WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventable alternative names

  1. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information © Jupiter Images We’ve all seen the words “complementary,” “alternative,” and “ integrative ,” but what do they really mean? This fact sheet looks into these terms to help you understand them better and gives you a brief picture of NCCIH’s mission and role in this area ...

  2. 27 CFR 4.92 - Alternative names permitted for temporary use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternative names permitted for temporary use. 4.92 Section 4.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American...

  3. The ACRONYM (Alternatives for Circumvention of Restrictions on Naming BY Trialists of Their Manuscripts) Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Neil J

    2009-06-01

    It is hoped that this commentary may draw attention to the issues raised by the enthusiastic naming of large clinical trials. Although the article is tongue in cheek, the underlying concern is that the names of studies may not, in fact, correspond to the actual results they yield.

  4. Evaluation and Optimization Study on a Hybrid EOR Technique Named as Chemical-Alternating-Foam Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Xingguang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR method called Chemical-Alternating-Foam (CAF floods in order to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional foam flooding such as insufficient amount of in-situ foams, severe foam collapse and surfactant retention. The first part of this research focused on the comparison of conventional foam floods and CAF floods both of which had the same amount of gas and chemicals. It showed that: (1 CAF floods possessed the much greater Residual Resistance Factor (RRF at elevated temperature; (2 the accumulative oil recovery of the CAF floods was 10%-15% higher than that of the conventional foam flooding. After 1.8 Pore Volume (PV injection, the oil recovery reached the plateau for both methods; (3 CAF floods yielded the most amount of incremental oil at the 98% water cut (water content in the effluent, while the continuous foam floods achieved the best performance at 60% water cut. The second part of this work determined the optimal foam quality (gas/liquid ratio or the volume percent gas within foam, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number and injection sequence for the CAF floods. It was found that the CAF was endowed with the peak performance if the foam quality, chemical/foam slug size ratio, cycle number was fixed at 80%, 1:1 and 3 respectively with the chemical slug being introduced ahead of the foam slug. Through systematic and thorough research, the proposed hybrid process has been approved to be a viable and effective method significantly strengthening the conventional foam flooding.

  5. Candidiasis: predisposing factors, prevention, diagnosis and alternative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Barros, Lillian; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic yeast infection. Candida species and other microorganisms are involved in this complicated fungal infection, but Candida albicans continues to be the most prevalent. In the past two decades, it has been observed an abnormal overgrowth in the gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts, not only in immunocompromised patients, but also related to nosocomial infections and even in healthy individuals. There is a widely variety of causal factors that contribute to yeast infection which means that candidiasis is a good example of a multifactorial syndrome. Due to rapid increase in the incidence in these infections, this is the subject of numerous studies. Recently, the focus of attention is the treatment and, above all, the prevention of those complications. The diagnosis of candidiasis could become quite complicated. Prevention is the most effective "treatment," much more than eradication of the yeast with antifungal agents. There are several aspects to consider in the daily routine that can provide a strength protection. However, a therapeutic approach is necessary when the infection is established, and therefore, other alternatives should be explored. This review provides an overview on predisposition factors, prevention and diagnosis of candidiasis, highlighting alternative approaches for candidiasis treatment.

  6. The Effect of Nitric Oxide Synthetase Inhibitor (L-NAME on Prevention of Morphine Dependence in Rats

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    A. Rafati

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of dependency to morphine or delaying to it and decreasing of tendency to morphine craving and also decreasing in morphine induced hyperalgesia(tolerance were the aims of this study. Nitric oxide is one of the neurotransmitters, which involves in the Dopamine reuptake in striatum. Dopamine is one of the most important neurotransmitters in reward system in central nervous system and it has a critical role in morphine addiction and dependency, tendency and tolerance to it, so in this study we survied the role of L- NAME as a nitric oxide synthetase (NOS inhibitor on the prevention of morphine addiction in rats. In this study we evaluated behavioral changes such as morphine craving by self - administration as a criterion for tendency, dependency by observation of withdrawal syndrom signs (e.g Jumping, wet dog shaking and also responses to nociceptive condenced bim of light by using tail flick analgesia metric device in sham (consuming tap water, control (consuming increasing doses of morphine sulfate solution from 0.1mg/ml up to 0.4mg/ml and test (treated with 45 mg/kg of L- NAME 30 minutes before consuming of morphine sulfate solution per day groups. The results showed that pretreatment with L- NAME in test group lead to a significant decline in tendency to morphine craving, withdrawal signs and also a significant reversal of morphine induced hyperalgesia. We concluded that L- NAME is a potent agent in the prevention of morphine addiction.

  7. 40 CFR Table 8 to Part 455 - List of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Pollution Prevention... of Pollution Prevention Alternative Practices A modification to the list of practices on this table that an individual facility must comply with to be eligible for the pollution prevention alternative is...

  8. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicea, Nicoleta; Gan, Tong J; Joseph, Nicholas; Uribe, Alberto; Pandya, Jyoti; Dalal, Rohan; Bergese, Sergio D

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a complication affecting between 20 and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain and anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu) at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, postdischarge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu), as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release and modulation of opioid neuropeptides. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing.

  9. Alternative Therapies for the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta eStoicea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a complication affecting between 20% and 40% of all surgery patients, with high-risk patients experiencing rates of up to 80%. Recent studies and publications have shed light on the uses of alternative treatment for PONV, through their modulation of endogenous opioid neuropeptides and neurokinin ligands. In addition to reducing PONV, hypnosis was reported to be useful in attenuating postoperative pain, anxiety, and contributing to hemodynamic stability. Music therapy has been utilized to deepen the sedation level and decrease patient anxiety, antiemetic and analgesic requirements, hospital length of stay, and fatigue. Isopropyl alcohol and peppermint oil aromatherapy have both been used to reduce postoperative nausea. With correct training in traditional Chinese healing techniques, acupuncture (APu at the P6 acupoint has also been shown to be useful in preventing early PONV, post-discharge nausea and vomiting, and alleviating of pain. Electro-acupuncture (EAPu, as with APu, provided analgesic and antiemetic effects through release of opioid neuropeptides and modulation. These non-pharmacological modalities of treatment contribute to an overall patient wellbeing, assisting in physical and emotional healing.

  10. Noninvasive inductive stent heating: alternative approach to prevent instent restenosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, Michael G; Günther, Rolf W; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas

    2004-05-01

    To test noninvasive inductive heating of implanted vascular stents as an alternative approach for reduction or prevention of neointimal hyperplasia. Calorimetric pretests were performed to get an orientation on the different parameters of influence for inductive heating of stents. The field strength was set to a maximum of 90 kA/m within a frequency range from 80 kHz to 320 kHz. The electromagnetic field was emitted by a custom-made water-cooled copper winding antenna. A flow model for stent heating was set up to assess the increase in temperature of an expanded 316L stainless steel stent with typical coronary stent dimensions of 3.5 mm diameter and 14.5 mm in length, and in a second setup with 4.5 mm diameter and 13 mm in length, respectively. The stent was located in a bioartificial artery, simulated by a fibrinogen matrix with a defined number of vital cells. The system was exposed to a pulsating perfusion and to an electromagnetic field of 200 kHz over a period of 20 minutes and in a second setup to an electromagnetic field of 300 kHz and increasing intensity up to maximum power-output. Afterward, the artificial vessel was sliced and examined by fluorescence microscopy to evaluate the number and location of damaged cells. The calorimetric tests show an exponential correlation of energy uptake in the stent with an increase in frequency and a constant generator output. At a frequency of 80 kHz, the power uptake accounts for 0.1 W (250 kHz 1.0 W; 320 kHz 1.9 W, respectively). The flow tests confirmed feasibility to elevate the stent temperature from 37 degrees C body temperature to 44 degrees C at 200 kHz within 55 seconds. The temperature increase of the fluid passing the heated vessel region was only marginal (maximum of 0.5 degrees C). Cell necrosis after 20 minutes of treatment was not observed. In a second set-up with 4.5 mm stent diameter, a frequency of 300 kHz and with maximum power output, the stent temperature was increased to 80 degrees C and there was

  11. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  12. Alternative approaches to ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, L; Sampson, J; Fumagalli, J; Panigada, M; Kolobow, T

    2011-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), which develops in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, is the most common nosocomial infection in patients with acute respiratory failure. The major mechanism of lower respiratory tract colonization is aspiration of bacteria-colonized secretions from the oropharynx into the lower airways. The hydrostatic pressure of the secretions that collect in the subglottic space, which is the area above the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff, or aerosolization of bacteria from the secretions collected within the respiratory tubing may facilitate the leakage into the lower airways. Ideally, the elimination of the mechanisms responsible for aspiration would decrease the incidence of VAP. Several preventive measures have been tested in clinical trials with little success.Here we present the results of our efforts to develop novel approaches for the prevention of VAP. Specifically, we found that keeping ventilated patients in a lateral position, which eliminates gravitational forces, is feasible and possibly advantageous. Additionally, several novel medical devices have been recently developed to prevent bacterial biofilm formation from the ETT and breathing tubing. These devices include coated ETTs, mucus shavers and mucus slurpers. Prevention of ETT bacterial colonization showed decreased bacterial colonization of the respiratory circuit and of the lower respiratory tract in laboratory studies and clinical trials. Future large studies should be designed to test the hypothesis that VAP can be prevented with these novel strategies. While there is a current focus on the use of respiratory devices to prevent biofilm formation and microaspiration, it is important to remember that lower respiratory tract colonization is multifactorial. Prevention of VAP cannot be achieved solely by eliminating bacterial biofilm on respiratory devices, and more comprehensive care of the intubated patient needs to be implemented.

  13. Arbutus unedo prevents cardiovascular and morphological alterations in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats Part I: cardiovascular and renal hemodynamic effects of Arbutus unedo in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkir, Saida; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Aziz, Mohamed; Zoheir, Johar; Cuisinaud, Guy; Bnouham, Mohamed; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Lahlou, Saad; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2008-03-05

    Hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition is associated with functional abnormalities of the heart and kidney. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic treatment with Arbutus unedo leaf (AuL) or root (AuR) aqueous extracts can prevent these alterations. Six groups of rats were used: control group received tap water; N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) group treated with L-NAME at 40 mg/kg/day; AuL and AuR groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and Au leaves or roots extract at the same concentration 250 mg/kg/day; l-arginine and enalapril groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and l-arginine at 50mg/kg/day or enalapril at 15 mg/kg/day. Treatment of rats during 4 weeks with L-NAME caused an increase of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) accompanied by a ventricular hypertrophy, an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, an increase of the cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and a decrease of water, sodium and potassium excretion. The co-administration of AuL or AuR extracts with L-NAME reduces the development of increased SBP, ameliorates the vascular reactivity as well as the baroreflex sensitivity and normalizes the renal function. AuR reduces the ventricular hypertrophy but AuL do not. Enalapril associated with L-NAME reverses the majority of alterations induced by L-NAME while l-arginine only lightly ameliorates the vascular reactivity. These results show that chronic treatment with Arbutus extract regress the development of hypertension and ameliorate cardiovascular and renal functions in NO deficient hypertension.

  14. Education in trauma: An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Charry

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80% of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5% to 24.3% (p = 0.0001 and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3% to 8.1% (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia. Keywords: Models, Educational, Trauma, Injury prevention, Alcohol

  15. Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity.

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    Lydia Grmai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx. Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir and Female lethal (2d (Fl(2d. traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  16. Chinmo prevents transformer alternative splicing to maintain male sex identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grmai, Lydia; Hudry, Bruno; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Bach, Erika A

    2018-02-01

    Reproduction in sexually dimorphic animals relies on successful gamete production, executed by the germline and aided by somatic support cells. Somatic sex identity in Drosophila is instructed by sex-specific isoforms of the DMRT1 ortholog Doublesex (Dsx). Female-specific expression of Sex-lethal (Sxl) causes alternative splicing of transformer (tra) to the female isoform traF. In turn, TraF alternatively splices dsx to the female isoform dsxF. Loss of the transcriptional repressor Chinmo in male somatic stem cells (CySCs) of the testis causes them to "feminize", resembling female somatic stem cells in the ovary. This somatic sex transformation causes a collapse of germline differentiation and male infertility. We demonstrate this feminization occurs by transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of traF. We find that chinmo-deficient CySCs upregulate tra mRNA as well as transcripts encoding tra-splice factors Virilizer (Vir) and Female lethal (2)d (Fl(2)d). traF splicing in chinmo-deficient CySCs leads to the production of DsxF at the expense of the male isoform DsxM, and both TraF and DsxF are required for CySC sex transformation. Surprisingly, CySC feminization upon loss of chinmo does not require Sxl but does require Vir and Fl(2)d. Consistent with this, we show that both Vir and Fl(2)d are required for tra alternative splicing in the female somatic gonad. Our work reveals the need for transcriptional regulation of tra in adult male stem cells and highlights a previously unobserved Sxl-independent mechanism of traF production in vivo. In sum, transcriptional control of the sex determination hierarchy by Chinmo is critical for sex maintenance in sexually dimorphic tissues and is vital in the preservation of fertility.

  17. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  18. Alternative Agents to Prevent Fogging in Head and Neck Endoscopy

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    Patorn Piromchai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The essential factor for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in head and neck endoscopy is the visibility of the image. An anti-fogging agent can reduce this problem by minimizing surface tension to prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface. There is no report on the use of hibiscrub ® or baby shampoo to reduce fogging in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy between commercial anti-fogging agent, hibiscrub ® and baby shampoo to reduce fogging for the use in head and neck endoscopy. Methods The study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University in August 2010. Commercial anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub ® were applied on rigid endoscope lens before putting them into a mist generator. The images were taken at baseline, 15 seconds, 30 seconds and 1 minute. The images' identifiers were removed before they were sent to two evaluators. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used to rate the image quality from 0 to 10. Results The difference in mean VAS score between anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub ® versus no agent were 5.46, 4.45 and 2.1 respectively. The commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo had most protective benefit and performed significantly better than no agent ( P < 0.05. Conclusions Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during head and neck endoscopy and compares favourably with commercial anti-fogging agent.

  19. Preventing the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in Australia: cost-effectiveness of thiamin-supplementation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, L; Price, J

    1996-04-01

    Alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy has been commonplace in Australia for many years and, as this syndrome is attributed to a deficiency in the diet, it should be preventable. This study employs conventional cost-effectiveness methodology to compare the economic efficiency of several thiamin-supplementation alternatives that have been proposed for the prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy. A series of rankings of these measures is derived from an estimated cost per case averted for each of the alternatives studied. These rankings identify the least cost-effective thiamin-supplementation alternative as that of enriching bread-making flour with thiamin.

  20. Similarity between generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: evidence from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Although generic and earlier brand-name counterparts are bioequivalent, their equivalence in preventing relevant clinical outcomes is of concern. To compare effectiveness of generic and brand-name antihypertensive drugs for preventing the onset of cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. A population-based, nested case-control study was carried out by including the cohort of 78 520 patients from Lombardy (Italy) aged 18 years or older who were newly treated with antihypertensive drugs during 2005. Cases were the 2206 patients who experienced a hospitalization for CV disease from initial prescription until 2011. One control for each case was randomly selected from the same cohort that generated cases. Logistic regression was used to model the CV risk associated with starting on and/or continuing with generic or brand-name agents. There was no evidence that patients who started on generics experienced different CV risk than those on brand-name product (OR 0·86; 95% CI 0·63-1·17). Patients at whom generics were main dispensed had not significantly difference in CV outcomes than those mainly on brand-name agents (OR 1·19; 95% CI 0·86-1·63). Compared with patients who kept initial brand-name therapy, those who experienced brand-to-generic or generic-to-brand switches, and those always on generics, did not show differential CV risks, being the corresponding ORs (and 95% CIs), 1·18 (0·96-1·47), 0·87 (0·63-1·21) and 1·08 (0·80-1·46). Our findings do not support the notion that brand-name antihypertensive agents are superior to generics for preventing CV outcomes in the real-world clinical practice. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  1. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  2. Nitric oxide donors prevent while the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME increases arachidonic acid plus CYP2E1-dependent toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Defeng; Cederbaum, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA) play an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury. AA promotes toxicity in rat hepatocytes with high levels of cytochrome P4502E1 and in HepG2 E47 cells which express CYP2E1. Nitric oxide (NO) participates in the regulation of various cell activities as well as in cytotoxic events. NO may act as a protectant against cytotoxic stress or may enhance cytotoxicity when produced at elevated concentrations. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effect of endogenously or exogenously produced NO on AA toxicity in liver cells with high expression of CYP2E1 and assess possible mechanisms for its actions. Pyrazole-induced rat hepatocytes or HepG2 cells expressing CYP2E1 were treated with AA in the presence or absence of an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase L-N G -Nitroarginine Methylester (L-NAME) or the NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), and (Z)-1-[-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-aminoethyl)]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONO). AA decreased cell viability from 100% to 48 ± 6% after treatment for 48 h. In the presence of L-NAME, viability was further lowered to 23 ± 5%, while, SNAP or DETA-NONO increased viability to 66 ± 8 or 71 ± 6%. The L-NAME potentiated toxicity was primarily necrotic in nature. L-NAME did not affect CYP2E1 activity or CYP2E1 content. SNAP significantly lowered CYP2E1 activity but not protein. AA treatment increased lipid peroxidation and lowered GSH levels. L-NAME potentiated while SNAP prevented these changes. Thus, L-NAME increased, while NO donors decreased AA-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants prevented the L-NAME potentiation of AA toxicity. Damage to mitochondria by AA was shown by a decline in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). L-NAME potentiated this decline in MMP in association with its increase in AA-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. NO donors decreased this decline in MMP in association with their decrease in AA-induced oxidative stress and

  3. The Effects of a Violence Prevention Program on Alternative High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplett, Carla A.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the effectiveness of a violence prevention program in an inner-city alternative school setting. The researcher, an administrator at the school, used a prepackaged curriculum targeting lessons on violence in an eight-week study with the entire school population. Students met bi-weekly with a team of two teachers to review and…

  4. A helynevek szerepe az alternatív ideologikus gondolkodásban I. A Pilis-kultusz esete [The role of place names in an alternative ideological mindset I. The case of the Pilis Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imreh, Réka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role of place names in defining and legitimizing the identity of a subculture through the example of a complex contemporary alternative social phenomenon known as the Pilis Cult. The Pilis Cult, which is also linked with some other alternative theories (Sumerian–Hungarian linguistic affinity, root linguistics, The Holy Crown Doctrine, claims that the Pilis Mountains as a spiritual space have a special role in Hungarian history. In the specific attitude to language and place names adopted by this subculture, one can recognize elements similar to those of ancient and medieval magical thinking. These can be observed in the interpretation of place names of the mountains, in which associations connected to the phonetic forms or the semantics of the place names may turn these toponyms into “telling names”, proving 120 Imreh Réka the antiquity and spirituality of the area. This etymological-associative narration is illustrated in the paper with the examples of the place names Pilis and Dobogó-kő. The interpretations of these names commingling with the alternative ideas connected to the denotata themselves (e.g. heart chakra theory; Proto-Buda Theories establish a unified argumentation framework. The paper argues that even a linguistically unorthodox subculture – alongside its specific ideology – may emphasize aspects of the study of place names through which our knowledge can be expanded with respect, for instance, to the functional logic behind place names.

  5. Ellagic Acid Prevents L-NAME-Induced Hypertension via Restoration of eNOS and p47phox Expression in Rats

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    Thewarid Berkban

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ellagic acid on oxidative stress and hypertension induced by Nω-Nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day for five weeks. L-NAME induced high systolic blood pressure (SBP and increased heart rate (HR, hindlimb vascular resistance (HVR and oxidative stress. Concurrent treatment with ellagic acid (7.5 or 15 mg/kg prevented these alterations. Co-treatment with ellagic acid was associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein production and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreased superoxide production in the vascular tissue, reduced plasma malondialdehyde levels, reduced NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite levels. Our results indicate that ellagic acid attenuates hypertension by reducing NADPH oxidase subunit p47phox expression, which prevents oxidative stress and restores NO bioavailability.

  6. Knowledge and acceptability of alternative HIV prevention bio-medical products among MSM who bareback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodin, N; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Ventuneac, A M; Balan, I C; Remien, R

    2008-01-01

    Condom use is the best available strategy to prevent HIV infection during sexual intercourse. However, since many people choose not to use condoms in circumstances in which HIV risk exists, alternatives to condom use for HIV prevention are needed. Currently there are several alternative bio-medical HIV-prevention products in different stages of development: microbicides, vaccines, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Seventy-two men who have sex with men (MSM) who took part in a study on Internet use and intentional condomless anal intercourse were asked about these four products during a semi-structured interview. The questions explored knowledge and acceptability of all the products and willingness to participate in microbicide and vaccine trials. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that these men had virtually no knowledge of PrEP, very limited knowledge of microbicides, some information about PEP and considerably more knowledge about vaccines. Reactions towards the products were generally positive except for PrEP, for which reactions were polarized as either enthusiastic or negative. With the exception of PrEP, many men expressed willingness to use the products in the future. Most men would be willing to participate in trials for microbicides and vaccines if given basic reassurances. Concerns over negative side effects and preoccupation with possible infection were some of the motives given for non-willingness to participate in a vaccine trial. These results should inform the development of future trials of biomedical prevention products.

  7. Breaking Boundaries: Complementary and Alternative Medicine Provider Framing of Preventive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2017-11-01

    This textual examination extends understandings of how complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers constitute preventive care in their discourse by identifying the frame of breaking boundaries referencing relational, structural, and philosophical orientations in their practice with their clients. Analysis of semistructured, in-depth interviews with CAM providers ( n = 17) reveals that the frame of breaking boundaries was comprised of three themes: finding one's own strength; I don't prescribe, so I'm exploring; and ground yourself, and have an escape route. The themes describe preventive care by identifying how CAM providers negotiate their relational positionality in connecting with clients, structural positionality within the field of health care, and philosophical positionality within the ontological understandings that guide how health is defined and conceptualized. The study contributes toward enhancing diverse understandings of constituting preventive care in practice and suggests pragmatic implications for addressing biomedical provider communication with their patients seeking CAM care alongside conventional treatments.

  8. Alternatives to antibiotics to prevent necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens: a microbiologist’s perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Louise Caly

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control.

  9. An alternate HIV preventive strategy: sex scripts in media for women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Catherine; Rios, Diana I

    2011-01-01

    New cases of HIV/AIDS among women of color in the United States highlight the continuing need for the public and private sectors to develop alternate preventive strategies. The author discusses the conceptual basis for using television sex scripts to incorporate women of color relational needs (trust, romance, sexual pressure) to promote HIV risk-reduction messages through a process of association with the television storyline. Sex scripts are a source of implicit knowledge about how to behave in situations that involve sexual intimacy. The article suggests that sexual scripts prevention messages build on the agency of women through the use of power theory-that is supporting woman's self-power by participating in sexual behavioral change. Implications for sexual equality in media programming are discussed.

  10. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  11. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  12. Pressure ulcer prevention and healing using alternating pressure mattress at home: the PARESTRY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Marty, M

    2015-08-01

    Specialised pressure-relieving supports reduce or relieve the interface pressure between the skin and the support surface. The comparative effectiveness of dynamic support surfaces is debated. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of using an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM) on pressure ulcer (PU) incidence in patients receiving home-based care. A second aim was to determine the level of patient/family satisfaction with comfort and gain the views of the care team that used the APAM. The PARESTRY study was a prospective observational study conducted in patients with a high risk of PUs (Braden score prevention groups consisted of patients with no PU at baseline who were in bed for at least 20 hours a day. Patients at baseline with a category 3 or 4 PU or a category 1 or 2 PU in association with poor general health or end-of-life status were included in the secondary prevention group. All patients were laid on an APAM. The primary end point was the % of patients with a worsening skin condition in the pressure area (heel, sacrum, ischium) at day 90 or at the end of the study. The primary analysis was done on the full analysis set (patients included with at least a second assessment), using the last observation carried forward technique to handle missing data, at day 90. A 95% confidence interval was calculated. Analysis was performed on 92 patients (30 in primary prevention and 62 in secondary prevention). The average time spent in bed was 22.7 (SD 2.7) hours a day and 22.6 (SD 2.2) hours in the primary and secondary prevention groups, respectively. At baseline, in the secondary group, 77% of patients had a sacral PU, 63% a heel PU, 8% an ischial tuberosity PU and 45% a PU in another area, a number of patients having multiple PUs. In the primary prevention group, 63% (19/30) of patients dropped out of the study (5 were hospitalised, 9 died, 5 other causes). In the secondary prevention group, 61% (38/62) dropped out (7 were hospitalised, 23 died, 8

  13. Is 5-methyltetrahydrofolate an alternative to folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2013-09-01

    Women have higher requirements for folate during pregnancy. An optimal folate status must be achieved before conception and in the first trimester when the neural tube closes. Low maternal folate status is causally related to neural tube defects (NTDs). Many NTDs can be prevented by increasing maternal folate intake in the preconceptional period. Dietary folate is protective, but recommending increasing folate intake is ineffective on a population level particularly during periods of high demands. This is because the recommendations are often not followed or because the bioavailability of food folate is variable. Supplemental folate [folic acid (FA) or 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF)] can effectively increase folate concentrations to the level that is considered to be protective. FA is a synthetic compound that has no biological functions unless it is reduced to dihydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate. Unmetabolized FA appears in the circulation at doses of >200 μg. Individuals show wide variations in their ability to reduce FA. Carriers of certain polymorphisms in genes related to folate metabolism or absorption can better benefit from 5-methylTHF instead of FA. 5-MethylTHF [also known as (6S)-5-methylTHF] is the predominant natural form that is readily available for transport and metabolism. In contrast to FA, 5-methylTHF has no tolerable upper intake level and does not mask vitamin B12 deficiency. Supplementation of the natural form, 5-methylTHF, is a better alternative to supplementation of FA, especially in countries not applying a fortification program. Supplemental 5-methylTHF can effectively improve folate biomarkers in young women in early pregnancy in order to prevent NTDs.

  14. Numerical simulation of an alternative to prevent hydrates formation in a bypass section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Lucilla Coelho; Oliveira Junior, Joao Americo Aguirre; Fonte, Clarissa Bergman [Engineering Simulation and Scientific Software Ltda. (ESSS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Fabricio Soares da; Moraes, Carlos Alberto Capela [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics to evaluate the feasibility of MEG (monoethylene glycol) injection as an alternative to prevent hydrate formation in a bypass section, present in an inlet module of a separation device of a subsea separation system. As the bypass section is open to the main pipeline, MEG will probably be dragged due to secondary flows generated by the main flow stream. The MEG removal rate is estimated, as well as the internal heat transfer between the currents and the heat loss to the external environment in order to estimate the temperature in the equipment. In a first step, the MEG removal was evaluated considering the heat transfer between the liquid phase (composed of water, oil and MEG) and the gas phase as well as the heat transfer by forced convection to the external environment. In a second step, the influence of a thermal insulation layer around the bypass line, reducing the heat loss to the external environment, was studied. Both simulations (with or without thermal insulation) showed the establishment of secondary flows in the open connection between the main line and bypass line, promoting the removal of MEG from the bypass section and enabling other components of the liquid phase and/or gas to enter in the bypass line. This MEG removal is faster when thermal isolation was considered, due to the fact that higher temperatures are established in the bypass, maintaining the liquid phase with lower densities and viscosities. With regard to temperature, the insulation was able to keep higher temperatures at the bypass line than those obtained without insulation, indicating that the combination of MEG injection and thermal insulation may be able to avoid the critical condition for hydrate formation. (author)

  15. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  16. Swine influenza and vaccines: an alternative approach for decision making about pandemic prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Marcello; Ferrini, Silvia; Montomoli, Emanuele

    2013-08-01

    During the global pandemic of A/H1N1/California/07/2009 (A/H1N1/Cal) influenza, many governments signed contracts with vaccine producers for a universal influenza immunization program and bought hundreds of millions of vaccines doses. We argue that, as Health Ministers assumed the occurrence of the worst possible scenario (generalized pandemic influenza) and followed the strong version of the Precautionary Principle, they undervalued the possibility of mild or weak pandemic wave. An alternative decision rule, based on the non-extensive entropy principle, is introduced, and a different Precautionary Principle characterization is applied. This approach values extreme negative results (catastrophic events) in a different way and predicts more plausible and mild events. It introduces less pessimistic forecasts in the case of uncertain influenza pandemic outbreaks. A simplified application is presented using seasonal data of morbidity and severity among Italian children influenza-like illness for the period 2003-10. Established literature results predict an average attack rate of not less than 15% for the next pandemic influenza [Meltzer M, Cox N, Fukuda K. The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the United States: implications for setting priorities for interventions. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:659-71; Meltzer M, Cox N, Fukuda K. Modeling the Economic Impact of Pandemic Influenza in the United States: Implications for Setting Priorities for Intervention. Background paper. Atlanta, GA: CDC, 1999. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no5/melt_back.htm (7 January 2011, date last accessed))]. The strong version of the Precautionary Principle would suggest using this prediction for vaccination campaigns. On the contrary, the non-extensive maximum entropy principle predicts a lower attack rate, which induces a 20% saving in public funding for vaccines doses. The need for an effective influenza pandemic prevention program, coupled with an efficient use of public

  17. A Preventive Intervention Program for Urban African American Youth Attending an Alternative Education Program: Background, Implementation, and Feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, Steven B; Hanlon, Thomas E; O'Grady, Kevin E; Watts, Amy M; Pothong, Pattarapan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted of structured group mentoring, parental support, and community outreach services administered to alternative education students and their primary caregiver(s) during the school year. Over a two-year intake period, 109 youth participated in the present process evaluation study. Findings from the study not only provided relevant demographic information on the characteristics of youth likely to be included in such programs but also indicated the importance of including the family in the rehabilitation effort and the need for school administrative system support for the underlying alternative education approach. The information presented in this report has a direct bearing on the planning of future prevention efforts conducted in similar settings that are aimed at reducing problem behaviors and promoting positive lifestyles among high-risk youth.

  18. Global Status of DDT and Its Alternatives for Use in Vector Control to Prevent Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective - I review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives. Data sources and extraction - Contemporary data on DDT use were largely obtained from

  19. The three names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas Jongenelen

    2011-01-01

    Two spectators are each asked to think of a girl's name (because your sister in law is pregnant and names are a big issue at the moment in your family.) You explain that you have a boy's name in your head, and you ask the spectators to think what this boy's name might be. You write three names on a

  20. What's in a Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Albanese, Judith; Karp, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, some baby names have been more popular during a specific time span, whereas other names are considered timeless. The Internet article, "How to Tell Someone's Age When All You Know Is Her Name" (Silver and McCann 2014), describes the phenomenon of the rise and fall of name popularity, which served as a catalyst for the…

  1. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  2. Orotracheal Intubation Using the Retromolar Space: A Reliable Alternative Intubation Approach to Prevent Dental Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh T. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in airway management, perianesthetic dental injury remains one of the most common anesthesia-related adverse events and cause for malpractice litigation against anesthesia providers. Recommended precautions for prevention of dental damage may not always be effective because these techniques involve contact and pressure exerted on vulnerable teeth. We describe a novel approach using the retromolar space to insert a flexible fiberscope for tracheal tube placement as a reliable method to achieve atraumatic tracheal intubation. Written consent for publication has been obtained from the patient.

  3. [Responsible gambling: is it an alternative for prevention and treatment of pathological gambling?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburua, Enrique; de Corral, Paz

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the new development of controlled gambling embedded in a harm-reduction context as a viable solution both for primary prevention at school and for treatment of some kinds of problematic gamblers. Pathological gambling significantly improves with psychological therapies, such as stimulus control and in vivo exposure with response prevention or cognitive interventions. In some cases psychopharmacological therapy may complement the benefits of treatment for pathological gambling when patients have comorbid depression or high impulsivity. However, in this mental disorder the goal of treatment (total abstinence or controlled gambling) is currently a controversial issue. Controlled gambling may be a therapeutic option for young gamblers or patients without severe dependence. Furthermore, controlled gambling may be a relevant issue for health education in schools, with a view to teaching teenagers how to cope with actual and virtual exposure to gambling. Likewise, the gambling industry and governments are involved in harm minimization initiatives. Thus, it is necessary to coordinate a program of research that includes the industry, science, and public representatives, based on cooperative research that will permit the introduction of controlled gambling within a global strategic framework. We discuss the relevance of this review for clinical practice and for future research, as well as the unsolved problems in this field.

  4. Education in trauma:An educational alternative that promotes injury prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Daniel Charry; Juan Daniel Ochoa; Jorman Harvey Tejada; Sandra Liliana Navarro-Parra; Nicolas Esquivel; Yolercy Vasques

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: As trauma is a public health problem, different programs have been designed to prevent in-juries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational model that measures the adolescents' attitudes towards the rules of road safety, alcohol and road accidents in Colombia. Methods: A pedagogical model evaluating the effect of road safety education and adolescents' attitudes towards and experiences of alcohol and road accidents in Colombia was created. After the education concluded, this educational process is analyzed by its impact on adolescents' behavior. The educational program included 160 adolescents with the mean age being 17.5 years. Results: The test results indicated that before the educational program 80%of adolescents did not use a safety element when driving, while after the educational program the percentage of no helmet use among adolescents decreased from 72.5%to 24.3%(p=0.0001) and driving a vehicle under the state of drunkenness from 49.3%to 8.1%(p=0.0001). Conclusion: An educational model aimed at preventing injuries caused by traffic accidents is shown to be effective in generating changes in adolescents' customs of and attitudes towards alcohol and road safety standards in Colombia.

