially the hands or apparel of health-care workers, contaminated respiratory equipment, hospital water, or air. The stomach represents a potential site of secondary colonization and reservoir of nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli. Endotracheal-tube biofilm formation may play a contributory role in sustaining tracheal colonization and also have an important role in late-onset VAP caused by resistant organisms. Aspiration of microbe-laden oropharyngeal, gastric, or tracheal secretions around the cuffed endotracheal tube into the normally sterile lower respiratory tract results in most cases of endemic VAP. In contrast, epidemic VAP is most often caused by contamination of respiratory therapy equipment, bronchoscopes, medical aerosols, water (eg, Legionella) or air (eg, Aspergillus or the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus). Strategies to eradicate oropharyngeal and/or intestinal microbial colonization, such as with chlorhexidine oral care, prophylactic aerosolization of antimicrobials, selective aerodigestive mucosal antimicrobial decontamination, or the use of sucralfate rather than H(2) antagonists for stress ulcer prophylaxis, and measures to prevent aspiration, such as semirecumbent positioning or continuous subglottic suctioning, have all been shown to reduce the risk of VAP. Measures to prevent epidemic VAP include rigorous disinfection of respiratory equipment and bronchoscopes, and infection-control measures to prevent contamination of medical aerosols. Hospital water should be

  3. Percutaneous blood exposure among Danish doctors: exposure mechanisms and strategies for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the mechanisms of percutaneous blood exposure (PCE) among doctors and discuss rational strategies for prevention. Data were obtained as part of a nation-wide questionnaire survey of occupational blood exposure among hospital employed doctors in Denmark...... described PCE the majority were caused by suture needles (n = 483), i.v.-catheter-stylets (n = 94), injection needles (n = 75), phlebotomy needles (n = 53), scalpels (n = 45), arterial blood sample needles (n = 41) and bone fragments (n = 23). Inattentiveness was the most common cause, contributing to 30...

  4. A systematic review investigating the behaviour change strategies in interventions to prevent misuse of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Geoff; Begley, Emma; Tod, David; Jones, Lisa; Leavey, Conan; McVeigh, Jim

    2017-10-01

    We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.

  5. Three midlife strategies to prevent cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, V W

    2014-12-01

    The slow, progressive accumulation of pathology characteristic of Alzheimer's disease is the principal determinant of cognitive decline leading to dementia. Risk-reduction strategies during midlife focus on raising the clinical threshold for the appearance of cognitive symptoms and on reducing the extent of Alzheimer pathology. Best available evidence suggests an approach based on three, conceptually distinct strategies. (1) Raise the threshold for cognitive symptoms by improving brain health. To achieve this goal, the tactic is to reduce cerebrovascular risks mediated by hypertension, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and hyperlipidemia. (2) Raise the threshold for cognitive symptoms by enhancing cognitive reserve. Here, tactics focus on mental stimulation associated with occupation, leisure activities and social engagement. (3) Reduce the burden of Alzheimer pathology. The most promising tactic toward this end is regular aerobic exercise. Tactics in support of strategies to reduce cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer pathology are not yet substantiated by robust, consistent clinical trial evidence. There is pressing need for well-designed pragmatic trials to provide stronger evidence on preventive strategies for late-life cognitive decline and dementia.

  6. Information processing to determine waste minimization/pollution prevention strategies in the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcon, Mariali F. de [CORPOVEN, S.A. (Venezuela)

    1993-12-31

    With the passage of the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States, industries, and particularly the petroleum industry, have become more interested in their waste management practices. This works aims to present a methodology to organize the collected data concerning waste minimization and, or, pollution prevention in the petroleum industry into a bibliographic database

  7. Self-presentation Strategy Language Realization in Hilary Clinton’s Campaign Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerya A. Trofimova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of verbal strategies in the political discourse. The authors consider the ways of language self-realization strategy on the material of pre-election speeches by Hillary Clinton. Within the study it has been revealed the most typical means of linguistic expression, as well as the method of operation in question. The performance peculiarity of the presidential candidate speech, as it has been noted, is her ability to combine the expressive potential of syntactic and lexical and grammatical means.

  8. Presenting Enterprise Architecture Strategies Using Business Model Canvas (Case Study of E-commerce PT Xyz)

    OpenAIRE

    Christini, Chintamy; Rahmad, Basuki

    2015-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) is known as enabler of business. One of the study that align business and IT is enterprise architecture. In this era, one of the business that become a trend the world is electronic commerce (e-commerce). With the suitable enterprise architecture strategies, e-commerce can be improved according to the business and IT condition. This paper represents about study case of an Indonesian e-commerce website which is still unknown by internet users and the SWOT strategy a...

  9. Systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses for combinations of prevention strategies against human papillomavirus (HPV infection: a general trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Gervais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the arrival of multi-valent HPV vaccines, it is more and more important to have a better understanding of the relationship between vaccination and screening programmes. This review aimed to: (1 collect published evidence on the cost-effectiveness profile of different HPV prevention strategies and, in particular, those combining vaccination with changes in screening practices; (2 explore the cost-effectiveness of alternative preventive strategies based on screening and vaccination. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in order to identify the relevant studies regarding the cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies against HPV infection. Analysis comparing the modelling approaches between studies was made along with an assessment of the magnitude of impact of several factors on the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies. Results A total of 18 papers were quantitatively summarised within the narrative. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in terms of how HPV prevention strategies have been assessed in terms of their economic and epidemiological impact, with variation in screening practice and valence of HPV vaccination found to have large implications in terms of cost-effectiveness. Conclusions This review demonstrated synergies between screening and vaccination. New prevention strategies involving multi-valence vaccination, HPV DNA test screening, delayed commencement and frequency of screening could be implemented in the future. Strategies implemented in the future should be chosen with care, and informed knowledge of the potential impact of all possible prevention strategies. Highlighted in this review is the difficulty in assessing multiple strategies. Appropriate modelling techniques will need to be utilised to assess the most cost-effective strategies.

  10. Internet and people with intellectual disability: an approach to caregivers’ concerns, prevention strategies and training needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Chiner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore caregivers’ views about the risks of the Internet for people with intellectual disabilities and their preparation and ability to use prevention strategies to address them. The participants (20 family members and 24 staff members belonged to a non-profit association working with people with developmental and intellectual disabilities and were asked to respond to a questionnaire about Internet safety and risks. Findings show some concerns from caregivers with regard to the use of the Internet by people with intellectual disabilities and suggest that this group is more vulnerable to online risks. Participants use different kinds of strategies to prevent the risks but they have not received any formal training. They think that this training should come from the Administration and other organisations. Some differences were found between family and staff members’ responses. Training programmes for all the groups involved in this process (i.e. people with intellectual disabilities, staff and family members should be designed, implemented and assessed to promote the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities in the digital arena.

  11. Complete Expulsion of Testicular Prosthesis via the Scrotum: A Case-Based Review of the Preventive Surgical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Donati-Bourne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular prostheses are regularly used in urological surgery and are important for postoperative psychological well-being in many patients undergoing orchiectomy. One of the recognised complications of this procedure is graft extrusion, which can result in significant morbidity for patients and require operative reintervention. Whilst most cases of extrusion involve upward graft migration to the external inguinal ring or direct displacement through the scrotal skin, we present an unusual case of complete expulsion of testicular implant three weeks postoperatively through a previously healthy scrotum. During surgical insertion of testicular prostheses, the urological surgeon must carefully consider the different surgical strategies at each step of the operation to prevent future extrusion of the graft. A stepwise review of the preventive surgical strategies to reduce the risk of graft extrusion encompasses the choice of optimal surgical incision, the technique of dissection to create the receiving anatomical pouch, the method of fixation of the implant within the receiving hemiscrotum, and the adoption of good postoperative care measures in line with the principles of sound scrotal surgery.

  12. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBon, M; Klesges, R C

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.

  13. Make a Difference at Your School! CDC Resources Can Help You Implement Strategies to Prevent Obesity Among Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews scientific evidence to determine which school-based policies and practices are most likely to improve key health behaviors among young people, including physical activity and healthy eating. In this document, the CDC identifies ten strategies to help schools prevent obesity by promoting…

  14. Intervention Strategies Used in Sport Injury Prevention Studies: A Systematic Review Identifying Studies Applying the Haddon Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Ingrid; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Finch, Caroline F.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Prevention of sport injuries is crucial to maximise the health and societal benefits of a physically active lifestyle. To strengthen the translation and implementation of the available evidence base on effective preventive measures, a range of potentially relevant strategies should be considered.

  15. Emerging antibacterial biomaterial strategies for the prevention of peri-implant inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgardner, Joel D; Adatrow, Pradeep; Haggard, Warren O; Norowski, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory disease due to bacteria and plaque formation on implant surfaces which can lead to bone resorption and loss of osseointegration. Biomaterial strategies to prevent or eliminate initial bacterial attachment, in favor of host tissue attachment may have a positive effect on decreasing peri-implantitis, particularly for at risk patient groups. This study provides a brief overview of some of the experimental biomaterial strategies aimed at suppressing or inhibiting bacterial colonization of implant surfaces in favor or host cells and tissues. These biomaterial strategies have different mechanisms of action from interfering with bacterial adhesion by modifying surface energies, immobilizing antimicrobials on implant surfaces, creating photocatalytic surfaces, as well as modifying surfaces to deliver antimicrobial agents either prophylactically or in response to bacterial challenge. This is not a comprehensive review, rather a review of studies that serve to illustrate many of the different approaches being investigated. While many of these strategies have demonstrated the potential to significantly reduce bacterial attachment on implant surfaces in vitro, it is unclear if these same reductions will be adequate clinically since even a few adhering bacteria may over time develop into inflammatory inducing biofilms or plaque. Also, data on the ability of the antibacterial modified biomaterials to support osseointegration and permuosal seal formation is still needed. Given the complex and multivariate causes of peri-implant disease, it is likely that combinations of these strategies (eg, antimicrobial surfaces and or delivery mechanisms coupled with methods to favor stable osseointegration and permucosal seal) will be most effective in developing implants resistant to peri-implant disease.

  16. Remediation of the Andreyev Bay naval base; present contamination status and future monitoring strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustveit, Styrkaar; Sneve, Malgorzata K.; Reistad, Ole; Kiselev, Mikhail; Shandala, Natalya

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The Andreyev Bay shore technical base (STB) is a former naval installation and the largest nuclear legacy site in northwest Russia. Established in the late 50-ties and early 60-ties, this naval facility performed activities related to the refuelling of Soviet Northern Fleet nuclear-propelled vessels as well as being a temporary storage site for SNF and solid and liquid radioactive wastes (SRW and LRW) arising as a result of civilian and military nuclear-propelled vessels operations and maintenance. A large inventory of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) are located at the site, and since an accident in 1982 large amounts of radioactivity have been released from the storage facilities. Remediation of Andreyev STB has been the subject of international cooperation for many years. Great Britain, Italy, Norway, Sweden and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) have collaborated with the Russian government to secure the site, improve the infrastructure at the site, plan for new management strategies/facilities for SNF and demolish old buildings that were deemed an environmental hazard. On the basis of an agreement between the Russian Federal State Enterprise 'SevRao' and the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) a study to map the gamma dose rates and the surface radionuclide concentrations in the contaminated parts of the site, as well as an overview and general knowledge of the area regarding geological and hydrogeological conditions was performed in the period 2002-2004. The aim of the study was to enable the provision of more effective radiological protection for personnel undertaking future operations at the site and to assess the radiation dose hazards present at Andreyev STB and to clarify the risks associated with the existing contamination and the continued storage of spent fuel and radioactive waste at the site. The first phase of the Norwegian program to survey the Andreyev Bay provided the basis for

  17. Exercise and Life-Satisfactory-Fitness: Complementary Strategies in the Prevention and Rehabilitation of Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Jennen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate training of an endurance nature, but also other exercise activities, not only has a preventive effect on various illnesses and pre-illness states such as the metabolic syndrome and cancer, but is also effective in treating patients in the rehabilitation phase after illness, e.g. cardiovascular or cancer. Our investigation demonstrates that even low level physical activity has a very good preventive effect too, which is enhanced when it is accompanied by mental activity and psychological well-being. In total, we investigated 13 000 people on the basis of socio-economic panel polls with respect to life contentment, health status and leisure-time activities. Life contentment is positively linked to contentment with labor, which seems to be an essential aspect with regard to the increasing number of unemployed people in Europe. The second important factor is health-promoting activities during leisure time. Exercise, especially, has a significant influence on life satisfaction as a feeling of physical fitness feeling is regarded as synonymous with good health. The results underline the psycho-neuroimmunological network, which stabilizes our health and shows that different activities in older adults have a significant effect on the aging process and age-related illnesses. Besides the various activities that are important in this arena, namely muscle and mental mobility (‘brawn and brain’, a third component must be taken into consideration: life contentment in the form of a successful retrospective view and a positive outlook, embedded in a psychosocial family environment (‘brood’ and integrated in a stress-free biotope, where life does make sense. Alternative and complementary strategies should be considered in light of these three aspects when we think about additional anti-inflammatory strategies in preventing diseases or treating them and their relapses.

  18. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the PRIUS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedri, S.; Briguglio, E.; Cedri, C.; Masellis, A.; Crenca, A.; Pitidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study has developed a learning kit for the prevention of domestic burns in childhood. The main objective was to trial an educational package for children (nursery and primary classes), for the prevention of burns, to be implemented through education in schools. The educational kit comprises posters, information leaflets, comic books, and pre and post education evaluation materials for school children, parents and teachers. Recipients of the preliminary study were the students of nine schools in the eight Italian cities where Burn Centers are located. In order to reach the target groups of children, it was necessary to identify the most effective communication strategy to convey the burn prevention message. For nursery school children, it was not possible to use tools with written texts alone, as they were not yet literate. Moreover, even for older children, it was necessary to find an attractive tool to catch their attention and interest, promoting the understanding and memorization of lessons learned. The most suitable means was found to be comic strips, allowing the messages to be conveyed through images as well as words. A total of 370 children (195 from nurseries and 175 from primary schools) participated in the trial of the educational kit. Overall, for every environment represented in the evaluation table, the ability to recognize the dangers among both the pre-school and primary school children increased significantly after the training activity. In conclusion, the educational kit has been positively assessed. PMID:27252606

  19. [Epidemic situation and prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis in Guangdong Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo-Hui, Deng; Yue-Yi, Fang

    2016-05-24

    Clonorchiasis is one of the food-borne parasitic diseases. Adult parasites live in the human liver and gallbladder tube system, causing serious complications, such as gallstones, cholecystitis and cholangitis, and even bile duct cancer. The disease is very popular in our country, and the population infection rate is high. It is an important public health problem. Guangdong Province is the earliest province being found of clonorchiasis and with serious epidemic. In the second national human parasitic diseases distribution survey, the results showed that the average infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis in the epidemic areas in Guangdong was 16.42%. It is estimated that the population of C. sinensis infection is over 6 million. The prevention and control of clonorchiasis in China is still in the initial stage currently and we face many challenges such as unclear epidemic characteristics and transmission mode, and lack of long-term prevention and control mechanism. This article introduces the epidemic situation of clonorchiasis and prevention and control strategies and measures in Guangdong.

  20. Using a Problem-Solving Strategy to Prevent Work-Related Accidents Due to Unsafe Worker Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Ronald C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A two-stage problem-solving strategy involving cue cards and their gradual withdrawal was used to teach nine sheltered workshop employees how to prevent work-related accidents. Results indicated that participants used the strategy appropriately and generalized their skills to similar and dissimilar situations up to eight weeks after training.…

  1. A new strategy to prevent chemotherapy and radiotherapy-induced alopecia using topically applied vasoconstrictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soref, Cheryl M.; Fahl, William E.

    2015-01-01

    In a new strategy, we sought to determine whether topically applied vasoconstrictor, with its accompanying transient skin hypoxia and exclusion of systemic drug, would prevent or suppress radiotherapy or chemotherapy-induced alopecia. Topical vasoconstrictor was applied to 1-cm2 skin patches on the backs of 10-day-old rats and minutes later they received either 7.1 gray (Gy) whole-body radiation or systemic N-nitroso-N-methylurea (MNU) or Cytoxan. The degree of alopecia was scored 10 days later by visual assessment (% coat retention) and hair follicle histologic analysis. Topical application of epinephrine or norepinephrine in an alcohol:water delivery vehicle induced clear skin blanch, and in a dose-dependent manner, topical epinephrine or norepinephrine (20–1,000 mM) applied before 7.1 Gy irradiation conferred 95% of coat retention in the treated skin patches versus 0% coat retention in vehicle controls, or in skin outside the treated patches. By histology, small numbers of dystrophic hair follicles were observed in hairless skin versus the normal density of anagen follicles in the immediately adjacent, drug-protected skin patches at day 20; protected coats were retained into adulthood. Topical epinephrine or norepinephrine before systemic MNU (30 ug/gm body weight) conferred up to 95% of coat retention in treated skin patches versus 0% coat retention elsewhere. Epinephrine-conferred % coat retention dropped to 16% in rats that received systemic Cytoxan, a drug whose plasma half-life is at least 8- to 10-fold longer than MNU. A general strategy is discussed for the use of topical epinephrine or norepinephrine in the clinic to provide an inexpensive and convenient strategy to prevent cancer therapy-induced alopecia. PMID:24811525

  2. Estrategias de prevención de dengue: Rosario, Argentina Dengue prevention strategies: Rosario, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Liborio

    2004-09-01

    vulnerable place for the development of the illness, offer, as a counterpart, the possibility to prevent it, a condition that is very rarely present in public health. The Epidemiology System of Rosario laid out, within the framework of an intersectorial and coparticipative process between Government and Community, promotion and prevention tasks, aimed to achieve the effective cooperation of the population in order to eliminate the potential larval habitats of the vector. A process with different types of State interventions centered on the work of household promoters who provided information about Dengue and its transmitting vector to the community started in 2000. Information was also collected to test the associated risk of larval habitats. The activity was expanded to schools and local organizations. Concrete intersectorial actions on environmental cleaning and arrangement were also promoted. The assessment of such interventions provided the realization of the improvement of popular knowledge through personalized promotion, and made it possible to appreciate that better achievements were obtained by interventions with a major participation of the State and by involving schools. This work evidenced the need of a cooperative government that fosters and organizes activities in order to change attitudes and incorporate responsible and caring citizen behaviors that contribute to healthy strategies.

  3. Factors influencing the implementation of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention strategies by girls soccer coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Elizabeth A; Taylor, John R; Novak, Melissa A; Chen, Michael; Fink, Barbara P; Porucznik, Christina A

    2013-08-01

    Women are 3 times more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) while playing soccer than men. ACL injury prevention programs (IPPs) involving stretching and strengthening drills can reduce the incidence of ACL injury when incorporated into routine training. The rate of implementation among coaches is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of implementation of ACL IPP, to identify factors that influence implementation, and to acquire information to assist in design dissemination and implementation strategies. Study subjects were coaches of woman soccer players aged 11-22 years in Utah (n = 756). Data were gathered using a Web-based survey followed by a qualitative study in which "best practice coaches"-coaches who met criteria for successful implementation of ACL IPP-were interviewed via telephone. A minority of survey respondents, 19.8% (27/136), have implemented ACL IPP. Factors associated with successful implementation include length of coaching experience and presence of additional support staff such as a strength and conditioning coach or athletic trainer. Best practice coaches (14/136) unanimously agreed on the following: (a) there are performance-enhancing benefits of ACL IPP, (b) education on ACL injury prevention should be required for licensure, and (c) dissemination and implementation will require soccer associations to enact policies that require IPPs. In conclusion, a minority of girls soccer coaches have implemented ACL IPP and those that have do so because they believe that prevention improves performance and that soccer organizations should enact policies requiring ACL injury prevention education and implementation. Efforts to implement ACL IPP should be driven by soccer organizations, emphasize performance-enhancing benefits, and engage additional coaching staff.

