WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventable alternative names

  1. 27 CFR 4.92 - Alternative names permitted for temporary use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., 1997. Alternative Name/Prime Name Baco 1—Baco noir Baco 22A—Baco blanc Bastardo—Trousseau Black Spanish—Lenoir Burdin 7705—Florental Cayuga—Cayuga White Chancellor noir—Chancellor Chasselas—Chasselas doré Chevrier—Sémillon Chelois noir—Chelois Couderc 71-20—Couderc noir Couderc 299-35—Muscat du Moulin Foch...

  2. The ACRONYM (Alternatives for Circumvention of Restrictions on Naming BY Trialists of Their Manuscripts) Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Neil J

    2009-06-01

    It is hoped that this commentary may draw attention to the issues raised by the enthusiastic naming of large clinical trials. Although the article is tongue in cheek, the underlying concern is that the names of studies may not, in fact, correspond to the actual results they yield.

  3. Evaluation and Optimization Study on a Hybrid EOR Technique Named as Chemical-Alternating-Foam Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xingguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR method called Chemical-Alternating-Foam (CAF floods in order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional foam flooding such as insufficient amount of in-situ foams, severe foam collapse and surfactant retention. The first part of this research focused on the comparison of conventional foam floods and CAF floods both of which had the same amount of gas and chemicals. It showed that: (1 CAF floods possessed the much greater Residual Resistance Factor (RRF at elevated temperature; (2 the accumulative oil recovery of the CAF floods was 10%-15% higher than that of the conventional foam flooding. After 1.8 Pore Volume (PV injection, the oil recovery reached the plateau for both methods; (3 CAF floods yielded the most amount of incremental oil at the 98% water cut (water content in the effluent, while the continuous foam floods achieved the best performance at 60% water cut. The second part of this work determined the optimal foam quality (gas/liquid ratio or the volume percent gas within foam, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number and injection sequence for the CAF floods. It was found that the CAF was endowed with the peak performance if the foam quality, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number was fixed at 80%, 1:1 and 3 respectively with the chemical slug being introduced ahead of the foam slug. Through systematic and thorough research, the proposed hybrid process has been approved to be a viable and effective method significantly strengthening the conventional foam flooding.

  4. Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example of a multifactorial syndrome. Due to rapid increase in the incidence in these infections, this is the subject of numerous studies. Recently, the focus of attention is the treatment and, above all, the prevention of those complications. The diagnosis of candidiasis could become quite complicated. Prevention is the most effective "treatment," much more than eradication of the yeast with antifungal agents. There are several aspects to consider in the daily routine that can provide a strength protection. However, a therapeutic approach is necessary when the infection is established, and therefore, other alternatives should be explored. This review provides an overview on predisposition factors, prevention and diagnosis of candidiasis, highlighting alternative approaches for candidiasis treatment.

  5. Demand Response an Alternative Solution to Prevent Load Shedding Triggering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mollah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates an alternative solution to prevent Load Shedding (LS triggering during underfrequency and proposes a new technique to restore the frequency during emergency events. Demand response (DR is considered as one of the most promising Smart Grid concepts that can be used to support the peak demand, whereas, LS is an existing last resort method during emergency grid situations. Both schemes aim to balance the load and generation in real-time and restore the frequency very quickly. This paper incorporates integrating Incentive based Demand Response (IDR with spinning reserve for smaller underfrequency events to manage the system peak demand. It also introduces a new frequency band for an Emergency Demand Response (EDR as an alternative inexpensive solution that can replace costly spinning reserves and help to prevent LS. An energy index factor is used to identify the consumption pattern of consumers to enable them to participate in IDR. An illustrative example of the performance of the proposed scheme on a modified 15 bus test system is shown. Simulation results on different scenarios confirm that the proposed method is effective to improve the frequency restoration process along with enabling participation of new services.

  6. Spice up the hypertension diet - curcumin and piperine prevent remodeling of aorta in experimental L-NAME induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janega Pavol

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase of blood pressure is accompanied by functional and morphological changes in the vascular wall. The presented study explored the effects of curcuma and black pepper compounds on increased blood pressure and remodeling of aorta in the rat model of experimental NO-deficient hypertension. Methods Wistar rats were administered for 6 weeks clear water or L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day dissolved in water, piperine (20 mg/kg/day, curcumin (100 mg/kg/day or their combination in corn oil by oral gavage. The systolic blood pressure was measured weekly. Histological slices of thoracic aorta were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin (PTAH, orcein, picrosirius red and van Gieson staining and with antibodies against smooth muscle cells actin. Microscopic pictures were digitally processed and morphometrically evaluated. Results The increase of blood pressure caused by L-NAME was partially prevented by piperine and curcumin, but the effect of their combination was less significant. Animals with hypertension had increased wall thickness and cross-sectional area of the aorta, accompanied by relative increase of PTAH positive myofibrils and decrease of elastin, collagen and actin content. Piperine was able to decrease the content of myofibrils and slightly increase actin, while curcumin also prevented elastin decrease. The combination of spices had similar effects on aortic morphology as curcumin itself. Conclusions Administration of piperine or curcumin, less their combination, is able to partially prevent the increase of blood pressure caused by chronic L-NAME administration. The spices modify the remodeling of the wall of the aorta induced by hypertension. Our results show that independent administration of curcumin is more effective in preventing negative changes in blood vessel morphology accompanying hypertensive disease.

  7. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta eStoicea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a complication affecting between 20% and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV, through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain, anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, post-discharge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu, as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release of opioid neuropeptides and modulation. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing.

  8. A helynevek szerepe az alternatív ideologikus gondolkodásban II. Tudálékos helynév-etimológiák és új helynevek a Pilis-kultuszból [The role of place names in an alternative ideological mindset II. Pedantic place name etymologies and new place names from the Pilis Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imreh, Réka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the second part of the study published in the previous issue of the same journal. The author describes the use of place names in a subculture that considers the Pilis Mountains the forgotten and destroyed scene of an ancient and glorious Hungarian past (conspiracy theory, and claims that the mountains are of spiritual importance. The author enumerates additional examples to illustrate the specific recontextualisation of place names in the Pilis Mountains. The alternative Pilis researchers explain the examined toponyms from a “Proto-Hungarian” and esoteric perspective; these place names are derived from prestigious languages and are placed into an appropriate associative network, and are then included in the alternative Pilis narrative, based mainly on their assumed etymology. The members of the subculture also act as name givers: they rename certain places, springs, etc. in the mountains; or give names to objects created by them. These newly given names might be printed on maps, which is the ultimate stage of the subculture symbolically occupying space through toponyms. The paper intends to give some interesting examples to the examination of place names adopting a social perspective.

  9. Dietary saffron reduced the blood pressure and prevented remodeling of the aorta in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nutritional saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma hydroalcoholic extract on blood pressure (BP and histology of the aorta in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods:   Saffron (200 mg/kg/day was given orally for 5 weeks to normotensive and hypertensive rats. Hypertension was induced by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day administration in drinking water, and BP was measured weekly. Histological examination of the thoracic aorta included staining with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, and periodic acid Schiff methods. Results:  Saffron had no effect on normotensive rats, but on hypertensive rats, prevented BP elevation form the third week of treatment (P

  10. Alternative approaches to ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, L; Sampson, J; Fumagalli, J; Panigada, M; Kolobow, T

    2011-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which develops in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, is the most common nosocomial infection in patients with acute respiratory failure. The major mechanism of lower respiratory tract colonization is aspiration of bacteria-colonized secretions from the oropharynx into the lower airways. The hydrostatic pressure of the secretions that collect in the subglottic space, which is the area above the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff, or aerosolization of bacteria from the secretions collected within the respiratory tubing may facilitate the leakage into the lower airways. Ideally, the elimination of the mechanisms responsible for aspiration would decrease the incidence of VAP. Several preventive measures have been tested in clinical trials with little success.Here we present the results of our efforts to develop novel approaches for the prevention of VAP. Specifically, we found that keeping ventilated patients in a lateral position, which eliminates gravitational forces, is feasible and possibly advantageous. Additionally, several novel medical devices have been recently developed to prevent bacterial biofilm formation from the ETT and breathing tubing. These devices include coated ETTs, mucus shavers and mucus slurpers. Prevention of ETT bacterial colonization showed decreased bacterial colonization of the respiratory circuit and of the lower respiratory tract in laboratory studies and clinical trials. Future large studies should be designed to test the hypothesis that VAP can be prevented with these novel strategies. While there is a current focus on the use of respiratory devices to prevent biofilm formation and microaspiration, it is important to remember that lower respiratory tract colonization is multifactorial. Prevention of VAP cannot be achieved solely by eliminating bacterial biofilm on respiratory devices, and more comprehensive care of the intubated patient needs to be implemented.

  11. Coagulation factor XI vaccination: an alternative strategy to prevent thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, C; Zhang, L; Chen, L; Deng, L; Li, R

    2017-01-01

    Essentials Coagulation Factor (F) XI is a safe target for the development of antithrombotics. We designed an antigen comprising the human FXI catalytic domain and diphtheria toxin T domain. Antigen immunization reduced plasma FXI activity by 54% and prevented thrombosis in mice. FXI vaccination can serve as an effective strategy for thrombosis prevention. Background Coagulation factor XI serves as a signal amplifier in the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Blockade of FXI by mAbs or small-molecule inhibitors inhibits thrombosis without causing severe bleeding, which is an inherent risk of currently available antithrombotic agents. Objectives To design an FXI vaccine and assess its efficacy in inhibiting FXI activity and preventing thrombosis. Methods An FXI antigen was generated by fusing the catalytic domain of human FXI to the C-terminus of the transmembrane domain of diphtheria toxin. The anti-FXI antibody response, plasma FXI activity and antithrombotic efficacy in mice immunized with the FXI antigen were examined. Results The antigen elicited a significant antibody response against mouse FXI, and reduced the plasma FXI activity by 54.0% in mice. FXI vaccination markedly reduced the levels of coagulation and inflammation in a mouse model of inferior vena cava stenosis. Significant protective effects were also observed in mouse models of venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that FXI vaccination can serve as an effective strategy for thrombosis prevention. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Education in trauma: An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Charry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80% of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5% to 24.3% (p = 0.0001 and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3% to 8.1% (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia. Keywords: Models, Educational, Trauma, Injury prevention, Alcohol

  13. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  14. Alternative Interventions to Prevent Oxidative Damage following Ischemia/Reperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Quetzalcoatl Rodríguez-Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R lesions are a phenomenon that occurs in multiple pathological states and results in a series of events that end in irreparable damage that severely affects the recovery and health of patients. The principal therapeutic approaches include preconditioning, postconditioning, and remote ischemic preconditioning, which when used separately do not have a great impact on patient mortality or prognosis. Oxidative stress is known to contribute to the damage caused by I/R; however, there are no pharmacological approaches to limit or prevent this. Here, we explain the relationship between I/R and the oxidative stress process and describe some pharmacological options that may target oxidative stress-states.

  15. ALTERNATIVE NARRATIVES FOR PREVENTING THE RADICALIZATION OF MUSLIM YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azal Upal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The international jihadist movement has declared war. They have declared war on anybody who does not think and act exactly as they wish they would think and act. We may not like this and wish it would go away, but it’s not going to go away, and the reality is we are going to have to confront it. (Prime Minister Steven Harper, 8 Jan 2015 With an increasing number of Western Muslims falling prey to violent extremist ideologies and joining Jihadi organizations such as Al-Qaida and the ISIS, Western policy makers have been concerned with preventing radicalization of Muslim youth. This has resulted in a number of government sponsored efforts (e.g., MyJihad, Sabahi, and Maghrebia (Briggs and Feve 2013 to counter extremist propaganda by arguing that extremist violent tactics used by Jihadist organizations are not congruent with Islamic tenets of kindness and just war. Despite the expenditure of significant resources since 2001, these efforts have had limited success. This article argues that in order to succeed we need to better understand Muslim core social identity beliefs (i.e., their perception of what it means to be a good Muslim and how these beliefs are connected to Muslims perceptions of Westerners. A better understanding of the interdependent nature and dynamics of these beliefs will allow us to design counter radicalization strategies that have a better chance of success.

  16. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkban, Thewarid; Boonprom, Pattanapong; Bunbupha, Sarawoot; Welbat, Jariya Umka; Kukongviriyapan, Upa; Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol; Pakdeechote, Poungrat; Prachaney, Parichat

    2015-06-30

    The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased heart rate (HR), hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR) and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability.

  17. Similarity between generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: evidence from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Although generic and earlier brand-name counterparts are bioequivalent, their equivalence in preventing relevant clinical outcomes is of concern. To compare effectiveness of generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for preventing the onset of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. A population-based, nested case-control study was carried out by including the cohort of 78 520 patients from Lombardy (Italy) aged 18 years or older who were newly treated with antihypertensive drugs during 2005. Cases were the 2206 patients who experienced a hospitalization for CV disease from initial prescription until 2011. One control for each case was randomly selected from the same cohort that generated cases. Logistic regression was used to model the CV risk associated with starting on and/or continuing with generic or brand-name agents. There was no evidence that patients who started on generics experienced different CV risk than those on brand-name product (OR 0·86; 95% CI 0·63-1·17). Patients at whom generics were main dispensed had not significantly difference in CV outcomes than those mainly on brand-name agents (OR 1·19; 95% CI 0·86-1·63). Compared with patients who kept initial brand-name therapy, those who experienced brand-to-generic or generic-to-brand switches, and those always on generics, did not show differential CV risks, being the corresponding ORs (and 95% CIs), 1·18 (0·96-1·47), 0·87 (0·63-1·21) and 1·08 (0·80-1·46). Our findings do not support the notion that brand-name antihypertensive agents are superior to generics for preventing CV outcomes in the real-world clinical practice. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  18. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  19. Dumping Ground or Effective Alternative: Dropout Prevention Programs in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Cori

    1998-01-01

    An alternative dropout-prevention program is examined from the students' perspectives. Findings from interviews and observations suggest that the program is effective in keeping the students in school but does little to help the students develop daily living and social skills. Policy implications are discussed and suggestions for future research…

  20. A helynevek szerepe az alternatív ideologikus gondolkodásban I. A Pilis-kultusz esete [The role of place names in an alternative ideological mindset I. The case of the Pilis Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imreh, Réka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of place names in defining and legitimizing the identity of a subculture through the example of a complex contemporary alternative social phenomenon known as the Pilis Cult. The Pilis Cult, which is also linked with some other alternative theories (Sumerian–Hungarian linguistic affinity, root linguistics, The Holy Crown Doctrine, claims that the Pilis Mountains as a spiritual space have a special role in Hungarian history. In the specific attitude to language and place names adopted by this subculture, one can recognize elements similar to those of ancient and medieval magical thinking. These can be observed in the interpretation of place names of the mountains, in which associations connected to the phonetic forms or the semantics of the place names may turn these toponyms into “telling names”, proving 120 Imreh Réka the antiquity and spirituality of the area. This etymological-associative narration is illustrated in the paper with the examples of the place names Pilis and Dobogó-kő. The interpretations of these names commingling with the alternative ideas connected to the denotata themselves (e.g. heart chakra theory; Proto-Buda Theories establish a unified argumentation framework. The paper argues that even a linguistically unorthodox subculture – alongside its specific ideology – may emphasize aspects of the study of place names through which our knowledge can be expanded with respect, for instance, to the functional logic behind place names.

  1. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thewarid Berkban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP and increased heart rate (HR, hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability.

  2. Alternatives to antibiotics to prevent necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens: a microbiologist’s perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Louise Caly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control.

  3. Decreasing cariogenic bacteria with a natural, alternative prevention therapy utilizing phytochemistry (plant extracts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Y; Goda, H; Baliga, M S; Munshi, A K

    2011-01-01

    The association between the oral microbiota and oral diseases is well established. Various antimicrobial agents including antibiotics are commercially available against oral pathogenic bacteria. For the reasons of antibiotic resistance, their adverse effects and financial considerations in the developing countries, there is a need for alternate preventive and curative treatment options that are also safe, effective and economical. Traditional medicines have been used since ancient times for the treatment of oral diseases including dental caries, periodontal diseases that affect the majority of the population and can affect a person's overall health. Natural phytochemicals are certain organic components isolated from plants and some of these extracts are considered to be beneficial to health. They serve as antioxidants, enhance immune response, provide protection against oral cancer and other diseases and also repair DNA damage caused by smoking and other toxic exposure, and detoxify carcinogens. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, many of which have been the basis for the development of new lead chemicals for pharmaceuticals. They are considered to be good alternatives to synthetic chemicals. This article presents a review of natural alternatives derived from plants and plant products that can serve as a prevention and treatment option against cariogenic bacteria.

  4. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  5. Linking Academics and Social Learning: Perceptions of School Staff to a Violence Prevention Program at an Alternative School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie; Burstyn, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examines how school staff conceptualize their work with alternative school adolescents after undergoing at least 1 year of a whole school violence prevention program. Results highlight the importance of linking social learning and academics in violence prevention strategies and of sustaining collaborative efforts that connect conflict resolution…

  6. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  7. Pressure ulcer prevention and healing using alternating pressure mattress at home: the PARESTRY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Marty, M

    2015-08-01

    Specialised pressure-relieving supports reduce or relieve the interface pressure between the skin and the support surface. The comparative effectiveness of dynamic support surfaces is debated. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of using an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM) on pressure ulcer (PU) incidence in patients receiving home-based care. A second aim was to determine the level of patient/family satisfaction with comfort and gain the views of the care team that used the APAM. The PARESTRY study was a prospective observational study conducted in patients with a high risk of PUs (Braden score prevention groups consisted of patients with no PU at baseline who were in bed for at least 20 hours a day. Patients at baseline with a category 3 or 4 PU or a category 1 or 2 PU in association with poor general health or end-of-life status were included in the secondary prevention group. All patients were laid on an APAM. The primary end point was the % of patients with a worsening skin condition in the pressure area (heel, sacrum, ischium) at day 90 or at the end of the study. The primary analysis was done on the full analysis set (patients included with at least a second assessment), using the last observation carried forward technique to handle missing data, at day 90. A 95% confidence interval was calculated. Analysis was performed on 92 patients (30 in primary prevention and 62 in secondary prevention). The average time spent in bed was 22.7 (SD 2.7) hours a day and 22.6 (SD 2.2) hours in the primary and secondary prevention groups, respectively. At baseline, in the secondary group, 77% of patients had a sacral PU, 63% a heel PU, 8% an ischial tuberosity PU and 45% a PU in another area, a number of patients having multiple PUs. In the primary prevention group, 63% (19/30) of patients dropped out of the study (5 were hospitalised, 9 died, 5 other causes). In the secondary prevention group, 61% (38/62) dropped out (7 were hospitalised, 23 died, 8

  8. Is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate an alternative to folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Women have higher requirements for folate during pregnancy. An optimal folate status must be achieved before conception and in the first trimester when the neural tube closes. Low maternal folate status is causally related to neural tube defects (NTDs). Many NTDs can be prevented by increasing maternal folate intake in the preconceptional period. Dietary folate is protective, but recommending increasing folate intake is ineffective on a population level particularly during periods of high demands. This is because the recommendations are often not followed or because the bioavailability of food folate is variable. Supplemental folate [folic acid (FA) or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF)] can effectively increase folate concentrations to the level that is considered to be protective. FA is a synthetic compound that has no biological functions unless it is reduced to dihydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate. Unmetabolized FA appears in the circulation at doses of >200 μg. Individuals show wide variations in their ability to reduce FA. Carriers of certain polymorphisms in genes related to folate metabolism or absorption can better benefit from 5-methylTHF instead of FA. 5-MethylTHF [also known as (6S)-5-methylTHF] is the predominant natural form that is readily available for transport and metabolism. In contrast to FA, 5-methylTHF has no tolerable upper intake level and does not mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Supplementation of the natural form, 5-methylTHF, is a better alternative to supplementation of FA, especially in countries not applying a fortification program. Supplemental 5-methylTHF can effectively improve folate biomarkers in young women in early pregnancy in order to prevent NTDs.

  9. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  10. Prevention of cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid metabolic alterations in l-NAME hypertensive rats by sinapic acid--Role of HMG-CoA reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, Thangarasu; Manivannan, Jeganathan; Raja, Boobalan; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2016-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of sinapic acid, a bioactive phenolic acid on high blood pressure associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations in N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) induced hypertensive rats. Sinapic acid was administered to rats orally at a dosage of 40 mg/kg everyday for a period of 4 weeks. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, organ weights (liver and kidney), lipid peroxidation products in tissues (liver and kidney), activities of hepatic marker enzymes and the levels of renal function markers in serum of l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment also significantly increased the level of plasma nitric oxide metabolites, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues of l-NAME rats. Tissue damage was assessed by histopathological examination. Alterations in plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, level of plasma lipoproteins and tissue lipids were corrected by sinapic acid treatment in l-NAME rats. Sinapic acid treatment significantly decreased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in plasma and liver, whereas the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase was significantly increased in the plasma of hypertensive rats. Docking result showed the interaction between sinapic acid and HMG-CoA reductase. Sinapic acid has shown best ligand binding energy of -5.5 kcal/M. Moreover, in chick embryo model, sinapic acid improved vessel density on chorioallantoic membrane. These results of the present study concludes that sinapic acid acts as a protective agent against hypertension associated cardiac dysfunction, kidney fibrosis and lipid alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Global Status of DDT and Its Alternatives for Use in Vector Control to Prevent Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - I review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives. Data sources and extraction - Contemporary data on DDT use were largely obtained from

  12. Social cohesion and peace education: Alternatives for preventing child-youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhina Cabezas Valencia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of the current situation of the phenomenon of childyouth violence in El Salvador. It describes some of the measures, both governmental and those deriving from international cooperation, that have been implemented to date, in order to seek a solution to the problem. The authors also explore more deeply the new trends in preventing the phenomenon. In this sense, the article is aimed at the prevention of violence through twospecific mechanisms: peace education and social cohesion. As the authors demonstrate, both mechanisms are potentially adaptable to the reality of El Salvador.

  13. The effectiveness of three types of alternating pressure air mattresses in the prevention of pressure ulcers in Belgian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann; Grypdonck, Maria; Clays, Els; Vanderwee, Katrien; Beeckman, Dimitri

    2013-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of multi-stage and one-stage alternating low-pressure air mattresses (ALPAM) and alternating pressure air mattress (APAM) overlays in preventing pressure ulcers among hospitalized patients, data were pooled (N = 617) from a study of patients allocated to multi-stage ALPAM (n = 252) or one-stage ALPAM (n = 264), and another study of patients allocated to APAM overlay (n = 101). Cumulative pressure ulcer incidence was 4.9% (n = 30) over 14 days. Fewer ulcers developed on multi-stage ALPAM compared with APAM overlay (OR = 0.33; 95% CI [0.11, 0.97]), but no difference was found between one-stage ALPAM and APAM overlay (OR = 0.40; 95% CI [0.14, 1.10]). Time to develop ulcers did not differ by mattress type. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Comparison of the Batterer Intervention and Prevention Program With Alternative Court Dispositions on 12-Month Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Wareham, Jennifer; Bartula, Aaron; Canas, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Studies of batterer intervention and prevention programs (BIPPs) offer mixed results regarding their effect on recidivism. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of BIPP for cases assigned to a misdemeanor family court. This study focused on determining whether BIPP cases, compared with alternative sanctions, had significantly lower recidivism rates 12 months after program involvement. Findings indicated that BIPP was more effective than jail or regular dismissal in reducing the likelihood of future arrests, but not plea deferred adjudication and conditional dismissal. Results argue toward the efficacy of some form of treatment versus simply receiving jail time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  16. Orotracheal Intubation Using the Retromolar Space: A Reliable Alternative Intubation Approach to Prevent Dental Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh T. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in airway management, perianesthetic dental injury remains one of the most common anesthesia-related adverse events and cause for malpractice litigation against anesthesia providers. Recommended precautions for prevention of dental damage may not always be effective because these techniques involve contact and pressure exerted on vulnerable teeth. We describe a novel approach using the retromolar space to insert a flexible fiberscope for tracheal tube placement as a reliable method to achieve atraumatic tracheal intubation. Written consent for publication has been obtained from the patient.

  17. Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Arias, Noemi; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; del Puy Portillo, María

    2014-04-01

    Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and the controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation). Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. [Responsible gambling: is it an alternative for prevention and treatment of pathological gambling?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburua, Enrique; de Corral, Paz

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the new development of controlled gambling embedded in a harm-reduction context as a viable solution both for primary prevention at school and for treatment of some kinds of problematic gamblers. Pathological gambling significantly improves with psychological therapies, such as stimulus control and in vivo exposure with response prevention or cognitive interventions. In some cases psychopharmacological therapy may complement the benefits of treatment for pathological gambling when patients have comorbid depression or high impulsivity. However, in this mental disorder the goal of treatment (total abstinence or controlled gambling) is currently a controversial issue. Controlled gambling may be a therapeutic option for young gamblers or patients without severe dependence. Furthermore, controlled gambling may be a relevant issue for health education in schools, with a view to teaching teenagers how to cope with actual and virtual exposure to gambling. Likewise, the gambling industry and governments are involved in harm minimization initiatives. Thus, it is necessary to coordinate a program of research that includes the industry, science, and public representatives, based on cooperative research that will permit the introduction of controlled gambling within a global strategic framework. We discuss the relevance of this review for clinical practice and for future research, as well as the unsolved problems in this field.

  19. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-03

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery. Copyright

  20. Microbial secondary metabolites are an alternative approaches against insect vector to prevent zoonotic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1500 naturally occurring microorganisms have been identified as potentially insecticidal agents. Metabolites from 942 microbial isolates were screened for insecticidal and properties. The isolates included 302 streptomycetes, 502 novel actinobacteria including representatives of 18 genera, 28 unidentified aerobic actinobacteria, 70 fungi and 40 bacteria other than actinobacteria showed the insecticidal activity. Most spore-forming bacteria pathogenic to insects belong to the family Bacillaceae. Only four Bacillus species namely Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus popilliae, Bacillus lentimorbus, Bacillus sphaericus have been closely examined as insect control agents. Fungi are applied directly in the form of spores, mycelia or blastospores or by their metabolites. Many viruses that belong to the family Baculoviridae are pathogenic in insects. The microbial insecticides are generally pest-specific, readily biodegradable and usually lack toxicity to higher animals. This review paper communicates the insect problem in the transmission of diseases in human, animals, plants and problem of chemical insecticides control of insects using microbial metabolites from actinobacteria, bacteria, fungi and viruses.

  1. Antioxidant agents: a future alternative approach in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Cuba, Letícia; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Cherubini, Karen; de Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a therapeutic modality frequently employed for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). It destroys tumor cells, but it is not selective, also affecting healthy tissues and producing adverse effects. One that stands out is oral mucositis because of the morbidity that it is capable of causing. This lesion is characterized by the presence of erythema, ulcerations, pain, opportunistic infections, and weight loss. These side effects can lead to serious situations that require the interruption of the antineoplastic treatment and can result in hospitalization and even death. The complex mechanisms linked to the pathogenesis of oral mucositis were recently established, and since then, the control of oxidative stress (OS) has been tied to the prevention and management of this disease. The authors have carried out a review of the literature about the use of antioxidant agents in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced oral mucositis, using the PubMed database. This review has shown that the research on use of antioxidants (AOX) has proved insufficient to justify suggesting the products in treatment protocols. Results are promising, however, and AOX may represent a future alternative in the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis.

  2. Beyond Preconditioning: Postconditioning as an Alternative Technique in the Prevention of Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoraki, Kassiani; Karmaniolou, Iosifina; Tympa, Aliki; Tasoulis, Marios-Konstantinos; Nastos, Constantinos; Vassiliou, Ioannis; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Smyrniotis, Vassilios

    2016-01-01

    Liver ischemia/reperfusion injury may significantly compromise hepatic postoperative function. Various hepatoprotective methods have been improvised, aiming at attenuating IR injury. With ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the liver is conditioned with a brief ischemic period followed by reperfusion, prior to sustained ischemia. Ischemic postconditioning (IPostC), consisting of intermittent sequential interruptions of blood flow in the early phase of reperfusion, seems to be a more feasible alternative than IPC, since the onset of reperfusion is more predictable. Regarding the potential mechanisms involved, it has been postulated that the slow intermittent oxygenation through controlled reperfusion decreases the burst production of oxygen free radicals, increases antioxidant activity, suppresses neutrophil accumulation, and modulates the apoptotic cascade. Additionally, favorable effects on mitochondrial ultrastructure and function, and upregulation of the cytoprotective properties of nitric oxide, leading to preservation of sinusoidal structure and maintenance of blood flow through the hepatic circulation could also underlie the protection afforded by postconditioning. Clinical studies are required to show whether biochemical and histological improvements afforded by the reperfusion/reocclusion cycles of postconditioning during early reperfusion can be translated to a substantial clinical benefit in liver resection and transplantation settings or to highlight more aspects of its molecular mechanisms. PMID:27340509

  3. Marine Place Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the geographic place names for features in the U.S territorial waters and outer continental shelf. These names can be used to find or define a...

  4. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  5. Randomised, controlled trial of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers: PRESSURE (pressure relieving support surfaces) trial

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare whether differences exist between alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure mattresses in the development of new pressure ulcers, healing of existing pressure ulcers, and patient acceptability. Design Pragmatic, open, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Setting 11 hospitals in six NHS trusts. Participants 1972 people admitted to hospital as acute or elective patients. Interventions Participants were randomised to an alternating pressure mattress (n = 98...

  6. Preventing substance use and disordered eating: initial outcomes of the ATHENA (athletes targeting healthy exercise and nutrition alternatives) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L; Goldberg, Linn; Moe, Esther L; Defrancesco, Carol A; Durham, Melissa B; Hix-Small, Hollie

    2004-11-01

    To implement and to assess the efficacy of a school-based, sport team-centered program to prevent young female high school athletes' disordered eating and body-shaping drug use. Prospective controlled trial in 18 high schools, with balanced random assignment by school to the intervention and usual-care control conditions. We enrolled 928 students from 40 participating sport teams. Mean age was 15.4 years, 92.2% were white, and follow-up retention was 72%. The ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternative) curriculum's 8 weekly 45-minute sessions were incorporated into a team's usual practice activities. Content was gender-specific, peer-led, and explicitly scripted. Topics included healthy sport nutrition, effective exercise training, drug use and other unhealthy behaviors' effects on sport performance, media images of females, and depression prevention. We assessed participants by confidential questionnaire prior to and following their sport season. We determined program effects using an analysis of covariance-based approach within the Generalized Estimating Equation framework. Experimental athletes reported significantly less ongoing and new use of diet pills and less new use of athletic-enhancing substances (amphetamines, anabolic steroids, and sport supplements) (Peating behaviors (Pfriends' body-shaping drug use [Pdisordered eating, athletic-enhancing substance use, and other health-harming behaviors.

  7. Review on Usage of Vancomycin in Livestock and Humans: Maintaining Its Efficacy, Prevention of Resistance and Alternative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panditharathnalage Nishantha Kumara Wijesekara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is one of the “last-line” classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in the 1950s, it was widely used after the 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, as the prevalence of these strains were increased. However, it is currently evident that vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci have developed for various reasons, including the use of avaparcin—an analog of vancomycin—as a feed additive in livestock. Therefore, prophylactic and empiric use of antibiotics and their analogues need to be minimized. Herein we discuss the rational use of vancomycin in treating humans, horses, farm animals, and pet animals such as dogs, cats, and rabbits. In present day context, more attention should be paid to the prevention of the emergence of resistance to antibiotics in order to maintain their efficacy. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have an in-depth understanding of the antibiotic that they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects, and alternative therapy for vancomycin.

