WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevent youth access

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  2. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  4. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  5. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  6. The effectiveness of youth crime prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth

  7. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some pro...

  8. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some programs deemphasize family involvement while others focus on rebuilding connections among family members. The programs either normalize current family conflicts or, alternatively, provide education about the importance of parental monitoring. All programs aim to reduce HIV-related sexual and drug use acts. A coping skills approach is common across programs: Problem-solving skills are specifically addressed in four of the six programs; alternatively, parents in other programs are encouraged to contingently reward their children. Each program also engineers ongoing social support for the families and the youth, either by providing access to needed resources or by substituting a new, supportive relationship for the existing family caretaker. All of the interventions provide access to health and mental health services as basic program resources. A comparison of HIV prevention programs for homeless youth identifies the robust components of each and suggests which programs providers may choose to replicate. PMID:19067164

  9. The effectiveness of youth crime prevention

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based interventions are crucial for preventing that at-risk youth will develop a persistent criminal carreer. This dissertation includes a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of youth crime prevention, and an evaluation of the Dutch youth intervention ‘New Perspectives’ (NP). At-risk youth (N = 101) aged 12 to 19 years were randomly assigned to NP and care as usual (CAU). New Perspectives proved not to be more effective than other existing youth care services. However, the time to re-...

  10. Preventing youth access to tobacco

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pokorny, Steven B; Jason, Leonard

    2002-01-01

    ... means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying. microfilm and re­ cording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Reprinted 2009 hy Rou...

  11. Family Networks and Youth Access to Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    O'Regan, Katherine M.; Quigley, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Some networks may be more useful than others in affecting labor market outcomes. In particular, social contacts who are employed may be more useful in job referral than those who are not employed. Also, social networks containing non minority workers or male workers may have better and more extensive labor market contacts. This paper considers indirect evidence on the importance of job access via networks for the employment of urban youth. We measure the extent to which probabilities of emplo...

  12. Youth Sport Injury Prevention is KEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)

  13. Youth Homelessness: Early Intervention & Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Chris; MacKenzie, David

    The issue of youth homelessness in Australia is examined in the context of relevant social and educational policies. The exploration is based on 8 years of research into the situation of homeless youth in Australia involving several studies, including a study of school students in 9 communities and field visits to 100 schools. In 1994, researchers…

  14. Limited school drinking water access for youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Cohen, Juliana F.W.; Rimm, Eric B.; Cradock, Angie L.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Providing children and youth with safe, adequate drinking water access during school is essential for health. This study utilized objectively measured data to investigate the extent to which schools provide drinking water access that meets state and federal policies. METHODS We visited 59 middle and high schools in Massachusetts during spring 2012. Trained research assistants documented the type, location, and working condition of all water access points throughout each school building using a standard protocol. School food service directors (FSDs) completed surveys reporting water access in cafeterias. We evaluated school compliance with state plumbing codes and federal regulations and compared FSD self-reports of water access with direct observation; data were analyzed in 2014. RESULTS On average, each school had 1.5 (SD: 0.6) water sources per 75 students; 82% (SD: 20) were functioning, and fewer (70%) were both clean and functioning. Less than half of the schools met the federal Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act requirement for free water access during lunch; 18 schools (31%) provided bottled water for purchase but no free water. Slightly over half (59%) met the Massachusetts state plumbing code. FSDs overestimated free drinking water access compared to direct observation (96% FSD-reported versus 48% observed, kappa=0.07, p=0.17). CONCLUSIONS School drinking water access may be limited. In this study, many schools did not meet state or federal policies for minimum student drinking water access. School administrative staff may not accurately report water access. Public health action is needed to increase school drinking water access. IMPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTIONS Adolescents’ water consumption is lower than recommended. In a sample of Massachusetts middle and high schools, about half did not meet federal and state minimum drinking water access policies. Direct observation may improve assessments of drinking water access and could be integrated into routine

  15. Systematic review of youth crime prevention interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    This review centers on evaluations of youth crime prevention interventions published between 2008 and 2012. The aim of the review is to bring forward the newest information to supplement existing knowledge about crime preventive methods targeting youth. The review lists 56 studies, all targeting 12...... produced for TrygFonden and the Danish Crime Prevention Council TrygFonden and The Danish Crime Prevention Council have entered into an ambitious collaboration. The objective of this collaboration is to reduce crime and increase the feeling of security in Denmark by engaging citizens and creating new...

  16. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  17. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  18. Valued Youth Anthology: Articles on Dropout Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This document contains, in chronological order, all articles related to dropouts that have appeared in the Intercultural Development Research Association (IDRA) Newsletter from 1986 to 1989. The articles are: (1) "The Prevention and Recovery of Dropouts: An Action Agenda" (Robledo); (2) "Coca Cola Valued Youth Partnership Program Results of Second…

  19. Injury Prevention in Youth Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R

    2017-03-01

    Children and adolescents are now participating in competitive sports at younger ages and with increasing intensity. As a result, increasing numbers of young athletes are presenting to pediatricians for care of sports-related injuries and advice about prevention. Understanding and identifying modifiable risk factors for injury in the young athletic population is a critical first step in injury prevention. Risk factors vary by sport, age, and sex. This article reviews the most common risk factors for injury and the evidence to support proposed strategies for prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e99-e105.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  1. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  2. De-Politicizing Youth Suicide Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Shahtahmasebi, Said

    2013-01-01

    Despite a large volume of research literature on suicide, the approach to suicide prevention is still firmly based on a medical model. Recently, the Chief Coroner in New Zealand expressed the view that current techniques have failed to reduce the suicide rate and a new approach is needed. However, the call for a new approach is often interpreted as disparities in access to mental health services so resources are directed to increase public access to them. Current evidence suggests that persis...

  3. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  4. Bully Prevention: Creating Safe and Inclusive Environments for Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Allen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a major issue facing youth of all ages, backgrounds, and walks of life. In fact, 30% of youth report experiencing bullying on a monthly basis (Nansel, Overpeck, Pilla, Ruan, Simons-Murton & Scheidt, 2001. As a consequence, these youth are at much greater risk for a host of mental and physical problems (Ttofi & Farrington, 2008. Parents, teachers, educators and youth advocates all agree that this issue merits time and attention, yet many professionals are at a loss for understanding the issue or what resources might be most effective with their young audience. With the increased rates of bullying behaviors and growing research about effective prevention and intervention strategies, youth development professionals need guidance for creating and sustaining bully prevention efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight the growing research on bully prevention and provide information for practitioners working to create safe and inclusive environments for youth.

  5. Preventing youth violence perpetration among girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Degue, Sarah; Holland, Kristin M; Holt, Melissa K; Matjasko, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    In the last 10 years, several reviews of research on violence among girls have been conducted. This research helps to determine the extent of girls' use of violence however, it has not been translated into effective prevention programs for girls. This article reviews the research on risk and protective factors associated with violence, with particular attention on factors unique to girls or shared between boys and girls. Individual risk factors for youth violence include hyperactivity/inattention/impulsivity, risk taking/sensation seeking, low academic achievement, exposure to stress and victimization, and early puberty. Parent-child relationships/parental monitoring and supervision, parent criminal and antisocial behavior, and family conflicts and instability have been found to be relationship-level risk factors. Peer risk factors include deviant peer affiliation and gang membership. Risk factors at the community level include economic deprivation; community disorganization; the availability of drugs, alcohol, and firearms; and neighborhood crime. This review also includes a description of program effects for girls within the Model and Promising Blueprints for Violence Prevention Initiative programs. Very few evaluations have examined program effectiveness in preventing violence among girls. More evaluation research is needed to determine if evidence-based programs have positive impact on reducing violence and related risk factors among girls.

  6. De-politicising youth suicide prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said eShahtahmasebi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite a large volume of research literature on suicide, the approach to suicide prevention is still firmly based on a medical model. Recently, the Chief Coroner in New Zealand expressed the view that current techniques have failed to reduce the suicide rate and a new approach is needed. However, the call for a new approach is often interpreted as disparities in access to mental health services so resources are directed to increase public access to them. Current evidence suggests that persisting with depression and mental illness as a rationale for suicide prevention is unwise and is highly politicised. For example, over the last decade or so, despite a sustained awareness campaign on depression and mental illness and the doubling of prescriptions for anti-depressants, suicide rates maintained an increasing trend over the same period. It is argued that a new approach must redefine the suicide prevention problem holistically so that the whole community may share ownership of the problem. This paper argues that in order to move forward with a new approach, suicide prevention must be de-politicised – and describes a grassroots approach to de-politicisation. Initial results suggest that with the grassroots approach there is potential to save lives, and it is cost-effective and sustainable.

  7. Cost analysis of youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.

  8. Using Youth Participatory Evaluation to Improve a Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Adrienne M.; Sollie, Donna L.; Silva, Kelcie

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a youth participatory evaluation of a bullying prevention curriculum before the curriculum was implemented in communities. We partnered with youths from a young women leaders' program to reduce the number of lessons in an existing curriculum and determine which activities were likely to have the greatest impact. To evaluate the…

  9. 'Culture' as HIV prevention: Indigenous youth speak up!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciann Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which (a Indigenous youth involved in an HIV intervention took up and reclaimed their cultures as a project of defining ‘self’, and (b how Indigenous ‘culture’ can be used as a tool for resistance, HIV prevention and health promotion. Data were drawn from the Taking Action Project: Using arts-based approaches to develop Aboriginal youth leadership in HIV prevention. ‘By youth, for youth’ HIV education and awareness workshops were facilitated in six Indigenous communities across Canada, incorporating traditional and contemporary art forms to explore how youth perceived the links between structural inequality and HIV vulnerability. Over 100 youth participated, with 70 partaking in individual interviews to reflect on their experiences at the workshops. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using NVivo software. Indigenous youth understood culture as a complex construct that included reconnecting to land, body, history, community and ceremony. For many youth, being Aboriginal and participating in cultural activities was seen as important for intergenerational healing, empowerment, health and combatting HIV. Youth spoke excitedly of their attempts to reclaim their languages and cultures despite barriers. They also understood art as a medium for self-expression and as an important site of cultural evolution. Our project demonstrates that the incorporation of culture within health strategies is important for effective HIV prevention amongst Indigenous youth. Reclaiming Indigenous cultures, languages and ceremonies may help to nurture future generations, diminish cycles of victimisation and combat hopelessness by reconnecting youth to stories of resistance and survival. Keywords: Indigenous youth, culture, HIV prevention, arts-based research

  10. Preventing Youth Violence: Opportunities for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…

  11. Urban American Indian Community Perspectives on Resources and Challenges for Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrage, Rachel L; Gone, Joseph P; Momper, Sandra L

    2016-09-01

    American Indian (AI) youth have some of the highest rates of suicide of any group in the United States, and the majority of AI youth live in urban areas away from tribal communities. As such, understanding the resources available for suicide prevention among urban AI youth is critical, as is understanding the challenges involved in accessing such resources. Pre-existing interview data from 15 self-identified AI community members and staff from an Urban Indian Health Organization were examined to understand existing resources for urban AI youth suicide prevention, as well as related challenges. A thematic analysis was undertaken, resulting in three principal themes around suicide prevention: formal resources, informal resources, and community values and beliefs. Formal resources that meet the needs of AI youth were viewed as largely inaccessible or nonexistent, and youth were seen as more likely to seek help from informal sources. Community values of mutual support were thought to reinforce available informal supports. However, challenges arose in terms of the community's knowledge of and views on discussing suicide, as well as the perceived fit between community values and beliefs and formal prevention models. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  12. A Youth Suicide Prevention Plan for Canada: A Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kathryn; Rhodes, Anne E; Duda, Stephanie; Cheung, Amy H; Manassis, Katharina; Links, Paul; Mushquash, Christopher; Braunberger, Peter; Newton, Amanda S; Kutcher, Stanley; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Santos, Robert G; Manion, Ian G; Mclennan, John D; Bagnell, Alexa; Lipman, Ellen; Rice, Maureen; Szatmari, Peter

    2015-06-01

    We conducted an expedited knowledge synthesis (EKS) to facilitate evidence-informed decision making concerning youth suicide prevention, specifically school-based strategies and nonschool-based interventions designed to prevent repeat attempts. Systematic review of review methods were applied. Inclusion criteria were as follows: systematic review or meta-analysis; prevention in youth 0 to 24 years; peer-reviewed English literature. Review quality was determined with AMSTAR (a measurement tool to assess systematic reviews). Nominal group methods quantified consensus on recommendations derived from the findings. No included review addressing school-based prevention (n = 7) reported decreased suicide death rates based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled cohort studies (CCSs), but reduced suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and proxy measures of suicide risk were reported (based on RCTs and CCSs). Included reviews addressing prevention of repeat suicide attempts (n = 14) found the following: emergency department transition programs may reduce suicide deaths, hospitalizations, and treatment nonadherence (based on RCTs and CCSs); training primary care providers in depression treatment may reduce repeated attempts (based on one RCT); antidepressants may increase short-term suicide risk in some patients (based on RCTs and meta-analyses); this increase is offset by overall population-based reductions in suicide associated with antidepressant treatment of youth depression (based on observational studies); and prevention with psychosocial interventions requires further evaluation. No review addressed sex or gender differences systematically, Aboriginal youth as a special population, harm, or cost-effectiveness. Consensus on 6 recommendations ranged from 73% to 100%. Our EKS facilitates decision maker access to what is known about effective youth suicide prevention interventions. A national research-to-practice network that links researchers and decision

  13. Perceptions of Personal Well-Being among Youth Accessing Residential or Intensive Home-Based Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyde, Michele; Watkins, Hanna; Ashbourne, Graham; Lazure, Kelly; Carter, Jeff; Penney, Randy; White, Sara; Frensch, Karen; Cameron, Gary

    2013-01-01

    The outcomes of youth accessing residential treatment or intensive home-based treatment are varied. Understanding youth's perceptions of their well-being may inform service. The purpose of this report was to explore perceptions of youth's mental health, life satisfaction, and outlook for the future. Youth reported ongoing struggles with mental…

  14. Monitoring the multi-faceted problem of youth violence: the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Hishinuma, Earl S; Momohara, Christie-Brianna K; Rehuher, Davis; Soli, Fa'apisa M; Bautista, Randy Paul M; Chang, Janice Y

    2012-10-01

    Youth violence (YV) is a complex public health issue that spans geographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic lines. The Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center conducts qualitative and quantitative research on YV in Hawai'i. A critical element in YV prevention involves measuring YV and its risk-protective factors to determine the scope of the problem and to monitor changes across time. Under the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center's (APIYVPC's) surveillance umbrella, a variety of methodologies are utilized. The major forms of active surveillance are a School-Wide Survey for youth, and a Safe Community Household Survey for adults. A variety of secondary data sources are accessed, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System), the Hawai'i State Department of the Attorney General, the Hawai'i State Department of Education, and the Hawai'i State Department of Health. State data are especially important for the Center, because most of these sources disaggregate ethnicity data for Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders. This paper details the surveillance methodologies utilized by the APIYVPC to monitor YV in one specific community and in Hawai'i, in comparison to the rest of the State and nation. Empirical results demonstrate the utility of each methodology and how they complement one another. Individually, each data source lends valuable information to the field of YV prevention; however, collectively, the APIYVPC's surveillance methods help to paint a more complete picture regarding violence rates and the relationship between YV and its risk-protective factors, particularly for minority communities.