  4. Promising strategies for advancement in knowledge of suicide risk factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Isaak, Corinne; Katz, Laurence Y; Bolton, James; Enns, Murray W; Stein, Murray B

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem. Although there have been advances in our knowledge of suicide, gaps remain in knowledge about suicide risk factors and prevention. Here, we discuss research pathways that have the potential to rapidly advance knowledge in suicide risk assessment and reduction of suicide deaths over the next decade. We provide a concise overview of the methodologic approaches that have the capacity to rapidly increase knowledge and change practice, which have been successful in past work in psychiatry and other areas of medicine. We suggest three specific pathways to advance knowledge of suicide risk factors and prevention. First, analysis of large-scale epidemiologic surveys and administrative data sets can advance the understanding of suicide. Second, given the low base rate of suicide, there is a need for networks/consortia of investigators in the field of suicide prevention. Such consortia have the capacity to analyze existing epidemiologic data sets, create multi-site cohort studies of high-risk groups to increase knowledge of biological and other risk factors, and create a platform for multi-site clinical trials. Third, partnerships with policymakers and researchers would facilitate careful scientific evaluation of policies and programs aimed at reducing suicide. Suicide intervention policies are often multifaceted, expensive, and rarely evaluated. Using quasi-experimental methods or sophisticated analytic strategies such as propensity score-matching techniques, the impact of large-scale interventions on suicide can be evaluated. Furthermore, such partnerships between policymakers and researchers can lead to the design and support of prospective RCTs (e.g., cluster randomized trials, stepped wedge designs, waiting list designs) in high-risk groups (e.g., people with a history of suicide attempts, multi-axial comorbidity, and offspring of people who have died by suicide). These research pathways could lead to rapid knowledge uptake

  5. Victor and Erika Webnovela: An Innovative Generation @ Audience Engagement Strategy for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Elizabeth L; Evans, W Douglas; Edberg, Marc C; Cleary, Sean D; Villalba, Ricardo; Batista, Idalina Cubilla

    2015-01-01

    Entertainment-education (E-E) approaches for young audiences continue to evolve in order to keep stride with younger generations' affinity for technology. E-E and novelas have been used with a wide variety of audiences in the United States, in particular hard-to-reach Latino populations, and have demonstrated effectiveness in disseminating culturally relevant prevention information for a wide variety of health-related risk factors and behaviors. This study discusses the formative research and active engagement of Latino youth living in Langley Park, Maryland, for the development and filming of an innovative 6-episode webnovela titled Victor and Erika (V&E). V&E is part of a larger branding strategy of the Adelante Positive Youth Development intervention that seeks to prevent substance abuse, sexual risk, and interpersonal violence among Latino youth; V&E is also an intervention component. The V&E webnovela is a dramatic portrayal of the lives of 2 immigrant Latino teenagers that also disseminates risk prevention messages. The storyline represents the turning the corner (to a better life) theme that underlies the Adelante intervention brand. Formative research was conducted for character development (n = 20) and creative development of the episodes (n = 14). Results of the formative research showed that youth recommended inclusion of the following topics in V&E episodes: sex, unintended pregnancy, fidelity, trust, family dynamics, immigration status, violence, school dropout, respect, home life, and poverty. Detailed character and episode descriptions are provided, and the implications of using the V&E series as a tool for in-person and online engagement of youth and the dissemination of prevention messages are also discussed.

  6. [Urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor damages: ethilogy and prevention strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amóstegui Azcúe, J M; Ferri Morales, A; Lillo De La Quintana, C; Serra Llosa, M L

    2004-01-01

    Urinary incontinence, as well as additional pelvic floor damage, such as third and fourth degree muscular lacerations, as well as fecal incontinence, genital prolapse or dyspareunia, result from obstetric trauma, and are generally linked to the first delivery. The purpose of this study is to analyze, from a physiotherapeutic point of view, and therefore from the perspective of muscular physiology and biomechanics, why this damage occurs, while studying the birth process and the way it is currently performed in most hospitals in our country. Analysis of the birth process and, in short, of the different types of positions used for the first and second stage of labor, as well as of the care provided for women in the puerperium, leads us to propose a global prevention strategy to be carried out in three stages: --Ante-natal prevention: specific preparation of the pelvic floor and abdominal musculature during pregnancy, using massage techniques and manual stretching of the perineum. In addition, the pregnant woman learns these positions and methods of pushing, which makes the first and second stage of labour easier. An osteopathic treatment of the pelvis joints is performed in order to facilitate their mobility or to liberate blockades, if they exist. --Prevention during labour: During this stage, physiology is respected and manual, position-based and breathing techniques are implemented in order to enhance the protection of the baby and of the pelvic floor. --Postpartum prevention: The action is focused on the pelvic floor, through diaphragmatic and abdominal exercises or postures and, if necessary, osteopathic treatment in the early puerperium, in order to facilitate the correct involution of all soft tissues and the pelvic joints involved in labor. Early specific physiotherapeutic treatment will be proposed for women with functional pathology six weeks after delivery.

  7. Strategies for prevention of postoperative delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ideal measures to prevent postoperative delirium remain unestablished. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the significance of potential interventions. Methods The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Two researchers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English before August 2012. Additional sources included reference lists from reviews and related articles from 'Google Scholar'. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on interventions seeking to prevent postoperative delirium in adult patients were included. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were performed using predefined data fields and scoring system. Meta-analysis was accomplished for studies that used similar strategies. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative delirium. We further tested whether interventions effective in preventing postoperative delirium shortened the length of hospital stay. Results We identified 38 RCTs with interventions ranging from perioperative managements to pharmacological, psychological or multicomponent interventions. Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16 to 0.95). Both typical (three RCTs with 965 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.93) and atypical antipsychotics (three RCTs with 627 patients, RR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.50) decreased delirium occurrence when compared to placebos. Multicomponent interventions (two RCTs with 325 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.86) were effective in preventing delirium. No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.61 to 1

  8. Utilizing PowerPoint Presentation to Promote Fall Prevention among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary-Quarles, Audrey R.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a PowerPoint home safety (PPHS) presentation in enhancing awareness, knowledge and behavior change among senior center attendees in southern Illinois. Twelve centers were utilized as data collection sites in a pretest-posttest control group design. Through stratified randomization, centers were placed into categories (high,…

  9. Earlier testing for HIV--how do we prevent late presentation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Lange, Joep; Gerstoft, Jan

    2010-01-01

    HIV testing policies and practices vary widely across Europe. It is clear that there are individuals who might present late for HIV diagnosis and care within all risk groups, and potentially in any healthcare setting. This article explores the need to ensure earlier identification and treatment o...

  10. Late Presentation of HIV Infection: Prevalence, Trends, and the Role of HIV Testing Strategies in Guangzhou, China, 2008–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence, trends, and the role of different HIV testing strategies in late presentation of HIV infection in China were unknown. Methods. Data of newly reported HIV cases in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2013 was analyzed to examine the prevalence, trends, and characteristics of late presentation of HIV infection by three types of HIV testing strategies. Results. Overall, 53.2% (1412/2653 and 27.3% (724/2653 met the criteria of late presentation and presentation with advanced HIV disease. The overall trend of late presentation of HIV infection within the study period was declining. Late presentation was 62.9% in 2008 and dropped to 43.3% in 2013 (P<0.001; presentation with advanced HIV disease was 40.3% in 2008 and dropped to 15.2% in 2013 (P<0.001. Of the three testing strategies, PITC presented higher odds of both late presentation [AOR (95% CI: PITC versus VCT: 1.37 (1.09, 1.73; PITC versus MHT: 3.09 (2.16, 4.42] and presentation with advanced HIV disease [AOR (95% CI: PITC versus VCT: 1.65 (1.29, 2.11; PITC versus MHT: 13.14 (8.47, 20.39]. Conclusions. Although the late presentation of HIV infection was declining, it was still high in Guangzhou. The worse situation among PITC cases urges the policy adjustment in medical settings to increase early HIV diagnosis.

  11. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: identifying leverage points for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2-5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010-2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Renal Dysfunction after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery- Risk Factors and Preventive Strategies

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    Gaurab Maitra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative renal dysfunction is a relatively common and one of the serious complications of cardiac surgery. Though off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery technique avoids cardiopulmonary bypass circuit induced adverse effects on renal function, multiple other factors cause postoperative renal dysfunction in these groups of patients. Acute kidney injury is generally defined as an abrupt and sustained decrease in kidney function. There is no consen-sus on the amount of dysfunction that defines acute kidney injury, with more than 30 definitions in use in the literature today. Although serum creatinine is widely used as a marker for changes in glomerular filtration rate, the criteria used to define renal dysfunction and acute renal failure is highly variable. The variety of definitions used in clinical studies may be partly responsible for the large variations in the reported incidence. Indeed, the lack of a uniform definition for acute kidney injury is believed to be a major impediment to research in the field. To establish a uniform definition for acute kidney injury, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative formulated the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage Kidney (RIFLE classification. RIFLE , defines three grades of increasing severity of acute kidney injury -risk (class R, injury (class I and failure (class F - and two outcome classes (loss and end-stage kidney disease. Various perioperative risk factors for postoperative renal dysfunction and failure have been identified. Among the important preoperative factors are advanced age, reduced left ventricular function, emergency surgery, preoperative use of intraaortic balloon pump, elevated preoperative serum glucose and creatinine. Most important intraoperative risk factor is the intraoperative haemodynamic instability and all the causes of postoperative low output syndrome com-prise the postoperative risk factors. The most important preventive strategies are the identification of the

  13. WHEN THE PRESENT GETS US ... GLOBALIZATION: NEW TECHNOLOGIES, STRATEGY AND POLITICAL COMMUNICATION

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    Gustavo Martín Fragachán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current phase of the capitalist world development receives the name of globalization and has brought a series of consequences: a few positive and great very denials, some of which will try to be analyzed by me in the lines that continue later, insisting, very specially, in those who say to the development of new technologies of communication, to the called “social networks” and to the consequences that the same ones have had both for the communication and for the development of new modalities of political strategy.

  14. Therapeutic strategies in Sickle Cell Anemia: The past present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Queenie

    2017-06-01

    Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) was one of the first hemoglobinopathies to be discovered. It is distinguished by the mutation-induced expression of a sickle cell variant of hemoglobin (HbS) that triggers erythrocytes to take a characteristic sickled conformation. The complex physiopathology of the disease and its associated clinical complications has initiated multi-disciplinary research within its field. This review attempts to lay emphasis on the evolution, current standpoint and future scope of therapeutic strategies in SCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "Are You with Me?" A Metadiscursive Analysis of Interactive Strategies in College Students' Course Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, Magnuczne Godo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years increasing research attention has been devoted to the definition and development of presentation skills. As an interactive oral discourse type, the presentation is characterised by specific speech acts, of which cooperative acts have proved to be of a highly developmental nature (Sazdovska, 2009). The aim of the present paper is to…

  16. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, R.J.A.; Havermans, B.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M.C.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der; Boot, C.R.L.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and

  17. Stress Prevention@Work : A study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, R.J.A.; Havermans, B.M.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Heerkens, Y.F.; Zijlstra-vlasveld, M.C.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.; Boot, C.R.L.

    2018-01-01

    Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative

  18. Physical Exercise-Induced Adult Neurogenesis: A Good Strategy to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Suk-yu; Christie, Brian R.; So, Kwok-fai

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative evidence has indicated that there is an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive function. With the increasing prevalence of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases among the ageing population, physical exercise, a potent enhancer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, has emerged as a potential preventative strategy/treatment to reduce cognitive decline. Here we review the functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, and how this form of structural plasticity is altered in neurodegenerative diseases known to involve cognitive impairment. We further discuss how physical exercise may contribute to cognitive improvement in the ageing brain by preserving adult neurogenesis, and review the recent approaches for measuring changes in neurogenesis in the live human brain. PMID:24818140

  19. Waterborne microorganisms and biofilms related to hospital infections: strategies for prevention and control in healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelletti, Raquel Vannucci; Moraes, Ângela Maria

    2016-02-01

    Water is the main stimulus for the development of microorganisms, and its flow has an important role in the spreading of contaminants. In hospitals, the water distribution system requires special attention since it can be a source of pathogens, including those in the form of biofilms often correlated with resistance of microorganisms to various treatments. In this paper, information relevant to cases of nosocomial infections involving water circuits as a source of contaminants is compiled, with emphasis on the importance of microbiological control strategies to prevent the installation, spreading and growth of microorganisms in hospitals. An overview of the worldwide situation is provided, with emphasis on Brazilian hospitals. Different approaches normally used to control the occurrence of nosocomial infections due to waterborne contaminants are analyzed, and the use of the polysaccharide chitosan for this specific application is briefly discussed.

  20. Positive deviance as a strategy to prevent and control bloodstream infections in intensive care

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    Francimar Tinoco de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To describe the application of positive deviance as a strategy to prevent and control bloodstream infections. METHOD An intervention study with nursing and medical team members working in an intensive care unit in a university hospital, between June and December 2014. The four steps of the positive defiance methodology were applied: to define, to determine, to discover and to design. RESULTS In 90 days, 188 actions were observed, of these, 36.70% (n=69 were related to catheter dressing. In 81.15% (n=56 of these dressings, the professionals most adhered to the use of flexible sterile cotton-tipped swabs to perform antisepsis at catheter entry sites and fixation dressing. CONCLUSION Positive deviance contributed to the implementation of proposals to improve work processes and team development related to problems identified in central venous catheter care.

  1. Physical Exercise-Induced Adult Neurogenesis: A Good Strategy to Prevent Cognitive Decline in Neurodegenerative Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suk-yu Yau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cumulative evidence has indicated that there is an important role for adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cognitive function. With the increasing prevalence of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases among the ageing population, physical exercise, a potent enhancer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, has emerged as a potential preventative strategy/treatment to reduce cognitive decline. Here we review the functional role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in learning and memory, and how this form of structural plasticity is altered in neurodegenerative diseases known to involve cognitive impairment. We further discuss how physical exercise may contribute to cognitive improvement in the ageing brain by preserving adult neurogenesis, and review the recent approaches for measuring changes in neurogenesis in the live human brain.

  2. Integrated Strategies for the Control and Prevention of Dengue Vectors with Particular Reference to Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is one of the most threatening vector borne diseases, affecting both humans and animals, causing severe epidemics and has brought the world to take serious steps for its control and prevention. DF is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Unfortunately, due to unavailability of vaccine and lack of effective treatment, emphasis is given on its vector control. The only option left for its eradication is to restrict mosquito breeding. This can be achieved by chemical, biological and environment management methods. Use of botanicals is also an alternate and probably most effective approach for controlling DF vector. Community based eradication campaigns including educating people about its prevention and control meseaures and personal prophylaxis also play a vital role to prevent its occurrence. Likewise, use of nanotechnology and micro-emulsion, use of pheromones, insect sterilization techniques has also shown promising results in vector control. Utilization of only one method cannot control this dangerous disease but combination of all above interventions, discussed in the present paper, may prevent the DF vector and ultimately might help in the eradication programs of this disease.

  3. Evaluation of the expect respect support group program: A violence prevention strategy for youth exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Holland, Kristin M; Cortina, Kai; Ball, Barbara; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we assess the effects of the Expect Respect Support Groups (ERSG) on frequency of teen dating violence (TDV) and general youth violence. ERSG is a school-based violence prevention program for youth who have been exposed to violence in their home, school, or community. Boys and girls (N=1,678, M age =14.3, S.D.=1.7, Range=11-17) from 36 schools in Texas participated in this accelerated longitudinal (7-year trajectory) study beginning in 2011. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted using three waves of data from three cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents. Among boys, the number of ERSG sessions attended related to incremental declines in psychological TDV perpetration and victimization, physical TDV victimization, sexual TDV perpetration and victimization, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression. Girls attending ERSG demonstrated reductions in reactive and proactive aggression. The present findings suggest ERSG may be an effective cross-cutting strategy to reduce TDV and other forms of violence among high-risk boys and possibly girls. This information provides valuable understanding of TDV and youth violence in high-risk populations and may be useful in tailoring future prevention efforts to different groups of teens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Stabilizing ER Ca2+ channel function as an early preventative strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

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    Shreaya Chakroborty

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative condition with no known cure. While current therapies target late-stage amyloid formation and cholinergic tone, to date, these strategies have proven ineffective at preventing disease progression. The reasons for this may be varied, and could reflect late intervention, or, that earlier pathogenic mechanisms have been overlooked and permitted to accelerate the disease process. One such example would include synaptic pathology, the disease component strongly associated with cognitive impairment. Dysregulated Ca(2+ homeostasis may be one of the critical factors driving synaptic dysfunction. One of the earliest pathophysiological indicators in mutant presenilin (PS AD mice is increased intracellular Ca(2+ signaling, predominantly through the ER-localized inositol triphosphate (IP(3 and ryanodine receptors (RyR. In particular, the RyR-mediated Ca(2+ upregulation within synaptic compartments is associated with altered synaptic homeostasis and network depression at early (presymptomatic AD stages. Here, we offer an alternative approach to AD therapeutics by stabilizing early pathogenic mechanisms associated with synaptic abnormalities. We targeted the RyR as a means to prevent disease progression, and sub-chronically treated AD mouse models (4-weeks with a novel formulation of the RyR inhibitor, dantrolene. Using 2-photon Ca(2+ imaging and patch clamp recordings, we demonstrate that dantrolene treatment fully normalizes ER Ca(2+ signaling within somatic and dendritic compartments in early and later-stage AD mice in hippocampal slices. Additionally, the elevated RyR2 levels in AD mice are restored to control levels with dantrolene treatment, as are synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity. Aβ deposition within the cortex and hippocampus is also reduced in dantrolene-treated AD mice. In this study, we highlight the pivotal role of Ca(2+ aberrations in AD, and propose a novel strategy to

  5. [Varicella zoster virus infection after bone marrow transplant. Unusual presentation and importance of prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladrière, M; Bibes, B; Rabaud, C; Delaby, P; May, T; Canton, P

    Leukemeia and lymphoproliferative disease are associated with a high risk of varicela-zoster virus (VZV) infection. Although infrequent, visceral involvement can be fatal. We report two cases of patients presenting severe VZV infection after bone marrow transplantation. The first patient was a 42-year old man who received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia. A severe graft-versus-host reaction occurred. Three months after discontinuing VZV prophylaxis, VZV transverse myelitis was diagnosed, leading to death despite prompt treatment with acyclovir. The second patient was a 42-year-old woman treated with autologous bone marrow transplantation for lymphoma. She developed acute viral pancreatitis one month after discontinuing VZV prophylaxis. Recovery was achieved with intravenous treatment. These two cases illustrate the potential gravity of VZV infection after bone marrow transplantation. These observations point to the need for revisiting the duration of VZV prophylaxis.

  6. Preventing in-facility pressure ulcers as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Nancy; Schoelles, Karen M

    2013-03-05

    Complications from hospital-acquired pressure ulcers cause 60,000 deaths and significant morbidity annually in the United States. The objective of this systematic review is to review evidence regarding multicomponent strategies for preventing pressure ulcers and to examine the importance of contextual aspects of programs that aim to reduce facility-acquired pressure ulcers. CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PreMEDLINE were searched for articles published from 2000 to 2012. Studies (any design) that implemented multicomponent initiatives to prevent pressure ulcers in adults in U.S. acute and long-term care settings and that reported pressure ulcer rates at least 6 months after implementation were selected. Two reviewers extracted study data and rated quality of evidence. Findings from 26 implementation studies (moderate strength of evidence) suggested that the integration of several core components improved processes of care and reduced pressure ulcer rates. Key components included the simplification and standardization of pressure ulcer-specific interventions and documentation, involvement of multidisciplinary teams and leadership, use of designated skin champions, ongoing staff education, and sustained audit and feedback.