  5. Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jonatan; Arias, Noemi; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; del Puy Portillo, María

    2014-04-01

    Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and the controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation). Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Preventing long-lasting fear recovery using bilateral alternating sensory stimulation: A translational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, H; El-Khoury-Malhame, M; Wilhelm, F H; Michael, T; Beetz, E M; Roques, J; Reynaud, E; Courtin, J; Khalfa, S; Herry, C

    2016-05-03

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a highly debilitating and prevalent psychological disorder. It is characterized by highly distressing intrusive trauma memories that are partly explained by fear conditioning. Despite efficient therapeutic approaches, a subset of PTSD patients displays spontaneous recurrence of traumatic memories after successful treatment. The development of animal behavioral models mimicking the individual variability in treatment outcome for PTSD patients represent therefore an important challenge as it allows for the identification of predicting factors of resilience or susceptibility to relapse. However, to date, only few animal behavioral models of long-lasting fear recovery have been developed and their predictive validity has not been tested directly. The objectives of this study were twofold. First we aimed to develop a simple animal behavioral model of long-lasting fear recovery based on auditory cued fear conditioning and extinction learning, which recapitulates the heterogeneity of fear responses observed in PTSD patients after successful treatment. Second we aimed at testing the predictive validity of our behavioral model and used to this purpose a translational approach based (i) on the demonstration of the efficiency of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy to reduce conditioned fear responses in PTSD patients and (ii) on the implementation in our behavioral model of an electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid which mimics the core feature of EMDR. Our data indicate that electrical bilateral alternating stimulation of the eyelid during extinction learning alleviates long-lasting fear recovery of conditioned fear responses and dramatically reduces inter-individual variability. These results demonstrate the face and predictive validity of our animal behavioral model and provide an interesting tool to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of long-lasting fear recovery. Copyright

  7. Microbial secondary metabolites are an alternative approaches against insect vector to prevent zoonotic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1500 naturally occurring microorganisms have been identified as potentially insecticidal agents. Metabolites from 942 microbial isolates were screened for insecticidal and properties. The isolates included 302 streptomycetes, 502 novel actinobacteria including representatives of 18 genera, 28 unidentified aerobic actinobacteria, 70 fungi and 40 bacteria other than actinobacteria showed the insecticidal activity. Most spore-forming bacteria pathogenic to insects belong to the family Bacillaceae. Only four Bacillus species namely Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus popilliae, Bacillus lentimorbus, Bacillus sphaericus have been closely examined as insect control agents. Fungi are applied directly in the form of spores, mycelia or blastospores or by their metabolites. Many viruses that belong to the family Baculoviridae are pathogenic in insects. The microbial insecticides are generally pest-specific, readily biodegradable and usually lack toxicity to higher animals. This review paper communicates the insect problem in the transmission of diseases in human, animals, plants and problem of chemical insecticides control of insects using microbial metabolites from actinobacteria, bacteria, fungi and viruses.

  8. Distribution of Chinese names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2013-03-01

    We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

  9. Prevention of adenosine A2A receptor activation diminishes beat-to-beat alternation in human atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Cristina E; Llach, Anna; Herraiz-Martínez, Adela; Tarifa, Carmen; Barriga, Montserrat; Wiegerinck, Rob F; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Cabello, Nuria; Vallmitjana, Alex; Benitéz, Raúl; Montiel, José; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with increased spontaneous calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and linked to increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) expression and activation. Here we tested whether this may favor atrial arrhythmogenesis by promoting beat-to-beat alternation and irregularity. Patch-clamp and confocal calcium imaging was used to measure the beat-to-beat response of the calcium current and transient in human atrial myocytes. Responses were classified as uniform, alternating or irregular and stimulation of Gs-protein coupled receptors decreased the frequency where a uniform response could be maintained from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 0.6 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.01 for beta-adrenergic receptors and from 1.4 ± 0.1 to 0.5 ± 0.1 Hz; p < 0.05 for A2ARs. The latter was linked to increased spontaneous calcium release and after-depolarizations. Moreover, A2AR activation increased the fraction of non-uniformly responding cells in HL-1 myocyte cultures from 19 ± 3 to 51 ± 9 %; p < 0.02, and electrical mapping in perfused porcine atria revealed that adenosine induced electrical alternans at longer cycle lengths, doubled the fraction of electrodes showing alternation, and increased the amplitude of alternations. Importantly, protein kinase A inhibition increased the highest frequency where uniform responses could be maintained from 0.84 ± 0.12 to 1.86 ± 0.11 Hz; p < 0.001 and prevention of A2AR-activation with exogenous adenosine deaminase selectively increased the threshold from 0.8 ± 0.1 to 1.2 ± 0.1 Hz; p = 0.001 in myocytes from patients with AF. In conclusion, A2AR-activation promotes beat-to-beat irregularities in the calcium transient in human atrial myocytes, and prevention of A2AR activation may be a novel means to maintain uniform beat-to-beat responses at higher beating frequencies in patients with atrial fibrillation.

  10. Marine Place Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the geographic place names for features in the U.S territorial waters and outer continental shelf. These names can be used to find or define a...

  11. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  12. Examining the role of implementation quality in school-based prevention using the PATHS curriculum. Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Chi-Ming; Greenberg, Mark T; Walls, Carla T

    2003-03-01

    In order for empirically validated school-based prevention programs to "go to scale," it is important to understand the processes underlying program dissemination. Data collected in effectiveness trials, especially those measuring the quality of program implementation and administrative support, are valuable in explicating important factors influencing implementation. This study describes findings regarding quality of implementation in a recent effectiveness trial conducted in a high-risk, American urban community. This delinquency prevention trial is a locally owned intervention, which used the Promoting Alternative THinking Skills Curriculum as its major program component. The intervention involved 350 first graders in 6 inner-city public schools. Three schools implemented the intervention and the other 3 were comparison schools from the same school district. Although intervention effects were not found for all the intervention schools, the intervention was effective in improving children's emotional competence and reducing their aggression in schools which effectively supported the intervention. This study, utilizing data from the 3 intervention schools (13 classrooms and 164 students), suggested that 2 factors contributed to the success of the intervention: (a) adequate support from school principals and (b) high degree of classroom implementation by teachers. These findings are discussed in light of the theory-driven models in program evaluation that emphasized the importance of the multiple factors influencing the implementation of school-based interventions.

  13. Review on Usage of Vancomycin in Livestock and Humans: Maintaining Its Efficacy, Prevention of Resistance and Alternative Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panditharathnalage Nishantha Kumara Wijesekara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is one of the “last-line” classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in the 1950s, it was widely used after the 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, as the prevalence of these strains were increased. However, it is currently evident that vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci have developed for various reasons, including the use of avaparcin—an analog of vancomycin—as a feed additive in livestock. Therefore, prophylactic and empiric use of antibiotics and their analogues need to be minimized. Herein we discuss the rational use of vancomycin in treating humans, horses, farm animals, and pet animals such as dogs, cats, and rabbits. In present day context, more attention should be paid to the prevention of the emergence of resistance to antibiotics in order to maintain their efficacy. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have an in-depth understanding of the antibiotic that they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects, and alternative therapy for vancomycin.

  14. Hyperimmune anti-HBs plasma as alternative to commercial immunoglobulins for prevention of HBV recurrence after liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majno Pietro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B immune globulins (HBIG in combination with nucleos(tide analogues (NA are effectively used for the prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV recurrence after liver transplantation (LT. However, associated treatment costs for HBIG are exceedingly high. Methods Fresh frozen plasma obtained from blood donors with high anti-HBs levels (hyperimmune plasma, HIP containing at least 4,500 IU anti-HBs was used as alternative treatment for HBV recurrence prophylaxis post-LT. Results Twenty-one HBV-related LT recipients received HIP starting at transplantation, followed by long-term combination treatment with NA. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 years (range 0.5-12.6 and each patient received on average 8.2 HIP per year (range 5.8-11.4. Anti-HBs terminal elimination kinetic after HIP administration was 20.6 days (range 13.8-30.9, which is comparable to values reported for commercial HBIG products. All 21 patients remained free of HBV recurrence during follow-up and no transfusion-transmitted infection or other serious complication was observed. Seven patients developed reversible mild transfusion reactions. The cost for one HIP unit was US$140; average yearly HBIG treatment cost was US$1,148 per patient, as compared to US$25,000-100,000 for treatment with commercial HBIG. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the use of HIP may be a useful and economical approach for the prevention of HBV recurrence post-LT if used in combination with NA. Additional prospective controlled studies in larger populations are needed to confirm these results.

  15. The Name Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Sharon J.

    Described is a game which provides a method for teaching students to locate cities and towns on a map. Students are provided with a list of descriptive phrases which stand for the name of a city, e.g., hot weather town (Summerville, Georgia); a chocolate candy bar (Hershey, Pennsylvania). Using a map, students must then try to find the name of a…

  16. Directory of awardee names

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  17. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  18. LEFT ATRIAL APPENDAGE CLOSURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO WARFARIN FOR STROKE PREVENTION IN ATRIAL FIBRILLATION: A PATIENT¬LEVEL META¬ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Holmes D.R. Jr, Doshi S.K., Kar S., et al. Left Atrial Appendage Closure as an Alternative to Warfarin for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: A Patient­Level Meta­Analysis // J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. – 2015. – Vol. 65. – P. 2614–2623.

  19. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  20. MULTIPATH COMMUNICATIONS USING NAMES

    OpenAIRE

    Purushothama, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Increased host mobility, and multi-homing make IP address management very complex in applications. Due to host mobility, the IP address of a host may change dynamically, and also frequently. Multi-homing leads to multiple IP addresses for a single host. Name-based socket is a solution to address the complex IP address management. It relieves the applications from the overhead, and moves it to the operating system. It uses a constant name, instead of an IP address to establish a connection, th...

  1. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  2. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  3. Transdermal scopolamine: an alternative to ondansetron and droperidol for the prevention of postoperative and postdischarge emetic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul F; Tang, Jun; Song, Dajun; Coleman, Jayne E; Wender, Ronald H; Ogunnaike, Babatunde; Sloninsky, Alexander; Kapu, Rajani; Shah, Mary; Webb, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Given the controversy regarding the use of droperidol and the high cost of the 5-HT3 antagonists, a cost-effective alternative for routine use as a prophylactic antiemetic would be desirable. We designed two parallel, randomized, double-blind sham and placebo-controlled studies to compare the early and late antiemetic efficacy and adverse event profile of transdermal scopolamine (TDS) 1.5 mg, to ondansetron 4 mg IV, and droperidol 1.25 mg IV for antiemetic prophylaxis as part of a multimodal regimen in "at risk" surgical populations. A total of 150 patients undergoing major laparoscopic (n = 80) or plastic (n = 70) surgery procedures received either an active TDS patch (containing scopolamine 1.5 mg) or a similar appearing sham patch 60 min before entering the operating room. All patients received a standardized general anesthetic technique. A second study medication was administered in a 2-mL numbered syringe containing either saline (for the two active TDS groups), droperidol, 1.25 mg, or ondansetron, 4 mg (for the sham patch groups), and was administered IV near the end of the procedure. The occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting/retching, need for rescue antiemetics, and the complete response rates (i.e., absence of protracted nausea or repeated episodes of emesis requiring antiemetic rescue medication) was reported. In addition, complaints of visual disturbances, dry mouth, drowsiness, and restlessness were noted up to 72 h after surgery. There were no significant differences in any of the emetic outcomes or need for rescue antiemetics among the TDS, droperidol, and ondansetron groups in the first 72 h after surgery. The complete response rates varied from 41% to 51%, and did not significantly differ among the treatment groups. The overall incidence of dry mouth was significantly more frequent in the TDS groups than in the droperidol and ondansetron groups (21% vs 3%). Premedication with TDS was as effective as droperidol (1.25 mg) or ondansetron (4

  4. Oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferative phenotype is modulated by proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapp Aaron

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the recently reported drop in the overall death rate from cancer, the estimated survival rate and number of deaths from oral cancer remain virtually unchanged. Early detection efforts, in combination with strategies for prevention and risk-reduction, have the potential to dramatically improve clinical outcomes. The identification of non-toxic, effective treatments, including complementary and alternative therapies, is critical if the survival rate is to be improved. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a protective effect from certain plant-derived foods and extracts; however, it has been difficult to isolate and identify the compounds most responsible for these observations. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the response of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC to proanthocyanidin (PAC, a plant-derived compound that may inhibit the progression of several other cancers. Methods Using a series of in vitro assays, we sought to quantify the effects of PAC on OSCC, cervical carcinoma, and non-cancerous cell lines, specifically the effects of PAC on cell proliferation. Recent data suggest that infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV may also modulate the proliferative potential of OSCC; therefore, we also measured the effects of PAC administration on HPV-transfected OSCC proliferation. Results Our results demonstrated that PAC administration was sufficient to significantly suppress cellular proliferation of OSCC in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the increased proliferation of OSCC after transfection with HPV 16 was reduced by the administration of PAC, as was the proliferation of the cervical cancer and non-cancerous cell lines tested. Our results also provide preliminary evidence that PAC administration may induce apoptosis in cervical and oral cancer cell lines, while acting merely to suppress proliferation of the normal cell line control. Conclusion These results signify that PAC may be

  5. Risk evaluation of the alternate-3A modification to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR-4, MARK-II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.; Karol, R.; Shiu, K.

    1983-01-01

    The authors present a risk evaluation of the ATWS Alternate 3A modification proposed by NRC staff in NUREG-0460 to the ATWS prevention/mitigation system in a BWR nuclear power plant. The evaluation is done relative to three risk indices: the frequency of core damage, the expected early fatalities, and the expected latent fatalities. The ATWS prevention tree includes: the mechanical subsystem of the reactor protection system, the electrical subsystem of the reactor protection system, the recirculation pump trip and the Alternate Rod Insertion System. The mitigation tree includes: standby liquid control system, opening of the relief valves, reclosing the relief valves, failure of coolant injection, inadvertent actuation of the automatic depressurization system, inadvertent operation of high-pressure injection system and containment heat removal

  6. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  7. Names For Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouillard, Nicolas; Bernardy, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel technique to represent names and binders in Haskell. The dynamic (run-time) representation is based on de Bruijn indices, but it features an interface to write and manipulate variables conviently, using Haskell-level lambdas and variables. The key idea is to use rich types...... and manipulation in a natural way, while retaining the good properties of representations based on de Bruijn indices....

  8. What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneau, Joseph; Just, Mike; Matthews, Greg

    We study the efficiency of statistical attacks on human authentication systems relying on personal knowledge questions. We adapt techniques from guessing theory to measure security against a trawling attacker attempting to compromise a large number of strangers' accounts. We then examine a diverse corpus of real-world statistical distributions for likely answer categories such as the names of people, pets, and places and find that personal knowledge questions are significantly less secure than graphical or textual passwords. We also demonstrate that statistics can be used to increase security by proactively shaping the answer distribution to lower the prevalence of common responses.

  9. What's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Mark

    2008-03-01

    During a lesson with my A-level physics class, my school's head of English came into the lab and happened to notice the whiteboard. I had just started teaching a section on particle physics and was acquainting the students with the multitude of names found in the particle world. Among others, the board contained the words lepton, hadron, meson, baryon, photon, gluon, boson, muon, neutrino, fermion and quark. The head of English pointed out that none of the words on the board were intelligible to anyone else in the school. He added that the words themselves were utterly bizarre, although in fairness he did recognize the reference to James Joyce.

  10. North-American norms for name disagreement: pictorial stimuli naming discrepancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary O'Sullivan

    Full Text Available Pictorial stimuli are commonly used by scientists to explore central processes; including memory, attention, and language. Pictures that have been collected and put into sets for these purposes often contain visual ambiguities that lead to name disagreement amongst subjects. In the present work, we propose new norms which reflect these sources of name disagreement, and we apply this method to two sets of pictures: the Snodgrass and Vanderwart (S&V set and the Bank of Standardized Stimuli (BOSS. Naming responses of the presented pictures were classified within response categories based on whether they were correct, incorrect, or equivocal. To characterize the naming strategy where an alternative name was being used, responses were further divided into different sub-categories that reflected various sources of name disagreement. Naming strategies were also compared across the two sets of stimuli. Results showed that the pictures of the S&V set and the BOSS were more likely to elicit alternative specific and equivocal names, respectively. It was also found that the use of incorrect names was not significantly different across stimulus sets but that errors were more likely caused by visual ambiguity in the S&V set and by a misuse of names in the BOSS. Norms for name disagreement presented in this paper are useful for subsequent research for their categorization and elucidation of name disagreement that occurs when choosing visual stimuli from one or both stimulus sets. The sources of disagreement should be examined carefully as they help to provide an explanation of errors and inconsistencies of many concepts during picture naming tasks.

  11. Branding a business name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization, international businesses, as well as competitive markets imposed the companies (large ones, as well as the others to position in the required market. Making profit, which is the basic aim of every company, in such market environment can only be achieved by demonstrating distinct characteristics of a company, the characteristics which distinguish it from others with the same or similar activities. Historical and analysis of the current market have shown that being recognizable in the multitude of similar companies is a huge challenge, but also one of the main preconditions for successful operations. The moment a company is registered it acquires a specific identity primarily owing to its business name, which distinguishes it from other companies during that first period. Practically at the same time, the company starts creating its image or goodwill by means of several distinctive ways. One of them is branding business name or corporate branding. However, apart from large benefits, companies may also have big difficulties and risks in the same process as well.

  12. All4You! A Randomized Trial of an HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Alternative School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Kirby, Douglas B.; Robin, Leah E.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Glassman, Jill R.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated All4You!, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors associated with HIV, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy among students in alternative schools. The study featured a randomized controlled trial involving 24 community day schools in northern California. A cohort of 988 students was assessed…

  13. Evaluation of Alternative Control for Prevention and or Mitigation of HEPA Filter Failure Accidents at Tank Farm Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluates the adequacy and benefit of use of HEPA filter differential pressure limiting setpoints to initiate exhauster shut down as an alternative safety control for postulated accidents that might result in filtration failure and subsequent unfiltered release from Tank Farm primary tank ventilators

  14. Named Entity Linking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Panteleev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tasks of processing text in natural language, Named Entity Linking (NEL represents the task to define and link some entity, which is found in the text, with some entity in the knowledge base (for example, Dbpedia. Currently, there is a diversity of approaches to solve this problem, but two main classes can be identified: graph-based approaches and machine learning-based ones. Graph and Machine Learning approaches-based algorithm is proposed accordingly to the stated assumptions about the interrelations of named entities in a sentence and in general.In the case of graph-based approaches, it is necessary to solve the problem of identifying an optimal set of the related entities according to some metric that characterizes the distance between these entities in a graph built on some knowledge base. Due to limitations in processing power, to solve this task directly is impossible. Therefore, its modification is proposed. Based on the algorithms of machine learning, an independent solution cannot be built due to small volumes of training datasets relevant to NEL task. However, their use can contribute to improving the quality of the algorithm. The adaptation of the Latent Dirichlet Allocation model is proposed in order to obtain a measure of the compatibility of attributes of various entities encountered in one context.The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was experimentally tested. A test dataset was independently generated. On its basis the performance of the model was compared using the proposed algorithm with the open source product DBpedia Spotlight, which solves the NEL problem.The mockup, based on the proposed algorithm, showed a low speed as compared to DBpedia Spotlight. However, the fact that it has shown higher accuracy, stipulates the prospects for work in this direction.The main directions of development were proposed in order to increase the accuracy of the system and its productivity.

  15. Social supports and prevention strategies as adjuncts and alternatives to sedation and anesthesia for people with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Paul; Miller, Christine

    2009-01-01

    People with special needs are assuming a more prominent place in our society. The number of people living in communities with medical, physical, and psychological conditions is increasing dramatically. In spite of the advances that people with special needs have made in recognition of their right to live in society and access services open to other people, their oral health is still significantly poorer than that of other groups. There are a number of modalities that can complement or replace pharmacological interventions and allow individuals to have dental treatment in a dental office or clinic. These include behavioral or psychological interventions and social support and prevention strategies. Social supports include care management and integration of oral health services with general health and social service systems. Preventive programs using modern "medical model" oral health prevention strategies also have the potential to reduce the burden of disease among people with special needs and therefore reduce the need for dental procedures. A social support system using community-based Dental Hygienists acting as Dental Coordinators, is described along with outcomes demonstrating improved oral health for people with special needs living in community residential care facilities. Combined social support systems and community prevention strategies have the potential to reduce the need for pharmacological interventions in order to maintain oral health in populations of people with special needs. Social supports and modern preventive strategies must be included in the range of options available in communities in order to improve and maintain oral health for people with special needs.

  16. Beyond face-to-face individual counseling: A systematic review on alternative modes of motivational interviewing in substance abuse treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Wu, Lingli; Gao, Xiaoli

    2017-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI), delivered in modes other than face-to-face individual counseling, in preventing and treating substance abuse related behaviors. Four databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library) were searched for randomised clinical trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effectiveness of alternative modes of MI (other than face-to-face individual counseling) in preventing and treating substance abuse. Eligible studies were rated on methodological quality and their findings were qualitatively synthesized. A total of 25 articles (on 22 RCTs) were eligible for this review. Beyond face-to-face counseling, telephone was the most frequently used medium for delivering MI (11 studies), followed by Internet communication (4 studies) and short message service (SMS) (2 studies). Mail was incorporated as a supplement in one of the studies for telephone MI. In contrast to one-to-one individual counseling, group MI was adopted in 5 studies. The effectiveness of telephone MI in treating substance abuse was supported by all of the published RCTs we located. Internet-based MI was effective in preventing and treating alcoholism, but its outcome appeared to be inconsistent for smoking cessation and poor for abstinence from illicit drugs. SMS-based MI appeared to be useful for controlling tobacco and drinking. Group MI was attempted for quitting alcohol and drugs, with mixed findings on its outcomes. Collectively, the studies reviewed indicate that telephone MI is a promising mode of intervention in treating and preventing substance abuse. The effectiveness of other alternative modes (SMS-based MI, Internet-based MI and group MI) remains inconclusive given the controversial findings and a limited number of studies. By synthesizing the currently available evidence, this systematic review suggested that telephone MI might be considered as an alternative to face

  17. Name Authority Challenges for Indexing and Abstracting Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Beaubien Bennett; Priscilla Williams

    2006-01-01

    Objective - This analysis explores alternative methods for managing author name changes in Indexing and Abstarcting (I&A) databases. A searcher may retrieve incomplete or inaccurate results when the database provides no or faulty assistance in linking author name variations. Methods - The article includes an analysis of current name authority practices in I&A databases and of selected research into name disambiguation models applied to authorship of articles. Results - Several potential...

  18. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of

  19. Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for High-Risk Adolescents Outperforms Two Alternative Interventions: A Randomized Efficacy Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2008-01-01

    In this depression prevention trial, 341 high-risk adolescents (mean age = 15.6 years, SD = 1.2) with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a brief group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive-expressive intervention, bibliotherapy, or assessment-only control condition. CB participants showed significantly greater…

  20. Dictionary of Alaska place names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1971-01-01

    This work is an alphabetical list of the geographic names that are now applied and have been applied to places and features of the Alaska landscape. Principal names, compiled from modem maps and charts and printed in boldface type, generally reflect present-day local usage. They conform to the principles of the U.S. Board on Geographic Names for establishing standard names for use on Government maps and in other Government publications. Each name entry gives the present-day spelling along with variant spellings and names; identifies the feature named; presents the origin and history of the name; and, where possible, gives the meaning of an Eskimo, Aleut, Indian, or foreign name. Variant, obsolete, and doubtful names are alphabetically listed and are cross referenced, where necessary, to the principal entries.

  1. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  2. Treatment of whole blood with riboflavin plus ultraviolet light, an alternative to gamma irradiation in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Loren D; Nevola, Martha; Tavares, Jennifer; Reddy, Heather L; Goodrich, Ray P; Marschner, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    Exposure of blood products to gamma irradiation is currently the standard of care in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD). Regulatory, technical, and clinical challenges associated with the use of gamma irradiators are driving efforts to develop alternatives. Pathogen reduction methods were initially developed to reduce the risk of microbial transmission by blood components. Through modifications of nucleic acids, these technologies interfere with the replication of both pathogens and white blood cells (WBCs). To date, systems for pathogen and WBC inactivation of products containing red blood cells are less well established than those for platelets and plasma. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo function of WBCs present in whole blood after exposure to riboflavin plus ultraviolet light (Rb-UV) was examined and compared to responses of WBCs obtained from untreated or gamma-irradiated blood by measuring proliferation, cytokine production, activation, and antigen presentation and xenogeneic (X-)GVHD responses in an in vivo mouse model. In vitro studies demonstrated that treatment of whole blood with Rb-UV was as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing WBC proliferation, but was more effective in preventing antigen presentation, cytokine production, and T-cell activation. Consistent with in vitro findings, treatment with Rb-UV was as effective as gamma irradiation in preventing X-GVHD, a mouse model for TA-GVHD. The ability to effectively inactivate WBCs in fresh whole blood using Rb-UV, prior to separation into components, provides the transfusion medicine community with a potential alternative to gamma irradiation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Centrally managed name resolution schemes for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) uses a broadcast method to locate resources and controls distributed across control servers. There are many advantages offered by using a centrally managed name resolution method, in which resources are located using a repository. The suitability of DCE Directory Service as a name resolution method is explored, and results from a study involving DCE are discussed. An alternative nameserver method developed and in use at the Thomas Jefferson national Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) is described and results of integrating this new method with existing EPICS utilities presented. The various methods discussed in the paper are compared

  4. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  5. DHX9 helicase is involved in preventing genomic instability induced by alternatively structured DNA in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aklank; Bacolla, Albino; Del Mundo, Imee M; Zhao, Junhua; Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M

    2013-12-01

    Sequences that have the capacity to adopt alternative (i.e. non-B) DNA structures in the human genome have been implicated in stimulating genomic instability. Previously, we found that a naturally occurring intra-molecular triplex (H-DNA) caused genetic instability in mammals largely in the form of DNA double-strand breaks. Thus, it is of interest to determine the mechanism(s) involved in processing H-DNA. Recently, we demonstrated that human DHX9 helicase preferentially unwinds inter-molecular triplex DNA in vitro. Herein, we used a mutation-reporter system containing H-DNA to examine the relevance of DHX9 activity on naturally occurring H-DNA structures in human cells. We found that H-DNA significantly increased mutagenesis in small-interfering siRNA-treated, DHX9-depleted cells, affecting mostly deletions. Moreover, DHX9 associated with H-DNA in the context of supercoiled plasmids. To further investigate the role of DHX9 in the recognition/processing of H-DNA, we performed binding assays in vitro and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in U2OS cells. DHX9 recognized H-DNA, as evidenced by its binding to the H-DNA structure and enrichment at the H-DNA region compared with a control region in human cells. These composite data implicate DHX9 in processing H-DNA structures in vivo and support its role in the overall maintenance of genomic stability at sites of alternatively structured DNA.

  6. An investigation of air emission levels from distinct iron and steel production processes with the adoption of pollution control and pollution prevention alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.; Schaeffer, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate environmental aspects from different iron and steel production processes. A methodology based on material flows is developed in order to verify some air emission levels attained by Pollution Control and Pollution Prevention alternatives. The data basis for modeling energy and materials flows in iron and steel production is obtained from a literature review on different technological processes, energy and materials consumption and pollutant releases to the environmental Modeling combines both process analysis and input-output techniques to simulate the different iron and steel production routes and to estimate the resulting total atmospheric pollution releases based on air emission factors for several pollutants by each production step. Processes examined include: (1) Conventional Integrated (100% ore-based and partly scrap-based); (2) Mini-mill with EAF (100% scrap-based and partly DRI-based); and (3) New Integrated based on the COREX smelting reduction process. Among the alternatives considered for air emissions reductions are those related to Pollution Control (mainly gas cleaning systems) and to Pollution Prevention (change/reduction in input materials, operational procedures and housekeeping improvements, on-site recycling and technology innovations and modifications). Results indicate higher air pollution intensity for the Conventional Integrated Route over the Mini-mill with EAF and COREX smelting reduction processes, though pointing out that final figures are strongly affected by the systems' boundaries and the different air emission levels of each production step

  7. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations.

  8. Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: a field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Peter; Johnson, Raymond H; Neuschütz, Clara; Alakangas, Lena; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-02-28

    Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressure ulcers prevention efficacy of an alternating pressure air mattress in elderly patients: E²MAO a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, P; Touflet, M; Pradere, C; Portalier, F; Michel, J-M; Charru, P; Passadori, Y; Fevrier, R; Hallet-Lezy, A-M; Beauchêne, F; Scherrer, B

    2017-06-02

    Our aim was to compare Axtair One, an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM), with a viscoelastic foam mattress (VFM) in elderly patients at moderate to high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). A randomised, controlled, superiority, parallel-group, open-label, multicentre study, was conducted, between February 2012 and March 2015, in nine French, medium- and long-term stay facilities. Eligible patients were aged 70 and over, had no PUs on enrolment, were bedridden for at least 15 hours per day, had reduced mobility, an absent or minimal positioning capability, a Braden score 12 and a Karnofsky score elderly patients, bedridden for more than 15 hours per day, severely dependent, at moderate-to high-risk of PUs, with an instantaneous risk for the appearance of PUs 7.57 times greater in the VFM group than in the APAM group. This study provides descriptive information and evidence for practice.

  10. Antibodies trap tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue damage by driving IL-4Rα-independent alternative differentiation of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Esser-von Bieren

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the world's population suffers from chronic helminth infections with no effective vaccines currently available. Antibodies and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM form crucial components of protective immunity against challenge infections with intestinal helminths. However, the mechanisms by which antibodies target these large multi-cellular parasites remain obscure. Alternative activation of macrophages during helminth infection has been linked to signaling through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Rα, but the potential effects of antibodies on macrophage differentiation have not been explored. We demonstrate that helminth-specific antibodies induce the rapid trapping of tissue migrating helminth larvae and prevent tissue necrosis following challenge infection with the natural murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri (Hp. Mice lacking antibodies (JH (-/- or activating Fc receptors (FcRγ(-/- harbored highly motile larvae, developed extensive tissue damage and accumulated less Arginase-1 expressing macrophages around the larvae. Moreover, Hp-specific antibodies induced FcRγ- and complement-dependent adherence of macrophages to larvae in vitro, resulting in complete larval immobilization. Antibodies together with helminth larvae reprogrammed macrophages to express wound-healing associated genes, including Arginase-1, and the Arginase-1 product L-ornithine directly impaired larval motility. Antibody-induced expression of Arginase-1 in vitro and in vivo occurred independently of IL-4Rα signaling. In summary, we present a novel IL-4Rα-independent mechanism of alternative macrophage activation that is antibody-dependent and which both mediates anti-helminth immunity and prevents tissue disruption caused by migrating larvae.

  11. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can...

  12. A family of names : rune-names and ogam-names and their relation to alphabet letter-names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The current consensus is that vernacular names assigned to the runes of the Germanic fuþark and to Irish ogam characters are indigenous creations independent of Mediterranean alphabet traditions. I propose, however, that ogam-names are based on interpretations of Hebrew, Greek or Latin letter-names

  13. Bovine pericardium coated with biopolymeric films as an alternative to prevent calcification: In vitro calcification and cytotoxicity results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Grinia M.; Rodas, Andrea C.D.; Weska, Raquel F.; Aimoli, Cassiano G.; Higa, Olga Z.; Maizato, Marina; Leiner, Adolfo A.; Pitombo, Ronaldo N.M.; Polakiewicz, Bronislaw; Beppu, Marisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Bovine pericardium, for cardiac valve fabrication, was coated with either chitosan or silk fibroin film. In vitro calcification tests of coated and non coated bovine pericardium were performed in simulated body fluid solution in order to investigate potential alternatives to minimize calcification on implanted heart valves. Complementary, morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy - SEM; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) were performed for structural characterization of coatings and biocompatibility of chitosan. Silk fibroin films were assayed by in vitro cytotoxicity and endothelial cell growth tests. Bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin or chitosan did not present calcification during in vitro calcification tests, indicating that these biopolymeric coatings do not induce bovine pericardium calcification. Chitosan and silk fibroin films were characterized as non cytotoxic and silk fibroin films presented high affinity to endothelial cells. The results indicate that bovine pericardium coated with silk fibroin is a potential candidate for cardiac valve fabrication, since the affinity of silk fibroin to endothelial cells can be explored to induce the tissue endothelization and therefore, increase valve durability by increasing their mechanical resistance and protecting them against calcification.