  8. Association between complementary and alternative medicine use, preventive care practices, and use of conventional medical services among adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrow, Donald; Egede, Leonard E

    2006-01-01

    To assess the association between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, preventive care practices, and use of conventional medical services among adults with diabetes. We analyzed data on 2,474 adults with diabetes. We created an overall CAM-use category based on use of any of the following: diets, herbs, chiropractic care, yoga, relaxation, acupuncture, ayuverda, biofeedback, chelation, energy healing, Reiki therapy, hypnosis, massage, naturopathy, and homeopathy. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the effect of CAM use on preventive care practices (receipt of influenza and pneumonia vaccines) and use of conventional medical services (number of primary care and emergency department visits). STATA was used for statistical analysis to account for the complex survey design. A total of 48% of adults with diabetes used some form of CAM. CAM use was independently associated with receipt of pneumonia vaccination (odds ratio 1.56 [95% CI 1.26-1.94]) but not significantly associated with receipt of influenza vaccination (1.17 [0.92-1.48]). CAM use was independently associated with visiting the emergency department (1.34 [1.06-1.70]), having six or more primary care visits (1.44 [1.14-1.83]), and having eight or more primary care visits (1.66 [1.22-2.25]). In contrast to the findings of previous studies, CAM use appears to be associated with increased likelihood of receipt of preventive care services and increased emergency department and primary care visits. CAM use may not be a barrier to use of conventional medical services in adults with diabetes.

  9. Randomised, controlled trial of alternating pressure mattresses compared with alternating pressure overlays for the prevention of pressure ulcers: PRESSURE (pressure relieving support surfaces) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Jane; Cranny, Gillian; Iglesias, Cynthia; Nelson, E Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Phillips, Angela; Torgerson, David; Mason, Su; Cullum, Nicky

    2006-06-17

    To compare whether differences exist between alternating pressure overlays and alternating pressure mattresses in the development of new pressure ulcers, healing of existing pressure ulcers, and patient acceptability. Pragmatic, open, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. 11 hospitals in six NHS trusts. 1972 people admitted to hospital as acute or elective patients. Participants were randomised to an alternating pressure mattress (n = 982) or an alternating pressure overlay (n = 990). The proportion of participants developing a new pressure ulcer of grade 2 or worse; time to development of new pressure ulcers; proportions of participants developing a new ulcer within 30 days; healing of existing pressure ulcers; and patient acceptability. Intention to treat analysis found no difference in the proportions of participants developing a new pressure ulcer of grade 2 or worse (10.7% overlay patients, 10.3% mattress patients; difference 0.4%, 95% confidence interval--2.3% to 3.1%, P = 0.75). More overlay patients requested change owing to dissatisfaction (23.3%) than mattress patients (18.9%, P = 0.02). No difference was found between alternating pressure mattresses and alternating pressure overlays in the proportion of people who develop a pressure ulcer. ISRCTN 78646179.

  10. [Using a structural alternative (non-medical) in the "capillary" screening of arterial hypertension in a community. Means of intervention and evaluation in preventive cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotto, L; Ambrosio, G B; Zamboni, S; Prattichizzo, F; Cognolato, E; Paruzzolo, P

    1983-03-17

    A "Community Control Programme of Hypertension" has been implemented in a Northern Italian population as part of an international co-operative pilot project promoted by World Health Organization. The programme was planned to last five years. Three years after the start we performed what we called a "capillary" screening in the community involved in the project. In fact a team of physicians and medical students moved about in the villages of the area where extemporary ambulances were set up with the aim of identifying new hypertensives, evaluating the state of the control of hypertension as compared with the situation at the outset of the study and, more generally, as a means of strengthening the ties between the project organization and the community. In doing so we also evaluated the feasibility of an alternative approach, based upon the cooperation with an organization outside the health service system, namely the Catholic Church, to achieve the set aims in a very religious population as ours. The parish priests of the villages did eagerly cooperate with our work both in the form of propaganda and in making available the parish buildings in which the ambulances were set up. We examined 1306 subjects (47.3% males), of whom 39.5% were hypertensives ("casual" blood pressure at or above 160 or 95 or treated). Of all the hypertensives, 28.6% were new hypertensives ("unaware"), 45.3% were being treated and 13.7% had a blood pressure lower than 160/95 mmHg while under treatment "effectively treated"); 16%, though, had blood pressure values at or above 200 or 120 mmHg. The state of control of hypertension was better in women and with increasing age. As compared with the findings at the outset of the study, 27,6% more "aware", 23.9% more treated and 9.6% more "effectively treated" hypertensives were found. Using the support of an alternative (non-medical) organization in a programme of preventive medicine in the community has proved to be, in our experience, a feasible

  11. Directory of awardee names

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  12. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  13. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  14. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  15. LEFT ATRIAL APPENDAGE CLOSURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO WARFARIN FOR STROKE PREVENTION IN ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: A PATIENT¬LEVEL META¬ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Holmes D.R. Jr, Doshi S.K., Kar S., et al. Left Atrial Appendage Closure as an Alternative to Warfarin for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: A Patient­Level Meta­Analysis // J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. – 2015. – Vol. 65. – P. 2614–2623.

  16. Naming, blaming and shaming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismark, M; Paterson, R

    2006-03-01

    Few doctors at the centre of complaints or disciplinary proceedings wish to be publicly named. Publication of a doctor's name can adversely affect his or her reputation, patients, and family members, even if the allegation is ultimately not upheld. Yet, there is a strong public interest in freedom of speech and transparency of complaints and disciplinary processes. In determining whether to grant name suppression, complaints agencies and disciplinary tribunals are required to balance competing public and private interests. In New Zealand, the Health and Disability Commissioner has responsibility for investigating complaints about the quality of medical care. The Commissioner's current practice is not to publicly name doctors under investigation, or even those who are found to have breached a patient's rights. This approach fits well the non-punitive, rehabilitative focus of New Zealand's medical regulatory system. In the rare cases where a matter reaches the threshold for disciplinary action, the balance tips in favour of disclosure.

  17. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  18. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  19. The naming of Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Geggus

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available When St. Domingue declared its independence it was renamed Haiti, an Amerindian name. Author explores what the founding fathers of Haitian independence might have known about the Amerindian past in the Caribbean and in South America. He also raises questions about ethnicity and identity in 19th-c. Haiti.

  20. Oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferative phenotype is modulated by proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapp Aaron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recently reported drop in the overall death rate from cancer, the estimated survival rate and number of deaths from oral cancer remain virtually unchanged. Early detection efforts, in combination with strategies for prevention and risk-reduction, have the potential to dramatically improve clinical outcomes. The identification of non-toxic, effective treatments, including complementary and alternative therapies, is critical if the survival rate is to be improved. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a protective effect from certain plant-derived foods and extracts; however, it has been difficult to isolate and identify the compounds most responsible for these observations. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the response of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC to proanthocyanidin (PAC, a plant-derived compound that may inhibit the progression of several other cancers. Methods Using a series of in vitro assays, we sought to quantify the effects of PAC on OSCC, cervical carcinoma, and non-cancerous cell lines, specifically the effects of PAC on cell proliferation. Recent data suggest that infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV may also modulate the proliferative potential of OSCC; therefore, we also measured the effects of PAC administration on HPV-transfected OSCC proliferation. Results Our results demonstrated that PAC administration was sufficient to significantly suppress cellular proliferation of OSCC in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the increased proliferation of OSCC after transfection with HPV 16 was reduced by the administration of PAC, as was the proliferation of the cervical cancer and non-cancerous cell lines tested. Our results also provide preliminary evidence that PAC administration may induce apoptosis in cervical and oral cancer cell lines, while acting merely to suppress proliferation of the normal cell line control. Conclusion These results signify that PAC may be

  1. Risk evaluation of the alternate-3A modification to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR-4, MARK-II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.; Karol, R.; Shiu, K.

    1983-01-01

    The authors present a risk evaluation of the ATWS Alternate 3A modification proposed by NRC staff in NUREG-0460 to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices: the frequency of core damage, the expected early fatalities, and the expected latent fatalities. The ATWS prevention tree includes: the mechanical subsystem of the reactor protection system, the electrical subsystem of the reactor protection system, the recirculation pump trip and the Alternate Rod Insertion System. The mitigation tree includes: standby liquid control system, opening of the relief valves, reclosing the relief valves, failure of coolant injection, inadvertent actuation of the automatic depressurization system, inadvertent operation of high-pressure injection system and containment heat removal

  2. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  3. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  4. What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Mark

    2008-03-01

    During a lesson with my A-level physics class, my school's head of English came into the lab and happened to notice the whiteboard. I had just started teaching a section on particle physics and was acquainting the students with the multitude of names found in the particle world. Among others, the board contained the words lepton, hadron, meson, baryon, photon, gluon, boson, muon, neutrino, fermion and quark. The head of English pointed out that none of the words on the board were intelligible to anyone else in the school. He added that the words themselves were utterly bizarre, although in fairness he did recognize the reference to James Joyce.

  5. POLLUTION PREVENTION DEMONSTRATION AND EVALUATION OF PAINT APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AND ALTERNATIVES TO METHYLENE CHLORIDE AND METHYL ETHYL KETONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of demonstrations of technologies to prevent or control emissions of hazardous air pollutant (HAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from processes with high solvent usage: (1) paint stripping using methylene chloride, (2) cleaning paint equipment wi...

  6. Branding a business name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization, international businesses, as well as competitive markets imposed the companies (large ones, as well as the others to position in the required market. Making profit, which is the basic aim of every company, in such market environment can only be achieved by demonstrating distinct characteristics of a company, the characteristics which distinguish it from others with the same or similar activities. Historical and analysis of the current market have shown that being recognizable in the multitude of similar companies is a huge challenge, but also one of the main preconditions for successful operations. The moment a company is registered it acquires a specific identity primarily owing to its business name, which distinguishes it from other companies during that first period. Practically at the same time, the company starts creating its image or goodwill by means of several distinctive ways. One of them is branding business name or corporate branding. However, apart from large benefits, companies may also have big difficulties and risks in the same process as well.

  7. All4You! A Randomized Trial of an HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Alternative School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Kirby, Douglas B.; Robin, Leah E.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Glassman, Jill R.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated All4You!, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors associated with HIV, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy among students in alternative schools. The study featured a randomized controlled trial involving 24 community day schools in northern California. A cohort of 988 students was assessed…

  8. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  9. Beyond face-to-face individual counseling: A systematic review on alternative modes of motivational interviewing in substance abuse treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wu, Lingli; Gao, Xiaoli

    2017-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI), delivered in modes other than face-to-face individual counseling, in preventing and treating substance abuse related behaviors. Four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of alternative modes of MI (other than face-to-face individual counseling) in preventing and treating substance abuse. Eligible studies were rated on methodological quality and their findings were qualitatively synthesized. A total of 25 articles (on 22 RCTs) were eligible for this review. Beyond face-to-face counseling, telephone was the most frequently used medium for delivering MI (11 studies), followed by Internet communication (4 studies) and short message service (SMS) (2 studies). Mail was incorporated as a supplement in one of the studies for telephone MI. In contrast to one-to-one individual counseling, group MI was adopted in 5 studies. The effectiveness of telephone MI in treating substance abuse was supported by all of the published RCTs we located. Internet-based MI was effective in preventing and treating alcoholism, but its outcome appeared to be inconsistent for smoking cessation and poor for abstinence from illicit drugs. SMS-based MI appeared to be useful for controlling tobacco and drinking. Group MI was attempted for quitting alcohol and drugs, with mixed findings on its outcomes. Collectively, the studies reviewed indicate that telephone MI is a promising mode of intervention in treating and preventing substance abuse. The effectiveness of other alternative modes (SMS-based MI, Internet-based MI and group MI) remains inconclusive given the controversial findings and a limited number of studies. By synthesizing the currently available evidence, this systematic review suggested that telephone MI might be considered as an alternative to face

  10. Social supports and prevention strategies as adjuncts and alternatives to sedation and anesthesia for people with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Paul; Miller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    People with special needs are assuming a more prominent place in our society. The number of people living in communities with medical, physical, and psychological conditions is increasing dramatically. In spite of the advances that people with special needs have made in recognition of their right to live in society and access services open to other people, their oral health is still significantly poorer than that of other groups. There are a number of modalities that can complement or replace pharmacological interventions and allow individuals to have dental treatment in a dental office or clinic. These include behavioral or psychological interventions and social support and prevention strategies. Social supports include care management and integration of oral health services with general health and social service systems. Preventive programs using modern "medical model" oral health prevention strategies also have the potential to reduce the burden of disease among people with special needs and therefore reduce the need for dental procedures. A social support system using community-based Dental Hygienists acting as Dental Coordinators, is described along with outcomes demonstrating improved oral health for people with special needs living in community residential care facilities. Combined social support systems and community prevention strategies have the potential to reduce the need for pharmacological interventions in order to maintain oral health in populations of people with special needs. Social supports and modern preventive strategies must be included in the range of options available in communities in order to improve and maintain oral health for people with special needs.

  11. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  12. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  13. An Alternative Strategy of Preventive Control of Tick-borne Relapsing Fever in Rural Areas of Sine-Saloum, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diatta, Georges; Mediannikov, Oleg; Boyer, Sylvie; Sokhna, Cheikh; Bassène, Hubert; Fenollar, Florence; Chauvancy, Gilles; Ndiaye, Abdoul Aziz; Diene, Fatoumata; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In Senegal, tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a major cause of morbidity and a neglected public health problem. Borreliosis cases commonly detected in two villages led us to implement a borreliosis preventive control including cementing of floors in bedrooms and outbuildings attended by inhabitants to avoid human contacts with tick vectors. Epidemiological and medical monitoring of the TBRF incidence was carried out at Dielmo and Ndiop by testing the blood of febrile patients since 1990 and 1993, respectively. Intra-domiciliary habitat conditions were improved by cementing, coupled with accompanying measures, from March 2013 to September 2015. Application of this strategy was associated with a significant reduction of borreliosis incidence. This was more evident in Dielmo, dropping from 10.55 to 2.63 cases per 100 person-years (P < 0.001), than in Ndiop where it changed from 3.79 to 1.39 cases per 100 person-years (P < 0.001). Thirty-six cases of TBRF were estimated to be prevented at a cost of €526 per infection. The preventive control strategy was successful in Dielmo and Ndiop, being associated with decreased incidence by 89.8% and 81.5%, respectively, suggesting that TBRF may be widely decreased when the population is involved. Public health authorities or any development stakeholders should adopt this effective tool for promoting rural health through national prevention programs. PMID:27430543

  14. Dictionary of Alaska place names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1971-01-01

    This work is an alphabetical list of the geographic names that are now applied and have been applied to places and features of the Alaska landscape. Principal names, compiled from modem maps and charts and printed in boldface type, generally reflect present-day local usage. They conform to the principles of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for establishing standard names for use on Government maps and in other Government publications. Each name entry gives the present-day spelling along with variant spellings and names; identifies the feature named; presents the origin and history of the name; and, where possible, gives the meaning of an Eskimo, Aleut, Indian, or foreign name. Variant, obsolete, and doubtful names are alphabetically listed and are cross referenced, where necessary, to the principal entries.

  15. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  16. Better Acquisition Management through Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) and Other Best Practices for Preventing and Resolving Bid Protests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    time delays and costs from bid protests. Among other things, we recommend energetic agency approaches to preventing disputes (e.g., quality debriefings...federal laws and regulations to reduce time delays and costs from bid protests. Among other things, we recommend energetic agency approaches to...Audits and Investigations group responsible for investigating fraud , waste, and abuse in Federal government operations (GAO, n.d.). Since bid protest

  17. Centrally managed name resolution schemes for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) uses a broadcast method to locate resources and controls distributed across control servers. There are many advantages offered by using a centrally managed name resolution method, in which resources are located using a repository. The suitability of DCE Directory Service as a name resolution method is explored, and results from a study involving DCE are discussed. An alternative nameserver method developed and in use at the Thomas Jefferson national Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is described and results of integrating this new method with existing EPICS utilities presented. The various methods discussed in the paper are compared

  18. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations.

  19. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step

  20. Drug resistance of bacterial dental biofilm and the potential use of natural compounds as alternative for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Al Qurashi, Yasir Mohammed A; Chaieb, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease are directly linked with the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria colonizing the supragingival biofilm (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Cells embedded in biofilm are up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics compared to their planctonic ones. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain biofilms drug resistance. Given the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently used in dentistry, a great importance is given to natural compounds for the prevention of oral bacterial growth, adhesion and colonization. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. It has been well documented that medicinal plants and natural compounds confer considerable antibacterial activity against various microorganisms including cariogenic and periodontal pathogens. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on (i) biofilm in the oral cavity, (ii) drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and (iii) the potential use of plant extracts, essential oils and natural compounds as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, involving their origin and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: A field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Peter; Johnson, Raymond H.; Neuschutz, Clara; Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Bjorn

    2014-01-01

    Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2 m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6 m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3 m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation.

  2. Antibodies trap tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue damage by driving IL-4Rα-independent alternative differentiation of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from chronic helminth infections with no effective vaccines currently available. Antibodies and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM form crucial components of protective immunity against challenge infections with intestinal helminths. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies target these large multi-cellular parasites remain obscure. Alternative activation of macrophages during helminth infection has been linked to signaling through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα, but the potential effects of antibodies on macrophage differentiation have not been explored. We demonstrate that helminth-specific antibodies induce the rapid trapping of tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue necrosis following challenge infection with the natural murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp. Mice lacking antibodies (JH (-/- or activating Fc receptors (FcRγ(-/- harbored highly motile larvae, developed extensive tissue damage and accumulated less Arginase-1 expressing macrophages around the larvae. Moreover, Hp-specific antibodies induced FcRγ- and complement-dependent adherence of macrophages to larvae in vitro, resulting in complete larval immobilization. Antibodies together with helminth larvae reprogrammed macrophages to express wound-healing associated genes, including Arginase-1, and the Arginase-1 product L-ornithine directly impaired larval motility. Antibody-induced expression of Arginase-1 in vitro and in vivo occurred independently of IL-4Rα signaling. In summary, we present a novel IL-4Rα-independent mechanism of alternative macrophage activation that is antibody-dependent and which both mediates anti-helminth immunity and prevents tissue disruption caused by migrating larvae.

  3. A family of names : rune-names and ogam-names and their relation to alphabet letter-names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names

  4. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  5. Sacral Region Massage as an Alternative to the Urinary Catheter Used to Prevent Urinary Retention after Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümran Dal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of massage to the sacral region after cesarean delivery instead of employing a urinary catheter for the prevention of urinary retention. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Material and Methods: This interventional study population consisted of 60 women who were divided into two intervention groups and one control group. For the first intervention group, the sacral region was massaged every hour 10-15 minutes after cesarean delivery and every 30 minutes after a voiding sensation for the second intervention group. No interventions were made in the control group, although routine hospital services were provided. Socio-demographic data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the researchers. Other data were collected via observation. Results: Fifteen percent (15% of the women in the first intervention group needed to void 2 hours after cesarean delivery, 35% after 3 hours, and the mean time to void after delivery was 3.4±0.8 hours. Forty percent (40% of the women in the second intervention group needed to void after 5 hours, and the mean time to void after delivery was 5.5±0.8 hours. Sixty percent (60% of the women in the control group needed to void 6 hours later, and the mean time to void after delivery was 6.2±0.7 hours. Urinary retention was not observed in the first intervention group. Our statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the three groups in terms of mean times to void after cesarean delivery (p<0.05. Conclusion: In order to facilitate voiding and to prevent urinary retention, which is seen as a post-cesarean complication, massaging the sacral region could be recommended instead of urinary catheter insertion. Additional studies with larger groups are also recommended.

  6. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can...... affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......-word brand names....

  7. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  8. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of products, such as herbs (also known as botanicals), vitamins and minerals , and probiotics . They are widely ... and about their safety and potential interactions with medicines and other natural products. Mind and Body Practices ...

  9. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology - the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage - will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume.

  10. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  11. Armenian Names of the Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, Haik A.

    2007-08-01

    Striking similarities between the Armenian names of visible to the naked eye planets and their ancient Greek names used before 6 - 5 centuries BC are presented. Mercury, for instance, was called Stilbon in Greece which means “the Gleaming” and coincides with Armenian Paylatsou. One of the names of Venus was Phosphoros and in Armenia it is called Lusaber - both of these terms meaning the “Bringer of Light”. Ancient Greeks named the fourth planet Pyroeis meaning “fiery”. The Armenian name of this planet Hrat consists of the word “hur” meaning fire and a suffix “at”. Jupiter's and Saturn's ancient names are considered as well. Moreover, the term planet has its Armenian version being in the use more than 2500 years.

  12. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  13. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  14. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  15. Fictional names and fictional discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    [eng] In this dissertation I present a critical study of fiction, focusing on the semantics of fictional names and fictional discourse. I am concerned with the issue of whether fictional names need to refer, and also with the related issue of whether fictional characters need to exist, in order to best account for our linguistic practices involving fictional names. Fictional names like ‘Sherlock Holmes’, ‘Anna Karenina’, ‘Emma Woodhouse’ and ‘Don Quixote of La Mancha’ ordinarily occur in diff...

  16. Cost-effectiveness of alternative thresholds of the fasting plasma glucose test to identify the target population for type 2 diabetes prevention in adults aged ≥45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ping; Kahn, Henry S; Gregg, Edward W

    2013-12-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative fasting plasma glucose (FPG) thresholds to identify adults at high risk for type 2 diabetes for diabetes preventive intervention. We used a validated simulation model to examine the change in lifetime quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and medical costs when the FPG threshold was progressively lowered in 5-mg/dL decrements from 120 to 90 mg/dL. The study sample includes nondiabetic adults aged ≥45 years in the United States using 2006-2010 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. High-risk individuals were assumed to receive a lifestyle intervention, as that used in the Diabetes Prevention Program. We calculated cost per QALY by dividing the incremental cost by incremental QALY when lowering the threshold to the next consecutive level. Medical costs were assessed from a health care system perspective. We conducted univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to assess the robustness of the results using different simulation scenarios and parameters. Progressively lowering the FPG threshold would monotonically increase QALYs, cost, and cost per QALY. Reducing (in 5-mg/dL decrements) the threshold from 120 to 90 mg/dL cost $30,100, $32,900, $42,300, $60,700, $81,800, and $115,800 per QALY gained, respectively. The costs per QALY gained were lower for all thresholds under a lower-cost and less-effective intervention scenario. Lowering the FPG threshold leads to a greater health benefit of diabetes prevention but reduces the cost-effectiveness. Using the conventional benchmark of $50,000 per QALY, a threshold of 105 mg/dL or higher would be cost effective. A lower threshold could be selected if the intervention cost could be lowered.

  17. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although each element in the periodic table is unique due to its atomic number, it is obviously convenient to assign an appropriate name, and a symbol. One can then systematically name and represent compounds, from simple salts to coordination complexes. It is a generally accepted convention that the discoverer of an ...

  18. Multi-language naming game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Tang, Wallace K. S.

    2018-04-01

    Naming game is a simulation-based experiment used to study the evolution of languages. The conventional naming game focuses on a single language. In this paper, a novel naming game model named multi-language naming game (MLNG) is proposed, where the agents are different-language speakers who cannot communicate with each other without a translator (interpreter) in between. The MLNG model is general, capable of managing k different languages with k ≥ 2. For illustration, the paper only discusses the MLNG with two different languages, and studies five representative network topologies, namely random-graph, WS small-world, NW small-world, scale-free, and random-triangle topologies. Simulation and analysis results both show that: 1) using the network features and based on the proportion of translators the probability of establishing a conversation between two or three agents can be theoretically estimated; 2) the relationship between the convergence speed and the proportion of translators has a power-law-like relation; 3) different agents require different memory sizes, thus a local memory allocation rule is recommended for saving memory resources. The new model and new findings should be useful for further studies of naming games and for better understanding of languages evolution from a dynamical network perspective.

  19. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 system...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  20. Validity and reliability of the NAB Naming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Bonnie C; Rush, Beth K; Pedraza, Otto

    2016-05-01

    Confrontation naming is commonly assessed in neuropsychological practice, but few standardized measures of naming exist and those that do are susceptible to the effects of education and culture. The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test is a 31-item measure used to assess confrontation naming. Despite adequate psychometric information provided by the test publisher, there has been limited independent validation of the test. In this study, we investigated the convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and alternate forms reliability of the NAB Naming Test in a sample of adults (Form 1: n = 247, Form 2: n = 151) clinically referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Results indicate adequate-to-good internal consistency and alternate forms reliability. We also found strong convergent validity as demonstrated by relationships with other neurocognitive measures. We found preliminary evidence that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates a more pronounced ceiling effect than other commonly used measures of naming. To our knowledge, this represents the largest published independent validation study of the NAB Naming Test in a clinical sample. Our findings suggest that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates adequate validity and reliability and merits consideration in the test arsenal of clinical neuropsychologists.

  1. Chadwick named college communications manager

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Heather Riley Chadwick of Blacksburg, Va., has been named communications manager for the College of Architecture and Urban Studies at Virginia Tech. Previously, she served as the marketing and communications manager for Virginia Tech's Office of Student Programs.

  2. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  3. What's in a Name Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph D.

    2015-03-01

    When solid state physics emerged in the 1940s, its name was controversial. By the 1970s, some physicists came to prefer "condensed matter" as a way to identify the discipline of physics examining complex matter. Physicists and historians often gloss this transition as a simple rebranding of a problematically named field, but attention to the motives behind these names reveals telling nuances. "Solid state physics" and "condensed matter physics"—along with "materials science," which also emerged during the Cold War—were named in accordance with ideological commitments about the identity of physics. Historians, therefore, can profitably understand solid state and condensed matter physics as distinct disciplines. Condensed matter, rather than being continuous with solid state physics, should be considered alongside materials science as an outlet for specific frustrations with the way solid state was organized.

  4. Bolivian Health Providers’ Attitudes Toward Alternative Technologies for Cervical Cancer Prevention: A Focus on Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about health providers’ attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Methods Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants’ acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Results Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Conclusions Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia. PMID:22816515

  5. Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies As an Alternative to Overcome Challenges Related to the Prevention, Detection, and Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. C. Fernandes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due mainly to properties such as high affinity and antigen specificity, antibodies have become important tools for biomedical research, diagnosis, and treatment of several human diseases. When the objective is to administer them for therapy, strategies are used to reduce the heterologous protein immunogenicity and to improve pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics. Size minimization contributes to ameliorate these characteristics, while preserving the antigen–antibody interaction site. Since the discovery that camelids produce functional antibodies devoid of light chains, studies have proposed the use of single domains for biosensors, monitoring and treatment of tumors, therapies for inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases, drug delivery, or passive immunotherapy. Despite an expected increase in antibody and related products in the pharmaceutical market over the next years, few research initiatives are related to the development of alternatives for helping to manage neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. In this review, we summarize developments of camelid single-domain antibodies (VHH in the field of NTDs. Particular attention is given to VHH-derived products, i.e., VHHs fused to nanoparticles, constructed for the development of rapid diagnostic kits; fused to oligomeric matrix proteins for viral neutralization; and conjugated with proteins for the treatment of human parasites. Moreover, paratransgenesis technology using VHHs is an interesting approach to control parasite development in vectors. With enormous biotechnological versatility, facility and low cost for heterologous production, and greater ability to recognize different epitopes, VHHs have appeared as an opportunity to overcome challenges related to the prevention, detection, and control of human diseases, especially NTDs.

  6. Database Description - Gene Name Thesaurus | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Gene Name Thesaurus Database Description General information of database Database name Gene Name The...saurus Alternative name - DOI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00966-000 Creator Creator Name: Kousaku Okubo* Creator Affiliation: The...rch Organization of Information and Systems Faculty of Engineering Bldg.12 The Un...ated as names. Features and manner of utilization of database This is not a database. But you can use it as a the...e(s) Article title: Author name(s): Journal: External Links: Original website information Database maintenance site The

  7. Naming analog clocks conceptually facilitates naming digital clocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say "quarter to three") requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information displayed in the input for producing the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition priming paradigm.

  8. The Name Authority Cooperative/Name Authority File Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Library Resources, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report reviews the background and rationale for a cooperative authority file building system and describes the services, products, and operation of the new Name Authority Cooperative (NACO). The document defines the relationship between NACO, other Library of Congress (LC) cooperative projects, and the Linked Systems Project (LSP). The…

  9. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  10. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non-word...

  11. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  12. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  13. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  14. Names of the Heavier Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. Names of the Heavier Elements. Jitendra K Bera. General Article Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp ... Author Affiliations. Jitendra K Bera1. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  15. Nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, R V

    1980-01-01

    The availability or non-availability of a name is a question of historical fact. A name once made available under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature can be rendered unavailable only by use of the plenary powers of the Commission. The question whether a name is a nomen dubium or not is a matter of taxonomic judgement. The difficulty with the Sarcocystinae discussed by Frenkel et al. (1979) stems from the fact that, under the present provisions of the Code, it is not possible to designate for the species concerned types that will serve any useful function. The Commission is now considering changes to the Code proposed to remedy this defect in a general, legislative way. It will not, as a matter of general practice, entertain proposals for the suppression of names merely because they are considered to be nomina dubia. The application submitted by Professor Frenkel and his collegaues will nevertheless be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature so that the Commission can, if necessary, deliver a ruling on it before the new edition of the Code has appeared.

  16. New light on names and naming of dark taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ryberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A growing proportion of fungal species and lineages are known only from sequence data and cannot be linked to any physical specimen or resolved taxonomic name. Such fungi are often referred to as “dark taxa” or “dark matter fungi”. As they lack a taxonomic identity in the form of a name, they are regularly ignored in many important contexts, for example in legalisation and species counts. It is therefore very urgent to find a system to also deal with these fungi. Here, issues relating to the taxonomy and nomenclature of dark taxa are discussed and a number of questions that the mycological community needs to consider before deciding on what system/s to implement are highlighted.

  17. Comparison of two repositioning schedules for the prevention of pressure ulcers in patients on mechanical ventilation with alternating pressure air mattresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, Francisco; Colmenero, Manuel; Pérez-Pérez, Ana María; Roldán, Delphine; Jiménez-Quintana, María del Mar; Mañas, María Reyes; Sánchez-Moya, María Angustias; Guerrero, Carmen; Moral-Marfil, María Ángeles; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Fernández-Mondéjar, Enrique

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to compare the effectiveness of repositioning every 2 or 4 h for preventing pressure ulcer development in patients in intensive care unit under mechanical ventilation (MV). This was a pragmatic, open-label randomized clinical trial in consecutive patients on an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM) requiring invasive MV for at least 24 h in a university hospital in Spain. Eligible participants were randomly assigned to groups for repositioning every 2 (n = 165) or 4 (n = 164) h. The primary outcome was the incidence of a pressure ulcer of at least grade II during ICU stay. A pressure ulcer of at least grade II developed in 10.3% (17/165) of patients turned every 2 h versus 13.4% (22/164) of those turned every 4 h (hazard ratio [HR] 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-1.71, P = 0.73). The composite end point of device-related adverse events was recorded in 47.9 versus 36.6% (HR 1.50, CI 95% 1.06-2.11, P = 0.02), unplanned extubation in 11.5 versus 6.7% (HR 1.77, 95% CI 0.84-3.75, P = 0. 13), and endotracheal tube obstruction in 36.4 versus 30.5%, respectively (HR 1.44, 95% CI 0.98-2.12, P = 0.065). The median (interquartile range) daily nursing workload for manual repositioning was 21 (14-27) versus 11 min/patient (8-15) (P repositioning frequency (2 versus 4 h) in patients under MV and on an APAM did not reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers. However, it did increase device-related adverse events and daily nursing workload.