  7. Timing of allergy-preventive and immunomodulatory dietary interventions - are prenatal, perinatal or postnatal strategies optimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenmalm, M C; Duchén, K

    2013-03-01

    The increasing allergy prevalence in affluent countries may be caused by reduced microbial stimulation and a decreased dietary ω-3/ω-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio, resulting in an abnormal postnatal immune maturation. The timing of allergy-preventive probiotic and ω-3 LCPUFA interventions is critical, as early-life events occurring during critical windows of immune vulnerability can have long-term impact on immune development. The maternal dietary and microbial environment during pregnancy may programme the immune development of the child. Prenatal environmental exposures may alter gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms, aiming to induce physiological adaptations to the anticipated postnatal environment, but potentially also increasing disease susceptibility in the offspring if exposures are mismatched. Although the importance of fetal programming mostly has been studied in cardiovascular and metabolic disease, this hypothesis is also very attractive in the context of environmentally influenced immune-mediated diseases. This review focuses on how prenatal, perinatal or postnatal ω-3 LCPUFA interventions regulate childhood immune and allergy development, and if synergistic effects may be obtained by simultaneous probiotic supplementation. We propose that combined pre- and postnatal preventive measures may be most efficacious. Increasing knowledge on the immunomodulatory effects of prenatal, perinatal and postnatal interventions will help to direct future strategies to combat the allergy epidemic. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnewehr, Markus; Stich, August

    2015-11-01

    In North Korea, the prevalence of hepatitis B is high due to natural factors, gaps in vaccination, and the lack of antiviral treatment. Aid projects are urgently needed, however impeded by North Korea's political and economical situation and isolation. The feasibility of a joint North Korean and German humanitarian hepatitis B prevention program was assessed. Part 1: Hepatitis B vaccination catch-up campaign. Part 2: Implementation of endoscopic ligation of esophageal varices (EVL) by trainings in Germany and North Korea. By vaccinating 7 million children between 2010 and 2012, the hepatitis B vaccination gap was closed. Coverage of 99.23% was reached. A total of 11 hepatitis B-induced liver cirrhosis patients (mean age 41.1 yr) with severe esophageal varices and previous bleedings were successfully treated by EVL without major complications. A clinical standard operating procedure, a feedback system and a follow-up plan were developed. The bi-modal preventive strategy was implemented successfully. Parts of the project can serve as an example for other low-income countries, however its general transferability is limited due to the special circumstances in North Korea.

  9. A decision-support tool to inform Australian strategies for preventing suicide and suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Page

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation modelling is increasingly being recognised as a valuable decision-support tool to help guide investments and actions to address complex public health issues such as suicide. In particular, participatory system dynamics (SD modelling provides a useful tool for asking high-level ‘what if’ questions, and testing the likely impacts of different combinations of policies and interventions at an aggregate level before they are implemented in the real world. We developed an SD model for suicide prevention in Australia, and investigated the hypothesised impacts over the next 10 years (2015–2025 of a combination of current intervention strategies proposed for population interventions in Australia: 1 general practitioner (GP training, 2 coordinated aftercare in those who have attempted suicide, 3 school-based mental health literacy programs, 4 brief-contact interventions in hospital settings, and 5 psychosocial treatment approaches. Findings suggest that the largest reductions in suicide were associated with GP training (6% and coordinated aftercare approaches (4%, with total reductions of 12% for all interventions combined. This paper highlights the value of dynamic modelling methods for managing complexity and uncertainty, and demonstrates their potential use as a decision-support tool for policy makers and program planners for community suicide prevention actions.

  10. Random student drug testing as a school-based drug prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L; Merlo, Lisa J; Arria, Amelia M; Shea, Corinne L

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the goals and current practice of school-based random student drug testing (RSDT) as part of an overall drug prevention strategy, briefly explores the available literature evaluating its effectiveness and discusses the controversies related to RSDT. The authors describe the rationale for RSDT programs and the prevalence of RSDT and other drug testing programs in schools. Eight major criticisms and controversies in RSDT are discussed, including those related to acceptance of RSDT, program effectiveness, costs, legality and effects of drug testing on students. The limitations of the current literature are explored. Although there is limited empirical evidence to support or refute the efficacy of RSDT in schools, there remains substantial opposition to such programs, which may contribute to the paucity of empirical studies of RSDT. Rigorous long-term evaluations are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of various versions of RSDT programs to prevent drug use and identify students in need of assistance to become and stay drug-free. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. The burden of type 2 diabetes: strategies to prevent or delay onset

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    Nayyar Iqbal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nayyar IqbalDepartment of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, PA, USAAbstract: Type 2 diabetes is widespread and its prevalence is increasing rapidly. In the US alone, approximately 41 million individuals have prediabetes, placing them at high risk for the development of diabetes. The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes involves inadequate insulin secretion and resistance to the action of insulin. Suggestive data link insulin resistance and accompanying hyperglycemia to an excess of abdominal adipose tissue, a link that appears to be mediated partially by adipocyte secretion of multiple adipokines that mediate inflammation, thrombosis, atherogenesis, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The adipokine adiponectin has reduced expression in obesity and appears to be protective against the development of type 2 diabetes. Current recommendations to prevent type 2 diabetes center on lifestyle modifications, such as diet and exercise. Clinical trials have established the efficacy of lifestyle intervention, as well as pharmacologic interventions that target glycemic control or fat metabolism. However, diabetes did develop in a substantial percentage of individuals who received intensive intervention in these trials. Thus there is an unmet need for additional strategies in high-risk individuals. Recent data suggest thiazolidinediones and blockade of the endocannabinoid system represent novel therapeutic approaches that may be used for the prevention of diabetes.Keywords: cardiometabolic risk, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, insulin resistance, endocannabinoid system

  12. [Radiation-related caries: etiology and possible preventive strategies. What should the radiotherapist know?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweyen, R; Hey, J; Fränzel, W; Vordermark, D; Hildebrandt, G; Kuhnt, T

    2012-01-01

    After radiation treatment of head-and-neck cancer, the impairment of patient's quality of life still remains an issue. After completion of the treatment course, a substantial number of patients develop so-called radiation caries. In addition, almost 50% of all cases of infectious osteoradionecrosis (iORN) of the jaws are directly associated with radiation caries. This review addresses our current knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of radiation caries including possible preventive strategies. A PubMed search using the terms "radiation caries" ("radiation related caries", "radiation related damage to dentition") and "radiogenic caries" ("postradiation caries", "dental complications and radiotherapy") was performed. The analysis of its content focused on the etiology, the pathogenesis, and the available knowledge on prophylaxis as well as treatment of radiation caries. For this review, 60 publications were selected. As main causal factors for radiogenic caries, either indirect impairment, resulting from alterations in the oral environment (e.g., radiation-induced xerostomia) or direct radiation-induced damage in teeth hard tissues are discussed. Radiation caries remains a lifelong threat and, therefore, requires permanent prevention programs. To enable optimal medical care of the patients during the time course of radiotherapy as well as afterwards, close interdisciplinary cooperation between radiotherapists, oral surgeons, otorhinolaryngologists, and dentists is absolutely essential.

  13. The role of insurance data in setting priorities for netball injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otago, Leonie; Peake, Jacqui

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate insurance records for a one-year period to determine the injury frequencies and costs associated with different age groups in netball. The insurance records for all netball claims made during 1999 in Victoria were obtained from the insurer and entered into a database. The overall injury rate was 9.49 injuries per 1000 players, with 829 claims for injuries filed with the insurance company. Of all injuries claimed for, 85.3% were to the lower limb, 8.7% to the upper limb, 3.1% to the spine/torso and 2.9% to the head and face. Lower limb injuries accounted for 85.4% of costs, upper limb injuries 10.7% and head/neck/torso injuries 3.9% of total injury costs. Knee injuries accounted for 56.9% of total costs, with ankle and calf/Achilles injuries costing 12.7 and 11.8% of total costs, respectively. Injury prevention strategies should therefore be directed to three main injuries taking into account costs and incidence. These injuries were: ankle sprains, knee ligament sprains and Achilles tendon strains. Specifically, the prevention program for Achilles injuries should be directed to the >25 years age groups.

  14. Radiation-related caries. Etiology and possible preventive strategies. What should the radiotherapist know?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweyen, R.; Hey, J.; Fraenzel, W.; Vordermark, D.; Hildebrandt, G.; Kuhnt, T.

    2012-01-01

    After radiation treatment of head-and-neck cancer, the impairment of patient's quality of life still remains an issue. After completion of the treatment course, a substantial number of patients develop so-called radiation caries. In addition, almost 50% of all cases of infectious osteoradionecrosis (iORN) of the jaws are directly associated with radiation caries. This review addresses our current knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of radiation caries including possible preventive strategies. Materials and methods A PubMed search using the terms ''radiation caries'' (''radiation related caries'', ''radiation related damage to dentition'') and ''radiogenic caries'' (''postradiation caries'', ''dental complications and radiotherapy'') was performed. The analysis of its content focused on the etiology, the pathogenesis, and the available knowledge on prophylaxis as well as treatment of radiation caries. Results For this review, 60 publications were selected. As main causal factors for radiogenic caries, either indirect impairment, resulting from alterations in the oral environment (e.g., radiation-induced xerostomia) or direct radiation-induced damage in teeth hard tissues are discussed. Radiation caries remains a lifelong threat and, therefore, requires permanent prevention programs. Conclusion To enable optimal medical care of the patients during the time course of radiotherapy as well as afterwards, close interdisciplinary cooperation between radiotherapists, oral surgeons, otorhinolaryngologists, and dentists is absolutely essential. (orig.)

  15. Risk factors and strategies for stroke prevention in low to middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Л. Фейгин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A recent meta-analysis of the population-based stroke incidence studies showed a significant trend towards almost 2-fold increasing of stroke incidence rates in low to middle-income countries over the last 4 decades. The study also demonstrated that stroke incidence rates in low to middle-income countries currently exceed the level of stroke incidence in the developed (high income countries by 20%. Compared with people in high-income countries, people in low to middle-income countries also experience a higher stroke mortality rate and greater proportions of hemorrhagic strokes. Should the current trends in stroke incidence and aging of the population continue, deaths from stroke in the developing countries will increase over the next decade by 20% and the overall burden of stroke may soon become unbearable for the economy of these countries. The way to stop the stroke pandemic and reduce stroke incidence is effective stroke prevention. In this review, we summarize current evidence for stroke risk factors and prevention in low to middle-income countries and outline possible promising strategies for tackling the problem.

  16. Presentations of scientific research results as a strategy to increase the interest of students in physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dalla Colletta Altermann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the search for strategies to arouse the interest of undergraduate students in science, it was proposed the project "Colloquiums in Physiology" in order to disseminate and discuss scientific discoveries and improve the students’ interest in Physiology. This work aimed to verify the perception of participants about the impact of this activity. The activity included lectures throughout the semester and at the end of each lecture, a questionnaire was applied to listeners. Among the 171 students who answered the questionnaire, 81% (n=139 considers that this proposal increased their interest in physiology, 96% (n=164 believes that it is an important activity and achieved its goal of promote science disclosure, and 83% (n=142 stated that the project promotes interaction between research, teaching and outreach activities. Thus, it highlights the importance of this type of event for the academic formation.

  17. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Siqi; Qu, Lijun; Liu, He; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Liu, Jinghua; Liang, Libo; Zhao, Yanming; Wu, Qunhong

    2016-01-01

    The study's objectives were to: 1) use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV) prevention strategies, and 2) to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs) and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  18. Coping with Workplace Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Heilongjiang Province, China: Social Supports and Prevention Strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqi Zhao

    Full Text Available The study's objectives were to: 1 use social support theory to examine factors influencing healthcare workers' opinions about workplace violence (WPV prevention strategies, and 2 to determine the types of support that general practitioners (GPs and general nurses sought and expected to use after WPV exposure. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess a sample of 448 GPs and 412 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China. Results revealed that workers exposed to physical, psychological or both WPV types had a strong opinion about the necessity of improving diagnosis/treatment competence, developing violence prevention guidelines and plans, using protective equipment, and reinforcing staff by providing back-up support. The last two strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers in our previous study. In addition, workers with high anxiety selected the following prevention strategies as most effective: improving doctor-patient communication skills; installing cameras on wards; keeping work areas bright; improvements in violence reporting, statistics, and interventions; security patrols in the key departments; reinforcing staff; and correcting inaccurate media perspectives and reports. The last four strategies were also selected by tertiary hospital workers. All respondents expected to receive organisational and social support. In conclusion, these prevention strategies should be tailored to the different requirements of specific populations. Furthermore, it is necessary for organisations, the public, and policymakers to provide powerful support in WPV prevention.

  19. An Optimal Number-Dependent Preventive Maintenance Strategy for Offshore Wind Turbine Blades Considering Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shafiee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In offshore wind turbines, the blades are among the most critical and expensive components that suffer from different types of damage due to the harsh maritime environment and high load. The blade damages can be categorized into two types: the minor damage, which only causes a loss in wind capture without resulting in any turbine stoppage, and the major (catastrophic damage, which stops the wind turbine and can only be corrected by replacement. In this paper, we propose an optimal number-dependent preventive maintenance (NDPM strategy, in which a maintenance team is transported with an ordinary or expedited lead time to the offshore platform at the occurrence of the Nth minor damage or the first major damage, whichever comes first. The long-run expected cost of the maintenance strategy is derived, and the necessary conditions for an optimal solution are obtained. Finally, the proposed model is tested on real data collected from an offshore wind farm database. Also, a sensitivity analysis is conducted in order to evaluate the effect of changes in the model parameters on the optimal solution.

  20. Predicting habitual physical activity using coping strategies in older fallers engaged in falls-prevention exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laybourne, Anne H; Biggs, Simon; Martin, Finbarr C

    2011-07-01

    One third of adults over 65 yr old fall each year. Wide-ranging consequences include fracture, reduced activity, and death. Research synthesis suggests that falls-prevention programs can be effective in reducing falls by about 20%. Strength and balance training is the most efficacious component, and the assumed method of effect is an improvement in these performance domains. There is some evidence for this, but the authors have previously proposed an alternative method, activity restriction, leading to a reduction in subsequent falls through a reduction in exposure. The aim of this study was to examine physical activity in older fallers, applying a theory of adaptation, to ascertain predictors of habitual physical activity. Referrals to hospital- and community-based exercise programs were assessed for (a) habitual walking steps and (b) coping strategies, falls self-efficacy, social support, and balance mobility. There was no average group change in physical activity. There was high interindividual variability. Two coping strategies, loss-based selection and optimization, best explained the change in physical activity between baseline and follow-up. Notwithstanding some limitations, this work suggests further use of adaptation theory in falls research. A potential application is the creation of a profiling tool to enable clinicians to better match treatment to patient.

  1. Evaluating Infection Prevention Strategies in Out-Patient Dialysis Units Using Agent-Based Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna R Wares

    Full Text Available Patients receiving chronic hemodialysis (CHD are among the most vulnerable to infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO, which are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines to reduce transmission of MDRO in the out-patient dialysis unit are targeted at patients considered to be high-risk for transmitting these organisms: those with infected skin wounds not contained by a dressing, or those with fecal incontinence or uncontrolled diarrhea. Here, we hypothesize that targeting patients receiving antimicrobial treatment would more effectively reduce transmission and acquisition of MDRO. We also hypothesize that environmental contamination plays a role in the dissemination of MDRO in the dialysis unit. To address our hypotheses, we built an agent-based model to simulate different treatment strategies in a dialysis unit. Our results suggest that reducing antimicrobial treatment, either by reducing the number of patients receiving treatment or by reducing the duration of the treatment, markedly reduces overall colonization rates and also the levels of environmental contamination in the dialysis unit. Our results also suggest that improving the environmental decontamination efficacy between patient dialysis treatments is an effective method for reducing colonization and contamination rates. These findings have important implications for the development and implementation of future infection prevention strategies.

  2. Intervention Strategies Used in Sport Injury Prevention Studies: A Systematic Review Identifying Studies Applying the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Ingrid; Gouttebarge, Vincent; Finch, Caroline F; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2017-10-01

    Prevention of sport injuries is crucial to maximise the health and societal benefits of a physically active lifestyle. To strengthen the translation and implementation of the available evidence base on effective preventive measures, a range of potentially relevant strategies should be considered. Our aim was to identify and categorise intervention strategies for the prevention of acute sport injuries evaluated in the scientific literature, applying the Haddon matrix, and identify potential knowledge gaps. Five electronic databases were searched (PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, Cochrane) for studies that evaluated the effect of interventions on the occurrence of acute sport injuries. Studies were required to include a control group/condition, prospective data collection, and a quantitative injury outcome measure. A total of 155 studies were included, mostly randomised controlled trials (43%). The majority of studies (55%) focussed on strategies requiring a behavioural change on the part of athletes. Studies predominantly evaluated the preventive effect of various training programmes targeted at the 'pre-event' phase (n = 73) and the use of equipment to avoid injury in the 'event phase' (n = 29). A limited number of studies evaluated the preventive effect of strategies geared at rules and regulations (n = 14), and contextual modifications (n = 18). Studies specifically aimed at preventing re-injuries were a minority (n = 8), and were mostly related to ankle sprains (n = 5). Valuable insight into the extent of the evidence base of sport injury prevention studies was obtained for 20 potential intervention strategies. This approach can be used to monitor potential gaps in the knowledge base on sport injury prevention.

  3. Community therapy application in intervention with adolescents: new strategies for prevention and promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina Zago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Given adolescents vulnerability facing transformations and resistances, the group work used by Occupational Therapy through techniques and dynamics favors expression, anxiety control and biopsychosocial maturity in intervention. Currently, one strategy used with teenagers is Community Therapy (CT, because it provides a welcoming environment where all are equal and can share their sufferings, anxieties and affinities. Thus, this study examined the effectiveness of group activities used in occupational therapy as warm up strategies in Community Therapy circles. Eleven teenagers aged 12 to 14 years old participated in the research. The study was carried out in a social institution that aims to support children and youth in the municipality of Uberaba, Minas Gerais state. Video and photo images and handwritten records were used as data collection instruments during the application of the 12 strategies, divided into three categories: competition, cooperation, and self-knowledge/self-esteem, applied for warming up the CT circles. Data were analyzed and presented through the use of a chart for better visualization and understanding of the adolescents’ behavior during the warm up CT circles. The results obtained showed dispute, unrest, lack of attention and sociability; behaviors that are inherent to adolescence due to the several changes, emotional alterations and search for identity that these subjects experience. Based on the survey results, it was possible observe that the behaviors have triggered direct-indirect relationship with the strategies used as facilitators in the discussion development regarding the issues addressed in the CT circles.

  4. Concerns about partner infidelity are a barrier to adoption of HIV-prevention strategies among young South African couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Pettifor, Audrey; Maman, Suzanne; Sibeko, Jabu; MacPhail, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a couples-based HIV-prevention intervention, we conducted formative in-depth interviews with 10 couples to explore topics such as challenges in practising safer sex, HIV-prevention strategies, gender power and violence, and issues of trust and infidelity. In this study, both men and women perceived infidelity as ubiquitous in their social context and were therefore unable to discuss HIV risk and prevention without suspicions of infidelity in their own relationship. This impacted couples' ability openly and effectively to discuss strategies to prevent HIV and thus may have contributed to the limited uptake of HIV-prevention strategies, such as condom use and HIV testing. The contentious nature of safe-sex discussions placed both members of the couple at a higher risk for HIV acquisition within the partnership. This study sheds light on how existing relationship norms in South Africa influence HIV-prevention communication within couples and suggests that new ways of approaching conflictual issues such as mistrust and infidelity are vital in order for HIV-prevention programmes to succeed.