  14. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  15. Prevention of refinery tower plugging by residual oil gellant chemicals in crude-pilot plant evaluation of alternative oil gellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Fyten, G.C.; Cheng, A. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P.S. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Tower fouling at petroleum refineries is related to background volatile phosphorus components originating from phosphate ester oil gellants. In an attempt to reduce the cost of unplanned refinery shut downs, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) may institute a new specification in July 2006 of 0.5 ppm maximum volatile phosphorus in crude. In concept, volatile phosphorus can be removed from phosphate esters by eliminating volatile components in the original phosphate ester gellant. However, the issue of of whether modified phosphate esters can really reduce refinery tower fouling has been questioned. For that reason, this study focused on water hydrolysis which may occur in a distillation tower, causing localized areas of acidity and causticity. Halogenation reactions could occur in the presence of acid at high temperatures if halogen ions are present. The source of halide ions could be any salts that have not been removed in the de-salters. Full-scale testing at a pilot plant facility was conducted over several days with flowback captured after actual fracturing treatments. Fouling of distillation tower trays was measured along with fouling of the packing material. The study examined how fouling was influenced by changes in operating parameters such as rate, temperature, or pressure during each test. Three full-scale pilot evaluations were conducted using actual flowback fluids from fracturing treatments conducted with 3 different oil gellants: conventional phosphate ester, modified phosphate and phosphonate ester. The comparison of actual tower fouling between these alternative gellants can be used as a guide when choosing oil gellant systems to reduce refinery tower and heat exchanger fouling. It was concluded that phosphonate gellants are hydrolytically stable at higher temperatures and should minimize volatile phosphorus created through the hydrolysis of phosphate esters. However, they are more expensive since they are more complex to create

  16. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology - the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage - will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume.

  17. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  18. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  19. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  20. Cognitive components of picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C J; Paivio, A; Clark, J M

    1996-07-01

    A substantial research literature documents the effects of diverse item attributes, task conditions, and participant characteristics on the case of picture naming. The authors review what the research has revealed about 3 generally accepted stages of naming a pictured object: object identification, name activation, and response generation. They also show that dual coding theory gives a coherent and plausible account of these findings without positing amodal conceptual representations, and they identify issues and methods that may further advance the understanding of picture naming and related cognitive tasks.

  1. Fictional names and fictional discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    [eng] In this dissertation I present a critical study of fiction, focusing on the semantics of fictional names and fictional discourse. I am concerned with the issue of whether fictional names need to refer, and also with the related issue of whether fictional characters need to exist, in order to best account for our linguistic practices involving fictional names. Fictional names like ‘Sherlock Holmes’, ‘Anna Karenina’, ‘Emma Woodhouse’ and ‘Don Quixote of La Mancha’ ordinarily occur in diff...

  2. A name is a name is a name: some thoughts and personal opinions about molluscan scientific names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dance, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since 1758, with the publication of Systema Naturae by Linnaeus, thousands of scientific names have been proposed for molluscs. The derivation and uses of many of them are here examined from various viewpoints, beginning with names based on appearance, size, vertical distribution, and location.

  3. Multi-language naming game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Tang, Wallace K. S.

    2018-04-01

    Naming game is a simulation-based experiment used to study the evolution of languages. The conventional naming game focuses on a single language. In this paper, a novel naming game model named multi-language naming game (MLNG) is proposed, where the agents are different-language speakers who cannot communicate with each other without a translator (interpreter) in between. The MLNG model is general, capable of managing k different languages with k ≥ 2. For illustration, the paper only discusses the MLNG with two different languages, and studies five representative network topologies, namely random-graph, WS small-world, NW small-world, scale-free, and random-triangle topologies. Simulation and analysis results both show that: 1) using the network features and based on the proportion of translators the probability of establishing a conversation between two or three agents can be theoretically estimated; 2) the relationship between the convergence speed and the proportion of translators has a power-law-like relation; 3) different agents require different memory sizes, thus a local memory allocation rule is recommended for saving memory resources. The new model and new findings should be useful for further studies of naming games and for better understanding of languages evolution from a dynamical network perspective.

  4. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  5. Asteroid named after CAS scientist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ An asteroid has been named after CAS astronomy historian XI Zezong with the approval of the International Minor Planet Nomenclature Committee (IMPNC), announced China's National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) on 17 August.

  6. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  7. From monocausality to systems thinking: a complementary and alternative conceptual approach for better understanding the development and prevention of sports injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Adam; Finch, Caroline F

    The science of sports injury control, including both its cause and prevention, has largely been informed by a biomedical and mechanistic model of health. Traditional scientific practice in sports injury research has routinely involved collapsing the broader socioecological landscape down in order to analyse individual-level determinants of injury - whether biomechanical and/or behavioural. This approach has made key gains for sports injury prevention research and should be further encouraged and allowed to evolve naturally. However, the public health, Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, and injury epidemiological literature more broadly, has accepted the value of a socioecological paradigm for better understanding disease and injury processes, and sports injury research will fall further behind unless it does the same. A complementary and alternative conceptual approach towards injury control known as systems thinking that builds on socioecological science, both methodologically and analytically, is readily available and fast developing in other research areas. This review outlines the historical progression of causal concepts in the field of epidemiology over the course of the modern scientific era. From here, causal concepts in injury epidemiology, and models of aetiology as found in the context of sports injury research are presented. The paper finishes by proposing a new research agenda that considers the potential for a systems thinking approach to further enhance sports injury aetiological understanding. A complementary systems paradigm, however, will require that sports injury epidemiologists bring their knowledge and skillsets forwards in an attempt to use, adapt, and even refine existing systems-based approaches. Alongside the natural development of conventional scientific methodologies and analyses in sports injury research, progressing forwards to a systems paradigm is now required.

  8. Bolivian Health Providers’ Attitudes Toward Alternative Technologies for Cervical Cancer Prevention: A Focus on Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2017-01-01

    Background Little is known about health providers’ attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Methods Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants’ acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Results Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Conclusions Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia. PMID:22816515

  9. Bolivian health providers' attitudes toward alternative technologies for cervical cancer prevention: a focus on visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormo, Analía Romina; Altamirano, Victor Conde; Pérez-Castells, Macarena; Espey, David; Padilla, Haydee; Panameño, Karen; Soria, Milton; Santos, Carlos; Saraiya, Mona; Luciani, Silvana

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about health providers' attitudes toward visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and cryotherapy in the prevention of cervical cancer, as most research in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has examined attitudes of the general population. This study describes attitudes of Bolivian health professionals toward new technologies for cervical cancer prevention, focusing on VIA and cryotherapy. Between February 2011 and March 2012, we surveyed 7 nurses and 35 physicians who participated in 5-day workshops on VIA and cryotherapy conducted in Bolivia. Multiple choice and open-ended questions were used to assess participants' acceptability of these procedures and the feasibility of their implementation in the context of perceived barriers for the early detection of cervical cancer in this country. Most believed that cultural factors represent the main barrier for the early detection of cervical cancer (70%), although all stated that VIA and cryotherapy would be accepted by women, citing the advantages of VIA over cytology for this belief. Most also believed their colleagues would accept VIA and cryotherapy (71%) and that VIA should replace Pap testing (61%), reiterating the advantages of VIA for these beliefs. Those who believed the contrary expressed a general resistance to change associated with an already existing cytology program and national norms prioritizing Pap testing. Most participants had favorable attitudes toward VIA and cryotherapy; however, a sizable minority cited challenges to their adoption by colleagues and believed VIA should not replace cytology. This report can inform the development of strategies to expand the use of alternative cervical cancer screening methods in LAC and Bolivia.

  10. Validity and reliability of the NAB Naming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Bonnie C; Rush, Beth K; Pedraza, Otto

    2016-05-01

    Confrontation naming is commonly assessed in neuropsychological practice, but few standardized measures of naming exist and those that do are susceptible to the effects of education and culture. The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test is a 31-item measure used to assess confrontation naming. Despite adequate psychometric information provided by the test publisher, there has been limited independent validation of the test. In this study, we investigated the convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and alternate forms reliability of the NAB Naming Test in a sample of adults (Form 1: n = 247, Form 2: n = 151) clinically referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Results indicate adequate-to-good internal consistency and alternate forms reliability. We also found strong convergent validity as demonstrated by relationships with other neurocognitive measures. We found preliminary evidence that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates a more pronounced ceiling effect than other commonly used measures of naming. To our knowledge, this represents the largest published independent validation study of the NAB Naming Test in a clinical sample. Our findings suggest that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates adequate validity and reliability and merits consideration in the test arsenal of clinical neuropsychologists.

  11. Elemental Etymology: What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, David W.

    1985-01-01

    Examines the origin of the names (or etymologies) of the chemical elements. Includes tables listing elements: (1) with names of obscure origin; (2) named for colors; (3) named after real or mythical people; (4) named after places; (5) named after heavenly bodies; and (6) having names of miscellaneous origin. (JN)

  12. Naming analog clocks conceptually facilitates naming digital clocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Naming digital clocks (e.g., 2:45, say "quarter to three") requires conceptual operations on the minute and hour information displayed in the input for producing the correct relative time expression. The interplay of these conceptual operations was investigated using a repetition priming paradigm.

  13. Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O. A.

    2008-06-01

    We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

  14. Utrogestan as an effective oral alternative for preventing premature luteinizing hormone surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuxian; Zhang, Xiaole; Fu, Yonglun

    2015-05-01

    A major cause of cycle cancellation during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the occurrence of premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surges. Steroidal preparations can modulate the secretion of gonadotropins (Gn); however, few studies using progesterone to inhibit the premature LH surges in COH have been published. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the oral delivery of progesterone soft capsules (Utrogestan) to prevent LH surges from the follicular phase and to compare cycle characteristics as well as to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in subsequent frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles. A total of 374 patients were enrolled in this retrospective study, among which 187 patients were simultaneously administered Utrogestan and human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG) from cycle day 3 until the trigger day. A short protocol including 187 controls with comparable age, body mass index (BMI), infertility duration, and antral follicle count was also used. GnRH agonist (0.1 mg) or hCG (3000 IU) was used for a trigger when the dominant follicles matured. Viable embryos were cryopreserved for later transfer in both groups. The primary outcome was the number of oocytes retrieved. The secondary outcomes included the number of mature oocytes, incidence of premature LH surge, and clinical pregnancy outcomes from FET cycles. Consistent LH suppression was achieved during COH, with a range of 0.07 to 8.9 IU/L, and no premature LH surge was detected. The number of oocytes retrieved in the Utrogestan and hMG protocol was comparable with that in the short protocol (10.92 ± 5.74 vs 10.6 ± 6.22, P > 0.05), and the dose of hMG was higher than that used in the short protocol (1884.22 ± 439.47 IU vs 1446.26 ± 550.48 IU, P effective oral alternative for preventing premature LH surges in women undergoing COH, which will help to establish a convenient user regimen in combination with FET.

  15. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  16. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non...

  17. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves,

  18. Academy named after newsreader's wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    AN ADMIRAL nurse academy named in honour of Bonnie Suchet, the wife of former newsreader John Suchet, has opened. The 'virtual' academy, set up by charity dementia UK, Canterbury Christ Church University and the Avante Partnership, will provide continuing professional development and a networking environment for n nurses through its website. Ms Suchet has Alzheimer's disease and is in a care home.

  19. Naming names: the first women taxonomists in mycology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Maroske

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from amateur to professional in natural history is generally regarded as having taken place in the nineteenth century, but landmark events such as the 1917 appointment of mycologist Johanna Westerdijk (1883–1961 as the first female professor in the Netherlands indicate that the pattern of change for women was more varied and delayed than for men. We investigate this transition in mycology, and identify only 43 women in the Western World who published scientific mycological literature pre-1900, of whom twelve published new fungal taxa. By charting the emergence of these women over time, and comparing the output of self-taught amateurs and university graduates, we establish the key role of access to higher education in female participation in mycology. Using a suite of strategies, six of the self-taught amateurs managed to overcome their educational disadvantages and name names — Catharina Dörrien (the first to name a fungal taxon, Marie-Anne Libert, Mary Elizabeth Banning, Élise-Caroline Bommer, Mariette Rousseau, and Annie Lorrain Smith. By 1900, the professional era for women in mycology was underway, and increasing numbers published new taxa. Parity with male colleagues in recognition and promotion, however, remains an ongoing issue. Key words: Amateurs, Fungi, Gender studies, History of science, Plant pathology

  20. Zefinha - the name of abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2015-09-01

    Zefinha has been living in a forensic hospital for the last 39 years. She is the longest female inhabitant surviving under compulsory psychiatric treatment in Brazil. This paper discusses how the ethical rule of anonymity might be revised in research concerning a unique case involving severe violations of human rights. My argument is that there are cases in which disclosing the names of research participants protects their interests and rights.

  1. The Mystery of the River Name Mezen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Kabinina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the origins of the name Mezen that refers to a large river in the north of the European part of Russia. The author critically reviews the earlier etymologies, in which the hydronym has been interpreted on the basis of the Ugric and Balto-Fennic-Sami data, and hypothesizes for Proto-Permic or Finno-Permic origins of the name as an alternative. According to this hypothesis, the name Mezen originates from an old lexical item related to the obsolete Komi-Zyrian mös and Udmurtian -mes (Permic *mεs with the general meaning of ‘source, spring, brook,’ which in toponymy stands for ‘river’ or ‘stream’. In evidence of the former toponymic productivity of this Permic word, the author provides multiple examples of hydronyms with the determinant -mVs to be found on the territory of the Republic of Komi and adjacent regions — the Russian North and the Perm Region (Vaimos, Kochmas, Madmas, Chermos, etc.. The author suggests that the lexical unit correlating with the Komi-Zyrian mös, Udmurtian -mes, and Common Permic *mεs was once part of a more complex term represented not only in the name Mezen, but also in its North Russian “counterparts,” Mezen’ga and Mezenda, as well as in substrate toponymy of the Komi Republic (Mozyn / Mozym = Russian Mezen; Mozimdіn, Mozimlyva, Mozimözin and in some substrate hydronyms of the modern Ob-Ugric areas (Khanty dialectal Mǒśaŋ = Russian Mozym, and Mоsəm = Nazym. Recognizing that ethnolinguistic attribution of the original lexical unit for these names seems problematic, the author is inclined to think that this is an old compound in which the final component, reconstructed as Common Permic *-εŋ, had the meaning of ‘river, stream’. Summing up all phonetic, morphological, semantic, and geographical evidence, the author concludes that the presently multilingual hydronyms of the MVsVn / MVsVm type most likely date back to the dialects of ancient “Permians,” still

  2. 18-month effectiveness of short-course antiretroviral regimens combined with alternatives to breastfeeding to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valériane Leroy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We assessed the 18-month effectiveness of short-course (sc antiretroviral peripartum regimens combined with alternatives to prolonged breastfeeding to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. METHODOLOGY: HIV-1 infected pregnant women received from >/=32-36 weeks of gestation scZidovudine (ZDV+/-Lamivudine (3TC+single-dose Nevirapine (sdNVP at delivery within the ANRS 1201/1202 DITRAME-Plus cohort (2001-2003. Neonates received a sdNVP+7-day ZDV prophylaxis. Two infant-feeding interventions were systematically offered free of charge: formula-feeding or exclusive shortened breastfeeding with early cessation from four months. The reference group was the ANRS 049a DITRAME cohort (1994-2000 exposed to scZDV from 36 weeks, then to prolonged breastfeeding. Pediatric HIV infection was defined by a positive plasma HIV-1 RNA at any age, or if aged >/=18 months, a positive HIV-1 serology. Turnbull estimates of cumulative transmission risks (CTR and effectiveness (HIV-free survival were compared by exposure group using a Cox model. FINDINGS: Among 926 live-born children enrolled, 107 (11.6% were HIV-infected at 18 months. CTRs were 22.3% (95% confidence interval[CI]:16-30% in the 238 ZDV long-term breastfed reference group, 15.9% (CI:10-27% in the 169 ZDV+sdNVP shortened breastfed group; 9.4% (CI:6-14% in the 195 ZDV+sdNVP formula-fed group; 6.8% (CI:4-11% in the 198 ZDV+3TC+sdNVP shortened breastfed group, and 5.6% (CI:2-10% in the 126 ZDV+3TC+sdNVP formula-fed group. Each combination had a significantly higher effectiveness than the ZDV long-term breastfed group except for ZDV+sdNVP shortened breastfed children, ranging from 51% (CI:20-70% for ZDV+sdNVP formula fed children to 63% (CI:40-80% for ZDV+3TC+NVPsd shortened breastfed children, after adjustment for maternal eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, home delivery and low birth-weight. Substantial MTCT risk reductions are reachable in Africa

  3. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no erroneous...

  4. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed a...

  5. In the Name of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Muhr, Sara Louise

    Accepted Abstract: Most current Human Resource Management discourse stresses coaching, developing and empowering in order to do ‘good' and care for the ‘well-being' of the employees (Steyaert & Janssens, 1999). Legge (1999) symbolizes HRM discourse by the employee being a family member subordinated...... for mankind - in the name of care for the other", and Zizek (2003:23) in a similar matter when he points out that "the ultimate source of evil is compassion itself". Butler (2005) refers to ethical violence when she describes the rigid ethical standards set out to be what Kaulingfreks calls the ‘keeper...

  6. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, B.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  7. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name...

  8. Name fashion dynamics and social class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Schraagen, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Modern parents in The Netherlands choose the first names they like for their children. In this decision most follow fashion and as a typical property of fashion, many popular names now have a life cycle of only one generation. Some names show a symmetry between rise and fall of the name, but most

  9. A radiographic anthology of vertebral names

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yochum, T.R.; Hartley, B.; Thomas, D.P.; Guebert, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 88 such named vertebrae have been extracted from the literature. With so many names from scattered sources, the authors collated them in a single presentation. A description is given and the anatomical and pathogenic reasons for the appearances are considered. A list of conditions associated with each named vertebra accompanies the descriptive paragraph. The named vertebrae are presented in alphabetical order

  10. Feeling-of-knowing for proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izaute, Marie; Chambres, Patrick; Larochelle, Serge

    2002-12-01

    The main objective of the presented study was to study feeling-of-knowing (FOK) in proper name retrieval. Many studies show that FOK can predict performance on a subsequent criterion test. Although feeling-of-knowing studies involve questions about proper names, none make this distinction between proper names and common names. Nevertheless, the specific character of proper names as a unique label referring to a person should allow participants to target precisely the desired verbal label. Our idea here was that the unique character of proper name information should result in more accurate FOK evaluations. In the experiment, participants evaluated feeling-of-knowing for proper and common name descriptions. The study demonstrates that FOK judgments are more accurate for proper names than for common names. The implications of the findings for proper names are briefly discussed in terms of feeling-of-knowing hypotheses.

  11. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  12. Rifaximin: A reasonable alternative for norfloxacin in the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Shamseya

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Rifaximin is – at least – as good as norfloxacin. It seems to be an appropriate alternative for long-term primary and secondary prophylaxis of SBP in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Modification of dose regimen should be considered to improve patient’s compliance to rifaximin.

  13. Medieval Karelian Calendar Names: A Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kyurshunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on calendar personal names recorded in the 15–17th centuries Russian and Swedish manuscripts written in Karelia. Revealing the cognitive potential of this historical stratum of names, the author analyzes the frequency of full (official and modified forms of calendar names, the regional peculiarities of their linguistic adaptation, their ethnolinguisitic and social status, as well as the functioning of calendar names in the regional onomastic system. The analysis shows that the calendar onomasticon holds the leading positions, which reflects important axiological and mental shifts in the people’s culture. The list of most frequent Christian names of the region generally coincides with the onomastic data related to other Russian territories of the same period. The conservation of the name nomenclature is due to family traditions, namely, to familial practices of naming. However, the adaptation and distribution of names display some regional features, particularly in the frequency of different groups of anthroponyms. The peripheral situation of the region and the presence of Balto-Fennic population which adapted the Russian calendar athroponymicon determined the “conservatism” of the calendar names nomenclature: for naming, they selected the names which were better adapted and more extensively used among Russians. The formation of modified names depended mostly on the morphemic structure of the Russian language, regional features being relatively insignificant. The frequency of modified forms of names correlates with the genre of the manuscript and the scribe’s arbitrariness.

  14. Analysis of the “naming game” with learning errors in communications

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Lou; Guanrong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches consensus asymptotically. We study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, with error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed. Then, a strategy for agents to prevent learning errors is ...

  15. Addressing Poverty, Unemployment and Gender Inequality in Southern Africa: An Alternative Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention with Sex Workers in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that was conducted as an effort to identify the needs of sex workers as potential beneficiaries of future HIV prevention and empowerment activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the situation and needs of sex workers in the context of HIV/AIDS. Data were collected from one of the small…

  16. SOCIOLINGUISTIC IMPORT OF NAME-CLIPPING AMONG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    2013-02-27

    Feb 27, 2013 ... experiences which, most of the times, encompass cultural and philosophical ... The art of name clipping goes way back in language history ... describes Akan names as “iconic representation of complete social variables that ...

  17. Naming game with learning errors in communications

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2014-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network topology. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches a consensus state asymptotically. In this paper, we study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, where errors are represented by error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed....

  18. Multi-stage versus single-stage inflation and deflation cycle for alternating low pressure air mattresses to prevent pressure ulcers in hospitalised patients: a randomised-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarré, L; Beeckman, D; Vanderwee, K; Defloor, T; Grypdonck, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2012-04-01

    and deflation of the air cells does not result in a significantly lower pressure ulcer incidence compared to an alternating low pressure air mattress with a standard single-stage inflation and deflation cycle of the air cells. Both alternating mattress types are equally effective to prevent pressure ulcer development. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 27 CFR 19.165 - Trade names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade names. 19.165 Section 19.165 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Trade names. (a) Operating permits. Where a trade name is to be used in connection with the operations...

  20. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden

  1. Towards proper name generation : A corpus analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Ferreira, Thiago; Wubben, Sander; Krahmer, Emiel

    We introduce a corpus for the study of proper name generation. The corpus consists of proper name references to people in webpages, extracted from the Wikilinks corpus. In our analyses, we aim to identify the different ways, in terms of length and form, in which a proper names are produced

  2. Resolving person names in web people search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balog, K.; Azzopardi, L.; de Rijke, M.; King, I.; Baeza-Yates, R.

    2009-01-01

    Disambiguating person names in a set of documents (such as a set of web pages returned in response to a person name) is a key task for the presentation of results and the automatic profiling of experts. With largely unstructured documents and an unknown number of people with the same name the

  3. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  4. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect.

  5. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    . the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...

  6. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  7. Analysis of the "naming game" with learning errors in communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong

    2015-07-16

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an objective by a population of agents organized in a certain communication network. By pair-wise iterative interactions, the population reaches consensus asymptotically. We study naming game with communication errors during pair-wise conversations, with error rates in a uniform probability distribution. First, a model of naming game with learning errors in communications (NGLE) is proposed. Then, a strategy for agents to prevent learning errors is suggested. To that end, three typical topologies of communication networks, namely random-graph, small-world and scale-free networks, are employed to investigate the effects of various learning errors. Simulation results on these models show that 1) learning errors slightly affect the convergence speed but distinctively increase the requirement for memory of each agent during lexicon propagation; 2) the maximum number of different words held by the population increases linearly as the error rate increases; 3) without applying any strategy to eliminate learning errors, there is a threshold of the learning errors which impairs the convergence. The new findings may help to better understand the role of learning errors in naming game as well as in human language development from a network science perspective.

  8. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  9. Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative fuels include gaseous fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, and propane; alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, and butanol; vegetable and waste-derived oils; and electricity. Overview of alternative fuels is here.

  10. Alternating Hemiplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the symptoms of the disorder. View Full Definition Treatment Drug therapy including verapamil may help to reduce the ... the more serious form of alternating hemiplegia × ... Definition Alternating hemiplegia is a rare neurological disorder that ...

  11. Official Naming in Hå, Klepp and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Særheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Toponyms localize, reflect and give information about historical traditions and various phenomena in an area. They form part of the local heritage and culture. The relationship between place names, heritage and identity is often underlined in guidelines regarding official naming of streets and roads. In what way is heritage and local identity reflected in the road names of the three municipalities Hå, Klepp and Time (Southwest-Norway, and how is the special character of this area expressed in the names? More than half of the official road names in the three municipalities are either identical with a local toponym, or they consist of a word for ‘road’ and a local toponym (or an appellative describing the location. This shows that there is a strong commitment to base the official naming on local tradition and thus contribute to identity. Quite a few elements from the dialect, e.g. special pronunciation, grammatical forms or local words, appear in the names, especially in the road names from Hå, reflecting that the names are part of the local culture, and due to the fact that the dialect is unique. Consistency is a challenge, however; the same word is sometimes spelled in different ways in different names. It appears that, with some exceptions, cultural heritage and local tradition have been preferred principles and guidelines with regard to naming of roads in the three municipalities, due to a consciousness that heritage and tradition create identity.

  12. Name signs in Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakken Jepsen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    in spoken languages, where a person working as a blacksmith by his friends might be referred to as ‘The Blacksmith’ (‘Here comes the Blacksmith!’) instead of using the person’s first name. Name signs are found not only in Danish Sign Language (DSL) but in most, if not all, sign languages studied to date....... This article provides examples of the creativity of the users of Danish Sign Language, including some of the processes in the use of metaphors, visual motivation and influence from Danish when name signs are created.......A name sign is a personal sign assigned to deaf, hearing impaired and hearing persons who enter the deaf community. The mouth action accompanying the sign reproduces all or part of the formal first name that the person has received by baptism or naming. Name signs can be compared to nicknames...

  13. Abbreviations for device names: a proposed methodology with specific examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Dover, Jeffrey S; Alam, Murad; Goldman, Mitchel P; Kaminer, Michael S; Orringer, Jeffrey; Waldorf, Heidi; Alam, Murad; Avram, Mathew; Cohen, Joel L; Draelos, Zoe Diana; Dover, Jeffrey S; Hruza, George; Kilmer, Suzanne; Lawrence, Naomi; Lupo, Mary; Metelitsa, Andrei; Nestor, Mark; Ross, E Victor

    2013-04-01

    Many devices used in dermatology lack generic names. If investigators use commercial device names, they risk the appearance of bias. Alternatively, reliance on ad-hoc names and abbreviations may confuse readers who do not recognize these. To develop a system for assigning abbreviations to denote devices commonly used in dermatology. Secondarily, to use this system to create abbreviations for FDA-approved neurotoxins and prepackaged injectable soft-tissue augmentation materials. The American Society for Dermatologic Surgery convened a Lexicon Task Force in March 2012. One charge of this Task Force was to develop criteria for assigning abbreviations to medical devices. A modified consensus process was used. Abbreviations to denote devices were to be: based on a standardized approach; transparent to the casual reader; markedly brief; and in all cases, different than the commercial names. Three-letter all caps abbreviations, some with subscripts, were assigned to denote each of the approved neurotoxins and fillers. A common system of abbreviations for medical devices in dermatology may avoid the appearance of bias while ensuring effective communication. The proposed system may be expanded to name other devices, and the ensuing abbreviations may be suitable for journal articles, continuing medical education lectures, or other academic or clinical purposes. © 2013 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. On the History of the Name Ruslan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roza Yu. Namitokova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors postulate that there exists a common stock of Russian personal names resulting from a partial blending of national anthroponymicons. The main part of the paper focuses on the history of the personal name Ruslan which has etymological ties with the widespread Turkic name Arslan having the pre-onomastic meaning ‘lion’. The authors study the variation of the name in Russian folklore and in the 15th–17th centuries documents and historical sources. They also pay particular attention to the role of Pushkin’s poem Ruslan and Ludmila in the formation of the associative background of the studied name and to various onomastic derivatives, the latter include patronyms, surnames and the female name Ruslana. The author conclude that the name Ruslan became especially popular in Soviet and post-Soviet periods when it acquired a specific “semantic aura”, namely, in Caucasus where Ruslan became a kind of mark of Russian identity and, thus, contributed to the unification of the anthroponymic space. This conclusion was verified in the course of a survey done among 40 respondents representing different peoples of Caucasus. For most respondents the name has positive connotations and is associated with the Turkic name Arslan and the name of Pushkin’s character. However, some respondents consider it as a “non-Muslim”, Russian name and point out that it is often perceived as such outside Russia. The history of the name Ruslan and the ways of its transonymisation can be an interesting object for further research, especially due to the emergence of new communication technologies and onomastic discourses.

  15. Novel participatory methods of involving patients in research: naming and branding a longitudinal cohort study, BRIGHTLIGHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Rachel M; Mohain, Jasjeet; Gibson, Faith; Solanki, Anita; Whelan, Jeremy; Fern, Lorna A

    2015-03-14

    propose this reproducible methodology as an important, enjoyable, and novel way of involving patients in research and a welcome alternative to researcher-developed acronyms. Ideally this should be carried out prior to engaging with healthcare professionals to prevent confusion around study identity.

  16. Parents accidentally substitute similar sounding sibling names more often than dissimilar names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenzi M Griffin

    Full Text Available When parents select similar sounding names for their children, do they set themselves up for more speech errors in the future? Questionnaire data from 334 respondents suggest that they do. Respondents whose names shared initial or final sounds with a sibling's reported that their parents accidentally called them by the sibling's name more often than those without such name overlap. Having a sibling of the same gender, similar appearance, or similar age was also associated with more frequent name substitutions. Almost all other name substitutions by parents involved other family members and over 5% of respondents reported a parent substituting the name of a pet, which suggests a strong role for social and situational cues in retrieving personal names for direct address. To the extent that retrieval cues are shared with other people or animals, other names become available and may substitute for the intended name, particularly when names sound similar.

  17. Does the Name-Race Implicit Association Test measure racial prejudice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravenzwaaij, D.; van der Maas, H.L.J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Research using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) has shown that names labeled as Caucasian elicit more positive associations than names labeled as non-Caucasian. One interpretation of this result is that the IAT measures latent racial prejudice. An alternative explanation is that the result is due

  18. A Step-indexed Semantic Model of Types for the Call-by-Name Lambda Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Meurer, Benedikt

    2011-01-01

    Step-indexed semantic models of types were proposed as an alternative to purely syntactic safety proofs using subject-reduction. Building upon the work by Appel and others, we introduce a generalized step-indexed model for the call-by-name lambda calculus. We also show how to prove type safety of general recursion in our call-by-name model.

  19. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  20. Gorlin-Goltz: what's in a name?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the clinical features of two very distinct syndromes with similar names: Gorlin-Goltz and Goltz-Gorlin Syndromes. A case report is presented that highlights the differences between these syndromes. To avoid errors in diagnosis because of the similarity in names, the authors caution that, based on additional information now available, the preferred names should be Focal Dermal Hypoplasia syndrome for Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma syndrome for Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  1. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Secretary considers these nominations , along with others he receives as well as his own thoughts in this matter. At appropriate times, he selects names...Research Service 16 “ nomination ” process is often fiercely contested as differing groups make the case that “their” ship name is the most fitting...and practices of the Navy for naming vessels of the Navy, and an explanation for such variances;  Assesses the feasibility and advisability of

  2. Enhanced Source Memory for Names of Cheaters

    OpenAIRE

    Raoul Bell; Axel Buchner

    2009-01-01

    The present experiment shows that source memory for names associated with a history of cheating is better than source memory for names associated with irrelevant or trustworthy behavior, whereas old-new discrimination is not affected by whether a name was associated with cheating. This data pattern closely replicates findings obtained in previous experiments using facial stimuli, thus demonstrating that enhanced source memory for cheaters is not due to a cheater-detection module closely tied ...

  3. A radiographic anthology of vertebral names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yochum, T R; Hartley, B; Thomas, D P; Guebert, G M

    1985-06-01

    There are many conditions of the spine to which various authors have applied descriptive names. This paper, an extensive review of the literature, provides the first complete source for such named vertebrae. Included are 88 names covering all categories of bone disease. A brief description of the radiographic appearance and its pathogenesis is provided for each, along with a consideration of the disease processes which may produce the appearance.

  4. Can Your Institution's Name Influence Constituent Response? An Initial Assessment of Consumer Response to College Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treadwell, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    Presents names of college and universities unfamiliar to potential students. Finds that one cluster of respondents had a clear preference for geographic or aspirational names while a second cluster had a preference for proper names. Notes that there was an overall preference for proper names. (SG)

  5. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabarz, Anastazja; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Barascu, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp) generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ). BLM...... represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role...... for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1) protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2) promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid...

  6. Effect of green spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) addition in physical, chemical, and sensory properties of marshmallow as an alternative prevention of iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhistira, B.; Affandi, D. R.; Nusantari, P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Consuming vegetable which contain iron, including spinach, is an alternative to fulfill iron requirement. Fe will be more easily absorbed in the presence of vitamin C. Tomato is one of vitamin C source that can be used. Spinach can be applied into confectionary products in the form of marshmallow. This research aimed to find out the physical, chemical and sensory properties of green spinach Marshmallow in addition of Tomato, the best formula, and define the category of nutrition contents based on Acuan Label Gizi (ALG). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with one factor that was different proportion of spinach:tomato (75%: 25%; 50%: 50%; 25%: 75%). The data were analyzed using One Way Anova with 5% significance level. The result of this study showed that the difference of spinach and tomato proportion affect tensile strength, moisture, ash content, Fe content, crude fiber, vitamin C, color and marshmallow’s flavor. Best marshmallow formulation of 25% spinach in addition of 75% tomato had Fe content of 1.159 mg/100g and vitamin C of 44 mg/100g.