  15. Preventing, Reducing and Ending LGBTQ2S Youth Homelessness: The Need for Targeted Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Abramovich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender non-conforming and sexual minority youth are overrepresented in the homeless youth population and are frequently discriminated against in shelters and youth serving organizations. This paper provides a contextual understanding of the ways that institutional and governmental policies and standards often perpetuate the social exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2-Spirit (LGBTQ2S youth, by further oppression and marginalization. Factors, including institutional erasure, homophobic and transphobic violence, and discrimination that is rarely dealt with, addressed, or even noticed by shelter workers, make it especially difficult for LGBTQ2S youth experiencing homelessness to access support services, resulting in a situation where they feel safer on the streets than in shelters and housing programs. This paper draws on data from a qualitative Critical Action Research study that investigated the experiences of a group of LGBTQ2S homeless youth and the perspectives of staff in shelters through one-on-one interviews in Toronto, Canada. One of the main recommendations of the study included the need for governmental policy to address LGBTQ2S youth homelessness. A case study is shared to illustrate how the Government of Alberta has put this recommendation into practice by prioritizing LGBTQ2S youth homelessness in their provincial plan to end youth homelessness. The case study draws on informal and formal data, including group activities, questions, and surveys that were collected during a symposium on LGBTQ2S youth homelessness. This paper provides an overview of a current political, social justice, and public health concern, and contributes knowledge to an under researched field of study by highlighting concrete ways to prevent, reduce, and end LGBTQ2S youth homelessness.

  16. YOUTH HOMELESSNESS: PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION EFFORTS IN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON J. SANABRIA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.

  17. To what extent do youth-focused prevention programmes reflect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite considerable effort directed towards youth focused prevention activities in South Africa, little is known about the content of these activities. A major concern is the extent to which substance abuse prevention programmes reflect evidence-based practices (EBPs). This paper reports on the findings from a ...

  18. Violence Prevention, Access to Justice, and Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will identify and analyze economic opportunity policies and practices that aim to support women in Latin America by preventing violence, increasing access to justice, and empowering them economically. Women and inequality in Latin America Women's economic empowerment and the reduction of violence ...

  19. Increasing Access to Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing Access to Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage Interventions for Births in Health Facilities and at Home in Four Districts of Rwanda. Blami Dao, Fidele Ngabo, Jeremie Zoungrana, Barbara Rawlins, Beata Mukarugwiro, Pascal Musoni, Rachel Favero, Juliet MacDowell, Kanyamanza Eugene ...

  20. Preventing cancer: a community-based program for youths in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Wulach, Laura; Yang, Grace J; Evans, Tegan C; Hamdan, Sami U; Davis, Gregory L; Bowen, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of a program that mentors boys aged 14-18 living in inner city public housing, engages them in a basketball league, and provides educational sessions on life skills and ways to resolve conflicts without violence. Such programs have the potential to engage adolescent males living in public housing in activities that reduce cancer-related behaviors and increase protective behaviors. We conducted a feasibility evaluation of the program, which included a survey of participants, interviews with coaches, and observations of games and practices. Lifetime and previous-30-day substance use was common among participants, and many were exposed to and had experienced various forms of violence. Keeping youths active helps prevent their joining gangs and using drugs. Youths from disadvantaged backgrounds are at a high risk for cancer because they are at greater risk for obesity and other adverse health-related conditions than are more affluent youths. Implementing and sustaining community programs for youths in public housing can reduce the effects of exposure to factors that put them at risk for cancer during adulthood: chronic poverty, lack of safe areas for recreation, easy access to alcohol and drugs, and exposure to violence. In addition, workshops to prevent substance use and violence and to teach leadership, sportsmanship, conflict resolution, and healthy youth development are needed for youths, coaches, and parents or guardians. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Substance use by Egyptian youth: current patterns and potential avenues for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Christopher A; Boulos, Dina N K; Saleh, Doa'a A; Jillson, Irene A; Garas, Magdy; Loza, Nasser; Samuel, Philip; Shaker, Yousri Edward; Ostrowski, Mar-Jan; Amr, Sania

    2015-04-01

    Substance abuse in Egypt is a serious public health threat. Recent studies have demonstrated increases in the prevalence of the use of tobacco, illegal drugs, and over-the-counter drugs, particularly among youth. We conducted focus groups with a total of 40 male and female youth participants, ages 12-14 and 15-18, recruited from two different areas (Cairo and Alexandria) in 2012. We investigated their knowledge and perceptions regarding current substance use, its sources, and promoting and protecting factors, broadly addressing the use of tobacco products, illicit and prescription drugs, inhaled substances such as glue and solvents, and alcohol. Our findings suggest that: (1) youth in Egypt had access to and were actively using substances encountered in similar research worldwide, including tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, glue sniffing, and pharmaceutical agents; (2) smoking cigarettes and using hashish were the most common practices, and Tramadol was the most commonly used pharmaceutical drug; (3) peer pressure from friends stood out as the most common reason to start and continue using substances, followed by adverse life events and having a parent or family member who used substances; (4) strict parenting, religiosity, and having non-user friends were among the factors perceived by youth to prevent substance use or help them quit using substances; (5) most youths were aware of the adverse health effects of substance use. These findings will inform the design of quantitative surveys aimed at estimating the prevalence of specific behaviors related to substance use among youth and potential avenues for prevention.

  2. Youth access to cigarettes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandora, Rachna; Song, Yang; Chaussard, Martine; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Lee, Kyung Ah; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is initiated and established mostly during adolescence. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 16 outlines the obligation of parties to prohibit the sale of tobacco products to minors. This study examined where and how student smokers obtain cigarettes. We examined Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 2009 to 2011 on cigarette access among students aged 13-15 in six sub-Saharan African countries. In all countries analyzed, over 20% of student smokers obtained their cigarettes in a store or shop (52.6% in South Africa, 37.7% in Republic of Congo, 28.2% in Swaziland, 27.4% in Cote d'Ivoire, 26.9% in Ghana, and 22.6% in Uganda). In Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa, 68.9% and 68.7% of student cigarette smokers, respectively, were not refused the sale of cigarettes because of age. The percentage of students who were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative ranged from 4.7% in Cote d'Ivoire to 12.1% in South Africa. The method of obtaining cigarettes and access to cigarettes among students varies among sub-Saharan African countries. Adopting and enforcing interventions that prevent youth from accessing tobacco products could be an effective strategy for reducing smoking initiation among youth in sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  4. Preventing sports injuries: opportunities for intervention in youth athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Nancy L; Marshall, Stephen W; Miller, Mark D

    2002-03-01

    Participation in youth sports has steadily grown over the past 30 years and continues to rise. During the 1998-1999 school year over 360,000 collegiate athletes and almost 6.5 million high school athletes participated in sports. This expansion has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the injury problem associated with participation in youth sports. Estimates are that one-third of high school athletes will sustain an injury during a sports season serious enough to result in time lost from participation. While there may always be some risk associated with sports participation, health professionals can actively encourage injury prevention. In this paper, we describe the benefits of sport participation, the injury problem associated with sports, injury prevention frameworks, and conclude by discussing the changing role of the team physician in youth sports.

  5. Building consensus on youth violence prevention and citizen ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's efforts in negotiation and coalition building contributed to a high-level dialogue that engaged high-level officials and reaffirmed their commitment to preventing violence particularly among youth in Central America. At a meeting held at the Earth University in Costa Rica´s Limon Province in early February, Luis Fallas, ...

  6. A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calear, A.L.; Christensen, H.; Freeman, A.; Fenton, K.; Grant, J.B.; van Spijker, B.; Donker, T.

    2016-01-01

    Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12–25 years.

  7. Access to Parks for Youth as an Environmental Justice Issue: Access Inequalities and Possible Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rigolon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although repeated contact with nature helps foster mental and physical health among young people, their contact with nature has been diminishing over the last few decades. Also, low-income and ethnic minority children have even less contact with nature than white middle-income children. In this study, we compared accessibility to play in parks for young people from different income and racial backgrounds in Denver, Colorado. Park access for children and youth was measured using a geographic information system (GIS. Each neighborhood was classified according to income level, residential density, and distance from downtown; and then each park was classified based on formal and informal play, and level of intimacy. Comparisons between neighborhoods show that that low-income neighborhoods have the lowest access and high-income neighborhoods have the highest access to parks, and that differences are even higher for parks with play amenities and high levels of intimacy. To overcome this issue, the paper proposes a framework for action to improve access to parks for low-income children and youth and to help planners, decision makers and advocacy groups prioritize park investments.

  8. Finding a voice: participatory research with street-involved youth in the youth injection prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coser, Larissa Rodrigues; Tozer, Kira; Van Borek, Natasha; Tzemis, Despina; Taylor, Darlene; Saewyc, Elizabeth; Buxton, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    This article uses a Positive Youth Development framework to explore the experiences of six experiential youth coresearchers (YCs) in the Youth Injection Prevention (YIP) participatory research project, and the parallel track process of empowerment and capacity building that developed. The YIP project was conducted in Metro Vancouver at the BC Centre for Disease Control and community organizations serving street-involved youth. A process evaluation was conducted to explore themes in the YCs experience in the project, as well as process strengths and challenges. Semistructured interviews with the YCs, researcher field notes, and team meeting and debrief session minutes were analyzed. The YIP project appears to have exerted a positive influence on the YCs. Positive self-identities, sense of purpose, reconceptualization of intellectual ability, new knowledge and skills, supportive relationships, finding a voice, and social and self-awareness were among the positive impacts. Process strengths included team-building activities, team check-in and checkout sessions, and professional networking opportunities. Process challenges included the time required to help YCs overcome personal barriers to participation. The YIP project demonstrates that participatory research with street-involved youth is a viable research option that contributes to positive youth development and empowerment. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. Accessibility of youths to health care in Nigeria | Ayandiji | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accessibility of youths to health care in Nigeria. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... This study examines the accessibility of youths to the various health facilities available, the cost of services provided and also the relationship between the health facilities available and the cost of services provided.

  10. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel, R.; Sargent, J.D.; Karlsdottir, S.; Jonsson, S.H.; Mathis, F.; Faggiano, F.; Poelen, E.A.P.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Florek, E.; Sweeting, H.; Hunt, K.; Morgenstern, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. Objective To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare

  11. Youth at Risk: Teens and Crime Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Judith A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four activities for secondary students which deal with teenagers and crime. States that through these activities students will be able to identify those who are commonly victimized, discuss community services for victims, talk about the causes of crime, and explain how teens can play a role in community crime prevention. (GEA)

  12. Injuries, risk factors and prevention initiatives in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Anne; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Sports injuries in young athletes are a public health issue which deserves special attention. Effective prevention can be achieved with training programmes originating from the field of physical therapy and medicine. A systematic literature search on injury prevention in youth sport was performed in the MEDLINE database. For prevention programmes to reduce sports injuries, critical factors must be considered, such as training content, duration and frequency, as well as athlete compliance. Home-based programmes could be inferior to supervised training, but are efficient if compliance is high. So far prevention programmes have focused on team sports and their efficiency in individual sports remains to be proven. Active prevention programmes focusing specifically on the upper extremity are scarce. Initiatives enhancing the awareness of trainers, athletes and therapists about risk factors and systematic prevention measures should be encouraged.