  5. Efficacy of a Maternal Depression Prevention Strategy in Head Start: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael; Diaz-Linhart, Yaminette; Cabral, Howard; Beardslee, William; Hegel, Mark; Haile, Winta; Sander, Jenna; Patts, Gregory; Feinberg, Emily

    2017-08-01

    Low-income and minority mothers experience a disproportionate incidence of depression and lack access to treatment services. Development of prevention strategies in accessible community-based venues is a potentially important public health strategy. To determine the efficacy of a depression prevention strategy embedded in Head Start. This randomized clinical trial was performed from February 15, 2011, through May 9, 2016, at 6 Head Start agencies serving families at or below the federal poverty level. Participants included mothers with depressed mood, anhedonia, or depression history but who were not in a current major depressive episode. Participants were followed up for 12 months with masked outcome assessments. Final follow-up was completed on May 9, 2016. Participants were randomized to a problem-solving education (PSE) intervention (n = 111) or usual Head Start services (n = 119). Primary outcomes were problem-solving skills and depressive symptoms. To capture the chronicity and intensity of symptoms, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms was administered bimonthly, and rates of clinically significant symptom elevations were compared across groups. Secondarily, the presence of a major depressive episode was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. Among the 230 participants, 152 (66.1%) were Hispanic, with a mean (SD) age of 31.4 (7.3) years. An intention-to-treat analysis among 223 participants contributing follow-up data found no differences in problem-solving skills across groups. The mean (SD) number of depressive symptom elevations among the PSE participants was 0.84 (1.39) compared with 1.12 (1.47) among the usual service participants (adjusted incident rate ratio [aIRR], 0.60; 95% CI, 0.41-0.90). In analyses stratified according to baseline depressive symptoms, PSE exerted a preventive effect among those with lower-level baseline symptoms, with a mean (SD) of 0.39 (0.84) elevations among PSE participants

  6. Late Presentation of HIV Infection: Prevalence, Trends, and the Role of HIV Testing Strategies in Guangzhou, China, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weibin; Tang, Weiming; Han, Zhigang; Tangthanasup, Thitikarn May; Zhong, Fei; Qin, Faju; Xu, Huifang

    2016-01-01

    Background . The prevalence, trends, and the role of different HIV testing strategies in late presentation of HIV infection in China were unknown. Methods . Data of newly reported HIV cases in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2013 was analyzed to examine the prevalence, trends, and characteristics of late presentation of HIV infection by three types of HIV testing strategies. Results . Overall, 53.2% (1412/2653) and 27.3% (724/2653) met the criteria of late presentation and presentation with advanced HIV disease. The overall trend of late presentation of HIV infection within the study period was declining. Late presentation was 62.9% in 2008 and dropped to 43.3% in 2013 ( P presentation with advanced HIV disease was 40.3% in 2008 and dropped to 15.2% in 2013 ( P presented higher odds of both late presentation [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.37 (1.09, 1.73); PITC versus MHT: 3.09 (2.16, 4.42)] and presentation with advanced HIV disease [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.65 (1.29, 2.11); PITC versus MHT: 13.14 (8.47, 20.39)]. Conclusions . Although the late presentation of HIV infection was declining, it was still high in Guangzhou. The worse situation among PITC cases urges the policy adjustment in medical settings to increase early HIV diagnosis.

  7. An unusual presentation of a malignant jejunal tumor and a different management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parida Dillip K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant small bowel tumors are very rare and leiomyosarcoma accounts for less than 15% of the cases. Management of these tumors is challenging in view of nonspecific symptoms, unusual presentation and high incidence of metastasis. In this case report, an unusual presentation of jejunal sarcoma and management of liver metastasis with radiofrequency ablation (RFA is discussed. Case presentation A 45-year-old male presented with anemia and features of small bowel obstruction. Operative findings revealed a mass lesion in jejunum with intussusception of proximal loop. Resection of bowel mass was performed. Histopathological findings were suggestive of leiomyosarcoma. After 3-years of follow-up, the patient developed recurrence in infracolic omentum and a liver metastasis. The omental mass was resected and liver lesion was managed with radiofrequency ablation. Conclusion Jejunal leiomyosarcoma is a rare variety of malignant small bowel tumor and a clinical presentation with intussusception is unusual. We suggest that an aggressive management approach using a combination of surgery and a newer technique like RFA can be attempted in patients with limited metastatic spread to liver to prolong the long-term survival in a subset of patients.

  8. Traditional and new strategies in the primary prevention of eating disorders: a comparative study in Spanish adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Lozano, Pilar León; Ríos, Patricia Bolaños; Candau, Juan Romero; del Villar y Lebreros, Gregorio Sánchez; Millán, M Teresa Morales; González, M Teresa Montaña; Martín, Lourdes Andrés; Villalobos, Isabela Justo; Sánchez, Nuria Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Background Research conducted to date into the primary prevention of eating disorders (ED) has mainly considered the provision of information regarding risk factors. Consequently, there is a need to develop new methods that go a step further, promoting a change in attitudes and behavior in the target population. Objective This study describes an adaptation of the Girls’ Group model to the Spanish context, the main objective being to compare two types of intervention, ie, one based on this model and the other following the traditional approach of providing information. The ultimate aim was to implement a prevention program that reduces the risk factors and boosts the protection factors that have been empirically shown to be related to ED. Methods On the basis of previous research on the primary prevention of ED, and taking into account recognized risk and protective factors, the following topics were addressed: nutritional aspects; self-esteem; coping strategies; the ideal image of what is attractive and role of the media; and body image. The total sample (174 girls and 197 boys) was divided into 12 work groups, six for the intervention group (one school) and six for the control group (two schools). School-based input (intervention group) was provided by a pharmacist, a psychologist, a qualified nutritionist/dietician, and specialist support staff (psychologists and/or educators) and teachers of the three schools. Results Participation in the intervention group reduced body dissatisfaction (F = 13.41; P < 0.01), the drive to thinness (F = 10.79; P < 0.01), and the influence of the media with respect to the esthetic body shape model (F = 13.90; P < 0.01), while self-esteem (F = 7.34; P < 0.01) and the use of coping strategies (F = 13.74; P < 0.01) both improved. There was also an improvement in the eating habits of participants, with better outcomes being achieved when intervening with females. Conclusions The present study shows that in the primary prevention of

  9. Reperfusion Strategies for Acute Ischaemic Stroke From Past to Present: An Overview Towards Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Canavero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Timely reperfusion of brain ischaemic tissue is the main therapeutic target for acute stroke. In the last few decades many recanalisation strategies have been studied by randomised controlled trials (RCTs, including intravenous (IV, intra-arterial (IA, and combined approaches. Clinical research is addressed to identify the drug associated with the better reperfusion properties and the lower rate of side-effects. To date, according to current evidence-based guidelines, IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is the only approved treatment for acute ischaemic stroke (AIS within 4.5 hours from onset. Other IV thrombolytics, such as tenecteplase and desmoteplase, have shown promising results in preliminary RCTs and are currently being investigated to produce further evidence. Endovascular catheter-based treatments (including IA administration of thrombolytics or mechanical thrombectomy have quite inferior feasibility, being performed only by stroke-trained interventional neuroradiologists. Until a few months ago, many trials had investigated the safety and efficacy of endovascular techniques compared with IV tPA without consistent results, limiting their application to patients with contraindications or poor response to IV tPA. More recently, the Multicenter Randomized Clinical trial of Endovascular treatment for Acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN, Endovascular treatment for Small Core and Anterior circulation Proximal occlusion with Emphasis on minimizing CT to recanalization times (ESCAPE, and Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits–Intra-arterial (EXTEND-IA trial results have demonstrated the superiority of endovascular procedures associated with standard care in AIS due to proximal arterial occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation. These data are going to change the current decision-making process and the care pathway in AIS patients.

  10. Present situation and new strategies for Chagas disease chemotherapy: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatments for Chagas disease have been administered since the first attempts by Mayer & Rocha Lima (1912, 1914 and up to the drugs currently in use (nifurtimox and benznidazole, along with potential drugs such as allopurinol and first, second and third-generation antifungal agents (imidazoles and triazoles, in separate form. Several diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy and AIDS only came under control after they were treated with associations of drugs with different mechanisms of action. This not only boosts the action of the different compounds, but also may avoid the development of parasite resistance .To this end, over the short term, we propose experimental studies on laboratory animals and clinical trials with the following associations: (i nifurtimox (8 mg/kg/day + benznidazole (5 mg/kg/day x 60 consecutive days; (ii nifurtimox (8 mg/kg/day or benznidazole (5 mg/kg/day + allopurinol (8-10 mg/kg/day x 60 days and (iii nifurtimox (8 mg/kg/day or benznidazole (5 mg/kg/day + ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole (5-6 mg/kg/day x 60 consecutive days. The doses of the drugs and the treatment schedules for the clinical trials must be adapted according to the side effects. From these, other double or triple associations could be made, using drugs with different mechanisms of action. This proposal does not exclude investigations on new drugs over the median and long terms, targeting other aspects of the metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi. Until such time as the ideal drug for specific treatment of Chagas disease might be discovered, we need to develop new strategies for achieving greater efficacy with the old drugs in associations and to develop rational experimentation with new drugs.

  11. Saposins utilize two strategies for lipid transfer and CD1 antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon, Luis; Tatituri, Raju V. V.; Grenha, Rosa; Sun, Ying; Barral, Duarte C.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Bhowruth, Veemal; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Kasmar, Anne; Peng, Wei; Moody, D. Branch; Grabowski, Gregory A.; Brenner, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    Transferring lipid antigens from membranes into CD1 antigen-presenting proteins represents a major molecular hurdle necessary for T-cell recognition. Saposins facilitate this process, but the mechanisms used are not well understood. We found that saposin B forms soluble saposin protein-lipid

  12. IS IT NECESSARY TO VACCINATE CHILDREN AGAINST HEPATITIS A ROUTINELY IN PRESENT TIME? THE EVALUATION OF RESULTS OF SUCH STRATEGY OF HEPATITIS A VACCINE PROPHYLAXIS IN SELECTED REGIONS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Shakhgildian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Data about efficacy of conducting of routine vaccination of children against Hepatitis A are presented in the article. The results of realization such strategy of vaccine prevention of Hepatitis A in selected regions of Russian Federation are evaluated. The perspectives of using this experience in other regions of the country is discussed.

  13. Thioredoxin and Its Reductase Are Present on Synaptic Vesicles, and Their Inhibition Prevents the Paralysis Induced by Botulinum Neurotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pirazzini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins consist of a metalloprotease linked via a conserved interchain disulfide bond to a heavy chain responsible for neurospecific binding and translocation of the enzymatic domain in the nerve terminal cytosol. The metalloprotease activity is enabled upon disulfide reduction and causes neuroparalysis by cleaving the SNARE proteins. Here, we show that the thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin protein disulfide-reducing system is present on synaptic vesicles and that it is functional and responsible for the reduction of the interchain disulfide of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A, C, and E. Specific inhibitors of thioredoxin reductase or thioredoxin prevent intoxication of cultured neurons in a dose-dependent manner and are also very effective inhibitors of the paralysis of the neuromuscular junction. We found that this group of inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxins is very effective in vivo. Most of them are nontoxic and are good candidates as preventive and therapeutic drugs for human botulism.

  14. Strategies to promote health and prevent musculoskeletal injuries in students from the high conservatory of music of Salamanca, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Tomás; Farías Martínez, Joaquín

    2013-06-01

    The present investigation was intended to evaluate the effectiveness of a course on health and the prevention of musculoskeletal injuries in future professional musicians, specifically designed for superior-grade students at the High Conservatory of Music of Salamanca, Spain. Students were taught how to evaluate the possible risks associated with the practice of their instruments. They were provided with information about the most frequent medical problems of musicians, warm-up habits, postural hygiene, effective prevention strategies, and different treatment options for these pathologies. The students were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (n=56) who did not take the course and was evaluated with a questionnaire at the beginning of the academic year and 1 year later, and an experimental group (n=90) who did take the course and was evaluated with three questionnaires (at the beginning of the course, 6 months later, and 12 months after the start of the course). While the students in the experimental group improved their body awareness by 91% and the frequency of their injuries decreased by 78%, there was no improvement in the students from the control group at the end of the experiment. The results of our study have demonstrated the effectiveness of this type of course and show that such courses should be included in the academic curriculum of superior conservatories.

  15. Prevention strategies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez

    Full Text Available After the first reports of the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA in the 1970s, numerous measures intended to prevent its transmission were initiated in hospitals. However, in most cases, large-scale measures failed to be implemented and the transmission of MRSA has since led to a global pandemic. Presently, doubts still remain about the best approach to prevent and control MRSA and more often than not, control measures are not implemented. Therefore, we review here the current situation in Latin America with respect to existing policies for control of MRSA, and evaluate the evidence for control measures in hospitals and the community. We look at the risk factors for infection and transmission of MRSA between hospital patients and within specific populations in the community, and at the effect of antibiotic usage on the spread of MRSA in these settings. Finally, we summarize recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA, which can be applied to the Latin American hospital environment and community setting

  16. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  17. The geography of pre-criminal space : epidemiological imaginations of radicalisation risk in the UK prevent strategy, 2007-2017

    OpenAIRE

    Heath-Kelly, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    This article explores geographical and epistemological shifts in the deployment of the UK Prevent strategy, 2007–2017. Counter-radicalisation policies of the Labour governments (2006–2010) focused heavily upon resilience-building activities in residential communities. They borrowed from historical models of crime prevention and public health to imagine radicalisation risk as an epidemiological concern in areas showing a 2% or higher demography of Muslims. However, this racialised and localise...

  18. The geography of pre-criminal space: epidemiological imaginations of radicalisation risk in the UK Prevent Strategy, 2007?2017

    OpenAIRE

    Heath-Kelly, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article explores geographical and epistemological shifts in the deployment of the UK Prevent strategy, 2007?2017. Counter-radicalisation policies of the Labour governments (2006?2010) focused heavily upon resilience-building activities in residential communities. They borrowed from historical models of crime prevention and public health to imagine radicalisation risk as an epidemiological concern in areas showing a 2% or higher demography of Muslims. However, this racialised and...

  19. Social supports and prevention strategies as adjuncts and alternatives to sedation and anesthesia for people with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Paul; Miller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    People with special needs are assuming a more prominent place in our society. The number of people living in communities with medical, physical, and psychological conditions is increasing dramatically. In spite of the advances that people with special needs have made in recognition of their right to live in society and access services open to other people, their oral health is still significantly poorer than that of other groups. There are a number of modalities that can complement or replace pharmacological interventions and allow individuals to have dental treatment in a dental office or clinic. These include behavioral or psychological interventions and social support and prevention strategies. Social supports include care management and integration of oral health services with general health and social service systems. Preventive programs using modern "medical model" oral health prevention strategies also have the potential to reduce the burden of disease among people with special needs and therefore reduce the need for dental procedures. A social support system using community-based Dental Hygienists acting as Dental Coordinators, is described along with outcomes demonstrating improved oral health for people with special needs living in community residential care facilities. Combined social support systems and community prevention strategies have the potential to reduce the need for pharmacological interventions in order to maintain oral health in populations of people with special needs. Social supports and modern preventive strategies must be included in the range of options available in communities in order to improve and maintain oral health for people with special needs.

  20. The effectiveness and promising strategies of obesity prevention and treatment programmes among adolescents from disadvantaged backgrounds: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornet-van der Aa, D A; Altenburg, T M; van Randeraad-van der Zee, C H; Chinapaw, M J M

    2017-05-01

    This review aimed to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of obesity prevention and treatment programmes for adolescents from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds. A secondary aim was to identify potential successful intervention strategies for this target group. PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library were searched from January 2000 up to February 2016. Intervention studies targeting adolescents from disadvantaged backgrounds were included, with body mass index as outcome. Secondary outcomes were other adiposity measures, physical activity, diet, sedentary behaviour and screen time. Two independent reviewers extracted data, coded intervention strategies and conducted quality assessments. Fourteen studies were included: nine obesity prevention and five obesity treatment studies. Two preventive and four treatment studies showed significant beneficial effects on body mass index. Five of six studies (four preventive, one treatment studies) measuring dietary behaviour reported significant intervention effects. Evidence on other secondary outcomes was inconclusive. We found no conclusive evidence for which specific intervention strategies were particularly successful in preventing or treating obesity among disadvantaged adolescents. However, the current evidence suggests that involving adolescents in the development and delivering of interventions, the use of experiential activities and involvement of parents seem to be promising strategies. More high quality studies are needed. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42016041612. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  1. An educational strategy for improving knowledge about breast and cervical cancer prevention among Mexican middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; De León-Leal, Silvia; Vázquez-Martínez, Carlos Alberto; Farías-Calderón, Ana Gabriela; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Elizondo-Zapién, Rosa María; Hernandez-Hernandez, Dulce María; Garza-Moya, Rubén; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo Martín

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programs have not achieved the expected results in preventing mortality from breast and cervical cancer in Mexico. Therefore, we propose a complementary strategy. An educational strategy for high school students in Mexico (2011-2013) was designed (longitudinal design, two measurements and a single intervention). The postintervention assessment included: 1) knowledge acquired by students about cancer prevention and 2) The performance of the student as a health promoter in their household. The strategy was based on analysis of cases and developed in three sessions. An assessment tool was designed and validated (Test-Retest). The levels of knowledge according to the qualifications expected by chance were determined. Wilcoxon test compared results before and after intervention. An assessment instrument with 0.80 reliability was obtained. 831 high school students were analyzed. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed a significant learning after the intervention (Z = - 2.64, p = 0.008) with improvement of levels of knowledge in a 154.5%. 49% of students had a good performance as health promoters. The learning in preventive measures is important to sensitize individuals to prevention campaigns against cancer. This strategy proved to improve the level of knowledge of students in an easy and affordable way.

  2. Comparison of advanced LWR reactor core design strategies by the net present value method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belac, J.

    2002-12-01

    The following major topics are included: (i) Economic assessment of refuelling variants (Alternatives of economic assessment of refuelling variants; Net present value (NPV); Input parameters accounted for by the economic assessment model; Expressing cash flow for the NPV approach; Specific [unit] costs); (ii) Fuel cycle variants being compared; and (iii) Effect of Czech legislation on the economic indices and NPP fuel cycle assessment. (P.A.)

  3. Social Networking and Social Support in Tourism Experience: The Moderating Role of Online Self-Presentation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jeongmi; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2013-01-01

    -presentation strategies. The results emphasize the importance of SNS use for tourists to seek support from their social network while traveling. The study clarifies the importance of SNS use for tourism experience, in that the more tourists are engaged in social activities through SNS while traveling, the more social......The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of how tourists' self-presentation is managed on social networking sites (SNS). Specifically, the study investigated the effects of SNS use on social support and tourism experience and the moderating role of the different tourists' self...... support they will get, which will contribute positively to their tourism experience. Also, it is argued that social support does not always directly result from the intense SNS use, but rather moderated by tourists' self-presentation strategies....

  4. The Action Plan for Preventing Homelessness in Finland 2016-2019 : The Culmination of an Integrated Strategy to End Homelessness?

    OpenAIRE

    Pleace, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The integrated Finnish National Homelessness Strategy is often seen as the envy of the economically developed world. Challenges remain and progress is not always even, but Finland is approaching a point at which recurrent and long-term homelessness will be nearly eradicated and experi- ence of any form of homelessness will become uncommon. The 2016-2019 Action Plan for Preventing Homelessness in Finland is the third stage of the implementation of an integrated homelessness strategy, which beg...

  5. Childhood drowning in South Africa: local data should inform prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanknecht, L; Argent, A C; van Dijk, M; van As, A B

    2015-02-01

    Drowning is an important cause of childhood injury, however, little is known about drowning in Africa. The aim of this study is to investigate submersion incidents in Cape Town, South Africa and provide specific prognostic factors as well as to develop age-appropriate prevention strategies. A retrospective chart review performed at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Patients admitted because of 'drowning' or 'near-drowning' between January 2007 and April 2013 were included. 75 children were included. 63 (84 %) survived without complications, 8 (10.7 %) died and 4 (5.3 %) had permanent neurological sequelae. The median age was 2.2 years (range 0.1-12.4). 46 (60.5 %) incidents happened in or around the home, only 14 (18.7 %) were witnessed. 42 (56 %) took place in a pool (29 private, 13 public). Significant predictors of the outcome were: estimated submersion time, duration of apnea, unresponsive and dilated pupils, intubation and use of inotropes. On arrival at the ER we found these significant predictors of the outcome: CPR, a GCS drowning in the home environment. While bathing in baths or buckets, children should never be left alone and parents should be made aware of the dangers. In our study, the majority of incidents occurred in swimming pools and limiting access to these could prevent many incidents of drowning among older children. Although children of all language groups are at risk for drowning, English- or Afrikaans-speaking children were particularly at risk for drowning in private pools while Xhosa-speaking children mostly drowned in baths or buckets. We also report multiple prognostic factors for the outcome, but none of them were absolute predictive of the outcome, indicating that each victim of submersion deserves full resuscitative treatment.