  7. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  8. Enhancing Communication through Gesture and Naming Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caute, Anna; Pring, Tim; Cocks, Naomi; Cruice, Madeline; Best, Wendy; Marshall, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether gesture, naming, and strategic treatment improved the communication skills of 14 people with severe aphasia. Method: All participants received 15 hr of gesture and naming treatment (reported in a companion article [Marshall et al., 2012]). Half the group received a further 15 hr of strategic…

  9. In the Names of Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen Shu

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to both feminist scholarship and Chinese Studies by coming to grips with the deep, culturally embedded, and politically significant meaning of the names given to Chinese women. Uses the analysis of two names to advance theory that will link and enrich rhetorical, feminist, and intercultural studies and break through the limits of…

  10. MILITARY NAMES IN SOUTH AFRICA - QUO VADIS?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pride and unit traditions. After the war and the subsequent demobilisation of the UDF the procedures for naming were described and certain require- ments laid down. During the term of office of the Minister of Defence at the time, F.C. Erasmus,the following proce- dure for naming was promulgated - a procedure that has not ...

  11. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  12. 32 CFR 635.6 - Name checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Name checks. 635.6 Section 635.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.6 Name checks. (a) Information contained in military police records may be...

  13. Towards secure name resolution on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothoff, C.; Wachs, M.; Ermert, M.; Appelbaum, J.

    2018-01-01

    The Domain Name System (DNS) provides crucial name resolution functions for most Internet services. As a result, DNS traffic provides an important attack vector for spy agencies, as demonstrated by the QUANTUMDNS and MORECOWBELL programs of the NSA. This article reviews how DNS works, and explains

  14. Alternative wastewatersystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyck-Madsen, Søren; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Gabriel, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The report:-  Communicates experiences from Swedish buildings from the establishment and running of alternative wastewater systems. Communicates pictures of alternative buildings and wastewater systems in Sweden. Gives a short evaluation of the performance and the sustainability of the systems....

  15. The Digital, the Virtual and the Naming of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Jorgensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Amidst changing regimes of disciplinarity, the digital has become a term used to delineate a mode of knowledge and educational methodology. Its currency comes from the technologies that share its name, yet the territory that it marks is much greater than this, referring to the cultural, economic and social. The digital is too proximate to the technological to adequately account for this territory. Instead, I argue for radical interventions in the naming of knowledge in order to defamiliarise the digital. Different accounts of the virtual by Pierre Lévy, Katherine Hayles and David Summers suggest that this term establishes a greater range of enquiry and contestation. The virtual is but one alternative to the digital as a means by which new disciplines, methodologies and pedagogies might be constituted.

  16. Research applications for an Object and Action Naming Battery to assess naming skills in adult Spanish-English bilingual speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Lisa A; Donovan, Neila J

    2014-06-01

    Virtually no valid materials are available to evaluate confrontation naming in Spanish-English bilingual adults in the U.S. In a recent study, a large group of young Spanish-English bilingual adults were evaluated on An Object and Action Naming Battery (Edmonds & Donovan in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 55:359-381, 2012). Rasch analyses of the responses resulted in evidence for the content and construct validity of the retained items. However, the scope of that study did not allow for extensive examination of individual item characteristics, group analyses of participants, or the provision of testing and scoring materials or raw data, thereby limiting the ability of researchers to administer the test to Spanish-English bilinguals and to score the items with confidence. In this study, we present the in-depth information described above on the basis of further analyses, including (1) online searchable spreadsheets with extensive empirical (e.g., accuracy and name agreeability) and psycholinguistic item statistics; (2) answer sheets and instructions for scoring and interpreting the responses to the Rasch items; (3) tables of alternative correct responses for English and Spanish; (4) ability strata determined for all naming conditions (English and Spanish nouns and verbs); and (5) comparisons of accuracy across proficiency groups (i.e., Spanish dominant, English dominant, and balanced). These data indicate that the Rasch items from An Object and Action Naming Battery are valid and sensitive for the evaluation of naming in young Spanish-English bilingual adults. Additional information based on participant responses for all of the items on the battery can provide researchers with valuable information to aid in stimulus development and response interpretation for experimental studies in this population.

  17. Domain learning naming game for color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Doujie; Fan, Zhongyan; Tang, Wallace K S

    2017-01-01

    Naming game simulates the evolution of vocabulary in a population of agents. Through pairwise interactions in the games, agents acquire a set of vocabulary in their memory for object naming. The existing model confines to a one-to-one mapping between a name and an object. Focus is usually put onto name consensus in the population rather than knowledge learning in agents, and hence simple learning model is usually adopted. However, the cognition system of human being is much more complex and knowledge is usually presented in a complicated form. Therefore, in this work, we extend the agent learning model and design a new game to incorporate domain learning, which is essential for more complicated form of knowledge. In particular, we demonstrate the evolution of color categorization and naming in a population of agents. We incorporate the human perceptive model into the agents and introduce two new concepts, namely subjective perception and subliminal stimulation, in domain learning. Simulation results show that, even without any supervision or pre-requisition, a consensus of a color naming system can be reached in a population solely via the interactions. Our work confirms the importance of society interactions in color categorization, which is a long debate topic in human cognition. Moreover, our work also demonstrates the possibility of cognitive system development in autonomous intelligent agents.

  18. Precedent Names of Chinese National Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Алексеевна Ленинцева

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of precedent names as symbols of precedent phenomena in the material and spiritual culture of the Chinese. An evaluation of daily events and the attitude of the Chinese towards the world are reflected in the vocabulary of their language. The symbols of precedent phenomena can be proper names (anthroponomy, names of places, the date, as well as figurative and expressive means of language (idioms, sayings. Precedent names as symbols of precedent phenomena vividly and accurately capture the above-mentioned points, and encompass almost all spheres of life, history and spiritual development. The subject of our study are national precedent phenomena that define the ethno-cultural specificity, reflecting the history and culture of the Chinese people and their national character. Representatives of different cultures have different perceptions of the same precedent phenomena. Inadequate understanding of national invariants of precedent phenomena is often the source of communication failures. The aim of this paper is to highlight precedent names as a symbol of precedent phenomena in the discourse of the Chinese linguocultural community. For this purpose a classification of precedent names in Chinese was carried out. Precedent names which play an important role in shaping the Chinese national consciousness were taken from the Chinese-Russian Dictionary.

  19. Uso de probiótico na prevenção de salmoneloses em frangos de corte Alternatives in the prevention of salmoneloses in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Augusto Rossi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as principais zoonoses de origem bacteriana, transmitidas pelas aves, pode-se assinalar as salmoneloses causadas por salmonelas patogênicas, que causam toxinfecções alimentares e podem estar presentes em produtos e subprodutos de origem animal contaminados. Com o objetivo de buscar subsídios no sentido de aperfeiçoar os sistemas de prevenção e controle alternativos para esta zoonose, foi realizado um experimento com 780 frangos de corte, da linhagem Ross, abatidos aos 31 dias de idade, submetidos a três tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 65 aves cada. Os animais do tratamento um receberam o probiótico Mucosal starter culture e foram inoculados com Salmonella enteritidis (SPRING et al., 2000, na dose de 10(5 unidades formadoras de colônias, por mililitro. No tratamento dois-controle positivo-os animais somente foram inoculados com S. enteritidis, na mesma dose que no tratamento um. Os animais do tratamento três-controle negativo-não receberam inoculação de salmonelas e nem probiótico. Avaliou-se o peso vivo, o consumo de ração e foram estimadas a conversão alimentar, o fator de produção e a percentagem de contaminação por salmonela. Não foram detectadas diferenças significativas, entre os tratamentos, para os parâmetros zootécnicos e microbiológicos analisados. Os animais que receberam o probiótico não se mostraram mais eficientes quando inoculados com salmonelas patogênicas, mas apresentaram um melhor desempenho em relação ao padrão da linhagem Ross utilizada.Salmoneloses are zoonoses cause by pathogenic salmonellas very common in products of infected birds. A experiment was made with the main aim to consider the need to search subsidy and perfectly for control and prevention systems in the growth of disease in public health. 780 chickens from Ross line are used, they were 31-day-old, and three treatments have been applied to 4 repetitions of 65 birds each. The animals of treatment one received the

  20. Changing the Family Name by Administrative Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Nicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman law, changing the name was possible except for the case in which this changewould have been fraudulent. This possibility was kept also in the Middle Age but with some restrictions:the handicraftsmen were not allowed to change their name when it served as a factory brand, the notarycould not change his name without having an authorization, and neither could he change his normalsignature. Gradually, the monarchy increased its control in this matter, tending to transform a socialinstitution into a police one.

  1. Origin names of gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap have thousands of years of history and have been called with pure Korean name words. It was only that they were recorded in the form of hanja during the time written Korean was undervalued where people insisted borrowing Chinese characters to write despite written Korean being available. Thus, gocho (苦椒, chimchae (沈菜, and koldonban (滑董飯 are not the origin names. The pure Korean names used even by the people back then are the actual ones: gochyo (고쵸, dimchae (딤, and bubuimbap (부뷤밥.

  2. Enhanced Source Memory for Names of Cheaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Bell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment shows that source memory for names associated with a history of cheating is better than source memory for names associated with irrelevant or trustworthy behavior, whereas old-new discrimination is not affected by whether a name was associated with cheating. This data pattern closely replicates findings obtained in previous experiments using facial stimuli, thus demonstrating that enhanced source memory for cheaters is not due to a cheater-detection module closely tied to the face processing system, but is rather due to a more general bias towards remembering the source of information associated with cheating.

  3. How alternative are alternative fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Soffritti, Tiziana; Danielis, Romeo

    1998-01-01

    Could alternative fuel vehicles contribute to a substantial reduction of air pollution? Is there a market for alternative fuel vehicles? Could a market be created via a pollution tax? The article answers these questions on the basis of the available estimates.

  4. Alternative detox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2012-01-01

    The concept that alternative therapies can eliminate toxins and toxicants from the body, i.e. 'alternative detox' (AD) is popular. Selected textbooks and articles on the subject of AD. The principles of AD make no sense from a scientific perspective and there is no clinical evidence to support them. The promotion of AD treatments provides income for some entrepreneurs but has the potential to cause harm to patients and consumers. In alternative medicine, simplistic but incorrect concepts such as AD abound. AREAS TIMELY FOR RESEARCH: All therapeutic claims should be scientifically tested before being advertised-and AD cannot be an exception.

  5. What’s in a Name? – Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune

    2011-01-01

    have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human), peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways......The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names...... of keeping and regarding non-human animals—this paper attempts to trace the importance of (both specific and generic) naming to our relationships with the non-human. It explores this topic from the naming of the animals in Genesis to the names given and used by scientists, keepers of companion animals, media...

  6. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. The change of religion and the names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kousgård Sørensen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available What actually happened at the time when Denmark was christianized? An important viewpoint to the topic is the nomenclature, both personal names and place-names. What happened to these in the missionary period? Can they be exploited as evidence about the change of religion? What happened to these and to the naming practices in connection with the introduction of Christianity? These questions are relevant, because several pre-Christian cultic words entered into the personal nomenclature which the Christian mission found in use on its arrival. The fate of the nomenclature in the period does suggest that the change in religion took place reasonably peacefully and gradually. There are, however, certain features about the place-names suggesting that there were local differences in the conduct of the mission.

  16. Listing of awardee names: Active awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This catalog/directory presents DOE`s procurement and assistance data system, arranged according to awardee name, bin, completion date, description of work, division, vendor ID, city, state, congressional district, contract value, obligations to date, P/S.

  17. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  18. About the scientific names of paraphyletic taxa

    OpenAIRE

    TIMM, Tarmo

    2012-01-01

    The 'naturality' of monophyletic taxa in comparison with that of paraphyletic ones is discussed, with examples from Clitellata. Regular scientific names for paraphyletic taxa are inevitable in a workable biological classification.

  19. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  20. A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the future publication and regulation of fungal names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hawksworth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A personal synopsis of the decisions made at the Nomenclature Section meeting of the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 is provided, with an emphasis on those which will affect the working practices of, or will otherwise be of interest to, mycologists. The topics covered include the re-naming of the Code, the acceptance of English as an alternative to Latin for validating diagnoses, conditions for permitting electronic publication of names, mandatory deposit of key nomenclatural information in a recognized repository for the valid publication of fungal names, the discontinuance of dual nomenclature for pleomorphic fungi, and clarification over the typification of sanctioned names, and acceptability of names originally published under the zoological code. Collectively, these changes are the most fundamental to have been enacted at single Congress since the 1950s, and herald the dawn of a new era in the practice of fungal nomenclature.

  1. Analisi Pengaruh Store Name, Brand Name, Dan Price Discounts Terhadap Purchase Intentions Konsumen Infinite Tunjungan Plaza

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Andy Gunawan:SkripsiAnalisis pengaruh store name, brand name dan price discounts terhadap purchase intention konsumen infnite tunjungan plaza Di era globalisasi ini, persaingan dagang antara Perusahaan – Perusahaan baik lokal maupun global menjadi semakin ketat, oleh karena itu Perusahaan selalu berusaha untuk meningkatkan ketertarikan minat beli konsumen. Beberapa variabel yang menjadi fokus Perusahaan adalah store name, brand name, dan price discount. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meng...

  2. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  3. Passive Detection of Misbehaving Name Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    name servers that changed IP address five or more times in a month. Solid red line indicates those servers possibly linked to pharmaceutical scams . 12...malicious and stated that fast-flux hosting “is considered one of the most serious threats to online activities today” [ICANN 2008, p. 2]. The...that time, apparently independent of filters on name-server flux, a large number of pharmaceutical scams1 were taken down. These scams apparently

  4. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the UDRP (WIP...... trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”)....

  5. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  6. The history of Latin teeth names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, František

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to give an account of the Latin naming of the different types of teeth by reviewing relevant historical and contemporary literature. The paper presents etymologies of Latin or Greek teeth names, their development, variants and synonyms, and sometimes the names of their authors. The Greek names did not have the status of official terms, but the Latin terms for particular types of teeth gradually established themselves. Names for the incisors, canines and molars are Latin calques for the Greek ones (tomeis, kynodontes, mylai), dens serotinus is an indirect calque of the Greek name (odús) opsigonos, and the term pre-molar is created in the way which is now common in modern anatomical terminology, using the prefix prae- = pre and the adjective molaris. The Latin terms dentes canini and dentes molares occur in the Classical Latin literature, the term (dentes) incisivi is found first time in medieval literature, and the terms dentes premolares and dens serotinus are modern-age ones.

  7. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment.

  8. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  9. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  10. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  11. Standardizing naming conventions in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were satisfactorily identified using this

  12. SNAD: sequence name annotation-based designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbalenya Alexander E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing diversity of biological data is tagged with unique identifiers (UIDs associated with polynucleotides and proteins to ensure efficient computer-mediated data storage, maintenance, and processing. These identifiers, which are not informative for most people, are often substituted by biologically meaningful names in various presentations to facilitate utilization and dissemination of sequence-based knowledge. This substitution is commonly done manually that may be a tedious exercise prone to mistakes and omissions. Results Here we introduce SNAD (Sequence Name Annotation-based Designer that mediates automatic conversion of sequence UIDs (associated with multiple alignment or phylogenetic tree, or supplied as plain text list into biologically meaningful names and acronyms. This conversion is directed by precompiled or user-defined templates that exploit wealth of annotation available in cognate entries of external databases. Using examples, we demonstrate how this tool can be used to generate names for practical purposes, particularly in virology. Conclusion A tool for controllable annotation-based conversion of sequence UIDs into biologically meaningful names and acronyms has been developed and placed into service, fostering links between quality of sequence annotation, and efficiency of communication and knowledge dissemination among researchers.

  13. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  14. Tagging Named Entities in Croatian Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Baksa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity extraction tools designed for recognizing named entities in texts written in standard language (e.g., news stories or legal texts have been shown to be inadequate for user-generated textual content (e.g., tweets, forum posts. In this work, we propose a supervised approach to named entity recognition and classification for Croatian tweets. We compare two sequence labelling models: a hidden Markov model (HMM and conditional random fields (CRF. Our experiments reveal that CRF is the best model for the task, achieving a very good performance of over 87% micro-averaged F1 score. We analyse the contributions of different feature groups and influence of the training set size on the performance of the CRF model.

  15. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  16. Precedent Proper Names in Informal Oikonymy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Akhmetova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the Russian language informal city names (oikonyms motivated by other toponyms (with reference to Russia and the CIS. The author shows that the motivating proper name can replace the city name (e. g. Глазго < Glasgow ‘Glazov’ or contaminate with it (e. g. Экибостон < Ekibastuz + Boston, the “alien” onym being attracted to construct an informal oikonym due to its phonetic similarity or, on occasion, due to an affinity, either real or imaginary, between the two settlements. The author argues that the phonetic motivation is more characteristic for the modern urban tradition, than for popular dialects.

  17. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first...... sent to 50 students and I received 18 answers (38%). The second survey was sent to 86 students and I received 48 answers (56%). These figures provides a good indication.The answers showed a marked positive effect: the students felt welcome, accepted and respected; the learning environment was more......A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...

  18. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  19. Gene name ambiguity of eukaryotic nomenclatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lifeng; Liu, Hongfang; Friedman, Carol

    2005-01-15

    With more and more scientific literature published online, the effective management and reuse of this knowledge has become problematic. Natural language processing (NLP) may be a potential solution by extracting, structuring and organizing biomedical information in online literature in a timely manner. One essential task is to recognize and identify genomic entities in text. 'Recognition' can be accomplished using pattern matching and machine learning. But for 'identification' these techniques are not adequate. In order to identify genomic entities, NLP needs a comprehensive resource that specifies and classifies genomic entities as they occur in text and that associates them with normalized terms and also unique identifiers so that the extracted entities are well defined. Online organism databases are an excellent resource to create such a lexical resource. However, gene name ambiguity is a serious problem because it affects the appropriate identification of gene entities. In this paper, we explore the extent of the problem and suggest ways to address it. We obtained gene information from 21 organisms and quantified naming ambiguities within species, across species, with English words and with medical terms. When the case (of letters) was retained, official symbols displayed negligible intra-species ambiguity (0.02%) and modest ambiguities with general English words (0.57%) and medical terms (1.01%). In contrast, the across-species ambiguity was high (14.20%). The inclusion of gene synonyms increased intra-species ambiguity substantially and full names contributed greatly to gene-medical-term ambiguity. A comprehensive lexical resource that covers gene information for the 21 organisms was then created and used to identify gene names by using a straightforward string matching program to process 45,000 abstracts associated with the mouse model organism while ignoring case and gene names that were also English words. We found that 85.1% of correctly retrieved mouse

  20. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  1. Love me, love me not: changed names

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: " A selection of 150 cities within Slavs and Tatars’ Eurasian remit, Love Me, Love Me Not : Changed Names plucks the petals off the past to reveal an impossibly thorny stem : a lineage of names changed by the course of the region’s grueling history. Some cities divulge a resolutely Asian heritage, so often forgotten in today’s quest, at all costs, for European integration. Some vacillate almost painfully, and others with numbing repetition, entire metro...

  2. [Why the name "Erasmus" for an hospital ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noterman, J

    2017-01-01

    Why the name "Erasmus" for an hospital ? Apart for local circumstances, there are far more obvious reasons for this choice. Erasmus was in close contact with the medical world. Indeed, he suffered all his life from more or less severe diseases and had therefore frequent contacts with doctors. Also, the ideas he was defending stood for the principle of free inquiry before its time. For these various reasons giving the name « Erasmus » to the university clinics of the Free University of Brussels (ULB) was a judicious choise.

  3. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  4. Alternative Veier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth; Salamonsen, Anita

    reflektioner omkring patienters brug af og erfaringer med alternativ behandling. Patientorganisationer, organisatoner for alternative behandlere og organisationer for læger og medicinstuderende har læst bogens patienthistorier og deres perspektiver lægges frem. Til slut i bogen diskuteres betydningen af de...

  5. On identifying name equivalences in digital libraries. Name equivalence, Surname matching, Author identification, Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror G. Feitelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.

  6. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 7. Spelling the names of plant varieties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyse the practice of transliteration of the Ukrainian cultivar names and rendering foreign names by means of the Ukrainian language, as well as special aspects of cultivar names spelling in special literature. Results. Cultivar names as a special category require preservation of primary graphics or sound type in the other language. This can be achieved by direct inclusion of the original name to the Ukrainian text or by practical transcribing, but not by transliteration or translation. Otherwise, Ukrainian names should be transliterated for inclusion to the texts in Latin characters. Transcription/transliteration in both directions is performed from the source language, though, as practice shows, in some Ukrainian publications the Russian is wrongly used as an intermediary language. Some national scientific publications ignore the recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that is not conducive to the success of scientific communication in the globalized world. Conclusions. The foreign names of plant varieties should be entered into the Ukrainian text keeping the original spelling or by means of practical transcription. The loan of foreign names is performed by transcribing directly from the source language; if the language doesn’t have the Latin alphabet, Latinized name transcription is acceptable. Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants that concern graphic highlighting of the cultivar names in the text enclosing them in single quotation marks and writing each word of a cultivar name with a capital letter should necessarily be applied in the foreign-language publications and extended to the Ukrainian special literature, at least, in terms of the use of single quotation marks. Ukrainian names should be transliterated only in accordance with the regulations.

  7. What's in a Name? Interlocutors Dynamically Update Expectations about Shared Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    In order to refer using a name, speakers must believe that their addressee knows about the link between the name and the intended referent. In cases where speakers and addressees learned a subset of names together, speakers are adept at using only the names their partner knows. But speakers do not always share such learning experience with their conversational partners. In these situations, what information guides speakers' choice of referring expression? A speaker who is uncertain about a names' common ground (CG) status often uses a name and description together. This N+D form allows speakers to demonstrate knowledge of a name, and could provide, even in the absence of miscommunication, useful evidence to the addressee regarding the speaker's knowledge. In cases where knowledge of one name is associated with knowledge of other names, this could provide indirect evidence regarding knowledge of other names that could support generalizations used to update beliefs about CG. Using Bayesian approaches to language processing as a guiding framework, we predict that interlocutors can use their partner's choice of referring expression, in particular their use of an N+D form, to generate more accurate beliefs regarding their partner's knowledge of other names. In Experiment 1, we find that domain experts are able to use their partner's referring expression choices to generate more accurate estimates of CG. In Experiment 2, we find that interlocutors are able to infer from a partner's use of an N+D form which other names that partner is likely to know or not know. Our results suggest that interlocutors can use the information conveyed in their partner's choice of referring expression to make generalizations that contribute to more accurate beliefs about what is shared with their partner, and further, that models of CG for reference need to account not just for the status of referents, but the status of means of referring to those referents.

  8. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  9. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  10. Measuring the global domain name system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, E.; Shen, Xuemin; Caselli, M.; Coletta, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a worldwide distributed critical infrastructure, and it is composed of many vital components. While IP routing is the most important service, today the Domain Name System can be classified as the second most important, and has been defined as a critical infrastructure as well. DNS

  11. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  12. Griffon – what's in a name?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    genus name of Gyps for Gyps vulgaris [= G.fulvus], which he ... Appendix to this note my translation of Perrault's article; curiously he ... My translation of Mr. Perrault's article. ANATOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF. TWO GRIFONS. The description that previous. Authors made of the Grifon does not fit any known animal: besides the.

  13. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities,

  14. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  15. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  16. Spatial Planning: What's in a Name?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial Planning: What's in a Name? Andreas Faludi, University of Nijmegen Spatial planning is Euro-English and means different things to different people. In the UK it now carries the connotation of 'Modernising Planning', taking it beyond land-use management. In the EU context ,too, regulatory and

  17. Naming Speed in Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willburger, Edith; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Wood, Guilherme; Landerl, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In four carefully selected samples of 8- to 10-year old children with dyslexia (but age adequate arithmetic skills), dyscalculia (but age adequate reading skills), dyslexia/dyscalculia and controls a domain-general deficit in rapid automatized naming (RAN) was found for both dyslexia groups. Dyscalculic children exhibited a domain-specific deficit…

  18. Biggert named chairman of energy subcommittee

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Representative Judy Biggert has been named Chairman of the Energy Subcommittee of the House Science Committee, a key panel with jurisdiction over the federal government's civilian energy and science research activities, including the work done at Argonne and Fermilab (1 page).

  19. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  20. What’s In Your Name? Associated Meanings of the Common Filipino Names Among Young Filipinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaira G. Castillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Name is important in knowing someone’s identity. By a person’s name someone can know his or her character. It is also possible that they bear a particular name because of their background and other factors that can lead to something important. This study aimed to find out the associative meanings of the most common Filipino male and female names among the Polytechnic University of the Philippines-Sta. Mesa students. Different factors such as character traits, physical appearance, and skills/talents were considered in determining meanings of the names. The study used quantitative and qualitative research approach, specifically the descriptive method, to analyze the gathered data. A selfadministered survey was distributed to 400 randomly selected respondents. General findings revealed that the respondents associated the most common Filipino male names in the same way regarding character traits and skills/talents. However, they have different associations to the male names in terms of physical appearance. On the other hand, the respondents associated the most common Filipino female names into similar character traits and physical appearance but associated them with different skills/talents. Results also revealed that the most common factors that influence the respondents’ associated meanings were relationships, experiences, popularity, and perception. The results imply that while young Filipinos associate similar character traits, physical appearances and skills to common Filipino names, they have different reasons in giving meanings to them.

  1. FY 1998 annual summary report on recent trends of global warming prevention measures with fluorochlorohydrocarbon alternatives; 1998 nendo daitia furon no chikyu ondanka taisaku doko ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are the recent trends of the ozone layer protection and global warming prevention measures. Latest international information has been collected by attending the 10th Meeting of the Party of Montreal Protocol, and the 17th and 18th Open Ended Working Group. The important decisions made so far are investigation on the novel ozone layer destruction substances, requirement of studying on decommissioning Halon facilities, collection of information of HFC and PFC, and reporting to IPCC. Information regarding regulation trends of HFC, PFC and SF{sub 6} are collected by attending the COP-4 meeting and the preparatory meetings therefor. The report on these 3 substances will be completed in July or so, 1999. The trends of technical development in HCFC alternatives in refrigeration and blowing sectors were investigated. HFC-245fa and HFC-365mfc are introduced. Also introduced is latest information regarding the emission estimation and control measures of HFC in USA and UK, emission control measures of SF{sub 6} in USA and Japan, and techniques for destruction of CFC and the like, which could be the basic techniques for controlling diffusion of HFC. The CFC phase-out programs of China, the biggest ozone layer destruction substance (e.g., CFC) consuming country, are also outlined. (NEDO)

  2. 27 CFR 41.251 - Change in name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporate name. When there is a change in the corporate name of an importer of processed tobacco, the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in name. 41.251... name. (a) Change in individual name. When there is a change in the name of an individual operating...

  3. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  4. PERLINDUNGAN HUKUM BLOGGER BERITIKAD BAIK TERHADAP DOMINE NAME MEREK TERKENAL DARI DUGAAN PEMBONCENGAN REPUTASI (PASSING OFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DESY KUSUMA WARDHANI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This Research entitled "Legal Protection Against Blogger Good Faith Domine Name Of Alleged Deception Famous Brand Reputation (Passing Off". The problem of this study was, first: How does the domain name in a legal setting in Indonesia. Second: What is the legal protection of domain name for blogger’s good faith if there are similarities with the domain name famous brand. This research method using normative methods, the legal research done by examining library materials. Which refers to the legal norms contained in the legislation, international conventions, international agreements and court decisions. The results showed, first: The domain name has been linked closely with the brand and copyright but the domain name is not synonymous with the brand and copyright, as it has a system and registration requirements as well as the recognition of the existence differently. So far there are kekososngan norms that specifically regulate the domain name issue in Indonesia. Until now, the settings used by the international ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, the competent authority dealing with internet IP Addres, and domain name system management. Second: Legal protection for bloggers acting in good faith if there are similarities regarding the domain name can be a famous brand is preventive legal protection and the protection of repressive laws which refers to the settlement of a litigation matter (referring to the legal protection of IPR, Civil, Criminal and Law ITE and non-litigation (both ADR and UDRP.

  5. Report realized in the name of the finances, economy and the plan commission on the project of financing law for 2009 (n. 1127), annex n. 13 ecology, sustainable development and management risks prevention planing of the ecology, the energy, the sustainable development and the territory management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the law project n. 1127 for 2009, concerning the risks prevention in the framework of the ecology and the sustainable development and management. The first part details the program of risks prevention (technological, pollutions, natural and hydraulic risks, nuclear safety and radioprotection, the mine site rehabilitation). The second part develops the ecology, energy sustainable development and territory management, policies. (A.L.B.)

  6. What's in a Name? Interlocutors dynamically update expectations about shared names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Marie Gegg-Harrison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to refer using a name, speakers must know that their addressee knows about the link between the name and the intended referent. In cases where speakers and addressees learned names together, speakers are adept at using names only when their addressee knows them. But speakers do not always share such learning experience with their conversational partners. In these situations, what information guides speakers’ choice of referring expression? A speaker who is uncertain about a names’ common ground (CG status often uses a name and description together. This N+D form allows speakers to demonstrate knowledge of a name, and could provide, even in the absence of miscommunication, useful evidence to the addressee regarding the speaker’s knowledge. In cases where knowledge of one name is associated with knowledge of other names, could provide indirect evidence regarding knowledge of other names that could support generalizations used to update beliefs about CG. Using data explanation approaches to language processing as a guiding framework, we predict that interlocutors can use their partner’s choice of referring expression, in particular their use of an N+D form, to generate more accurate beliefs regarding their partner’s knowledge of other names. In Experiment 1, we find that domain experts are able to use their partner’s referring expression choices to generate more accurate estimates of CG. In Experiment 2, we find that interlocutors are able to infer from a partner’s use of an N+D form which other names that partner is likely to know or not know. Our results suggest that interlocutors can use the information conveyed in their partner’s choice of referring expression to make generalizations that contribute to more accurate beliefs about what is shared with their partner, and further, that models of CG for reference need to account not just for the status of referents, but the status of means of referring to those referents.

  7. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, C.

    1987-01-01

    The designated successor to fossil fuels is nuclear fission/fusion and that turns out to be problematic. Alternative Energy Systems have great potential but political forces seem to be hampering their development and introduction. The technologies are flexible in their use and scale of operation. The learning curve will not be short but neither will it be as long and as costly as nuclear power. It is time that this is recognised and some serious rethinking takes place in what presently passes for energy policies both in the industrialised countries and in the Third World. Alternative energy systems are defined and some of them which are relevant to the United Kingdom are discussed. (author)

  8. What's in a Name? For A Million Bucks or So, You can Name that School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2006-01-01

    Although "naming rights" have proliferated in American higher education for the past several decades, the phenomenon has recently expanded to extraordinary lengths. In this area, academe fits right in with the larger culture, which has named everything from AutoZone Park to Gillette Stadium to the children's wing of your local hospital. Anything…

  9. A Doctor's Name as a Brand: A Nationwide Survey on Registered Clinic Names in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng-Yuan; Dai, Ying-Xiu; Liu, Jui-Yao; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Li-Fang; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2018-06-01

    In countries where the private clinics of physicians can be freely named, registering a clinic with a physician's name is one way to make patients familiar with the physician. No previous study had investigated how clinics make use of this method of personal branding. Therefore, the current study analyzed 10,847 private physician Western medicine clinics in Taiwan. Of those clinics, 31.0% ( n = 3363) were named with a physician's full name, 8.9% ( n = 960) with a surname, and 8.1% ( n = 884) with a given name. The proportion of clinics registered with a physician's name was lower in rural areas (37.3%) than in urban (48.5%) and suburban areas (49.2%), respectively. Among clinics with only one kind of specialist, a physician's name was used most frequently in clinics of obstetrics and gynecology (64.9%), otorhinolaryngology (64.1%), and dermatology (63.4%). In Taiwan, fewer than half of clinics used a physician's name as a brand. The sociocultural or strategic factors and real benefits of doing so could be further studied in the future for a better understanding of healthcare services management.

  10. Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes

  11. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  12. Taxonomic names, metadata, and the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D. M. Page

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs offer an attractive solution to the problem of globally unique identifiers for digital objects in biology. However, I suggest that in the context of taxonomic names, the most compelling benefit of adopting these identifiers comes from the metadata associated with each LSID. By using existing vocabularies wherever possible, and using a simple vocabulary for taxonomy-specific concepts we can quickly capture the essential information about a taxonomic name in the Resource Description Framework (RDF format. This opens up the prospect of using technologies developed for the Semantic Web to add ``taxonomic intelligence" to biodiversity databases. This essay explores some of these ideas in the context of providing a taxonomic framework for the phylogenetic database TreeBASE.

  13. Their Name is Half-Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the phenomenon of the Soviet architecture of the late 1950s – 60s. The name of the article is “Their name is halfway”. It expresses the sense of all the processes occurring both in society and architecture during the Khrushchev Thaw. Developing the socalled Stalin’s Empire in the 1930-1950s, the masters of architecture had travelled only half the way. If the power had not abruptly stopped this movement, we would probably have a unique modern architecture dissimilar to the “international style”. The collapse of the Soviet Union stopped the evolution of architecture again: the unique features of the Soviet architecture of the 1960s ceased to develop. Architects were carried away with ironic games of postmodernism, which led them to deadlock.

  14. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  15. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-01-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  16. Naming the Mystery: An Augustinian Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Fitzgerald

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, by noticing Augustine’s constant questioning, shows that he often talks about not knowing and about his need for God’s help to know more. It is therefore better to see how he identifies the mystery than to focus on his answers, because he too recognizes his limits. His intellectual prowess can be seen more clearly when he “names the mystery” than by thinking that he has solved it.