  18. In the Name of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Muhr, Sara Louise

    for mankind - in the name of care for the other", and Zizek (2003:23) in a similar matter when he points out that "the ultimate source of evil is compassion itself". Butler (2005) refers to ethical violence when she describes the rigid ethical standards set out to be what Kaulingfreks calls the ‘keeper...... of the right way'. Care for the other is argued for as a social responsibility, but rather becomes a sign of mistrust and assimilation. The love shown from the organization becomes assimilation - it wants to own you; absorb you - all in the name of love. The paradox according to Legge (1999) is therefore...... that the more we value an employee as a resource, the more it leads to its consumption rather than its development. Following Levinas, this paper argues that this assimilating need to know and control the other, to illuminate or manipulate is not ethical at all; it has nothing to do with our original experience...

  19. [Can a newly-established test for assessing standing and balance function be an alternative to the timed up-and-go test?--functional assessment of gait and balance in elderly patients for a comprehensive geriatric assessment initiative named 'Dr. SUPERMAN'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Motohide; Ohnuma, Takeshi; Hirao, Kentarou; Iwamoto, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    To identify elderly patients who are at high risk for falls, we used the timed up-and-go test (TUG) as an assessment tool for gait and balance function in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) initiative named 'Dr. SUPERMAN'. However, this test is difficult to perform in a small area because it requires at least 3 meters of movement space. Therefore, we investigated whether another, newly-developed test, based on the Berg balance test, could be an alternative to the TUG test. We enrolled a total of 99 eligible subjects out of 105 elderly patients with disorders such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, cerebral infarction, osteoporosis and vascular risk factors, and administered the TUG test and the newly-developed standing and balance test (SBT). Of these 99, 6 patients could not stand independently. While the time to accomplish TUG was determined, any unsteadiness during TUG was also recorded. The SBT consists of 3 components: standing up independently, standing on a narrow base for 15 seconds without any swaying of the trunk, and a timed one-leg standing test (TOLS) for 15 seconds on both sides. Taking more than 14 seconds to accomplish the TUG or abnormal unsteadiness during the test was defined as positive, and each cut-off point was measured on the TOLS, with or without swaying of the trunk. The time to accomplish TUG significantly increased with age, and positive TUG findings were observed in 43 subjects. The mean TOLS time significantly and suddenly worsened at over 75 years of age, including among those subjects who showed swaying of the trunk and who could only perform the TOLS for less than 1 second. The receiver operating curve indicated that a TOLS cut-off point of less than 3 seconds, together with standing with help or swaying of the trunk during the SBT, most efficiently determined a positive TUG score, with high sensitivity (86%), high specificity (87.5%), and a high positive predictive value (84.1%). In a narrow space, the SBT can

  20. Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence Share | Doctors have excellent treatments for skin fungus infections that occur on the feet, nails, groin, ...

  1. The Mystery of the River Name Mezen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Kabinina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the name Mezen that refers to a large river in the north of the European part of Russia. The author critically reviews the earlier etymologies, in which the hydronym has been interpreted on the basis of the Ugric and Balto-Fennic-Sami data, and hypothesizes for Proto-Permic or Finno-Permic origins of the name as an alternative. According to this hypothesis, the name Mezen originates from an old lexical item related to the obsolete Komi-Zyrian mös and Udmurtian -mes (Permic *mεs with the general meaning of ‘source, spring, brook,’ which in toponymy stands for ‘river’ or ‘stream’. In evidence of the former toponymic productivity of this Permic word, the author provides multiple examples of hydronyms with the determinant -mVs to be found on the territory of the Republic of Komi and adjacent regions — the Russian North and the Perm Region (Vaimos, Kochmas, Madmas, Chermos, etc.. The author suggests that the lexical unit correlating with the Komi-Zyrian mös, Udmurtian -mes, and Common Permic *mεs was once part of a more complex term represented not only in the name Mezen, but also in its North Russian “counterparts,” Mezen’ga and Mezenda, as well as in substrate toponymy of the Komi Republic (Mozyn / Mozym = Russian Mezen; Mozimdіn, Mozimlyva, Mozimözin and in some substrate hydronyms of the modern Ob-Ugric areas (Khanty dialectal Mǒśaŋ = Russian Mozym, and Mоsəm = Nazym. Recognizing that ethnolinguistic attribution of the original lexical unit for these names seems problematic, the author is inclined to think that this is an old compound in which the final component, reconstructed as Common Permic *-εŋ, had the meaning of ‘river, stream’. Summing up all phonetic, morphological, semantic, and geographical evidence, the author concludes that the presently multilingual hydronyms of the MVsVn / MVsVm type most likely date back to the dialects of ancient “Permians,” still

  2. 18-month effectiveness of short-course antiretroviral regimens combined with alternatives to breastfeeding to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valériane Leroy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the 18-month effectiveness of short-course (sc antiretroviral peripartum regimens combined with alternatives to prolonged breastfeeding to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODOLOGY: HIV-1 infected pregnant women received from >/=32-36 weeks of gestation scZidovudine (ZDV+/-Lamivudine (3TC+single-dose Nevirapine (sdNVP at delivery within the ANRS 1201/1202 DITRAME-Plus cohort (2001-2003. Neonates received a sdNVP+7-day ZDV prophylaxis. Two infant-feeding interventions were systematically offered free of charge: formula-feeding or exclusive shortened breastfeeding with early cessation from four months. The reference group was the ANRS 049a DITRAME cohort (1994-2000 exposed to scZDV from 36 weeks, then to prolonged breastfeeding. Pediatric HIV infection was defined by a positive plasma HIV-1 RNA at any age, or if aged >/=18 months, a positive HIV-1 serology. Turnbull estimates of cumulative transmission risks (CTR and effectiveness (HIV-free survival were compared by exposure group using a Cox model. FINDINGS: Among 926 live-born children enrolled, 107 (11.6% were HIV-infected at 18 months. CTRs were 22.3% (95% confidence interval[CI]:16-30% in the 238 ZDV long-term breastfed reference group, 15.9% (CI:10-27% in the 169 ZDV+sdNVP shortened breastfed group; 9.4% (CI:6-14% in the 195 ZDV+sdNVP formula-fed group; 6.8% (CI:4-11% in the 198 ZDV+3TC+sdNVP shortened breastfed group, and 5.6% (CI:2-10% in the 126 ZDV+3TC+sdNVP formula-fed group. Each combination had a significantly higher effectiveness than the ZDV long-term breastfed group except for ZDV+sdNVP shortened breastfed children, ranging from 51% (CI:20-70% for ZDV+sdNVP formula fed children to 63% (CI:40-80% for ZDV+3TC+NVPsd shortened breastfed children, after adjustment for maternal eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, home delivery and low birth-weight. Substantial MTCT risk reductions are reachable in Africa

  3. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no erroneous...

  4. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed a...

  5. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  6. Name Authority Challenges for Indexing and Abstracting Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Beaubien Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This analysis explores alternative methods for managing author name changes in Indexing and Abstarcting (I&A databases. A searcher may retrieve incomplete or inaccurate results when the database provides no or faulty assistance in linking author name variations. Methods - The article includes an analysis of current name authority practices in I&A databases and of selected research into name disambiguation models applied to authorship of articles. Results - Several potential solutiona are in production or in development. MathSciNet has developed an authority file. The method is largely machine-based but it involves time-consuming manual intervention that might not scale up to larger or more multidisciplinary databases. The use of standard numbers for authors has been proposed. Solutions in practice include author-managed registration records and linking among several authority files. Information science and computer science researchers are developing models to automate processes for name disambiguation, shifting focus from authority control to access control. Successful models use metadata beyond the author name alone, such as co-authors, author affiliation, jornal name or keywords. Social netowrks may provide additional data to support disamibguation models. Conclusion - The traditional objective of name authority files is to determine precisely when name variations belong to the same individual. Manually-maintained authority files have served library catalogues reasonably well, but the burden of upkeep has made them ill-suited to managing the volume of items and authors in all but the smallest I&A databases. To meet the access needs of the 21st century, both catalogues and I&A databases may need to implement options that present a high degree of probability that items have been authored by the same individual, rather than options that provide high precision with the expense of manual maintenance. Striving for name disambiguation

  7. Fossil quality and naming dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Michael J

    2008-12-23

    The intense interest in dinosaurs through the past 30 years might have led to an increase in poor practice in naming new species. A review of the data shows that the reverse is the case. For 130 years, from the 1820s to the 1950s, most new species of dinosaurs were based on scrappy and incomplete material. After 1960, the majority of new species have been based on complete skulls or skeletons, and sometimes on materials from several individuals. This switch in the quality of type specimens corresponds to the recent explosive renaissance of interest in dinosaurs, during which the number of new species named per year has risen, from three or four in the 1950s, to thirty or more today. The pattern of specimen quality varies by continent, with the highest proportion of new species based on good material in North America, then Asia, then South America, then Africa and finally Europe. This ranking reflects a complex pattern of perhaps overstudy in Europe, immensely rich reserves of new dinosaur materials in North America and Asia, and a relative paucity in South America and Africa.

  8. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  9. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name...

  10. Rehabilitation of memory for people's names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.; Deelman, B.G.; Berg, I.J.

    In a training study, memory-impaired patients were taught strategies to improve the learning of new names and the retrieval of familiar people's names. To improve new name learning, the patients were encouraged to give more meaning to a person's name, without requiring an explicit association

  11. To name or not to name: Criteria to promote economy of change in Linnaean classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vences, Miguel; Guayasamin, Juan M; Miralles, Aurélien; De la Riva, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    The Linnaean classification system provides the universal reference system for communicating about the diversity of life and its hierarchic history. Several limitations that challenge the stability of this system have been identified and, as a result, alternative systems have been proposed since its early inception. The revolution caused by molecular phylogenetics has, more than ever, exemplified that Linnaean classification schemes are subject to a degree of instability that may hamper their significance and communication power. Our analysis of recent changes in the classification of several groups of organisms, with a focus on amphibians and reptiles, reveals two main sources of instability: (i) revisionary, objective (empirical) changes based on the discovery of unambiguous instances of non-monophyly and on progress in the Globe’s species inventory, and (ii) subjective changes based on author preferences or on a poor analysis of the advantages and limitations of new classification schemes. To avoid subjective taxonomic instability, we review and elaborate proposals for the assignment of Linnaean rank to clades, and thereby for the naming of these clades as Linnaean taxa (Taxon Naming Criteria: TNCs). These are drafted from the perspective of practicing taxonomists and can help choosing among alternative monophyly-based classifications under a premise of economy of change. We provide a rationale for each TNC along with real and theoretical examples to illustrate their practical advantages and disadvantages. We conclude that not all TNCs lead to equally informative and stable taxonomies. Therefore, we order the various TNCs by the generality of their implications and provide a workflow scheme to guide the procedure of taxonomic decisions concerning the creation or modification of supraspecific classifications. The following criteria are considered primary when naming taxa: (i) Mono phyly of the taxon in an inferred species tree; (ii) Clade Stability, i.e., the

  12. Medieval Karelian Calendar Names: A Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kyurshunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on calendar personal names recorded in the 15–17th centuries Russian and Swedish manuscripts written in Karelia. Revealing the cognitive potential of this historical stratum of names, the author analyzes the frequency of full (official and modified forms of calendar names, the regional peculiarities of their linguistic adaptation, their ethnolinguisitic and social status, as well as the functioning of calendar names in the regional onomastic system. The analysis shows that the calendar onomasticon holds the leading positions, which reflects important axiological and mental shifts in the people’s culture. The list of most frequent Christian names of the region generally coincides with the onomastic data related to other Russian territories of the same period. The conservation of the name nomenclature is due to family traditions, namely, to familial practices of naming. However, the adaptation and distribution of names display some regional features, particularly in the frequency of different groups of anthroponyms. The peripheral situation of the region and the presence of Balto-Fennic population which adapted the Russian calendar athroponymicon determined the “conservatism” of the calendar names nomenclature: for naming, they selected the names which were better adapted and more extensively used among Russians. The formation of modified names depended mostly on the morphemic structure of the Russian language, regional features being relatively insignificant. The frequency of modified forms of names correlates with the genre of the manuscript and the scribe’s arbitrariness.

  13. Does the name-race implicit association test measure racial prejudice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; van der Maas, Han L J; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Research using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) has shown that names labeled as Caucasian elicit more positive associations than names labeled as non-Caucasian. One interpretation of this result is that the IAT measures latent racial prejudice. An alternative explanation is that the result is due to differences in in-group/out-group membership. In this study, we conducted three different IATs: one with same-race Dutch names versus racially charged Moroccan names; one with same-race Dutch names versus racially neutral Finnish names; and one with Moroccan names versus Finnish names. Results showed equivalent effects for the Dutch-Moroccan and Dutch-Finnish IATs, but no effect for the Finnish-Moroccan IAT. This suggests that the name-race IAT-effect is not due to racial prejudice. A diffusion model decomposition indicated that the IAT-effects were caused by changes in speed of information accumulation, response conservativeness, and non-decision time.

  14. Analysis of the “naming game” with learning errors in communications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Lou; Guanrong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches consensus asymptotically. We study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, with error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed. Then, a strategy for agents to prevent learning errors is ...

  15. A new system for naming ribosomal proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Nenad; Beckmann, Roland; Cate, Jamie HD; Dinman, Jonathan D; Dragon, François; Ellis, Steven R; Lafontaine, Denis LJ; Lindahl, Lasse; Liljas, Anders; Lipton, Jeffrey M; McAlear, Michael A; Moore, Peter B; Noller, Harry F; Ortega, Joaquin; Panse, Vikram Govind; Ramakrishnan, V; Spahn, Christian MT; Steitz, Thomas A; Tchorzewski, Marek; Tollervey, David; Warren, Alan J; Williamson, James R; Wilson, Daniel; Yonath, Ada; Yusupov, Marat

    2015-01-01

    A system for naming ribosomal proteins is described that the authors intend to use in the future. They urge others to adopt it. The objective is to eliminate the confusion caused by the assignment of identical names to ribosomal proteins from different species that are unrelated in structure and function. In the system proposed here, homologous ribosomal proteins are assigned the same name, regardless of species. It is designed so that new names are similar enough to old names to be easily recognized, but are written in a format that unambiguously identifies them as ‘new system’ names. PMID:24524803

  16. Transcription factor EBF1 is essential for the maintenance of B cell identity and prevention of alternative fates in committed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechanitzky, Robert; Akbas, Duygu; Scherer, Stefanie; Györy, Ildiko; Hoyler, Thomas; Ramamoorthy, Senthilkumar; Diefenbach, Andreas; Grosschedl, Rudolf

    2013-08-01

    The transcription factors EBF1 and Pax5 have been linked to activation of the B cell lineage program and irreversible loss of alternative lineage potential (commitment), respectively. Here we conditionally deleted Ebf1 in committed pro-B cells after transfer into alymphoid mice. We found that those cells converted into innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and T cells with variable-diversity-joining (VDJ) rearrangements of loci encoding both B cell and T cell antigen receptors. As intermediates in lineage conversion, Ebf1-deficient CD19(+) cells expressing Pax5 and transcriptional regulators of the ILC and T cell fates were detectable. In particular, genes encoding the transcription factors Id2 and TCF-1 were bound and repressed by EBF1. Thus, both EBF1 and Pax5 are required for B lineage commitment by repressing distinct and common determinants of alternative cell fates.

  17. Naming game with learning errors in communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network topology. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches a consensus state asymptotically. In this paper, we study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, where errors are represented by error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed....

  18. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  19. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a randomised-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, L; Beeckman, D; Vanderwee, K; Defloor, T; Grypdonck, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2012-04-01

    and deflation of the air cells does not result in a significantly lower pressure ulcer incidence compared to an alternating low pressure air mattress with a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. Both alternating mattress types are equally effective to prevent pressure ulcer development. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 27 CFR 19.165 - Trade names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade names. 19.165 Section 19.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Trade names. (a) Operating permits. Where a trade name is to be used in connection with the operations...

  1. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  2. Ethnology and the Study of Proper Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Susan S.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of uncovering the universal features of proper names and relating them to different naming systems. Suggests that this viewpoint may lead to an appreciation of proper names as a sociolinguistic universal and a cultural variable, beyond the particulars on which most of the literature has focused. (MES)

  3. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  4. Resolving person names in web people search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Azzopardi, L.; de Rijke, M.; King, I.; Baeza-Yates, R.

    2009-01-01

    Disambiguating person names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a key task for the presentation of results and the automatic profiling of experts. With largely unstructured documents and an unknown number of people with the same name the

  5. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  6. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    . the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  7. MILITARY NAMES IN SOUTH AFRICA - QUO VADIS?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Service to Chief of Staff Logistics (now controlling the names function) neces- sitated a general policy in respect of naming buildings and streets in military areas (SADF4/4.77) the first such offi- cial promulgated policy. Name-giving in the SADF received a new impetus and dimension during the unprecedented expansion of ...

  8. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  9. Analysis of the "naming game" with learning errors in communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2015-07-16

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches consensus asymptotically. We study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, with error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed. Then, a strategy for agents to prevent learning errors is suggested. To that end, three typical topologies of communication networks, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed to investigate the effects of various learning errors. Simulation results on these models show that 1) learning errors slightly affect the convergence speed but distinctively increase the requirement for memory of each agent during lexicon propagation; 2) the maximum number of different words held by the population increases linearly as the error rate increases; 3) without applying any strategy to eliminate learning errors, there is a threshold of the learning errors which impairs the convergence. The new findings may help to better understand the role of learning errors in naming game as well as in human language development from a network science perspective.

  10. Cretan Hydronyms Derived from Settlement Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Kaczyńska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses 284 Cretan river names, presumably derived from settlement names. This group of hydronyms represents 6.1% among all the modern hydronyms of the island (4 666 names collected by the author from written sources and, at a lesser degree, during fieldwork, its biggest part being attested only from the 20th century. The names studied in this paper were formed either by metonymic transfer of settlement names to bodies of water (134 units or by morphological derivation (suffixation and, in some cases, regressive derivation (150 units. To establish the direction of derivation, the author analyses the semantic features of the names and the chronology of their attestation in written sources. As to the morphological structure of the analyzed river names, the author distinguishes 85 simple names (29.9%, 128 compound names (45.1% and 71 elliptical ones (25%. This enables a structural analysis of the differentiating elements in the compound names and in the elliptical names formed by omitting a hydrograhical term. The morphological structure of some hydronyms allows to retrieve valuable information on lost or decayed settlements of Crete. The author also shows that some items demonstrate the onomastic contuinity in the island from antiquity to the present day.

  11. Trade name and trademark versus domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Pokorná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet domains have become an integral part of our lives, so one can easily understand that during their use, conflicts can arise, whose participants will search for rules enabling resolution of conflicts. Since the domain name is a replacement of the computer IP address, in the technical sense of the word, this does not concern for domain names a commercial name or brand, because it primarily does not belong to a person in the legal sense of the word and does not serve for its individualization. The average user regularly affiliates domain names with a person offering goods or services on the relevant Website. Domain names used by entrepreneurs in their business activity are often chosen so that the second-level domain (SLD would use words that form the trade name of corporations formed of trading companies. This fact brings domain names close to such designations that serve the individualization of persons or products, especially the trademarks and the commercial name. Domains can come into conflict with the rights to designations, especially trademarks and commercial names. Court practice is resolving these conflicts using rules for unfair competition, or rules for protection of commercial names and trademarks, but it is not ruled out that in the future, special legal regulation of domain names could be established.

  12. Name signs in Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakken Jepsen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    A name sign is a personal sign assigned to deaf, hearing impaired and hearing persons who enter the deaf community. The mouth action accompanying the sign reproduces all or part of the formal first name that the person has received by baptism or naming. Name signs can be compared to nicknames...... in spoken languages, where a person working as a blacksmith by his friends might be referred to as ‘The Blacksmith’ (‘Here comes the Blacksmith!’) instead of using the person’s first name. Name signs are found not only in Danish Sign Language (DSL) but in most, if not all, sign languages studied to date....... This article provides examples of the creativity of the users of Danish Sign Language, including some of the processes in the use of metaphors, visual motivation and influence from Danish when name signs are created....

  13. Improving patient identification in an ophthalmology clinic using name alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarali, Samir; Mathura, Pamela; Harris, Karen; Damji, Karim F

    2017-12-01

    To develop a standardized process for reviewing daily patient lists and identifying potential risks of misidentification. Our goal was to develop a proactive approach to identify and eliminate risks of patient misidentification. Assessment of current patient identification practices took place over a period of 4 weeks. Using a process map, a patient survey was developed to determine the encounter points when patient identification was confirmed. This information was used to develop a standardized protocol for review of daily appointment lists. Review of daily appointment lists was completed to identify potential similar/same name risks. A standardized manual process of chart review, flagging, and tracking was developed. The name alert process resulted in a simple manual process for identifying which patients have a higher name risk and allowed care providers to take preventative action to decrease potential risk of incorrect diagnostic testing, procedure, or medication administration. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abbreviations for device names: a proposed methodology with specific examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Dover, Jeffrey S; Alam, Murad; Goldman, Mitchel P; Kaminer, Michael S; Orringer, Jeffrey; Waldorf, Heidi; Alam, Murad; Avram, Mathew; Cohen, Joel L; Draelos, Zoe Diana; Dover, Jeffrey S; Hruza, George; Kilmer, Suzanne; Lawrence, Naomi; Lupo, Mary; Metelitsa, Andrei; Nestor, Mark; Ross, E Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many devices used in dermatology lack generic names. If investigators use commercial device names, they risk the appearance of bias. Alternatively, reliance on ad-hoc names and abbreviations may confuse readers who do not recognize these. To develop a system for assigning abbreviations to denote devices commonly used in dermatology. Secondarily, to use this system to create abbreviations for FDA-approved neurotoxins and prepackaged injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials. The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery convened a Lexicon Task Force in March 2012. One charge of this Task Force was to develop criteria for assigning abbreviations to medical devices. A modified consensus process was used. Abbreviations to denote devices were to be: based on a standardized approach; transparent to the casual reader; markedly brief; and in all cases, different than the commercial names. Three-letter all caps abbreviations, some with subscripts, were assigned to denote each of the approved neurotoxins and fillers. A common system of abbreviations for medical devices in dermatology may avoid the appearance of bias while ensuring effective communication. The proposed system may be expanded to name other devices, and the ensuing abbreviations may be suitable for journal articles, continuing medical education lectures, or other academic or clinical purposes. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A

    2015-03-14

    propose this reproducible methodology as an important, enjoyable, and novel way of involving patients in research and a welcome alternative to researcher-developed acronyms. Ideally this should be carried out prior to engaging with healthcare professionals to prevent confusion around study identity.

  16. “Russian Field” in Advertising Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with commercial names having reference to the cultural space of Russia. Their connotative meaning includes a ‘Russian ethno-cultural marker’ (REM actualized in the advertising discourse by a multi-coded text constituted by an integrated complex of semantic, stylistic, and symbolic verbal and visual signs. The article analyzes the verbal means of expression of the REM in commercial naming: lexical, semantic, and stylistic features of the names; national precedent phenomena reflected by the words designating elements of Russian spiritual and material culture; notions of Russian history; ethnonyms; culture-specific vocabulary; archaic words; precedent personal names and toponyms; Russian colloquial expressions. The author also analyzes graphic elements and models of commercial names formation as supplementary REM actualizers. The article focuses on three major functions of REM-names: informational, phatic, and connotative functions, outlining their spheres of use in commercial discourse, particularly in the commercial naming of Russian state enterprises and brands and in labeling exported goods and services. The Russian ethnically marked names represent an open, dynamically developing system which can be represented as a field structure whose center is constituted by commercial names including ethnonyms, culture-specific vocabulary and words designating national precedent phenomena, and the periphery by all Russian names.

  17. UniTree Name Server internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, D.; Minton, J.

    1996-01-01

    The UniTree Name Server (UNS) is one of several servers which make up the UniTree storage system. The Name Server is responsible for mapping names to capabilities Names are generally human readable ASCII strings of any length. Capabilities are unique 256-bit identifiers that point to files, directories, or symbolic links. The Name Server implements a UNIX style hierarchical directory structure to facilitate name-to-capability mapping. The principal task of the Name Server is to manage the directories which make up the UniTree directory structure. The principle clients of the Name Server are the FTP Daemon, NFS and a few UniTree utility routines. However, the Name Server is a generalized server and will accept messages from any client. The purpose of this paper is to describe the internal workings of the UniTree Name Server. In cases where it seems appropriate, the motivation for a particular choice of algorithm as description of the algorithm itself will be given.

  18. On the History of the Name Ruslan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Yu. Namitokova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors postulate that there exists a common stock of Russian personal names resulting from a partial blending of national anthroponymicons. The main part of the paper focuses on the history of the personal name Ruslan which has etymological ties with the widespread Turkic name Arslan having the pre-onomastic meaning ‘lion’. The authors study the variation of the name in Russian folklore and in the 15th–17th centuries documents and historical sources. They also pay particular attention to the role of Pushkin’s poem Ruslan and Ludmila in the formation of the associative background of the studied name and to various onomastic derivatives, the latter include patronyms, surnames and the female name Ruslana. The author conclude that the name Ruslan became especially popular in Soviet and post-Soviet periods when it acquired a specific “semantic aura”, namely, in Caucasus where Ruslan became a kind of mark of Russian identity and, thus, contributed to the unification of the anthroponymic space. This conclusion was verified in the course of a survey done among 40 respondents representing different peoples of Caucasus. For most respondents the name has positive connotations and is associated with the Turkic name Arslan and the name of Pushkin’s character. However, some respondents consider it as a “non-Muslim”, Russian name and point out that it is often perceived as such outside Russia. The history of the name Ruslan and the ways of its transonymisation can be an interesting object for further research, especially due to the emergence of new communication technologies and onomastic discourses.

  19. Parents accidentally substitute similar sounding sibling names more often than dissimilar names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Zenzi M; Wangerman, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling's reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling's name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar.

  20. Medicare Part D: Patients Bear The Cost Of 'Me Too' Brand-Name Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastala, Nicole M; Wingrove, Peter; Gaglioti, Anne; Petterson, Stephen; Bazemore, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Prescription drugs are a major source of US health care expenditure. "Me too" brand-name medications contribute to the cost of drugs, which is substantial for consumers. In 2013 patient copayments averaged 10.5 times more for two commonly prescribed brand-name medications versus generic therapeutic alternatives. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Does the Name-Race Implicit Association Test measure racial prejudice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenzwaaij, D.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Research using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) has shown that names labeled as Caucasian elicit more positive associations than names labeled as non-Caucasian. One interpretation of this result is that the IAT measures latent racial prejudice. An alternative explanation is that the result is due

  2. Personal Names and Identity in Literary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicta Windt-Val

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to show the close connection between a person's given name and their feeling of identity and self. This connection is very important - it has even been stated that the parents' choice of name for their child will have an influence on the development of the personality of the child. Moreover, personal names and place names are some of the most important tools of the author in the creation of credible characters placed in a literary universe that gives the impression of being authentic. Many authors from different countries have related their view of the significance of names and naming, not only as a source of information for the reader, but also as an important part of making the characters real to the authors themselves during the process of writing.

  3. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  4. [Proposed Chinese name of Pomacea canaliculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-nong; Zhang, Yi; Lv, Shan

    2009-02-28

    The way to translate species name of Pomacea canaliculata into Chinese has been of confusion for a long time. We collected the relevant references on investigations of snail, species similar to Pomacea canaliculata and made comparison on the characteristics of those species which serve as intermediate snail host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. It is proposed the genus name of Pomacea is translated as [Chinese characters: see text], and species name Pomacea canaliculata be [Chinese characters: see text].

  5. Gorlin-Goltz: what's in a name?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the clinical features of two very distinct syndromes with similar names: Gorlin-Goltz and Goltz-Gorlin Syndromes. A case report is presented that highlights the differences between these syndromes. To avoid errors in diagnosis because of the similarity in names, the authors caution that, based on additional information now available, the preferred names should be Focal Dermal Hypoplasia syndrome for Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma syndrome for Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  6. Thoughts about the Name of Our Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aronowitz, Teri; AbuFannouneh, AbdulMuhsen; Al Usta, Maysa'; Fraley, Hannah E; Howlett, Mary Susan L; Mtengezo, Jasintha Titani; Muchira, James Muturi; Nava, Adrianna; Thapa, Saurja; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-10-01

    This essay addresses the name of our discipline. Discussion of the use of the term, nursology, focuses on the origin of the term, its use as a name for our discipline and its use as a research method and a practice methodology. Advantages and disadvantages of nursology as the name for our discipline are gleaned from PhD program students' responses to a question posed by Reed (1997). © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenagy, J W; Stein, G C

    2001-11-01

    The problem of medical errors associated with the naming, labeling, and packaging of pharmaceuticals is discussed. Sound-alike and look-alike drug names and packages can lead pharmacists and nurses to unintended interchanges of drugs that can result in patient injury or death. The existing medication-use system is flawed because its safety depends on human perfection. Simplicity, standardization, differentiation, lack of duplication, and unambiguous communication are human factors concepts that are relevant to the medication-use process. These principles have often been ignored in drug naming, labeling, and packaging. Instead, current methods are based on long-standing commercial considerations and bureaucratic procedures. The process for naming a marketable drug is lengthy and complex and involves submission of a new chemical entity and patent application, generic naming, brand naming, FDA review, and final approval. Drug companies seek the fastest possible approval and may believe that the incremental benefit of human factors evaluation is small. "Trade dress" is the concept that underlies labeling and packaging issues for the drug industry. Drug companies are resistant to changing trade dress and brand names. Although a variety of private-sector organizations have called for reforms in drug naming, labeling, and packaging standards have been proposed, the problem remains. Drug names, labels, and packages are not selected and designed in accordance with human factors principles. FDA standards do not require application of these principles, the drug industry has struggled with change, and private-sector initiatives have had only limited success.

  8. Effect of green spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) addition in physical, chemical, and sensory properties of marshmallow as an alternative prevention of iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhistira, B.; Affandi, D. R.; Nusantari, P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Consuming vegetable which contain iron, including spinach, is an alternative to fulfill iron requirement. Fe will be more easily absorbed in the presence of vitamin C. Tomato is one of vitamin C source that can be used. Spinach can be applied into confectionary products in the form of marshmallow. This research aimed to find out the physical, chemical and sensory properties of green spinach Marshmallow in addition of Tomato, the best formula, and define the category of nutrition contents based on Acuan Label Gizi (ALG). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with one factor that was different proportion of spinach:tomato (75%: 25%; 50%: 50%; 25%: 75%). The data were analyzed using One Way Anova with 5% significance level. The result of this study showed that the difference of spinach and tomato proportion affect tensile strength, moisture, ash content, Fe content, crude fiber, vitamin C, color and marshmallow’s flavor. Best marshmallow formulation of 25% spinach in addition of 75% tomato had Fe content of 1.159 mg/100g and vitamin C of 44 mg/100g.

  9. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastazja Grabarz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ. BLM represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1 protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2 promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid unscheduled resection that might jeopardize genome integrity.

  10. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Prevent Shaken Baby Syndrome Suggested Practices for Journalists Reporting on Child Abuse and Neglect [PDF 2. ... input class="button submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Related Links Saving Lives & Protecting People ...