  6. Watercraft and watersport injuries in children: trauma mechanisms and proposed prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Richard; Smith, Geni F; Georgeson, Keith E; Muensterer, Oliver J

    2013-08-01

    Watercraft-associated trauma (WAT) in children has received little attention so far, despite the potentially severe and debilitating resulting injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate all cases of major watercraft-associated trauma admitted to the Children's of Alabama during the past 10 years, identify patterns in mechanism and injury, and propose future prevention strategies. We reviewed our (prospective) database for children admitted through our trauma center after major WAT. Charts were abstracted for mechanism, epidemiologic data, injury type and injury severity scale (ISS), as well as outcome. We identified 15 children (6 males, 9 females, age range 7 to 15, mean 12 ± 2 years), involved in 14 accidents. Sharp trauma was inflicted by a propeller (n=4) or a rope (n=1). Towed tubing (riding an inflatable tube while being pulled by a boat) was the most prevalent mechanism (n=6). There was a trend towards higher ISS after towed tubing (24.8 ± 12.4) compared to all other mechanisms (15.1±7.7). Mean length of stay was longer after towed tubing accidents (14.2 ± 7.2 versus 4.9 ± 3.4 days). All patients survived and eventually were discharged home. In one of the incidences, involving 2 victims of this series, the driver of the boat was intoxicated with alcohol. Pediatric watercraft-related accidents are infrequent, but often result in major injuries. More awareness for safety measures to prevent these injuries is warranted. Alcohol is not a major factor in pediatric watercraft-associated trauma. Tubes towed by a boat seem to be particularly dangerous, perhaps because of the rider's limited maneuverability and the fact that centrifugal force lets the tube travel well outside the wake in curves. Limiting boat speed and the use of protective gear on towed tubes when children are involved may decrease the incidence and severity of pediatric WAT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sudden cardiac death in athletes and its preventive strategies: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Halabchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in sport, although rare, but is a tragic event, attracting the media and public attention. Sport and exercise may act as a trigger for sudden cardiac death. Risk of sudden death in young athletes with cardiovascular disease is 2.5 times more frequent than non-athlete individuals. More than 90% of cases of sudden death occur during or immediately after training or competition. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in any population, including athletes, is related to multiple factors such as gender, age, race, nationality, diagnostic screening methods and preventive measures for sudden cardiac death. Otherwise, incidence rate of sudden cardiac death is linked to the used definition and method of diagnosis. Different cardiovascular disorders may result in death of young athletes and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, congenital coronary anomalies, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and aortic rupture are among the most common causes. Marfan syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy, viral myocarditis, Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome, congenital long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome and commotio cordis are reported as other etiologies. In older athletes (more than 35 years, ischemic coronary heart disease is responsible for majority of the cases similar to the general population. Because the outcome of sudden cardiac arrest in sports is very poor except in few cases, proper national strategies are needed to diminish the burden of sudden death in young athletes. It seems that there are two main strategies to achieve this goal: A Primary prevention with use of purposeful pre-participation evaluation programs. This evaluation should focuss on the proper history and physical examination. Nevertheless, there is significant debate between American and European countries regarding the use of paraclinical investigations (especially ECG. American heart association does not recommend ECG as an essential part of evaluation. In contrast, European

  8. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention strategies in the ICU: a clinical decision analysis*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziakas, Panayiotis D; Zacharioudakis, Ioannis M; Zervou, Fainareti N; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-02-01

    ICUs are a major reservoir of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our aim was to estimate costs and effectiveness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention policies. We evaluated three up-to-date methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention policies, namely, 1) nasal screening and contact precautions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-positive patients; 2) nasal screening, contact precautions, and decolonization (targeted decolonization) of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers; and 3) universal decolonization without screening. We implemented a decision-analytic model with deterministic and probabilistic analyses. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections averted, quality-adjusted life years gained, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves were plotted for various willingness-to-pay thresholds to address uncertainty. At base-case scenario, universal decolonization was the dominant strategy; it averted 1.31% and 1.59% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections over targeted decolonization and screening and contact precautions, respectively, and saved $16,203/quality-adjusted life year over targeted decolonization and 14,562/quality-adjusted life year over screening and contact precautions. Results were robust in sensitivity analysis for a wide range of input variables. In probabilistic analysis, universal decolonization increased quality-adjusted life years by 1.06% (95% CI, 1.02-1.09) over targeted decolonization and by 1.29% (95% CI, 1.24-1.33) over screening and contact precautions; universal decolonization resulted in average savings of $172 (95% CI, $168-$175) and $189 (95% CI, $185-$193) over targeted decolonization and screening and contact precautions, respectively. With willingness-to-pay threshold per quality-adjusted life year gained ranging from $0 to $50,000, universal decolonization was dominant

  9. Effects of viewing time, fixations, and viewing strategies on visual memory for briefly presented natural objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Gesche M; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the impact of viewing time and fixations on visual memory for briefly presented natural objects. Participants saw a display of eight natural objects arranged in a circle and used a partial report procedure to assign one object to the position it previously occupied during stimulus presentation. At the longest viewing time of 7,000 ms or 10 fixations, memory performance was significantly higher than at the shorter times. This increase was accompanied by a primacy effect, suggesting a contribution of another memory component-for example, visual long-term memory (VLTM). We found a very limited beneficial effect of fixations on objects; fixated objects were only remembered better at the shortest viewing times. Our results revealed an intriguing difference between the use of a blocked versus an interleaved experimental design. When trial length was predictable, in the blocked design, target fixation durations increased with longer viewing times. When trial length was unpredictable, fixation durations stayed the same for all viewing lengths. Memory performance was not affected by this design manipulation, thus also supporting the idea that the number and duration of fixations are not closely coupled to memory performance.

  10. Inhibition of multidrug efflux as a strategy to prevent biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Stephanie; Phillips, Charlotte R; Ekanayaka, Aruna S; Piddock, Laura J V; Webber, Mark A

    2014-03-01

    We have recently shown that inactivation of any of the multidrug efflux systems of Salmonella results in loss of the ability to form a competent biofilm. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism linking multidrug efflux and biofilm formation, and to determine whether inhibition of efflux is a viable antibiofilm strategy. Mutants lacking components of the AcrAB-TolC system in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium were investigated for their ability to aggregate, produce biofilm matrix components and form a biofilm. The potential for export of a biofilm-relevant substrate via efflux pumps was investigated and expression of genes that regulate multidrug efflux and production of biofilm matrix components was measured. The ability of efflux inhibitors carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, chlorpromazine and phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide to prevent biofilm formation by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus under static and flow conditions was assessed. Mutants of Salmonella Typhimurium that lack TolC or AcrB, but surprisingly not AcrA, were compromised in their ability to form biofilms. This defect was not related to changes in cellular hydrophobicity, aggregative ability or export of any biofilm-specific factor. The biofilm defect resulted from transcriptional repression of curli biosynthesis genes and consequent inhibition of production of curli. All three efflux inhibitors significantly reduced biofilm production in both static and flow biofilm assays, although different concentrations of each inhibitor were most active against each species. This work shows that both genetic inactivation and chemical inhibition of efflux pumps results in transcriptional repression of biofilm matrix components and a lack of biofilm formation. Therefore, inhibition of efflux is a promising antibiofilm strategy.

  11. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Networking and Social Support in Tourism Experience: The Moderating Role of Online Self-Presentation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jeongmi; Tussyadiah, Iis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an understanding of how tourists' self-presentation is managed on social networking sites (SNS). Specifically, the study investigated the effects of SNS use on social support and tourism experience and the moderating role of the different tourists' self-presentation...... support they will get, which will contribute positively to their tourism experience. Also, it is argued that social support does not always directly result from the intense SNS use, but rather moderated by tourists' self-presentation strategies....

  13. Traditional and new strategies in the primary prevention of eating disorders: a comparative study in Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2010-09-01

    .Results: Participation in the intervention group reduced body dissatisfaction (F = 13.41; P < 0.01, the drive to thinness (F = 10.79; P < 0.01, and the influence of the media with respect to the esthetic body shape model (F = 13.90; P < 0.01, while self-esteem (F = 7.34; P < 0.01 and the use of coping strategies (F = 13.74; P < 0.01 both improved. There was also an improvement in the eating habits of participants, with better outcomes being achieved when intervening with females.Conclusions: The present study shows that in the primary prevention of eating disorders, better outcomes are achieved by new models which target the attitudes and behavior of adolescents rather than focusing solely on the provision of risk information to raise awareness.Keywords: coping strategies, adolescence, primary prevention, eating disorders, positive psychology

  14. How externalities impact an evaluation of strategies to prevent antimicrobial resistance in health care organizations

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    Jenine R. Leal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rates of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (ARO continue to increase for both hospitalized and community patients. Few resources have been allocated to reduce the spread of resistance on global, national and local levels, in part because the broader economic impact of antimicrobial resistance (i.e. the externality is not fully considered when determining how much to invest to prevent AROs, including strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance, such as antimicrobial stewardship programs. To determine how best to measure and incorporate the impact of externalities associated with the antimicrobial resistance when making resource allocation decisions aimed to reduce antimicrobial resistance within healthcare facilities, we reviewed the literature to identify publications which 1 described the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, 2 described approaches to quantifying the externalities associated with antimicrobial resistance or 3 described macro-level policy options to consider the impact of externalities. Medline was reviewed to identify published studies up to September 2016. Main body An externality is a cost or a benefit associated with one person’s activity that impacts others who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. We did not identify a well-accepted method of accurately quantifying the externality associated with antimicrobial resistance. We did identify three main methods that have gained popularity to try to take into account the externalities of antimicrobial resistance, including regulation, charges or taxes on the use of antimicrobials, and the right to trade permits or licenses for antimicrobial use. To our knowledge, regulating use of antimicrobials is the only strategy currently being used by health care systems to reduce antimicrobial use, and thereby reduce AROs. To justify expenditures on programs that reduce AROs (i.e. to formally incorporate the impact of the negative externality of

  15. Present and future treatment strategies for pulmonary arterial hypertension : focus on phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Laura B; Klings, Elizabeth S

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare progressive disorder historically associated with mortality in treatment modalities including vasodilator therapy have resulted in improved symptoms, hemodynamics, and survival in these patients. Vasodilators, including the calcium channel antagonists, prostanoids, and endothelin receptor antagonists, have been used to counteract potential imbalances in vasoactive mediators in PAH patients; all have produced improved long-term symptomatology and hemodynamics. Only the prostanoid epoprostenol has improved survival in IPAH patients. Although these medications have worked well in many patients with PAH, each of them has limitations. The phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors are a relatively new form of treatment for PAH. They are designed to potentiate the effects of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, thereby mimicking endogenous nitric oxide within the vasculature. PDE-5 inhibitors are selective pulmonary vasodilators effective in animal models of pulmonary hypertension. The published clinical studies evaluating their use have been small in size to date but appear to demonstrate benefit. The recently completed 12-week randomized placebo-controlled Sildenafil Use in Pulmonary Hypertension (SUPER-1) trial demonstrated improvement in 6-minute walk distance and hemodynamics in patients receiving sildenafil. These data suggest that the PDE-5 inhibitors are effective in treating PAH and that it is likely that their usage will increase over time. The purpose of this review is to present a current view of the pathogenesis and treatment of PAH, with an emphasis on the use of PDE-5 inhibitors in these patients.

  16. Framing the Local Context and Estimating the Health Impact of CPPW Obesity Prevention Strategies in Los Angeles County, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Robles, Brenda; Trogdon, Justin G; Ferencik, Rachel; Simon, Paul A; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have described the range and health impacts of obesity prevention strategies in local communities supported by the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program. To address this gap, we reviewed implemented strategies in Los Angeles County (LAC) for 3 program focus areas: physical activity-promotion, health marketing, and creation of healthy food environments. Local context and results from an impact simulation are presented. Information on population reach and program milestones was synthesized to describe historical and programmatic progress of the obesity prevention efforts during 2010-2012. To forecast health impacts, the Prevention Impacts Simulation Model (PRISM) was used to simulate population health outcomes, including projected changes in obesity burden and health behaviors 30 years into the future. LAC with more than 9.8 million residents. Low-income adults and youth who were the intended audiences of the Communities Putting Prevention to Work program in LAC. Implemented strategies for the 3 focus areas. Documentation of program reach and PRISM forecasting of obesity rates and health impacts. Implemented strategies in LAC ranged from best practices in healthy food procurement (estimated reach: 600 000 students, 300 000 meals per day) to completed shared-use agreements (10+ agreements across 5 school districts) to a series of strategically designed health marketing campaigns on healthy eating (>515 million impressions). On the basis of PRISM simulations, these highlighted program activities have the potential to reduce by 2040 the number of youth (-29 870) and adults (-94 136) with obesity, youth (-112 453) and adults (-855 855) below recommended levels of physical activity, and youth (-14 544) and adults (-28 835) who consumed excess junk food, as compared with baseline (2010-2011). Program context and PRISM-simulated health impacts showed modest but promising results in LAC, which may lead to further population health improvements in the

  17. mobilityRERC state of the science conference: Individualizing pressure ulcer risk and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Sonenblum, Sharon; Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Pressure ulcers (PUs) remain a costly and, often avoidable, complication of full time wheelchair use. Clinicians routinely evaluate PU risk to assist in selecting devices and interventions that may prevent PUs from occurring. Clinical assessment of risk can be evaluated in many different manners, both formally and informally and, typically, is based on combinations of demographic, disability and client-reported behavioral factors. Many of these factors add to PU risk because they impact the physiology and/or biomechanics of the skin and tissue. This article results from a presentation during the Wheeled Mobility Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center's (RERC's) State of the Science Conference in 2012. The presentation's purpose was to present issues and concepts related to pressure ulcer prevention and set the stage for group discussion which followed the presentation. This article progresses through the current state of the science related to PU risk, starting with the tissue and cellular changes resulting from pressure, through the impact that external loading has on blood flow and tissue deformation, and ending with clinical assessment of risk based upon demographic and behavioral factors. Factors leading to the development of PUs are numerous and varied, but the defining factor is excessive external loading or pressure on the skin. The amount of pressure needed to cause tissue damage varies widely within and across individuals--based on anatomy and the presence or absence of bony structures under the area of interest, tissue stiffness and other individual characteristics, and most importantly--the amount of tissue deformation that occurs. Clinicians routinely evaluate wheelchair users with respect to pressure ulcer risk, however, objective risk measurements that inform prescription are not readily available. A need exists to provide clinicians with objective measurements of pressure ulcer risk that can inform individualized interventions.

  18. Raising awareness of upper airway diseases: Overview of management and prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-yun WANG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The nose together with the paranasal sinuses is the main part of the upper airway, which is lined with pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium. There are several important physiological functions such as conditioning and filtration of the inspired air and the provision of end organ for the sense of smell. Besides the nose also fulfills a physical and immunological barrier as the nasal epithelium is the first site of interaction between the host tissue and foreign invaders, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, allergens, and harmful particulates. Hence, nasal diseases such as rhinitis (allergic and infectious and rhinosinusitis are the most common health problems worldwide, affecting millions of people of all ages. In the past 10 to 20 years, our understanding of the immuno-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the common nasal diseases has been significantly enhanced by in vivo and in vitro studies. This allows the development of novel therapeutic strategies designed to improve the physiological and immune defense functions of the nose, as well as for other common airway diseases. Since the dynamically external changes of atmosphere, environment (pollution and susceptible population, we are now facing some of new features on epidemiology and the types of upper airway diseases that require us to in-deep study the diseases through basic and clinical researches, so as to further understand the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases. DOI: 10.118555/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.10.01

  19. Risk Prevention Strategies and the SWOT Analysis for the Implementation of the SMEs’ Business Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Oncioiu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This theme is targeting the importance of implementing the business plan of a small and medium company that has as aim the creation of the added value through research and innovation in the management of human resources performance based on information technology domain. The objective is to increase the economic competitiveness and development of knowledge-based economy whereas by the implementation of the project, it increases the company‟s profitability, creating a competitive advantage resulting in innovative products, as well as the effectiveness of companies that use human resources evaluation platform. The need identified on the market to which the SMEs wish to answer by implementing the plan is represented by the nationwide lack of a complex solution covering both the evaluation and the management of human resources performances. The used methodology can be found in the analysis, developing a strategy for preventing financial, human, market, marketing - image risks and also the physical ones. With the SWOT analysis it was observed one of the strengths i.e. the existence of a single management system of employee performance that includes assessment specific features. In conclusion, there are no software solutions at national level, which would assess the human resources of an organization, following specific indicators of that organization, which could combine the assessment methods in order to achieve more a more efficient and versatile assessment.

  20. Violet Light Exposure Can Be a Preventive Strategy Against Myopia Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemasa Torii

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360–400 nm wavelength suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chick chorioretinal tissues than blue light under the same conditions. Next, we conducted clinical research retrospectively to compare the AL elongation among myopic children who wore eyeglasses (VL blocked and two types of contact lenses (partially VL blocked and VL transmitting. The data showed the VL transmitting contact lenses suppressed myopia progression most. These results suggest that VL is one of the important outdoor environmental factors for myopia control. Since VL is apt to be excluded from our modern society due to the excessive UV protection, VL exposure can be a preventive strategy against myopia progression.

  1. Violet Light Exposure Can Be a Preventive Strategy Against Myopia Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, Hidemasa; Kurihara, Toshihide; Seko, Yuko; Negishi, Kazuno; Ohnuma, Kazuhiko; Inaba, Takaaki; Kawashima, Motoko; Jiang, Xiaoyan; Kondo, Shinichiro; Miyauchi, Maki; Miwa, Yukihiro; Katada, Yusaku; Mori, Kiwako; Kato, Keiichi; Tsubota, Kinya; Goto, Hiroshi; Oda, Mayumi; Hatori, Megumi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-02-01

    Prevalence of myopia is increasing worldwide. Outdoor activity is one of the most important environmental factors for myopia control. Here we show that violet light (VL, 360-400nm wavelength) suppresses myopia progression. First, we confirmed that VL suppressed the axial length (AL) elongation in the chick myopia model. Expression microarray analyses revealed that myopia suppressive gene EGR1 was upregulated by VL exposure. VL exposure induced significantly higher upregulation of EGR1 in chick chorioretinal tissues than blue light under the same conditions. Next, we conducted clinical research retrospectively to compare the AL elongation among myopic children who wore eyeglasses (VL blocked) and two types of contact lenses (partially VL blocked and VL transmitting). The data showed the VL transmitting contact lenses suppressed myopia progression most. These results suggest that VL is one of the important outdoor environmental factors for myopia control. Since VL is apt to be excluded from our modern society due to the excessive UV protection, VL exposure can be a preventive strategy against myopia progression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spermine inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress - induced Apoptosis: a New Strategy to Prevent Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

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    Can Wei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS plays an important role in the progression of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, in part by mediating apoptosis. Polyamines, including putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, are polycations with anti-oxidative, anti-aging, and cell growth-promoting activities. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms by which spermine protects against ERS-induced apoptosis in rats following AMI. Methods and Results: AMI was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD in rats, and exogenous spermine was administered by intraperitoneal injection (2.5 mg/ml daily for 7 days pre-AMI. Spermine treatment limited infarct size, attenuated cardiac troponin I and creatinine kinase-MB release, improved cardiac function, and decreased ERS and apoptosis related protein expression. Isolated cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia showed significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS and the expression of apoptosis and ERS related proteins; these effects occurred through PERK and eIF2α phosphorylation. The addition of spermine attenuated cardiomyocyte apoptosis, suppressed the production of ROS, and inhibited ERS related pathways. Conclusions: Spermine was an effective pre-treatment strategy to attenuate cardiac ERS injury in rats, and the cardioprotective mechanism occurring through inhibition of ROS production and down regulation of the PERK-eIF2α pathway. These findings provide a novel target for the prevention of apoptosis in the setting of AMI.