  17. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  18. Alternative detente

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, K.; Ryle, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the Chernobyl accident on the disarmament and anti-nuclear movements is discussed. The accident directed attention towards the areas in common rather than the areas of disagreement. It also demonstrated the environmental impact of radioactivity, strengthening the ecological case of the anti-nuclear movement. The issues are discussed for the Western and Eastern bloc countries and the relationship between the two. Sections focus on the Eco-protest, Green politics and economics and on the politics of minority protest and the Green alternative. (U.K.)

  19. By which name should I call thee? The consequences of having multiple names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Lewis, Hugh G

    2005-11-01

    The nominal competitor effect suggests that, when a person has two names associated with them, recall of either name is more difficult than if they just had one name. Drawing on a connectionist framework, this effect could arise either if multiple names were represented as being connected to a single person identity node (PIN), or if multiple names were represented as being connected via one-to-one links to multiple PINs. Whilst the latter has intuitive appeal, results from two experiments support the former architecture. Having two names connected to a single PIN not only gives rise to a nominal competitor effect (Experiment 1), but also gives rise to a familiarity enhancement effect (Experiment 2). These empirical results are simulated using an extension of Brédart, Valentine, Calder, and Gassi's (1995) connectionist architecture, which reveals that both effects hold even when the association of both names to the PIN is unequal. These results are presented in terms of a more complete model for person recognition, and the representation of semantic information within such a model is examined.

  20. A German colony in Jutland: the evidence of Christian names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eggert, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Denmark lost the war in 1848-50 against the German States, and Danish nationalism had arisen throughout the country. For this reason the descendants of the German immigrants had a need culturally or politically to show their Danish identity through the names about 20 years before the language......In 1760, invited by king Frederik V, immigrants came to Denmark from the southern parts of Germany. Uninhabited moorlands in Jutland needed to be cultivated and the German immigrants were offered a number of inducements to settle in Viborg County. Many of the German immigrants settled in a single...... parish, Frederik’s Parish. Here the German language was used for services in the parish church until 1856. Thereafter German and Danish services alternated, and from 1870 the church language was solely Danish. This investigation shows that in 1801, after about 40 years in Denmark, the immigrants...

  1. What's in a Name ?The Effect of an Artist's Name on Aesthetic Judgements

    OpenAIRE

    Cleeremans, Axel; Ginsburgh, Victor; Klein, Olivier; Noury, Abdul Ghafar

    2016-01-01

    Both economists and art historians suggest that the name of the artist is important and belongs with the work. We carried out an experiment to explore the influence that the presence and knowledge of an artist’s name exert on aesthetic judgments. Forty participants (20 students majoring in psychology and 20 in art history) were asked to rank twelve works painted by different artists, some of which bore the name of their actual creators, others not. The results demonstrated that the presence o...

  2. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreasen, L.M.; Boon, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  3. "Spice," "kryptonite," "black mamba": an overview of brand names and marketing strategies of novel psychoactive substances on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Ornella; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Corkery, John; Martinotti, Giovanni; Bersani, Giuseppe; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPSs) are often sold online as "legal" and "safer" alternatives to International Controlled Drugs (ICDs) with captivating marketing strategies. Our aim was to review and summarize such strategies in terms of the appearance of the products, the brand names, and the latest trends in the illicit online marketplaces. Scientific data were searched in PsychInfo and Pubmed databases; results were integrated with an extensive monitoring of Internet (websites, online shops, chat rooms, fora, social networks) and media sources in nine languages (English, French, Farsi, Portuguese, Arabic, Russian, Spanish, and Chinese simplified/traditional) available from secure databases of the Global Public Health Intelligence Network. Evolving strategies for the online diffusion and the retail of NPSs have been identified, including discounts and periodic offers on chosen products. Advertisements and new brand names have been designed to attract customers, especially young people. An increased number of retailers have been recorded as well as new Web platforms and privacy systems. NPSs represent an unprecedented challenge in the field of public health with social, cultural, legal, and political implications. Web monitoring activities are essential for mapping the diffusion of NPSs and for supporting innovative Web-based prevention programmes.

  4. Planning levels in naming and reading complex numerals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwissen, M.H.W.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of evidence from studies of the naming and reading of numerals, Ferrand (1999) argued that the naming of objects is slower than reading their names, due to a greater response uncertainty in naming than in reading, rather than to an obligatory conceptual preparation for naming, but not

  5. 27 CFR 40.93 - Change in corporate name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in corporate name... Changes in Name § 40.93 Change in corporate name. Where there is a change in the name of a corporate... to establish that the corporate name has been changed. (72 Stat. 1421; 26 U.S.C. 5712) Changes in...

  6. 27 CFR 44.103 - Change in corporate name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in corporate name... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.103 Change in corporate name. Where there is a change in the name... may be necessary to establish that the corporate name has been changed. (72 Stat. 1421; 26 U.S.C. 5712...

  7. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  8. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...

  9. Star names their lore and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Richard H

    1963-01-01

    Here is an unusual book for anyone who appreciates the beauty and wonder of the stars. Solidly based upon years of thorough research into astronomical writings and observations of the ancient Chinese, Arabic, Euphrates, Hellenic, and Roman civilizations, it is an informative, non-technical excursion into the vast heritage of folklore and history associated with the heavenly bodies. From his studies of the writings of scores of ancient astronomers, the author has come up with a fascinating history of the names various cultures have given the constellations, the literary and folkloristic uses

  10. Named data networking-based smart home

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Hassan Ahmed; Dongkyun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Named data networking (NDN) treats content/data as a “first class citizen” of the network by giving it a “name”. This content “name” is used to retrieve any information, unlike in device-centric networks (i.e., the current Internet), which depend on physical IP addresses. Meanwhile, the smart home concept has been gaining attention in academia and industries; various low-cost embedded devices are considered that can sense, process, store, and communicate data autonomously. In this paper, we s...

  11. Abbreviations of polymer names and guidelines for abbreviating polymer names (IUPAC Recommendations 2014)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    He, J.; Chen, J.; Hellwich, K. H.; Hess, M.; Horie, K.; Jones, R. G.; Kahovec, Jaroslav; Kitayama, T.; Kratochvíl, Pavel; Meille, S. V.; Mita, I.; dos Santos, C.; Vert, M.; Vohlídal, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 6 (2014), s. 1003-1015 ISSN 0033-4545 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : abbreviations * IUPAC Polymer Division * polymer names Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.492, year: 2014

  12. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  13. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  14. What's in a Name? Sound Symbolism and Gender in First Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sidhu

    Full Text Available Although the arbitrariness of language has been considered one of its defining features, studies have demonstrated that certain phonemes tend to be associated with certain kinds of meaning. A well-known example is the Bouba/Kiki effect, in which nonwords like bouba are associated with round shapes while nonwords like kiki are associated with sharp shapes. These sound symbolic associations have thus far been limited to nonwords. Here we tested whether or not the Bouba/Kiki effect extends to existing lexical stimuli; in particular, real first names. We found that the roundness/sharpness of the phonemes in first names impacted whether the names were associated with round or sharp shapes in the form of character silhouettes (Experiments 1a and 1b. We also observed an association between femaleness and round shapes, and maleness and sharp shapes. We next investigated whether this association would extend to the features of language and found the proportion of round-sounding phonemes was related to name gender (Analysis of Category Norms. Finally, we investigated whether sound symbolic associations for first names would be observed for other abstract properties; in particular, personality traits (Experiment 2. We found that adjectives previously judged to be either descriptive of a figuratively 'round' or a 'sharp' personality were associated with names containing either round- or sharp-sounding phonemes, respectively. These results demonstrate that sound symbolic associations extend to existing lexical stimuli, providing a new example of non-arbitrary mappings between form and meaning.

  15. Ultra advanced projects. ; Naming hyper-hightech projects. (Cho) no tsuku project. ; Naming no shikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Y. (Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-05

    Significance of using 'super' for naming a project of technological development is discussed. Functions of naming are classified into (1) recognition, (2) display and (3) sales-promotion, whereby mechanism of naming of merchandise that is developed through the technique of 3 is considered. Further, the mechanism of naming is discussed in relation to marketing. It is pointed out that naming of merchandise is determined on the basis of (1) concept of planned goods and (2) marketing-mixes composed of goods, price, sales-roots and sales-promotion. The same mechanism works also in a project for technological development. Technical trends are caught and projects are targetted by taking supposed regimes into account, thereby the most suitable mix is formed. The mix in the technological development is assumed to be composed of purpose, specification, regime and sales-promotion. Two examples of the governmental projects by Ministry of International Trade and Industry, 'the big regime for research and development on industrial technologies' and 'the regime for development of the fundamental technologies in the next generation' are introduced and the significance of their naming is described. 2 tabs.

  16. Microscopic activity patterns in the naming game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Baronchelli, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The models of statistical physics used to study collective phenomena in some interdisciplinary contexts, such as social dynamics and opinion spreading, do not consider the effects of the memory on individual decision processes. In contrast, in the naming game, a recently proposed model of language formation, each agent chooses a particular state, or opinion, by means of a memory-based negotiation process, during which a variable number of states is collected and kept in memory. In this perspective, the statistical features of the number of states collected by the agents become a relevant quantity to understand the dynamics of the model, and the influence of topological properties on memory-based models. By means of a master equation approach, we analyse the internal agent dynamics of the naming game in populations embedded on networks, finding that it strongly depends on very general topological properties of the system (e.g. average and fluctuations of the degree). However, the influence of topological properties on the microscopic individual dynamics is a general phenomenon that should characterize all those social interactions that can be modelled by memory-based negotiation processes

  17. Armenian Demons Called Kaj: Image and Name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Y. Petrosyan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a study of Armenian demons, the kajs, and their superior deity — the dragonslayer Vahagn, in the historical-etymological and ethno-cultural perspective. Specific features of kajs and their leader as imagined by ancient people are identifi ed: they resemble vishap-dragons and devs, live in the mountains and have temples there, make war, hunt, steal wheat and wine from people, love music, arrange weddings, drive people crazy, braid horsehair, and so on. Clear linkages are drawn between Armenian kajs and their leader with the mythological characters of Indo-European (Iranian, Indian traditions. In Armenian, the fi rst meaning of k‘aǰ is ‘good, select; of fi ne / better quality’. This is exactly how some Armenian spirits, including kajs, are often referred to — as “good” — mezane laver, mezne ałekner ‘better than us,’ ałek manuk ‘good youngster / warrior’. This is also true to some other traditions: the Persian az mā behtarān, German Gude (cf. also the names of Indian vasu and sādhya. The article develops the etymology of the name k‘aǰ (a corrected version of that proposed by H. Pedersen in 1906: *swo-sHdhyo- — ‘self / own + right / righteous,’ i.e. ‘good’. This image passed into the Georgian and Ossetian traditions (Georgian kajs, Ossetian kadzi.

  18. Undersea Feature Place Names as of June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are approximately 5100 undersea features with names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) currently in the Geographic Names Data Base...

  19. [Developmental changes of rapid automatized naming and Hiragana reading of Japanese in elementary-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoka; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Kita, Yosuke; Kaga, Makiko; Gotoh, Takaaki; Koike, Toshihide

    2011-11-01

    Two hundred and seven Japanese elementary school children aged from 6 (Grade 1) to 12 (Grade 6) years old were tested for their abilities to name numbers and pictured objects along with reading Hiragana characters and words. These children all showed typical development and their classroom teachers judged that they were not having any problems with reading or writing. The children were randomly divided into two groups, the first group was assigned to two naming tasks;the rapid automatized naming (RAN) of "numbers" and "pictured objects," the second group was assigned to two rapid alternative stimulus (RAS) naming tasks using numbers and pictured objects. All children were asked to perform two reading tasks that were written in Hiragana script: single mora reading task and four syllable word reading task. The total articulation time for naming and reading and performance in terms of accuracy were measured for each task. Developmental changes in these variables were evaluated. The articulation time was significantly longer for the first graders, and it gradually shortened as they moved through to the upper grades in all tasks. The articulation time reached a plateau in the 5th grade for the number naming, while gradual change continued after drastic change in the lower grades for the pictured object naming. The articulation times for the single mora reading and RAN of numbers correlated strongly. The articulation time for the RAS naming was significantly longer compared to that for the RAN, though there were very few errors. The RAS naming showed the highest correlation with the four syllable word reading. This study demonstrated that the performance in rapid automatized naming of numbers and pictures were closely related with performance on reading tasks. Thus Japanese children with reading disorders such as developmental dyslexia should also be evaluated for rapid automatized naming.

  20. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    OpenAIRE

    Abelin, Åsa

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertaint...

  1. MARKED PERSONAL NAMES: AN ANTROPONIMIC STUDY OF BALINESE STUDENTS’ NAMES IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Iwan Indrawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to account for the Marked Balinese Students’ Personal Names. Four research problems are studied, namely (1 the criteria used to distinguish the marked names (NDMBmk and the unmarked ones (NDMTBmk, (2 the functions of the markedness, (3 the factors that influence it, and (4 the ideologies that operate behind it. The markedness of personal names reflect a relation between the arbitrariness in language uses and the extralinguistic factors influencing it. In the context of Balinese, the tradition, legal practices, and the globalisation may affect the arbitrariness. In order to determine NDMBmk, criteria of markedness was constructed. According to the criteria, structurally, NDMBmk consist of at least five elements, as Anak Agung Arim Kasunu Arya Penarungan. Behaviorally, they may consist of names not derived from Balinese and/or Sanskrit, such as Giovani on I Gede Adeyaka Giovani, adopt a foreign spelling system as Chrisna on Ni Putu Chrisna Wulandari, or use no markers of Balinese ethnics or caste as Yunisari Wira Putri. Out of 698 sampled names, NDMBmk are found 54. Besides denoting, the marked elements also function to distinguish personal identities, to shape the existence of the name holder, to connote particular perception, and to reflect the changing era. The factors influencing the markedness are the need to express something new, a wish to acculturate, to raise status or keep a distance socially, and to demonstrate a linguistic expertise, or when seeing from the concept of imagery, the factors are the imagery on something new and on social status or distancing. The ideologies behind the phenomenon are globalist, nationalist, and the casteless-Balinese.

  2. MARKED PERSONAL NAMES: AN ANTROPONIMIC STUDY OF BALINESE STUDENTS’ NAMES IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Iwan Indrawan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to account for the Marked Balinese Students’ Personal Names. Four research problems are studied, namely (1 the criteria used to distinguish the marked names (NDMBmk and the unmarked ones (NDMTBmk, (2 the functions of the markedness, (3 the factors that influence it, and (4 the ideologies that operate behind it. The markedness of personal names reflect a relation between the arbitrariness in language uses and the extralinguistic factors influencing it. In the context of Balinese, the tradition, legal practices, and the globalisation may affect the arbitrariness. In order to determine NDMBmk, criteria of markedness was constructed. According to the criteria, structurally, NDMBmk consist of at least five elements, as Anak Agung Arim Kasunu Arya Penarungan. Behaviorally, they may consist of names not derived from Balinese and/or Sanskrit, such as Giovani on I Gede Adeyaka Giovani, adopt a foreign spelling system as Chrisna on Ni Putu Chrisna Wulandari, or use no markers of Balinese ethnics or caste as Yunisari Wira Putri. Out of 698 sampled names, NDMBmk are found 54. Besides denoting, the marked elements also function to distinguish personal identities, to shape the existence of the name holder, to connote particular perception, and to reflect the changing era. The factors influencing the markedness are the need to express something new, a wish to acculturate, to raise status or keep a distance socially, and to demonstrate a linguistic expertise, or when seeing from the concept of imagery, the factors are the imagery on something new and on social status or distancing. The ideologies behind the phenomenon are globalist, nationalist, and the casteless-Balinese.

  3. EPONYMY BASED ON NAMES OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kovács

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As is generally defined, eponymy, one of the word-formation processes refers to the derivation of a name of a city, country, era, institution, or other place or thing from that of a person such as sandwich, wellington, mackintosh or cardigan. Eponymy can be classified in several ways, some refer to foods (Pizza Margaritha, diseases (Alzheimer disease, places (Washington, scientific laws (Archimedes’s principle and sport terms (Axel jump, whereas others indicate trademarks, brand names (aspirin, prizes, awards (Nobel Prize, inventions (Rubic’s Cube, ideologies (Darwinism, colleges, universities (Stanford University and companies (Ford. The present paper discusses eponyms which denote companies based on the name of their founder(s (e.g. Porsche, Siemens, Gucci, Campari, Cadbury, McDonald’s and Walt Disney, etc. by revealing what kind of a metonymic relationship is manifested in them. Cognitive linguists, such as Lakoff and Johnson (1980, Radden and Kövecses (1999 and Kövecses (2002 state that metonymy is essentially a conceptual phenomenon, in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model. In fact, metonymy is part of our everyday way of thinking, and is grounded in experience. Common metonymies include PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT (Pass me the Shakespeare on the top shelf., PLACE FOR EVENT (Iraq nearly cost Tony Blair the premiership, PLACE FOR INSTITUTION (Downing Street refused comment., PART FOR THE WHOLE (She’s not just a pretty face., WHOLE FOR THE PART (England beat Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final. and EFFECT FOR CAUSE (He has a long face.. Following the cognitive approach to metonyms, I tentatively suggest that the metonymy PRODUCER FOR THE PRODUCT can be observed in the case of car makes, products of famous fashion houses, cosmetics and drinks as is illustrated by examples like He’s bought a Ferrari. I ate a McDonald or

  4. Forgotten names: herpetologist Boris Vladimirovich Pestinskiy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherlin Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Boris Pestinskiy was the herpetologist whose name, unfortunately, is lost in history. We decided to restore justice, and in this article we describe the life of this remarkable person. He was really engaged both in painting and in herpetology. After graduating from the Academy of Arts in Leningrad he wrote mainly the portraits of his contemporaries, illustrated magazines, taught children to draw. Some of his paintings were placed in the Russian Museum. He also studied reptiles. He was devoted to Middle Asia and spent the main part of his life in Tashkent. In Tashkent’s zoo he organized the department of reptiles and on the base of it the first in Middle Asia serpentarium. There poison was regularly taken from venomous snakes. Boris studied snakes’ biology, methods of their capture, conditions of their keeping in captivity, organization of the work of the serpentarium. His students were the young men who later became prominent Russian biologists.

  5. Four are named Editors of Earth Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Barron of the Earth System Science Center at The Pennsylvania State University has been named chief editor of the new electronic journal, Earth Interactions. This journal will be co-published by AGU, the American Meteorological Society, and the Association of American Geographers. The three societies jointly agreed on the appointment of Barron. Each of the societies also appointed an editor to the board. George F. Hepner for AAG is from the Department of Geography at the University of Utah, David T. Sandwell for AGU is at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and Kevin E. Trenberth for AMS is at the Climate and Global Dynamics Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  6. Recognition of names of eminent psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C P

    1976-10-01

    Faculty members, graduate students, undergraduate majors, and introductory psychology students checked those names they recognized in the list of 228 deceased psychologists, rated for eminence, provided by Annin, Boring, and Watson. Mean percentage recognition was less than 50% for the 128 American psychologists, and less than 25% for the 100 foreign psychologists, by the faculty subjects. The other three groups of subjects gave even lower recognition scores. Recognition was probably also influenced by recency; median year of death of the American psychologists was 1955, of the foreign psychologists, 1943. High recognition (defined as recognition by 80% or more of the faculty group) was achieved by only 34 psychologists, almost all of them American. These highly recognized psychologists also had high eminence ratings, but there was an equal number of psychologists with high eminence ratings that were poorly recognized.

  7. Named data networking-based smart home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Named data networking (NDN treats content/data as a “first class citizen” of the network by giving it a “name”. This content “name” is used to retrieve any information, unlike in device-centric networks (i.e., the current Internet, which depend on physical IP addresses. Meanwhile, the smart home concept has been gaining attention in academia and industries; various low-cost embedded devices are considered that can sense, process, store, and communicate data autonomously. In this paper, we study NDN in the context of smart-home communications, discuss the preliminary evaluations, and describe the future challenges of applying NDN in smart-home applications.

  8. Computer Security: in the name of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    This summer, the American/Canadian dating website Ashley Madison was successfully compromised by a group of hackers (see here) who subsequently published tons of confidential information: addresses, dates of birth, e-mail addresses, ethnicities, genders, names, passwords, payment histories, phone numbers, security questions, sexual preferences, usernames and website activity.   Initially, these attackers blackmailed Ashley Madison and requested that the service be shut down. Later, however, they just made their stolen data public on the Internet. More than 30 million unique e-mail addresses – a hallelujah for miscreants. What can they do with this data? One possibility is blackmailing the people whose e-mail addresses were exposed by threatening to tell their spouses (“Pay me X bitcoins or I will tell your spouse that you are looking for a date!”). Another is targeting those people who have registered with their company e-...

  9. Tough by name, tough by nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Few beds, one would imagine, could withstand three-quarters of a ton landing on them, but this was the challenge successfully met by a box bed from a furniture manufacturer for challenging behaviour environments, Tough Furniture, when, to reassure a customer that the bed could accommodate 30-stone patients, 13 of the company's staff jumped repeatedly on it to ensure that it would survive intact in a real-world setting. Such testing may seem extreme, but is vital, since much of the company's furniture is destined for environments where patients will abuse, and indeed attempt to destroy, components. As MD David Vesty explained to HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, when he visited the company's Shropshire headquarters, it is through manufacturing premium quality cabinet furniture that is both attractive and distinctly non-institutional, but will equally withstand the harshest use, that the company has ensured that its products can live up to the brand name.

  10. A changed name with an evolving function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z

    1995-12-01

    Changes in family planning, which took place in 1994, are described for the Mianzhu County Family Planning Committee and other townships in Sichuan Province. The Committee changed its name to Population Committee. The administrative structure changed at the town and township level. The Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party assigned the former Director of the township Family Planning Office to serve as Director of the General Office of township Population Committee. This administrative change did not take place in the county office. Reforms at the county level were expected to be more gradual, since there was no other model elsewhere in China to follow. The name change reflected a change in function and not a decline in family planning. The function will include implementation, management, and coordination instead of just fertility control. The Committee joined with the Women's Federation in offering premarital education to young people and in establishing a kindergarten for 3-5 year old children. In Qifu there were 18 township businesses, which hired surplus labor. In Qifu preferential treatment in hiring was given to single-child and two-daughter families. Wage labor has resulted in higher income and less time in the fields. The average Qifu township income in 1994 was 1250 yuan. 3200 of the 6100 single-child households were given elderly insurance by the Population Committee. In Dongbei town 4173 households had single children (56.4% of total households). In 1994 average household yearly income was 1400 yuan. 3350 households (80.2% of total single-child households) had an average yearly income of 1500-3000 yuan. 307 households (7.5%) had a yearly income of 3000-5000 yuan. 100 households (2.5%) had income greater than 5000 yuan.

  11. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  12. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  13. Brand Reputation and the Cost of Capital: Evidence of Adopting a Brand Name as the Corporate Name

    OpenAIRE

    YiLin Wu

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies how the capital market perceives brand name adoption. I distinguish between brand adoption and radical type of corporate name change. A brand adoption name change occurs when the firm adopts one of its well-established brands as its new corporate name and a radical type occurs when the new name is semantically unrelated to firm history. Improved profitability and increased net investment accompany brand name adoption. After controlling for changes in the competing informati...

  14. What's in a name? Group fitness class names and women's reasons for exercising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Theresa C; Miller, Bridget M; Adams, Bailey M

    2017-01-01

    The benefits of intrinsic exercise motivation are well recognized, yet extrinsically focused group-fitness class names/descriptions dominate the fitness industry. To explore the impact of how fitness classes are marketed, women (N = 389) were asked to indicate their preference for either intrinsically or extrinsically focused fitness classes based on title/description. Participants who favored intrinsic class names/descriptions were more likely to report greater interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and greater effort and report exercising for health/fitness-related reasons. Those favoring extrinsic class names/descriptions were more likely to experience tension/pressure when exercising and report exercising for appearance/weight-related reasons. The results demonstrate the importance of wording when marketing fitness classes.

  15. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  16. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  17. Advances in alternative cementitious binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juenger, M.C.G.; Winnefeld, F.; Provis, J.L.; Ideker, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the development, characterization, and implementation of alternatives to Portland cement as a binder in concrete. The construction materials industry is under increasing pressure to reduce the energy used in production of Portland cement clinker and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Further, Portland cement is not the ideal binder for all construction applications, as it suffers from durability problems in particularly aggressive environments. Several alternative binders have been available for almost as long as Portland cement, yet have not been extensively used, and new ones are being developed. In this paper, four promising binders available as alternatives to Portland cement are discussed, namely calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfoaluminate cement, alkali-activated binders, and supersulfated cements. The history of the binders, their compositions and reaction mechanisms, benefits and drawbacks, unanswered questions, and primary challenges are described.

  18. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  19. Alternatives to nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article discusses several possibilities as alternatives to nuclear energy and their relevance to the Philippine case. The major present and future fuel alternatives to petroleum and nuclear energy are coal, geothermal heat, solar energy and hydrogen, the first two of which are being used. Different conversion technologies are also discussed for large scale electricity production namely solar thermal electric conversion (STC), photovoltaic electric power system (PEPS) and ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC). Major environmental considerations affect the choice of energy sources and technologies. We have the problem of long term accumulation of radioactive waste in the case of nuclear energy; in geothermal and fossil-fuels carbon dioxide uranium and accumulation may cause disastrous consequences. With regard to Philippine option, the greatest considerations in selecting alternative energy options would be resources availability - both energy and financial and technology status. For the country's energy plan, coal and geothermal energy are expected to play a significant role. The country's coal resources are 1.4 billion metric tons. For geothermal energy, 25 volcanic centers were identified and has a potential equivalent to 2.5 x 10 6 million barrels of oil. Solar energy if harnessed, being in the sunbelt, averaging some 2000 hours a year could be an energy source. The present dilemma of the policy maker is whether national resources are better spent on large scale urban-based energy projects or whether those should be focused on small scale, rural oriented installations which produced benefits to the more numerous and poorer members of the population. (RTD)

  20. Is visual attention automatically attracted to one's own name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, C; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Houmann, K J

    1997-01-01

    Subjects were presented with briefly exposed visual displays of words that were common first names with a length of four to six letters. In the main experiment, each display consisted of four words: two names shown in red and two shown in white. The subject's task was to report the red names (tar......, visual attention was not automatically attracted by the subject's own name....

  1. An Exploratory Study Of The Meaning And Perception Of Names ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, personal names particularly indigenous names are not arbitrarily given, they bear significant connotative meanings, reflecting the circumstance surrounding the birth of the bearer and the belief and philosophy of the name giver. The significance placed on names gives it immense psychological undertones.

  2. 37 CFR 10.35 - Firm names and letterheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Firm names and letterheads... Office Code of Professional Responsibility § 10.35 Firm names and letterheads. (a) A practitioner shall not use a firm name, letterhead, or other professional designation that violates § 10.31. A trade name...

  3. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,” the...

  4. 27 CFR 1.40 - Change of name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of name. 1.40... Amendment and Duration of Basic Permits § 1.40 Change of name. In the event of any change in the name (trade or corporate name) of a permittee, or, in the event a permittee desires to engage in operations under...

  5. 27 CFR 40.511 - Change in name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corporate name. When there is a change in the corporate name of a manufacturer of processed tobacco, the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in name. 40.511... PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Processed Tobacco Changes After Qualification § 40.511 Change in name. (a...

  6. 27 CFR 41.222 - Change in corporate name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in corporate name... Change in corporate name. Where there is a change in the corporate name of an importer of tobacco... corporate name has been changed. [T.D. ATF-422, 64 FR 71953, Dec. 22, 1999. Redesignated and amended by T.D...

  7. The proper name as starting point for basic reading skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both-De Vries, Anna C.; Bus, Adriana G

    Does alphabetic-phonetic writing start with the proper name and how does the name affect reading and writing skills? Sixty 4- to 5(1/2)-year-old children from middle SES families with Dutch as their first language wrote their proper name and named letters. For each child we created unique sets of

  8. Parents' Perspectives on Adopting English Names in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiu-Yen; Ke, I-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the adoption of English names in Taiwan through questionnaires and interviews with parents of junior high school students. In total, 564 parents filled out a questionnaire regarding their adoption of an English name, reasons for needing an English name, and their perspectives about their child's English name. We interviewed…

  9. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability....

  10. Name changes in medically important fungi and their implications for clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, G Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W; Dyer, Paul S; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Geiser, David; Gräser, Yvonne; Guarro, Josep; Haase, Gerhard; Kwon-Chung, Kyung-Joo; Meis, Jacques F; Meyer, Wieland; Pitt, John I; Samson, Robert A; Taylor, John W; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Vitale, Roxana G; Walsh, Thomas J; Lackner, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important moulds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability.

  11. Maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy regulates hydrogen sulfide-generating pathway and renal transcriptome to prevent prenatal NG-Nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Chien-Te; Chan, Julie Y H; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time for fetal programming of hypertension. Nitric oxide deficiency during pregnancy causes hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy can prevent N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced fetal programming of hypertension in adult offspring. Next, we aimed to identify potential gatekeeper pathways that contribute to N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester -induced programmed hypertension using the next generation RNA sequencing technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 4 groups: control, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester +melatonin, and N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester+N-acetylcysteine. Pregnant rats received N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester administration at 60 mg/kg/d subcutaneously during pregnancy alone, with additional 0.01% melatonin in drinking water, or with additional 1% N-acetylcysteine in drinking water during the entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (n=8/group) were killed at 12 weeks of age. N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester exposure during pregnancy induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which was prevented by maternal melatonin or N-acetylcysteine therapy. Protective effects of melatonin and N-acetylcysteine against N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension were associated with an increase in hydrogen sulfide-generating enzymes and hydrogen sulfide synthesis in the kidneys. Nitric oxide inhibition by N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester in pregnancy caused >2000 renal transcripts to be modified during nephrogenesis stage in 1-day-old offspring kidney. Among them, genes belong to the renin-angiotensin system, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways were potentially involved in the N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced programmed hypertension. However, melatonin and N-acetylcysteine reprogrammed the renin-angiotensin system and arachidonic acid pathway

  12. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Boi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1. Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2, and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  13. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaz, G.; Le Troter, A.; Sequeira, J.; Boi, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1). Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2), and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  14. SMC 1 or What's in a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickel, H. R.

    What's in a name? everything! SMC 1 is a planetary nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud! This new planetary nebula near the LMC was noted by Savage, Murdin and Clark (in The Observatory 1982); it is also known as SMP LMC 104A (Sanduleak, MacConnell, and Philip in PASP 1978). In an effort to promote clear and unambiguous identification of all astronomical objects outside the solar system, the IAU Task Group on Designations attempts to clarify existing astronomical designations and the TG reviews, updates, and advertises the IAU Recommendations for Nomenclature. The following documents on the Web are provided as a service to astronomers to help them with designating astronomical sources of radiation outside the solar system: How to refer to a source or designate a new one: instructions IAU Recommendations for Nomenclature: nomenclature Second Reference Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects: dictionary **NEW** (pre-)Registry of New Acronyms: acronym registry The Task Group in collaboration with several editors of astronomical journals and managers of large data archives is now studying the feasibility of an automated system to detect nonconforming designations when an article and/or survey data are submitted for publication and/or to an electronic archive. H. Dickel is available during the Symposium to discuss your designation concerns and to offer possible solutions.

  15. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  16. BDNLS - BESSY device name location service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, D.; Laux, P.; Mueller, R.

    2012-01-01

    Initially the relational database (RDB) for control system configuration at BESSY has been built around the device concept. Maintenance and consistency issues as well as complexity of scripts generating the configuration data, triggered the development of a novel, generic RDB structure based on hierarchies of named nodes with attribute/ value pairs. Unfortunately, it turned out that usability of this generic RDB structure for a comprehensive configuration management relies on sophisticated data maintenance tools. On this background BDNLS, a new database management tool, is currently under development using the framework of the Eclipse Rich Client Platform. It uses the Model View Controller (MVC) layer of JFace to cleanly separate retrieval processes, data path, data visualization and actualization. It is based on extensible configurations defined in XML allowing to chain SQL calls and compose profiles for various cases. It solves the problem of data key forwarding to the subsequent SQL statement. BDNLS has the potential to map various levels of complexity into the XML configurations. This provides usable, tailored database access to configuration maintainers for different underlying database structures. Based on Eclipse, the integration of BDNLS into Control System Studio is straight forward. (authors)

  17. 75 FR 56015 - Vessel Inspection Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 8 Vessel Inspection Alternatives CFR... Certificate; (ii) International Tonnage Certificate; (iii) Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate; (iv) Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate; and (v) International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate; and...

  18. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  19. Method and System for Name Resolution Across Heterogeneous Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Spencer (Inventor); Mahadevan, Priya (Inventor); Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Jose J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    One embodiment of the present invention provides a system for resolving a name request in a network comprising a plurality of groups that use different name-resolution schemes. During operation, the system receives, at a first group, the name request; identifies a parent group of the first group, which is a member of the parent group; and in response to failing to resolve the name request within the first group, forwards the name request to the identified parent group.

  20. 27 CFR 46.126 - Change in name or address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in name or address... (occupational) Tax Stamps § 46.126 Change in name or address. (a) Change in name. If there is a change in the corporate or firm name, or in the trade name, as shown on TTB Form 5630.5t, the taxpayer must file an...