  11. Enhancing Communication through Gesture and Naming Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caute, Anna; Pring, Tim; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Best, Wendy; Marshall, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether gesture, naming, and strategic treatment improved the communication skills of 14 people with severe aphasia. Method: All participants received 15 hr of gesture and naming treatment (reported in a companion article [Marshall et al., 2012]). Half the group received a further 15 hr of strategic…

  12. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  13. Personal name resolution of web people search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Azzopardi, L.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Disambiguating personal names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a difficult and challenging task. In this paper, we explore the extent to which the "cluster hypothesis" for this task holds (i.e., that similar documents tend to represent the

  14. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  15. Matatti’s generic names for fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The generic names for fungi used by Maratti in his ‘Flora romana’ must be accepted as validly published. Notes are given on the validly re-published names. Of these Agaricum and Coralloides may cause some difficulties. Conservation of Fomes (Fr.) Fr. against Agaricum [Mich.] Maratti is proposed. To

  16. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  17. The Digital, the Virtual and the Naming of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Jorgensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Amidst changing regimes of disciplinarity, the digital has become a term used to delineate a mode of knowledge and educational methodology. Its currency comes from the technologies that share its name, yet the territory that it marks is much greater than this, referring to the cultural, economic and social. The digital is too proximate to the technological to adequately account for this territory. Instead, I argue for radical interventions in the naming of knowledge in order to defamiliarise the digital. Different accounts of the virtual by Pierre Lévy, Katherine Hayles and David Summers suggest that this term establishes a greater range of enquiry and contestation. The virtual is but one alternative to the digital as a means by which new disciplines, methodologies and pedagogies might be constituted.

  18. Domain learning naming game for color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Doujie; Fan, Zhongyan; Tang, Wallace K S

    2017-01-01

    Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form. Therefore, in this work, we extend the agent learning model and design a new game to incorporate domain learning, which is essential for more complicated form of knowledge. In particular, we demonstrate the evolution of color categorization and naming in a population of agents. We incorporate the human perceptive model into the agents and introduce two new concepts, namely subjective perception and subliminal stimulation, in domain learning. Simulation results show that, even without any supervision or pre-requisition, a consensus of a color naming system can be reached in a population solely via the interactions. Our work confirms the importance of society interactions in color categorization, which is a long debate topic in human cognition. Moreover, our work also demonstrates the possibility of cognitive system development in autonomous intelligent agents.

  19. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S

    2013-01-01

    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  20. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  1. Uso de probiótico na prevenção de salmoneloses em frangos de corte Alternatives in the prevention of salmoneloses in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Rossi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais zoonoses de origem bacteriana, transmitidas pelas aves, pode-se assinalar as salmoneloses causadas por salmonelas patogênicas, que causam toxinfecções alimentares e podem estar presentes em produtos e subprodutos de origem animal contaminados. Com o objetivo de buscar subsídios no sentido de aperfeiçoar os sistemas de prevenção e controle alternativos para esta zoonose, foi realizado um experimento com 780 frangos de corte, da linhagem Ross, abatidos aos 31 dias de idade, submetidos a três tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 65 aves cada. Os animais do tratamento um receberam o probiótico Mucosal starter culture e foram inoculados com Salmonella enteritidis (SPRING et al., 2000, na dose de 10(5 unidades formadoras de colônias, por mililitro. No tratamento dois-controle positivo-os animais somente foram inoculados com S. enteritidis, na mesma dose que no tratamento um. Os animais do tratamento três-controle negativo-não receberam inoculação de salmonelas e nem probiótico. Avaliou-se o peso vivo, o consumo de ração e foram estimadas a conversão alimentar, o fator de produção e a percentagem de contaminação por salmonela. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas, entre os tratamentos, para os parâmetros zootécnicos e microbiológicos analisados. Os animais que receberam o probiótico não se mostraram mais eficientes quando inoculados com salmonelas patogênicas, mas apresentaram um melhor desempenho em relação ao padrão da linhagem Ross utilizada.Salmoneloses are zoonoses cause by pathogenic salmonellas very common in products of infected birds. A experiment was made with the main aim to consider the need to search subsidy and perfectly for control and prevention systems in the growth of disease in public health. 780 chickens from Ross line are used, they were 31-day-old, and three treatments have been applied to 4 repetitions of 65 birds each. The animals of treatment one received the

  2. Names, Varieties and Ideologies in Revived Cornish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies-Deacon Merryn

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The attribution of names is a significant process that often highlights concerns over identity, ideology and ownership. Within the fields of minority languages and Celtic Studies, such concerns are especially pertinent given that the identities in question are frequently perceived as under threat from dominant cultures. The effect of concerns caused by this can be examined with reference to revived Cornish, which became divided into three major varieties in the later twentieth century; by examining the names of these varieties, we can draw conclusions about how they are perceived, or we are invited to perceive them. The motivations of those involved in the Cornish language revival are equally reflected in the names of the organisations and bodies they have formed, which equally contribute to the legitimation of revived Cornish. This paper examines both these categories of name, as well as the phenomenon of Kernowisation, a term coined by Harasta (2013 to refer to the adoption of Cornish personal names, and here extended to the use of Cornish names in otherwise English-language contexts. Examining the names that have been implemented during the Cornish language revival, and the ways in which they are used or indeed refused by those involved, gives us an insight into the various ideologies that steer the revival process. Within the context of the precarious nature of Cornish and Celtic identity, we can identify the concerns of those involved in the Cornish revival movement and highlight the role of naming as an activity of legitimation, showing how the diversity of names that occur reflects an equally diverse range of motivations and influences.

  3. Origin names of gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap have thousands of years of history and have been called with pure Korean name words. It was only that they were recorded in the form of hanja during the time written Korean was undervalued where people insisted borrowing Chinese characters to write despite written Korean being available. Thus, gocho (苦椒, chimchae (沈菜, and koldonban (滑董飯 are not the origin names. The pure Korean names used even by the people back then are the actual ones: gochyo (고쵸, dimchae (딤, and bubuimbap (부뷤밥.

  4. Usages of people names as cohesive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Sipavicius Seide

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on usages of people names (proper name, nickname and pseudonym as cohesive elements. In this brief study, some usages of people names which ocurred in journalistic texts are analysed from an onomastic point of view. Emphasis  is placed on cultural, social and historic values of such usages. Data presented are parcial results of a broader research whose objective is to analyse textually and rethorically lexical cohesion tools observed in a sample of journalistic texts published by three Brazilian magazines (Istoé, Época and Veja during the second semester of 2008.

  5. Changing the Family Name by Administrative Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Nicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman law, changing the name was possible except for the case in which this changewould have been fraudulent. This possibility was kept also in the Middle Age but with some restrictions:the handicraftsmen were not allowed to change their name when it served as a factory brand, the notarycould not change his name without having an authorization, and neither could he change his normalsignature. Gradually, the monarchy increased its control in this matter, tending to transform a socialinstitution into a police one.

  6. Settling the name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 for the Wandering Albatross by neotypification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schodde, Richard; Tennyson, Alan J D; Groth, Jeff G; Lai, Jonas; Scofield, Paul; Steinheimer, Frank D

    2017-02-21

    On-going conflict in use of the name Diomedea exulans Linnaeus, 1758 for different taxa of the great albatrosses (Wandering Albatross complex) is resolved by neotypification, fixing the name to the large subantarctic form formerly often known as D. chionoptera Salvin, 1896. Application of all scientific names in the complex is reviewed, an annotated synonymy for the large subantarctic form is provided, available names for smaller, temperate-zone forms are listed, and unavailable and otherwise invalid names referable to the complex are identified. Syntypes of D. chionoptera and D. spadicea J.F. Gmelin, 1789 are lectotypified as well, fixing their names as synonyms of D. exulans to prevent possible disturbance to in-use names for the smaller, temperate-zone forms.

  7. What’s in a Name? – Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune

    2011-01-01

    have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human), peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways......The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names...... of keeping and regarding non-human animals—this paper attempts to trace the importance of (both specific and generic) naming to our relationships with the non-human. It explores this topic from the naming of the animals in Genesis to the names given and used by scientists, keepers of companion animals, media...

  8. Data mining in conservation research using Latin and vernacular species names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jarić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In conservation science, assessments of trends and priorities for actions often focus on species as the management unit. Studies on species coverage in online media are commonly conducted by using species vernacular names. However, the use of species vernacular names for web-based data search is problematic due to the high risk of mismatches in results. While the use of Latin names may produce more consistent results, it is uncertain whether a search using Latin names will produce unbiased results as compared to vernacular names. We assessed the potential of Latin names to be used as an alternative to vernacular names for the data mining within the field of conservation science. By using Latin and vernacular names, we searched for species from four species groups: diurnal birds of prey, Carnivora, Primates and marine mammals. We assessed the relationship of the results obtained within different online sources, such as Internet pages, newspapers and social media networks. Results indicated that the search results based on Latin and vernacular names were highly correlated, and confirmed that one may be used as an alternative for the other. We also demonstrated the potential of the number of images posted on the Internet to be used as an indication of the public attention towards different species.

  9. Data mining in conservation research using Latin and vernacular species names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Gessner, Jörn; Roberts, David L.

    2016-01-01

    In conservation science, assessments of trends and priorities for actions often focus on species as the management unit. Studies on species coverage in online media are commonly conducted by using species vernacular names. However, the use of species vernacular names for web-based data search is problematic due to the high risk of mismatches in results. While the use of Latin names may produce more consistent results, it is uncertain whether a search using Latin names will produce unbiased results as compared to vernacular names. We assessed the potential of Latin names to be used as an alternative to vernacular names for the data mining within the field of conservation science. By using Latin and vernacular names, we searched for species from four species groups: diurnal birds of prey, Carnivora, Primates and marine mammals. We assessed the relationship of the results obtained within different online sources, such as Internet pages, newspapers and social media networks. Results indicated that the search results based on Latin and vernacular names were highly correlated, and confirmed that one may be used as an alternative for the other. We also demonstrated the potential of the number of images posted on the Internet to be used as an indication of the public attention towards different species. PMID:27547528

  10. Analisi Pengaruh Store Name, Brand Name, Dan Price Discounts Terhadap Purchase Intentions Konsumen Infinite Tunjungan Plaza

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Andy Gunawan:SkripsiAnalisis pengaruh store name, brand name dan price discounts terhadap purchase intention konsumen infnite tunjungan plaza Di era globalisasi ini, persaingan dagang antara Perusahaan – Perusahaan baik lokal maupun global menjadi semakin ketat, oleh karena itu Perusahaan selalu berusaha untuk meningkatkan ketertarikan minat beli konsumen. Beberapa variabel yang menjadi fokus Perusahaan adalah store name, brand name, dan price discount. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meng...

  11. Listing of awardee names: Active awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This catalog/directory presents DOE`s procurement and assistance data system, arranged according to awardee name, bin, completion date, description of work, division, vendor ID, city, state, congressional district, contract value, obligations to date, P/S.

  12. Resolving Person Names in Web People Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Krisztian; Azzopardi, Leif; de Rijke, Maarten

    Disambiguating person names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a key task for the presentation of results and the automatic profiling of experts. With largely unstructured documents and an unknown number of people with the same name the problem presents many difficulties and challenges. This chapter treats the task of person name disambiguation as a document clustering problem, where it is assumed that the documents represent particular people. This leads to the person cluster hypothesis, which states that similar documents tend to represent the same person. Single Pass Clustering, k-Means Clustering, Agglomerative Clustering and Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis are employed and empirically evaluated in this context. On the SemEval 2007 Web People Search it is shown that the person cluster hypothesis holds reasonably well and that the Single Pass Clustering and Agglomerative Clustering methods provide the best performance.

  13. Last Name Selection in Audit Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Crabtree

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we build on Gaddis (2017a by illuminating a key variable plausibly related to racial perceptions of last names—geography. We show that the probability that any individual belongs to a race is conditional not only on their last name but also on surrounding racial demographics. Specifically, we demonstrate that the probability of a name denoting a race varies considerably across contexts, and this is more of a problem for some names than others. This result has two important implications for audit study research: it suggests important limitations for (1 the generalizability of audit study findings and (2 for the interpretation of geography-based conditional effects. This means that researchers should be careful to select names that consistently signal racial groups regardless of local demographics. We provide a slim R package that can help researchers do this.

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Note on the name of king Narmer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabor Takacs

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The name of Narmer (n'r-mr, king of Upper Egypt in the late predynastic period (ab. 3000 B. C., has remained a mystery for long millennia. The first component of the name is clearly identical with n'r "Weis (catfish" (OK, Med., Gr., Wb II 209, 2-6. But the second element -mr has so far been lacking a reliable and convincing etymological explanation on the Egyptian lexical material. In this brief paper we attempt to give a solution for the second component of the name in the Common Afrasian (Semito-Hamitic lexical material. First, we can also admit that the Egyptian vocabulary does not help too much to clarify -mr, as there is no Egyptian word to fit in the name.

  20. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  1. About the scientific names of paraphyletic taxa

    OpenAIRE

    TIMM, Tarmo

    2012-01-01

    The 'naturality' of monophyletic taxa in comparison with that of paraphyletic ones is discussed, with examples from Clitellata. Regular scientific names for paraphyletic taxa are inevitable in a workable biological classification.

  2. The change of religion and the names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kousgård Sørensen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available What actually happened at the time when Denmark was christianized? An important viewpoint to the topic is the nomenclature, both personal names and place-names. What happened to these in the missionary period? Can they be exploited as evidence about the change of religion? What happened to these and to the naming practices in connection with the introduction of Christianity? These questions are relevant, because several pre-Christian cultic words entered into the personal nomenclature which the Christian mission found in use on its arrival. The fate of the nomenclature in the period does suggest that the change in religion took place reasonably peacefully and gradually. There are, however, certain features about the place-names suggesting that there were local differences in the conduct of the mission.

  3. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    designation. O’Neill is a Roman Catholic. Navy Secretary John F. Lehman, Jr., a Catholic, has defended the name USS Corpus Christi, saying the...spring when Roman Catholic and other religious leaders and peace activists objected to the original name Corpus Christi, which in Latin means “Body of...Naval Shipyard. Portland also has the largest port in Maine, and it is home to men and women whose livelihood relies upon the ocean and its

  4. The naming of minor planets: multicultural relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jean-Claude

    2011-06-01

    To date, among the hundred or so minor planets we discovered with various instruments around the world, twenty of these objects have been definitively numbered and named. We have choosen the names according to our centers of interest. In honouring people in domains as varied as astronomy, astronautics, music, paleontology, comic strips, . . . we had the opportunity of establishing fruitful relationships with a large horizon of cultures. It was also a good opportunity for the diffusion of astronomy towards other communities.

  5. What is in a name? : Mutual fund flows when managers have foreign-sounding names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Niessen-Ruenzi, A.; Spalt, O.G.

    We show that name-induced stereotypes affect the investment choices of U.S. mutual fund investors. Managers with foreign-sounding names have about 10% lower annual fund flows, and this effect is stronger among funds with investor clienteles more likely to be suspicious of foreigners. Foreign-named

  6. Between Ethnic and English Names: Name Choice for Transnational Chinese Students in a US Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how transnational Chinese students negotiate identity options through name choice while studying in the US. Name choice can discursively index membership in various communities. Drawing on theories of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and community of practices (Lave and Wenger, 1991), this study examines how name choice becomes…

  7. Named entity recognition in Slovene text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Štajner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach and an implementation of a named entity extractor for Slovene language, based on a machine learning approach. It is designed as a supervised algorithm based on Conditional Random Fields and is trained on the ssj500k annotated corpus of Slovene. The corpus, which is available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA licence, is annotated with morphosyntactic tags, as well as named entities for people, locations, organisations, and miscellaneous names. The paper discusses the influence of morphosyntactic tags, lexicons and conjunctions of features of neighbouring words. An important contribution of this investigation is that morphosyntactic tags benefit named entity extraction. Using all the best-performing features the recognizer reaches a precision of 74% and a recall of 72%, having stronger performance on personal and geographical named entities, followed by organizations, but performs poorly on the miscellaneous entities, since this class is very diverse and consequently difficult to predict. A major contribution of the paper is also showing the benefits of splitting the class of miscellaneous entities into organizations and other entities, which in turn improves performance even on personal and organizational names. The software, developed in this research is freely available under the Apache 2.0 licence at http://ailab.ijs.si/~tadej/slner.zip, while development versions are available at https://github.com/tadejs/slner.

  8. The history of Latin teeth names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, František

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give an account of the Latin naming of the different types of teeth by reviewing relevant historical and contemporary literature. The paper presents etymologies of Latin or Greek teeth names, their development, variants and synonyms, and sometimes the names of their authors. The Greek names did not have the status of official terms, but the Latin terms for particular types of teeth gradually established themselves. Names for the incisors, canines and molars are Latin calques for the Greek ones (tomeis, kynodontes, mylai), dens serotinus is an indirect calque of the Greek name (odús) opsigonos, and the term pre-molar is created in the way which is now common in modern anatomical terminology, using the prefix prae- = pre and the adjective molaris. The Latin terms dentes canini and dentes molares occur in the Classical Latin literature, the term (dentes) incisivi is found first time in medieval literature, and the terms dentes premolares and dens serotinus are modern-age ones.

  9. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  10. Alternatives to eigenstate thermalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Marcos; Srednicki, Mark

    2012-03-16

    An isolated quantum many-body system in an initial pure state will come to thermal equilibrium if it satisfies the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH). We consider alternatives to ETH that have been proposed. We first show that von Neumann's quantum ergodic theorem relies on an assumption that is essentially equivalent to ETH. We also investigate whether, following a sudden quench, special classes of pure states can lead to thermal behavior in systems that do not obey ETH, namely, integrable systems. We find examples of this, but only for initial states that obeyed ETH before the quench.

  11. [Anatomical names of skeletal surfaces: analysis and classification of Latin names, and comparison with corresponding Japanese names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Sato, Tatsuo

    2007-12-01

    For better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of possible need for future revision, Latin anatomical names (Terminologia Anatomica) of the skeletal surfaces were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Facies indicated: 1) morphological resemblance of the surface; 2) the structure that articulates with the surface; 3) the structure attached to the surface; 4) the structure in contact with the surface; 5) the way of connection between the surface and the structure that faces it; 6) the structure of which the surface is a component; 7) the structure that the surface faces; 8) the site that the surface faces; 9) the relative position of the surface; 10) the non-relative position of the surface; 11) an articulation of the surface; or 12) both the structure with which the surface articulates and the structure of which the surface is a component. Analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  12. Is garlic alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivlin, Richard S

    2006-03-01

    Garlic has been used medicinally since antiquity. In virtually every early civilization known, such as ancient India, Egypt, Rome, China, and Japan, garlic was part of the therapeutic regimen for a variety of maladies. Therefore, the ancient medicinal tradition of garlic use would qualify it as a folk medicine or as an alternative or complementary medicine. But is garlic an alternative to established methods of disease prevention or treatment? Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide). Mechanisms of action are being elucidated by modern technology. The validity of ancient medicine is now being evaluated critically in cell-free systems, animal models, and human populations. Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages. There are many promising lines of research suggesting the potential effects of garlic. The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans.

  13. What’s in a Name?—Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Borkfelt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human, peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways of keeping and regarding non-human animals—this paper attempts to trace the importance of (both specific and generic naming to our relationships with the non-human. It explores this topic from the naming of the animals in Genesis to the names given and used by scientists, keepers of companion animals, media etc. in our societies today, and asks the question of what the consequences of naming non-human animals are for us, for the beings named and for the power relations between our species and the non-human species and individuals we name.

  14. International Assistance in Naming Craters on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J.; Hallau, K.; Hirshon, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hamel, J.; Hamel, S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's robotic MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft made history in March 2011 by becoming the first to orbit Mercury. During the mission, MESSENGER acquired more than 250,000 images and made many other kinds of measurements. Names are often given to surface features that are of special scientific interest, such as craters. To draw international attention to the achievements of the spacecraft and engineers and scientists who made the MESSENGER mission a success, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team initiated a Name a Crater on Mercury Competition.Five craters of particular geological interest were chosen by the science team. In accordance with International Astronomical Union (IAU) rules for Mercury, impact craters are named in honor of those who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to the arts and humanities. He or she must have been recognized as a historically significant figure in the arts for at least 50 years and deceased for the last three years. We were particularly interested in entries honoring people from nations and cultural groups underrepresented in the current list of crater names. From more than 3600 entries received from around the world, the EPO team was able to reduce the number of entries to about 1200 names of 583 different artists who met the contest eligibility criteria. Next, the proposed individuals were divided into five artistic field groups and distributed to experts in that respective field. Each expert reviewed approximately100 artists with their biographical information. They narrowed down their list to a top ten, then to a top five by applying a rubric. The final selection was based on the reviewer lists and scores, with at least three finalist names selected from each artistic field. Of the 17 finalists provided to the IAU, the following names were selected: Carolan crater, Enheduanna crater, Karsh crater, Kulthum crater, and Rivera crater. For more

  15. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  16. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  17. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  18. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  19. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  20. Color naming across languages reflects color use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Futrell, Richard; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Mahowald, Kyle; Bergen, Leon; Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Gibson, Mitchell; Piantadosi, Steven T; Conway, Bevil R

    2017-10-03

    What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about. We show that potential methodological issues with the WCS do not corrupt information-theoretic analyses, by collecting original data using two extreme versions of the color-naming task, in three groups: the Tsimane', a remote Amazonian hunter-gatherer isolate; Bolivian-Spanish speakers; and English speakers. These data also enabled us to test another prediction of the color-usefulness hypothesis: that differences in color categorization between languages are caused by differences in overall usefulness of color to a culture. In support, we found that color naming among Tsimane' had relatively low communicative efficiency, and the Tsimane' were less likely to use color terms when describing familiar objects. Color-naming among Tsimane' was boosted when naming artificially colored objects compared with natural objects, suggesting that industrialization promotes color usefulness.

  1. Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the widespread and erroneous belief that they are natural and do no harm, and because their use offers the opportunity for more control over treatment options and procedures. Alternative therapies can reduce stress, pain, and/or fatigue. Some therapies are covered ...

  2. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  3. Magnetostrictive Alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Rodger; Bruder, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This innovation replaces the linear alternator presently used in Stirling engines with a continuous-gradient, impedance-matched, oscillating magnetostrictive transducer that eliminates all moving parts via compression, maintains high efficiency, costs less to manufacture, reduces mass, and eliminates the need for a bearing system. The key components of this new technology are the use of stacked magnetostrictive materials, such as Terfenol-D, under a biased magnetic and stress-induced compression, continuous-gradient impedance-matching material, coils, force-focusing metallic structure, and supports. The acoustic energy from the engine travels through an impedancematching layer that is physically connected to the magnetostrictive mass. Compression bolts keep the structure under compressive strain, allowing for the micron-scale compression of the magnetostrictive material and eliminating the need for bearings. The relatively large millimeter displacement of the pressure side of the impedance-matching material is reduced to micron motion, and undergoes stress amplification at the magnetostrictive interface. The alternating compression and expansion of the magnetostrictive material creates an alternating magnetic field that then induces an electric current in a coil that is wound around the stack. This produces electrical power from the acoustic pressure wave and, if the resonant frequency is tuned to match the engine, can replace the linear alternator that is commonly used.

  4. New Investigations in the School of Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoli Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of names and argumentation from the pre-Qin period represent a precious inheritance left behind by ancient Chinese thinkers. As one of the schools from the pre-Qin period, nomenalism made a great contribution to the study of names. Modern research on nomenalism has been greatly affected by the Han Dynasty historians. However, their introduction to the school is vague. In respect to nomenalism, there are some unsolved problems that still need to be clarified and have not been noticed by many scholars. The present thesis analyses the characteristics and functions of nomenalism; it discusses the relations between nomenalists and sophists and epitomises their contributions to the study of names.

  5. Glaucoma and the Origins of Its Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; Androutsos, George

    2016-05-01

    To identify the origins of the name of the disease Glaucoma. Ancient Greek medical literature, Homeric poems, and ancient Greek religion and art were examined. The roots of the name Glaucoma could be traced back to Homeric times. Ancient Greek physicians following the Hippocratic tradition preferred the use of the terms Hypochysis or Hypochyma for the same disease. This fact indicates that the older term Glaucoma did not fulfill strict medical criteria, but had a long history connected to superstition, which the rational ancient Greek physician tried to overcome using terms derived from their fundamental principal of humoral pathology. In ancient Greek medical literature, Glaucoma had a significant place among ocular diseases. The origin of its name could be traced back to Homeric times and could be connected to the ancient belief of a primitive folk about the apotropaic role of animals against diseases, which in this case is represented by the superstitious role of the owl.

  6. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  7. NAMED ENTITY DISAMBIGUATION: A HYBRID APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HienT. Nguyen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Semantic annotation of named entities for enriching unstructured content is a critical step in development of Semantic Web and many Natural Language Processing applications. To this end, this paper addresses the named entity disambiguation problem that aims at detecting entity mentions in a text and then linking them to entries in a knowledge base. In this paper, we propose a hybrid method, combining heuristics and statistics, for named entity disambiguation. The novelty is that the disambiguation process is incremental and includes several rounds that filter the candidate referents, by exploiting previously identified entities and extending the text by those entity attributes every time they are successfully resolved in a round. Experiments are conducted to evaluate and show the advantages of the proposed method. The experiment results show that our approach achieves high accuracy and can be used to construct a robust entity disambiguation system.

  8. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first......A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...... sent to 50 students and I received 18 answers (38%). The second survey was sent to 86 students and I received 48 answers (56%). These figures provides a good indication.The answers showed a marked positive effect: the students felt welcome, accepted and respected; the learning environment was more...

  9. Precedent Proper Names in Informal Oikonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Akhmetova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Russian language informal city names (oikonyms motivated by other toponyms (with reference to Russia and the CIS. The author shows that the motivating proper name can replace the city name (e. g. Глазго < Glasgow ‘Glazov’ or contaminate with it (e. g. Экибостон < Ekibastuz + Boston, the “alien” onym being attracted to construct an informal oikonym due to its phonetic similarity or, on occasion, due to an affinity, either real or imaginary, between the two settlements. The author argues that the phonetic motivation is more characteristic for the modern urban tradition, than for popular dialects.

  10. Tagging Named Entities in Croatian Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Baksa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity extraction tools designed for recognizing named entities in texts written in standard language (e.g., news stories or legal texts have been shown to be inadequate for user-generated textual content (e.g., tweets, forum posts. In this work, we propose a supervised approach to named entity recognition and classification for Croatian tweets. We compare two sequence labelling models: a hidden Markov model (HMM and conditional random fields (CRF. Our experiments reveal that CRF is the best model for the task, achieving a very good performance of over 87% micro-averaged F1 score. We analyse the contributions of different feature groups and influence of the training set size on the performance of the CRF model.

  11. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  12. [Why the name "Erasmus" for an hospital ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2017-01-01

    Why the name "Erasmus" for an hospital ? Apart for local circumstances, there are far more obvious reasons for this choice. Erasmus was in close contact with the medical world. Indeed, he suffered all his life from more or less severe diseases and had therefore frequent contacts with doctors. Also, the ideas he was defending stood for the principle of free inquiry before its time. For these various reasons giving the name « Erasmus » to the university clinics of the Free University of Brussels (ULB) was a judicious choise.

  13. Love me, love me not: changed names

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: " A selection of 150 cities within Slavs and Tatars’ Eurasian remit, Love Me, Love Me Not : Changed Names plucks the petals off the past to reveal an impossibly thorny stem : a lineage of names changed by the course of the region’s grueling history. Some cities divulge a resolutely Asian heritage, so often forgotten in today’s quest, at all costs, for European integration. Some vacillate almost painfully, and others with numbing repetition, entire metro...

  14. On identifying name equivalences in digital libraries. Name equivalence, Surname matching, Author identification, Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror G. Feitelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.

  15. Compound word effects differ in reading, on-line naming, and delayed naming tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhoff, A W; Briihl, D; Schwartz, J

    1996-07-01

    Bimorphemic compound words (e.g., blueberry), bimorphemic suffixed words (e.g., ceaseless), and monomorphemic controls (e.g., arthritis) were read in neutral sentence contexts in Experiment 1. The main result revealed longer first fixation durations on compound words than on control and suffixed words. Different effects emerged when naming tasks were used. An on-line naming task revealed substantially shorter naming latencies for compound words than for control and suffixed words. Naming latencies for compound and control words were equivalent in a delayed naming task. These results indicate that on-line naming latencies and word-viewing durations may yield diverging results. They also suggest that activation of constituent words of compound words occurs independently from the specification of conventional word meanings.

  16. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 7. Spelling the names of plant varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyse the practice of transliteration of the Ukrainian cultivar names and rendering foreign names by means of the Ukrainian language, as well as special aspects of cultivar names spelling in special literature. Results. Cultivar names as a special category require preservation of primary graphics or sound type in the other language. This can be achieved by direct inclusion of the original name to the Ukrainian text or by practical transcribing, but not by transliteration or translation. Otherwise, Ukrainian names should be transliterated for inclusion to the texts in Latin characters. Transcription/transliteration in both directions is performed from the source language, though, as practice shows, in some Ukrainian publications the Russian is wrongly used as an intermediary language. Some national scientific publications ignore the recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that is not conducive to the success of scientific communication in the globalized world. Conclusions. The foreign names of plant varieties should be entered into the Ukrainian text keeping the original spelling or by means of practical transcription. The loan of foreign names is performed by transcribing directly from the source language; if the language doesn’t have the Latin alphabet, Latinized name transcription is acceptable. Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that concern graphic highlighting of the cultivar names in the text enclosing them in single quotation marks and writing each word of a cultivar name with a capital letter should necessarily be applied in the foreign-language publications and extended to the Ukrainian special literature, at least, in terms of the use of single quotation marks. Ukrainian names should be transliterated only in accordance with the regulations.

  17. Alternative 23

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Alternative 23 is a curated exhibition of works by Steve Aylett, David Blandy & Daniel Locke, Let Me Feel Your Finger First, Laura Oldfield Ford, Plastique Fantastique and Henrik Schrat, including the first screening of Let Me Feel Your Finger First’s Postcolonial Capers.\\ud \\ud In 1985 DC Comics in the US had taken the commercial decision to unify the complex and contradictory character story arcs from its various strips such as Superman, Batman and Green Lantern. The resultant crossover ser...

  18. Considering the issue of aligning Ukrainian plant names. Communication 3. Names for Ribes L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature and the system of genus Ribes s.l., application of indigenous and introduced plant names, from which such commercial small fruit crops as gooseberry, black and red currant have been formed, is considered. Scientifi c names based on Ukrainian generic name Porichky are streamlined. Ukrainian names for 64 taxa at the rank of species and variety were given. For hybrids nothotaxa ×Ribelaria Mezhenskyj, nothosubg. nov. (= subg. Ribes × subg. Grossularia and ×Сalocalyx Mezhenskyj, nothosect. nov. (= sect. Calobotrya × sect. Symplocalyx were defi ned.

  19. What’s In Your Name? Associated Meanings of the Common Filipino Names Among Young Filipinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaira G. Castillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Name is important in knowing someone’s identity. By a person’s name someone can know his or her character. It is also possible that they bear a particular name because of their background and other factors that can lead to something important. This study aimed to find out the associative meanings of the most common Filipino male and female names among the Polytechnic University of the Philippines-Sta. Mesa students. Different factors such as character traits, physical appearance, and skills/talents were considered in determining meanings of the names. The study used quantitative and qualitative research approach, specifically the descriptive method, to analyze the gathered data. A selfadministered survey was distributed to 400 randomly selected respondents. General findings revealed that the respondents associated the most common Filipino male names in the same way regarding character traits and skills/talents. However, they have different associations to the male names in terms of physical appearance. On the other hand, the respondents associated the most common Filipino female names into similar character traits and physical appearance but associated them with different skills/talents. Results also revealed that the most common factors that influence the respondents’ associated meanings were relationships, experiences, popularity, and perception. The results imply that while young Filipinos associate similar character traits, physical appearances and skills to common Filipino names, they have different reasons in giving meanings to them.