  3. Is Palmitoleic Acid a Plausible Nonpharmacological Strategy to Prevent or Control Chronic Metabolic and Inflammatory Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Camila O; Vannice, Gretchen K; Rosa Neto, José C; Calder, Philip C

    2018-01-01

    Although dietary fatty acids can modulate metabolic and immune responses, the effects of palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) remain unclear. Since this monounsaturated fatty acid is described as a lipokine, studies with cell culture and rodent models have suggested it enhances whole body insulin sensitivity, stimulates insulin secretion by β cells, increases hepatic fatty acid oxidation, improves the blood lipid profile, and alters macrophage differentiation. However, human studies report elevated blood levels of palmitoleic acid in people with obesity and metabolic syndrome. These findings might be reflection of the level or activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, which synthesizes palmitoleate and is enhanced in liver and adipose tissue of obese patients. The aim of this review is to describe the immune-metabolic effects of palmitoleic acid observed in cell culture, animal models, and humans to answer the question of whether palmitoleic acid is a plausible nonpharmacological strategy to prevent, control, or ameliorate chronic metabolic and inflammatory disorders. Despite the beneficial effects observed in cell culture and in animal studies, there are insufficient human intervention studies to fully understand the physiological effects of palmitoleic acid. Therefore, more human-based research is needed to identify whether palmitoleic acid meets the promising therapeutic potential suggested by the preclinical research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Diabetic Retinopathy, General Preventive Strategies, and Novel Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Sher Zaman; Kumar, Selva; Ismail, Ikram Shah Bin

    2014-01-01

    The growing number of people with diabetes worldwide suggests that diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) will continue to be sight threatening factors. The pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is a widespread cause of visual impairment in the world and a range of hyperglycemia-linked pathways have been implicated in the initiation and progression of this condition. Despite understanding the polyol pathway flux, activation of protein kinase C (KPC) isoforms, increased hexosamine pathway flux, and increased advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation, pathogenic mechanisms underlying diabetes induced vision loss are not fully understood. The purpose of this paper is to review molecular mechanisms that regulate cell survival and apoptosis of retinal cells and discuss new and exciting therapeutic targets with comparison to the old and inefficient preventive strategies. This review highlights the recent advancements in understanding hyperglycemia-induced biochemical and molecular alterations, systemic metabolic factors, and aberrant activation of signaling cascades that ultimately lead to activation of a number of transcription factors causing functional and structural damage to retinal cells. It also reviews the established interventions and emerging molecular targets to avert diabetic retinopathy and its associated risk factors. PMID:25105142

  5. First and Second Inaugural Addresses of Modern and Traditional U.S. Presidents: An Analysis of Self-Presentational Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie H. Smith

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the self-presentational strategies modern and traditional U.S. presidents employed in their first and second inaugural addresses. Specifically, we examined the presidents’ use of the strategies of ingratiation, self-promotion, exemplification, ingratiation, and supplication. We predicted that modern presidents would use more ingratiation than would their traditional counterparts in the first but not the second inaugural address. This prediction derives from an analysis of the president’s dependency on the public at the time of the inaugural address. In particular, the president is not as dependent on the public at the time of the second inaugural as compared with the first inaugural. We also predicted that modern presidents would use more self-promotion than would traditional presidents in the second but not the first inaugural address. And, finally we predicted that modern presidents would use more exemplification and intimidation than would traditional presidents. Our results supported several predictions.

  6. Presenting SAPUSS: Solving Aerosol Problem by Using Synergistic Strategies in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the summary of the key objectives, instrumentation and logistic details, goals, and initial scientific findings of the European Marie Curie Action SAPUSS project carried out in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB during September–October in autumn 2010. The key SAPUSS objective is to deduce aerosol source characteristics and to understand the atmospheric processes responsible for their generations and transformations – both horizontally and vertically in the Mediterranean urban environment. In order to achieve so, the unique approach of SAPUSS is the concurrent measurements of aerosols with multiple techniques occurring simultaneously in six monitoring sites around the city of Barcelona (NE Spain: a main road traffic site, two urban background sites, a regional background site and two urban tower sites (150 m and 545 m above sea level, 150 m and 80 m above ground, respectively. SAPUSS allows us to advance our knowledge sensibly of the atmospheric chemistry and physics of the urban Mediterranean environment. This is well achieved only because of both the three dimensional spatial scale and the high sampling time resolution used. During SAPUSS different meteorological regimes were encountered, including warm Saharan, cold Atlantic, wet European and stagnant regional ones. The different meteorology of such regimes is herein described. Additionally, we report the trends of the parameters regulated by air quality purposes (both gaseous and aerosol mass concentrations; and we also compare the six monitoring sites. High levels of traffic-related gaseous pollutants were measured at the urban ground level monitoring sites, whereas layers of tropospheric ozone were recorded at tower levels. Particularly, tower level night-time average ozone concentrations (80 ± 25 μg m−3 were up to double compared to ground level ones. The examination of the vertical profiles clearly shows the predominant influence of NOx on ozone

  7. E-waste management challenges in Iran: presenting some strategies for improvement of current conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Nowrouz, Parviz; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Nazari, Jalil; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in Iran, owing to an increase in consumption of electrical and electronic equipment. Nevertheless, as is the case in some other countries, E-waste management has not received sufficient attention. For the successful implementation of any waste management plan (including an E-waste management plan), the availability of sufficient and accurate information on the quantities and composition of the waste generated and on current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. At present, in Iran, there is no available and accurate information that describes the characteristics and generation rate of E-waste or the actual practice of management and handling of the waste. For this initial study, eight electronic products were selected for the determination of their E-waste generation rate in the country, and two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessment of the current condition of E-waste management. The study found that the amount of E-waste generation in the country for the eight selected electronic items alone was 115,286, 112,914 and 115,151 metric tons in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Of the types of electronic items included in the study, televisions, with an average of 42.42%, and PCs, with an average of 32.66% accounted for the greatest proportions of the total mass of E-waste generated during 2008-2010. Currently, despite the fact that primary legislation for E-waste management (as part of general waste legislation) exists in Iran, this primary legislation has not yet been implemented. In practical terms, there is no definite policy or plan for the allocation of funds to prepare suitable equipment and facilities for the management and recycling of E-waste at the end of the products' useful life. Proposed improvements in current conditions are identified, first by considering other countries' experiences and then suggesting specific practical policies, rules, and regulations that should be

  8. Relationship of Child Abuse to the Workplace: Employer-Based Strategies for Prevention. Prevention Focus Working Paper No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolson, Peter

    This background paper examines the relationship between child abuse and the workplace and discusses employer-based strategies that can reduce the stress levels of working parents and provide a buffer against problems of child abuse and neglect. Part 1, "Child Abuse and the World of Work," discusses the kinds of stress experienced by…

  9. Evaluating the implementation of "managing the risk of suicide: a suicide prevention strategy for the ACT 2009-2014".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Johann; Griffiths, Kathleen; Rickwood, Debra; Carron-Arthur, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, governments have invested significantly in policies and strategies to prevent the tragic loss of life to suicide. However, there has been little focus on evaluating the implementation of such policies. This paper reports on the evaluation of the implementation of "Managing the Risk of Suicide: A Suicide Prevention Strategy for the ACT 2009-2014," the Australian Capital Territory's (ACT) suicide prevention strategy. We sought to answer two questions: (1) Could agencies provide data reporting on their progress in implementing the activities for which they were responsible?; and (2) Could a judgment about implementation progress be made and, if so, to what extent was the activity implemented? Individually tailored electronic surveys were sent to 18 ACT agencies annually over 4 years to measure their progress in implementing activities for which they had responsibility. By year four, full data were provided for 64% of activities, maximal partial data for 9%, and minimal partial data for 27%. Forty-two per cent of activities were fully implemented, 20% were partially implemented, and 38% were not implemented or could not be measured. It is possible to measure implementation of suicide prevention strategies, but appropriate processes and dedicated resources must be in place at the outset.

  10. Encountering Gender: Resisting a Neo-Liberal Political Rationality for Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2017-01-01

    Globally, sexuality education is framed as a key programmatic strategy for achieving HIV prevention among youth. In particular, sexuality education is positioned as a way to address gender inequalities and promote youth empowerment in relation to gendered identities. In this paper, I argue that the focus on what content should be taught and…

  11. From kids, through kids, to kids: examining the social influence strategies used by adolescents to promote prevention among peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L; Coveleski, Samantha; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Kootsikas, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances have increased the interest and ability of lay audiences to create messages; however, the feasibility of incorporating lay multimedia messages into health campaigns has seldom been examined. Drawing on the principle of cultural grounding and narrative engagement theory, this article seeks to examine what types of messages adolescents believe are most effective in persuading their peers to resist substance use and to provide empirical data on the extent to which audience-generated intervention messages are consistent with the associated campaign philosophy and branding. Data for the current study are prevention messages created by students as part of a four-lesson substance use prevention "booster" program delivered to eighth-grade students in 20 rural schools in Pennsylvania and Ohio during 2010-2011. Content analysis results indicate that didactic message strategies were more common in audience-generated messages than narrative strategies, although strategy was somewhat dependent on the medium used. Two of the most common strategies that adolescents used to persuade peers not to use substances were negative consequences and identity appeals, and messages varied in the degree to which they were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings and program philosophy of the prevention campaign. Implications of the current study for understanding the social construction of substance use prevention messages among adolescents and incorporating audience-generated messages in health communication campaigns are discussed.

  12. Evaluation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft-tissue infection prevention strategies at a military training center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Stephanie M; Blaesing, Carl R; Millar, Eugene V; Chukwuma, Uzo; Schlett, Carey D; Wilkins, Kenneth J; Tribble, David R; Ellis, Michael W

    2013-08-01

    Military trainees are at high risk for skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), especially those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A multicomponent hygiene-based SSTI prevention strategy was implemented at a military training center. After implementation, we observed 30% and 64% reductions in overall and MRSA-associated SSTI rates, respectively.

  13. Mobilizing Communities around HIV Prevention for Youth: How Three Coalitions Applied Key Strategies to Bring about Structural Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S.; Willard, Nancy; Sanchez, Kenia; Straub, Diane M.; Ochoa, Tara N.; Howell, Kourtney; Rivera, Carmen; Ramos, Ibrahim; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts must focus on altering features of the social and physical environment to reduce risks associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. Community coalitions provide a vehicle for bringing about sustainable structural changes. This article shares lessons and key strategies regarding how three community…

  14. Reducing unnecessary urinary catheter use and other strategies to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddings, Jennifer; Rogers, Mary A M; Krein, Sarah L; Fakih, Mohamad G; Olmsted, Russell N; Saint, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are costly, common and often preventable by reducing unnecessary urinary catheter (UC) use. To summarise interventions to reduce UC use and CAUTIs, we updated a prior systematic review (through October 2012), and a meta-analysis regarding interventions prompting UC removal by reminders or stop orders. A narrative review summarises other CAUTI prevention strategies including aseptic insertion, catheter maintenance, antimicrobial UCs, and bladder bundle implementation. 30 studies were identified and summarised with interventions to prompt removal of UCs, with potential for inclusion in the meta-analyses. By meta-analysis (11 studies), the rate of CAUTI (episodes per 1000 catheter-days) was reduced by 53% (rate ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.64, pSMD) in catheterisation duration (days) was -1.06 overall (p=0.065) including a statistically significant decrease in stop-order studies (SMD -0.37; pSMD, -1.54; p=0.071). No significant harm from catheter removal strategies is supported. Limited research is available regarding the impact of UC insertion and maintenance technique. A recent randomised controlled trial indicates antimicrobial catheters provide no significant benefit in preventing symptomatic CAUTIs. UC reminders and stop orders appear to reduce CAUTI rates and should be used to improve patient safety. Several evidence-based guidelines have evaluated CAUTI preventive strategies as well as emerging evidence regarding intervention bundles. Implementation strategies are important because reducing UC use involves changing well-established habits.

  15. Evaluation of a cavity flooding strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure in a severe accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Je, Moo Sung; Park, Chang Kyoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, TaeJon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-01

    As a part of the evaluation of accident management strategies for severe accident prevention or mitigation in a station blackout scenario for YGN 3 and 4, an external vessel cooling strategy for the prevention of reactor vessel failure has been estimated using the MAAP4 computer code. The sensitivity studies have been performed such as actuating timings and the number of spray pumps used. To explore external vessel cooling strategies, containment spray pumps were actuated by varying time spanning core uncovery, core melting and relocation of molten core material. It was shown that flooding of the reactor cavity using the containment spray system may prevent reactor vessel failure but may not prevent the failure of the relocation of molten core material during the station blackout sequence of YGN 3 and 4. Reactor vessel failure can be prevented by external vessel cooling using condensed water from the operation of two containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pumps at the time of core melting and using water from the operation of one containment spray pump at the time of core uncovery. (Author) 46 refs., 26 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs: Challenges and strategies from England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Nyashanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan African (BSSA communities disproportionately constitute two-thirds of people with HIV [Heath Protection Agency. Health protection report: latest infection reports-GOV.UK; 2013]. African communities constitute 30% of people accessing HIV treatment in the United Kingdom yet represent less than 1% of the population [Health Protection Agency. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 report; 2012], [Department of Health. DVD about FGM. 2012. Available from fgm@dh.gsi.gov.uk.]. This article explores the sociocultural challenges in engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs in England and possible strategies to improve their involvement. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted in a 2-year period with participants from the BSSA communities and sexual health services in the West Midlands, England. The research was supported by the Ubuntu scheme, a sexual health initiative working with African communities in Birmingham, England. Results: Ineffective engagement with African communities can hinder the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs. Skills and strategies sensitive to BSSA culture are important for successful implementation of prevention programs. HIV prevention programs face challenges including stigma, denial, and marginalized views within BSSA communities. Conclusion: Networking, coordination, and cultural sensitivity training for health professionals are key strategies for engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs.

  17. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Rianne J A; Havermans, Bo M; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, Moniek C; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J; Boot, Cécile R L

    2017-07-17

    Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1) the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2) the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees' perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Secondary outcome measures are job demands, job resources and the number

  18. Stress Prevention@Work: a study protocol for the evaluation of a multifaceted integral stress prevention strategy to prevent employee stress in a healthcare organization: a cluster controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne J. A. Hoek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate implementation of work-related stress management interventions can reduce or prevent work-related stress and sick leave in organizations. We developed a multifaceted integral stress-prevention strategy for organizations from several sectors that includes a digital platform and collaborative learning network. The digital platform contains a stepwise protocol to implement work-related stress-management interventions. It includes stress screeners, interventions and intervention providers to facilitate access to and the selection of matching work-related stress-management interventions. The collaborative learning network, including stakeholders from various organizations, plans meetings focussing on an exchange of experiences and good practices among organizations for the implementation of stress prevention measures. This paper describes the design of an integral stress-prevention strategy, Stress Prevention@Work, and the protocol for the evaluation of: 1 the effects of the strategy on perceived stress and work-related outcomes, and 2 the barriers and facilitators for implementation of the strategy. Methods The effectiveness of Stress Prevention@Work will be evaluated in a cluster controlled trial, in a large healthcare organization in the Netherlands, at six and 12 months. An independent researcher will match teams on working conditions and size and allocate the teams to the intervention or control group. Teams in the intervention group will be offered Stress Prevention@Work. For each intervention team, one employee is responsible for applying the strategy within his/her team using the digital platform and visiting the collaborative learning network. Using a waiting list design, the control group will be given access to the strategy after 12 months. The primary outcome is the employees’ perceived stress measured by the stress subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21. Secondary outcome measures

  19. Cost-effectiveness of different strategies for diagnosis of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women presenting in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith E Bosmans

    Full Text Available Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs are common in primary care resulting in substantial costs. Since antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics for UTIs is rising, accurate diagnosis is needed in settings with low rates of multidrug-resistant bacteria.To compare the cost-effectiveness of different strategies to diagnose UTIs in women who contacted their general practitioner (GP with painful and/or frequent micturition between 2006 and 2008 in and around Amsterdam, The Netherlands.This is a model-based cost-effectiveness analysis using data from 196 women who underwent four tests: history, urine stick, sediment, dipslide, and the gold standard, a urine culture. Decision trees were constructed reflecting 15 diagnostic strategies comprising different parallel and sequential combinations of the four tests. Using the decision trees, for each strategy the costs and the proportion of women with a correct positive or negative diagnosis were estimated. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to estimate uncertainty surrounding costs and effects. Uncertainty was presented using cost-effectiveness planes and acceptability curves.Most sequential testing strategies resulted in higher proportions of correctly classified women and lower costs than parallel testing strategies. For different willingness to pay thresholds, the most cost-effective strategies were: 1 performing a dipstick after a positive history for thresholds below €10 per additional correctly classified patient, 2 performing both a history and dipstick for thresholds between €10 and €17 per additional correctly classified patient, 3 performing a dipstick if history was negative, followed by a sediment if the dipstick was negative for thresholds between €17 and €118 per additional correctly classified patient, 4 performing a dipstick if history was negative, followed by a dipslide if the dipstick was negative for thresholds above €118 per additional correctly classified

  20. Osteonecrosis of the jaws. Clinicopathologic and radiologic characteristics, preventive and therapeutic Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassiliou, Vassilios; Tselis, Nikolaos; Kardamakis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Background: bisphosphonate (BP) use has increased dramatically in recent years, becoming an integral part of the overall antineoplastic management of patients with metastatic bone disease. Even though their application has shown to be effective in reducing pain and minimizing the risk of skeletal-related events, their administration may bring also adverse events such osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ). Methods: after a thorough review of the literature, important aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of ONJ are presented. Results: ONJ is evident in up to 10% of patients receiving intravenous BP treatment. Despite the fact that its exact pathophysiology is unknown, it is characterized by bone necrosis that can occur either spontaneously or after dental surgery or tooth extraction. Panoramic radiographs are useful for the diagnosis and routine assessment of patients and computed tomography can differentiate between ONJ and metastatic disease. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging depicts local disease extension readily, and scintigraphy is the most sensitive imaging modality for detecting early involvement. Preventive measures and routine dental evaluations are essential components of the overall patient management. In the event of ONJ, stage I or II should be managed conservatively, whereas more advanced stages (III and IV) should be treated surgically. Conclusion: ONJ is a well-defined clinical entity that all medical and dental doctors should be aware of, since if it is not dealt with readily and effectively, it may deteriorate the clinical status and quality of life of affected patients. (orig.)

  1. Osteonecrosis of the jaws. Clinicopathologic and radiologic characteristics, preventive and therapeutic Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassiliou, Vassilios [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Bank of Cyprus Oncology Centre, Nicosia (Cyprus); Tselis, Nikolaos [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum Offenbach (Germany); Kardamakis, Dimitrios [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. of Patras Medical School (Greece)

    2010-07-15

    Background: bisphosphonate (BP) use has increased dramatically in recent years, becoming an integral part of the overall antineoplastic management of patients with metastatic bone disease. Even though their application has shown to be effective in reducing pain and minimizing the risk of skeletal-related events, their administration may bring also adverse events such osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ). Methods: after a thorough review of the literature, important aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of ONJ are presented. Results: ONJ is evident in up to 10% of patients receiving intravenous BP treatment. Despite the fact that its exact pathophysiology is unknown, it is characterized by bone necrosis that can occur either spontaneously or after dental surgery or tooth extraction. Panoramic radiographs are useful for the diagnosis and routine assessment of patients and computed tomography can differentiate between ONJ and metastatic disease. Additionally, magnetic resonance imaging depicts local disease extension readily, and scintigraphy is the most sensitive imaging modality for detecting early involvement. Preventive measures and routine dental evaluations are essential components of the overall patient management. In the event of ONJ, stage I or II should be managed conservatively, whereas more advanced stages (III and IV) should be treated surgically. Conclusion: ONJ is a well-defined clinical entity that all medical and dental doctors should be aware of, since if it is not dealt with readily and effectively, it may deteriorate the clinical status and quality of life of affected patients. (orig.)

  2. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Evaluation of the organization of health services as a strategy for the prevention and control of visceral leishmaniasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Miriam Nogueira; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Luz, Zélia Maria Profeta da

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the organization of health services as a strategy for the prevention and control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Ribeirão das Neves, Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2010 to 2012. this was a case study evaluation of the degree of implementation of a strategy for the integration of health care services, control of zoonosis and epidemiological surveillance; it consisted of observing the work process, interviewing health professionals and analysing secondary data from information systems. implementation was partially adequate (84%); in terms of structure, the human resources component had the worst evaluation (64%) whilst in terms of work process, evaluation was 80% for reorganization of care and 77% for surveillance; in the period 2010-2012 there was a 20% increase in reported cases of VL and a 20% reduction in the time interval between reporting a case and starting treatment. the strategy contributed to the improvement of the organization of VL prevention and control actions.