  1. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  2. Temporal Features of the Differentiation between Self-Name and Religious Leader Name among Christians: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixue Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing neuroimaging studies have shown that religion, as a subjective culture, can influence self-referential processing. However, the time course of this impact remains unclear. The present study examined how Christians process their own names, the name of their religious leader (i.e., Jesus, and a famous person’s name (i.e., Yao Ming. Behavioral and EEG data were recorded while the participants performed a name-color judgment task for these three names. The behavioral data showed no significant differences in reaction time or accuracy among the names. However, the ERP data showed that the P200 and P300 amplitudes elicited by the self-name and religious leader name were larger than those elicited by the famous name. Furthermore, the self-name also elicited a larger P300 amplitude than the religious leader name did. These results suggested that both the self-name and the religious leader name were processed preferentially due to their important social value for the self as compared to a generally famous name. Importantly, the dissociation between the self-name and the religious leader name was observed at a high-order cognitive stage, which might be attributed to their different roles in one’s self-concept.

  3. 'Personalized medicine': what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorska-Bocci, Anna; Stewart, Alison; Sagoo, Gurdeep S; Hall, Alison; Kroese, Mark; Burton, Hilary

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade genomics and other molecular biosciences have enabled new capabilities that, according to many, have the potential to revolutionize medicine and healthcare. These developments have been associated with a range of terminologies, including 'precision', 'personalized', 'individualized' and 'stratified' medicine. In this article, based on a literature review, we examine how the terms have arisen and their various meanings and definitions. We discuss the impact of the new technologies on disease classification, prevention and management. We suggest that although genomics and molecular biosciences will undoubtedly greatly enhance the power of medicine, they will not lead to a conceptually new paradigm of medical care. What is new is the portfolio of modern tools that medicine and healthcare can use for better targeted approaches to health and disease management, and the sociopolitical contexts within which these tools are applied.

  4. Lexical selection in the semantically blocked cyclic naming task: The role of cognitive control and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Crowther

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of semantic interference in language production have provided evidence for a role of cognitive control mechanisms in regulating the activation of semantic competitors during naming. The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in cognitive control abilities, for both younger and older adults, and the degree of semantic interference in a blocked cyclic naming task. We predicted that individuals with lower working memory capacity (as measured by word span, lesser ability to inhibit distracting responses (as measured by Stroop interference, and a lesser ability to resolve proactive interference (as measured by a recent negatives task would show a greater increase in semantic interference in naming, with effects being larger for older adults. Instead, measures of cognitive control were found to relate to specific indices of semantic interference in the naming task, rather than overall degree of semantic interference, and few interactions with age were found, with younger and older adults performing similarly. The increase in naming latencies across naming trials within a cycle were negatively correlated with word span for both related and unrelated conditions, suggesting a strategy of narrowing response alternatives based upon memory for the set of item names. Evidence for a role of inhibition in response selection was obtained, as Stroop interference correlated positively with the change in naming latencies across cycles for the related, but not unrelated, condition. In contrast, recent negatives interference correlated negatively with the change in naming latencies across unrelated cycles, suggesting that individual differences in this tap the degree of strengthening of links in a lexical network based upon prior exposure. Results are discussed in terms of current models of lexical selection and consequences for word retrieval in more naturalistic production.

  5. The National Geographic Names Data Base: Phase II instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.; Payne, Roger L.

    1987-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System is a computer-based information system developed to meet major national needs by providing information for named entities in the United States, its territories, and outlying areas. The National Geographic Names Data Base, a component of the Geographic Names Information System, currently contains most names and associated information recorded on the 1:24,000-scale (or largest scale available) topographic maps of the U.S. Geological Survey. The work involved in this initial compilation of names shown on the topographic-map series, and the development and editing of the National Geographic Names Data Base, is referred to as Phase I. Optimal use and effectiveness of an automated names system require that the names of features

  6. Fast, Inclusive Searches for Geographic Names Using Digraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2008-01-01

    An algorithm specifies how to quickly identify names that approximately match any specified name when searching a list or database of geographic names. Based on comparisons of the digraphs (ordered letter pairs) contained in geographic names, this algorithmic technique identifies approximately matching names by applying an artificial but useful measure of name similarity. A digraph index enables computer name searches that are carried out using this technique to be fast enough for deployment in a Web application. This technique, which is a member of the class of n-gram algorithms, is related to, but distinct from, the soundex, PHONIX, and metaphone phonetic algorithms. Despite this technique's tendency to return some counterintuitive approximate matches, it is an effective aid for fast, inclusive searches for geographic names when the exact name sought, or its correct spelling, is unknown.

  7. Age of acquisition and word frequency in written picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M; Chalard, M

    2001-05-01

    This study investigates age of acquisition (AoA) and word frequency effects in both spoken and written picture naming. In the first two experiments, reliable AoA effects on object naming speed, with objective word frequency controlled for, were found in both spoken (Experiment 1) and written picture naming (Experiment 2). In contrast, no reliable objective word frequency effects were observed on naming speed, with AoA controlled for, in either spoken (Experiment 3) or written (Experiment 4) picture naming. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are briefly discussed.

  8. Should general practitioners call patients by their first names?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, B

    1990-10-06

    To assess the acceptability to patients of the use of patients' first names by doctors and doctors' first names by patients in general practice. An administered questionnaire survey. 5 General practices in Lothian. 475 Patients consulting 30 general practitioners. Response by patients to questionnaire on attitude to use of first names. Most of the patients either liked (223) or did not mind (175) being called by their first names. Only 77 disliked it, most of whom were aged over 65. Most patients (324) did not, however, want to call the doctor by his or her first name. General practitioners should consider using patients' first names more often, particularly with younger patients.

  9. What Does the Name “Pegida” stand for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Kirn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The text analyzes the emergence of the extreme right-wing movement Pegida in Germany; on the one hand, the author takes a look at Pegida through the strategy of culturalisation, i.e., the displacement of class antagonism that predominantly takes form in Islamophobia and hatred of immigrants, while simoultaneously obfuscating the long-term effects of a class compromise after 2002 with which the German context saw the introduction of gradual regime of neoliberal austerity. The analysis of neoliberal regime can be useful also to understand the relative “success” of the German economy in the current crisis. It is argued that Pegida is not simply an abberation from the official politics, and it is not simply a name that stands for unreflected and “concerned citizens” as the dominant politicians and media defined them. Rather, Pegida should be understood as a symptom of the austerity regime that intesified exploitation of working classes and deepened social inequalities across Germany; also, Pegida is a right-wing political response to a higher economic insecurity within the EU crisis, and that at least to some degree took shape in the new political party AfD (Alternative for Germany.

  10. A review of issues of nomenclature and taxonomy of Hypericum perforatum L. and Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, Elizabeth Anne; Irving, Jason Thomas Whitley; Allkin, Robert

    2017-10-16

    To review which names are used to refer to Hypericum perforatum L. in health regulation and medicinal plant references, and the potential for ambiguity or imprecision. Structured searches of Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services Resource, supplemented with other online bibliographic resources, found that the scientific name Hypericum perforatum L. is used consistently in the literature, but variation between subspecies is rarely considered by researchers. Research is still published using only the common name 'St John's wort' despite it being imprecise; at least 80 other common names are also used for this plant in multiple languages. Ambiguous and alternative plant names can lead to ineffective regulation, misinterpretation of literature, substitution of raw material or the failure to locate all published research. Kew's Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) maps all names used for each plant in medicinal plant references onto current taxonomy, thereby providing for disambiguation and comprehensive access to the regulations and references that cite that plant, regardless of the name used. MPNS also supplies the controlled vocabulary for plant names now required for compliance with a new standard (Identification of Medicinal Products, IDMP) adopted by medicines regulators worldwide. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Alternative Fuel Guidelines for Alternative Transportation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    The Volpe Center documented the increased use of alternative fuels on vehicles owned and operated by federal land management agencies. For each alternative fuel type, the Volpe Center documented the availability of vehicles, fueling mechanisms and pr...

  12. Philip Morris changes its name, but not its harmful practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M L

    2002-09-01

    After spending more than $250 million on an advertising campaign to improve its name and reputation, Philip Morris has abruptly shifted course and decided instead to change its corporate name-to The Altria Group, Inc.

  13. A Semantic and Pragmatic Analyses of Igbo Names

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: personal names, Igbo, semantic content, pragmatic content, structure. Background to the Study ... Igbo name is a story, a book or a dictionary itself. ..... the meaning (literal meaning) of some of the data structurally presented above.

  14. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    OpenAIRE

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with superimposed semantically related or unrelated distractor words, semantic interference in naming tends to be constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the tone stimulus and the pic...

  15. 27 CFR 41.221 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 41.221 Section 41.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance of, a trade name used...

  16. 27 CFR 44.102 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 44.102 Section 44.102 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.102 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an...

  17. 27 CFR 478.53 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 478....53 Change in trade name. A licensee continuing to conduct business at the location shown on his license is not required to obtain a new license by reason of a mere change in trade name under which he...

  18. 27 CFR 40.92 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 40.92 Section 40.92 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Changes in Name § 40.92 Change in trade name. Where there is a change in, or an addition or discontinuance...

  19. 27 CFR 555.56 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 555... trade name. A licensee or permittee continuing to conduct business or operations at the location shown... in trade name under which he conducts his business or operations. However, the licensee or permittee...

  20. Referential processing: reciprocity and correlates of naming and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A; Clark, J M; Digdon, N; Bons, T

    1989-03-01

    To shed light on the referential processes that underlie mental translation between representations of objects and words, we studied the reciprocity and determinants of naming and imaging reaction times (RT). Ninety-six subjects pressed a key when they had covertly named 248 pictures or imaged to their names. Mean naming and imagery RTs for each item were correlated with one another, and with properties of names, images, and their interconnections suggested by prior research and dual coding theory. Imagery RTs correlated .56 (df = 246) with manual naming RTs and .58 with voicekey naming RTs from prior studies. A factor analysis of the RTs and of 31 item characteristics revealed 7 dimensions. Imagery and naming RTs loaded on a common referential factor that included variables related to both directions of processing (e.g., missing names and missing images). Naming RTs also loaded on a nonverbal-to-verbal factor that included such variables as number of different names, whereas imagery RTs loaded on a verbal-to-nonverbal factor that included such variables as rated consistency of imagery. The other factors were verbal familiarity, verbal complexity, nonverbal familiarity, and nonverbal complexity. The findings confirm the reciprocity of imaging and naming, and their relation to constructs associated with distinct phases of referential processing.

  1. Sociolinguistic import of name-clipping among Omambala cultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the perceived but obvious manifestation of name-clipping among Omambala cultural zone of Anambra State. This situation has given rise to distortion of names and most often, to either mis-interpretation or complete loss of the original and full meanings of the names. This situation of misinterpretation is ...

  2. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV 1996...

  3. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by make...

  4. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type of...

  5. 77 FR 189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... 2006-0020, Sequence 26] RIN 9000-AK55 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications... Management and Budget memoranda on brand-name specifications. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR... brand- name specifications. Eight respondents submitted 32 comments in response to the interim rule. The...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of products...

  7. 27 CFR 19.922 - Change in name of proprietor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Changes Affecting Applications and Permits § 19.922 Change in name of proprietor. Where there is to be a change in the individual, firm, or corporate name, the proprietor shall, within 30 days of the change... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in name of...

  8. 27 CFR 18.32 - Change in name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Original Establishment § 18.32 Change in name. The proprietor shall submit an amended application to cover any change in the individual, firm, or corporate name. (Approved by the Office of Management and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in name. 18.32...

  9. 27 CFR 19.182 - Change in name of proprietor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Plants Changes After Original Qualification § 19.182 Change in name of proprietor. Where there is to be a change in the individual, firm, or corporate name, the proprietor shall file application to amend the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in name of...

  10. 27 CFR 40.395 - Change in name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 40.395 Change in name. Where there is a change in the individual, trade, or corporate name of a manufacturer of cigarette papers and tubes, the manufacturer shall, within 30 days of the change, furnish the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in name. 40.395...

  11. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  12. Acts of naming: The detective plot in Masondo's fiction | Mhlambi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Masondo's acts of naming as a literary device are peculiar and unconventional. Similar names for characters migrate across all his detective narratives, representing varying personalities, psychologies and emotional states. He achieves this by using familiar names, not to create stereotypes and archetypes, but to ...

  13. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with

  14. Design of Brand Names of Medicines Considering Subjects' Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla Maria Batista Ferreira; Cavaco, Afonso

    2018-03-01

    Only recently, regulations on the names of medicines were developed. Regulations are mainly focused on avoiding the approval of medicine names that may be confusing to others. Furthermore, legal requirements do not include testing for human factors, such as potential users' preferences. To develop a set of new brand names of medicines, to determine subjects' preferred names, and to evaluate if the linguistic features of these names were related to subjects' preferences. Forty-six new names linguistically equivalent to the Portuguese brand names of medicines were developed. A panel of 13 postgraduates on linguistic studies were purposively enrolled. Participants were required to select and categorize the 6 most preferred names. From the 29 selected names: 62.1% ended in consonants, 65.5% contained at least one syllable of the CVC type, and 62.1% presented final stress. Considering these 3 linguistic features, there were statistically significant differences between the preferred and underpreferred names: χ 2 = 4.572, P = .032; χ 2 = 5.599, P = .018; and χ 2 = 4.572; P = .032, respectively. Some linguistic features of the evaluated names were related to subjects' preferences. Tests on subjects' preferences about the names of medicines may provide additional safety features addressed by the present regulations.

  15. How Does Using Object Names Influence Visual Recognition Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Two recent lines of research suggest that explicitly naming objects at study influences subsequent memory for those objects at test. Lupyan (2008) suggested that naming "impairs" memory by a representational shift of stored representations of named objects toward the prototype (labeling effect). MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko (2010)…

  16. 27 CFR 4.35 - Name and address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... named winery: (A) Fermented not less than 75% of such wine at the stated address, or (B) Changed the.... (iv) Blended means that the named winery mixed the wine with other wines of the same class and type at the stated address. (v) Cellared, Vinted or Prepared means that the named winery, at the stated...

  17. Inventing and naming America:  Place and Place Names in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Manolescu-Oancea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the afterword to Lolita, Nabokov claimed that in this book he had to invent both Lolita and America after having invented Europe in his previous fiction. This paper focuses precisely on the various ways in which Nabokov “invented” America in his best-known novel. This invention is first of all the result of the author’s evolving stance on the complexity of what he called “average ‘reality’” in his works. Through a survey of Nabokov’s statements on the choice and role of place in the forewords to his Russian works and in his critical texts, I show that Lolita is indeed considered by Nabokov to be a “recreation” of American reality, to a much greater extent than his Russian works had been recreations of a given milieu. I take the metaphor of the “crazy quilt” mentioned in Lolita to suggest complexity, chromatic exuberance, hybridity. The invention of America is also the result of a process of naming. Place names will be examined, not only those which make up Quilty’s “cryptogrammic paperchase”, but also Humbert’s choice of place names. The problem of referentiality is discussed and the way recent criticism has dealt with it. Finally, the interplay between one and many is emphasized, the way in which the diversity of the “crazy quilt” is counterbalanced by the uniqueness of the mastermind having produced it. The American motto “From many make one” could be reinterpreted as “From one make many”.

  18. Indexing concepts and/or named entities Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partire da un punto di vista semantico più che morfologico, l'articolo è focalizzato il problema del significato dei nomi propri, con contributi della filosofia del linguaggio e della linguistica semantica. Sono indagate le entità individuali: il loro isolamento all’interno della rete di soggetti e la relazione esemplificativa, il trattamento nelle classificazioni. Le profonde diversità rilevate fra concetti e entità denominate suggeriscono di dichiararle esplicitamente da un punto di vista teorico e di adottare dispositivi che diano risultati unitari ma chiaramente distinguibili nei sistemi di recupero dell’informazione.  
    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

    Starting from a semantic rather than form a morphological point of view, the essay examines the problem of the meaning of proper names, with contributions coming from the philosophy of language and the semantic linguistics. Individual entities are explored: the way they are isolated in the thread of subjects, the illustrative relation, and the classification treatment. The deep differences between concepts and called entities suggest to declare them specifically in a theoretical way, and to adopt devices that lead to uniform but noticeable results in information retrieval systems.
    This article has been discussed as "Indexing concepts and/or named entities" to the 11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Rome, 23-26 February 2010, here extended since it is not published in the conference proceedings.

  19. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  20. A Man with No Name, or Too Many Names if You Think About it

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Danvir

    2014-01-01

    Danvir. Jimmy. Danny V. Danny V & the Bumblebees. Danny Valentine. Double D. Deezus. D Weezy. DJ Takeover. Or ahh forget it. From lowly beginnings as a Window cleaner in Tin Pan Alley-era New York City singing "hello hello Tokio" to an "inn-keeper" in the countryside waxing rhapsodically about his famous battles while those around him push his buttons, this man with numerous names has had the opportunity to experience multiple worlds and the challenges that each of these bring up for the acto...

  1. Name Stanislaus (Stanisław in Slavic Onomastic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Sowa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available St. Stanislaus, bishop and martyr, is one of the few saints of the Church bearing a traditional Slavic name. It belongs to an Indo-European Anthroponomastic system as a compound name whose components represent a pattern inherited from the period of the Indo-European community. This is a fortune-telling name (a nomen-omen given to a child on a wish of the parents, who wanted him to be famous (Polish ‘slawa’ means ‘fame’- Today, in our Christian culture, in choosing a name for the child we consider the following: 1 the child ‘brought’ his/her name (i.e. is given the name of the day’s patron; this is the gist of our ‘nameday’, 2 a family tradition, 3 respect for the grandfather or father (grandmother, mother, 4 fashion. Today’s anthroponomastic system in Slavic languages (except Bulgarian has grown cold leaving us unable to acquire precise understanding of the meaning of the name. Besides, nowadays names only denote, they do not mean anything. Compound Slavic names refer in their structure to names from other groups of the Indo-European community and are closely linked with a nation’s spiritual culture and appropriate ultimate and instrumental values. In Indo-European languages a different number of lexical components is used in names as their first or second part: in Old Indian - 865; in Old Persian and Median - 43; in Greek - 1015; in the Celtic group - 336; the German one - 1800 and in the Slavic group - 220. The most numerous in Old Polish anthroponomastics were names with the component slaw. As the first component - slaw appears in 4 names, and as the second, in 100. This component has appeared from times immemorial in Indian, Avestan, Greek and Illyrian names. Name Stanislaus is known in all Slavic countries, while its feminine form only in Polish, Bulgarian, Serb and Croatian. In Poland it has been in use since very old times up to now. Numerous surnames and names of places derive from it. The popularity of the name

  2. Effects of Nitric Oxide Production Inhibitor Named, NG-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, on Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arfaei

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objectives: Recently, the findings of some studies have shown that, nitric oxide (NO probably has an important role in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effects of nitric oxide production inhibitor named, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, on rat mesenchymal stem cells differentiation to osteoblasts in vitro. Materials & Methods: This was an experimental study conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009, in which rat bone marrow stem cells were isolated in an aseptic condition and cultured in vitro. After third passage, the cells were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium. To study the effects of L-NAME on osteogenic differentiation, the L-NAME was added to the culture medium at a concentration of 125, 250, and 500 μM in some culture plates. During the culture procedure, the media were replaced with fresh ones, with a three days interval. After 28 days of culturing the mineralized matrix was stained using Alizarian red staining method. The gathered data were analyzed by SPSS software version 12 using one way ANOVA. Results: The findings of this study showed that in the presence of L-NAME, differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts was disordered and matrix mineralization significantly decreased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: This study revealed that, inhibition of nitric oxide production using L-NAME can prevent the differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblast. The results imply that NO is an important constituent in differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell to osteoblasts.

  3. Naming as Strategic Communication: Understanding Corporate Name Change through an Integrative Framework Encompassing Branding, Identity and Institutional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change...

  4. Robust hybrid name disambiguation framework for large databases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2013-10-26

    In many databases, science bibliography database for example, name attribute is the most commonly chosen identifier to identify entities. However, names are often ambiguous and not always unique which cause problems in many fields. Name disambiguation is a non-trivial task in data management that aims to properly distinguish different entities which share the same name, particularly for large databases like digital libraries, as only limited information can be used to identify authors\\' name. In digital libraries, ambiguous author names occur due to the existence of multiple authors with the same name or different name variations for the same person. Also known as name disambiguation, most of the previous works to solve this issue often employ hierarchical clustering approaches based on information inside the citation records, e.g. co-authors and publication titles. In this paper, we focus on proposing a robust hybrid name disambiguation framework that is not only applicable for digital libraries but also can be easily extended to other application based on different data sources. We propose a web pages genre identification component to identify the genre of a web page, e.g. whether the page is a personal homepage. In addition, we propose a re-clustering model based on multidimensional scaling that can further improve the performance of name disambiguation. We evaluated our approach on known corpora, and the favorable experiment results indicated that our proposed framework is feasible. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  5. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  6. Robust hybrid name disambiguation framework for large databases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia; Yang, Yi; Xie, Qing; Wang, Liwei; Hassan, Saeed-Ul

    2013-01-01

    In many databases, science bibliography database for example, name attribute is the most commonly chosen identifier to identify entities. However, names are often ambiguous and not always unique which cause problems in many fields. Name disambiguation is a non-trivial task in data management that aims to properly distinguish different entities which share the same name, particularly for large databases like digital libraries, as only limited information can be used to identify authors' name. In digital libraries, ambiguous author names occur due to the existence of multiple authors with the same name or different name variations for the same person. Also known as name disambiguation, most of the previous works to solve this issue often employ hierarchical clustering approaches based on information inside the citation records, e.g. co-authors and publication titles. In this paper, we focus on proposing a robust hybrid name disambiguation framework that is not only applicable for digital libraries but also can be easily extended to other application based on different data sources. We propose a web pages genre identification component to identify the genre of a web page, e.g. whether the page is a personal homepage. In addition, we propose a re-clustering model based on multidimensional scaling that can further improve the performance of name disambiguation. We evaluated our approach on known corpora, and the favorable experiment results indicated that our proposed framework is feasible. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  7. Improving compliance with hormonal replacement therapy in primary osteoporosis prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P; Gram, J

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule.......To evaluate whether introduction of treatment alternatives would improve compliance with hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) as primary osteoporosis prevention in women not tolerating the first line osteoporosis prevention schedule....

  8. Testing protects against proactive interference in face-name learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; McDermott, Kathleen B; Szpunar, Karl K

    2011-06-01

    Learning face-name pairings at a social function becomes increasingly more difficult the more individuals one meets. This phenomenon is attributable to proactive interference--the negative influence of prior learning on subsequent learning. Recent evidence suggests that taking a memory test can alleviate proactive interference in verbal list learning paradigms. We apply this technique to face-name pair learning. Participants studied four lists of 12 face-name pairings and either attempted to name the 12 faces just studied after every list or did not. Recall attempts after every list improved learning of the fourth list by over 100%. Moreover, no reduction in learning of face-name pairings occurred from list 1 to list 4 for participants who attempted to name studied faces between lists. These results suggest that testing oneself on the names of a group of new acquaintances before moving on to the next group is an effective mnemonic technique for social functions.

  9. Effects of navigated TMS on object and action naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Hernandez-Pavon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to induce speech disturbances and to affect speech performance during different naming tasks. Lately, repetitive navigated TMS (nTMS has been used for non-invasive mapping of cortical speech-related areas. Different naming tasks may give different information that can be useful for presurgical evaluation. We studied the sensitivity of object and action naming tasks to nTMS and compared the distributions of cortical sites where nTMS produced naming errors. Eight healthy subjects named pictures of objects and actions during repetitive nTMS delivered to semi-random left-hemispheric sites. Subject-validated image stacks were obtained in the baseline naming of all pictures before nTMS. Thereafter, nTMS pulse trains were delivered while the subjects were naming the images of objects or actions. The sessions were video-recorded for offline analysis. Naming during nTMS was compared with the baseline performance. The nTMS-induced naming errors were categorized by error type and location. nTMS produced no-response errors, phonological paraphasias, and semantic paraphasias. In seven out of eight subjects, nTMS produced more errors during object than action naming. Both intrasubject and intersubject analysis showed that object naming was significantly more sensitive to nTMS. When the number of errors was compared according to a given area, nTMS to postcentral gyrus induced more errors during object than action naming. Object naming is apparently more easily disrupted by TMS than action naming. Different stimulus types can be useful for locating different aspects of speech functions. This provides new possibilities in both basic and clinical research of cortical speech representations.

  10. Continuing our organizational mission: A new name for a new time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Deborah Klein; Kilmer, Ryan P; Armstrong, Mary I

    2017-01-01

    This editorial explains the need for a new name for the American Orthopsychiatric Association (ORTHO). As ORTHO continues their work into the 21st century, they want to better reflect their global membership and focus, increasing the number of partnerships with individuals and organizations, and commitment to a just society. Therefore, ORTHO is changing their name to the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice. It is crucial to underscore that, although the organizations name is changing, the values and principles that inform their work will remain the same. The mission statement of the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice is "to inform policy, practice, and research to prevent behavioral health disorders and to promote conditions to ensure that people with disorders can be full participants in society." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Naming and Shaming in Financial Market Regulations: A Violation of the Presumption of Innocence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette J.W. Pfaeltzer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Naming and shaming in the financial markets has become a well-known enforcement tool by national supervisors both within and outside the EU. The Netherlands is one of the Member States which permits the publication of offences and administrative sanctions including the name of the offender. However, such publication practice might raise some concerns in the light of certain fundamental human rights. For instance, does naming and shaming violate the presumption of innocence? This article tries to answer this question by evaluating the Dutch publication regime under the Financial Supervision Act. Are the legal safeguards as provided under this Act sufficiently adequate to prevent an infringement of the presumption of innocence?

  12. PENGATURAN PASSING OFF DALAM PENGGUNAAN DOMAIN NAME TERKAIT DENGAN MEREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Yunita Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cyber world we often hear about domain name’s term. Domain name is a unique name to identify the server computer’s name like a web server or email server on a computer network or Internet. Passing off also make causes confusion in using merk from a famous brand or merk on the goods and services. Selected domain name in the internet media often creates the similar domain name with the other parties. This similar domain name are often used by people who are not responsible to take advantages of the domain name for themself. This can be caused by the presence of competition from Internet media business. This things called passing off. This research is a normative juridical research with a qualitative analysis. The legal materials include primary legal, secondary law and tertiary legal materials. Collection technique applied is literary study. Legal materials were analyzed to see the argument implementation of the definition of merk, the definition of domain name, definition of passing off, passing off in use related by merk and domain name and the rules of law in Indonesia related by merk, domain name and passing off. Big wishes in the future it can assist as a basic reference and legal considerations which are useful in Indonesian law practice. There are two passing off related to the merk and domain name, called Crybersquatting and Tiposquatting. Domain name rules are not regulated clearly in merk regulation named Act No. 15 of 2001. It regulated in PP 24 Year 1993 about The Class List of Goods or Services In Merk, Telecommunications are included in the goods or services in merk. Domain name are regulated in UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy with competent institutions called ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Dalam dunia maya (cyber world, kita sering mendengar istilah domain name. Domain name adalah nama unik yang diberikan untuk mengidentifikasi nama server komputer seperti web server atau email server di

  13. The role of typography in differentiating look-alike/sound-alike drug names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Until recently, when errors occurred in the course of caring for patients, blame was assigned to the healthcare professionals closest to the incident rather than examining the larger system and the actions that led up to the event. Now, the medical profession is embracing expertise and methodologies used in other fields to improve its own systems in relation to patient safety issues. This exploratory study, part of a Master's of Design thesis project, was a response to the problem of errors that occur due to confusion between look-alike/sound-alike drug names (medication names that have orthographic and/or phonetic similarities). The study attempts to provide a visual means to help differentiate problematic names using formal typographic and graphic cues. The FDA's Name Differentiation Project recommendations and other typographic alternatives were considered to address issues of attention and cognition. Eleven acute care nurses participated in testing that consisted of word-recognition tasks and questions intended to elicit opinions regarding the visual treatment of look-alike/sound-alike names in the context of a label prototype. Though limited in sample size, testing provided insight into the kinds of typographic differentiation that might be effective in a high-risk situation.

  14. Odysseus «by any other/by no name» chez Polyphemos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoël L. Arbeitman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Thesis: It is an accepted fact that name-games in Heroic Age Hebrew and Greek texts (archaic loci embedded in the long-redacted Biblical and Homeric texts held veritable significance in the period when the respective actions occurred. When in Ex. 2: 22 Moses names his First Born Son «Gēršōm», «because I was a resident-alien in a Land-Not-Mine», the implicatum is gēr šām «resident alien there» and any reader, knowing Hebrew, would recognize this second level word-game, one very serious. On the other hand, the translations of the LXX, the Vulgata, and Targum Onqelos are superb in meaning (semantically, but make the name aetiogies in vain, for they don't concern themselves with struggling to bring them across, an essential part of translation. But we are not concerned with translations in such word-games, only with the Urtext. Nevertheless in the Urtext of Odysseia IX, the names which the protagonist gives his inhospitable host, are apparently unmotivated. The author proposes very strong double motivation for the one form, viz. Oútis, the alternate form Mḗtis being automatically generated grammatically. As opposed to the biblical exx., knowledge of languages beyond that of the Greek Urtext is required to understand the name-games involved.

  15. Semantic Web Compatible Names and Descriptions for Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Wilson, N.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Modern scientific names are critical for understanding the biological literature and provide a valuable way to understand evolutionary relationships. To validly publish a name, a description is required to separate the described group of organisms from those described by other names at the same level of the taxonomic hierarchy. The frequent revision of descriptions due to new evolutionary evidence has lead to situations where a single given scientific name may over time have multiple descriptions associated with it and a given published description may apply to multiple scientific names. Because of these many-to-many relationships between scientific names and descriptions, the usage of scientific names as a proxy for descriptions is inevitably ambiguous. Another issue lies in the fact that the precise application of scientific names often requires careful microscopic work, or increasingly, genetic sequencing, as scientific names are focused on the evolutionary relatedness between and within named groups such as species, genera, families, etc. This is problematic to many audiences, especially field biologists, who often do not have access to the instruments and tools required to make identifications on a microscopic or genetic basis. To better connect scientific names to descriptions and find a more convenient way to support computer assisted identification, we proposed the Semantic Vernacular System, a novel naming system that creates named, machine-interpretable descriptions for groups of organisms, and is compatible with the Semantic Web. Unlike the evolutionary relationship based scientific naming system, it emphasizes the observable features of organisms. By independently naming the descriptions composed of sets of observational features, as well as maintaining connections to scientific names, it preserves the observational data used to identify organisms. The system is designed to support a peer-review mechanism for creating new names, and uses a controlled

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Testing Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SEEP Alternative Medicine Acupuncture Herbal Supplements Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artifical Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical ...

  17. Current Trends in Name Giving among Bulgarians: A Study of the Names of Newborns in the Sofia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Vlahova-Angelova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article showcases a large-scale study of the modern Bulgarian anthroponymic system conducted by the Applied Onomastics section of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Institute for the Bulgarian Language (IBL with the aim of revealing the current trends in the choice of personal names by the Bulgarians at the beginning of the 21st century. The study focuses on personal names of Bulgarians born in 2010 in the Sofia region, as extracted from the Unified System of Civil Registration and Administrative Services of the Population of the Republic of Bulgaria. The total number of births this year was 1,005, of which 51.5% were boys, 48.5% were girls. Statistical and linguistic analysis of names allowed to measure the popularity of both individual personal names and different name types. It shows the quantitative ratio between most commonly chosen names and those of a singular use in relation to the total number of anthroponyms in the corpus, and proves that the male names are more sustainable in terms of usage than female. The derivational and etymological analysis of personal names helped to identify the productive word-formation types of names and the so-called “unisex names,” to distinguish between the native Bulgarian and the borrowed foreign names, as well as to classify graphic and phonetic variants of the same anthroponym. A number of quantitative comparisons were made between certain categories of names, for example, between compound (two-stem personal names (such as Miroslav and simple names (such as Biser, showing the ratio of the two-component personal names (such as Anna-Maria to the rest of the anthroponyms. It was found that the Bulgarian anthroponymic system in the beginning of the 21st century is more open to the non-adapted foreign names (like Mishel, Nancy, shows wider usage of diminutive “unisex names” (Moni, Stephy, Toni, as well as the growing popularity of shortened forms used as official names (Alex, Boni, Pepi, and the

  18. Improved vocabulary production after naming therapy in aphasia: can gains in picture naming generalize to connected speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others, the opposite pattern may be evident. These differences have, in some instances, been related to word class (for example, noun or verb) as well as aphasia subtype. Given that the aim of picture-naming therapies is to improve word-finding in general, these differences in naming accuracy across contexts may have important implications for the potential functional benefits of picture-naming therapies. This study aimed to explore single-word therapy for both nouns and verbs, and to answer the following questions. (1) To what extent does an increase in naming accuracy after picture-naming therapy (for both nouns and verbs) predict accurate naming of the same items in less constrained spontaneous connected speech tasks such as composite picture description and retelling of a narrative? (2) Does the word class targeted in therapy (verb or noun) dictate whether there is 'carry-over' of the therapy item to connected speech tasks? (3) Does the speed at which the picture is named after therapy predict whether it will also be used appropriately in connected speech tasks? Seven participants with aphasia of varying degrees of severity and subtype took part in ten therapy sessions over five weeks. A set of potentially useful items was collected from control participant accounts of the Cookie Theft Picture Description and the Cinderella Story from the Quantitative Production Analysis. Twenty-four of these words (twelve verbs and twelve nouns) were collated for each participant, on the basis that they had failed to name them in either simple picture naming or connected speech tasks (picture-supported narrative and unsupported retelling of a narrative

  19. Context-Dependent Semantic Priming in Number Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Reynvoet, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that time to name single-digit Arabic numbers is about 15 ms slower when naming trials are interleaved with simple multiplication (e.g., state product of 2 x 3) than when naming digits is interleaved with magnitude comparison (e.g., state larger; 2 [arrow up] 3). To explain this phenomenon, J. I. D. Campbell and A. W.…

  20. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a business...