  20. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  1. Biggert named chairman of energy subcommittee

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Representative Judy Biggert has been named Chairman of the Energy Subcommittee of the House Science Committee, a key panel with jurisdiction over the federal government's civilian energy and science research activities, including the work done at Argonne and Fermilab (1 page).

  2. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  3. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  4. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D; Malt, Barbara C; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages' lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns.

  5. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  6. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    evolutionary change, and the name sources of the Navy’s ships have not been immune to this change.”9 The July 2012 Navy report to Congress states that...Legion of Honor, and the Croix de Guerre with Gilt Star and 2 palms; Whereas during World War II, Clifton B. Cates led Marines at Guadalcanal, and

  7. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    in conventional temporally-annotated corpora – for example Michaelmas or Vasant Panchami. UsingWikipedia and linked data, we automatically construct a resource of English named temporal expressions, and use it to extract training examples from a large corpus. These examples are then used to train and evaluate...

  8. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  9. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz...

  10. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the UDRP (WIPO...

  11. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  12. SOCIOLINGUISTIC IMPORT OF NAME-CLIPPING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... emblems or compulsory badges every person is expected to bear for identification. They are also used to divulge the way the Igbo view life in its entirety including personal, family and general life experiences which, most of the times, encompass cultural and philosophical undertones. Igbo names, which ...

  13. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  14. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BLOGGER BERITIKAD BAIK TERHADAP DOMINE NAME MEREK TERKENAL DARI DUGAAN PEMBONCENGAN REPUTASI (PASSING OFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESY KUSUMA WARDHANI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This Research entitled "Legal Protection Against Blogger Good Faith Domine Name Of Alleged Deception Famous Brand Reputation (Passing Off". The problem of this study was, first: How does the domain name in a legal setting in Indonesia. Second: What is the legal protection of domain name for blogger’s good faith if there are similarities with the domain name famous brand. This research method using normative methods, the legal research done by examining library materials. Which refers to the legal norms contained in the legislation, international conventions, international agreements and court decisions. The results showed, first: The domain name has been linked closely with the brand and copyright but the domain name is not synonymous with the brand and copyright, as it has a system and registration requirements as well as the recognition of the existence differently. So far there are kekososngan norms that specifically regulate the domain name issue in Indonesia. Until now, the settings used by the international ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, the competent authority dealing with internet IP Addres, and domain name system management. Second: Legal protection for bloggers acting in good faith if there are similarities regarding the domain name can be a famous brand is preventive legal protection and the protection of repressive laws which refers to the settlement of a litigation matter (referring to the legal protection of IPR, Civil, Criminal and Law ITE and non-litigation (both ADR and UDRP.

  15. Report realized in the name of the finances, economy and the plan commission on the project of financing law for 2009 (n. 1127), annex n. 13 ecology, sustainable development and management risks prevention planing of the ecology, the energy, the sustainable development and the territory management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the law project n. 1127 for 2009, concerning the risks prevention in the framework of the ecology and the sustainable development and management. The first part details the program of risks prevention (technological, pollutions, natural and hydraulic risks, nuclear safety and radioprotection, the mine site rehabilitation). The second part develops the ecology, energy sustainable development and territory management, policies. (A.L.B.)

  16. Purposeful naming: The case of beer halls named during both the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the reasons behind names given to beer halls from their inception in colonial Rhodesia to present day Zimbabwe. To achieve this goal, it analyses names of beer halls, beer outlets built in the former townships of colonial Rhodesia (now called high-density suburbs), and those built at growth points, ...

  17. Action naming in anomic aphasic speakers : Effects of instrumentality and name relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a

  18. Colour-Name versus Shape-Name Learning in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a study designed to compare color-name with shape-name learning by three-year-old children in an experimentally controlled format. Results show that children learned color-label associates significantly more slowly than matched shape-label associates, and they committed more errors with colors than with shapes during learning. Provides a…

  19. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, K.; Ryle, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  20. Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2011-01-01

    A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene bla(NDM-1) after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all

  1. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  2. Clinical Psychopharmacology Update: What's in a Name? Confusion Prompts Change for Vortioxetine's Brand Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas J; Tobin, Mary L

    2016-09-01

    Similar names between two unrelated drugs have led the FDA to issue warnings about and now approve a name change for vortioxetine, which was branded as Brintellix® until recently. While the trade name had been screened prior to the product's launch, the FDA received numerous reports of prescribing and dispensing errors, specifically with regard to the anti-coagulant drug Brilinta® (ticagrelor). Starting 1 June 2016, vortioxetine will be marketed under the name Trintellix™ in an effort to reduce confusion. Clinicians are advised that while the name and National Drug Code number with this product will change, it will retain the same formulation, indication, and dosage information. To the extent possible, clinicians can and should take actions to identify and reduce potential medication errors in prescriptions, especially when using electronic records and e-prescription systems.

  3. Taxonomic names, metadata, and the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D. M. Page

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs offer an attractive solution to the problem of globally unique identifiers for digital objects in biology. However, I suggest that in the context of taxonomic names, the most compelling benefit of adopting these identifiers comes from the metadata associated with each LSID. By using existing vocabularies wherever possible, and using a simple vocabulary for taxonomy-specific concepts we can quickly capture the essential information about a taxonomic name in the Resource Description Framework (RDF format. This opens up the prospect of using technologies developed for the Semantic Web to add ``taxonomic intelligence" to biodiversity databases. This essay explores some of these ideas in the context of providing a taxonomic framework for the phylogenetic database TreeBASE.

  4. Semantic effects in single-word naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, E; Patterson, K; Seidenberg, M S

    1995-09-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that, for lower frequency words, reading aloud is affected not only by spelling-sound typicality but also by a semantic variable, imageability. Participants were slower and more error prone when naming exception words with abstract meanings (e.g., scarce) than when naming either abstract regular words (e.g., scribe) or imageable exception words (e.g., soot). It is proposed that semantic representations of words have the largest impact on translating orthography to phonology when this translation process is slow or noisy (i.e., for low-frequency exceptions) and that words with rich semantic representations (i.e., high-imageability words) are most likely to benefit from this interaction.

  5. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  6. Colorado Peak named for Challenger crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the summits of Kit Carson Mountain in the Sangre de Cristo range in south-central Colorado will be named “Challenger Point” in memory of the seven astronauts who died in the U.S. space shuttle disaster in January 1986. Challenger Point is a well-defined summit that appears to be piggybacked onto Kit Carson Mountain, just as the space shuttle Challenger was to its main booster rocket.The newly named summit is about 6 km northeast of Cottonwood, Colo., and 8 km east of Crestone, Colo. The 4292-m-high point is located at 37°59‧N, 105°36‧W.

  7. Their Name is Half-Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of the Soviet architecture of the late 1950s – 60s. The name of the article is “Their name is halfway”. It expresses the sense of all the processes occurring both in society and architecture during the Khrushchev Thaw. Developing the socalled Stalin’s Empire in the 1930-1950s, the masters of architecture had travelled only half the way. If the power had not abruptly stopped this movement, we would probably have a unique modern architecture dissimilar to the “international style”. The collapse of the Soviet Union stopped the evolution of architecture again: the unique features of the Soviet architecture of the 1960s ceased to develop. Architects were carried away with ironic games of postmodernism, which led them to deadlock.

  8. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 5. Species names for pome fruit crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To analyse the modern classification and nomenclature of species of pome fruit crops which varieties are listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine, and improve terminological system of the Ukrainian names of both species and garden crops. Results. Fruit cultivars and most apple clonal rootstocks belong to Malus pumila, and ornamental cultivars belong to Malus gloriosa. The most common scientific name of the cultivated apple, especially among horticulturists, is Malus domestica, although according to the principle of priority the name Malus pumila should have the advantage. As far as Nomenclature Committee for Vascular Plants has rejected the proposal to conserve the name Malus domestica, Malus pumila is correct name for the cultivated apple. The use of synonymic name Malus domestica should be avoided in both scientific and scientific-popular papers for stability of nomenclature. Pear cultivars listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine are presented by Pyrus communis, and pear rootstocks – by Cydonia oblonga. Fruit cultivars of the latter belong to separate fruit crop named quince. An apple-quince hybrid was registered as universal clonal rootstock for pome fruit crops. The State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine also contains nonconventional fruit crops such as Chaenomeles and hawthorn that consist of some species and nothospecies. Conclusions. In scientific publications one should stop the use of synonymic name Malus domestica in favour of the correct name for cultivated apple Malus pumila. Apple, pears and Chaenomeles cultivars listed in the State Register of Plants Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine have a complex multispecies origin whereas quince, hawthorn and pear roostock cultivars systematically are monospecies. A universal roootstock of pome fruit crops is Cydolus, or apple-quince, that resulted

  9. Naming the Mystery: An Augustinian Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Fitzgerald

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, by noticing Augustine’s constant questioning, shows that he often talks about not knowing and about his need for God’s help to know more. It is therefore better to see how he identifies the mystery than to focus on his answers, because he too recognizes his limits. His intellectual prowess can be seen more clearly when he “names the mystery” than by thinking that he has solved it.

  10. [Choosing the name in international adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Effenterre, Aude; Harf, Aurélie; Skandrani, Sandra; Taïeb, Olivier; Moro, Marie Rose

    2014-01-01

    In the context of international adoption, the question is raised of the links which the adoptive parents may or may not maintain with the culture of the child's birth country. The name which the adoptive parents choose reflects this questioning. A study was carried out into this subject with parents and children in order to gain a better understanding of the feelings of belonging, filiation and affiliation in these situations.

  11. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  12. Gender congruency effects in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F-X; Matos, Rafael E; Segui, Juan

    2004-10-01

    The analysis of speech error corpora in various gender-marked languages has shown that noun substitutions tend to preserve grammatical gender. This result has been taken as an indication that grammatical gender could play a constraining role during the process of lexical selection. To gain insights on the status of grammatical gender in the speech production system, we discuss this hypothesis and we report three picture naming experiments. We attempted to observe gender-marked context effects in the course of error-free speech production. Participants named pictures shortly after processing a prime that was or was not gender marked and that was or was not congruent with the name of the picture. A clear congruency effect was observed, involving both facilitation in the gender congruent conditions and inhibition in gender incongruent conditions. Different interpretations of this effect and of previously reported gender context effects are discussed in the context of current models of speech production. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  14. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil; Schenk, Ryan; Norton, Catherine N

    2008-05-13

    Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs) and societal importance (e.g., world wars). The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  15. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  16. "Spice," "kryptonite," "black mamba": an overview of brand names and marketing strategies of novel psychoactive substances on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Corkery, John; Martinotti, Giovanni; Bersani, Giuseppe; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPSs) are often sold online as "legal" and "safer" alternatives to International Controlled Drugs (ICDs) with captivating marketing strategies. Our aim was to review and summarize such strategies in terms of the appearance of the products, the brand names, and the latest trends in the illicit online marketplaces. Scientific data were searched in PsychInfo and Pubmed databases; results were integrated with an extensive monitoring of Internet (websites, online shops, chat rooms, fora, social networks) and media sources in nine languages (English, French, Farsi, Portuguese, Arabic, Russian, Spanish, and Chinese simplified/traditional) available from secure databases of the Global Public Health Intelligence Network. Evolving strategies for the online diffusion and the retail of NPSs have been identified, including discounts and periodic offers on chosen products. Advertisements and new brand names have been designed to attract customers, especially young people. An increased number of retailers have been recorded as well as new Web platforms and privacy systems. NPSs represent an unprecedented challenge in the field of public health with social, cultural, legal, and political implications. Web monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPSs and for supporting innovative Web-based prevention programmes.

  17. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  18. 19 CFR 133.11 - Trade names eligible for recordation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade names eligible for recordation. 133.11...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES, AND COPYRIGHTS Recordation of Trade Names § 133.11 Trade names eligible for recordation. The name or trade style used for at least 6 months to identify a...

  19. Kiswahili Personal Names Selection in Tanzania: A Sociolinguistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper deals with form and use of proper names, specifically Kiswahili personal names. The paper carries out research into various social issues behind Swahili personal names. It focuses on identifying what is behind Swahili personal names and analyzes different sociolinguistic issues that make people to be named ...

  20. Nuclear power: the alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    South Africa has only two resources for large-scale generation of energy, namely coal and uranium. The petrochemical industry uses more and more coal to provide internal combustion engines of fuel. Until an alternative for nuclear energy is found, the country will have to rely on nuclear energy to provide in the energy needs. According to mr. John Maree, former chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa, the last coal power station will be built more or less in the year 2030. Sites for the building of future nuclear power stations are already identified. The West Coast is ideally suited for this purpose mainly because of the geological stability of the area and the lack of industrial development. The development of the nuclear industry in South Africa is reviewed

  1. Abbreviations of polymer names and guidelines for abbreviating polymer names (IUPAC Recommendations 2014)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    He, J.; Chen, J.; Hellwich, K. H.; Hess, M.; Horie, K.; Jones, R. G.; Kahovec, Jaroslav; Kitayama, T.; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Meille, S. V.; Mita, I.; dos Santos, C.; Vert, M.; Vohlídal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 6 (2014), s. 1003-1015 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : abbreviations * IUPAC Polymer Division * polymer names Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.492, year: 2014

  2. Star names their lore and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Richard H

    1963-01-01

    Here is an unusual book for anyone who appreciates the beauty and wonder of the stars. Solidly based upon years of thorough research into astronomical writings and observations of the ancient Chinese, Arabic, Euphrates, Hellenic, and Roman civilizations, it is an informative, non-technical excursion into the vast heritage of folklore and history associated with the heavenly bodies. From his studies of the writings of scores of ancient astronomers, the author has come up with a fascinating history of the names various cultures have given the constellations, the literary and folkloristic uses

  3. Names will never hurt me: racially distinct names and identity in the undergraduate classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gigi

    2008-09-01

    Recent researchers (Fryer Jr., R.G., Levitt, S.D., 2004. The causes and consequences of distinctly black names. Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (3); Figlio, D.N., 2003. Names, expectations, and black children's achievement. Working Paper; Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S., 2004. Are Emily and George more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review 94 (4); Hess, G., Aura, S., 2004. What's in a name? Working Paper) have shown that people with racially identifiable names tend to have worse economic outcomes, and have tried to explain why. This paper extends this recent literature by deepening the psychological underpinnings of possible answers to this question in the context of undergraduate grades. Using a rich student-level administrative data set, I explore the effects on performance of both first and last name racial identifiability. I test for the presence of effects from either black or Asian names due to differential teacher expectations (Figlio, 2003), conventional teacher discrimination (Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2004), or differences in unobserved ability or racial identity that are correlated with name type and directly affect performance (Fryer and Levitt, 2004; Hess and Aura, 2004). A conceptual and empirical distinction is drawn in the paper between unobserved ability effects and racial identity effects. Name type is found to have little direct influence on performance via any channel. Mild evidence suggests that racial identity may be salient in predicting undergraduate grades. The paper contributes to the literatures in social effects, discrimination, and the burgeoning subfield of economics and identity.

  4. Undersea Feature Place Names as of June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are approximately 5100 undersea features with names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) currently in the Geographic Names Data Base...

  5. Microscopic activity patterns in the naming game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The models of statistical physics used to study collective phenomena in some interdisciplinary contexts, such as social dynamics and opinion spreading, do not consider the effects of the memory on individual decision processes. In contrast, in the naming game, a recently proposed model of language formation, each agent chooses a particular state, or opinion, by means of a memory-based negotiation process, during which a variable number of states is collected and kept in memory. In this perspective, the statistical features of the number of states collected by the agents become a relevant quantity to understand the dynamics of the model, and the influence of topological properties on memory-based models. By means of a master equation approach, we analyse the internal agent dynamics of the naming game in populations embedded on networks, finding that it strongly depends on very general topological properties of the system (e.g. average and fluctuations of the degree). However, the influence of topological properties on the microscopic individual dynamics is a general phenomenon that should characterize all those social interactions that can be modelled by memory-based negotiation processes

  6. Armenian Demons Called Kaj: Image and Name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Y. Petrosyan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a study of Armenian demons, the kajs, and their superior deity — the dragonslayer Vahagn, in the historical-etymological and ethno-cultural perspective. Specific features of kajs and their leader as imagined by ancient people are identifi ed: they resemble vishap-dragons and devs, live in the mountains and have temples there, make war, hunt, steal wheat and wine from people, love music, arrange weddings, drive people crazy, braid horsehair, and so on. Clear linkages are drawn between Armenian kajs and their leader with the mythological characters of Indo-European (Iranian, Indian traditions. In Armenian, the fi rst meaning of k‘aǰ is ‘good, select; of fi ne / better quality’. This is exactly how some Armenian spirits, including kajs, are often referred to — as “good” — mezane laver, mezne ałekner ‘better than us,’ ałek manuk ‘good youngster / warrior’. This is also true to some other traditions: the Persian az mā behtarān, German Gude (cf. also the names of Indian vasu and sādhya. The article develops the etymology of the name k‘aǰ (a corrected version of that proposed by H. Pedersen in 1906: *swo-sHdhyo- — ‘self / own + right / righteous,’ i.e. ‘good’. This image passed into the Georgian and Ossetian traditions (Georgian kajs, Ossetian kadzi.

  7. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    OpenAIRE

    Abelin, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertaint...

  8. Various criteria in the evaluation of biomedical named entity recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu-Chun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Text mining in the biomedical domain is receiving increasing attention. A key component of this process is named entity recognition (NER. Generally speaking, two annotated corpora, GENIA and GENETAG, are most frequently used for training and testing biomedical named entity recognition (Bio-NER systems. JNLPBA and BioCreAtIvE are two major Bio-NER tasks using these corpora. Both tasks take different approaches to corpus annotation and use different matching criteria to evaluate system performance. This paper details these differences and describes alternative criteria. We then examine the impact of different criteria and annotation schemes on system performance by retesting systems participated in the above two tasks. Results To analyze the difference between JNLPBA's and BioCreAtIvE's evaluation, we conduct Experiment 1 to evaluate the top four JNLPBA systems using BioCreAtIvE's classification scheme. We then compare them with the top four BioCreAtIvE systems. Among them, three systems participated in both tasks, and each has an F-score lower on JNLPBA than on BioCreAtIvE. In Experiment 2, we apply hypothesis testing and correlation coefficient to find alternatives to BioCreAtIvE's evaluation scheme. It shows that right-match and left-match criteria have no significant difference with BioCreAtIvE. In Experiment 3, we propose a customized relaxed-match criterion that uses right match and merges JNLPBA's five NE classes into two, which achieves an F-score of 81.5%. In Experiment 4, we evaluate a range of five matching criteria from loose to strict on the top JNLPBA system and examine the percentage of false negatives. Our experiment gives the relative change in precision, recall and F-score as matching criteria are relaxed. Conclusion In many applications, biomedical NEs could have several acceptable tags, which might just differ in their left or right boundaries. However, most corpora annotate only one of them. In our

  9. MARKED PERSONAL NAMES: AN ANTROPONIMIC STUDY OF BALINESE STUDENTS’ NAMES IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Iwan Indrawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to account for the Marked Balinese Students’ Personal Names. Four research problems are studied, namely (1 the criteria used to distinguish the marked names (NDMBmk and the unmarked ones (NDMTBmk, (2 the functions of the markedness, (3 the factors that influence it, and (4 the ideologies that operate behind it. The markedness of personal names reflect a relation between the arbitrariness in language uses and the extralinguistic factors influencing it. In the context of Balinese, the tradition, legal practices, and the globalisation may affect the arbitrariness. In order to determine NDMBmk, criteria of markedness was constructed. According to the criteria, structurally, NDMBmk consist of at least five elements, as Anak Agung Arim Kasunu Arya Penarungan. Behaviorally, they may consist of names not derived from Balinese and/or Sanskrit, such as Giovani on I Gede Adeyaka Giovani, adopt a foreign spelling system as Chrisna on Ni Putu Chrisna Wulandari, or use no markers of Balinese ethnics or caste as Yunisari Wira Putri. Out of 698 sampled names, NDMBmk are found 54. Besides denoting, the marked elements also function to distinguish personal identities, to shape the existence of the name holder, to connote particular perception, and to reflect the changing era. The factors influencing the markedness are the need to express something new, a wish to acculturate, to raise status or keep a distance socially, and to demonstrate a linguistic expertise, or when seeing from the concept of imagery, the factors are the imagery on something new and on social status or distancing. The ideologies behind the phenomenon are globalist, nationalist, and the casteless-Balinese.

  10. MARKED PERSONAL NAMES: AN ANTROPONIMIC STUDY OF BALINESE STUDENTS’ NAMES IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Iwan Indrawan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to account for the Marked Balinese Students’ Personal Names. Four research problems are studied, namely (1 the criteria used to distinguish the marked names (NDMBmk and the unmarked ones (NDMTBmk, (2 the functions of the markedness, (3 the factors that influence it, and (4 the ideologies that operate behind it. The markedness of personal names reflect a relation between the arbitrariness in language uses and the extralinguistic factors influencing it. In the context of Balinese, the tradition, legal practices, and the globalisation may affect the arbitrariness. In order to determine NDMBmk, criteria of markedness was constructed. According to the criteria, structurally, NDMBmk consist of at least five elements, as Anak Agung Arim Kasunu Arya Penarungan. Behaviorally, they may consist of names not derived from Balinese and/or Sanskrit, such as Giovani on I Gede Adeyaka Giovani, adopt a foreign spelling system as Chrisna on Ni Putu Chrisna Wulandari, or use no markers of Balinese ethnics or caste as Yunisari Wira Putri. Out of 698 sampled names, NDMBmk are found 54. Besides denoting, the marked elements also function to distinguish personal identities, to shape the existence of the name holder, to connote particular perception, and to reflect the changing era. The factors influencing the markedness are the need to express something new, a wish to acculturate, to raise status or keep a distance socially, and to demonstrate a linguistic expertise, or when seeing from the concept of imagery, the factors are the imagery on something new and on social status or distancing. The ideologies behind the phenomenon are globalist, nationalist, and the casteless-Balinese.

  11. EPONYMY BASED ON NAMES OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kovács

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As is generally defined, eponymy, one of the word-formation processes refers to the derivation of a name of a city, country, era, institution, or other place or thing from that of a person such as sandwich, wellington, mackintosh or cardigan. Eponymy can be classified in several ways, some refer to foods (Pizza Margaritha, diseases (Alzheimer disease, places (Washington, scientific laws (Archimedes’s principle and sport terms (Axel jump, whereas others indicate trademarks, brand names (aspirin, prizes, awards (Nobel Prize, inventions (Rubic’s Cube, ideologies (Darwinism, colleges, universities (Stanford University and companies (Ford. The present paper discusses eponyms which denote companies based on the name of their founder(s (e.g. Porsche, Siemens, Gucci, Campari, Cadbury, McDonald’s and Walt Disney, etc. by revealing what kind of a metonymic relationship is manifested in them. Cognitive linguists, such as Lakoff and Johnson (1980, Radden and Kövecses (1999 and Kövecses (2002 state that metonymy is essentially a conceptual phenomenon, in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model. In fact, metonymy is part of our everyday way of thinking, and is grounded in experience. Common metonymies include PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT (Pass me the Shakespeare on the top shelf., PLACE FOR EVENT (Iraq nearly cost Tony Blair the premiership, PLACE FOR INSTITUTION (Downing Street refused comment., PART FOR THE WHOLE (She’s not just a pretty face., WHOLE FOR THE PART (England beat Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final. and EFFECT FOR CAUSE (He has a long face.. Following the cognitive approach to metonyms, I tentatively suggest that the metonymy PRODUCER FOR THE PRODUCT can be observed in the case of car makes, products of famous fashion houses, cosmetics and drinks as is illustrated by examples like He’s bought a Ferrari. I ate a McDonald or

  12. Computer Security: in the name of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    This summer, the American/Canadian dating website Ashley Madison was successfully compromised by a group of hackers (see here) who subsequently published tons of confidential information: addresses, dates of birth, e-mail addresses, ethnicities, genders, names, passwords, payment histories, phone numbers, security questions, sexual preferences, usernames and website activity.   Initially, these attackers blackmailed Ashley Madison and requested that the service be shut down. Later, however, they just made their stolen data public on the Internet. More than 30 million unique e-mail addresses – a hallelujah for miscreants. What can they do with this data? One possibility is blackmailing the people whose e-mail addresses were exposed by threatening to tell their spouses (“Pay me X bitcoins or I will tell your spouse that you are looking for a date!”). Another is targeting those people who have registered with their company e-...

  13. Tough by name, tough by nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Few beds, one would imagine, could withstand three-quarters of a ton landing on them, but this was the challenge successfully met by a box bed from a furniture manufacturer for challenging behaviour environments, Tough Furniture, when, to reassure a customer that the bed could accommodate 30-stone patients, 13 of the company's staff jumped repeatedly on it to ensure that it would survive intact in a real-world setting. Such testing may seem extreme, but is vital, since much of the company's furniture is destined for environments where patients will abuse, and indeed attempt to destroy, components. As MD David Vesty explained to HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, when he visited the company's Shropshire headquarters, it is through manufacturing premium quality cabinet furniture that is both attractive and distinctly non-institutional, but will equally withstand the harshest use, that the company has ensured that its products can live up to the brand name.

  14. Four are named Editors of Earth Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Barron of the Earth System Science Center at The Pennsylvania State University has been named chief editor of the new electronic journal, Earth Interactions. This journal will be co-published by AGU, the American Meteorological Society, and the Association of American Geographers. The three societies jointly agreed on the appointment of Barron. Each of the societies also appointed an editor to the board. George F. Hepner for AAG is from the Department of Geography at the University of Utah, David T. Sandwell for AGU is at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and Kevin E. Trenberth for AMS is at the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  15. Forgotten names: herpetologist Boris Vladimirovich Pestinskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlin Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Boris Pestinskiy was the herpetologist whose name, unfortunately, is lost in history. We decided to restore justice, and in this article we describe the life of this remarkable person. He was really engaged both in painting and in herpetology. After graduating from the Academy of Arts in Leningrad he wrote mainly the portraits of his contemporaries, illustrated magazines, taught children to draw. Some of his paintings were placed in the Russian Museum. He also studied reptiles. He was devoted to Middle Asia and spent the main part of his life in Tashkent. In Tashkent’s zoo he organized the department of reptiles and on the base of it the first in Middle Asia serpentarium. There poison was regularly taken from venomous snakes. Boris studied snakes’ biology, methods of their capture, conditions of their keeping in captivity, organization of the work of the serpentarium. His students were the young men who later became prominent Russian biologists.

  16. A changed name with an evolving function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z

    1995-12-01

    Changes in family planning, which took place in 1994, are described for the Mianzhu County Family Planning Committee and other townships in Sichuan Province. The Committee changed its name to Population Committee. The administrative structure changed at the town and township level. The Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party assigned the former Director of the township Family Planning Office to serve as Director of the General Office of township Population Committee. This administrative change did not take place in the county office. Reforms at the county level were expected to be more gradual, since there was no other model elsewhere in China to follow. The name change reflected a change in function and not a decline in family planning. The function will include implementation, management, and coordination instead of just fertility control. The Committee joined with the Women's Federation in offering premarital education to young people and in establishing a kindergarten for 3-5 year old children. In Qifu there were 18 township businesses, which hired surplus labor. In Qifu preferential treatment in hiring was given to single-child and two-daughter families. Wage labor has resulted in higher income and less time in the fields. The average Qifu township income in 1994 was 1250 yuan. 3200 of the 6100 single-child households were given elderly insurance by the Population Committee. In Dongbei town 4173 households had single children (56.4% of total households). In 1994 average household yearly income was 1400 yuan. 3350 households (80.2% of total single-child households) had an average yearly income of 1500-3000 yuan. 307 households (7.5%) had a yearly income of 3000-5000 yuan. 100 households (2.5%) had income greater than 5000 yuan.

  17. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  18. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Guest

    Full Text Available Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink, yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  19. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  20. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  1. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  2. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake...

  3. Action naming with impaired semantics: Neuropsychological evidencecontrasting naming and reading for objects and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Young; Humphreys, Glyn W; Riddoch, M Jane

    2005-09-01

    We contrast naming from pictures, and reading words, for objects and verbs (actions relating to the objects) in a patient with a large, posterior left-hemisphere lesion. We present evidence for spared picture naming for verbs relative to objects, whilst the opposite pattern of sparing occurred in reading. Objects were also spared relative to verbs in tasks requiring that written words be matched to either pictures or auditory words, in the presence of semantically related or unrelated distractors. We conclude that verb semantics were more impaired than semantic knowledge for objects, and that the better semantic knowledge for object names supported word reading. With pictures, however, action verb retrieval was maintained through a nonsemantic route from vision to action, or though preserved right-hemisphere "action semantics."

  4. Using a voice to put a name to a face: the psycholinguistics of proper name comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J; Jackson, Laura; Phillips, Isobel

    2014-02-01

    We propose that hearing a proper name (e.g., Kevin) in a particular voice serves as a compound memory cue that directly activates representations of a mutually known target person, often permitting reference resolution without any complex computation of shared knowledge. In a referential communication study, pairs of friends played a communication game, in which we monitored the eyes of one friend (the addressee) while he or she sought to identify the target person, in a set of four photos, on the basis of a name spoken aloud. When the name was spoken by a friend, addressees rapidly identified the target person, and this facilitation was independent of whether the friend was articulating a message he or she had designed versus one from a third party with whom the target person was not shared. Our findings suggest that the comprehension system takes advantage of regularities in the environment to minimize effortful computation about who knows what.

  5. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  6. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,” the...

  7. 77 FR 189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... Architecture includes brand- name IT equipment, this fact will be a critical element in the brand- name... 2006-0020, Sequence 26] RIN 9000-AK55 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications... Management and Budget memoranda on brand-name specifications. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR...

  8. An annotated catalogue of the generic names of the Bromeliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, J.R.; Zijlstra, G.

    1998-01-01

    An annotated catalogue of the known generic names of the Bromeliaceae is presented. It accounts for 187 names in six lists: I. Generic names (133), II. Invalid names (7), III. A synonymized checklist of the genera of the Bromeliaceae (56 accepted genera, and 77 synonyms), IV. Nothogenera (bigeneric

  9. An Exploratory Study Of The Meaning And Perception Of Names ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, personal names particularly indigenous names are not arbitrarily given, they bear significant connotative meanings, reflecting the circumstance surrounding the birth of the bearer and the belief and philosophy of the name giver. The significance placed on names gives it immense psychological undertones.

  10. Is visual attention automatically attracted to one's own name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, C; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Houmann, K J

    1997-01-01

    Subjects were presented with briefly exposed visual displays of words that were common first names with a length of four to six letters. In the main experiment, each display consisted of four words: two names shown in red and two shown in white. The subject's task was to report the red names (tar......, visual attention was not automatically attracted by the subject's own name....

  11. Parents' Perspectives on Adopting English Names in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Yen; Ke, I-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of English names in Taiwan through questionnaires and interviews with parents of junior high school students. In total, 564 parents filled out a questionnaire regarding their adoption of an English name, reasons for needing an English name, and their perspectives about their child's English name. We interviewed…

  12. Changes to the scientific and common names of southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additions and changes to the scientific and common names of southern African freshwater fishes made since 1993, are recorded and explained. Nineteen new scientific names are listed including five new species, three genus-name changes, three species-name changes and four new records from the area.

  13. Gender and meaning in Igbo romantic pet names | Anyanwu | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meaning in names is a cultural matter. Igbo names are mostly symbolic or metaphoric in meaning. Romantic pet names, by their nature, have a gender bias in most cultures of the world, as also in the Igbo language and culture, depending on the situation of usage. Igbo names have gender markers and this, to some extent, ...