  13. Addressing Service Access Barriers for Homeless Youth: A Call for Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. PERRON

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Homeless youth are among the most vulnerable individuals in North American society. The day-to-day stressors they face while living on the streets pose a great threat to their mental and physical health. A number of barriers that youth face in accessing care have been identified in the literature. This discussion article highlights work that has been done to apply geographic theory to issues of service access among homeless youth. To date, most such work has been theoretical in nature, with collaborations between geographers and homeless youth researchers to make applied recommendations for the location of services. Urban geographers and homeless youth researchers are implored to collaborate in order to make recommendations that will increase the access to service, particularly for rural homeless youth.

  14. Youth with cerebral palsy with differing upper limb abilities: how do they access computers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T Claire; Chau, Tom; Fehlings, Darcy L; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Stott, N Susan

    2010-12-01

    To identify the current level of awareness of different computer access technologies and the choices made regarding mode of access by youth with cerebral palsy (CP) and their families. Survey. Two tertiary-level rehabilitation centers in New Zealand and Canada. Youth (N=60) with CP, Manual Ability Classification Scale (MACS) levels I to V, age 13 to 25 years. Not applicable. Questionnaire. Fifty (83%) of the 60 youth were aware of at least 1 available assistive technology (AT), such as touch screens and joysticks. However, only 34 youth (57%) were familiar with the accessibility options currently available in the most common operating systems. Thirty-three (94%) of 35 youth who were MACS I and II used a standard mouse and keyboard, while few chose to use assistive technology or accessibility options. In contrast, 10 (40%) of 25 youth who were MACS III to V used a variety of assistive technologies such as touch screens, joysticks, trackballs, and scanning technologies. This group also had the highest use of accessibility options, although only 15 (60%) of the 25 were aware of them. Most youth with CP were aware of, and used, assistive technologies to enhance their computer access but were less knowledgeable about accessibility options. Accessibility options allow users to modify their own computer interface and can thus enhance computer access for youth with CP. Clinicians should be knowledgeable enough to give informed advice in this area of computer access, thus ensuring that all youth with CP can benefit from both AT and accessibility options, as required. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Could integration prevent radicalisation of muslim youth?

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Radicalisation is a phenomenon that has been striking not only in parts of Asia and Africa but also in the heart of Europe. While the number of Muslims in Germany is estimated by 4,7 millions (5,8%), 70% of the almost 900,000 asylum-seekers have arrived in recent years are believed to be Muslims. It is undeniable that there is discrimination in Germany, and it is equally undeniable that more on issues of integration and conflict prevention should be done. Thus, could effective integration pro...

  16. The Swedish six-community alcohol and drug prevention trial: effects on youth drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats; Andréasson, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Local communities are increasingly targeted for alcohol and drug prevention campaigns. This study describes some of the key findings from the Swedish six-community alcohol and drug prevention trial (2003-2007) and lessons learned following an evaluation of the trial's effectiveness. The paper focuses mainly on changes in youth drinking and related harms. This was a pre- to post-intervention effect study comparing six trial communities that received added training and technical support with six control communities where regular prevention efforts were supported by national alcohol and drug action plans. A repeated, cross-sectional survey of 8092 youths aged 15-19 years assessed changes in alcohol consumption, binge drinking, perceived alcohol availability, access to alcohol via parents and adult attitudes towards the supply of alcohol to youths. National registry data were used to assess changes in hospital admissions due to alcohol intoxication. Overall, there were few significant improvements in the six trial communities compared with the control communities. The absence of program effects was largely attributable to the selection of strategies (in particular, school and parental programs) lacking evidence of effectiveness in reducing alcohol consumption at the aggregate level. Prevention programs based on efficacy studies need to be tested in community-based effectiveness trials before being disseminated. © 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Youth Audience Segmentation Strategies for Smoking-Prevention Mass Media Campaigns Based on Message Appeal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Dorwaldt, Anne L.; Connolly, Scott W.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2007-01-01

    Mass media interventions are among the strategies recommended for youth cigarette smoking prevention, but little is known about optimal methods for reaching diverse youth audiences. Grades 4 through 12 samples of youth from four states (n = 1,230) rated smoking-prevention messages in classroom settings. Similar proportions of African American,…

  18. [INTERVENTIONS FOR PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF CHILD AND YOUTH OBESITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Morente, Ma Angeles; Sánchez Ocón, Ma Teresa; Mingorance Ruiz, Ma Visitación; Pérez Robles, Angustias; Munoz de la Fuente, José Manuel; Sánchez De Arias, Celia

    2015-02-01

    To determine the current epidemiological situation, prevention and management of child and youth obesity based on the best scientific evidence available. Literature search in PubMed, Cochrane, Science Direct, ENFISPO, Lilacs and SciELO, selecting articles about child and youth obesity, its prevention and treatment. Child and youth obesity is a multifactorial chronic disease that it has been increasing, tending to stay in adolescence and adulthood with greater intensity than more early starts. The data vary from country to country, although most articles are governed by body mass index (BMI). Pediatric overweight is defined by a BMI percentiles located between 91-98 and obesity by a percentile equal or greater than 99. Its prevalence varies according to time, geography, age, gender and race. The prevalence rates of obesity in Spain are one of the highest around the world. The overweight prevalence is lower slightly and there is no difference in gender. Its implications include the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus II. Unanimously, the combination of interventions on life and dietary habits and physical activity is important for the management of obesity and overweight. Currently, the obesity management requires a generalized approach, with changes in lifestyle, diet and physical activity. The best solution for reducing this epidemic lies in prevention rather than treatment.

  19. New Resources on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention, 2002-2004. YouthLens on Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS. Number 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, William, Comp.; Tipton, Margaret, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    As a sequel to YouthLens No. 1, New Resources Available on Youth Reproductive Health and HIV Prevention (July 2002), this YouthLens summarizes major reports and resources that have appeared since July 2002. The resources are organized by overview reports, reproductive health resources, and HIV/AIDS resources. [YouthLens is an activity of YouthNet,…

  20. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them.

  1. Cultivating youth resilience to prevent bullying and cyberbullying victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinduja, Sameer; Patchin, Justin W

    2017-11-01

    In an effort to better prevent and respond to bullying and cyberbullying, schools are recognizing a need to focus on positive youth development. One often-neglected developmental construct in this rubric is resilience, which can help students successfully respond to the variety of challenges they face. Enhancing this internal competency can complement the ever-present efforts of schools as they work to create a safe and supportive learning environment by shaping the external environment around the child. Based on a national sample of 1204 American youth between the ages of 12 and 17, we explore the relationship between resilience and experience with bullying and cyberbullying. We also examine whether resilient youth who were bullied (at school and online) were less likely to be significantly impacted at school. Results show resilience is a potent protective factor, both in preventing experience with bullying and mitigating its effect. Implications for school and community-based interventions are offered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Creating Access to Opportunities for Youth in Transition from Foster Care. An AYPF Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Erin; Fryar, Garet

    2014-01-01

    What happens to youth in foster care when they turn 18? Many face unprecedented challenges like homelessness, lack of financial resources, difficulty accessing educational opportunities, and unemployment. In this issue brief, The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF) document these challenges and opportunities in three distinct yet overlapping areas…

  3. Helping Unaccompanied Homeless Youth Access College Financial Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Unaccompanied homeless youth are young people who lack safe, stable housing and who are not in the care of a parent or guardian. They may have run away from home or been forced to leave by their parents. Unaccompanied youth live in a variety of temporary situations, including shelters, the homes of friends or relatives, cars, campgrounds, public…

  4. Psychosocial preventive interventions for obesity and eating disorders in youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2012-06-01

    Abstract The rates of paediatric obesity have risen dramatically. Given the challenge of successful weight loss and maintenance, preventive interventions are sorely needed. Furthermore, since a substantial proportion of individuals do not respond to traditional behavioural weight loss therapy, alternative approaches are required. Psychological treatments for binge eating disorder have been generally effective at reducing binge episodes and producing weight maintenance or modest weight loss in obese adults. Given the strong link between loss of control eating and obesity in youths, binge eating disorder treatment may serve as a viable form of excess weight gain prevention. An adapted version of interpersonal psychotherapy for binge eating disorder is one such intervention that we have considered. A description of the theoretical basis and proposed mechanism is described. Adaptations of interpersonal psychotherapy and other established therapies for binge eating disorder may serve as platforms from which to develop and disseminate obesity and eating disorder prevention programs in children and adolescents.

  5. Suicide prevention and method restriction: evaluating the impact of limiting access to lethal means among young Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, Samara; Baker, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    Given the finite resources allocated to suicide prevention, it is necessary to direct resources into interventions that are most likely to have an impact. This article tests for possible impacts on youth suicides of a cost-intensive Australian policy change (increased firearms restriction) that limited access to a means of suicide. Suicide rates by different age groups and methods were examined for structural breaks, using Zivot-Andrews and Quandt tests. No breakpoint was found in firearm suicide among Australian youth around the time of the 1996 legislative changes. Method restriction in the form of firearms legislation could not be tied to a corresponding impact on youth suicide.

  6. AIDSCAP. Saving a generation: Ethiopian youth rally to prevent AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, K

    1997-01-01

    Afraid that they were infected with HIV and would die in several years, several young adults formed the Save Your Generation Association (SYGA) to warn other young people about the threat of HIV/AIDS. SYGA has since become a registered Ethiopian nongovernmental organization (NGO) with a paid staff of 14 and more than 6000 dues-paying members. It is one of seven NGOs which received support from the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) project over 3 years to bring HIV/AIDS prevention education to out-of-school youth in six urban areas of Ethiopia. The projects recruited young volunteers and enlisted the aid of community organizations to inform and motivate the tens of thousands of school dropouts and other unemployed young people. Bored and hopeless, these youths often turn to dangerous escape mechanisms involving drugs, alcohol, and sex with multiple partners. The local government helped the NGOs find their target population and provided meeting space for HIV/AIDS prevention activities.

  7. PSINET: Assisting HIV Prevention Amongst Homeless Youth by Planning Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, A; Marcolino, L S; Rice, E; Petering, R; Winetrobe, H; Rhoades, H; Tambe, M; Carmichael, H

    2016-01-01

    Homeless youth are prone to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) due to their engagement in high risk behavior such as unprotected sex, sex under influence of drugs, etc. Many non-profit agencies conduct interventions to educate and train a select group of homeless youth about HIV prevention and treatment practices and rely on word-of-mouth spread of information through their social network. Previous work in strategic selection of intervention participants does not handle uncertainties in the social network's structure and evolving network state, potentially causing significant shortcomings in spread of information. Thus, we developed PSINET, a decision support system to aid the agencies in this task. PSINET includes the following key novelties: (i) it handles uncertainties in network structure and evolving network state; (ii) it addresses these uncertainties by using POMDPs in influence maximization; and (iii) it provides algorithmic advances to allow high quality approximate solutions for such POMDPs. Simulations show that PSINET achieves ~ 60% more information spread over the current state-of-the-art. PSINET was developed in collaboration with My Friend's Place (a drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles) and is currently being reviewed by their officials.

  8. Youth Voice and HIV Prevention: Discursive Opportunities, Limitations and Productive Impossibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andree

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on engagements with "voice" in youth studies and "student voice" work in order to interrogate the limits and opportunities of the call to "youth voice" in HIV prevention discourses. Building on the limitations and opportunities within the debates of the "who", "what" and "how" of speaking and the construction of the youth subject,…

  9. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D; Karlsdóttir, Sólveig; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2013-07-01

    Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare with that in the USA. The authors identified the most commercially successful movies screened in six European countries (Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and UK) and the USA between 2004 and 2009. The authors coded the 464 movies that were screened in both Europe and the USA according to whether or not they portrayed smoking. 87% of the movies were 'youth' rated in Europe (ratings board classification as suitable for those younger than 16 years) compared to only 67% in the USA (suitable for those younger than 17 years). Smoking was portrayed in 319 (69%) movies. 85% of the movies that portrayed smoking were 'youth' rated in Europe compared with only 59% in the USA (pUSA. None of the seven countries examined followed the WHO recommendations on restricting youth access to movies that portray smoking. Compared to the USA, European youths have access to substantially more movies in general, and this gives them access to more movies that portray smoking in particular.

  10. A multidisciplinary youth violence-prevention initiative: impact on attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, David C; Cornwell, Edward E; Sutton, Erica R H; Yonas, Michael A; Allen, Fred

    2005-11-01

    In a previous report, enhanced resource commitment at a Level I trauma center was associated with improved outcomes for most major categories of injured patients, except those with gunshot wounds, which disproportionately affected the young (ages 15 to 24 years). We hypothesized that a primary violence-prevention initiative geared toward changing attitudes about interpersonal conflict among at-risk youths can be effective. Between May 2002 and November 2003, 97 youths (mean age 12.6 years) were recruited from one of two Police Athletic League centers in the catchment area of our Level I trauma center. Participant attitudes about interpersonal conflicts were surveyed with six previously validated scales before and after a hospital tour with a video and slide presentation graphically depicting the results of gun violence. Mean differences in scores between pre- and postintervention surveys were assessed. Of the 97 participants, 48 (49.4%) completed the intervention program with both the pre- and postintervention tests, with a mean of 25.8 days between tests. There was a statistically significant reduction in the Beliefs Supporting Aggression scale (mean -0.38 U; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.54; p < 0.01), and a trend toward reduced Likelihood of Violence (mean -0.17 U; 95% CI, 0.01 to -0.34; p = 0.06). A multidisciplinary violence-prevention outreach program can produce short-term improvement in beliefs supporting aggression among at-risk youth. Longterm impact of this attitude change needs to be examined in future studies.