  4. Re-evaluating the Rose approach: comparative benefits of the population and high-risk preventive strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooney, Marie-Therese; Dudina, Alexandra; Whincup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    , the high-risk estimates are very optimistic, as their achievement would require complete compliance. CONCLUSION: High-risk and population strategies are complementary. These estimates of the benefits of each may be useful to health planners, when combined with their local knowledge. Recently, benefits......BACKGROUND: Options for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, the greatest global cause of death, include population preventive measures (the Rose approach), or specifically seeking out and managing high-risk cases. However, the likely benefit of a population approach has been recently...... questioned. OBJECTIVE: To compare the estimated effects of population strategies at varying levels of population-wide risk factor reduction and high-risk strategies at varying rates of screening uptake on cardiovascular disease mortality. METHODS: Data (of 109 954 participants) were pooled from six European...

  5. Efficiency or equity? Simulating the impact of high-risk and population intervention strategies for the prevention of disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Platt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maximizing both efficiency and equity are core considerations for population health. These considerations can result in tension in population health science as we seek to improve overall population health while achieving equitable health distributions within populations. Limited work has explored empirically the consequences of different population health intervention strategies on the burden of disease and on within- and between-group differences in disease. To address this gap, we compared the impact of four simulated interventions using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. In particular, we focus on assessing how population and high-risk primary prevention and population and high-risk secondary interventions efforts to reduce smoking behavior influence systolic blood pressure (SBP and hypertension, and how such strategies influence inequalities in SBP by income. The greatest reductions in SBP mean and standard deviation resulted from the population secondary prevention. High-risk primary and secondary prevention and population secondary prevention programs all yielded substantial reductions in hypertension prevalence. The effect of population primary prevention did little to decrease population SBP mean and standard deviation, as well as hypertension prevalence. Both high-risk strategies had a larger impact in the low-income population, leading to the greatest narrowing the income-related gap in disease. The population prevention strategies had a larger impact in the high-income population. Population health approaches must consider the potential impact on both the whole population and also on those with different levels of risk for disease within a population, including those in under-represented or under-served groups.

  6. Exploring Strategies to Enhance the Presentation of Information in Print DTCA to Improve Consumers’ Recall of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica J Hwang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how best to present information in an antidepressant print DTCA. The objectives of this study are to: (1 modify an antidepressant print advertisement to enhance consumers’ understanding of the presented information, (2 create a questionnaire to measure consumers’ recall of the information presented in an antidepressant print advertisement and (3 pilot test the study instruments by comparing consumers’ recall of the information in the antidepressant print advertisement between those who view the original advertisement and those who view the modified advertisement. Modifications of the advertisement were based on the Explanatory Structure Building Model, findings from previous studies, and literature pertaining to the enhancement of the readability and comprehension of written health information. Data collection was conducted in three stages using mixed methods. This study details potential techniques that can be used to enhance the presentation of information in print DTCA in order to improve consumers’ recall of the information. Furthermore, this study shows that strategies to improve the presentation of information in print DTCA exist and that the strategies are feasible to apply. Conflict of Interest This research study was supported by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Population Health Dissertation Grants sponsored by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Sonderegger Research Center Dissertation Research Grants.   Type: Original Research

  7. Perceived risk and strategy efficacy as motivators of risk management strategy adoption to prevent animal diseases in pig farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valeeva, N.I.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Backus, G.B.C.

    2011-01-01

    For Dutch fattening pig farms, this study explored (1) farmers’ perceptions towards animal disease risks and animal health risk management; (2) factors underlying farmers’ adoption of the two risk management strategies, namely, biosecurity measures and animal health programs. The risks included

  8. Strategies for the management and prevention of conformation-related respiratory disorders in brachycephalic dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Packer RMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rowena MA Packer,1 Michael S Tivers2 1Department of Clinical Science and Services, Royal Veterinary College, University of London, London, 2School of Veterinary Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Abstract: Brachycephalic (short-muzzled dogs are increasingly popular pets worldwide, with marked increases in registrations of breeds such as the Pug and French Bulldog over the past decade in the UK. Despite their popularity, many brachycephalic breeds are affected by an early-onset, lifelong respiratory disorder, brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS. This disorder arises due to a mismatch in the proportions of the skull and the soft tissues held within the nose and pharynx, resulting in obstruction of the airway during respiration. Increased airway resistance encourages secondary changes such as eversion of the laryngeal saccules and collapse of the larynx. Clinical signs of BOAS are often early onset and chronic, including dyspnea, exercise intolerance, heat intolerance, and abnormal and increased respiratory noise. Episodes of severe dyspnea can also occur, leading to cyanosis, syncope, and death. BOAS may have a severe impact upon the welfare of affected dogs, compromising their ability to exercise, play, eat, and sleep. Although a well-described condition, with surgical treatments for the palliation of this disorder published since the 1920s, many dogs still experience airway restrictions postsurgically and a compromised quality of life. In addition, the prevalence of this disorder does not appear to have substantially reduced in this time, and may have increased. Ultimately, strategies to improve the breeding of these dogs to prevent BOAS are required to improve brachycephalic health and welfare. Recent studies have revealed conformational risk factors associated with BOAS, such as short muzzles and thick necks, which should be discouraged to avoid perpetuating this serious disorder. Positive changes to brachycephalic

  9. Contemporary stroke prevention strategies in 11 096 European patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Proietti, Marco; Laroche, Cécile

    2017-01-01

    % of patients, while no antithrombotic treatment was prescribed in 6.4%. On multivariable analysis, age, hypertension, previous ischaemic stroke, symptomatic AF and planned cardioversion or ablation were independent predictors of OAC use, whereas lone AF, previous haemorrhagic events, chronic kidney disease......Aims: Contemporary data regarding atrial fibrillation (AF) management and current use of oral anticoagulants (OACs) for stroke prevention are needed. Methods and results: The EURObservational Research Programme on AF (EORP-AF) Long-Term General Registry analysed consecutive AF patients presenting...... and admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or non-cardiovascular causes independently predicted OAC non-use. Regarding the OAC type, coronary artery disease, history of heart failure, or valvular heart disease, planned cardioversion and non-AF reasons for admission independently predicted the use...

  10. Evaluation of cytomegalovirus reactivation and tolerability in seropositive umbilical cord transplant patients after implementation of an intensive prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehart, Matthew; Hochard, Erica; Rockey, Michelle; Abhyankar, Sunil; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Lin, Tara; McGuirk, Joseph; Shune, Leyla; Singh, Anurag; Aljitawi, Omar

    2016-09-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes significant morbidity and mortality in CMV seropositive patients undergoing umbilical cord blood transplants (UCBT). Our study aimed to describe the incidence of CMV reactivation and burden of disease, as well as the tolerability of an intensive prevention strategy as compared to historical prevention. This was a retrospective chart review of 33 CMV seropositive patients that underwent UCBT. The intensive prevention strategy in UCBT consisted of ganciclovir 5mg/kg/d intravenously or valganciclovir 900mg by mouth daily initiated at the beginning of the conditioning regimen until Day -2. Then from Day -1 to Day +100, patients received valacyclovir 2g by mouth three times daily, and from Day +101 to Day +365, acyclovir 800mg by mouth twice daily. Historical standard prevention was acyclovir 800mg by mouth twice daily initiated at the beginning of the conditioning regimen until Day +365. Thirty-three patients were included from 2008 to 2014. There were no differences in the adverse effects experienced between the two regimens (p=.4). CMV reactivation occurred significantly later with intensive prevention (p=.003). The median CMV viral titer at reactivation was lower in the intensive versus the historic prevention (1,800copies/mL and 2,700copies/mL, respectively), but was not significantly different. CMV disease occurred significantly less often in the intensive group (p=.039). The results from this study indicate that the intensive prevention strategy was well tolerated, significantly delayed CMV reactivation, and patients had less CMV disease. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent advancement to prevent the development of allergy and allergic diseases and therapeutic strategy in the perspective of barrier dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Osamu; Ohya, Yukihiro

    2018-01-01

    Therapeutic strategy in late 20th century to prevent allergic diseases was derived from a conceptual framework of allergens elimination which was as same as that of coping with them after their onset. Manifold trials were implemented; however, most of them failed to verify the effectiveness of their preventive measures. Recent advancement of epidemiological studies and cutaneous biology revealed epidermal barrier dysfunction plays a major role of allergen sensitization and development of atopic dermatitis which ignites the inception of allergy march. For this decade, therapeutic strategy to prevent the development of food allergy has been confronted with a paradigm shift from avoidance and delayed introduction of allergenic foods based on the theoretical concept to early introduction of them based on the clinical and epidemiological evidences. Especially, prevention of peanut allergy and egg allergy has been established with the highest evidence verified by randomized controlled trials, although application in clinical practice should be done with attention. This paradigm shift concerning food allergy was also due to the discovery of cutaneous sensitization risk of food allergens for an infant with eczema revealed by prospective studies. Here we have recognized the increased importance of prevention of eczema/atopic dermatitis in infancy. Two randomized controlled trials using emollients showed successful results in prevention of atopic dermatitis in infancy; however, longer term safety and prognosis including allergy march should be pursued. To establish more fundamental strategy for prevention of the development of allergy, further studies clarifying the mechanisms of interaction between barrier dysfunction and microbial milieu are needed with macroscope to understand the relationship between allergic diseases and a diversity of environmental influences. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    factors such as IGF-I increase cox-2 expression by several complementary mechanisms; hence, decreased cox-2 activity may play a role in the remarkably low mortality from "Western" cancers enjoyed by Third World cultures in which systemic growth factor activity was minimized by quasi-vegan diets complemented by leanness and excellent muscle insulin sensitivity. Practical strategies for achieving a modest degree of calorie restriction may also have potential for down-regulating cox-2 expression while decreasing cancer risk. Soy isoflavones, linked to reduced cancer risk in Asian epidemiology, may suppress cox-2 induction by activating ERbeta. In aggregate, these considerations suggest that a comprehensive lifestyle strategy targeting cox-2 expression and bioactivity may have tremendous potential for cancer prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of encoding strategy, presentation modality, and scoring method on STM performance with the Peterson and Peterson technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, B S; Lindberg, L G; Svensson, M L

    1974-07-01

    The Peterson and Peterson (1959) STM experiment was replicated with variation of presentation modality and encoding strategy. The effect of various scoring criteria was also analyzed. The recall data showed that a Peterson and Peterson type forgetting curve was obtained using auditory presentation and instructions to rehearse vocally the trigrams when scoring only completely correct recall within the first 3 sec of the recall interval. With visual presentation and instructions to find meaningful trigram interpretations, the forgetting curve was higher and much more flat, especially when scoring position correct recall within the total 0-10-sec recall interval. In a buildup of PI experiment, no buildup of PI could be detected when visual presentation was used together with instructions to find meaningful trigram interpretations. The importance of the different encoding activities for recall performance was discussed.

  14. A systematic review of implementation strategies for assessment, prevention, and management of ICU delirium and their effect on clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogrlić, Zoran; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Bakker, Jan; Balas, Michele C; Ely, E Wesley; van der Voort, Peter H J; Ista, Erwin

    2015-04-09

    Despite recommendations from professional societies and patient safety organizations, the majority of ICU patients worldwide are not routinely monitored for delirium, thus preventing timely prevention and management. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize what types of implementation strategies have been tested to improve ICU clinicians' ability to effectively assess, prevent and treat delirium and to evaluate the effect of these strategies on clinical outcomes. We searched PubMed, Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane and CINAHL (January 2000 and April 2014) for studies on implementation strategies that included delirium-oriented interventions in adult ICU patients. Studies were suitable for inclusion if implementation strategies' efficacy, in terms of a clinical outcome, or process outcome was described. We included 21 studies, all including process measures, while 9 reported both process measures and clinical outcomes. Some individual strategies such as "audit and feedback" and "tailored interventions" may be important to establish clinical outcome improvements, but otherwise robust data on effectiveness of specific implementation strategies were scarce. Successful implementation interventions were frequently reported to change process measures, such as improvements in adherence to delirium screening with up to 92%, but relating process measures to outcome changes was generally not possible. In meta-analyses, reduced mortality and ICU length of stay reduction were statistically more likely with implementation programs that employed more (six or more) rather than less implementation strategies and when a framework was used that either integrated current evidence on pain, agitation and delirium management (PAD) or when a strategy of early awakening, breathing, delirium screening and early exercise (ABCDE bundle) was employed. Using implementation strategies aimed at organizational change, next to behavioral change, was also associated with reduced mortality

  15. Lessons Learned in Evaluating a Multisite, Comprehensive Teen Dating Violence Prevention Strategy: Design and Challenges of the Evaluation of Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Teen Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Taylor, Bruce G; Latzman, Natasha E; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Valle, Linda Anne; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the multisite, longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) design of the evaluation of the Dating Matters: Strategies to Promote Healthy Relationships initiative, and discusses challenges faced in conducting this evaluation. Health departments in 4 communities are partnering with middle schools in high-risk, urban communities to implement 2 models of teen dating violence (TDV) prevention over 4 years. Schools were randomized to receive either the Dating Matters comprehensive strategy or the "standard of care" strategy (an existing, evidence-based TDV prevention curriculum). Our design permits comparison of the relative effectiveness of the comprehensive and standard of care strategies. Multiple cohorts of students from 46 middle schools are surveyed in middle school and high school, and parents and educators from participating schools are also surveyed. Challenges discussed in conducting a multisite RCT include site variability, separation of implementation and evaluation responsibilities, school retention, parent engagement in research activities, and working within the context of high-risk urban schools and communities. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of our approaches to these challenges in the hopes of informing future research. Despite multiple challenges, the design of the Dating Matters evaluation remains strong. We hope this paper provides researchers who are conducting complex evaluations of behavioral interventions with thoughtful discussion of the challenges we have faced and potential solutions to such challenges.

  16. Self-presentation and Discreditation – the Key Strategies of the Preelection Political Discourse (as Exemplified in the Pre-election Tweets of D. Trump and H. Clinton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S. Sergeeva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of self-presentation and discreditation are considered as the main strategies of the pre-election virtual discourse. The language units, used at tactics realization of communicative strategies, promote necessary political image formation during the election campaign. Tactics of «incrimination» (strategy of discreditation is frequently used in D. Trump’s tweets, whereas H. Clinton prefers tactics «consolidation» (strategy of selfpresentation.

  17. Cost effectiveness of cryptococcal antigen screening as a strategy to prevent HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph N Jarvis

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis (CM-related mortality may be prevented by screening patients for sub-clinical cryptococcal antigenaemia (CRAG at antiretroviral-therapy (ART initiation and pre-emptively treating those testing positive. Prior to programmatic implementation in South Africa we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis of alternative preventive strategies for CM.Cost-effectiveness analysis.Using South African data we modelled the cost-effectiveness of four strategies for patients with CD4 cell-counts <100 cells/µl starting ART 1 no screening or prophylaxis (standard of care, 2 universal primary fluconazole prophylaxis, 3 CRAG screening with fluconazole treatment if antigen-positive, 4 CRAG screening with lumbar puncture if antigen-positive and either amphotericin-B for those with CNS disease or fluconazole for those without. Analysis was limited to the first year of ART.The least costly strategy was CRAG screening followed by high-dose fluconazole treatment of all CRAG-positive individuals. This strategy dominated the standard of care at CRAG prevalence ≥0.6%. Although CRAG screening followed by lumbar puncture in all antigen-positive individuals was the most effective strategy clinically, the incremental benefit of LPs and amphotericin therapy for those with CNS disease was small and additional costs were large (US$158 versus US$51 per person year; incremental cost effectiveness ratio(ICER US$889,267 per life year gained. Both CRAG screening strategies are less costly and more clinically effective than current practice. Primary prophylaxis is more effective than current practice, but relatively cost-ineffective (ICER US$20,495.CRAG screening would be a cost-effective strategy to prevent CM-related mortality among patients initiating ART in South Africa. These findings provide further justification for programmatic implementation of CRAG screening.

  18. FTO genotype, dietary protein, and change in appetite: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Qi, Qibin; Li, Yanping; Hu, Frank B; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Williamson, Donald A; Qi, Lu

    2014-05-01

    A common obesity-risk variant rs9939609 in the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene was recently shown to affect appetite, and the gene is sensitive to the regulation of amino acids. We examined the interaction between FTO genotype and protein intake on the long-term changes in appetite in a randomized controlled trial. We genotyped FTO rs9939609 in 737 overweight adults in the 2-y Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial and assessed 4 appetite-related traits including cravings, fullness, hunger, and prospective consumption. We showed that dietary protein significantly modified genetic effects on changes in food cravings and appetite scores at 6 mo after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline body mass index, weight change, and baseline value for respective outcomes (P-interaction = 0.027 and 0.048, respectively). The A allele was associated with a greater decrease in food cravings and appetite scores in participants with high-protein-diet intake (P = 0.027 and 0.047, respectively) but not in subjects in the low-protein-diet group (P = 0.384 and 0.078, respectively). The weight regain from 6 to 24 mo attenuated gene-protein interactions. Protein intakes did not modify FTO genotype effects on other appetite measures. Our data suggest that individuals with the FTO rs9939609 A allele might obtain more benefits in a reduction of food cravings and appetite by choosing a hypocaloric and higher-protein weight-loss diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  19. Amelioration Strategies Fail To Prevent Tobacco Smoke Effects On Neurodifferentiation: Nicotinic Receptor Blockade, Antioxidants, Methyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Skavicus, Samantha; Card, Jennifer; Levin, Edward D.; Seidler, Frederic J.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the mechanisms by which tobacco smoke extract (TSE) affects neurodifferentiation. In undifferentiated cells, TSE impaired DNA synthesis and cell numbers to a much greater extent than nicotine alone; TSE also impaired cell viability to a small extent. In differentiating cells, TSE enhanced cell growth at the expense of cell numbers and promoted emergence of the dopaminergic phenotype. Nicotinic receptor blockade with mecamylamine was ineffective in preventing the adverse effects of TSE and actually enhanced the effect of TSE on the dopamine phenotype. A mixture of antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, N-acetyl-L-cysteine) provided partial protection against cell loss but also promoted loss of the cholinergic phenotype in response to TSE. Notably, the antioxidants themselves altered neurodifferentiation, reducing cell numbers and promoting the cholinergic phenotype at the expense of the dopaminergic phenotype, an effect that was most prominent for N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Treatment with methyl donors (Vitamin B12, folic acid, choline) had no protectant effect and actually enhanced the cell loss evoked by TSE; they did have a minor, synergistic interaction with antioxidants protecting against TSE effects on growth. Thus, components of tobacco smoke perturb neurodifferentiation through mechanisms that cannot be attributed to the individual effects of nicotine, oxidative stress or interference with one-carbon metabolism. Consequently, attempted amelioration strategies may be partially effective at best, or, as seen here, can actually aggravate injury interfering with normal developmental signals and/or by sensitizing cells to TSE effects on neurodifferentiation. PMID:25891525

  20. Inuit women's attitudes and experiences towards cervical cancer and prevention strategies in Nunavik, Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerigo, Helen; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Franco, Eduardo L.; Brassard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe the attitudes about and experiences with cervical cancer, Pap smear screenings and the HPV vaccine among a sample of Inuit women from Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. We also evaluated demographic and social predictors of maternal interest in HPV vaccination. Study design A mixed method design was used with a cross-sectional survey and focus group interviews. Methods Women were recruited through convenience sampling at 2 recruitment sites in Nunavik from March 2008 to June 2009. Differences in women's responses by age, education, and marital status were assessed. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine predictors of women's interest in HPV vaccination for their children. Results Questionnaires were completed by 175 women aged 18–63, and of these women a total of 6 women aged 31–55 participated in 2 focus groups. Almost half the survey participants had heard of cervical cancer. Women often reported feelings of embarrassment and pain during the Pap smear and older women were more likely to feel embarrassed than younger women. Only 27% of women had heard of the HPV vaccine, and 72% of these women were interested in vaccinating their child for HPV. No statistically significant predictors of maternal interest in HPV vaccination were found. Conclusions Our findings indicate that health service planners and providers in Nunavik should be aware of potential barriers to Pap smear attendance, especially in the older age groups. Given the low awareness of cervical cancer, the Pap smear and the HPV vaccine, education on cervical cancer and prevention strategies may be beneficial.1 PMID:22456050

  1. Invasive pneumococcal infections among persons with and without underlying medical conditions: Implications for prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollgren Jukka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23 is recommended for persons aged Methods Population-based data on all episodes of IPD (positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture reported by Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories during 1995–2002 were linked to data in national health care registries and vital statistics to obtain information on the patient's preceding hospitalisations, co-morbidities, and outcome of illness. Results Overall, 4357 first episodes of IPD were identified in all age groups (average annual incidence, 10.6/100,000. Patients aged 18–49 and 50–64 years accounted for 1282 (29% and 934 (21% of IPD cases, of which 372 (29% and 427 (46% had a current PPV23 indication, respectively. Overall, 536 (12% IPD patients died within one month of first positive culture. Persons aged 18–64 years accounted for 254 (47% of all deaths (case-fatality proportion, 12%. Of those who died 117 (46% did not have a vaccine indication. In a survival model, patients with alcohol-related diseases, non-haematological malignancies, and those aged 50–64 years were most likely to die. Conclusion In the general population of non-elderly adults, almost two-thirds of IPD and half of fatal cases occurred in persons without a recognised PPV23 indication. Policymakers should consider additional prevention strategies such as lowering the age of universal PPV23 vaccination and introducing routine childhood pneumococcal conjugate immunisation which could provide substantial health benefits to this population through indirect vaccine effects.