  14. The proper name as starting point for basic reading skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both-De Vries, Anna C.; Bus, Adriana G

    Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5(1/2)-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of

  15. Revisiting the Judicially Changed Personal Names in Ethiopia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents some sociolinguistic observations on the impact of changing political, economic and sociocultural factors on names and naming practices in different administrative regions of Ethiopia. The approach is contrastive by which we compare judicially-changed personal names during three periods, namely ...

  16. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  17. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability....

  18. Place-names of Barra in the Outer Hebrides

    OpenAIRE

    Stahl, Anke-Beate

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to examine the nomenclature of the Barra Isles by investigating the distribution and interaction of Norse, Gaelic and English name-forming elements. Consideration is given to the historical, political and economic reasons for changes in placenames, and the language situation is assessed. In a theory-based chapter the function of names, naming strategies, name changes, and reasons for loss of names are examined. The main thrust is to compile a gaze...

  19. Contramine - Reciting names (Reciting the names of the victims of history)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runia, E

    2006-01-01

    Because it ostentatiously refrains from giving meaning and yet somehow is satisfactory, the recent commemorative strategy of reciting the names of the victims of history does not square well with the (meaning-oriented, representationalist) paradigm of modern historiography. In this essay my thesis

  20. Group Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation on Action Naming in Bilingual Anomic Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambanaros, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Verb production in sentences was investigated in two groups of late bilingual Greek-English speakers: individuals with anomic aphasia and a control group. Verb retrieval in sentences was significantly impaired in both languages for the individuals with anomic aphasia. Additional results revealed no effect of instrumentality on action naming in…

  1. Systematic feature evaluation for gene name recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenberg, Jörg; Bickel, Steffen; Plake, Conrad; Brefeld, Ulf; Zahn, Hagen; Faulstich, Lukas; Leser, Ulf; Scheffer, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    In task 1A of the BioCreAtIvE evaluation, systems had to be devised that recognize words and phrases forming gene or protein names in natural language sentences. We approach this problem by building a word classification system based on a sliding window approach with a Support Vector Machine, combined with a pattern-based post-processing for the recognition of phrases. The performance of such a system crucially depends on the type of features chosen for consideration by the classification method, such as pre- or postfixes, character n-grams, patterns of capitalization, or classification of preceding or following words. We present a systematic approach to evaluate the performance of different feature sets based on recursive feature elimination, RFE. Based on a systematic reduction of the number of features used by the system, we can quantify the impact of different feature sets on the results of the word classification problem. This helps us to identify descriptive features, to learn about the structure of the problem, and to design systems that are faster and easier to understand. We observe that the SVM is robust to redundant features. RFE improves the performance by 0.7%, compared to using the complete set of attributes. Moreover, a performance that is only 2.3% below this maximum can be obtained using fewer than 5% of the features.

  2. BDNLS - BESSY device name location service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.; Laux, P.; Mueller, R.

    2012-01-01

    Initially the relational database (RDB) for control system configuration at BESSY has been built around the device concept. Maintenance and consistency issues as well as complexity of scripts generating the configuration data, triggered the development of a novel, generic RDB structure based on hierarchies of named nodes with attribute/ value pairs. Unfortunately, it turned out that usability of this generic RDB structure for a comprehensive configuration management relies on sophisticated data maintenance tools. On this background BDNLS, a new database management tool, is currently under development using the framework of the Eclipse Rich Client Platform. It uses the Model View Controller (MVC) layer of JFace to cleanly separate retrieval processes, data path, data visualization and actualization. It is based on extensible configurations defined in XML allowing to chain SQL calls and compose profiles for various cases. It solves the problem of data key forwarding to the subsequent SQL statement. BDNLS has the potential to map various levels of complexity into the XML configurations. This provides usable, tailored database access to configuration maintainers for different underlying database structures. Based on Eclipse, the integration of BDNLS into Control System Studio is straight forward. (authors)

  3. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  4. Re-naming D Double Prime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    "Knowledge about the dynamics of the D double prime region is a key to unlock some fundamental mysteries of the Earth heat engine which governs a wide range of global geophysical processes from tectonics to geodynamo." This benign sentence makes complete sense to many geophysicists. But for many others, it makes sense all except the odd nomenclature "D double prime". One knows about the crust, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core, but where is the D double prime region? What meaning does it try to convey? Where is D prime region, or D, or A, B, C regions for that matter, and are there higher-order primes? How does such an odd name come about anyway? D double prime, or more "simply" D", is a generic designation given to the thin shell, about 200 km thick, of the lowermost mantle just above the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth. Incidentally, whether D" is "simpler" than "D double prime" depends on whether you are pronouncing it or writing/typing it; and D" can be confusing to readers in distinguishing quotation marks (such as in the above sentences) and second derivatives, and to word processors in spelling check and indexing.

  5. Sarcocystinae: nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, J K; Heydorn, A O; Mehlhorn, H; Rommel, M

    1979-02-28

    Examination of the original descriptions of the species of Sarcocystis in cattle, sheep, and swine, and of isosporid oocysts shed sporulated by dogs, cats, man, and other carnivores, has shown that it is not possible in most instances to identify unambiguously recently recognized taxa. The original descriptions are insufficient, and because no type specimens exist, could apply to two or more of the presently recognized taxa. We consider the following nomina dubia: Sarcocystis hirsuta S. miescheriana S. tenella S. cruzi S. bertrami Isospora bigemina (S. bigemina) I. hominis (S. hominis) I. buteonis (Frenkelia buteonis) Because the former type species, Sarcocystis miescheriana, is an indeterminate nomen dubium, we are proposing S. muris as the new type species. Historically, it was the first species described clearly and unambiguously even in the light of present knowledge, and the stages of its life cycle are probably completely known; it was the second species to be named. Old and recent descriptions are reviewed, and definitions are proposed for the following taxa: S. bovifelis S. bovicanis S. bovihominis S. ovifelis S. ovicanis S. muris (type species) S. suihominis S. suicanis S. equicanis Frenkelia microti F. glareoli for which neotypes will be prepared and deposited with designated institutions and curators. A new subfamily, Cystoisosporinae, is created.

  6. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  7. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States Share: On This Page ... Prevention) released new findings on Americans' use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The findings are from the 2007 National ...

  8. Choking Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home ...

  9. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  10. Temporal Features of the Differentiation between Self-Name and Religious Leader Name among Christians: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing neuroimaging studies have shown that religion, as a subjective culture, can influence self-referential processing. However, the time course of this impact remains unclear. The present study examined how Christians process their own names, the name of their religious leader (i.e., Jesus, and a famous person’s name (i.e., Yao Ming. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed a name-color judgment task for these three names. The behavioral data showed no significant differences in reaction time or accuracy among the names. However, the ERP data showed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes elicited by the self-name and religious leader name were larger than those elicited by the famous name. Furthermore, the self-name also elicited a larger P300 amplitude than the religious leader name did. These results suggested that both the self-name and the religious leader name were processed preferentially due to their important social value for the self as compared to a generally famous name. Importantly, the dissociation between the self-name and the religious leader name was observed at a high-order cognitive stage, which might be attributed to their different roles in one’s self-concept.

  11. Temporal Features of the Differentiation between Self-Name and Religious Leader Name among Christians: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ruixue; Jin, Ruijie; Yong, Lin; Li, Shaodong; Li, Shifeng; Zhou, Aibao

    2017-01-01

    Existing neuroimaging studies have shown that religion, as a subjective culture, can influence self-referential processing. However, the time course of this impact remains unclear. The present study examined how Christians process their own names, the name of their religious leader (i.e., Jesus), and a famous person's name (i.e., Yao Ming). Behavioral and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed a name-color judgment task for these three names. The behavioral data showed no significant differences in reaction time or accuracy among the names. However, the ERP data showed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes elicited by the self-name and religious leader name were larger than those elicited by the famous name. Furthermore, the self-name also elicited a larger P300 amplitude than the religious leader name did. These results suggested that both the self-name and the religious leader name were processed preferentially due to their important social value for the self as compared to a generally famous name. Importantly, the dissociation between the self-name and the religious leader name was observed at a high-order cognitive stage, which might be attributed to their different roles in one's self-concept.

  12. Naming taxa from cladograms: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The recent publication of a new hypothesis of cladistic relationships among American frogs referred to the genus Rana, accompanied by a new taxonomy and a new nomenclature of this group [Hillis D.M., Wilcox, T.P., 2005. Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34, 299-314], draws attention to the problems posed by the use of a "double nomenclature", following both the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (designated here as "onomatophore-based nomenclature") and the rules of the draft Phylocode (designated here as "definition-based nomenclature"). These two nomenclatural systems, which rely upon widely different theoretical bases, are incompatible, and the latter cannot be viewed as a "modification" of the former. Accordingly, scientific names (nomina) following both systems should be clearly distinguished in scientific publications. Onomatophore-based nomina should continue to be written as they have been for about 250 years, whereas definition-based nomina should be written in a specific way, e.g., Lithobates. The combined use of both nomenclatural systems for the same taxonomy in the same paper requires good knowledge and careful respect of the rules of the Code regarding availability, allocation and validity of nomina. As shown by this example, not doing so may result in various problems, in particular in publishing nomina nuda or in using nomenclatural ranks invalid under the current Code. Attention is drawn to the fact that new nomina published without diagnostic characters are not available under the Code, and that the latter currently forbids the use of more than two ranks (subgenus and "aggregate of species") between the ranks genus and species.

  13. Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: The role of cognitive control and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Crowther

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span, lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference, and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle were negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production.

  14. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  15. The National Geographic Names Data Base: Phase II instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.; Payne, Roger L.

    1987-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System is a computer-based information system developed to meet major national needs by providing information for named entities in the United States, its territories, and outlying areas. The National Geographic Names Data Base, a component of the Geographic Names Information System, currently contains most names and associated information recorded on the 1:24,000-scale (or largest scale available) topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey. The work involved in this initial compilation of names shown on the topographic-map series, and the development and editing of the National Geographic Names Data Base, is referred to as Phase I. Optimal use and effectiveness of an automated names system require that the names of features

  16. Ubiquitous place names Standardization and study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F. Lauder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Place names play a vital role in human society. Names exist in all languages and place names are an indispensible part of international communication. This has been acknowledged by the establishment of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN. One of UNGEGN’s tasks is to coordinate international efforts on the proper use of place names. Indonesia supports this effort and through its National Geospatial Agency (BIG. Place names are also of interest as an object of study in themselves. Academic studies into place names are found in linguistics, onomastics, philosophy and a number of other academic disciplines. This article looks at these two dimensions of place names, standardization efforts under the auspices of international and national bodies, and academic studies of names, with particular reference to the situation in Indonesia.

  17. Botanical Names Associated with Dr. Shiu Ying Hu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R. Brach

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A search of the International Plant Names Index for records associated with Dr. Hu Shiu Ying (1910-2012, revealed that 250 plants within 35 families were named by her, and one genus and seven species were named in her honor. Her own collections served as type specimens for 22 plant names. In the 1950s, Shiu Ying Hu produced a card file of Chinese plant names, later digitized in the 1990s as “The Hu Card Index,” which provided data for previously non-indexed infraspecific names. Dr. Hu is recognized for her contributions to China’s flora.

  18. Age of acquisition and word frequency in written picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Chalard, M

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects in both spoken and written picture naming. In the first two experiments, reliable AoA effects on object naming speed, with objective word frequency controlled for, were found in both spoken (Experiment 1) and written picture naming (Experiment 2). In contrast, no reliable objective word frequency effects were observed on naming speed, with AoA controlled for, in either spoken (Experiment 3) or written (Experiment 4) picture naming. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are briefly discussed.

  19. What Does the Name “Pegida” stand for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Kirn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The text analyzes the emergence of the extreme right-wing movement Pegida in Germany; on the one hand, the author takes a look at Pegida through the strategy of culturalisation, i.e., the displacement of class antagonism that predominantly takes form in Islamophobia and hatred of immigrants, while simoultaneously obfuscating the long-term effects of a class compromise after 2002 with which the German context saw the introduction of gradual regime of neoliberal austerity. The analysis of neoliberal regime can be useful also to understand the relative “success” of the German economy in the current crisis. It is argued that Pegida is not simply an abberation from the official politics, and it is not simply a name that stands for unreflected and “concerned citizens” as the dominant politicians and media defined them. Rather, Pegida should be understood as a symptom of the austerity regime that intesified exploitation of working classes and deepened social inequalities across Germany; also, Pegida is a right-wing political response to a higher economic insecurity within the EU crisis, and that at least to some degree took shape in the new political party AfD (Alternative for Germany.

  20. Lectotypification of Five Names in Carex L. (Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Jana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Five names in Carex L. (Cyperaceae, namely C. fluviatilis Boott, C. vulpinaris Nees, C. thomsonii Boott, C. teinogyna Boott, C. longicruris Nees are lectotypified as a part of the revisionary study of this genus in India.

  1. Named Entity Extraction and Disambiguation from an Uncertainty Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This work addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost no

  2. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    OpenAIRE

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with superimposed semantically related or unrelated distractor words, semantic interference in naming tends to be constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the tone stimulus and the pic...

  3. 27 CFR 41.221 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 41.221 Section 41.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a trade name used...

  4. 27 CFR 44.102 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 44.102 Section 44.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.102 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an...

  5. 27 CFR 478.53 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 478....53 Change in trade name. A licensee continuing to conduct business at the location shown on his license is not required to obtain a new license by reason of a mere change in trade name under which he...

  6. 27 CFR 40.92 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 40.92 Section 40.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Changes in Name § 40.92 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance...

  7. 27 CFR 555.56 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 555... trade name. A licensee or permittee continuing to conduct business or operations at the location shown... in trade name under which he conducts his business or operations. However, the licensee or permittee...

  8. Taxonomic Significance of Some Vernacular names of Okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the folk criteria used by farmers to name their local okra varieties and also to assess the taxonomic significance of vernacular names in the identification and classification of these okra varieties in Ghana. Forty two okra accessions and their vernacu-lar names were obtained from PGRRI, ...

  9. Sociolinguistic import of name-clipping among Omambala cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the perceived but obvious manifestation of name-clipping among Omambala cultural zone of Anambra State. This situation has given rise to distortion of names and most often, to either mis-interpretation or complete loss of the original and full meanings of the names. This situation of misinterpretation is ...

  10. 27 CFR 44.85 - Trade name certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 44.85 Section 44.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Proprietors § 44.85 Trade name certificate. Every person, before commencing business under a trade name as an...

  11. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV 1996...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of products...

  13. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of...

  14. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by make...

  15. Acts of naming: The detective plot in Masondo's fiction | Mhlambi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Masondo's acts of naming as a literary device are peculiar and unconventional. Similar names for characters migrate across all his detective narratives, representing varying personalities, psychologies and emotional states. He achieves this by using familiar names, not to create stereotypes and archetypes, but to ...

  16. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with

  17. A Semantic and Pragmatic Analyses of Igbo Names

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selected personal names were grouped structurally according to their forms in the following order: lexical (or mono- ... Name is as important to the Igbo as the birth of a child because the parents express all their expectations ... their mind to God, the giver of the child and as a result, such names are carefully selected so as to ...

  18. A Note on Name Individuation and Identifying Descriptions | Smit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In “Public Proper names and Idiolectical Identifying Descriptions”, Glezakos (2009) puts forward a theory concerning the role of identifying descriptions in the theory of names. Her main claim is that such identifying descriptions serve to individuate names, i.e. to make it the case that a given linguistic act containing a ...

  19. A new name and a new synonym in Miconia (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Goldenberg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The name Miconia densiflora Cogniaux is a later homonym of M. densiflora (Gardner Naudin, but since we propose it as a taxonomic synoym of M. caudata (Bonpl. DC., we do not provide a new name. The name Miconia longicuspis Herzog is a later homonym of M. longicuspis Cogn. and we here propose its replacement by M. longicuspidata Renner & R.Goldenb.

  20. How Does Using Object Names Influence Visual Recognition Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Two recent lines of research suggest that explicitly naming objects at study influences subsequent memory for those objects at test. Lupyan (2008) suggested that naming "impairs" memory by a representational shift of stored representations of named objects toward the prototype (labeling effect). MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko (2010)…

  1. 21 CFR 299.4 - Established names for drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... USAN adopted name listed in USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names. The Food and Drug Administration... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Established names for drugs. 299.4 Section 299.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS...

  2. Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center is EPA's primary resource for services and expertise in the areas of consensus-building, collaborative problem solving, alternative dispute resolution, and environmental collaboration and conflict resolution.

  3. The effects of sildenafil after chronic L-NAME administration in male rat sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcia M D; Quintella, Suelen L; Parcial, André L N; Ferraz, Marcos R

    2016-01-01

    Ferraz MMD, Quintella SL, Parcial ALN, Ferraz MR. The effects of sildenafil citrate and L-NAME on male rat sexual behaviour. PHARMACOL BIOCHEM BEHAV. Erectile dysfunction (ED) affects up to 50% of men between 40 and 70years of age. Significant advances in the pharmacological treatment of ED occurred in recent years, most notably the introduction of the first oral selective phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, sildenafil. This study investigated the effectiveness of chronic oral treatment with L-NAME in rats as an experimental model of erectile dysfunction to evaluate new pharmacological agents that affect the sexual response. The effects of chronic oral L-NAME treatment, separately or in combination with sildenafil, on the sexual behaviour of male rats were evaluated. Filtered water was used as a control. Acute administration of L-NAME did not alter the sexual response compared with control, but sildenafil administration facilitated sexual behaviour after acute and chronic administration. Chronic L-NAME treatment inhibited motivational and consummatory measures of male rat sexual behaviour. Sildenafil prevented the inhibitory effects of L-NAME. The present results confirm that chronic oral treatment with a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor may be a relevant peripheral ED model to evaluate the effects of drugs on erectile function of male rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  5. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAmong other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word. A significant number of names (61.3% failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  6. Indexing concepts and/or named entities Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partire da un punto di vista semantico più che morfologico, l'articolo è focalizzato il problema del significato dei nomi propri, con contributi della filosofia del linguaggio e della linguistica semantica. Sono indagate le entità individuali: il loro isolamento all’interno della rete di soggetti e la relazione esemplificativa, il trattamento nelle classificazioni. Le profonde diversità rilevate fra concetti e entità denominate suggeriscono di dichiararle esplicitamente da un punto di vista teorico e di adottare dispositivi che diano risultati unitari ma chiaramente distinguibili nei sistemi di recupero dell’informazione.  
    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

    Starting from a semantic rather than form a morphological point of view, the essay examines the problem of the meaning of proper names, with contributions coming from the philosophy of language and the semantic linguistics. Individual entities are explored: the way they are isolated in the thread of subjects, the illustrative relation, and the classification treatment. The deep differences between concepts and called entities suggest to declare them specifically in a theoretical way, and to adopt devices that lead to uniform but noticeable results in information retrieval systems.
    This article has been discussed as "Indexing concepts and/or named entities" to the 11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Rome, 23-26 February 2010, here extended since it is not published in the conference proceedings.

  7. Inventing and naming America:  Place and Place Names in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Manolescu-Oancea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the afterword to Lolita, Nabokov claimed that in this book he had to invent both Lolita and America after having invented Europe in his previous fiction. This paper focuses precisely on the various ways in which Nabokov “invented” America in his best-known novel. This invention is first of all the result of the author’s evolving stance on the complexity of what he called “average ‘reality’” in his works. Through a survey of Nabokov’s statements on the choice and role of place in the forewords to his Russian works and in his critical texts, I show that Lolita is indeed considered by Nabokov to be a “recreation” of American reality, to a much greater extent than his Russian works had been recreations of a given milieu. I take the metaphor of the “crazy quilt” mentioned in Lolita to suggest complexity, chromatic exuberance, hybridity. The invention of America is also the result of a process of naming. Place names will be examined, not only those which make up Quilty’s “cryptogrammic paperchase”, but also Humbert’s choice of place names. The problem of referentiality is discussed and the way recent criticism has dealt with it. Finally, the interplay between one and many is emphasized, the way in which the diversity of the “crazy quilt” is counterbalanced by the uniqueness of the mastermind having produced it. The American motto “From many make one” could be reinterpreted as “From one make many”.

  8. Alternative Refractive Surgery Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the epithelial cells. Once the epithelial flap is created and moved aside, the procedure is the same ... Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery * Required * First Name: * Last Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * ...

  9. A Man with No Name, or Too Many Names if You Think About it

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Danvir

    2014-01-01

    Danvir. Jimmy. Danny V. Danny V & the Bumblebees. Danny Valentine. Double D. Deezus. D Weezy. DJ Takeover. Or ahh forget it. From lowly beginnings as a Window cleaner in Tin Pan Alley-era New York City singing "hello hello Tokio" to an "inn-keeper" in the countryside waxing rhapsodically about his famous battles while those around him push his buttons, this man with numerous names has had the opportunity to experience multiple worlds and the challenges that each of these bring up for the acto...

  10. [Anatomical names of skeletal tubers and tubercles: analysis and classification of Latin names, and comparison with corresponding English and Japanese names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Sato, Tatsuo

    2009-03-01

    For better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of possible need for future revision, Latin anatomical names (Terminologia Anatomica) of the skeletal tubers and tubercles were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding English and Japanese anatomical names. The words following Tuber indicated: (1) the structure to which the tuber belongs; or (2) location of the tuber. The words following Tuberculum indicated: (1) the structure to which the tubercle belongs; (2) location of the tubercle; (3) the structure attached to the tubercle; (4) the structure that exists near the tubercle; (5) the structure that passes near the tubercle; (6) the structure of which the tubercle is a component; (7) the relative size of the tubercle; (8) the relative position of the tubercle; or (9) the non-relative position ofthe tubercle. Analysis of Latin names and comparison with English and Japanese names clarified some characteristics of those names and revealed some problems in them.

  11. Name Stanislaus (Stanisław in Slavic Onomastic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Sowa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available St. Stanislaus, bishop and martyr, is one of the few saints of the Church bearing a traditional Slavic name. It belongs to an Indo-European Anthroponomastic system as a compound name whose components represent a pattern inherited from the period of the Indo-European community. This is a fortune-telling name (a nomen-omen given to a child on a wish of the parents, who wanted him to be famous (Polish ‘slawa’ means ‘fame’- Today, in our Christian culture, in choosing a name for the child we consider the following: 1 the child ‘brought’ his/her name (i.e. is given the name of the day’s patron; this is the gist of our ‘nameday’, 2 a family tradition, 3 respect for the grandfather or father (grandmother, mother, 4 fashion. Today’s anthroponomastic system in Slavic languages (except Bulgarian has grown cold leaving us unable to acquire precise understanding of the meaning of the name. Besides, nowadays names only denote, they do not mean anything. Compound Slavic names refer in their structure to names from other groups of the Indo-European community and are closely linked with a nation’s spiritual culture and appropriate ultimate and instrumental values. In Indo-European languages a different number of lexical components is used in names as their first or second part: in Old Indian - 865; in Old Persian and Median - 43; in Greek - 1015; in the Celtic group - 336; the German one - 1800 and in the Slavic group - 220. The most numerous in Old Polish anthroponomastics were names with the component slaw. As the first component - slaw appears in 4 names, and as the second, in 100. This component has appeared from times immemorial in Indian, Avestan, Greek and Illyrian names. Name Stanislaus is known in all Slavic countries, while its feminine form only in Polish, Bulgarian, Serb and Croatian. In Poland it has been in use since very old times up to now. Numerous surnames and names of places derive from it. The popularity of the name

  12. Datziinae as a new subfamily name for the unavailable name Protopsychodinae Stebner et al., 2015, (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stebner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper a new subfamily of Psychodidae was inadequately named Protopsychodinae. This nomenclatural act cannot be considered as a valid name under ICZN regulations because the subfamily name is not based on the type genus Datzia Stebner et al., 2015, and furthermore the fossil genus Protopsychoda Azar et al., 1999 was originally described under the subfamily Psychodinae. Therefore, the new family-group name Datziinae is herein proposed.

  13. Effects of Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitor Named, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arfaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Recently, the findings of some studies have shown that, nitric oxide (NO probably has an important role in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nitric oxide production inhibitor named, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, on rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro. Materials & Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009, in which rat bone marrow stem cells were isolated in an aseptic condition and cultured in vitro. After third passage, the cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. To study the effects of L-NAME on osteogenic differentiation, the L-NAME was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 125, 250, and 500 μM in some culture plates. During the culture procedure, the media were replaced with fresh ones, with a three days interval. After 28 days of culturing the mineralized matrix was stained using Alizarian red staining method. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software version 12 using one way ANOVA. Results: The findings of this study showed that in the presence of L-NAME, differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts was disordered and matrix mineralization significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study revealed that, inhibition of nitric oxide production using L-NAME can prevent the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast. The results imply that NO is an important constituent in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblasts.

  14. Naming as Strategic Communication: Understanding Corporate Name Change through an Integrative Framework Encompassing Branding, Identity and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  15. Robust hybrid name disambiguation framework for large databases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2013-10-26

    In many databases, science bibliography database for example, name attribute is the most commonly chosen identifier to identify entities. However, names are often ambiguous and not always unique which cause problems in many fields. Name disambiguation is a non-trivial task in data management that aims to properly distinguish different entities which share the same name, particularly for large databases like digital libraries, as only limited information can be used to identify authors\\' name. In digital libraries, ambiguous author names occur due to the existence of multiple authors with the same name or different name variations for the same person. Also known as name disambiguation, most of the previous works to solve this issue often employ hierarchical clustering approaches based on information inside the citation records, e.g. co-authors and publication titles. In this paper, we focus on proposing a robust hybrid name disambiguation framework that is not only applicable for digital libraries but also can be easily extended to other application based on different data sources. We propose a web pages genre identification component to identify the genre of a web page, e.g. whether the page is a personal homepage. In addition, we propose a re-clustering model based on multidimensional scaling that can further improve the performance of name disambiguation. We evaluated our approach on known corpora, and the favorable experiment results indicated that our proposed framework is feasible. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  16. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/sexual- ...

  17. Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This photograph ... medications to treat a dengue infection. This makes prevention the most important step, and prevention means avoiding ...

  18. Continuing our organizational mission: A new name for a new time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Deborah Klein; Kilmer, Ryan P; Armstrong, Mary I

    2017-01-01

    This editorial explains the need for a new name for the American Orthopsychiatric Association (ORTHO). As ORTHO continues their work into the 21st century, they want to better reflect their global membership and focus, increasing the number of partnerships with individuals and organizations, and commitment to a just society. Therefore, ORTHO is changing their name to the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice. It is crucial to underscore that, although the organizations name is changing, the values and principles that inform their work will remain the same. The mission statement of the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice is "to inform policy, practice, and research to prevent behavioral health disorders and to promote conditions to ensure that people with disorders can be full participants in society." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Improving compliance with hormonal replacement therapy in primary osteoporosis prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P; Gram, J

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule.......To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule....

  20. Temporal Features of the Differentiation between Self-Name and Religious Leader Name among Christians: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ruixue Xia; Ruixue Xia; Ruijie Jin; Ruijie Jin; Lin Yong; Lin Yong; Shaodong Li; Shaodong Li; Shifeng Li; Shifeng Li; Aibao Zhou; Aibao Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Existing neuroimaging studies have shown that religion, as a subjective culture, can influence self-referential processing. However, the time course of this impact remains unclear. The present study examined how Christians process their own names, the name of their religious leader (i.e., Jesus), and a famous person’s name (i.e., Yao Ming). Behavioral and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed a name-color judgment task for these three names. The behavioral data showed no sig...

  1. The role of typography in differentiating look-alike/sound-alike drug names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, when errors occurred in the course of caring for patients, blame was assigned to the healthcare professionals closest to the incident rather than examining the larger system and the actions that led up to the event. Now, the medical profession is embracing expertise and methodologies used in other fields to improve its own systems in relation to patient safety issues. This exploratory study, part of a Master's of Design thesis project, was a response to the problem of errors that occur due to confusion between look-alike/sound-alike drug names (medication names that have orthographic and/or phonetic similarities). The study attempts to provide a visual means to help differentiate problematic names using formal typographic and graphic cues. The FDA's Name Differentiation Project recommendations and other typographic alternatives were considered to address issues of attention and cognition. Eleven acute care nurses participated in testing that consisted of word-recognition tasks and questions intended to elicit opinions regarding the visual treatment of look-alike/sound-alike names in the context of a label prototype. Though limited in sample size, testing provided insight into the kinds of typographic differentiation that might be effective in a high-risk situation.

  2. Plague Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Reduce rodent habitat around your ...

  3. PENGATURAN PASSING OFF DALAM PENGGUNAAN DOMAIN NAME TERKAIT DENGAN MEREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Yunita Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cyber world we often hear about domain name’s term. Domain name is a unique name to identify the server computer’s name like a web server or email server on a computer network or Internet. Passing off also make causes confusion in using merk from a famous brand or merk on the goods and services. Selected domain name in the internet media often creates the similar domain name with the other parties. This similar domain name are often used by people who are not responsible to take advantages of the domain name for themself. This can be caused by the presence of competition from Internet media business. This things called passing off. This research is a normative juridical research with a qualitative analysis. The legal materials include primary legal, secondary law and tertiary legal materials. Collection technique applied is literary study. Legal materials were analyzed to see the argument implementation of the definition of merk, the definition of domain name, definition of passing off, passing off in use related by merk and domain name and the rules of law in Indonesia related by merk, domain name and passing off. Big wishes in the future it can assist as a basic reference and legal considerations which are useful in Indonesian law practice. There are two passing off related to the merk and domain name, called Crybersquatting and Tiposquatting. Domain name rules are not regulated clearly in merk regulation named Act No. 15 of 2001. It regulated in PP 24 Year 1993 about The Class List of Goods or Services In Merk, Telecommunications are included in the goods or services in merk. Domain name are regulated in UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy with competent institutions called ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Dalam dunia maya (cyber world, kita sering mendengar istilah domain name. Domain name adalah nama unik yang diberikan untuk mengidentifikasi nama server komputer seperti web server atau email server di

  4. Semantic Web Compatible Names and Descriptions for Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Wilson, N.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Modern scientific names are critical for understanding the biological literature and provide a valuable way to understand evolutionary relationships. To validly publish a name, a description is required to separate the described group of organisms from those described by other names at the same level of the taxonomic hierarchy. The frequent revision of descriptions due to new evolutionary evidence has lead to situations where a single given scientific name may over time have multiple descriptions associated with it and a given published description may apply to multiple scientific names. Because of these many-to-many relationships between scientific names and descriptions, the usage of scientific names as a proxy for descriptions is inevitably ambiguous. Another issue lies in the fact that the precise application of scientific names often requires careful microscopic work, or increasingly, genetic sequencing, as scientific names are focused on the evolutionary relatedness between and within named groups such as species, genera, families, etc. This is problematic to many audiences, especially field biologists, who often do not have access to the instruments and tools required to make identifications on a microscopic or genetic basis. To better connect scientific names to descriptions and find a more convenient way to support computer assisted identification, we proposed the Semantic Vernacular System, a novel naming system that creates named, machine-interpretable descriptions for groups of organisms, and is compatible with the Semantic Web. Unlike the evolutionary relationship based scientific naming system, it emphasizes the observable features of organisms. By independently naming the descriptions composed of sets of observational features, as well as maintaining connections to scientific names, it preserves the observational data used to identify organisms. The system is designed to support a peer-review mechanism for creating new names, and uses a controlled

  5. Current Trends in Name Giving among Bulgarians: A Study of the Names of Newborns in the Sofia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Vlahova-Angelova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article showcases a large-scale study of the modern Bulgarian anthroponymic system conducted by the Applied Onomastics section of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Institute for the Bulgarian Language (IBL with the aim of revealing the current trends in the choice of personal names by the Bulgarians at the beginning of the 21st century. The study focuses on personal names of Bulgarians born in 2010 in the Sofia region, as extracted from the Unified System of Civil Registration and Administrative Services of the Population of the Republic of Bulgaria. The total number of births this year was 1,005, of which 51.5% were boys, 48.5% were girls. Statistical and linguistic analysis of names allowed to measure the popularity of both individual personal names and different name types. It shows the quantitative ratio between most commonly chosen names and those of a singular use in relation to the total number of anthroponyms in the corpus, and proves that the male names are more sustainable in terms of usage than female. The derivational and etymological analysis of personal names helped to identify the productive word-formation types of names and the so-called “unisex names,” to distinguish between the native Bulgarian and the borrowed foreign names, as well as to classify graphic and phonetic variants of the same anthroponym. A number of quantitative comparisons were made between certain categories of names, for example, between compound (two-stem personal names (such as Miroslav and simple names (such as Biser, showing the ratio of the two-component personal names (such as Anna-Maria to the rest of the anthroponyms. It was found that the Bulgarian anthroponymic system in the beginning of the 21st century is more open to the non-adapted foreign names (like Mishel, Nancy, shows wider usage of diminutive “unisex names” (Moni, Stephy, Toni, as well as the growing popularity of shortened forms used as official names (Alex, Boni, Pepi, and the

  6. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  7. Category-specific difficulty naming with verbs in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, K M; Grossman, M; White-Devine, T; D'Esposito, M

    1996-07-01

    We studied 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) on a picture-naming task consisting of frequency-matched pairs of nouns and verbs that were homophonic and homographic (e.g., paint). Intragroup comparisons revealed that verb naming is significantly more difficult for patients with AD than noun naming. An error analysis demonstrated that patients with AD produce significantly more semantic and descriptive errors for verbs than nouns. We correlated verb naming and noun naming with measures of grammatical comprehension, lexical retrieval, and visuoperceptual processing, but there were no selective effects for verbs compared with nouns. Differences in the mental representation of concepts underlying verbs and nouns may account, in part, for the relative difficulty naming with verbs in AD.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how...... the regularity or irregularity of number naming affects children’s formation of number concepts and arithmetic performance. We investigate this issue by reviewing relevant literature and undertaking a design research project addressing the specific irregularities of the Danish number names. In this project......, a second, regular set of number names is introduced in primary school. The study’s findings suggest that the regularity of number names influences the development of number concepts and creates a positive impact on the understanding of the base-10 system....