  11. How youth-friendly are pharmacies in New Zealand? Surveying aspects of accessibility and the pharmacy environment using a youth participatory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfield, Emma; Kelly, Fiona; Clark, Terryann; Sheridan, Janie

    2014-01-01

    The international youth population has significant unmet health needs, and there have been many calls to increase youth health care access. Community pharmacies may be able to help address these needs, but very little research has investigated this area and it is not known whether the current community pharmacy setting is acceptable or appropriate for youth. 1) To obtain information on physical factors which could affect young people's use of community pharmacies in New Zealand, including accessibility, opening times and the physical youth-friendliness of the pharmacy environment. 2) To involve and utilize young people in the research process, in order to understand their needs and interpretation of survey data. This study applied a cross sectional survey design, informed by a sequential youth participatory approach. A questionnaire was developed in consultation with a youth advisory group (YAG). Questionnaires distributed to pharmacists at 500 randomly selected pharmacies nationwide between May and September 2011 collected information on whether the pharmacy met selected youth-friendly criteria. These included physical aspects of youth-friendliness, such as opening times and the pharmacy environment. The YAG also provided a youth perspective in the interpretation of the results. Three mail shots achieved a response rate of 50.5%. Most respondents reported the pharmacy to be accessible by public transport and many had extended opening hours. Although most pharmacies met some youth-friendly criteria with regards to the pharmacy environment (e.g. having a private consultation area), more specific criteria (such as displaying youth health information) were usually not met. Interpretive feedback from the YAG highlighted areas for improvement. Pharmacies show potential as youth-friendly health care access points and most already meet some youth-friendly criteria. Areas identified for improvement will require a greater youth focus from the profession, and should be

  12. Child/Youth Homelessness: housing affordability, early intervention, and preventive care in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Shiga, Fumiya

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the child/youth homelessness including its preventive care.This paper explores the housing support program implemented across Australia in brief at first, and then profile child/youth homelessness and housing policy. Based on that, it discusses early intervention and preventive methods followed by the conclusion.

  13. Preventive youth health care in 11 European countries: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieske, Rosemarie C N; Nijnuis, Marianne G; Carmiggelt, Bettie C; Wagenaar-Fischer, Margreet M; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M

    2012-06-01

    To systematically identify similarities and differences in the way preventive youth health care (YHC) is organized in 11 European countries. Questionnaire survey to EUSUHM (European Union for School and University Health and Medicine) representatives. The greatest similarities were found in the age range of the YHC target group and the separation of curative and preventive services. Croatia, Germany and Switzerland show the greatest differences when compared to other European countries, for example, in the access to medical records, YHC professional input and the number of examinations, immunizations and screenings. In eight countries YHC is financed by national insurances or taxation. In Germany, FYR Macedonia, the Netherlands, Russia and Switzerland, different forms of financing exist in parallel. The results should be interpreted as a preliminary step in mapping organizational features of YHC in Europe.

  14. Youth retail tobacco access in Canada: regional variation, perceptions, and predictors from YSS 2010/2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Soni, Shilpa; Nguyen, Nghia; Manske, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Retail tobacco access is an important determinant of youth smoking prevalence. This study examines perceptions of ease in obtaining cigarettes and how prevalence of self-reported retail tobacco access among youth smokers varies by province in Canada. Additionally, relevant retail experiences, such as being asked for identification by a store clerk, are described. Data from grades 9-12 students who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey, a nationally generalizable sample of Canadian students (n=31396) were used to examine retail tobacco access and related experiences. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in retail tobacco access and retail tobacco experiences by sociodemographic and regional characteristics. 79% of students who never smoked thought it would be easy to get cigarettes. About one-quarter of smokers reported usually buying cigarettes from stores, and the percent of student smokers usually buying cigarettes in stores ranged from 16% in British Columbia to 36% in Quebec. Compared to grade 9 students, grade 12 students had higher odds of report being asked for identification (OR=6.3, 95% CI 1.9-21.5). Retail tobacco access appears to be a significant source of cigarette access among Canadian youth. Retail tobacco access varies significantly by province, which suggests provincial policies should be strengthened. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The Focus on Youth Prevention and Education Research Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Deveaux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Like many developing or transitional countries affected by the HIV epidemic, The Bahamas has been deeply committed to HIV and sexually transmitted infection reduction and continues to make great strides in controlling the epidemic within its boundaries. Encouraged by the impact of the Focus on Youth Caribbean (FOYC, a school-based HIV/AIDS prevention programme and its parenting component on Grade 6 and Grade 10 students and their parents, a team of researchers from The Bahamas and the United States sought to implement a similar programme at a national level, while simultaneously evaluating factors that impact the sustainability of sexual risk-reduction programmes like FOYC. This paper describes five research projects conducted in The Bahamas between 1998 and 2016 and includes a list of over 40 published research articles

  16. Substance Abuse Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromin, Romulo Alcalde

    2016-12-01

    Knowing how to manage substance abuse in all youth is an important aspect of pediatric care, including providing clinically appropriate anticipatory guidance, monitoring, assessment, and treatment. Although most lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth do not abuse substances, as a group they experience unique challenges in self-identity development that put them at an increased risk for substance abuse. This article addresses prevention and management of substance use in LGBT youth relevant to pediatrics and allied professions as an aspect of their overall health care. It reviews basic information about substance abuse in youth and special considerations for LGBT youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preventing drug use among sexual-minority youths: findings from a tailored, web-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Thom, Bridgette; Schinke, Steven Paul; Hopkins, Jessica

    2015-05-01

    Rates of drug use among sexual-minority youths are disproportionately high. Yet, expressly designed prevention programs targeting this population are absent. This study developed and tested a web-based drug abuse prevention program for sexual-minority youths. A sample (N = 236) of sexual-minority youths was recruited via Facebook. Online, all youths completed pretests; youths randomly assigned to the intervention received a 3-session prevention program; and all youths completed posttest and 3-month follow-up measurements. At 3-month follow-up and compared to youths in the control arm, intervention-arm youths reported less stress, reduced peer drug use, lower rates of past 30-day other drug use, and higher coping, problem solving, and drug-use refusal skills. Outcome data suggest the potential of tailored intervention content to address sexual-minority youths' drug use rates and related risk factors. Moreover, study procedures lend support to the feasibility of using the Internet to recruit sexual-minority youths, collect data, and deliver intervention. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Health care access for rural youth on equal terms? A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Carson, Dean; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Wiklund, Maria; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2018-01-11

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population. The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care. The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.

  19. Migrant's access to preventive health services in five EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, Aldo; Dauvrin, Marie; Buttigieg, Sandra C; Ronda, Elena; Tafforeau, Jean; Dias, Sonia

    2017-08-23

    Preventive health services (PHSs) form part of primary healthcare with the aim of screening to prevent disease. Migrants show significant differences in lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared with the native populations. This can have a significant impact on migrants' access to health systems and participation in prevention programmes. Even in countries with widely accessible healthcare systems, migrants' access to PHSs may be difficult. The aim of the study was to compare access to preventive health services between migrants and native populations in five European Union (EU) countries. Information from Health Interview Surveys of Belgium, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain were used to analyse access to mammography, Pap smear tests, colorectal cancer screening and flu vaccination among migrants. The comparative risk of not accessing PHSs was calculated using a mixed-effects multilevel model, adjusting for potential confounding factors (sex, education and the presence of disability). Migrant status was defined according to citizenship, with a distinction made between EU and non-EU countries. Migrants, in particular those from non-EU countries, were found to have poorer access to PHSs. The overall risk of not reporting a screening test or a flu vaccination ranged from a minimum of 1.8 times (colorectal cancer screening), to a high of 4.4 times (flu vaccination) for migrants. The comparison among the five EU countries included in the study showed similarities, with particularly limited access recorded in Italy and in Belgium for non-EU migrants. The findings of this study are in accordance with evidence from the scientific literature. Poor organization of health services, in Italy, and lack of targeted health policies in Belgium may explain these findings. PHSs should be responsive to patient diversity, probably more so than other health services. There is a need for diversity-oriented, migrant-sensitive prevention. Policies oriented to removing

  20. Reducing Cancer and Cancer Disparities: Lessons From a Youth-Generated Diabetes Prevention Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Dean; Ling, Pamela M; Fine, Sarah; Boyer, Cherrie B; Rogers, Elizabeth; Vargas, Roberto Ariel; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia

    2017-09-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood, a period essential for determining exposures over the life-course, is an ideal time to intervene to lower cancer risk. This demographic group can be viewed as both the target audience and generator of messages for cancer prevention, such as skin cancer, obesity-, tobacco-, and human papillomavirus-related cancers. The purpose of this paper is to encourage innovative health communications that target youth; youth behavior; and the structural, environmental, and social determinants of youth behavior as critical areas of focus for cancer prevention and disparities reduction. The authors describe the rationale, processes, products, and early impacts of an award-winning youth diabetes prevention communication campaign model (The Bigger Picture) that harnesses spoken-word messages in school-based and social media presentations. The campaign supports minority adolescent and young adult artists to create content that aligns with values held closely by youth-values likely to resonate and affect change, such as defiance against authority, inclusion, and social justice. This campaign can be leveraged to prevent obesity, which is a cancer risk factor. Then, the authors propose concrete ways that The Bigger Picture's pedagogical model could be adapted for broader cancer prevention messaging for youth of color and youth stakeholders regarding tobacco-related cancers, skin cancers, and human papillomavirus-related cancers. The goal is to demonstrate how a youth-generated and youth-targeted prevention campaign can: (1) reframe conversations about cancer prevention, (2) increase awareness that cancer prevention is about social justice and health equity, and (3) catalyze action to change social norms and confront the social and environmental drivers of cancer disparities. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Access and Mobilization: How Social Capital Relates to Low-Income Youth's Postsecondary Educational (PSE) Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Mariam; Feliciano, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Youth from advantaged backgrounds have more social relationships that provide access to resources facilitating their educational success than those from low-income families. Does access to and mobilization of social capital also relate to success among the few low-income youth who "overcome the odds" and persist in higher education?…

  2. Industry sponsored youth smoking prevention programme in Malaysia: a case study in duplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review tobacco company strategies of using youth smoking prevention programmes to counteract the Malaysian government's tobacco control legislation and efforts in conducting research on youth to market to them. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Search terms included Malay, cmtm, jaycees, YAS, and direct marketing; 195 relevant documents were identified for this paper. Industry internal documents reveal that youth anti-smoking programmes were launched to offset the government's tobacco control legislation. The programme was seen as a strategy to lobby key politicians and bureaucrats for support in preventing the passage of legislation. However, the industry continued to conduct research on youth, targeted them in marketing, and considered the teenage market vital for its survival. Promotional activities targeting youth were also carried out such as sports, notably football and motor racing, and entertainment events and cash prizes. Small, affordable packs of cigarettes were crucial to reach new smokers. The tobacco industry in Malaysia engaged in duplicitous conduct in regard to youth. By buying into the youth smoking issue it sought to move higher on the moral playing field and strengthen its relationship with government, while at the same time continuing to market to youth. There is no evidence that industry youth smoking prevention programmes were effective in reducing smoking; however, they were effective in diluting the government's tobacco control legislation.

  3. Alcohol and substance use prevention programs for youth in Hawaii and Pacific Islands: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Zoe; Cook, Angelie; Konishi, Minami; Nigg, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a literature review of recent programs to prevent alcohol and substance use in Hawaii and Pacific Islander youths. Five programs for alcohol and substance use prevention among Hawaii and Pacific Islander youths were found in peer-reviewed literature. Of these, two focused on Native Hawaiians and/or other Pacific Islanders and three focused on overall youths in Hawaii. The main themes of these programs were increasing cultural pride, character development through personal efficacy and integrity, connecting youth to family and community, and being school- or community-centered. Two studies showed a decrease in substance use, one showed a change in knowledge, and two did not published outcomes. This review highlights a lack of evidence-based culturally appropriate options for preventing substance use by Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander youth. Dialogue about best practices is needed and should be supported through publication of program evaluations.

  4. Complications of an implantable venous access port: Prevention and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Song, Myung Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, In Ho [Dept. Radiology, Chungang University Hospital, Chungang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Placement of an implantable venous access port (IVAP) is a popular procedure for repeated and intermittent chemotherapy in patients with malignancy. In this article, we present various IVAP related complications. In addition, we review the technical tips to prevent and manage the complications. It is important that the operator should keep the mechanism of the complications in mind, perform a careful procedure for prevention, and manage the complication properly and immediately in case of its development for safety and satisfaction of the patients Complications of an implantable venous access port: Prevention and treatment.

  5. Perceived Stressors of Suicide and Potential Prevention Strategies for Suicide among Youths in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jin Kuan; van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.; Chan, Andrea Huan Wen

    2015-01-01

    The suicide rate among youths in Malaysia has increased over the years, giving rise to considerable public concern. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe potential stressors of suicide and suicide prevention strategies as perceived by youths in Malaysia aged 15-25 years. A qualitative approach was adopted and 625 students from…

  6. Perceptions of youth on the use of condoms for HIV prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of youth on the use of condoms for HIV prevention in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design was used. The population included all youth from the ages of 15 to 19 years who attended two ...