  2. An Assessment of the Cocooning Strategy for Preventing Infant Pertussis—United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Amy E.; Lewis, Melissa; Banerjee, Emily; Kudish, Kathy; Liko, Juventila; McGuire, Suzanne; Selvage, David; Watt, James; Martin, Stacey W.; Skoff, Tami H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Infants are at greatest risk for severe pertussis. In 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that adolescents and adults, especially those with infant contact, receive a single dose of Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis vaccine). To assess the effectiveness of cocooning, we conducted a case-control evaluation of infant close contacts. Methods Pertussis cases aged <2 months with onset between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2011 were identified in Emerging Infections Program Network sites. For each case, we recruited 3 controls from birth certificates and interviewed identified adult close contacts (CCs) or parents of CCs aged <18 years. Pertussis vaccination was verified through medical providers and/or immunization registries. Results Forty-two cases were enrolled, with 154 matched controls. Around enrolled infants, 859 CCs were identified (600 adult and 259 nonadult). An average of 5.4 CCs was identified per case and 4.1 CCs per control. Five hundred fifty-four (64.5%) CCs were enrolled (371 adult and 183 non-adult CCs); 119 (32.1% of enrolled) adult CCs had received Tdap. The proportion of Tdap-vaccinated adult CCs was similar between cases and controls (P = .89). The 600 identified adult CCs comprised 172 potential cocoons; 71 (41.3%) potential cocoons had all identified adult CCs enrolled. Of these, 9 were fully vaccinated and 43.7% contained no Tdap-vaccinated adults. The proportion of fully vaccinated case (4.8%) and control (10.0%) cocoons was similar (P = .43). Conclusions Low Tdap coverage among adult CCs reinforces the difficulty of implementing the cocooning strategy and the importance of vaccination during pregnancy to prevent infant pertussis. PMID:27838676

  3. National Inventories and Management Strategies for Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste. Extended Methodology for the Common Presentation of Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volckaert, Geert; Dionisi, Mario; Heath, Maurice; Kugel, Karin; Garamszeghy, Miklos; Leclaire, Arnaud; Deryabin, Sergey; Hedberg, Bengt; Dapei, Dominic; Lebedev, Vladimir; )

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive waste inventory data are an important element in the development of a national radioactive waste management program since these data affect the design and selection of the ultimate disposal methods. Inventory data are generally presented as an amount of radioactive waste under various waste classes, according to the waste classification scheme developed and adopted by the country or national program in question. Various waste classification schemes have evolved in most countries, and these schemes classify radioactive waste according to its origin, to criteria related to the protection of workers or to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of the waste and the planned disposal method(s). The diversity in classification schemes across countries has restricted the possibility of comparing waste inventories and led to difficulties in interpreting waste management practices, both nationally and internationally. To help improve this situation, the Nuclear Energy Agency developed a methodology that ensures consistency of national radioactive waste and spent fuel inventory data when presenting them in a common scheme in direct connection with accepted management strategy and disposal routes. This report is a follow up to the 2016 report that introduced the methodology and presenting scheme for spent fuel, and it now extends this methodology and presenting scheme to all types of radioactive waste and corresponding management strategies

  4. Suicide prevention strategies in Japan: a 15-year review (1998-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Tadashi; Yamauchi, Takashi; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Kodaka, Manami; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Kawano, Kenji; Katsumata, Yotaro; Fujimori, Maiko; Hisanaga, Ayaka; Takahashi, Yoshitomo

    2015-02-01

    Suicide is a global public health problem and solutions to it can be found only through a global dialog. The suicide rate in Japan has been alarming, but Japan has made substantial efforts to reduce this rate, making prevention a high priority. This report reviews the developmental stages of a comprehensive policy of suicide prevention in Japan from 1998 to 2013. Our review suggests that suicide prevention activities were facilitated by the 2006 Basic Act for Suicide Prevention and the 2007 General Principles of Suicide Prevention Policy. Along with the establishment of a Special Fund program for local governments, the Basic Act and General Principles led to the development of a comprehensive and multi-sector approach to suicide prevention. Suicide rates in Japan, especially among middle-aged men, decreased consistently after 2009, suggesting that the initiatives were effective. Continuous monitoring is needed to evaluate Japan's suicide prevention policy.

  5. Systematic review of prevention and management strategies for the consequences of gender-based violence in refugee settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Emery, Eleanor; Wong, Marcia

    2013-06-01

    Uncertainties continue regarding effective strategies to prevent and address the consequences of gender-based violence (GBV) among refugees. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Anthropology Plus, EMBASE, DARE, Google Scholar, MSF Field Research, UNHCR and the regional and global indices of the WHO Global Health Library were searched twice within a 6-month period (April and September 2011) for English-language clinical, public health, basic and social science studies evaluating strategies to prevent and manage health sequelae of GBV among refugees before September 2011. Studies not primarily about prevention and treatment, and not describing population, health outcome and interventions, were excluded. The literature search for the prevention and management arms produced 1212 and 1106 results, respectively. After reviewing the titles and abstracts, 29 and 27 articles were selected for review in their entirety, none of which met the inclusion criteria. Multiple panels of expert recommendations and guidelines were not supported by primary data on actual displaced populations. There is a dire need for research that evaluates the efficacy and effectiveness of various responses to GBV to ultimately allow a transition from largely theoretical and expertise driven to a more evidence-based field. We recommend strategies to improve data collection and to overcome barriers in primary data driven research.

  6. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  7. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, Ekere J; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, Gbadebo O; Osemene, Nora I

    2005-01-01

    infected and once released resume unprotected sexual relations with women. According to the men, substance abuse is an important part of the problem of HIV in the African-American community. This is in keeping with research that shows that drug use, especially crack cocaine, is linked to sexual risk taking among African Americans and to increased likelihood of becoming infected with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV. Thus, interventions for men should address condom use, condom availability, skills for using condoms, eroticizing condoms and substance abuse prevention. Men in the present study also strongly recommended that HIV/AIDS videotaped messages should include footage of the sensational effects of the disease. PMID:15638937

  8. Blackout risk prevention in a smart grid based flexible optimal strategy using Grey Wolf-pattern search algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdad, Belkacem; Srairi, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A generalized optimal security power system planning strategy for blackout risk prevention is proposed. • A Grey Wolf Optimizer dynamically coordinated with Pattern Search algorithm is proposed. • A useful optimized database dynamically generated considering margin loading stability under severe faults. • The robustness and feasibility of the proposed strategy is validated in the standard IEEE 30 Bus system. • The proposed planning strategy will be useful for power system protection coordination and control. - Abstract: Developing a flexible and reliable power system planning strategy under critical situations is of great importance to experts and industrials to minimize the probability of blackouts occurrence. This paper introduces the first stage of this practical strategy by the application of Grey Wolf Optimizer coordinated with pattern search algorithm for solving the security smart grid power system management under critical situations. The main objective of this proposed planning strategy is to prevent the practical power system against blackout due to the apparition of faults in generating units or important transmission lines. At the first stage the system is pushed to its margin stability limit, the critical loads shedding are selected using voltage stability index. In the second stage the generator control variables, the reactive power of shunt and dynamic compensators are adjusted in coordination with minimization the active and reactive power at critical loads to maintain the system at security state to ensure service continuity. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed strategy is applied to IEEE 30-Bus test system. Results are promising and prove the practical efficiency of the proposed strategy to ensure system security under critical situations

  9. Enhancing Documentation of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Interventions: A Quality Improvement Strategy to Reduce Pressure Ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Therese M; Thompson, Susan L; Halvorson, Anna M; Zeitler, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers requires the implementation of evidence-based interventions. A quality improvement project was conducted to provide nurses with data on the frequency with which pressure ulcer prevention interventions were performed as measured by documentation. Documentation reports provided feedback to stakeholders, triggering reminders and reeducation. Intervention reports and modifications to the documentation system were effective both in increasing the documentation of pressure ulcer prevention interventions and in decreasing the number of avoidable hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  10. Health Department HIV Prevention Programs That Support the National HIV/AIDS Strategy: The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning Project, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Hoyte, Tamika; Purcell, David W; Van Handel, Michelle; Williams, Weston; Krueger, Amy; Dietz, Patricia; Stratford, Dale; Heitgerd, Janet; Dunbar, Erica; Wan, Choi; Linley, Laurie A; Flores, Stephen A

    2016-01-01

    The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project was the first initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Health departments in 12 U.S. cities with a high prevalence of AIDS conducted comprehensive program planning and implemented cost-effective, scalable HIV prevention interventions that targeted high-risk populations. We examined trends in health department HIV prevention programs in these cities during the project. We analyzed the number of people who received partner services, condoms distributed, and people tested for HIV, as well as funding allocations for selected HIV prevention programs by year and by site from October 2010 through September 2013. We assessed trends in the proportional change in services and allocations during the project period using generalized estimating equations. We also conducted thematic coding of program activities that targeted people living with HIV infection (PLWH). We found significant increases in funding allocations for HIV testing and condom distribution. All HIV partner services indicators, condom distribution, and HIV testing of African American and Hispanic/Latino populations significantly increased. HIV tests associated with a new diagnosis increased significantly among those self-identifying as Hispanic/Latino but significantly decreased among African Americans. For programs targeting PLWH, health department activities included implementing new program models, improving local data use, and building local capacity to enhance linkage to HIV medical care, retention in care, and treatment adherence. Overall, these findings indicate that health departments in areas with a high burden of AIDS successfully shifted their HIV prevention resources to scale up important HIV programs and make progress toward NHAS goals.

  11. National strategy for prevention of oral diseases in children from 0 to 14 years old age in the Republic of Macedonia for the period 2008-2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarakinova, Olivera; Carcev, Mile; Getova, Biljana; Carceva Salja, Sofija; Janevska, Sevdalina

    2013-01-01

    Human principles and the fundamental values are the main principles stipulated in the Constitution of Republic of Macedonia. The Government of the Republic of Macedonia, within its program objectives, implementing the laws in the country, the international standards and the global health care as the worlds objective of the Constitution of WHO. According to the information received through the health monitoring system, as well as the results from target and selective studies, they have shown that the condition of oral health, especially the condition with the dental caries is serious health problem of all groups. The alarm was activated by the state of increase of the caries incidence, showing a value of DMFT=6.88 in children at 12 years of age, which is considered as a high value compared to the WHO recommendations for oral health (DMFT=3). The experience from the developed countries, as well as the knowledge based on scientific and professional evidence in RM, prove that this desease may be successfully prevented, eliminated and eradicated by conduction of primary preventive measures. The program objectives of the National Strategy for prevention of oral deseases are shared in shorth term, medium term and long term objectives, which aim is eradication of the caries. The Strategy include a prevention of periodontal desease and orthodontic anomalies. The prevention of the caries will be performed by using a five preventive measures: 1. mechanical and chemical control of the dental plaque 2. Discipline of sugar take regime 3. Application of fluorides (systemic and topic) 4. sealing fissures and cavities 5. Education and motivation for sustainnability of oral health. In the frame of the Strategy, we planed a dental dispensarisation of children through registering data in the patients file, as propose by WHO, and arrangement of preventive teams and professional assistance of paediatrics and gynecologists. The evaluation of the effects from the preventive program shall

  12. [Enhancement of endogenous antioxidant defenses: a promising strategy for prevention of skin cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béani, J C

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sunlight is implicated in skin carcinogenesis. So the risks of cutaneous cancer have increased during the last decade due to increase of sun exposure. For a long time, ultraviolet B radiation (UVB: 290-320 nm) have been considered to be the more efficient wavelength in eliciting carcinogenesis in human skin. It is today clear that UVA (320-400 nm), especially UVA1 (340-400 nm) also participate to photo carcinogenesis. One of molecular mechanisms in the biological effects of UV is the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) directly or through endogenous photosensitization reactions. UVA radiation mainly acts via this production of ROS and the subsequent oxidative stress seems to play a crucial role in the deleterious effects of UVA. Fortunately, the skin possesses a wide range of interlinked antioxidant defence mechanism to protect itself from damage by UV-induced ROS. However, the capacity of these systems is not unlimited; they can be overwhelmed by excessive exposure to UV and then ROS can reach damaging levels. An interesting strategy to provide photoprotection would be to support or enhance one or more of these endogenous systems. In our experiments, we have evaluated the protective effect of glutathion, selenium and zinc, three compounds playing a pivotal role in the cellular defence against oxidative damage. We have irradiated both by UVA1 and UVB culture of human normal skin fibroblasts or of spontaneously immortalised human keratinocyte cell line Hacat. Before irradiation, treated cells were submitted to zinc deprivation by a diffusible zinc chelator, NNN' N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylene diamine (TPEN) or supplied with zinc chloride, thiols (N-acetyl-cysteine; N-acetyl-homocysteine-thiolactone, L2oxothiozolidine-4 carboxylate) selenium as sodium selenite. The cell viability was measured using the adhesion-proliferation method or a tetrazolium colorimetric assay. The damages

  13. Preclinical Studies Suggest Complex Nutraceutical Strategies May Have Potential for Preventing and Managing Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2015-01-01

    voltage-sensitive calcium channels and contributes to NADPH-oxidase activation, and, via activation of Ca+2/calmodulin-dependent kinase 2, also promotes induction of proinflammatory cytokines and cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2). Elevations of serum glycine that are achievable through supplementation can block that calcium influx by activating membrane chloride channels in macrophages, inducing membrane hyperpolarization. Use of high-dose folate, another nutraceutical, has been shown to antagonize activation of endotoxin-mediated macrophages in cell cultures and in rodents. That result likely reflects the versatile, radical-scavenging activity of reduced intracellular folates, which in particular scavenge radicals derived from peroxynitrite, a key mediator of tissue damage in sepsis. Activators of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK), such as the drug metformin or the nutraceutical berberine, have been shown to antagonize TLR4-mediated activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), which contributes to the induction of TF and TNF-α. In rodent models of sepsis, lipoic acid, glycine, high-dose folate, metformin, berberine, and phycocyanin have all shown protective utility, yet none of those substances has been evaluated clinically in that regard. Because those agents are all well tolerated individually, complex nutraceuticals featuring several of those agents can be envisioned as possibly aiding prevention and control of sepsis. Clinical evaluation of such a strategy should be a high priority. That approach may also have the potential for aiding survival in Ebola infection, the lethality of which is mediated by mechanisms quite analogous to those involved in sepsis.

  14. Positive deviance as a strategy to prevent and control bloodstream infections in intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francimar Tinoco de; Ferreira, Maria Manuela Frederico; Araújo, Silvia Teresa Carvalho de; Bessa, Amanda Trindade Teixeira de; Moraes, Advi Catarina Barbachan; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição

    2017-04-03

    To describe the application of positive deviance as a strategy to prevent and control bloodstream infections. An intervention study with nursing and medical team members working in an intensive care unit in a university hospital, between June and December 2014. The four steps of the positive defiance methodology were applied: to define, to determine, to discover and to design. In 90 days, 188 actions were observed, of these, 36.70% (n=69) were related to catheter dressing. In 81.15% (n=56) of these dressings, the professionals most adhered to the use of flexible sterile cotton-tipped swabs to perform antisepsis at catheter entry sites and fixation dressing. Positive deviance contributed to the implementation of proposals to improve work processes and team development related to problems identified in central venous catheter care. Descrever a aplicação do Positive Deviance como estratégia na prevenção e no controle da infecção de corrente sanguínea. Estudo de intervenção realizado na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva de um hospital universitário, com os membros das equipes de enfermagem e médica, de junho a dezembro de 2014. Foram aplicados os quatro passos da metodologia Positive Deviance: Definir, Determinar, Descobrir e Desenhar. Em 90 dias 188 ações foram observadas, destas, 36,70% (n=69) estavam relacionadas aos curativos dos cateteres. Em 81,15% (n=56) desses curativos, o uso da haste flexível estéril para realização da antissepsia do local de inserção do cateter e de sua placa de fixação foi a ação de maior adesão. O Positive Deviance auxiliou na implementação de propostas de melhorias de processo de trabalho e no desenvolvimento da equipe para os problemas identificados no cuidado com o cateter venoso central.

  15. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  16. From strategy development to routine implementation: the cost of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Infants for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner Marcel

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals for health requires a massive scaling-up of interventions in Sub Saharan Africa. Intermittent Preventive Treatment in infants (IPTi is a promising new tool for malaria control. Although efficacy information is available for many interventions, there is a dearth of data on the resources required for scaling up of health interventions. Method We worked in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW to develop an IPTi strategy that could be implemented and managed by routine health services. We tracked health system and other costs of (1 developing the strategy and (2 maintaining routine implementation of the strategy in five districts in southern Tanzania. Financial costs were extracted and summarized from a costing template and semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants to record time and resources spent on IPTi activities. Results The estimated financial cost to start-up and run IPTi in the whole of Tanzania in 2005 was US$1,486,284. Start-up costs of US$36,363 were incurred at the national level, mainly on the development of Behaviour Change Communication (BCC materials, stakeholders' meetings and other consultations. The annual running cost at national level for intervention management and monitoring and drug purchase was estimated at US$459,096. Start-up costs at the district level were US$7,885 per district, mainly expenditure on training. Annual running costs were US$170 per district, mainly for printing of BCC materials. There was no incremental financial expenditure needed to deliver the intervention in health facilities as supplies were delivered alongside routine vaccinations and available health workers performed the activities without working overtime. The economic cost was estimated at 23 US cents per IPTi dose delivered. Conclusion The costs presented here show the order of magnitude of expenditures needed to initiate and to

  17. Using Mindfulness to Develop Health Education Strategies for Blood Borne Virus Prevention in Injecting Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; Laybutt, Becky; Carruthers, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Prevention education has had limited success in reducing transmission of blood borne virus among people who inject drugs. Innovative approaches to prevention education are required. Method: This study used video recordings of injecting episodes and interviews with participants reviewing their video recordings to explore the concept of…

  18. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  19. Psychological Care, Patient Education, Orthotics, Ergonomics and Prevention Strategies for Neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, Anita R; Kaplan, Faith; Huang, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain.......To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain....

  20. Significance of the invasive strategy after acute myocardial infarction on prognosis and secondary preventive medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To describe gender-specific long-term outcome and initiation of secondary preventive medication among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).......To describe gender-specific long-term outcome and initiation of secondary preventive medication among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)....