  9. Alternatives to Institutional Care of the Elderly: beyond the Dichotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L.; Kane, Rosalie A.

    1980-01-01

    The growth in the demand for long-term care services and accompanying cost implications have spurred interest in alternatives to nursing homes. The rationale for such alternatives is a mixture of prevention, displacement, and deinstitutionalization; none may result. The alternative may prove to be additive rather than substitutive. (Author)

  10. Standardized SSR allele naming and binning among projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Dennis L; Nelson, C Dana

    2010-11-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have proven to be extremely valuable DNA markers for genetic mapping and population genetic analyses. However, data collected across laboratories or even within laboratories are difficult to combine due to challenges in standardizing allele names, especially for nonmodel systems. Here we provide a new approach for standardizing SSR allele names that combines several previously recognized components for standardization, including reference samples/alleles, cumulative binsets, static between-allele spacing, and interval allele naming.

  11. A new name and a new synonym in Miconia (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Susanne S.; Goldenberg, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The name Miconia densiflora Cogn. (1886) is a later homonym of Miconia densiflora (Gardner) Naudin (1851), but since we propose it as a taxonomic synonym of Miconia caudata (Bonpl.) DC. (1828), we do not provide a new name. The name Miconia longicuspis Herzog (1909) is a later homonym of Miconia longicuspis Cogn. (1891) and we here propose its replacement by Miconia longicuspidata S.S. Renner & R. Goldenb. PMID:22171177

  12. Urbanonymic Design: On the Naming of City Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Golomidova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problems of naming and renaming of municipal facilities: streets, squares, parks, public gardens, etc. The author’s reflections rest upon her personal experience as a member of the Facilities Naming Committee of the city of Ekaterinburg. The article seeks to suggest a new approach to the solution of controversial issues of naming city facilities based on territory branding and city image design and promotion concepts. Place names are thus considered as an important informational and communicational resource of creation of a city’s image which means that the naming of concrete city facilities should rely on a holistic urbanonymic conception defining basic features of the city’s identity and ordering themes to be reflected in names. The author argues that the rational long-term urbanonymic policy implies the existence of a consistent image-making strategy. In this case the process of naming and its results could be characterized in terms of ‘urbanonymic design’ considering the naming of city facilities as a part of the construction of the city’s identity. The policy of official naming of city-owned assets must then meet the following requirements: proportionality, functionality, orientation capacity, semantic transparency, harmonicity, which constitute the most significant principles of construction of an urbanonymic system.

  13. Border collie comprehends object names as verbal referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilley, John W; Reid, Alliston K

    2011-02-01

    Four experiments investigated the ability of a border collie (Chaser) to acquire receptive language skills. Experiment 1 demonstrated that Chaser learned and retained, over a 3-year period of intensive training, the proper-noun names of 1022 objects. Experiment 2 presented random pair-wise combinations of three commands and three names, and demonstrated that she understood the separate meanings of proper-noun names and commands. Chaser understood that names refer to objects, independent of the behavior directed toward those objects. Experiment 3 demonstrated Chaser's ability to learn three common nouns--words that represent categories. Chaser demonstrated one-to-many (common noun) and many-to-one (multiple-name) name-object mappings. Experiment 4 demonstrated Chaser's ability to learn words by inferential reasoning by exclusion--inferring the name of an object based on its novelty among familiar objects that already had names. Together, these studies indicate that Chaser acquired referential understanding of nouns, an ability normally attributed to children, which included: (a) awareness that words may refer to objects, (b) awareness of verbal cues that map words upon the object referent, and (c) awareness that names may refer to unique objects or categories of objects, independent of the behaviors directed toward those objects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The determinants of spoken and written picture naming latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Chalard, Marylène; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel

    2002-02-01

    The influence of nine variables on the latencies to write down or to speak aloud the names of pictures taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) was investigated in French adults. The major determinants of both written and spoken picture naming latencies were image variability, image agreement and age of acquisition. To a lesser extent, name agreement was also found to have an impact in both production modes. The implications of the findings for theoretical views of both spoken and written picture naming are discussed.

  15. Are generic and brand-name statins clinically equivalent? Evidence from a real data-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; Arfè, Andrea; Casula, Manuela; Tragni, Elena; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe; Catapano, Alberico L

    2014-10-01

    Use of generic drugs can help contain drug spending. However, there is concern among patients and physicians that generic drugs may be clinically inferior to brand-name ones. This study aimed to compare patients treated with generic and brand-name statins in terms of therapeutic interruption and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. 13,799 beneficiaries of the health care system of Lombardy, Italy, aged 40 years or older who were newly treated with generic or brand-name simvastatin during 2008, were followed until 2011 for the occurrence of two outcomes: 1) therapeutic discontinuation and 2) hospitalization for CV events. Hazard ratios (HR) associated with use of generic or brand-name at starting therapy (intention-to-treat analysis) and during follow-up (as-treated analysis) were estimated by fitting proportional hazard Cox models. A Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis was performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Patients who started on generic did not experience a different risk of discontinuation (HR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.02) nor of CV outcomes (HR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.22) from those starting on brand-name. Patients who spent >75% of time of follow-up with statin available on generics did not experience a different risk of discontinuation (HR: 0.94; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.01), nor of CV outcomes (HR: 1.06; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.34), compared with those who mainly or only used brand-name statin. Our findings do not support the notion that in the real world clinical practice brand-name statins are superior to generics for keeping therapy and preventing CV outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. 30 CFR 285.109 - When must I notify MMS of mergers, name changes, or changes of business form?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must I notify MMS of mergers, name changes, or changes of business form? 285.109 Section 285.109 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER...

  17. 5-HT Receptor Nomenclature: Naming Names, Does It Matter? A Tribute to Maurice Rapport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Daniel

    2017-05-17

    The naming of 5-HT receptors has been challenging, especially in the early days when the concept of multiple receptors for a single neurotransmitter was considered to be unrealistic at best. Yet pharmacological (rank orders of potency in functional or biochemical settings) and transductional evidence (second messengers, electrophysiology) clearly indicated the existence of receptor families and subfamilies. The genetic revolution, with the cloning and study of recombinantly expressed receptors, and eventually the cloning of the human and other genomes have made such reservations obsolete. Further, the advances in structural biology, with the possibility to study ligand receptor complexes as crystals and/or using solution NMR have largely confirmed the complexity of the 5-HT receptor system: species differences, existence of multiple receptor active and inactive states, splice variants, editing variants, complexes with multiple interacting proteins and transduction bias. This is a short personal history on how advances in biochemistry, molecular biology, biophysics, imaging and medicinal chemistry, some lateral thinking, and a decent amount of collaborative spirit within the 5-HT receptor nomenclature committee and the 5-HT community at large have helped to better define the pharmacology of the 5-HT receptor family.

  18. Alternatives to Use of Animals in Research,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-28

    prevent unnecessary cruelty to animals . (I’ As discussed with your office, we fou --iU-ifrma-- ___ tion availab)e to enable us to adequately respond to...use of labora- tory animals . In that study, alternatives were defined as systems or procedures that could reduce the (1) number of animals used or (2...information is needed on the advantages and limitations of alternative methods and the extent of inappropriate animal experimentation before decid- ing

  19. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 4. Taxonomic diversity and species names for the genus Fragaria L.

    OpenAIRE

    В. М. Меженський

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Reviewing a history of formation and current state of the national nomenclature and streamlining the Ukrainian scientific species names for the genus Fragaria L. Results. Controversial attitudes towards the use of names «sunytsi» (= garden strawberry) and «polunytsi» (= hill strawberry) are inherently present in the Ukrainian nomenclature of the genus Fragaria L. The Ukrainian scientific names of species of this group of plants should be brought into line with the generic name “Sunyt...

  20. WHAT’S IN A NAME: The Amateur‘s View of Good Practices in Naming an Online Educational Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. ROSZKOWSKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Branding is considered to be particularly important in the marketing of online educational programs. A critical step to establishing the brand is naming the product appropriately. To this end, one can secure the services of professionals or rely on a do-it-yourself approach. The research reported here aimed to identify the features that non-professionals (graduate students consider to be important in the name for an online educational product, and to compare these to the recommendations made by naming professionals (as reported in the literature. A survey directed at current and prospective graduate students at a traditional university asked about the desirability of 16 characteristics in the name of a new line of online courses. The six characteristics that were deemed most critical are (in order of importance: self-explanatory, memorable, easy to pronounce, has appealing associations, suggests/hints at the key features, and short. These are the same features that professionals in the business of creating new product names generally consider as best practices in creating a name. The results show that contrary to the concerns expressed by some practitioners in the naming industry, college-educated individuals who do not create names for a living nonetheless demonstrate an awareness and appreciation for the features of a good name in an Internet-based course delivery system.

  1. Triangle of prevention: a union's experience promoting a systems-of-safety health and safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Cable, Steve; Cook, Linda; Drewery, Karen; Erwin, Glenn; Frederick, James; Lessin, Nancy; Ouellette, Dan; Scardella, John; Spaeth, Colin; Wright, Mike

    2012-01-01

    After years of watching company health and safety programs fail to prevent major incidents, injuries, illness, and death in industrial workplaces, union health and safety staff and rank and file activists took up the challenge of creating a union-run alternative program. Named the Triangle of Prevention (TOP), the program successfully engages both local unions and management in incident and near-miss reporting and investigation, root cause analysis, recommending and tracking solutions, and learning and sharing lessons. In all phases, TOP uses a hierarchical, systems-of-safety-based approach to hazard identification, reporting, prevention and control while aiming to engage the union, its members, and all other employees of a worksite. This article explains the foundations and workings of this program, the role of an expansive worker-to-worker training regimen, and the ways in which the program has transformed workplaces.

  2. A Theory of Name Resolution with extended Coverage and Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neron, P.J.M.; Tolmach, A.P.; Visser, E.; Wachsmuth, G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a language-independent theory for name binding and resolution, suitable for programming languages with complex scoping rules including both lexical scoping and modules. We formulate name resolution as a two stage problem. First a language-independent scope graph is constructed using

  3. 27 CFR 22.62 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 22.62 Section 22.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Original Qualification § 22.62 Change in trade name. Where there is to be a change in, or addition of, a...

  4. 27 CFR 20.61 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 20.61 Section 20.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users Changes After Original Qualification § 20.61 Change in trade name. If there is to be a...

  5. 27 CFR 19.183 - Change of trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of trade name. 19.183 Section 19.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Qualification § 19.183 Change of trade name. If there is to be a change in, or addition...

  6. Named entity recognition in a South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, AJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the process of identifying occurrences of words or expressions as belonging to a particular category of a Named Entity (NE).The aim of the project was to test the feasibility of a probabilistic NER system using...

  7. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color

  8. Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

  9. Learning people's names following severe closed-head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.

    Although problems remembering people's names rank highly among the subjective complaints of patients with closed-head injuries, very few studies have examined their memory for people's names by objective measurements. An experiment is reported in which patients with severe closed-head injuries and

  10. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93 Approval of grape variety names. (a) Any interested person may petition the Administrator for the approval...

  11. 27 CFR 40.496 - Trade name certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 40.496 Section 40.496 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Processed Tobacco § 40.496 Trade name certificate. Every person that files an application for a permit as a...

  12. 27 CFR 41.236 - Trade name certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 41.236 Section 41.236 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Processed Tobacco § 41.236 Trade name certificate. Every person that files an application for a permit as an...

  13. 27 CFR 41.195 - Trade name certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade name certificate. 41.195 Section 41.195 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Tobacco Products Importers § 41.195 Trade name certificate. Every person, before...

  14. An exploration of prerequisite Shona naming factors1 | Makondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores eleven broad factors the Shona people of Zimbabwe consider when they choose personal names namely gender, age, education, religion, nationality, residential area, namers, birth circumstances, birth order, profession and colonial administrators. Knowledge of these factors enables one to appreciate ...

  15. Name that Contraceptive! A Game for the Human Sexuality Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Martha S.

    2010-01-01

    There are many contraceptive choices available to people today. Learning about them can be dry, but the game "Name that Contraceptive!" can be a fun and interactive way to review, remember, and retain the details about contraceptive options. Name that Contraceptive is a card game in which students "bid" on the number of clues it will take them to…

  16. Famous people recognition through personal name: a normative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccininni, Chiara; Quaranta, Davide; Papagno, Costanza; Trojano, Luigi; Ferrara, Antonia; Luzzi, Simona; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Marra, Camillo; Gainotti, Guido

    2018-01-30

    In this normative study, we investigated famous people recognition through personal name, using as stimuli the names of the same 40 Italian famous persons whose faces and voices had been utilized for the normative study of the Famous People Recognition Battery. For each famous people, we assessed name familiarity, person identification (when the name had been considered as familiar), and false alarms. The investigation was carried out on 143 normal subjects who varied in age and education. Name familiarity and semantic scores were affected by educational level, whereas age influenced false alarms. A comparison between results obtained with names in this research and with faces and voices of the same famous people in our previous study showed that familiarity scores were higher for personal names than those for faces and voices, which obtained the worst scores. Person identification scores were not significantly different from names and from faces, but both these scores were significantly higher than the semantic scores obtained by voices. Taken together, these results are inconsistent with the influential interactive activation and competition model of person recognition.

  17. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how...

  18. An African religious discourse on names and identity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    indigenous cultures, particularly names that many Africans have to bear. The influences of colonialism on African cultural values have been well documented. (IGBOIN 2011). The adverse effects of these incursions on African culture such as religion, language, values, and African names in this context are very well.

  19. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... adopted a policy to invest, under normal circumstances, at least 80% of the value of its Assets in the...

  20. How Thai businesses utilize English in their product names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaporn Sanprasert Snodin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the names given to Thai local community products and provides a description of the use of the English language in naming products in Thailand. The business names of Thai local products under the program One Tambon One Product (OTOP were selected for analysis, focusing on language characteristics and semantic appropriateness by using onomastics to some extent. The data consisted of 1,304 names from five product categories—food, drinks, clothing and accessories, handicrafts and ornaments, and inedible herbs, as provided in the database of tambons and OTOP products. Thai product names in English, some of which only Thais can understand, show language creativity, reflecting Thai identity within English usage in the local setting. One problematic area concerns the lack of semantic appropriateness of some English names, as the names are sometimes not relevant to the product type. Thai entrepreneurs need support in naming their products to achieve international intelligibility if their products are to be marketed to international customers.

  1. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attribute and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  2. A global reference model of the domain name system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koc, Y.; Jamakovic, A.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The domain name system (DNS) is a crucial component of the Internet. At this time, the DNS is facing major changes such as the introduction of DNSSEC and Internationalized Domain Name extensions (IDNs), the adoption of IPv6 and the upcoming extension of new generic top-level domains. These changes

  3. How two word-trained dogs integrate pointing and naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    Two word-trained dogs were presented with acts of reference in which a human pointed, named objects, or simultaneously did both. The question was whether these dogs would assume co-reference of pointing and naming and thus pick the pointed-to object. Results show that the dogs did indeed assume

  4. Personal Names in Children's Speech: The Process of Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina R. Dobrova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of children’s understanding of the differences between proper and common names. The author emphasizes the role of the anthropocentric approach to personal names, especially when it is based on the study of the ontogenetic development of linguistic capacity focusing on the mechanisms of the formation of mental patterns of proper names, in particular — of personal names, and of their special linguistic status as (relatively “strict” designators. Analyzing recordings of children’s spontaneous speech and experimental data, the author argues that the study of the early stages of personal names acquisition, in comparison with the acquisition of common nouns, highlights such significant features of a child’s developing mind as the ability to distinguish between identifying and generalizing linguistic signs, to construct hyponym/hyperonym relations going from individual to the most generalized designations (from personal name to common nouns of different kinds, including relative, completely depending on the reference point, and reciprocal ones, e. g. kinship terms. Additionally, the author shows that the anthropocentric approach emphasizes such properties of personal names as their coreferentiality, relativity and their capacity to act as semiotic shifters as far as the choice of the form of a name depends on the social relations between the speaker and his addressee and their respective positions in the social hierarchy.

  5. The cognitive psychology and neuroscience of naming people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédart, Serge

    2017-12-01

    The use of proper names enables us to designate entities, including people, at a very specific level of categorization: the unique entity or the individual. The paper presents a general overview of psychological/cognitive and neuroscientific studies that have compared the production of proper names, in particular people's names, with the production of common nouns during the last thirty years. The search for specific brain correlates of proper naming included single-case and group studies of patients with brain lesions, and studies utilizing functional neuroimaging or brain electrical stimulation with healthy participants. These studies have led neuroscientists to hypothesize that the recall of proper names involves a rather complex network including mainly left frontal and temporal regions. Behavioural evidence supports the view that proper names are more difficult to recall than common names, and scientists have proposed different explanations for this relative difficulty. Finally, several new directions for future research are proposed to improve our understanding of both cognitive processes and their brain correlates involved during proper name recall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 18 CFR 157.218 - Changes in customer name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes in customer... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.218 Changes in customer name. (a) Automatic... reflect the change in the name of an existing customer, if the certificate holder has filed any necessary...

  7. 40 CFR 721.646 - Aminofluoran derivative (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aminofluoran derivative (generic name... Substances § 721.646 Aminofluoran derivative (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as aminofluoran derivative (PMN P...

  8. Named entity recognition and resolution for literary studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.H.; de Does, Jesse; Marx, Maarten; Sijaranamual, Isaac; Depuydt, Katrien; Verheij, Boukje; Geirnaert, Valentijn

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the project Namescape: Mapping the Landscape of Names in Modern Dutch Literature, funded by CLARIN-NL. The background of the project is research in literary onomastics, the study of the usage and functions of proper names in literary (i.e. ctional) texts. The two main tasks for

  9. Named Entity Recognition and Resolution for Literary Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen-Oskam, K.; de Does, J.; Marx, M.; Sijaranamual, I.; Depuydt, K.; Verheij, B.; Geirnaert, V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the project Namescape: Mapping the Landscape of Names in Modern Dutch Literature, funded by CLARIN-NL. The background of the project is research in literary onomastics, the study of the usage and functions of proper names in literary (i.e. fictional) texts. The two main tasks

  10. The correct name for Pyrrosia hastate Ching (Polypodiaceae, Pteridophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frits Veldkamp

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available VELDKAMP, J.F. 2004. The correct name for Pyrrosia hastate Ching (Polypodiaceae, Pteridophyta. Reinwardtia 12 (2: 191 -193. Pyrrosia hastata Ching (Polypodiaceae, Pteridophyta is based on Acrostichum hastatum Thunb. (1784 non Houtt. (1783. Its correct name is P. tricuspis (Sw. Tagawa.

  11. Naming practices in colonial and post-colonial Malawi | Moyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These were ideological conceptions inherent in each society, reflected as a powerful force in naming practices, either of individuals or places. However, naming practices have been in contact with colonialism in Malawi and the rest of Southern Africa, with the result that this has affected the socio-cultural ideologies which ...

  12. Automatic Derivation of Name Access Points in Cataloging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenonius, Elaine; Molto, Mavis

    1990-01-01

    Describes research that examined the feasibility of automatically deriving name access points from machine readable title pages of English language monographs. An algorithm for automatic derivation is presented and results using the algorithm are compared to traditionally cataloged name access points. The implications for bibliographic standards…

  13. 32 CFR 150.1 - Name and seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Name and seal. 150.1 Section 150.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MILITARY JUSTICE COURTS OF CRIMINAL APPEALS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 150.1 Name and seal. (a) The titles...

  14. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business name. 294.31 Section 294.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name...

  15. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Roderic D M

    2013-01-01

    BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic "dashboard" where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question "what is this taxon?" BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION), and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  16. Indonesian name matching using machine learning supervised approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifikri, Mohamad; Arif Bijaksana, Moch.

    2018-03-01

    Most existing name matching methods are developed for English language and so they cover the characteristics of this language. Up to this moment, there is no specific one has been designed and implemented for Indonesian names. The purpose of this thesis is to develop Indonesian name matching dataset as a contribution to academic research and to propose suitable feature set by utilizing combination of context of name strings and its permute-winkler score. Machine learning classification algorithms is taken as the method for performing name matching. Based on the experiments, by using tuned Random Forest algorithm and proposed features, there is an improvement of matching performance by approximately 1.7% and it is able to reduce until 70% misclassification result of the state of the arts methods. This improving performance makes the matching system more effective and reduces the risk of misclassified matches.

  17. Proposal for the systematic naming of mesons and baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, F.C.; Hernandez, J.J.; Montanet, L.; Roos, M.; Toernqvist, N.A.; Barnett, R.M.; Cahn, R.N.; Gidal, G.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.

    1984-10-01

    Twenty years ago, the Particle Data Group adopted a systematic naming convention for baryons: the symbols N, ..delta.., ..lambda.., ..sigma.., ..xi.., and ..cap omega.. were to identify the isospin and strangeness, The mesons, by contrast, have become an alphabet soup of uninformative names - theta, iota, xi, zeta, g/sub T/, g/sub s/, H, E, delta, h, g, r, kappa, etc. -, and in some cases identical names are used for mesons with different quantum numbers (A, B, and D). Furthermore, experimentalists are now discovering baryons that contain heavy quarks. It is therefore timely to consider systematic naming conventions both for mesons and for baryons with heavy quarks. The Particle Data Group is circulating this proposal in the hope of generating feedback, and we attach a sheet for responses. It should be emphasized that the Particle Tables would show both the old and new names for some time.

  18. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D.M. Page

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic “dashboard” where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question “what is this taxon?” BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION, and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  19. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  20. Towards a Global Names Architecture: The future of indexing scientific names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    For more than 250 years, the taxonomic enterprise has remained almost unchanged. Certainly, the tools of the trade have improved: months-long journeys aboard sailing ships have been reduced to hours aboard jet airplanes; advanced technology allows humans to access environments that were once utterly inaccessible; GPS has replaced crude maps; digital hi-resolution imagery provides far more accurate renderings of organisms that even the best commissioned artists of a century ago; and primitive candle-lit microscopes have been replaced by an array of technologies ranging from scanning electron microscopy to DNA sequencing. But the basic paradigm remains the same. Perhaps the most revolutionary change of all - which we are still in the midst of, and which has not yet been fully realized - is the means by which taxonomists manage and communicate the information of their trade. The rapid evolution in recent decades of computer database management software, and of information dissemination via the Internet, have both dramatically improved the potential for streamlining the entire taxonomic process. Unfortunately, the potential still largely exceeds the reality. The vast majority of taxonomic information is either not yet digitized, or digitized in a form that does not allow direct and easy access. Moreover, the information that is easily accessed in digital form is not yet seamlessly interconnected. In an effort to bring reality closer to potential, a loose affiliation of major taxonomic resources, including GBIF, the Encyclopedia of Life, NBII, Catalog of Life, ITIS, IPNI, ICZN, Index Fungorum, and many others have been crafting a "Global Names Architecture" (GNA). The intention of the GNA is not to replace any of the existing taxonomic data initiatives, but rather to serve as a dynamic index to interconnect them in a way that streamlines the entire taxonomic enterprise: from gathering specimens in the field, to publication of new taxa and related data.

  1. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  2. The Green Economy and Alternative Building Technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info VanWyk1_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4372 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name VanWyk1_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 The Green Economy... and Alternative Building Technologies 4th Biennial Conference Presented by: Llewellyn van Wyk Date: 10 October 2012 Content ? The Green Economy in South Africa ? Alternative Building Technologies ? Case Studies ? Findings ? Conclusion ? CSIR 2012 Slide...

  3. Naming speed as a predictive diagnostic measure in reading and attentional problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areces, Débora; García, Trinidad; González-Castro, Paloma; Alvarez-García, David; Rodríguez, Celestino

    2017-10-20

    This study aimed to describe and compare naming speed abilities in children diagnosed with either Reading Learning Difficulties (RLD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or comorbidity for both (ADHD+RLD). To examine the explanatory power of naming speed and ADHD symptomatology in predicting group associations (while controlling for gender and age), the "Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus Tests" (RAN/RAS) were utilized. A sample of 101 children (age range = 5-16 years) was divided into four groups: RLD (n = 14), ADHD (n = 28), comorbid (n = 19), and control (n = 40). There were statistically significant differences in RAN/RAS results among the diagnostic groups. Moreover, discriminant analysis revealed that naming speed tasks significantly predicted reading and attentional problems, especially at earlier ages. These results demonstrate the potential usefulness of RAN/RAS in the diagnosis of reading and attentional problems, particularly if the children are aged from 5 to 9.

  4. An Alternative Rhinoplasty Technique: Rotational Spreader Flap ("Rabbit Flap").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirin, Ali Ahmet; Erdim, Ibrahim; Erdur, Omer; Sirin, Alperen

    2018-04-01

    In modern rhinoplasty, septal cartilage is the most commonly used graft material. It is a big challenge if septal cartilage is insufficient. We present an alternative technique named the "rabbit flap," created from the cephalic portion of the lower lateral cartilage to show its effectiveness on nasolabial angle, nasal axis deviation, and nasal dorsal line. An alternative flap, called a "rabbit flap," is constituted from the cephalic portion of the lower lateral cartilage (LLC). The key for this flap's success is in not cutting the connection between the lateral and medial crus of the alar cartilage. The flap is rotated and placed between the upper lateral cartilage and the septum to ensure a spreader graft effect; it can also be moved forward and backward to adjust the nasal tip rotation. Patients whose minimum width of LLC was 12 mm were included in this study. We subjectively evaluated the results of this technique for 24 patients who completed the rhinoplasty outcomes evaluation (ROE) questionnaire and objectively by measuring the nasal axis and nasolabial angles in the preoperative and postoperative first-year periods. There were significant improvements in ROE, nasal axis deviation, and nasolabial angle scores when preoperative and postoperative first-year controls were compared (p rotation and a mild nasal axis deviation. Moreover, we can achieve a proper nasal dorsal line and prevent an inverted V deformity. By expanding the internal nasal valve, a functionally effective surgery can be performed. However, the LLC must be strong enough to avoid alar collapse. In light of our results, we believe that the technique we call the "rabbit flap" can be used as an alternative rhinoplasty technique. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  5. When Names and Schools Collide: Critically Analyzing Depictions of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children Negotiating Their Names in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Tina; Franzak, Judith K.

    2016-01-01

    Names and experiences in schools are often tied together in a child's identity formation. This is true for all children, but becomes an increasingly important topic as classrooms in the United States are becoming more diverse. In this study, we seek to explore the idea of names as identity in picture books depicting minority children. In doing so,…

  6. Alternative Metal Hot Cutting Operations for Opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Principal Investigator NAVFAC Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center, EV11 Date Reviewed By: Name Internal Reviewer(optional) Date: Reviewed...is the oxy- fuel metal cutting, a hot combustion process that forms visible particulate matter (PM) emissions. Since the beginning of its program in...generation of the alternative fuel is created from virgin methanol instead of the original virgin ethylene glycol. The reason for this switch was because

  7. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal foramina in Terminologia Anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo; Yamashita, Yasuo

    2009-10-01

    For better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision, Latin anatomical names of skeletal foramina in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Foramen or Foramina indicated:1) the form of the foramen, 2) the state of the foramen, 3) the absolute size of the foramen, 4) the structure to which the foramen belongs, 5) the position of the foramen in the skeletal system, 6) the part of the human body in which the foramen exists, 7) the structure that transmits the foramen, or 8) the function of the foramen. Analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  8. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal fossa in Terminologia Anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2011-10-01

    For a better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision of anatomical nomenclature, Latin anatomical names of skeletal fossa in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Fossa indicated: 1) the form of the fossa, 2) the structure to which the fossa belongs, 3) the position of the fossa, 4) the structure that exists near the fossa, 5) the structure that the fossa contains, 6) the structure attached to the fossa, 7) the structure that transmits the fossa, or 8) the structure with which the fossa articulates. The analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  9. [Analysis and classification of Latin anatomical names of skeletal canals in Terminologia anatomica, and comparison with corresponding Japanese anatomical names].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, Shun-ichi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2010-10-01

    For a better understanding of the structures comprising the human body and in view of the possible need for future revision of anatomical nomenclature, Latin anatomical names of skeletal canals (including canaliculi) in Terminologia Anatomica were analyzed and classified, and compared with the corresponding Japanese anatomical names. The words following Canalis or Canales indicated: (1) the structure to which the canal belongs, (2) the structure to which the opening of the canal belongs, (3) the position of the canal, (4) the structure to which the canal leads, (5) the structure that exists near the opening of the canal, (6) the structure that transmits the canal, (7) the structure that is a component of the canal, or (8) the function of the canal. The analysis of Latin names and comparison with Japanese names clarified some characteristics of both names and revealed some problems in them.

  10. Timed written picture naming in 14 European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Mark; Nottbusch, Guido; Alves, Rui A; Arfé, Barbara; Chanquoy, Lucile; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Dimakos, Ioannis; Fidalgo, Raquel; Hyönä, Jukka; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Madjarov, George; Pauly, Dennis N; Uppstad, Per Henning; van Waes, Luuk; Vernon, Michael; Wengelin, Åsa

    2018-04-01

    We describe the Multilanguage Written Picture Naming Dataset. This gives trial-level data and time and agreement norms for written naming of the 260 pictures of everyday objects that compose the colorized Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois in Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). Adult participants gave keyboarded responses in their first language under controlled experimental conditions (N = 1,274, with subsamples responding in Bulgarian, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish). We measured the time to initiate a response (RT) and interkeypress intervals, and calculated measures of name and spelling agreement. There was a tendency across all languages for quicker RTs to pictures with higher familiarity, image agreement, and name frequency, and with higher name agreement. Effects of spelling agreement and effects on output rates after writing onset were present in some, but not all, languages. Written naming therefore shows name retrieval effects that are similar to those found in speech, but our findings suggest the need for cross-language comparisons as we seek to understand the orthographic retrieval and/or assembly processes that are specific to written output.