  7. The Benefits of a Friendship-Based HIV/STI Prevention Intervention for African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Gary W.; Dolcini, M. Margaret; Benhorin, Shira; Watson, Susan E.; Boyer, Cherrie B.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a qualitative evaluation of an HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) prevention intervention for urban African American youth (Project ÒRÉ), which was delivered to groups of 3 to 8 adolescents who were members of the same friendship network. Sixteen focus groups (N = 63) were conducted with youth following…

  8. Implementation and Evaluation of a Youth Violence Prevention Program for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Mary Elana

    2009-01-01

    Youth violence in the city of Philadelphia, PA, has reached epidemic proportions. The majority of homicides related to gun violence is most prevalent among African American males aged 19 to 24 years. Therefore, it is essential to implement youth violence prevention programs to a target population several years younger than this age group to…

  9. Underage Drinking, Group Identity and Access to Alcohol: A Qualitative Study of Chinese Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Lam, W. W. T.; Sham, J. T. L.; Lam, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial research into underage youth's source of alcohol, few studies have examined how they go about obtaining alcohol through various means. This study explored the nature of alcohol access by Chinese adolescents and how their own perceptions around alcohol availability influence them to source alcohol in particular ways. This…

  10. ALTERNATIVE NARRATIVES FOR PREVENTING THE RADICALIZATION OF MUSLIM YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azal Upal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The international jihadist movement has declared war. They have declared war on anybody who does not think and act exactly as they wish they would think and act. We may not like this and wish it would go away, but it’s not going to go away, and the reality is we are going to have to confront it. (Prime Minister Steven Harper, 8 Jan 2015 With an increasing number of Western Muslims falling prey to violent extremist ideologies and joining Jihadi organizations such as Al-Qaida and the ISIS, Western policy makers have been concerned with preventing radicalization of Muslim youth. This has resulted in a number of government sponsored efforts (e.g., MyJihad, Sabahi, and Maghrebia (Briggs and Feve 2013 to counter extremist propaganda by arguing that extremist violent tactics used by Jihadist organizations are not congruent with Islamic tenets of kindness and just war. Despite the expenditure of significant resources since 2001, these efforts have had limited success. This article argues that in order to succeed we need to better understand Muslim core social identity beliefs (i.e., their perception of what it means to be a good Muslim and how these beliefs are connected to Muslims perceptions of Westerners. A better understanding of the interdependent nature and dynamics of these beliefs will allow us to design counter radicalization strategies that have a better chance of success.

  11. Youth access to indoor tanning salons in urban versus rural/suburban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Vinayak K; Rosenthal, Meagen; Lemon, Stephenie C; Kane, Kevin; Cheng, Jie; Oleski, Jessica L; Li, Wenjun; Hillhouse, Joel J; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-03-01

    Research suggests that youth proximity to tanning salons may promote use; however, little is known about tanning salon proximity to schools. We assessed the proximity of tanning salons to schools in urban versus rural/suburban communities across Worcester County, Massachusetts (population > 800K). To put findings in context, we compared school proximity to tanning salons to school proximity to McDonald's restaurants, a large franchise that also caters to young people. Accessibility was measured by ArcGIS 10.2 Network Analyzer (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA) and the most current road network data layer from Massachusetts Department of Transportation (MassDOT). A total of 145 schools were observed in the study area, of which about 39% of schools were within 1 mile from a tanning salon. Urban schools (53.41%) had a higher proportion within 1 mile of a tanning salon than rural/suburban schools (17.54%; P < .001). More schools (39.31%) were within 1 mile of a tanning salon than schools within 1 mile of a McDonald's (22.70%; P < .001). Schools may be particularly impactful for implementing skin cancer prevention programing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A pilot study evaluating the effects of a youth advocacy program on youth readiness to advocate for environment and policy changes for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-12-01

    Youth advocacy for obesity prevention is a promising but under-evaluated intervention. The aims of this study are to evaluate a youth advocacy program's outcomes related to youth perceptions and behaviors, develop an index of youth advocacy readiness, and assess potential predictors of advocacy readiness. Youth ages 9-22 in an advocacy training program (n = 92 matched pairs) completed surveys before and after training. Youth outcomes and potential predictors of advocacy readiness were assessed with evaluated scales. All 20 groups who completed the evaluation study presented their advocacy projects to a decision maker. Two of six perception subscales increased following participation in the advocacy program: self-efficacy for advocacy behaviors (p Youth increased days of meeting physical activity recommendations (p youth advocacy readiness index is a novel way to determine the effects of multiple correlates of advocacy readiness. Childhood obesity-related advocacy training appeared to improve youths' readiness for advocacy and physical activity.

  13. Preventive youth health care in 11 European countries: An exploratory analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieske, R.C.N.; Nijnuis, M.G.; Carmiggelt, B.C.; Wagenaar-Fischer, M.M.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically identify similarities and differences in the way preventive youth health care (YHC) is organized in 11 European countries. Method Questionnaire survey to EUSUHM (European Union for School and University Health and Medicine) representatives. Results The greatest

  14. Youth violence prevention comes of age: research, training and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kara; Rivera, Lourdes; Neighbours, Robert; Reznik, Vivian

    2007-01-01

    Youth violence is recognized as a major public health problem in the United States and the world. Over the past ten years, progress has been made in documenting the factors that contribute to violent behavior. Emerging research is deepening our understanding of the individual and societal influences that contribute to and protect against youth violence. However, much work still remains to be done in this field, both in examining potential causes and in designing effective intervention strategies. This chapter highlights specific dimensions of youth violence prevention selected by the authors because these dimensions are the focus of public attention, are emerging as critical issues in the study of youth violence, or have a unique place in the current political and social context. We focus on the developmental pathways to violence, factors that mediate and moderate youth violence, the role of culture and media in youth violence, school-based violence such as school shootings and bullying, and the training of health care professionals.

  15. Parent Engagement in Youth Drug Prevention in Chinese Families: Advancement in Program Development and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra K. M. Tsang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The escalating youth drug abuse problem in Hong Kong has attracted intense attention from the government, schools, and youth service professionals. Most preventive efforts have focused directly on positive youth development, very often through school programs delivered to secondary school students. There have been limited efforts to engage parents even though it is obvious that the family is actually the primary context of children and youth development. This paper will assert the importance of parental engagement in youth drug-prevention work, discuss some barriers in such parental involvement, present some promising local attempts and their strengths and limitations, and propose that sustained efforts are needed to build up theory-driven and evidence-based resources for Chinese communities on the subject.

  16. Spatial accessibility to physical activity facilities and to food outlets and overweight in French youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, R; Chaix, B; Weber, C; Schweitzer, B; Charreire, H; Salze, P; Badariotti, D; Banos, A; Oppert, J-M; Simon, C

    2012-07-01

    Some characteristics of the built environment have been associated with obesity in youth. Our aim was to determine whether individual and environmental socio-economic characteristics modulate the relation between youth overweight and spatial accessibility to physical activity (PA) facilities and to food outlets. Cross-sectional study. 3293 students, aged 12 ± 0.6 years, randomly selected from eastern France middle schools. Using geographical information systems (GIS), spatial accessibility to PA facilities (urban and nature) was assessed using the distance to PA facilities at the municipality level; spatial accessibility to food outlets (general food outlets, bakeries and fast-food outlets) was calculated at individual level using the student home address and the food outlets addresses. Relations of weight status with spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to food outlets were analysed using mixed logistic models, testing potential direct and interaction effects of individual and environmental socio-economic characteristics. Individual socio-economic status modulated the relation between spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to general food outlets and overweight. The likelihood of being overweight was higher when spatial accessibility to urban PA facilities and to general food outlets was low, but in children of blue-collar-workers only. The odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval) for being overweight of blue-collar-workers children compared with non-blue-collar-workers children was 1.76 (1.25-2.49) when spatial accessibility to urban PA facilities was low. This OR was 1.86 (1.20-2.86) when spatial accessibility to general food outlets was low. There was no significant relationship of overweight with either nature PA facilities or other food outlets (bakeries and fast-food outlets). These results indicate that disparities in spatial accessibility to PA facilities and to general food outlets may amplify the risk of overweight in socio

  17. Disabled persons' knowledge of HIV prevention and access to health care prevention services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Arne Henning; Schür, Clare; Ranchod, Chitra; Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie; Schneider, Marguerite

    2011-12-01

    The main research question in this article is how access to information about HIV/AIDS and level of HIV/AIDS prevention related knowledge are distributed among disabled people, and whether level of knowledge predicts access to HIV/AIDS related services. A survey was carried out among a sample of 285 disabled people from three provinces in South Africa. Analyses of the data revealed that gender and level of education, together with geographical differences, are key predictors for access to information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among disabled people. For male respondents number of information sources predicts access to voluntary counselling and testing services and HIV testing, while knowledge about prevention predicts access to Voluntary Counselling and Testing centres. Significant gender differences with regards to information, knowledge and access to services highlight the need for gender specific prevention strategies among disabled people.

  18. Systematic review: internet-based program for youth smoking prevention and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhee; Drake, Emily

    2015-01-01

    To review the characteristics and effects Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. Systematic review of published articles in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years, focused on Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. Twelve articles were selected based on the following criteria: studies reporting the outcomes of Internet-based smoking cessation or prevention intervention programs for adolescents who are younger than 24 years. The components of youth Internet-based smoking intervention programs are analyzed based on study features (i.e., sample, design, theoretical basis, analysis, outcome measures) and program characteristics (i.e., focus, setting, frequency, duration, intensity, and different components) that make the programs effective. The most common components of effective Internet-based programs are identified as the following: the use of multimedia, tailored approaches, personalized feedback, and interactive features. The characteristics and effects of the programs vary, but most programs show positive results in youth smoking prevention and cessation in spite of the studies' limitations. The evidence from this review provides useful information of recent efforts related to Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs, which can have significant clinical implications in developing future innovative youth smoking prevention and intervention programs. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Harm Reduction for the Prevention of Youth Gambling Problems: Lessons Learned From Adolescent High-Risk Behavior Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Laurie M.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2004-01-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the harm reduction approach in the field of adolescent alcohol and substance abuse, a harm reduction approach to prevention and treatment of youth problem gambling remains largely unexplored. This article poses the question of whether the harm reduction paradigm is a promising approach to the prevention of…

  20. Building relationships and resilience in the prevention of youth violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, R M; Hopson, T; Haskins, M; Powell, K E

    1996-01-01

    Self Enhancement, Inc., is a grassroots, community-service organization working in the most disadvantaged high-risk community in Portland, Oregon. Its violence-prevention program targets middle-school and high-school students by providing classroom and community activities to these young people. These activities are designed to enhance protective factors and build resilience in youths to enable them to attain healthy and productive lives and to resist the threats of gangs, violence, and drugs. RMC Research Corporation works in partnership with Self Enhancement, Inc., to conduct research and evaluation on the effectiveness of its programs. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program works primarily at the individual student and interpersonal relationship levels. Resilience Theory and its culturally specific Relationship Model drive the formulation of specific strategies and activities. Program staff mentor each student through his or her preadolescent and adolescent years, promoting positive, prosocial norms and expectations for behavior through their peer group activities. The Self Enhancement, Inc., program consists of three major components: classroom, exposure, and proactive education. Classroom education focuses on anger management, conflict resolution, and problem solving. Exposure education consists of quarterly field trips to agencies and organizations in the Portland area that deal with the causes and consequences of violence in the community. Proactive education includes newsletters, student-run assemblies and conferences, and radio/ television public service announcements that communicate antiviolence messages. The evaluation plan is a longitudinal matched comparison group designed to assess the outcomes of the violence-prevention program. Key outcomes are protective factors, health-risk behaviors, and academic measures. Standardized assessment instruments (the Individual Protective Factors Index and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey) were administered to all

  1. Culturally Tailored Depression/Suicide Prevention in Latino Youth: Community Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford-Paz, Rebecca E; Reinhard, Christine; Kuebbeler, Andrea; Contreras, Richard; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-10-01

    Latino adolescents are at elevated risk for depression and suicide compared to other ethnic groups. Project goals were to gain insight from community leaders about depression risk factors particular to Latino adolescents and generate innovative suggestions to improve cultural relevance of prevention interventions. This project utilized a CBPR approach to enhance cultural relevance, acceptability, and utility of the findings and subsequent program development. Two focus groups of youth and youth-involved Latino community leaders (n = 18) yielded three overarching themes crucial to a culturally tailored depression prevention intervention: (1) utilize a multipronged and sustainable intervention approach, (2) raise awareness about depression in culturally meaningful ways, and (3) promote Latino youth's social connection and cultural enrichment activities. Findings suggest that both adaptation of existing prevention programs and development of hybrid approaches may be necessary to reduce depression/suicide disparities for Latino youth. One such hybrid program informed by community stakeholders is described.