  1. Formulation of EPICS record naming conventions in J-PARC linac and RCS. Build process of unique and standardized name

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuta, Shinpei; Kawase, Masato; Kikuzawa, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Kazuhiko; Sakaki, Hironao; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2011-02-01

    J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) accelerator devices are controlled by the use of the software called EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System). The unique name called an EPICS record is given to a control signal and data acquisition, Accelerator device control is achieved using the EPICS record. The requirement for the EPICS record name is 2 points; (1) no overlap of the EPICS record name, (2) the control contents can be easily imagined from the EPICS record name. To manage the EPICS record using relational database for the information management of the accelerator device in J-PARC, the naming structure is required so that a mechanical process can be performed easily. It was necessary to standardize the EPICS record name and the EPICS record structure to achieve these requirements. Therefore, we have formulated a guideline called 'EPICS record naming conventions' to decide to an EPICS record name uniquely and standardization. The abbreviated key word list of the accelerator devices and the control signal that compose the EPICS record name is appended to the EPICS record naming conventions. (author)

  2. Urbanonymic Design: On the Naming of City Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Golomidova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problems of naming and renaming of municipal facilities: streets, squares, parks, public gardens, etc. The author’s reflections rest upon her personal experience as a member of the Facilities Naming Committee of the city of Ekaterinburg. The article seeks to suggest a new approach to the solution of controversial issues of naming city facilities based on territory branding and city image design and promotion concepts. Place names are thus considered as an important informational and communicational resource of creation of a city’s image which means that the naming of concrete city facilities should rely on a holistic urbanonymic conception defining basic features of the city’s identity and ordering themes to be reflected in names. The author argues that the rational long-term urbanonymic policy implies the existence of a consistent image-making strategy. In this case the process of naming and its results could be characterized in terms of ‘urbanonymic design’ considering the naming of city facilities as a part of the construction of the city’s identity. The policy of official naming of city-owned assets must then meet the following requirements: proportionality, functionality, orientation capacity, semantic transparency, harmonicity, which constitute the most significant principles of construction of an urbanonymic system.

  3. The United States Board on Geographic Names: Standardization or regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    The United States Board on Geographic Names was created in 1890 to standardize the use of geographic names on federal maps and documents, and was established in its present form in 1947 by public law. The Board is responsible for geographic name usage and application throughout the federal government and its members must approve a name change or new name before it can be applied to federal maps and publications. To accomplish its mission, the Board has developed principles, policies, and procedures for use in the standardization process. The Board is also responsible legally for the promulgation of standardized names, whether or not these names have ever been controversial, and today this is accomplished by the universal availability of electronic databases for domestic and foreign names. This paper examines the development of Board policies and the implementation of these policies to achieve standardization with a view to relating these policies and activities to questions of standardization or regulation. ?? 2000 by The American Name Society.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how th......, a second, regular set of number names is introduced in primary school. The study’s findings suggest that the regularity of number names influences the development of number concepts and creates a positive impact on the understanding of the base-10 system....

  5. Inferring cultural regions from correlation networks of given baby names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, Mateusz; Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Kwapień, Jarosław; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We report investigations on the statistical characteristics of the baby names given between 1910 and 2010 in the United States of America. For each year, the 100 most frequent names in the USA are sorted out. For these names, the correlations between the names profiles are calculated for all pairs of states (minus Hawaii and Alaska). The correlations are used to form a weighted network which is found to vary mildly in time. In fact, the structure of communities in the network remains quite stable till about 1980. The goal is that the calculated structure approximately reproduces the usually accepted geopolitical regions: the Northeast, the South, and the "Midwest + West" as the third one. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that the name distribution satisfies the Zipf law, separately for each state and each year, i.e. the name frequency f ∝r-α, where r is the name rank. Between 1920 and 1980, the exponent α is the largest one for the set of states classified as 'the South', but the smallest one for the set of states classified as "Midwest + West". Our interpretation is that the pool of selected names was quite narrow in the Southern states. The data is compared with some related statistics of names in Belgium, a country also with different regions, but having quite a different scale than the USA. There, the Zipf exponent is low for young people and for the Brussels citizens.

  6. The determinants of spoken and written picture naming latencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Chalard, Marylène; Méot, Alain; Fayol, Michel

    2002-02-01

    The influence of nine variables on the latencies to write down or to speak aloud the names of pictures taken from Snodgrass and Vanderwart (1980) was investigated in French adults. The major determinants of both written and spoken picture naming latencies were image variability, image agreement and age of acquisition. To a lesser extent, name agreement was also found to have an impact in both production modes. The implications of the findings for theoretical views of both spoken and written picture naming are discussed.

  7. Border collie comprehends object names as verbal referents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilley, John W; Reid, Alliston K

    2011-02-01

    Four experiments investigated the ability of a border collie (Chaser) to acquire receptive language skills. Experiment 1 demonstrated that Chaser learned and retained, over a 3-year period of intensive training, the proper-noun names of 1022 objects. Experiment 2 presented random pair-wise combinations of three commands and three names, and demonstrated that she understood the separate meanings of proper-noun names and commands. Chaser understood that names refer to objects, independent of the behavior directed toward those objects. Experiment 3 demonstrated Chaser's ability to learn three common nouns--words that represent categories. Chaser demonstrated one-to-many (common noun) and many-to-one (multiple-name) name-object mappings. Experiment 4 demonstrated Chaser's ability to learn words by inferential reasoning by exclusion--inferring the name of an object based on its novelty among familiar objects that already had names. Together, these studies indicate that Chaser acquired referential understanding of nouns, an ability normally attributed to children, which included: (a) awareness that words may refer to objects, (b) awareness of verbal cues that map words upon the object referent, and (c) awareness that names may refer to unique objects or categories of objects, independent of the behaviors directed toward those objects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Legitimate Name of a Fungal Plant Pathogen and the Ethics of Publication in the Era of Traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Paolo; Visentin, Ivan; Valentino, Danila; Tamietti, Giacomo; Cardinale, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    When more scientists describe independently the same species under different valid Latin names, a case of synonymy occurs. In such a case, the international nomenclature rules stipulate that the first name to appear on a peer-reviewed publication has priority over the others. Based on a recent episode involving priority determination between two competing names of the same fungal plant pathogen, this letter wishes to open a discussion on the ethics of scientific publications and points out the necessity of a correct management of the information provided through personal communications, whose traceability would prevent their fraudulent or accidental manipulation.

  9. Alternate superior Julia sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Anju; Rani, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Alternate Julia sets have been studied in Picard iterative procedures. The purpose of this paper is to study the quadratic and cubic maps using superior iterates to obtain Julia sets with different alternate structures. Analytically, graphically and computationally it has been shown that alternate superior Julia sets can be connected, disconnected and totally disconnected, and also fattier than the corresponding alternate Julia sets. A few examples have been studied by applying different type of alternate structures

  10. Are generic and brand-name statins clinically equivalent? Evidence from a real data-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Giovanni; Soranna, Davide; Arfè, Andrea; Casula, Manuela; Tragni, Elena; Merlino, Luca; Mancia, Giuseppe; Catapano, Alberico L

    2014-10-01

    Use of generic drugs can help contain drug spending. However, there is concern among patients and physicians that generic drugs may be clinically inferior to brand-name ones. This study aimed to compare patients treated with generic and brand-name statins in terms of therapeutic interruption and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. 13,799 beneficiaries of the health care system of Lombardy, Italy, aged 40 years or older who were newly treated with generic or brand-name simvastatin during 2008, were followed until 2011 for the occurrence of two outcomes: 1) therapeutic discontinuation and 2) hospitalization for CV events. Hazard ratios (HR) associated with use of generic or brand-name at starting therapy (intention-to-treat analysis) and during follow-up (as-treated analysis) were estimated by fitting proportional hazard Cox models. A Monte-Carlo sensitivity analysis was performed to account for unmeasured confounders. Patients who started on generic did not experience a different risk of discontinuation (HR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.02) nor of CV outcomes (HR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.22) from those starting on brand-name. Patients who spent >75% of time of follow-up with statin available on generics did not experience a different risk of discontinuation (HR: 0.94; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.01), nor of CV outcomes (HR: 1.06; 95% CI 0.83 to 1.34), compared with those who mainly or only used brand-name statin. Our findings do not support the notion that in the real world clinical practice brand-name statins are superior to generics for keeping therapy and preventing CV outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. WHAT’S IN A NAME: The Amateur‘s View of Good Practices in Naming an Online Educational Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. ROSZKOWSKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Branding is considered to be particularly important in the marketing of online educational programs. A critical step to establishing the brand is naming the product appropriately. To this end, one can secure the services of professionals or rely on a do-it-yourself approach. The research reported here aimed to identify the features that non-professionals (graduate students consider to be important in the name for an online educational product, and to compare these to the recommendations made by naming professionals (as reported in the literature. A survey directed at current and prospective graduate students at a traditional university asked about the desirability of 16 characteristics in the name of a new line of online courses. The six characteristics that were deemed most critical are (in order of importance: self-explanatory, memorable, easy to pronounce, has appealing associations, suggests/hints at the key features, and short. These are the same features that professionals in the business of creating new product names generally consider as best practices in creating a name. The results show that contrary to the concerns expressed by some practitioners in the naming industry, college-educated individuals who do not create names for a living nonetheless demonstrate an awareness and appreciation for the features of a good name in an Internet-based course delivery system.

  12. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  13. Brand name changes help health care providers win market recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesling, G

    1993-01-01

    As the healthcare industry continues to recognize the strategic implications of branding, more providers will undertake an identity change to better position themselves in competitive markets. The paper examines specific healthcare branding decisions, the reasons prompting brand name decisions and the marketing implications for a change in brand name.

  14. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attribute and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  15. A Theory of Name Resolution with extended Coverage and Proofs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neron, P.J.M.; Tolmach, A.P.; Visser, E.; Wachsmuth, G.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a language-independent theory for name binding and resolution, suitable for programming languages with complex scoping rules including both lexical scoping and modules. We formulate name resolution as a two stage problem. First a language-independent scope graph is constructed using

  16. 27 CFR 22.62 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 22.62 Section 22.62 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Original Qualification § 22.62 Change in trade name. Where there is to be a change in, or addition of, a...

  17. 27 CFR 20.61 - Change in trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in trade name. 20.61 Section 20.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Users Changes After Original Qualification § 20.61 Change in trade name. If there is to be a...

  18. 27 CFR 19.183 - Change of trade name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change of trade name. 19.183 Section 19.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... After Original Qualification § 19.183 Change of trade name. If there is to be a change in, or addition...

  19. A global reference model of the domain name system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koc, Y.; Jamakovic, A.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The domain name system (DNS) is a crucial component of the Internet. At this time, the DNS is facing major changes such as the introduction of DNSSEC and Internationalized Domain Name extensions (IDNs), the adoption of IPv6 and the upcoming extension of new generic top-level domains. These changes

  20. Phonological Therapy in Jargon Aphasia: Effects on Naming and Neologisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Arpita

    2013-01-01

    Background: Jargon aphasia is one of the most intractable forms of aphasia with limited recommendation on amelioration of associated naming difficulties and neologisms. The few naming therapy studies that exist in jargon aphasia have utilized either semantic or phonological approaches, but the results have been equivocal. Moreover, the effect of…

  1. Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony. Middle Level Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan

    1998-01-01

    Presents the Yoruba Naming Ceremony as an activity for a global-studies class that provides an introduction to Nigerian culture. Explains that the ceremony is the time that the family and community welcomes a new child. Gives a list of Yoruba names and discussion questions for classroom use. (CMK)

  2. A note on name individuation and identifying descriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    used to refer to either the famous philosopher or to the shipping magnate. ..... chain that produced the use of the name is a list containing the generic name and the ... arcane issues concerning currency individuation, object to my claim that I ...

  3. 18 CFR 157.218 - Changes in customer name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes in customer... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.218 Changes in customer name. (a) Automatic... reflect the change in the name of an existing customer, if the certificate holder has filed any necessary...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  5. A NEW COMBINATION AND A NEW NAME IN GYNOCHTHODES (RUBIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. WONG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available WONG, K. M. & RAZAFIMANDIMBISON, S. G. 2015. A new combination and a new name in Gynochthodes(Rubiaceae. Reinwardtia14(2: 297 ‒ 298. — The new combination Gynochthodes lanuginosa (Suratman K. M. Wong & Razafim. and the new name Gynochthodes suratmanii K. M. Wong & Razafim., the latter in place of Morinda wongiana Suratman, are proposed.

  6. Recognition of Famous Names in Psychology by Students and Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Julie K.

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a name recognition questionnaire testing the historical awareness of psychology majors and faculty members. Reports that students showed a low level of name recognition prior to taking a course in the history of psychology. Concludes that explicit instruction is required to impart knowledge of the history of the discipline. (DK)

  7. Opening a Pandora's Box: Proper Names in English Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierini, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the linguistic-cultural aspects and usage of phraseological units involving personal and place names in English. The introductory sections outline the linguistic features of proper names and phraseological units. The qualitative part of this study provides a list of units belonging to four phraseological types (idioms, stereotyped similes, binomials, formulae, drawn from idiom dictionaries. An investigation of the sources of names shows that the personal and place names involved are historically, socially or culturally prominent in British culture. Here is noted a predominance of personal over place names, and within the former, a predominance of male over female names, and first names over family names, with a number of hypocorisms. The quantitative part of the study consists of a corpus search of the selected units in the British National Corpus in order to find their frequency and distribution across registers. The search reveals that they have very low levels of occurrence, and are more commonly used in written registers, in particular, in fiction, journalism and miscellaneous texts.

  8. How two word-trained dogs integrate pointing and naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    Two word-trained dogs were presented with acts of reference in which a human pointed, named objects, or simultaneously did both. The question was whether these dogs would assume co-reference of pointing and naming and thus pick the pointed-to object. Results show that the dogs did indeed assume

  9. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business name. 294.31 Section 294.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name...

  10. Name that Contraceptive! A Game for the Human Sexuality Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Martha S.

    2010-01-01

    There are many contraceptive choices available to people today. Learning about them can be dry, but the game "Name that Contraceptive!" can be a fun and interactive way to review, remember, and retain the details about contraceptive options. Name that Contraceptive is a card game in which students "bid" on the number of clues it will take them to…

  11. An exploration of prerequisite Shona naming factors1 | Makondo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores eleven broad factors the Shona people of Zimbabwe consider when they choose personal names namely gender, age, education, religion, nationality, residential area, namers, birth circumstances, birth order, profession and colonial administrators. Knowledge of these factors enables one to appreciate ...

  12. Personal Names in Children's Speech: The Process of Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina R. Dobrova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of children’s understanding of the differences between proper and common names. The author emphasizes the role of the anthropocentric approach to personal names, especially when it is based on the study of the ontogenetic development of linguistic capacity focusing on the mechanisms of the formation of mental patterns of proper names, in particular — of personal names, and of their special linguistic status as (relatively “strict” designators. Analyzing recordings of children’s spontaneous speech and experimental data, the author argues that the study of the early stages of personal names acquisition, in comparison with the acquisition of common nouns, highlights such significant features of a child’s developing mind as the ability to distinguish between identifying and generalizing linguistic signs, to construct hyponym/hyperonym relations going from individual to the most generalized designations (from personal name to common nouns of different kinds, including relative, completely depending on the reference point, and reciprocal ones, e. g. kinship terms. Additionally, the author shows that the anthropocentric approach emphasizes such properties of personal names as their coreferentiality, relativity and their capacity to act as semiotic shifters as far as the choice of the form of a name depends on the social relations between the speaker and his addressee and their respective positions in the social hierarchy.

  13. 21 CFR 299.4 - Established names for drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... organization sponsored by the American Medical Association, the United States Pharmacopeia, and the American...,” published in USAN and the USP Dictionary of Drug Names (USAN 1985 ed., 1961-1984 cumulative list), which is... proposed in the application that meets the above-cited guidelines. Prior use of a name in the medical...

  14. A new name for the foraminiferal genus Heterospira

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umbgrove, J.H.F.

    1937-01-01

    A short time ago I described a new foraminiferal genus from the Tertiary of Borneo 1). I gave this genus the name of Heterospira. Mr. P. H. Oehser of Washington drew my attention to the fact that E. Koken as early as 1896²) had used the name Heterospira for a genus of triassic gastropoda from

  15. 27 CFR 19.645 - Name and address of bottler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of such other plants. However: (a) Where distilled spirits are bottled by or for the distiller... trade name) under which the particular spirits were distilled, or any trade name shown on the distiller... addresses) of the distiller; (b) Where “straight whiskies” of the same type which have been produced in the...

  16. A generic open world named entity disambiguation approach for tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    Social media is a rich source of information. To make use of this information, it is sometimes required to extract and disambiguate named entities. In this paper we focus on named entity disambiguation (NED) in twitter messages. NED in tweets is challenging in two ways. First, the limited length of

  17. Named entity recognition in a South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Waal, AJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Named Entity Recognition (NER) is the process of identifying occurrences of words or expressions as belonging to a particular category of a Named Entity (NE).The aim of the project was to test the feasibility of a probabilistic NER system using...

  18. 27 CFR 4.93 - Approval of grape variety names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of grape variety names. 4.93 Section 4.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.93...

  19. 27 CFR 4.91 - List of approved prime names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false List of approved prime names. 4.91 Section 4.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE American Grape Variety Names § 4.91 List...

  20. Towards a Global Names Architecture: The future of indexing scientific names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    For more than 250 years, the taxonomic enterprise has remained almost unchanged. Certainly, the tools of the trade have improved: months-long journeys aboard sailing ships have been reduced to hours aboard jet airplanes; advanced technology allows humans to access environments that were once utterly inaccessible; GPS has replaced crude maps; digital hi-resolution imagery provides far more accurate renderings of organisms that even the best commissioned artists of a century ago; and primitive candle-lit microscopes have been replaced by an array of technologies ranging from scanning electron microscopy to DNA sequencing. But the basic paradigm remains the same. Perhaps the most revolutionary change of all - which we are still in the midst of, and which has not yet been fully realized - is the means by which taxonomists manage and communicate the information of their trade. The rapid evolution in recent decades of computer database management software, and of information dissemination via the Internet, have both dramatically improved the potential for streamlining the entire taxonomic process. Unfortunately, the potential still largely exceeds the reality. The vast majority of taxonomic information is either not yet digitized, or digitized in a form that does not allow direct and easy access. Moreover, the information that is easily accessed in digital form is not yet seamlessly interconnected. In an effort to bring reality closer to potential, a loose affiliation of major taxonomic resources, including GBIF, the Encyclopedia of Life, NBII, Catalog of Life, ITIS, IPNI, ICZN, Index Fungorum, and many others have been crafting a "Global Names Architecture" (GNA). The intention of the GNA is not to replace any of the existing taxonomic data initiatives, but rather to serve as a dynamic index to interconnect them in a way that streamlines the entire taxonomic enterprise: from gathering specimens in the field, to publication of new taxa and related data.

  1. Naming abilities: Differentiation between objects and verbs in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carmen Spezzano

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive Neuropsychology aims to understand the processing mechanisms of normal and injured brain, by means of functional architectural models of information processing. Naming is one of the most important abilities in linguistic processing. Naming of different semantic and grammatical categories differ in their lexical properties and have distinct neuroanatomical substrates. We reviewed literature data on the differences between nouns and verbs in aphasic subjects reported by scientific publications in the form of indexed articles. Studies on naming abilities tended to emphasize the differentiation between nouns and verbs both in their lexical properties and neuroanatomical substrates. Functional neuroimaging studies have improved the state of knowledge regarding category-specific naming abilities, but further studies on different types of aphasia and the use of naming abilities in different contexts are warranted.

  2. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D.M. Page

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic “dashboard” where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question “what is this taxon?” BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION, and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  3. Enhancing the Learning Environment by Learning all the Students' Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    the method to learn all the students' names enhances the learning environment substantially.  ReferencesCranton, Patricia (2001) Becoming an authentic teacher in higher education. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Pub. Co.Wiberg, Merete (2011): Personal email communication June 22, 2011.Woodhead, M. M. and Baddeley......Short abstract This paper describes how the teaching environment can be enhanced significantly by a simple method: learning the names of all the students. The method is time-efficient: In a course with 33 students I used 65 minutes in total. My own view of the effect was confirmed in a small study......: The students felt more valued, secure and respected. They also made an effort to learn each other's names. Long abstract In high school teachers know the students' names very soon - anything else is unthinkable (Wiberg, 2011). Not so in universities where knowing the names of all the students is the exception...

  4. Indonesian name matching using machine learning supervised approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alifikri, Mohamad; Arif Bijaksana, Moch.

    2018-03-01

    Most existing name matching methods are developed for English language and so they cover the characteristics of this language. Up to this moment, there is no specific one has been designed and implemented for Indonesian names. The purpose of this thesis is to develop Indonesian name matching dataset as a contribution to academic research and to propose suitable feature set by utilizing combination of context of name strings and its permute-winkler score. Machine learning classification algorithms is taken as the method for performing name matching. Based on the experiments, by using tuned Random Forest algorithm and proposed features, there is an improvement of matching performance by approximately 1.7% and it is able to reduce until 70% misclassification result of the state of the arts methods. This improving performance makes the matching system more effective and reduces the risk of misclassified matches.

  5. Nomenclature and name assignment rules for the APS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.

    1992-01-01

    Because the APS accelerators are moving into the fabrication/assembly/installation stage, it is important for consistent naming conventions to be used throughout the project. The intent of this note is to dictate the rules to be adhered to when naming devices in the storage ring. These rules are generic in nature, and shall be applied in principle to the other machines as well. It is essential that every component have a unique and, hopefully, easily recognizable name. Every ASD and XFD group, except for magnets, must interface with the control system. For this reason all device names were developed keeping in mind their actual function, such as controlling or monitoring some device in the ring. Even though magnets are not directly interfaced to the control system, their power supplies are; therefore, a magnet will have the same name as its associated power supply

  6. Proposal for the systematic naming of mesons and baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, F.C.; Hernandez, J.J.; Montanet, L.

    1984-10-01

    Twenty years ago, the Particle Data Group adopted a systematic naming convention for baryons: the symbols N, Δ, Λ, Σ, Ψ, and Ω were to identify the isospin and strangeness, The mesons, by contrast, have become an alphabet soup of uninformative names - theta, iota, xi, zeta, g/sub T/, g/sub s/, H, E, delta, h, g, r, kappa, etc. -, and in some cases identical names are used for mesons with different quantum numbers (A, B, and D). Furthermore, experimentalists are now discovering baryons that contain heavy quarks. It is therefore timely to consider systematic naming conventions both for mesons and for baryons with heavy quarks. The Particle Data Group is circulating this proposal in the hope of generating feedback, and we attach a sheet for responses. It should be emphasized that the Particle Tables would show both the old and new names for some time

  7. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  8. Alternatives to allogeneic platelet transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, Michael J R; Smethurst, Peter A; Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J

    2016-11-01

    Allogeneic platelet transfusions are widely used for the prevention and treatment of bleeding in thrombocytopenia. Recent evidence suggests platelet transfusions have limited efficacy and are associated with uncertain immunomodulatory risks and concerns about viral or bacterial transmission. Alternatives to transfusion are a well-recognised tenet of Patient Blood Management, but there has been less focus on different strategies to reduce bleeding risk by comparison to platelet transfusion. Direct alternatives to platelet transfusion include agents to stimulate endogenous platelet production (thrombopoietin mimetics), optimising platelet adhesion to endothelium by treating anaemia or increasing von Willebrand factor levels (desmopressin), increasing formation of cross-linked fibrinogen (activated recombinant factor VII, fibrinogen concentrate or recombinant factor XIII), decreasing fibrinolysis (tranexamic acid or epsilon aminocaproic acid) or using artificial or modified platelets (cryopreserved platelets, lyophilised platelets, haemostatic particles, liposomes, engineered nanoparticles or infusible platelet membranes). The evidence base to support the use of these alternatives is variable, but an area of active research. Much of the current randomised controlled trial focus is on evaluation of the use of thrombopoietin mimetics and anti-fibrinolytics. It is also recognised that one alternative strategy to platelet transfusion is choosing not to transfuse at all. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. When Names and Schools Collide: Critically Analyzing Depictions of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Children Negotiating Their Names in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Tina; Franzak, Judith K.

    2016-01-01

    Names and experiences in schools are often tied together in a child's identity formation. This is true for all children, but becomes an increasingly important topic as classrooms in the United States are becoming more diverse. In this study, we seek to explore the idea of names as identity in picture books depicting minority children. In doing so,…

  10. A Doctor’s Name as a Brand: A Nationwide Survey on Registered Clinic Names in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yuan Chu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In countries where the private clinics of physicians can be freely named, registering a clinic with a physician’s name is one way to make patients familiar with the physician. No previous study had investigated how clinics make use of this method of personal branding. Therefore, the current study analyzed 10,847 private physician Western medicine clinics in Taiwan. Of those clinics, 31.0% (n = 3363 were named with a physician’s full name, 8.9% (n = 960 with a surname, and 8.1% (n = 884 with a given name. The proportion of clinics registered with a physician’s name was lower in rural areas (37.3% than in urban (48.5% and suburban areas (49.2%, respectively. Among clinics with only one kind of specialist, a physician’s name was used most frequently in clinics of obstetrics and gynecology (64.9%, otorhinolaryngology (64.1%, and dermatology (63.4%. In Taiwan, fewer than half of clinics used a physician’s name as a brand. The sociocultural or strategic factors and real benefits of doing so could be further studied in the future for a better understanding of healthcare services management.

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  12. Semantic interference from distractor pictures in single-picture naming: evidence for competitive lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jescheniak, Jörg D; Matushanskaya, Asya; Mädebach, Andreas; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-10-01

    Picture-naming studies have demonstrated interference from semantic-categorically related distractor words, but not from corresponding distractor pictures, and the lack of generality of the interference effect has been argued to challenge theories viewing lexical selection in speech production as a competitive process. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference from context pictures does become visible, if sufficient attention is allocated to them. We combined picture naming with a spatial-cuing procedure. When participants' attention was shifted to the distractor, semantically related distractor pictures interfered with the response, as compared with unrelated distractor pictures. This finding supports models conceiving lexical retrieval as competitive (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) but is difficult to reconcile with the response exclusion hypothesis (Finkbeiner & Caramazza, 2006b) proposed as an alternative.

  13. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with superimposed semantically related or unrelated distractor words, semantic interference in naming tends to be constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus. In the present study, we examine whether semantic interference in picture naming depends on SOA in case of a task choice (naming the picture vs reading the word of a picture-word stimulus) based on tones. This situation requires concurrent processing of the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus, but not a manual response to the tones. On each trial, participants either named a picture or read aloud a word depending on the pitch of a tone, which was presented simultaneously with picture-word onset or 350 ms or 1000 ms before picture-word onset. Semantic interference was present with tone pre-exposure, but absent when tone and picture-word stimulus were presented simultaneously. Against the background of the available studies, these results support an account according to which speakers tend to avoid concurrent response selection, but can engage in other types of concurrent processing, such as task choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of a synesthete's photisms on name recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Carol Bergfeld; Innis, Joanne; Westendorf, Taryn; Owsianiecki, Lauren; McDonald, Angela

    2006-02-01

    A multilingual, colored-letter synesthete professor (MLS), 9 nonsynesthete multilingual professors and 4 nonsynesthete art professors learned 30 names of individuals (first and last name pairs) in three trials. They recalled the names after each trial and six months later, as well as performed cued recall trials initially and after six months. As hypothesized, MLS recalled significantly more names than control groups on all free recall tests (except after the first trial) and on cued recall tests. In addition, MLS gave qualitatively different reasons for remembering names than any individual control participant. MLS gave mostly color reasons for remembering the names, whereas nonsynesthetes gave reasons based on familiarity or language or art knowledge. Results on standardized memory tests showed that MLS had average performance on non-language visual memory tests (the Benton Visual Retention Test-Revised--BURT-R, and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test--CFT), but had superior memory performance on a verbal test consisting of lists of nouns (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test--RAVLT). MLS's synesthesia seems to aid memory for visually or auditorily presented language stimuli (names and nouns), but not for non-language visual stimuli (simple and complex figures).

  15. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Adaptation of Russian Christian Names into the Mari Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Pustyakov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the phonetic and morphological adaptation of Christian personal names in the Mari language. The work examines personal names recorded in different regions among the Mari. The composition of the presented data is not exhaustive; it does, however, allow one to observe some general patterns of the adaptation process. The main part of the article is preceded by a brief overview of the Christianization of the Mari region and the contacts between the Mari and the Russian-speaking population; the features of the local dialects of the Russian language are briefly stated. The Mari language incorporated a significant number of Russian names. The source of loans included, besides the standard church name forms, also the numerous varieties found in the Russian dialects. As part of the study, phonetic, structural changes of Christian names in the Mari language are revealed and the reasons for the majority of these transformations are identified. The author also pays attention to the intermediary role of the neighbouring Turkic languages in the penetration of Russian names into the Mari language. Changes in borrowed names were induced by internal Mari linguistic rules, as well as dialectal features of the local Russian dialects. The identification of systematic phonetic and structural transformations helps to determine the origin of obscure anthroponyms.

  17. Naming of objects, faces and buildings in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samrah; Arnold, Robert; Thompson, Sian A; Graham, Kim S; Hodges, John R

    2008-06-01

    Accruing evidence suggests that the cognitive deficits in very early Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are not confined to episodic memory, with a number of studies documenting semantic memory deficits, especially for knowledge of people. To investigate whether this difficulty in naming famous people extends to other proper names based information, three naming tasks - the Graded Naming Test (GNT), which uses objects and animals, the Graded Faces Test (GFT) and the newly designed Graded Buildings Test (GBT) - were administered to 69 participants (32 patients in the early prodromal stage of AD, so-called Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 37 normal control participants). Patients were found to be impaired on all three tests compared to controls, although naming of objects was significantly better than naming of faces and buildings. Discriminant analysis successfully predicted group membership for 100% controls and 78.1% of patients. The results suggest that even in cases that do not yet fulfil criteria for AD naming of famous people and buildings is impaired, and that both these semantic domains show greater vulnerability than general semantic knowledge. A semantic deficit together with the hallmark episodic deficit may be common in MCI, and that the use of graded tasks tapping semantic memory may be useful for the early identification of patients with MCI.

  18. Anthroponyms in Finno-Permic Compound Plant Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Brodsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With reference to Finno-Permic languages (a branch of Finno-Ugric languages excluding Ugric languages, the article analyses compound names of plants (phytonyms containing Permic languages, which, inter alia, can be explained by the incompleteness of collected data. Most of phytonyms with anthroponymic elements are attested in the Finnish and Estonian languages, while in the other Finno-Permic languages such attestations are rare. The anthroponyms appearing in names of plants are divided into two groups: a personal names of Biblical origin (e.g. Finnish Aapraham, Aatam, Jeesus, Maaria, b other anthroponyms. In the first group, the most numerous are Balto-Fennic phytonyms with the names Johannes and Maria and their national variants. The name Johannes (Finnish Juhannus, Estonian Jaan is most often present in the names of herbaceous plants flourishing in the period of celebration of Saint John’s Eve. Traditionally, this feast is associated with numerous rites and customs in which some plants play a significant role. An interesting formal feature of Balto-Fennic deanthroponymic compound names of plants is alliteration, i.e. repetition of identical or similar sound clusters in the beginning of each part of the word, as in Finnish liisanlilukka ‘stone bramble,’ simonsien’ ‘chanterelle, girolle’.

  19. Alternative Genres in Information Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Mathiassen, Lars; Schultze, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    discuss thenature of the academic article genre and the role of alternative ways of writing.We also introduce the six exemplars of alternative genres in the special issue,namely conversation, French new novel, meditation, memoir, allegory, andcrowdsourced research. We highlight key insights....... Furthermore, we wishto encourage Information Systems (IS) scholars to leverage a wider array ofalternative genres to present their research in order to develop new insights onsubject matters of interest to the IS discipline, as well as expand on howcontemporary and emergent phenomena of interest are conceived...... and contemplate theirimplications for current and future IS research....