  11. Changes of Romanian place names during the communist era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Nicolae

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Seventy years ago Professor Ion Conea, a famous Romanian geographer and toponymist, suggested that, when not modified by officials, place-names are like ´some condensed description of the country’ (Conea 1928. In Romania there are, broadly speaking, three types of place-names: first, traditional placenames which are unchanged; second, traditional place-names which have been slightly changed so that they conform with the modern Romanian language; and third, new place-names which have been imposed by the authorities. In Romania, as in other regions of Europe, there are many settlement names (oikonymes which fall into this third category and these form the focus of the paper. There are two periods of Romanian modern history during which place names have been changed on a wide scale. The first was in the decades following independence in 1878 and continuing up to the Second World War. The second, when the replacement of traditional place names was most widespread, was during the communist period (1948-1989.

  12. The English-Slovene language contact: borrowing of personal names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sicherl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to shed some light on the growing tendency of Slovene native speakers towards borrowing English personal names when naming new-born children. Some historical overview of the borrowing of English personal names into Slovene is given, starting with lists compiled from 1931 onwards, established from the data supplied by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (SURS. The phenomenon of borrowing personal names is discussed from the point of view of pragmatic borrowing as advocated by G. Andersen (2014, taking into account the traditional distinction between necessary loans on the one hand and luxury loans on the other. The article illustrates how in the case of personal names, ‘exoticisms’ (e.g. Alex, Liam, Kevin, Kim, Ian, Vanessa, Adrian, Ella, Emma, Patrick, Nick, Alan, Lucas, listed among the most popular 200 first names in the 2001–2013 period compete with name forms that have been adapted and nativised long ago (e.g. Patrik, or are currently being introduced for the first time into Slovene. In these recent borrowings, the foreign forms undergo some adaptation, but at the same time, unlike other anglicisms, show the tendency to resist complete adaptation, particularly in terms of spelling and pronunciation. Such pragmatically borrowed items carry significant sociolinguistic signals about the borrowers’ attitudes, and these are briefly commented on.

  13. Enhancing the Learning Environment by Learning all the Students' Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    Short abstract This paper describes how the teaching environment can be enhanced significantly by a simple method: learning the names of all the students. The method is time-efficient: In a course with 33 students I used 65 minutes in total. My own view of the effect was confirmed in a small study......: The students felt more valued, secure and respected. They also made an effort to learn each other's names. Long abstract In high school teachers know the students' names very soon - anything else is unthinkable (Wiberg, 2011). Not so in universities where knowing the names of all the students is the exception....... Most teachers get to know the names of the most active students. Many teachers feel bad about this and would love to know all the students' names, but the task seems insurmountable.Over the years I have developed a simple, systematic and time-efficient method to learn the names of all students that can...

  14. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  16. Bidens pilosa Ethylene acetate extract can protect against L-NAME-induced hypertension on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré D; Kouakep, Léontine; Aboubakar, Bibi Farouck O; Tedong, Léonard; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Théophile

    2017-10-10

    Essential hypertension is mainly caused by endothelial dysfunction which results from nitric oxide (NO) deficiency. The present study was design to evaluate the protective effect of Bidens pilosa ethylene acetate extract (Bp) on L-NAME induced hypertension and oxidative stress in rats. Male Wistar rats were used to induce hypertension by the administration of L-NAME (a non-pecific nitric oxide inhibitor) (50 mg/kg/day). The others groups were receiving concomitantly L-NAME plus Bp extract (75 and 150 mg/kg/day) or losartan (25 mg/kg/day). All the treatments were given orally for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment, the hemodynamic parameters were recorded using the direct cannulation method. The effects of the extract on lipid profile, kidney and liver functions as well as oxidative stress markers were evaluated by colorimetric method. Results were expressed as the mean ± SEM. The difference between the groups was compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Duncan's post hoc test. Animals receiving L-NAME presented high blood pressure, normal heart rate and lipid profile as well as NO depletion, liver and kidney injuries and oxidative stress. The concomitant treatment with L-NAME and Bp or losartan succeeded to prevent the raised of blood pressure and all the other injuries without affecting the heart rate. These results confirm the antihypertensive effects of Bidens pilosa and highlight its protective properties in L-NAME model of hypertension in rat, probably due to the presence of Quercetin 3,3 '-dimethyl ether 7-0-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  17. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  18. Preventing Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fordney

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…

  19. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermoglio, Paula F; Guralnick, Robert P; Wieczorek, John R

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  20. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F Zermoglio

    Full Text Available Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  1. Name of the child in Serbian private international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanivuković Maja D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rules of Serbian Private International Law pertaining to the name of the child, both those currently in force, and those that are proposed in the Draft Private International Law Code (2004 are discussed in this article in the light of the decisions of the Court of the EU in Garcia Avello and Grunkin-Paul. The main issue related to the name of the child with an international element is how to regulate the recognition of first and last names of Serbian nationals determined abroad. Currently, there is a unilateral conflict rule providing for application of mandatory norms of Serbian family law. That means that the current Serbian law does not allow recognition of the name of the Serbian child determined according to foreign law if the foreign rules are different than the Serbian applicable rules. The registrar is directed to request the parents to adapt the child's name to requirements of Serbian law, irrespective of the consequences, i. e. the possibility that the child will bear different names in different countries. The fact that the child may also be a national of that other country and habitually resident there, is of no consequence. The Draft PIL Act introduces significant changes by: providing for a possibility for parents to choose the applicable law in case of change of name so that they can choose between the laws of the child's various nationalities, and by providing for recognition of changes of name conducted in a foreign country if the child has been a habitual resident of that country for at least five years. The author argues for introduction of substantive rules into the future PIL Code, which would provide for a possibility of recognition of child's name determined in the country of his other nationality or of his habitual residence.

  2. Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland: Colophon, abstract, introduction, official place names in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins, Anthony K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded landing by Europeans on the coast of northern East Greenland (north of 69°N was that of William Scoresby Jr., a British whaler, in 1822. This volume includes a chronological summary of the pioneer 19th century exploration voyages made by British, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, French and German expeditions – all of whom reported that the region had previously been occupied by the Inuit or Eskimo; also included are brief outlines of the increasing number of government and privately sponsored expeditions throughout the 20th century, whose objectives included cartography, geology, zoology, botany, trapping and the ascent of the highest mountain summits. In 1934 the Place Name Committee for Greenland was established, the tasks of which included a review of all place names hitherto recorded on published maps of Greenland, their formal adoption in danicised form, and the approval or rejection of new name proposals. In northern East Greenland, by far the largest numbers of new place names were those proposed by scientists associated with Lauge Koch’s geological expeditions that lasted from 1926 until 1958. This volume records the location and origin of more than 3000 officially approved place names as well as about 2650 unapproved names.The author’s interest in the exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland started in 1968, when the Geological Survey of Greenland initiated a major five-year geological mapping programme in the Scoresby Sund region. Systematic compilation of names began about 1970, initially with the names given by William Scoresby Jr., and subsequently broadened in scope to include the names proposed by all expeditions to northern East Greenland. The author has participated in 16 summer mapping expeditions with the Survey to northern East Greenland. Publication of this volume represents the culmination of a lifetime working in the Arctic.

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Acupuncture Herbal Supplements Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artifical Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc ...

  4. Fluency Effects on Brand Name Recognition and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has not provided a clear understanding of processing fluency effects on memory. In a laboratory experiment with novel non-words, we found a recognition advantage of fluent non-words over moderately fluent and disfluent non-words. This advantage diminished when non-words were...... presented as novel brand names in different product contexts. We further tested a preference reversal in favor of disfluency and found that disfluent brand names (non-words) were equally disliked across different products contexts. A preference reversal could be observed when fluent names were preferred...

  5. Untangling the brand name from the branded entity

    OpenAIRE

    Round, Griff; Roper, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – The purpose of this study is to investigate the value to consumers of the brand name element for established brands, given that the focus in the literature has been on new brands. To accomplish this, conceptual development was initially undertaken to illuminate the links between the brand name element and the brand entity and to provide a theoretical framework for looking at changes in value of the brand name element to consumers over time.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud –...

  6. Do people access meaning when they name banknotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo

    2013-03-01

    Do people access the monetary value of banknotes when they say them aloud? In this study, we evaluated this question by asking people to name sequences of euro banknotes blocked by category or mixed with exemplars of other categories. The participants did not show an interference effect in the blocked context. The absence of semantic interference effect was also observed when participants named euro banknotes that did not have imprinted monetary value. These results suggest a direct connection between perceiving banknotes and accessing their names.

  7. Structural alterations in rat myocardium induced by chronic l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Abdussalam Ali A. Hmaid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes affecting cardiomyocyte function may contribute to the pathophysiological remodeling underlying cardiac function impairment. Recent reports have shown that endogenous nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in this process. In order to examine the role of NO in cardiomyocyte remodeling, male rats were acclimated to room temperature (22 ± 1 °C or cold (4 ± 1 °C and treated with 2.25% l-arginine·HCl or 0.01% l-NAME (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester·HCl for 45 days. Untreated groups served as controls. Right heart ventricles were routinely prepared for light microscopic examination. Stereological estimations of volume densities of cardiomyocytes, surrounding blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as the morphometric measurements of cardiomyocyte diameters were performed. Tissue sections were also analyzed for structural alterations. We observed that both l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, regardless of ambient temperature. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with fibrosis and extra collagen deposition only in the l-NAME treated group. Taken together, our results suggest that NO has a modulatory role in right heart ventricle remodeling by coordinating hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and fibrous tissue preventing cardiac fibrosis. Keywords: Cardiomyocyte, Cardiac hypertrophy, l-Arginine, l-NAME, Myocardium

  8. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program...) The name(s) of the substance(s) covered. (d) The date on which the safety information was last...) The expected date of completion of any changes resulting from the PHA; (2) Major hazards identified...

  9. Accessing newly learned names and meanings in the native language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, Annika; Vihla, Minna; Laine, Matti; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-03-01

    Ten healthy adults encountered pictures of unfamiliar archaic tools and successfully learned either their name, verbal definition of their usage, or both. Neural representation of the newly acquired information was probed with magnetoencephalography in an overt picture-naming task before and after learning, and in two categorization tasks after learning. Within 400 ms, activation proceeded from occipital through parietal to left temporal cortex, inferior frontal cortex (naming) and right temporal cortex (categorization). Comparison of naming of newly learned versus familiar pictures indicated that acquisition and maintenance of word forms are supported by the same neural network. Explicit access to newly learned phonology when such information was known strongly enhanced left temporal activation. By contrast, access to newly learned semantics had no comparable, direct neural effects. Both the behavioral learning pattern and neurophysiological results point to fundamentally different implementation of and access to phonological versus semantic features in processing pictured objects.

  10. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. How to Name and Classify Your Phage: An Informal Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaenssens, Evelien; Brister, J Rodney

    2017-04-03

    With this informal guide, we try to assist both new and experienced phage researchers through two important stages that follow phage discovery; that is, naming and classification. Providing an appropriate name for a bacteriophage is not as trivial as it sounds, and the effects might be long-lasting in databases and in official taxon names. Phage classification is the responsibility of the Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee (BAVS) of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). While the BAVS aims at providing a holistic approach to phage taxonomy, for individual researchers who have isolated and sequenced a new phage, this can be a little overwhelming. We are now providing these researchers with an informal guide to phage naming and classification, taking a "bottom-up" approach from the phage isolate level.

  12. Selective and nonselective inhibition of competitors in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, Z.; Meyer, A.S.; Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between nonselective inhibition and selective inhibition in picture naming performance. Nonselective inhibition refers to the ability to suppress any unwanted response, whereas selective inhibition refers to the ability to suppress specific competing

  13. ASTEROID NAMES AND DISCOVERY V7.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set lists name, designation(s), and discovery circumstances for all asteroids numbered as of the given stop date. It is compiled and maintain by David...

  14. ASTEROID NAMES AND DISCOVERY V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes names, designations, and discovery circumstances for the numbered asteroids, sorted in order of catalog number. A similar file sorted in...

  15. ASTEROID NAMES AND DESIGNATIONS V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a tabulation of catalog numbers, names, and IAU principle provisional designations for asteroids. The entries are ordered by catalog number, alphabetical...

  16. Preschoolers' knowledge about the appearance of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathryn Maycumber; Pasnak, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Preschoolers' knowledge of the appearance of proper names was tested in three experiments with 25 boys and 22 girls from low-income families. Children from a Head Start program, whose parents signed a permission letter, participated. Their ages ranged from 3 yr. 6 mo. to 5 yr. 6 mo. (M = 52.2 mo., SD = 4.9). When shown consonant-vowel-consonant trigrams such as Rit or baF or dEg with various capitalization patterns, the children showed a tendency to recognize that CVC trigrams with the first letter capitalized or all letters capitalized were the ones most likely to represent a person's name. When their own names were substituted, which typically contained more than three letters, their performance was markedly better. Children also had a strong tendency to consider trigrams of Latin letters as more likely to be a person's name than trigrams of non-Latin characters (e.g., Sanskrit).

  17. Names of power and the acquisition of academic literacy | Katz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , wherein lived experience and academic discourse can interact to strengthen each other. Keywords: narrative pedagogy, learner-centered, names, academic literacy, democratic, writing as discovery. Journal for Language Teaching Vol.

  18. ASTEROID NAMES AND DISCOVERY V4.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes names, designations, and discovery circumstances for the numbered asteroids, sorted in order of number. This data set supercedes past versions...

  19. Institute for Advanced Learning and Research names new executive director

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Institute for Advanced Learning and Research has named Liam E. Leightley as executive director, effective Oct. 6, 2008, according to Mike Henderson, chair of the institute's board of trustees.

  20. How to Name and Classify Your Phage: An Informal Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Adriaenssens

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With this informal guide, we try to assist both new and experienced phage researchers through two important stages that follow phage discovery; that is, naming and classification. Providing an appropriate name for a bacteriophage is not as trivial as it sounds, and the effects might be long-lasting in databases and in official taxon names. Phage classification is the responsibility of the Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee (BAVS of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV. While the BAVS aims at providing a holistic approach to phage taxonomy, for individual researchers who have isolated and sequenced a new phage, this can be a little overwhelming. We are now providing these researchers with an informal guide to phage naming and classification, taking a “bottom-up” approach from the phage isolate level.

  1. ON STAUDE' S NEW GENERIC NAMES FOR AGARICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. DONK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author concludes that the generic names for agarics first introduced by Staude (1857 have been validly published.When I drew attention to Staude's forgotten "Die Schwamme Mittel-deutschlands" (1857, I felt obliged to conclude that the new generic names for agarics appearing in that work were validly published (Donk, 1949: 319-320, and I still am fully convinced that this conclusion must be upheld. Rogers (1950: 22 submitted that Staude, although referring to Collybia and other genera as G [attungen], did not definitely accept them as genera, since he continued to refer species under them to Agaricus, thereby implying that they were only subgenera or sections; and that Staude, therefore, dit not validly publish these generic names. Rogers's conclusion is untenable for several reasons. If his argumentbecame generally accepted, quite a lot of generic names might be murdered by it: the number of generic names established without simultaneously published new combinations with the new generic name, like those without any mention of species, is considerable. Such an attitude would not only be undesirable from a practical point of view, but would also disregard the declared object of the Code to promote stability of nomenclature. The Code has deliberately and carefully avoided the stipulation that a new generic name requires simultaneously published new combinations; it has even refused to rule that new generic names ought to be associated with binomials, as was stipulated by the former American code! Certainlythis was not done solely to accomodate such special cases as, for example, Tournefortian generic names published after 1753 as an overflow from the pre-binomial period: the decision was for general application. Staude emphatically marked the names in question as generic ones; not only in the introductory pages, but also throughout his more detailed treatment of the agarics he preceded these generic names with "G[attung]" and added generic

  2. Phonological facilitation effects on naming latencies and viewing times during noun and verb naming in agrammatic and anomic aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Thompson, Cynthia K

    Phonological priming has been shown to facilitate naming in individuals with aphasia as well as healthy speakers, resulting in faster naming latencies. However, the mechanisms of phonological facilitation (PF) in aphasia remain unclear. Within discrete vs. interactive models of lexical access, this study examined whether PF occurs via the sub-lexical or lexical route during noun and verb naming in agrammatic and anomic aphasia. Thirteen participants with agrammatic aphasia and 10 participants with anomic aphasia and their young and age-matched controls (n=20/each) were tested. Experiment 1 examined noun and verb naming deficit patterns in an off-line confrontation naming task. Experiment 2 examined PF effects on naming both word categories using eyetracking priming paradigm. Results of Experiment 1 showed greater naming difficulty for verbs than for nouns in the agrammatic group, with no difference between the two word categories in the anomic group. For both participant groups, errors were dominated by semantic paraphasias, indicating impaired lexical selection. In the phonological priming task (Experiment 2), young and age-matched control groups showed PF in both noun and verb naming. Interestingly, the agrammatic group showed PF when naming verbs, but not nouns, whereas the anomic group showed PF for nouns only. Consistent with lexically mediated PF in interactive models of lexical access, selective PF for different word categories in our agrammatic and anomic groups suggest that phonological primes facilitate lexical selection via feedback activation, resulting in greater PF for more difficult (i.e., verbs in agrammatic and possibly nouns in anomic group) lexical items.

  3. Story of the Name of Restinga Jurubatiba National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Soffiati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This text recovers the story of an Integral Protection Conservation Unit situated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The Jurubatiba Shoal National Park (Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, the best preserved shoal area in the world. Responsible for proposing the park’s name, the author discourses about name options taken into consideration when the National Park was created and also briefly reports on the importance of this regional ecosystem.

  4. Production does not improve memory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Smith, Alexis R S

    2016-06-01

    Strategies for learning face-name associations are generally difficult and time-consuming. However, research has shown that saying a word aloud improves our memory for that word relative to words from the same set that were read silently. Such production effects have been shown for words, pictures, text material, and even word pairs. Can production improve memory for face-name associations? In Experiment 1, participants studied face-name pairs by reading half of the names aloud and half of the names silently, and were tested with cued recall. In Experiment 2, names were repeated aloud (or silently) for the full trial duration. Neither experiment showed a production effect in cued recall. Bayesian analyses showed positive support for the null effect. One possibility is that participants spontaneously implemented more elaborate encoding strategies that overrode any influence of production. However, a more likely explanation for the null production effect is that only half of each stimulus pair was produced-the name, but not the face. Consistent with this explanation, in Experiment 3 a production effect was not observed in cued recall of word-word pairs in which only the target words were read aloud or silently. Averaged across all 3 experiments, aloud targets were more likely to be recalled than silent targets (though not associated with the correct cue). The production effect in associative memory appears to require both members of a pair to be produced. Surprisingly, production shows little promise as a strategy for improving memory for the names of people we have just met. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Selection Demands and Working Memory Mediate Interference during Naming

    OpenAIRE

    Julie W Hughes

    2015-01-01

    Naming pictures in semantically related (DOG, CAT, PIG) vs. unrelated groups (DOG, BUS, EAR) across numerous cycles (blocked-cyclic naming; BCN) results in increasingly slower response times (RTs) (e.g., Belke, 2008). This semantic interference (SI) is thought to arise because selecting responses is more demanding in the context of similar vs. dissimilar items (e.g., Schnur, Schwartz, Brecher, & Hodgson, 2006). We may attenuate SI depending on our capacity to reduce interference from competit...

  6. The birth and fate of new generic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; Andrus. Voitk

    2014-01-01

    No student of natural history can have escaped the proliferation of new names in the last few decades, certainly evident in mycology. Of course, the most obvious need for a new name comes about when an organism is discovered whose existence was hitherto unknown, i.e. a species, genus, or larger group new to science. However, for the layman the sudden profusion of new...

  7. Modern Urban Naming Practices: Strategic Approaches and Practical Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Golomidova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the problems of the naming of municipal facilities. The author analyzes the existing policy in assigning new names and renaming urban sites, describes the current strategic approaches to urban naming and proposes a new strategy based on congruity with the holistic image of the city. The current approaches to urban naming mark the predominating interest in the historical and cultural heritage of cities as a valuable source for the toponymic nomination shared both by native and foreign experts. However, this commitment to the past may run counter to the modern arrangement and perception of the urban space, as well as impede the city development prospects. From the standpoint of modern area marketing, names of urban sites are regarded as an information and communication resource highly relevant to the city image formation and promotion. In the author’s view, the benefits of adopting a new strategy may also resonate with the concept of “urbanonymic construction,” which is understood as sustainable and streamlined management policy aimed at the progressive implementation of long-term programs for individual urban site names consistency. The urbanonymic construction involves a normative, regulatory aspect; formation of the holistic city image that builds on its resource base, the symbolic capital, and the development strategy; definition of key characteristics of the city image which are most relevant to its positioning; identification of principal nominative themes for verbal representation of the city image; use of naming technologies to ensure the relevance of the name’s implications; testing and expert evaluation of new names. Drawing on domestic and foreign expertise in the same study field, a number of practical solutions for the creation of new urbanonyms are described.

  8. The Use of Social Name in the Academy

    OpenAIRE

    Eccard, Ana Flávia Costa; Sousa, Thiago Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: This article aims to analyze use of the social name of transgender people in the academy environment, especially in universities. The initial approach will be made from what is transsexuality, through pathologizing. In the second chapter we discuss the social name as equity affection to human dignity, with Foucault's thoughts, Butler and others. Then in the third chapter, we will bring the analysis of the problem from the higher courts and the authorship of the project of law of Rep...

  9. Blindness to alternative scenarios in evidence evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.C. Rassin (Eric)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn order to prevent miscarriages of justice, police, prosecution, and judges must remain open to alternative scenarios in which the suspect is in fact innocent. In recent years, however, several studies have delivered results suggesting that open-mindedness is not always standard in

  10. NAME Modeling and Data Assimilation: A Strategic Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    In this presentation a strategic overview of modeling and related data analysis and assimilation components of the North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) are given. Building on the NAME science plan, a strategy is outlined for accelerating progress on the fundamental modeling issues pertaining to NAME science goals. The strategy takes advantage of NAME enhanced observations, and should simultaneously provide model-based guidance to the evolving multi-tiered NAME observing program. The NAME modeling strategy recognizes three distinct, but related, roles that observations play in model development and assessment. These are: (1) to guide model development by providing constraints on model simulations at the process level (e.g. convection, land/atmosphere and ocean/atmosphere interactions); (2) to help assess the veracity of model simulations of the various key NAMS phenomena (e.g. low level jets, land sea breezes, tropical storms), and the linkages to regional and larger-scale climate variability; and (3) to provide initial and boundary conditions, and verification data for model predictions.

  11. Students' performance in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading, and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellini, Simone Aparecida; Lanza, Simone Cristina

    2010-01-01

    phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing in students with learning difficulties of a municipal public school. to characterize and compare the performance of students from public schools with and without learning difficulties in phonological awareness, rapid naming, reading and writing. participants were 60 students from the 2nd to the 4th grades of municipal public schools divided into 6 groups. Each group was composed by 10 students, being 3 groups of students without learning difficulties and 3 groups with students with learning difficulties. As testing procedure phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, oral reading and writing under dictation assessments were used. the results highlighted the better performance of students with no learning difficulties. Students with learning difficulties presented a higher ratios considering time/speed in rapid naming tasks and, consequently, lower production in activities of phonological awareness and reading and writing, when compared to students without learning difficulties. students with learning difficulties presented deficits when considering the relationship between naming and automatization skills, and among lexical access, visual discrimination, stimulus frequency use and competition in using less time for code naming, i.e. necessary for the phoneme-grapheme conversion process required in the reading and writing alphabetic system like the Portuguese language.

  12. BRAND NAMING: SOUND SYMBOLISM, BRAND PREFERENCE AND BRAND PERFORMANCE

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    Alina Catalina Duduciuc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of sound symbolism for Romanian marketing and advertising applied research. Previous research showed that the phonetic structure of brand name communicates its characteristics, i.e. it drives consumers to assess certain features and performance of the product. We assumed that when consumers encounter an unknown brand name, they automatically infer characteristics from the meaning conveyed by the sounds (e.g. phonemes. Therefore, we supposed that a brand name for a shampoo (artificially created on experimental purpose containing back vowels is evaluated better by consumers when they compare it to another brand name with front vowels. Furthermore, we tested the influence of the stops and fricatives consonants in inferring certain attributes of product. To this end, fifty nine students (N=59 participated in a research based on questionnaire. The results revealed that subjects evaluated better the brand names containing back vowels than brand names with front vowel. No effect was obtained regarding the presence of stops and fricatives consonants in assessing the brand performance.

  13. Use of morphological analysis in protein name recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kaoru; Kudo, Taku; Konagaya, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2004-12-01

    Protein name recognition aims to detect each and every protein names appearing in a PubMed abstract. The task is not simple, as the graphic word boundary (space separator) assumed in conventional preprocessing does not necessarily coincide with the protein name boundary. Such boundary disagreement caused by tokenization ambiguity has usually been ignored in conventional preprocessing of general English. In this paper, we argue that boundary disagreement poses serious limitations in biomedical English text processing, not to mention protein name recognition. Our key idea for dealing with the boundary disagreement is to apply techniques used in Japanese morphological analysis where there are no word boundaries. Having evaluated the proposed method with GENIA corpus 3.02, we obtain F-measure of 69.01 on a strict criterion and 79.32 on a relaxed criterion. The result is comparable to other published work in protein name recognition, without resorting to manually prepared ad hoc feature engineering. Further, compared to the conventional preprocessing, the use of morphological analysis as preprocessing improves the performance of protein name recognition and reduces the execution time.

  14. [Naming speed and phonological awareness in early reading learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Villagrán, Manuel; Navarro Guzmán, José I; Menacho Jiménez, Inmaculada; Alcale Cuevas, Concepción; Marchena Consejero, Esperanza; Ramiro Olivier, Pedro

    2010-08-01

    The ability to read is a basic acquisition that conditions children's social integration and it is an important factor in school success. It is considered a complex activity in which different levels of cognitive processes are involved. The relationship between phonological awareness, naming speed and learning to read has been widely studied. Research on this topic has previously been carried out with different training procedures, or with children with reading and writing learning disabilities, or children with phonological awareness problems. The innovative aspect of this research is that it presents a longitudinal study of the influence of phonological awareness and naming speed on reading with no training procedure. 85 kindergarten children were assessed with Rapid Automatized Naming Test, The Phonological Knowledge Test (PECO) and the Reading Test (PROLEC-R) at two development points: at 5,6 and at 6.5 years old. A correlational comparison and a hierarchical regression analysis were calculated in order to determine the explicit variance for phonological awareness and naming speed in reading. Results showed that phonological awareness and naming speed differentially explain variance in reading. The discrepancies found are a consequence of the different measurement techniques for phonological awareness and naming speed used by the diverse authors.

  15. Open Issues of Stress Placement in Classical Names

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    Kajetan Gantar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by describing the author’s experiences with the Rules of the Slovene Orthography (1987, a project in which he participated for several years, counselling, for example, against such hybrid possessive adjectives in Slovene as Horačev (‘of Horace’, Properčev (‘of Propertius’, Leibničev (‘of Leibniz’, etc. There follows an analysis of the dilemmas raised by stress placement in classical names, both geographical and personal: dilemmas surprisingly reminiscent of those encountered by classical and later grammarians in stressing Greek names in the Latin language. Indeed, the Slovene tradition has sometimes adopted the Latin stress even with names of Greek origin, and in some cases the established stress is grounded neither in Greek nor Latin but rather borrowed from French or German. For frequently used and long-Slovenised classical names, the author advocates the preservation of the established stress. With names more rarely used, however, experts should be granted the right to keep the original stress without the stigma of ‘literalness’, which excludes this practice from the living language organism. Above all, the paper argues for the right of literary translators to adapt the stress of personal names in poetry translation to the rhythm and rules of the hexameter or other classical metrical schemes.

  16. Formation of new linguistic competences in education space: naming examination

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    Remchukova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The naming examination is a new kind of linguistic examination. The article deals with linguistic aspects of teaching this course in higher school for the special training of experts. In order to form professional competence on naming examination in the process of teaching special attention is paid to studies of theory of nomination and onomastics, to examination of language units from the point of view of component analysis, semantic-stylistic analysis and others, as well as the formation of the skills of work with different lexicographic sources and digital resources and database. In the laboratory course “Applied and mathematical linguistics,” the skills of lexico-semantic, morphological, etymological, morphemic, word-formation, phonetic analysis of concrete names are practiced. We focus on the studies of artificial naming patterns, including advertising names, which bring out the creative potential of the Russian language. Creative trends dominate in this area of nomination. Naming examination as a new kind of forensic linguistic examination is taught within the course ”Forensic linguistic examination” which accomplishes technical education of students

  17. Detecting and Refactoring Operational Smells within the Domain Name System

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    Marwan Radwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name System (DNS is one of the most important components of the Internet infrastructure. DNS relies on a delegation-based architecture, where resolution of names to their IP addresses requires resolving the names of the servers responsible for those names. The recursive structures of the inter dependencies that exist between name servers associated with each zone are called dependency graphs. System administrators' operational decisions have far reaching effects on the DNSs qualities. They need to be soundly made to create a balance between the availability, security and resilience of the system. We utilize dependency graphs to identify, detect and catalogue operational bad smells. Our method deals with smells on a high-level of abstraction using a consistent taxonomy and reusable vocabulary, defined by a DNS Operational Model. The method will be used to build a diagnostic advisory tool that will detect configuration changes that might decrease the robustness or security posture of domain names before they become into production.

  18. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  19. Mechanisms of the antihypertensive effects of Nigella sativa oil in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarin, Kamsiah; Foong, Wai Dic; Yeoh, Min Hui; Kamarul, Zaman Yusoff Nik; Qodriyah, Haji Mohd Saad; Azman, Abdullah; Zuhair, Japar Sidik Fadhlullah; Juliana, Abdul Hamid; Kamisah, Yusof

    2015-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the blood pressure-lowering effect of Nigella sativa might be mediated by its effects on nitric oxide, angiotensin-converting enzyme, heme oxygenase and oxidative stress markers. Twenty-four adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into 4 groups. One group served as the control (group 1), whereas the other three groups (groups 2-4) were administered L-NAME (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Groups 3 and 4 were given oral nicardipine daily at a dose of 3 mg/kg and Nigella sativa oil at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 8 weeks, respectively, concomitantly with L-NAME administration. Nigella sativa oil prevented the increase in systolic blood pressure in the L-NAME-treated rats. The blood pressure reduction was associated with a reduction in cardiac lipid peroxidation product, NADPH oxidase, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity and plasma nitric oxide, as well as with an increase in heme oxygenase-1 activity in the heart. The effects of Nigella sativa on blood pressure, lipid peroxidation product, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme were similar to those of nicardipine. In contrast, L-NAME had opposite effects on lipid peroxidation, angiotensin-converting enzyme and NO. The antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa oil appears to be mediated by a reduction in cardiac oxidative stress and angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, an increase in cardiac heme oxygenase-1 activity and a prevention of plasma nitric oxide loss. Thus, Nigella sativa oil might be beneficial for controlling hypertension.

  20. 77 FR 52750 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date...