  2. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D; Karlsdóttir, Sólveig; Jónsson, Stefán Hrafn; Mathis, Federica; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Poelen, Evelien A P; Scholte, Ron; Florek, Ewa; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2013-01-01

    Background Based on evidence that exposure to smoking in movies is associated with adolescent smoking, the WHO has called on countries to assign a rating that restricts youth access to such movies. Objective To evaluate youth access to movies that portray smoking in European countries and compare with that in the USA. Methods The authors identified the most commercially successful movies screened in six European countries (Germany, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland and UK) and the USA between 2004 and 2009. The authors coded the 464 movies that were screened in both Europe and the USA according to whether or not they portrayed smoking. Results 87% of the movies were ‘youth’ rated in Europe (ratings board classification as suitable for those younger than 16 years) compared to only 67% in the USA (suitable for those younger than 17 years). Smoking was portrayed in 319 (69%) movies. 85% of the movies that portrayed smoking were ‘youth’ rated in Europe compared with only 59% in the USA (pmovies that portray smoking. Compared to the USA, European youths have access to substantially more movies in general, and this gives them access to more movies that portray smoking in particular. PMID:22184208

  3. Contextual and Community Factors Associated with Youth Access to Cigarettes through Commercial Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examines contextual and community level characteristics associated with youth access to tobacco through commercial sources in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. Methods The study is based on data from access surveys conducted by 4 confederate buyers (2 males and 2 females) in 997 tobacco outlets. City demographics, adult smoking prevalence and measures of tobacco outlet density, local tobacco retailer licensing and cigarette tax were included. Results Multilevel regression analyses indicated that buyer actual age, a male clerk and asking young buyers about their age were related to successful cigarette purchases. Buyer actual age and minimum age signs increased the likelihood that clerks will request an ID. At the community level, higher percentage of minors, higher education, and a greater percentage of African Americans were associated with increased likelihood of a successful purchase. Lower percentage of minors, lower education, lower percentage of African Americans, and having a local tobacco retailer licensing were associated with retailer asked for ID. Additionally, supermarkets charged significantly more for a pack of cigarettes than small markets whereas smoke/tobacco shops and drug stores/pharmacies charged less. Higher prices were associated with higher median household income and greater percentage of Hispanics. Findings about community characteristics, however, differed by cigarette brand. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the associations between contextual and community characteristics and youth access to tobacco through commercial sources which can help policymakers to identify and target at-risk communities and outlets to decrease youth access to tobacco. PMID:23092887

  4. Long-term effects of prevention and treatment on youth antisocial behavior: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Aaron M; Borduin, Charles M; Dopp, Alex R

    2015-12-01

    Youth antisocial behavior exacts a tremendous toll on society and often persists into adulthood. Although researchers have identified a number of psychosocial interventions that prevent or reduce youth antisocial behavior in the short term, evidence of long-term intervention benefits has only recently become available. In addition, research on such interventions spans two substantial but largely separate bodies of literature: prevention and therapy. The present study used meta-analysis to integrate research on the long-term effects of preventive and therapeutic interventions for youth antisocial behavior and examined potential moderators of these effects. Results from 66 intervention trials (i.e., 34 prevention, 32 therapy) indicated that a broad range of youth psychosocial interventions demonstrated modest effects on antisocial behavior (mean d=0.31, 95% confidence interval=0.23-0.39) for at least one year beyond the end of interventions relative to control conditions. Among other findings, moderator analyses revealed that inclusion of a peer group intervention component was associated with reduced intervention effects for samples consisting predominantly of boys or older youths. The results of this study have important implications for service providers, administrators, and policymakers involved in the implementation of preventive and therapeutic interventions targeting youth antisocial behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Healthcare Barriers and Utilization Among Adolescents and Young Adults Accessing Services for Homeless and Runaway Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelvakumar, Gayathri; Ford, Nancy; Kapa, Hillary M; Lange, Hannah L H; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Bonny, Andrea E

    2017-06-01

    Homeless and runaway youth are at disproportionate risk for adverse health outcomes. Many barriers to accessing healthcare have been documented; however, the relative impact of discrete barriers on homeless youth healthcare utilization behavior is not firmly established. We administered a survey examining reported barriers and healthcare utilization among adolescents and young adults accessing services at three community centers for homeless and runaway youth. Of 180 respondents, 57 % were male, 80 % non-White, and 21 % identified as a sexual minority. Stepwise logistic regression models, controlling for age and study site, explored associations between barriers and 3 healthcare utilization outcomes (doctor visit in past 12 months; regular care provider; frequent emergency department (ED) visits). The most commonly reported barriers were "don't have a ride" (27.2 %), "no insurance" (23.3 %), and "costs too much" (22.8 %). All fear-based barriers (e.g., "I don't trust the doctors") were reported by homeless and runaway youth as the impact of discrete barriers varies depending on outcome of focus.

  6. Shifting the paradigm in Oregon from teen pregnancy prevention to youth sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Robert J; Duke, Jessica E A; Victor, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input, the Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan was released in 2009. The plan focuses on development of young people and embraces sexuality as a natural part of adolescent development. The plan's five goals and eight objectives guide the work of state agencies and partners addressing youth sexual health. Oregon's development of a statewide plan can serve as a framework for other states and entities to address all aspects of youth sexual health.

  7. Do youth sports prevent pediatric obesity? A systematic review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Toben F; Stovitz, Steven D; Thomas, Megan; LaVoi, Nicole M; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Sport is a promising setting for obesity prevention among youth, but little is known about whether it prevents obesity. We reviewed research comparing sport participants with nonparticipants on weight status, physical activity, and diet. Among 19 studies, we found no clear pattern of association between body weight and sport participation. Among 17 studies, we found that sport participants are more physically active than those who do not participate. We found seven studies that compared the diet of sport participants with non-participants. These studies reported that youth involved in sport were more likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk, and also more likely to eat fast food and drink sugar-sweetened beverages and consume more calories overall. It is unclear from these results whether sports programs, as currently offered, protect youth from becoming overweight or obese. Additional research may foster understanding about how sport, and youth sport settings, can help promote energy balance and healthy body weight.

  8. Evaluating the role of social marketing campaigns to prevent youth gambling problems: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerlian, Carmen; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Gambling among adolescents is a growing public health concern. To date, social marketing as a strategy to address problem gambling among youth has not been widely used. A qualitative study through the use of focus groups was conducted to explore adolescents' exposure to existing prevention campaigns and their message content and communication strategy preferences for a youth gambling social marketing campaign. Participants prefer that youth gambling ads depict real-life stories, use an emotional appeal and portray the negative consequences associated with gambling problems. They further recommend illustrating the basic facts of gambling using simple messages that raise awareness without making a judgement. Participants caution against the "don't do it" approach, suggesting it does not reflect the current youth gambling culture. This study should serve as a starting point for the development of a gambling prevention social marketing campaign. Targeting variables and campaign strategies highlighted should be considered in the early stages of development and tested along the way.

  9. Understanding and Preventing Acts of Aggression and Violence in School-Age Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Brenda Smith; Simpson, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for preventing aggression and violence in children and youth, including understanding and applying appropriate interventions for escalating levels of aggression and violence, classroom preventative and planning measures, and systemwide policies and procedures. A student crisis plan sheet is provided as a tool for…

  10. The Development of Videos in Culturally Grounded Drug Prevention for Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L.; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the…

  11. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  12. Death by hanging: implications for prevention of an important method of youth suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosky, R J; Dundas, P

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with deaths by hanging among young people in Queensland, Australia. An examination of coroner's reports for all deaths by hanging of people under 25 years of age that occurred in Queensland in the years 1995 and 1996. All cases were recorded as suicides. Most were males and a quarter were indigenous persons. Half the deaths occurred in regional or rural areas. Unemployment, the experience of personal loss, psychiatric illness and alcohol use were possible precipitating agents. Early warning signs were the onset of uncharacteristic behaviours and threats of suicide. The private nature of hanging means that there are rarely opportunities to prevent it in the period immediately before the fatal event. Earlier interventions will have to be considered. To prevent hanging as a means of suicide, we need to understand more about the difficulties experienced by some young men who are living in rural areas. We need more information about the cultural problems experienced by indigenous youths in their teenage years. Young people in the justice system may need personal support. There is a pressing need to determine if young people, especially in rural areas, have adequate access to the professional expertise needed to diagnose and treat mental disorders.

  13. Long-term telemental health prevention interventions for youth: A rapid review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Abuwalla

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: This review suggests there are clear prolonged benefits to using technology in youth mental illness prevention. Although this is a rapidly growing area of investigation in countries around the globe, there is still a dearth of research with long-term follow-up. Future studies should aim to boost engagement by increasing motivational guidance in order to recruit at-risk youth of all demographics into these promising intervention programs.

  14. Long term effects of preventive activities of youth health care in The Netherlands: results of a four-part study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter A. Wiegersma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. In this article the results are presented of a four part study on the effect of screening for scoliosis and (repeated well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools, on the incidence and prevalence of (parasuicide, mental health, adolescent health compromising behaviour and lastly obesity.

    Methods. An ecologic case-referent study design was used with data from the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Defence, the 1992 High-School Student Study, all of the youth health care departments in The Netherlands and relevant censuses.

    Results. Attention to mental and physical health and health compromising behaviour, either during screening, open consultation hours or during well-care visits seems to be ineffective and in some instances even detrimental to youth health.

    Of the 18 different outcome measurements, 5 were significantly negative and none were significantly positive.

    Conclusions. This four part study does not support the hypothesis that on a population level, the preventive activities of youth health care departments such as screening for scoliosis, (more frequent well-care visits or offering open consultation hours at secondary schools, have a beneficial effect on prevention of (parasuicide, poor mental health, health compromising behaviour or obesity.

  15. Hui Malama O Ke Kai: A Positive Prevention-Based Youth Development Program Based on Native Hawaiian Values and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Earl S.; Chang, Janice Y.; Sy, Angela; Greaney, Malia F.; Morris, Katherine A.; Scronce, Ami C.; Rehuher, Davis; Nishimura, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of after-school programs that are culturally and place-based and promote positive youth development among minority and indigenous youths has not been widely published. The present evaluation is the first of its kind of an after-school, youth-risk prevention program called Hui Malama O Ke Kai (HMK), that emphasizes Native Hawaiian values…

  16. Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Youth Gang Series. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, Finn-Aage

    This Bulletin provides the reader with information to understand the complexity of the juvenile gang problem, and it provides information to dispel common gang stereotypes. After describing the key characteristics of youth gangs, the Bulletin examines risk factors for gang membership, including individual and family demographics, personal…

  17. Influence of Access to Credit on the Financial Performance of Youth-Owned Enterprises in Kirinyaga County in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Maina Runyora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth-development funds play a great role in availing resources to the youth so that they can start their own enterprises with an aim of being self-reliant. The government of Kenya through the youth enterprise fund finances viable youth enterprises in the country. Despite the effort made by the government in the provision of funds, the youth-owned enterprises continue to perform poorly. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of access to Youth Enterprise Development Funds on the financial performance of youth-owned enterprises in Kirinyaga County. The specific objectives are to determine how the type of enterprise, ease of accessing funds, credit offered, and interest rate relates to the profitability of youth-initiated enterprises. The significance of the study is to generate knowledge and information on the influence of youth enterprise development, assist the policy makers, and program implementers, which is useful to students in this field of business as the findings will form bankable empirical literature. This study is based on permanent income theory. The target population was 525, and a sample of 225 was chosen using a stratified sampling method to achieve a representative sample from the chosen geographical areas of the study. Data were analyzed on the SPSS software for both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings showed a p-value of 0.0232 for the type of enterprises, 0.0243 for the ease of accessing funds, 0.0214 for the credit offered, and 0.0244 for the interest rate. This showed that the relationship between the dependent and independent variables was significant. The presentation was undertaken using frequency tables and charts. The recommendations are that there is a need for enhancement of access to credit to youth-owned enterprises so that they can become more profitable.

  18. Implementing post-trial access plans for HIV prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Amy; Merritt, Maria W; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2018-02-27

    Ethics guidance increasingly recognises that researchers and sponsors have obligations to consider provisions for post-trial access (PTA) to interventions that are found to be beneficial in research. Yet, there is little information regarding whether and how such plans can actually be implemented. Understanding practical experiences of developing and implementing these plans is critical to both optimising their implementation and informing conceptual work related to PTA. This viewpoint is informed by experiences with developing and implementing PTA plans for six large-scale multicentre HIV prevention trials supported by the HIV Prevention Trials Network. These experiences suggest that planning and implementing PTA often involve challenges of planning under uncertainty and confronting practical barriers to accessing healthcare systems. Even in relatively favourable circumstances where a tested intervention medication is approved and available in the local healthcare system, system-level barriers can threaten the viability of PTA plans. The aggregate experience across these HIV prevention trials suggests that simply referring participants to local healthcare systems for PTA will not necessarily result in continued access to beneficial interventions for trial participants. Serious commitments to PTA will require additional efforts to learn from future approaches, measuring the success of PTA plans with dedicated follow-up and further developing normative guidance to help research stakeholders navigate the complex practical challenges of realising PTA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The development of videos in culturally grounded drug prevention for rural native Hawaiian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Seventy-four middle- and high-school-aged youth in 15 focus groups adapted and validated the details of the scripts to make them more realistic. Specifically, youth participants affirmed the situations described in the scripts and suggested changes to details of the scripts to make them more culturally specific. Suggested changes to the scripts also reflected preferred drug resistance strategies described in prior research, and varied based on the type of drug offerer described in each script (i.e., peer/friend, parent, or cousin/sibling). Implications for culturally grounded drug prevention are discussed.