  20. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermoglio, Paula F; Guralnick, Robert P; Wieczorek, John R

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  1. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F Zermoglio

    Full Text Available Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  2. Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland: Colophon, abstract, introduction, official place names in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins, Anthony K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded landing by Europeans on the coast of northern East Greenland (north of 69°N was that of William Scoresby Jr., a British whaler, in 1822. This volume includes a chronological summary of the pioneer 19th century exploration voyages made by British, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, French and German expeditions – all of whom reported that the region had previously been occupied by the Inuit or Eskimo; also included are brief outlines of the increasing number of government and privately sponsored expeditions throughout the 20th century, whose objectives included cartography, geology, zoology, botany, trapping and the ascent of the highest mountain summits. In 1934 the Place Name Committee for Greenland was established, the tasks of which included a review of all place names hitherto recorded on published maps of Greenland, their formal adoption in danicised form, and the approval or rejection of new name proposals. In northern East Greenland, by far the largest numbers of new place names were those proposed by scientists associated with Lauge Koch’s geological expeditions that lasted from 1926 until 1958. This volume records the location and origin of more than 3000 officially approved place names as well as about 2650 unapproved names.The author’s interest in the exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland started in 1968, when the Geological Survey of Greenland initiated a major five-year geological mapping programme in the Scoresby Sund region. Systematic compilation of names began about 1970, initially with the names given by William Scoresby Jr., and subsequently broadened in scope to include the names proposed by all expeditions to northern East Greenland. The author has participated in 16 summer mapping expeditions with the Survey to northern East Greenland. Publication of this volume represents the culmination of a lifetime working in the Arctic.

  3. Alternative way of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.

    1980-01-01

    The volume describes the reasons why more and more people seek alternative ways of life, the theoretical background and what alternative life means in practice as well as the sociological significance and history of the alternative movement. It also contains statements of persons who have 'got out' and advice on energy-saving. (HSCH) [de

  4. Where and how morphologically complex words interplay with naming pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens; Dohmes, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Two picture-word experiments are reported in which a delay of 7 to 10 was introduced between distractor and picture. Distractor words were either derived words (Experiment 1) or compounds (Experiment 2), morphologically related to the picture name. In both experiments, the position of morphological overlap between distractor (e.g., rosebud vs tea-rose) and picture name (rose) was manipulated. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological distractors, and effects were independent of distractor type and position of overlap. The results are evaluated against "full listing" and "decomposition" approaches of morphological representation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  5. Untangling the brand name from the branded entity

    OpenAIRE

    Round, Griff; Roper, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Purpose\\ud – The purpose of this study is to investigate the value to consumers of the brand name element for established brands, given that the focus in the literature has been on new brands. To accomplish this, conceptual development was initially undertaken to illuminate the links between the brand name element and the brand entity and to provide a theoretical framework for looking at changes in value of the brand name element to consumers over time.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud –...

  6. Fluency Effects on Brand Name Recognition and Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Existing research has not provided a clear understanding of processing fluency effects on memory. In a laboratory experiment with novel non-words, we found a recognition advantage of fluent non-words over moderately fluent and disfluent non-words. This advantage diminished when non-words were...... presented as novel brand names in different product contexts. We further tested a preference reversal in favor of disfluency and found that disfluent brand names (non-words) were equally disliked across different products contexts. A preference reversal could be observed when fluent names were preferred...

  7. Do people access meaning when they name banknotes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo

    2013-03-01

    Do people access the monetary value of banknotes when they say them aloud? In this study, we evaluated this question by asking people to name sequences of euro banknotes blocked by category or mixed with exemplars of other categories. The participants did not show an interference effect in the blocked context. The absence of semantic interference effect was also observed when participants named euro banknotes that did not have imprinted monetary value. These results suggest a direct connection between perceiving banknotes and accessing their names.

  8. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program 2. (a) For each Program 2 process, the owner or operator shall provide in the RMP the information... the process. (c) The name(s) of the chemical(s) covered. (d) The date of the most recent review or...

  9. Structural alterations in rat myocardium induced by chronic l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Abdussalam Ali A. Hmaid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes affecting cardiomyocyte function may contribute to the pathophysiological remodeling underlying cardiac function impairment. Recent reports have shown that endogenous nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in this process. In order to examine the role of NO in cardiomyocyte remodeling, male rats were acclimated to room temperature (22 ± 1 °C or cold (4 ± 1 °C and treated with 2.25% l-arginine·HCl or 0.01% l-NAME (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester·HCl for 45 days. Untreated groups served as controls. Right heart ventricles were routinely prepared for light microscopic examination. Stereological estimations of volume densities of cardiomyocytes, surrounding blood vessels and connective tissue, as well as the morphometric measurements of cardiomyocyte diameters were performed. Tissue sections were also analyzed for structural alterations. We observed that both l-arginine and l-NAME supplementation induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, regardless of ambient temperature. However, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with fibrosis and extra collagen deposition only in the l-NAME treated group. Taken together, our results suggest that NO has a modulatory role in right heart ventricle remodeling by coordinating hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes and fibrous tissue preventing cardiac fibrosis. Keywords: Cardiomyocyte, Cardiac hypertrophy, l-Arginine, l-NAME, Myocardium

  10. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  11. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process

  12. Nuclear power and its alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    For nuclear power to contribute significantly to the alleviation of demands for increased electricity by the year 2000, a further obstacle must be overcome, namely the present nuclear phobia of the American public. This phobia can be addressed only through public education leading to a balanced perspective of the benefits and hazards of nuclear power compared with those of alternate sources of energy and to the risks associated with an insufficient supply of energy in a few years. Also to be considered in a public education effort should be the precarious and capricious nature of this country's continued reliance on energy sources imported from politically unstable countries, as well as the risk this importation poses for the nation's economic, social and military security

  13. 78 FR 62417 - Import Administration; Change of Agency Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... organizational orders, changed the name of ``Import Administration'' to ``Enforcement and Compliance..., Director, Office of Operations Support Enforcement & Compliance, Telephone: (202) 482-5194; Michele D..., through internal Department Organizational Orders 10-3 (effective September 18, 2013) and Department...

  14. Preschoolers' knowledge about the appearance of proper names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kathryn Maycumber; Pasnak, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Preschoolers' knowledge of the appearance of proper names was tested in three experiments with 25 boys and 22 girls from low-income families. Children from a Head Start program, whose parents signed a permission letter, participated. Their ages ranged from 3 yr. 6 mo. to 5 yr. 6 mo. (M = 52.2 mo., SD = 4.9). When shown consonant-vowel-consonant trigrams such as Rit or baF or dEg with various capitalization patterns, the children showed a tendency to recognize that CVC trigrams with the first letter capitalized or all letters capitalized were the ones most likely to represent a person's name. When their own names were substituted, which typically contained more than three letters, their performance was markedly better. Children also had a strong tendency to consider trigrams of Latin letters as more likely to be a person's name than trigrams of non-Latin characters (e.g., Sanskrit).

  15. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. EPA Metadata Style Guide Keywords and EPA Organization Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following keywords and EPA organization names listed below, along with EPA’s Metadata Style Guide, are intended to provide suggestions and guidance to assist with the standardization of metadata records.

  17. Phonotactic probability of brand names: I'd buy that!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Donoso, Alexander J

    2012-11-01

    Psycholinguistic research shows that word-characteristics influence the speed and accuracy of various language-related processes. Analogous characteristics of brand names influence the retrieval of product information and the perception of risks associated with that product. In the present experiment we examined how phonotactic probability-the frequency with which phonological segments and sequences of segments appear in a word-might influence consumer behavior. Participants rated brand names that varied in phonotactic probability on the likelihood that they would buy the product. Participants indicated that they were more likely to purchase a product if the brand name was comprised of common segments and sequences of segments rather than less common segments and sequences of segments. This result suggests that word-characteristics may influence higher-level cognitive processes, in addition to language-related processes. Furthermore, the benefits of using objective measures of word characteristics in the design of brand names are discussed.

  18. Institute for Advanced Learning and Research names new executive director

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Institute for Advanced Learning and Research has named Liam E. Leightley as executive director, effective Oct. 6, 2008, according to Mike Henderson, chair of the institute's board of trustees.

  19. How to Name and Classify Your Phage: An Informal Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Adriaenssens

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With this informal guide, we try to assist both new and experienced phage researchers through two important stages that follow phage discovery; that is, naming and classification. Providing an appropriate name for a bacteriophage is not as trivial as it sounds, and the effects might be long-lasting in databases and in official taxon names. Phage classification is the responsibility of the Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee (BAVS of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV. While the BAVS aims at providing a holistic approach to phage taxonomy, for individual researchers who have isolated and sequenced a new phage, this can be a little overwhelming. We are now providing these researchers with an informal guide to phage naming and classification, taking a “bottom-up” approach from the phage isolate level.

  20. The British Geological Survey's Lexicon of Named Rock Units as Online and Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, T.

    2012-12-01

    about each unit includes its rank, parentage, previous and alternative names and usage, geochronological age, lithology, environment of deposition / mode of origin, thickness, boundaries, type and reference localities and sections, geographical distribution, associated landforms, and literature references. BGS geoscientists use a web-based 'sandbox' system to write and revise definitions. The Lexicon currently stores information on approximately 13,400 geological units that BGS considers to be 'current', with cross references to some 6,000 other names that are considered to be obsolete or alternative names. The entries span the entire preserved geological history of the UK from Archaean to Recent, onshore and offshore.

  1. Evaluation of brand names of medicines: linguistic and format issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Cavaco, Afonso; Vigário, Marina

    2017-06-01

    Focusing on the shape of brand names of medicines in the Portuguese market, the aims of this study were: to evaluate the number of words, syllables and letters, to identify the combinations of letters that are not found in Portuguese words and to characterize the use of capital letters in these names. A descriptive study was conducted using 474 randomized brand names of medicines, approximately 25% of all over-the-counter and prescribed medicines available in Portugal. The number of words, syllables and letters was automatically determined with a dedicated software. The combinations of letters that are not found in Portuguese and the use of capital letters were quantified through visual inspection. The 474 names were formed by 615 words. 74.5% of the words comprised three or less syllables, the most common number of syllables in the Portuguese words (91%). As recommended, 81% (n = 385) names were formed by just one word, 59.2% (n = 281) of the names were composed of 5-8 letters, and 83.1% (n = 394) presented the first letter in capitals or all letters in upper case. Contrary to recommendations, 22% of the names comprised combinations of letters that are not commonly found in Portuguese words. Given the current readability requirements, some of the Portuguese brand names of medicines should be reduced in length, adapted to the native language or capitalized. Equivalent studies are recommended in other European countries, because many brands of medicines are internationally marketed, while their development and approval should be beyond general marketing rules. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Story of the Name of Restinga Jurubatiba National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Soffiati

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This text recovers the story of an Integral Protection Conservation Unit situated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The Jurubatiba Shoal National Park (Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, the best preserved shoal area in the world. Responsible for proposing the park’s name, the author discourses about name options taken into consideration when the National Park was created and also briefly reports on the importance of this regional ecosystem.

  3. Production does not improve memory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihan, Kathleen L; Smith, Alexis R S

    2016-06-01

    Strategies for learning face-name associations are generally difficult and time-consuming. However, research has shown that saying a word aloud improves our memory for that word relative to words from the same set that were read silently. Such production effects have been shown for words, pictures, text material, and even word pairs. Can production improve memory for face-name associations? In Experiment 1, participants studied face-name pairs by reading half of the names aloud and half of the names silently, and were tested with cued recall. In Experiment 2, names were repeated aloud (or silently) for the full trial duration. Neither experiment showed a production effect in cued recall. Bayesian analyses showed positive support for the null effect. One possibility is that participants spontaneously implemented more elaborate encoding strategies that overrode any influence of production. However, a more likely explanation for the null production effect is that only half of each stimulus pair was produced-the name, but not the face. Consistent with this explanation, in Experiment 3 a production effect was not observed in cued recall of word-word pairs in which only the target words were read aloud or silently. Averaged across all 3 experiments, aloud targets were more likely to be recalled than silent targets (though not associated with the correct cue). The production effect in associative memory appears to require both members of a pair to be produced. Surprisingly, production shows little promise as a strategy for improving memory for the names of people we have just met. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Modern Urban Naming Practices: Strategic Approaches and Practical Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Golomidova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the problems of the naming of municipal facilities. The author analyzes the existing policy in assigning new names and renaming urban sites, describes the current strategic approaches to urban naming and proposes a new strategy based on congruity with the holistic image of the city. The current approaches to urban naming mark the predominating interest in the historical and cultural heritage of cities as a valuable source for the toponymic nomination shared both by native and foreign experts. However, this commitment to the past may run counter to the modern arrangement and perception of the urban space, as well as impede the city development prospects. From the standpoint of modern area marketing, names of urban sites are regarded as an information and communication resource highly relevant to the city image formation and promotion. In the author’s view, the benefits of adopting a new strategy may also resonate with the concept of “urbanonymic construction,” which is understood as sustainable and streamlined management policy aimed at the progressive implementation of long-term programs for individual urban site names consistency. The urbanonymic construction involves a normative, regulatory aspect; formation of the holistic city image that builds on its resource base, the symbolic capital, and the development strategy; definition of key characteristics of the city image which are most relevant to its positioning; identification of principal nominative themes for verbal representation of the city image; use of naming technologies to ensure the relevance of the name’s implications; testing and expert evaluation of new names. Drawing on domestic and foreign expertise in the same study field, a number of practical solutions for the creation of new urbanonyms are described.

  5. The birth and fate of new generic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; Andrus. Voitk

    2014-01-01

    No student of natural history can have escaped the proliferation of new names in the last few decades, certainly evident in mycology. Of course, the most obvious need for a new name comes about when an organism is discovered whose existence was hitherto unknown, i.e. a species, genus, or larger group new to science. However, for the layman the sudden profusion of new...

  6. Trademarks, consumer protection and domain names on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current problems of the conflict of domain names on the Internet with trade marks in relation to the consumer protection. The aim of the article is to refer to ways and means of protection against of the speculative registration of a domain name. In the Czech legal order these means represent legal regulation of the unfair competition in Commercial Code, regulation of liability for damage together with the Trademarks Act.

  7. Lectotypifications, synonymy, and a new name in Capsicum (Solanoideae, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gloria E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Considerable confusion exists within Capsicum (Solanaceae) regarding the status and typification of several names, in part due to misidentifications. Some types were destroyed in Berlin during the Second World War, some have not been found by modern systematics, while others exhibit uncertain locality data or contain material from more than one species. Fourteen lectotypes, synonyms, and a new name, Capsicum eshbaughii Barboza nom. nov.,are proposed here. PMID:22171173

  8. On The Etymology of Some Lichen Genera Names

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the etymology of some lichens’ genera names used in modern taxonomical botany. Growing on rocks, trees and even on soil, lichens are the only terrestrial cryptogamic organisms containing a fungal and an algal partner. Within this study, it has been focused to diagnose and improve an understanding of the similarities and differences between the names of lichen genera by comparing them in several languages. The etymological data collected during the study belongs ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  10. Formation of new linguistic competences in education space: naming examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remchukova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The naming examination is a new kind of linguistic examination. The article deals with linguistic aspects of teaching this course in higher school for the special training of experts. In order to form professional competence on naming examination in the process of teaching special attention is paid to studies of theory of nomination and onomastics, to examination of language units from the point of view of component analysis, semantic-stylistic analysis and others, as well as the formation of the skills of work with different lexicographic sources and digital resources and database. In the laboratory course “Applied and mathematical linguistics,” the skills of lexico-semantic, morphological, etymological, morphemic, word-formation, phonetic analysis of concrete names are practiced. We focus on the studies of artificial naming patterns, including advertising names, which bring out the creative potential of the Russian language. Creative trends dominate in this area of nomination. Naming examination as a new kind of forensic linguistic examination is taught within the course ”Forensic linguistic examination” which accomplishes technical education of students

  11. MINORITY LANGUAGE POLICY REGARDING PERSONAL NAMES – AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Walkowiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Language Policy (LP with language planning as its implementation is now a well-established field; yet, as evidenced by the scarcity of scholarly literature, seldom concerned with personal names. The paper looks at personal names (given names and surnames and discusses the ways in which they can be perceived as objects of minority LP. Policies regarding personal names are analysed within the framework of the traditional division of language planning into status, corpus and acquisition planning. These policies are then further examined according to other dimensions: what the object of a LP is, who its agent is, what motivates a LP, what effects it exerts, and how a LP is carried out. Finally, the paper looks at EU minority legislation with reference to personal names,especially at the country-specific opinions which reflect the FCNM monitoring process, highlighting areas of controversy. In conclusion, it is shown how vital personal names are to personal and group identity and, consequently, how control over them helps the nation-state control a minority, although – it is argued – not every regulation constitutes a minority LP.

  12. How reading differs from object naming at the neuronal level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C J; McCrory, E; Noppeney, U; Mechelli, A; Moore, C J; Biggio, N; Devlin, J T

    2006-01-15

    This paper uses whole brain functional neuroimaging in neurologically normal participants to explore how reading aloud differs from object naming in terms of neuronal implementation. In the first experiment, we directly compared brain activation during reading aloud and object naming. This revealed greater activation for reading in bilateral premotor, left posterior superior temporal and precuneus regions. In a second experiment, we segregated the object-naming system into object recognition and speech production areas by factorially manipulating the presence or absence of objects (pictures of objects or their meaningless scrambled counterparts) with the presence or absence of speech production (vocal vs. finger press responses). This demonstrated that the areas associated with speech production (object naming and repetitively saying "OK" to meaningless scrambled pictures) corresponded exactly to the areas where responses were higher for reading aloud than object naming in Experiment 1. Collectively the results suggest that, relative to object naming, reading increases the demands on shared speech production processes. At a cognitive level, enhanced activation for reading in speech production areas may reflect the multiple and competing phonological codes that are generated from the sublexical parts of written words. At a neuronal level, it may reflect differences in the speed with which different areas are activated and integrate with one another.

  13. BRAND NAMING: SOUND SYMBOLISM, BRAND PREFERENCE AND BRAND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Catalina Duduciuc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of sound symbolism for Romanian marketing and advertising applied research. Previous research showed that the phonetic structure of brand name communicates its characteristics, i.e. it drives consumers to assess certain features and performance of the product. We assumed that when consumers encounter an unknown brand name, they automatically infer characteristics from the meaning conveyed by the sounds (e.g. phonemes. Therefore, we supposed that a brand name for a shampoo (artificially created on experimental purpose containing back vowels is evaluated better by consumers when they compare it to another brand name with front vowels. Furthermore, we tested the influence of the stops and fricatives consonants in inferring certain attributes of product. To this end, fifty nine students (N=59 participated in a research based on questionnaire. The results revealed that subjects evaluated better the brand names containing back vowels than brand names with front vowel. No effect was obtained regarding the presence of stops and fricatives consonants in assessing the brand performance.

  14. Open Issues of Stress Placement in Classical Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajetan Gantar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins by describing the author’s experiences with the Rules of the Slovene Orthography (1987, a project in which he participated for several years, counselling, for example, against such hybrid possessive adjectives in Slovene as Horačev (‘of Horace’, Properčev (‘of Propertius’, Leibničev (‘of Leibniz’, etc. There follows an analysis of the dilemmas raised by stress placement in classical names, both geographical and personal: dilemmas surprisingly reminiscent of those encountered by classical and later grammarians in stressing Greek names in the Latin language. Indeed, the Slovene tradition has sometimes adopted the Latin stress even with names of Greek origin, and in some cases the established stress is grounded neither in Greek nor Latin but rather borrowed from French or German. For frequently used and long-Slovenised classical names, the author advocates the preservation of the established stress. With names more rarely used, however, experts should be granted the right to keep the original stress without the stigma of ‘literalness’, which excludes this practice from the living language organism. Above all, the paper argues for the right of literary translators to adapt the stress of personal names in poetry translation to the rhythm and rules of the hexameter or other classical metrical schemes.

  15. Blindness to alternative scenarios in evidence evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.C. Rassin (Eric)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn order to prevent miscarriages of justice, police, prosecution, and judges must remain open to alternative scenarios in which the suspect is in fact innocent. In recent years, however, several studies have delivered results suggesting that open-mindedness is not always standard in

  16. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  17. Dietary supplementation of tiger nut alters biochemical parameters relevant to erectile function in l-NAME treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabiyi, Ayodeji A; Carvalho, Fabiano B; Bottari, Nathieli B; Lopes, Thauan F; da Costa, Pauline; Stefanelo, Naiara; Morsch, Vera M; Akindahunsi, Afolabi A; Oboh, Ganiyu; Schetinger, Maria Rosa

    2018-07-01

    Tiger nut tubers have been reportedly used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) in folk medicine without scientific basis. Hence, this study evaluated the effect of tiger nut on erectile dysfunction by assessing biochemical parameters relevant to ED in male rats by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME) treatment. Rats were divided into five groups (n = 10) each: Control group; l-NAME plus basal diet; l-NAME plus Sildenafil citrate; diet supplemented processed tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME;diet supplemented raw tiger nut (20%) plus l-NAME. l-NAME pre-treatment (40 mg/kg/day) lasted for 14 days. Arginase, acetycholinesterase (AChE) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities as well as nitric oxide levels (NO) in serum, brain and penile tissue were measured. l-NAME increased the activity of arginase, AChE and ADA and reduced NO levels. However, dietary supplementation with tiger nut caused a reduction on the activities of the above enzymes and up regulated nitric oxide levels when compared to the control group. The effect of tiger nut supplemented diet may be said to prevent alterations of the activities of the enzymes relevant in erectile function. Quercetin was revealed to be the most active component of tiger nut tuber by HPLC finger printing. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. We Are Going to Name Names and Call You Out! Improving the Team in the Academic Operating Room Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Richard; Nguyen, Brian J; Broder, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Communication failures between multidisciplinary teams can impact efficiency, performance, and morale. Academic operating rooms (ORs) often have surgical, anesthesia, and nursing teams, each teaching multiple trainees. Incorrectly identifying name and "rank" (postgraduate year [PGY]) of resident trainees can disrupt performance evaluations and team morale and even potentially impair delivery of quality care when miscommunication errors proliferate. Our OR-based survey asked 50 participants (18 surgeons, 14 anesthesiologists, and 18 nursing members), to recall basic identification data including provider names and PGY levels from their recent collaborating OR teams. Participants also weighed in on the importance of using accurate "names and ranks" for all OR participants. Each service reliably knew their own team members' names and rank. However, surgery and anesthesia teams displayed decreased knowledge about their lower level trainees, whereas nursing teams performed best, identifying all level nurses present. Deficits occurred whenever participants tried recalling basic identifying data about contributors from any other collaborating team. Typically, misidentified participants were lower level PGY residents working on other teams' services. All survey respondents desired improving systems to better remember "names and ranks" identifications among OR participants, citing both safety and team morale benefits. Many fail to know the names and ranks of contributors among members of different OR teams. Even our most reliable nursing team was inconsistent at identification information from collaborating practitioners. Despite universally acknowledged benefits, participants rarely learned basic background identification data beyond their own team. Those surveyed all desired improving identifications with suggestions including sterile name and rank tags and proper notification of entry and exit from the OR. Because successful collaborations require appropriate level task

  19. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Supplements Surgical Options Anterior Cervical Fusion Artifical Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) Microscopic Discectomy Percutaneous Vertebral ...

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched Nerve Discitis Degenerative Conditions Bulge vs Herniation Cervical Stenosis, ... Spinal Disorders Repeated End-Range Spinal Testing Specialized Nerve Tests: EMG, NCV and SEEP Alternative Medicine Acupuncture ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  3. Taxonomic and Thematic Organisation of Proper Name Conceptual Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J. Crutch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI. The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g. action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson than those working in different genres (e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly. Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation – taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC and naval history (FBI. The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie, thematic arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy, and unrelated arrays (e.g. Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot. We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  4. Comparative effectiveness of generic versus brand-name antiepileptic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Joshua J; Kesselheim, Aaron S; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Polinski, Jennifer M; Hutchins, David; Matlin, Olga S; Brennan, Troyen A; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare treatment persistence and rates of seizure-related events in patients who initiate antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy with a generic versus a brand-name product. We used linked electronic medical and pharmacy claims data to identify Medicare beneficiaries who initiated one of five AEDs (clonazepam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, phenytoin, zonisamide). We matched initiators of generic versus brand-name versions of these drugs using a propensity score that accounted for demographic, clinical, and health service utilization variables. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to compare rates of seizure-related emergency room (ER) visit or hospitalization (primary outcome) and ER visit for bone fracture or head injury (secondary outcome) between the matched generic and brand-name initiators. We also compared treatment persistence, measured as time to first 14-day treatment gap, between generic and brand-name initiators. We identified 19,760 AED initiators who met study eligibility criteria; 18,306 (93%) initiated a generic AED. In the matched cohort, we observed 47 seizure-related hospitalizations and ER visits among brand-name initiators and 31 events among generic initiators, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 0.53 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.96). Similar results were observed for the secondary clinical endpoint and across sensitivity analyses. Mean time to first treatment gap was 124.2 days (standard deviation [sd], 125.8) for brand-name initiators and 137.9 (sd, 148.6) for generic initiators. Patients who initiated generic AEDs had fewer adverse seizure-related clinical outcomes and longer continuous treatment periods before experiencing a gap than those who initiated brand-name versions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Taxonomic and thematic organisation of proper name conceptual knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2011-01-01

    We report the investigation of the organisation of proper names in two aphasic patients (NBC and FBI). The performance of both patients on spoken word to written word matching tasks was inconsistent, affected by presentation rate and semantic relatedness of the competing responses, all hallmarks of a refractory semantic access dysphasia. In a series of experiments we explored the semantic relatedness effects within their proper name vocabulary, including brand names and person names. First we demonstrated the interaction between very fine grain organisation and personal experience, with one patient with a special interest in the cinema demonstrating higher error rates when identifying the names of actors working in a similar film genre (e.g., action movies: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Bruce Willis, Sylvester Stallone, Mel Gibson) than those working in different genres (e.g., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Gregory Peck, Robin Williams, Gene Kelly). Second we compared directly two potential principles of semantic organisation - taxonomic and thematic. Furthermore we considered these principles of organisation in the context of the individuals' personal knowledge base. We selected topics matching the interests and experience of each patient, namely cinema and literature (NBC) and naval history (FBI). The stimulus items were arranged in taxonomic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Emily Bronte, Agatha Christie), thematic arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice, Mr Darcy), and unrelated arrays (e.g., Jane Austen, Wuthering Heights, Hercule Poirot). We documented that different patterns of taxonomic and thematic organisation were constrained by whether the individual has limited knowledge, moderate knowledge or detailed knowledge of a particular vocabulary. It is suggested that moderate proper name knowledge is primarily organised by taxonomy whereas extensive experience results in a more detailed knowledge base in which theme is a powerful organising principle.

  6. Age effects on visual-perceptual processing and confrontation naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutherie, Audrey H; Seely, Peter W; Beacham, Lauren A; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William A; Moore, Anna Bacon

    2010-03-01

    The impact of age-related changes in visual-perceptual processing on naming ability has not been reported. The present study investigated the effects of 6 levels of spatial frequency and 6 levels of contrast on accuracy and latency to name objects in 14 young and 13 older neurologically normal adults with intact lexical-semantic functioning. Spatial frequency and contrast manipulations were made independently. Consistent with the hypotheses, variations in these two visual parameters impact naming ability in young and older subjects differently. The results from the spatial frequency-manipulations revealed that, in general, young vs. older subjects are faster and more accurate to name. However, this age-related difference is dependent on the spatial frequency on the image; differences were only seen for images presented at low (e.g., 0.25-1 c/deg) or high (e.g., 8-16 c/deg) spatial frequencies. Contrary to predictions, the results from the contrast manipulations revealed that overall older vs. young adults are more accurate to name. Again, however, differences were only seen for images presented at the lower levels of contrast (i.e., 1.25%). Both age groups had shorter latencies on the second exposure of the contrast-manipulated images, but this possible advantage of exposure was not seen for spatial frequency. Category analyses conducted on the data from this study indicate that older vs. young adults exhibit a stronger nonliving-object advantage for naming spatial frequency-manipulated images. Moreover, the findings suggest that bottom-up visual-perceptual variables integrate with top-down category information in different ways. Potential implications on the aging and naming (and recognition) literature are discussed.

  7. Ethnicity and Population Structure in Personal Naming Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Pablo; Longley, Paul A.; O'Sullivan, David

    2011-01-01

    Personal naming practices exist in all human groups and are far from random. Rather, they continue to reflect social norms and ethno-cultural customs that have developed over generations. As a consequence, contemporary name frequency distributions retain distinct geographic, social and ethno-cultural patterning that can be exploited to understand population structure in human biology, public health and social science. Previous attempts to detect and delineate such structure in large populations have entailed extensive empirical analysis of naming conventions in different parts of the world without seeking any general or automated methods of population classification by ethno-cultural origin. Here we show how ‘naming networks’, constructed from forename-surname pairs of a large sample of the contemporary human population in 17 countries, provide a valuable representation of cultural, ethnic and linguistic population structure around the world. This innovative approach enriches and adds value to automated population classification through conventional national data sources such as telephone directories and electoral registers. The method identifies clear social and ethno-cultural clusters in such naming networks that extend far beyond the geographic areas in which particular names originated, and that are preserved even after international migration. Moreover, one of the most striking findings of this approach is that these clusters simply ‘emerge’ from the aggregation of millions of individual decisions on parental naming practices for their children, without any prior knowledge introduced by the researcher. Our probabilistic approach to community assignment, both at city level as well as at a global scale, helps to reveal the degree of isolation, integration or overlap between human populations in our rapidly globalising world. As such, this work has important implications for research in population genetics, public health, and social science adding new

  8. The lifetime of the nuclear alternators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillard, J.M.; Guigues, B.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of an alternator, used in the nuclear domain, is investigated. The preventive actions, concerning the stresses (electrical mechanical or thermal), adopted during the fabrication processes and the severity and frequency of unordinary operating conditions, are analyzed. The aging modes of the alternator main units are studied. The procedures that can be applied to detect the beginning of the degradation, and to avoid an accident during operation are discussed. The turboalternators aging mechanisms are reviewed. It is shown that the mechanical or thermal fatigue, due to regime changements during operation and successive starts, are the main sources of problems. The alternator aging depends on the periodic inspections, on the preventive maintenance, and on the operating conditions [fr

  9. Report realized in the name of the finances, economy and the plan commission on the project of financing law for 2009 (n. 1127), annex n. 13 ecology, sustainable development and management risks prevention planing of the ecology, the energy, the sustainable development and the territory management policies; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des finances, de l'economie generale et du plan sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2009 (n. 1127), annexe n. 13 ecologie, developpement et amenagement durables prevention des risques conduite et pilotage des politiques de l'ecologie, de l'energie, du developpement durable et de l'amenagement du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the law project n. 1127 for 2009, concerning the risks prevention in the framework of the ecology and the sustainable development and management. The first part details the program of risks prevention (technological, pollutions, natural and hydraulic risks, nuclear safety and radioprotection, the mine site rehabilitation). The second part develops the ecology, energy sustainable development and territory management, policies. (A.L.B.)

  10. 77 FR 52750 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date...

  11. 78 FR 19498 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date...

  12. 78 FR 76635 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; NCCAM...

  13. 76 FR 79202 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date...

  14. 75 FR 43994 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NACCAM) meeting. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date...

  15. 77 FR 25185 - National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date...

  16. 76 FR 79201 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal....nih.gov . Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Special... Alternative Medicine Special Emphasis Panel, PCCTR. Date: February 1, 2012. Time: 11:30 a.m. to 2 p.m. Agenda...

  17. 77 FR 24971 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine..., Office of Scientific Review, National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine, NIH, 6707...

  18. 77 FR 73036 - National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Complementary & Alternative Medicine; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated... privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Date...

  19. [Old English plant names from the linguistic and lexicographic viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Hans; Krischke, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 1350 Old English plant names have come down to us; this is a relatively large number considering that the attested Old English vocabulary comprises ca. 24 000 words. The plant names are not only interesting for botanists, historians of medicine and many others, but also for philologists and linguists; among other aspects they can investigate their etymology, their morphology (including word-formation) and their meaning and motivation. Practically all Old English texts where plant names occur have been edited (including glosses and glossaries), the names have been listed in the Old English dictionaries, and some specific studies have been devoted to them. Nevertheless no comprehensive systematic analysis of their linguistic structure has been made. Ulrike Krischke is preparing such an analysis. A proper dictionary of the Old English plant names is also a desideratum, especially since the Old English dictionaries available and in progress normally do not deal with morphological and semantic aspects, and many do not provide etymological information. A plant-name dictionary concentrating on this information is being prepared by Hans Sauer and Ulrike Krischke. In our article here, we sketch the state of the art (ch. 1), we deal with some problems of the analysis of Old English plant names (ch. 2), e.g. the delimitation of the word-field plant names, the identification of the plants, errors and problematic spellings in the manuscripts. In ch. 3 we sketch the etymological structure according to chronological layers (Indo-European, Germanic, West-Germanic, Old English) as well as according to the distinction between native words and loan-words; in the latter category, we also mention loan-formations based on Latin models. In ch. 4 we survey the morphological aspects (simplex vs. complex words); among the complex nouns, compounds are by far the largest group (and among those, the noun + noun compounds), but there are also a few suffix formations. We also briefly

  20. Botanical name changes – nuisance or a quest for precision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the need for the seemingly regular changes to plant names applied to many tropical forage species, it is necessary to be aware of the rules that govern botanical nomenclature.  The binomial naming system, first proposed in 1753, is governed by rules defined in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN.  These rules have been strengthened as necessary over the years in the interest of providing practitioners with plant names that are unique for each species, and presented in an hierarchical format that shows the evolutionary relationships between plants.  This paper includes a table of name changes accepted by the USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN for species used in tropical forage research and development over the last half century.  The need to use legitimate plant names is emphasized and suggestions are made on how practitioners might best deal with the changes.Keywords: Taxonomy, nomenclature, tropical forages.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(334-40