  20. Prevention literacy: community-based advocacy for access and ownership of the HIV prevention toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard G; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Garcia, Jonathan; Gavigan, Kelly; Ramirez, Ana; Milnor, Jack; Terto, Veriano

    2016-01-01

    Critical technological advances have yielded a toolkit of HIV prevention strategies. This literature review sought to provide contextual and historical reflection needed to bridge the conceptual gap between clinical efficacy and community effectiveness (i.e. knowledge and usage) of existing HIV prevention options, especially in resource-poor settings. Between January 2015 and October 2015, we reviewed scholarly and grey literatures to define treatment literacy and health literacy and assess the current need for literacy related to HIV prevention. The review included searches in electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Permutations of the following search terms were used: "treatment literacy," "treatment education," "health literacy," and "prevention literacy." Through an iterative process of analyses and searches, titles and/or abstracts and reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed for additional articles, and historical content analyses of grey literature and websites were additionally conducted. Treatment literacy was a well-established concept developed in the global South, which was later partially adopted by international agencies such as the World Health Organization. Treatment literacy emerged as more effective antiretroviral therapies became available. Developed from popular pedagogy and grassroots efforts during an intense struggle for treatment access, treatment literacy addressed the need to extend access to underserved communities and low-income settings that might otherwise be excluded from access. In contrast, prevention literacy is absent in the recent surge of new biomedical prevention strategies; prevention literacy was scarcely referenced and undertheorized in the available literature. Prevention efforts today include multimodal techniques, which jointly comprise a toolkit of biomedical, behavioural, and structural/environmental approaches. However, linkages to community advocacy and mobilization

  1. A systematic review of evaluated suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Alyssa F; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous young people have significantly higher suicide rates than their non-indigenous counterparts. There is a need for culturally appropriate and effective suicide prevention programs for this demographic. This review assesses suicide prevention programs that have been evaluated for indigenous youth in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for publications on suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth that include reports on evaluations and outcomes. Program content, indigenous involvement, evaluation design, program implementation, and outcomes were assessed for each article. The search yielded 229 articles; 90 abstracts were assessed, and 11 articles describing nine programs were reviewed. Two Australian programs and seven American programs were included. Programs were culturally tailored, flexible, and incorporated multiple-levels of prevention. No randomized controlled trials were found, and many programs employed ad hoc evaluations, poor program description, and no process evaluation. Despite culturally appropriate content, the results of the review indicate that more controlled study designs using planned evaluations and valid outcome measures are needed in research on indigenous youth suicide prevention. Such changes may positively influence the future of research on indigenous youth suicide prevention as the outcomes and efficacy will be more reliable.

  2. Contextual and community factors associated with youth access to cigarettes through commercial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-01-01

    This study examines contextual and community-level characteristics associated with youth access to tobacco through commercial sources in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. The study is based on data from access surveys conducted by four confederate buyers (two men and two women) in 997 tobacco outlets. City demographics, adult smoking prevalence, and measures of tobacco outlet density, local tobacco retailer licencing and cigarette tax were included. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that buyer's actual age, a male clerk and asking young buyers about their age were related to successful cigarette purchases. Buyer's actual age and minimum age signs increased the likelihood that clerks will request an identification (ID). At the community level, a higher percentage of minors, higher education, and a greater percentage of African-Americans were associated with an increased likelihood of a successful purchase. Lower percentage of minors, lower education, lower percentage of African-Americans, and having a local tobacco retailer licencing were associated with the retailer asking for an ID. Additionally, supermarkets charged significantly more for a pack of cigarettes than small markets, whereas, smoke/tobacco shops and drug stores/pharmacies charged less. Higher prices were associated with higher median household income and greater percentage of Hispanics. Findings about community characteristics, however, differed by cigarette brand. This study enhances our understanding of the associations between contextual and community characteristics and youth access to tobacco through commercial sources which can help policymakers to identify and target at-risk communities and outlets to decrease youth access to tobacco.

  3. Science from evaluation: testing hypotheses about differential effects of three youth-focused suicide prevention trainings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Daniel; Del Quest, Aisling

    2015-01-01

    As part of an evaluation component of a youth suicide prevention, a quasi-experimental repeated measures design tested hypotheses about two brief suicide prevention gatekeeper trainings (Question, Persuade, Refer [QPR] and RESPONSE) and one longer suicide intervention skills training (Applied Suicide Intervention Skills Training [ASIST]). All three trainings showed large changes in prevention attitudes and self-efficacy, largely maintained at follow-up. ASIST trainees had large increases in asking at-risk youth about suicide at follow-up. Convergent with other research, modeling and role-play in training are crucial to increased prevention behaviors. Practice and research implications are discussed, including social work roles in suicide prevention and research.

  4. Achieving public health impact in youth violence prevention through community-research partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M

    2010-01-01

    Violence is a leading cause of death and disability for U.S. youth. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) is committed to developing communities' capacity to engage in evidence-based youth violence (YV) prevention. We discuss the characteristics of communities that exert influence on the development and epidemiology of YV, and discuss opportunities for how community-research partnerships can enhance efforts to prevent violence in communities. The needs for YV prevention are unique; the nature and phenomenology of violence are community specific. Communities also vary widely in infrastructure and systems to support coordinated, evidence-based YV prevention strategies. These conditions highlight the need for community-research partnerships to enhance community capacity, employ local resources, and engage community members in the research process. DVP is committed to working towards creating communities in which youth are safe from violence. Approaches to YV prevention that emphasize community-research partnerships to build capacity and implement evidence-based prevention strategies can provide a supportive context for achieving that goal.

  5. Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project: HIV prevention education for runaway and homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, G D

    1993-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer educators to work in three existing San Diego youth service programs with street outreach staff members to provide HIV prevention education and referral services to San Diego's homeless youth. Selected teens from the target population also participate in street-based case management that provides skill development to bring about behavioral and attitudinal changes. An HIV outreach program cannot stand alone and is most successful if it is integrated with services that meet the basic needs of its clients. In the three participating youth service programs of the Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project, food, clothes, and shelter information are provided. There are shelters in two of the three programs that become places where HIV educational messages, delivered on the street, can be reinforced. Immediate and concrete assistance can be offered to homeless youth. Low literacy among the target population presents a significant obstacle to adequate and appropriate HIV prevention education for homeless youth. Currently, education materials that specifically target homeless youth do not exit. The outreach street project is being expanded to develop materials for homeless youth with low literacy levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8464971

  6. Preventing Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancy among American-Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jamie; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Hanson, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Research has determined that the prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies (AEP) must occur preconceptually, either by reducing alcohol intake in women planning pregnancy or at risk for becoming pregnant, or by preventing pregnancy in women drinking at risky levels. One such AEP prevention programme with non-pregnant American-Indian (AI) women is…

  7. Resistance Training in Youth: Laying the Foundation for Injury Prevention and Physical Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolski, Christin; Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Paterno, Mark V

    The rising incidence of physical activity- and sports-related injuries has prompted the present-day investigation of resistance training as a potential means of injury prevention and physical literacy development among youth. Relevant studies on the topics of athlete development, physical literacy, resistance training, and injury prevention in children and adolescents were reviewed (PubMed and Sports Discus, 1982-2016). Recommendations from consensus guidelines and position statements applicable to resistance training and injury prevention in youth, in addition to young athlete development, were reviewed. Additionally, hand searches, expert requests, article reference lists, and gray literature were utilized and reviewed for pertinent content. Clinical review. Level 4. Youth throughout the physical activity spectrum are at risk for physical activity- and sports-related injury. Of highest priority are early specializers, physically inactive youth, and young girls, owing to increased injury rates. Resistance training among these at-risk populations has been shown to reduce injury risk by up to 68% and improve sports performance and health measures, in addition to accelerating the development of physical literacy. Recent recommendations, position statements, and national initiatives advocate for the incorporation of resistance training with qualified instruction among these groups. Resistance training in addition to free play and other structured physical activity training can serve as a protective means against injury and a positive catalyst for the development of physical literacy to offset the impact of diminishing physical activity and early sport specialization in today's youth.

  8. Invest in Kids--Californians Support New Approach To Prevent Youth Violence. Living Well, Spending for Health. Policy Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Center for Health Improvement, Sacramento.

    This "Policy Note" highlights new information about youth crime and prevention that suggest that California has a unique opportunity over the next several years to invest in new preventive approaches for reducing youth violence. Several surveys by the California Center for Health Improvement (CCHI) have documented that Californians share…

  9. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Misuse Prevention and Cessation Programming for Alternative High School Youth: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arriaza, Bridget; Grigsby, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relative to youth in regular high schools, alternative high school (AHS) youth are at high risk for alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) misuse. Prevention and cessation efforts are needed for this population. Methods: A systematic, exhaustive literature search was completed to identify ATOD misuse prevention and cessation research…

  10. Undocumented migrants lack access to pregnancy care and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreoli Nicole

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Illegal migration is an increasing problem worldwide and the so-called undocumented migrants encounter major problems in access to prevention and health care. The objective of the study was to compare the use of preventive measures and pregnancy care of undocumented pregnant migrants with those of women from the general population of Geneva, Switzerland. Methods Prospective cohort study including pregnant undocumented migrants presenting to the University hospital from February 2005 to October 2006. The control group consisted of a systematic sample of pregnant women with legal residency permit wishing to deliver at the same public hospital during the same time period. Results 161 undocumented and 233 control women were included in the study. Mean ages were 29.4 y (SD 5.8 and 31.1 y (SD 4.8 (p Conclusion Compared to women who are legal residents of Geneva, undocumented migrants have more unintended pregnancies and delayed prenatal care, use fewer preventive measures and are exposed to more violence during pregnancy. Not having a legal residency permit therefore suggests a particular vulnerability for pregnant women. This study underscores the need for better access to prenatal care and routine screening for violence exposure during pregnancy for undocumented migrants. Furthermore, health care systems should provide language- and culturally-appropriate education on contraception, family planning and cervical cancer screening.

  11. Effect of televised, tobacco company-funded smoking prevention advertising on youth smoking-related beliefs, intentions, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Emery, Sherry; Saffer, Henry; Chaloupka, Frank J; Szczypka, Glen; Flay, Brian; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2006-12-01

    To relate exposure to televised youth smoking prevention advertising to youths' smoking beliefs, intentions, and behaviors. We obtained commercial television ratings data from 75 US media markets to determine the average youth exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted and parent-targeted smoking prevention advertising. We merged these data with nationally representative school-based survey data (n = 103,172) gathered from 1999 to 2002. Multivariate regression models controlled for individual, geographic, and tobacco policy factors, and other televised antitobacco advertising. There was little relation between exposure to tobacco company-sponsored, youth-targeted advertising and youth smoking outcomes. Among youths in grades 10 and 12, during the 4 months leading up to survey administration, each additional viewing of a tobacco company parent-targeted advertisement was, on average, associated with lower perceived harm of smoking (odds ratio [OR]=0.93; confidence interval [CI]=0.88, 0.98), stronger approval of smoking (OR=1.11; CI=1.03,1.20), stronger intentions to smoke in the future (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.21), and greater likelihood of having smoked in the past 30 days (OR=1.12; CI=1.04,1.19). Exposure to tobacco company youth-targeted smoking prevention advertising generally had no beneficial outcomes for youths. Exposure to tobacco company parent-targeted advertising may have harmful effects on youth, especially among youths in grades 10 and 12.

  12. Prevention of Youth Violence: A Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aradhana Bela; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    The causes of youth violence are multifactorial and include biological, individual, familial, social, and economic factors. The influence of parents, family members, and important adults can shape the beliefs of the child toward violence in a significant manner. However, the influence of school and the neighborhood also have an important role in attitudes and behaviors of children toward violence. The complexity of factors related to violence requires a comprehensive public health approach. This article focuses on evidence-based models of intervention to reduce violence while emphasizing collective impact as a guiding principle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Choosing Effective Youth-Focused Prevention Strategies: A Practical Guide for Applied Family Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Jonathan R.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the field of prevention science have resulted in strategies that target various youth outcomes. In recent years, numerous "best practices" lists have been developed to help professionals identify such strategies. Some scholars have questioned the quality of these lists and cautioned that there are flaws in evaluations of many…

  14. Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

  15. A Centennial Milestone (1910-2010): 100 Years of Youth Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Anniversaries are appropriate times for reflecting on the past and planning for the future, and in this 100th anniversary year of Sigmund Freud's famous group meeting--a meeting among a large group of prominent mental health professionals that provides a useful marker and arguable "starting point" for contemporary youth suicide prevention efforts,…

  16. Growing up tobacco free: preventing nicotine addiction in children and youths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Barbara S; Bonnie, Richard J

    ... on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication fil...

  17. School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances: Early Preventative Interventions. Psychosocial Stress Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Kathleen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Together, "School Rampage Shootings and Other Youth Disturbances" and its accompanying CD provide a complete toolkit for using early preventative interventions with elementary-school age children. In ten thoughtful, clearly written chapters, both new and experienced practitioners will find a wealth of research- and evidence-based…

  18. Recurrent Issues in Efforts to Prevent Homicidal Youth Violence in Schools: Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…

  19. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  20. Growing up tobacco free: preventing nicotine addiction in children and youths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Barbara S; Bonnie, Richard J

    1994-01-01

    ... on Preventing Nicotine Addiction in Children and Youths Division of Biobehavioral Sciences and Mental Disorders Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1994 i Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication fil...

  1. God Forbids or Mom Disapproves? Religious Beliefs that Prevent Drug Use among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M.; Opaleye, Emerita Satiro; Chaves, Tharcila V.; Noto, Ana R.; Nappo, Solange A.

    2011-01-01

    Researches have emphasized religiosity as a protective factor against drug use although the mechanism through which it occurs is still unknown. This article aims to explore religious beliefs that could prevent drug use among youth. Three sources of qualitative data were used: participant observation in 21 religious institutions, semistructured…

  2. Valued Youth Partnerships: Programs in Caring. Cross-Age Tutoring Dropout Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…

  3. A Systematic Review of Literature on Culturally Adapted Obesity Prevention Interventions for African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…

  4. Determinants of successful public-private partnerships in the context of overweight prevention in Dutch youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, K.; Jacobs-van der bruggen, M.; Renders, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A public-private partnership (PPP) is an essential component of the Dutch community-based approach toward overweight prevention, Youth on Healthy Weight (JOGG). Beginning in 2010, 25 Dutch municipalities have implemented JOGG, but little is known about determinants of successful

  5. A Review of Family-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence among Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Toro, Rosa I.

    2010-01-01

    At present, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of family-based intervention programs to prevent violence or related behavior problems with Latino youth and families. Although progress has been made, a number of important issues remain. In this article, the authors review several of the more prominent interventions for Latino…

  6. An Examination of Reading Skills and Reading Outcomes for Youth Involved in a Crime Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsala, Jamie L.; David, Margaret D.; Brown, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the incidence of reading impairments, the reading profiles, and the outcomes of a reading intervention for youth involved in a comprehensive crime prevention program. Rates of reading impairments were between 55% and 61%. Reading profiles for participants with reading comprehension impairments showed deficits in phonological…

  7. The perspectives of in-school youths in Kampala, Uganda, on the role of parents in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Johanna; Byamugisha, Josaphat; Tillgren, Per; Rubenson, Birgitta

    2009-06-01

    This qualitative study explores how young Ugandans perceive and experience the role of parents in preventing the spread of HIV among youths. Data were gathered from semi-structured face-to-face interviews with 16 in-school youths, ages 18-20, residing in Kampala. A key finding is that the youths perceived parenting styles as influencing HIV prevention among youths. The participants identified several harmful consequences from a lack of parental guidance or inadequate parenting and they discussed the gains of parental support in terms of assisting HIV prevention among youths. The participants expressed the idea that parents can importantly contribute to preventing the spread of HIV among youths by supporting their own adolescent children and discussing topics like sex, relationships, and HIV in an age-appropriate way. However, the participants also felt that Ugandan parents in general are unable to support and talk to youths about sex and HIV in a way that helps protect them from exposure to HIV. The in-school youths felt that parents are unsupportive in terms of HIV prevention among youths by way of fear of talking about sex, parents' lack of time to engage with their children, and authoritarian or indulgent parenting. The participants also described how parents treat girls and boys differently; however, no significant association was found between how girls and boys conceptualised parents' roles.

  8. Improving access to tuberculosis preventive therapy and treatment for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Ben J

    2017-03-01

    Children suffer a huge burden of disease in tuberculosis (TB) endemic countries. This disease burden was largely invisible when TB control programmes focused exclusively on adults with sputum smear-positive disease. High-level advocacy and better data have improved visibility, but the establishment of functional paediatric TB programmes remains challenging. The key issues that limit children's access to TB preventive therapy and treatment in endemic areas are briefly discussed. Barriers to preventive therapy include (1) the perceived inability to rule out active disease, (2) fear of creating drug resistance, (3) non-implementation of existing guidelines in the absence of adequate monitoring, and (4) poor adherence with long preventive therapy courses. Barriers to TB treatment include (1) perceived diagnostic difficulties, (2) non-availability of chest radiography, (3) young children presenting to unprepared maternal and child health (MCH) services, and (4) the absence of child-friendly formulations. With drug-resistant disease there is currently no guidance on the use of preventive therapy and treatment is usually restricted to cases with bacteriologically confirmed disease, which excludes most young children from care, even if their likely source case has documented drug-resistant TB. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Shifting the Paradigm in Oregon from Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Youth Sexual Health

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Robert J.; Duke, Jessica E.A.; Victor, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input,...

  10. Substance Use and HIV Prevention for Youth in Correctional Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouttapa, Michele; Watson, Donnie W.; McCuller, William J.; Reiber, Chris; Tsai, Winnie

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based programs for substance use and HIV prevention (SUHIP) were adapted for high-risk juveniles detained at 24-hour secure correctional facilities. In this pilot study, comparisons were made between adolescents who received the SUHIP intervention and a control group on changes in: (1) knowledge of HIV prevention behaviors, (2) attitudes…

  11. Mental health beliefs and barriers to accessing mental health services in youth aging out of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Christina; Mackie, Thomas I; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Franzen, Sara; Partap, Anu; Flores, Glenn; Leslie, Laurel K

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perspectives of youth on factors that influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Focus groups were conducted with youth with a history of mental health needs and previous service use who had aged out of foster care. Questions were informed by the Health Belief Model and addressed 4 domains: youth perceptions of the "threat of mental health problems," treatment benefits versus barriers to accessing mental health services, self-efficacy, and "cues to action." Data were analyzed using a modified grounded-theory approach. Youth (N = 28) reported ongoing mental health problems affecting their functioning; however, they articulated variable levels of reliance on formal mental health treatment versus their own ability to resolve these problems without treatment. Past mental health service experiences influenced whether youth viewed treatment options as beneficial. Youth identified limited self-efficacy and insufficient psychosocial supports "cueing action" during their transition out of foster care. Barriers to accessing mental health services included difficulties obtaining health insurance, finding a mental health provider, scheduling appointments, and transportation. Youths' perceptions of their mental health needs, self-efficacy, psychosocial supports during transition, and access barriers influence mental health service use after aging out of foster care. Results suggest that strategies are needed to 1) help youth and clinicians negotiate shared understanding of mental health treatment needs and options, 2) incorporate mental health into transition planning, and 3) address insurance and other systemic barriers to accessing mental health services after aging out of foster care. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parental Knowledge of Cardiovascular Screening and Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Madison A; Diamond, Alex B; Karpinos, Ashley Rowatt

    2017-08-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is the leading cause of death in youth athletes. Survival from out- of-hospital SCA depends on prompt initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and use of an automated external defibrillator (AED). This study evaluated parental knowledge, experience, and attitudes related to cardiovascular screening, SCA, and CPR/AED use in youth athletes and made comparisons between parents who are employed in healthcare and parents who are not employed in healthcare. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to evaluate knowledge, experiences, and attitudes of 91 parents of youth athletes who attended a community-based cardiovascular screening event. Although cardiovascular screening can reduce the risk of SCA, we found that 36% of parents incorrectly thought cardiovascular screening could prevent SCA and there was no difference in knowledge between the two groups of parents. This initial evaluation of parental knowledge of cardiovascular screening issues in youth athletes should guide educational efforts to prevent and respond to SCA in youth athletes.

  13. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven

  14. Prevention of alcohol misuse among children, youths and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation

  15. Impact of the fast track prevention program on health services use by conduct-problem youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Damon; Godwin, Jennifer; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bierman, Karen L; Coie, John D; Greenberg, Mark T; Lochman, John E; McMahon, Robert J; Pinderhughes, Ellen E

    2010-01-01

    We tested the impact of the Fast Track conduct disorder prevention program on the use of pediatric, general health, and mental health services in adolescence. Participants were 891 public kindergarten boys and girls screened from a population of 9594 children and found to be at risk for conduct disorder. They were assigned randomly (by school) to intervention or control conditions and were followed for 12 years. Intervention lasted 10 years and included parent training, child social-cognitive skills training, reading tutoring, peer-relations enhancement, and classroom curricula and management. Service use was assessed through annual interviews of parents and youth. Youth assigned to preventive intervention had significantly reduced use of professional general health, pediatric, and emergency department services relative to control youth on the basis of parent-report data. For control-group youth, the odds of greater use of general health services for any reason and general health services use for mental health purposes were roughly 30% higher and 56% higher, respectively. On the basis of self-report data, the intervention reduced the likelihood of outpatient mental health services among older adolescents for whom odds of services use were more than 90% higher among control-group youth. No differences were found between intervention and control youth on the use of inpatient mental health services. Statistical models controlled for key study characteristics, and potential moderation of the intervention effect was assessed. Random assignment to the Fast Track prevention program is associated with reduced use of general health and outpatient mental health services in adolescents. Future studies should examine the mechanism of this impact and service use patterns as subjects reach young adulthood.

  16. Recreative sports in preventing child and youth crime

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Yaman; Sibel Arslan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to be able to make it clear that recreation serves as a buffer in preventing crime; recreational sports having a special place for young people in juvenile delinuency have an important place; and recreational activities that will be practised in the regions committing intense crime reduce the rate of crimes; but most importantly, sports recreation serves as a buffer for children and young people particularly in preventing the individuals from crime even before the...

  17. Equity of access to reproductive health services among youths in resource-limited suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thin Zaw Phyu Phyu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inequity of accessibility to and utilization of reproductive health (RH services among youths is a global concern, especially in resource-limited areas. The level of inequity also varies by cultural and socio-economic contexts. To tailor RH services to the needs of youths, relevant solutions are required. This study aimed to assess baseline information on access to and utilization of RH services and unmet needs among youths living in resource-limited, suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in all resource-limited, suburban communities of Mandalay City, Myanmar. A total of 444 randomly selected youths aged between 15 and 24 years were interviewed for three main outcomes, namely accessibility to and utilization of RH services and youth's unmet needs for these services. Factors associated with these outcomes were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results Although geographical accessibility was high (79.3%, financial accessibility was low (19.1% resulting in a low overall accessibility (34.5% to RH services. Two-thirds of youths used some kind of RH services at least once in the past. Levels of unmet needs for sexual RH information, family planning, maternal care and HIV testing were 62.6%, 31.9%, 38.7% and 56.2%, respectively. Youths living in the south or south-western suburbs, having a deceased parent, never being married or never exposed to mass media were less likely to access RH services. Being a young adult, current student, working as a waste recycler, having ever experienced a sexual relationship, ever being married, ever exposed to mass media, having a high knowledge of RH services and providers or a high level of accessibility to RH services significantly increased the likelihood of utilization of those services. In addition to youths’ socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to mass media, norm of peer exposure and knowledge

  18. Advancing prevention research on child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence: emerging strategies and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Neil B

    2004-03-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent methodological issues in these areas and points out emerging research strategies that are forging advances in garnering valid, rigorous, and useful knowledge to prevent interpersonal violence. Research issues and emerging strategies in three key domains of prevention research are considered, including complexities in validly conceptualizing and measuring varying forms of violence as specific targets for preventive intervention, research issues and strategies designed to reliably predict and identify future violence risk to be targeted by preventive intervention, and research issues and emerging strategies in the application of empirical methods to forge specific advances in preventive intervention strategies themselves.

  19. Creating Youth-Supportive Communities: Outcomes from the Connect-to-Protect® (C2P) Structural Change Approach to Youth HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin; Janulis, Patrick F; Reed, Sarah J; Harper, Gary W; Ellen, Jonathan; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2016-02-01

    Reducing HIV incidence among adolescents represents an urgent global priority. Structural change approaches to HIV prevention may reduce youth risk by addressing the economic, social, cultural, and political factors that elevate it. We assessed whether achievement of structural changes made by eight Connect-to-Protect (C2P) coalitions were associated with improvements in youth's views of their community over the first 4 years of coalitions' mobilization. We recruited annual cross-sectional samples of targeted youth from each C2P community. We sampled youth in neighborhood venues. We interviewed a total of 2461 youth over 4 years. Males (66 %) and youth of color comprised the majority (52 % Hispanic/Latinos; 41 % African Americans) of those interviewed. By year 4, youth reported greater satisfaction with their community as a youth-supportive setting. They reported their needs were better met by available community resources compared with year 1. However, these findings were moderated by risk population such that those from communities where C2P focused on young men who have sex with men (YMSM) reported no changes over time whereas those from communities focused on other at-risk youth reported significant improvements over time in satisfaction and resource needs being met. Internalized HIV stigma increased over time among those from communities serving other at-risk youth and was unchanged among those from YMSM communities. The very different results we observe over time between communities focused on YMSM versus other at-risk youth may suggest it is unreasonable to assume identical chains of structural causality across youth populations who have such different historical relationships to HIV and who encounter very different kinds of entrenched discrimination within their communities.

  20. Framing public policy and prevention of chronic violence in American youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kenneth A

    2008-10-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry offers a lifelong system of universal, selected, and indicated intervention policies. Cardiovascular disease offers concepts of distal risk factors, proximal processes, equifinality and multifinality, and long-term prevention. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's public health model focuses on injury and the victim to elicit popular support. Public education for illiteracy offers concepts of long-term universal education coupled with specialized help for high-risk youths and goes beyond metaphor to represent a truly applicable framework. Research is proposed to test the scientific merit for and public receptivity to these metaphors.

  1. Policy statement--Role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Youth violence continues to be a serious threat to the health of children and adolescents in the United States. It is crucial that pediatricians clearly define their role and develop the appropriate skills to address this threat effectively. From a clinical perspective, pediatricians should become familiar with Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure, the American Academy of Pediatrics' primary care violence prevention protocol. Using this material, practices can incorporate preventive education, screening for risk, and linkages to community-based counseling and treatment resources. As advocates, pediatricians may bring newly developed information regarding key risk factors such as exposure to firearms, teen dating violence, and bullying to the attention of local and national policy makers. This policy statement refines the developing role of pediatricians in youth violence prevention and emphasizes the importance of this issue in the strategic agenda of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Youth Excel: towards a pan-Canadian platform linking evidence and action for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara L; Manske, Steve; Cameron, Roy

    2011-05-15

    Population-level intervention is required to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases. It also promotes health for those living with established risk factors and illness. In this article, the authors describe a vision and approach for continuously improving population-level programs and policies within and beyond the health sector. The vision and approach are anchored in contemporary thinking about what is required to link evidence and action in the field of population and public health. The authors believe that, as a cancer prevention and control community, organizations and practitioners must be able to use the best available evidence to inform action and continually generate evidence that improves prevention policies and programs on an ongoing basis. These imperatives require leaders in policy, practice, and research fields to work together to jointly plan, conduct, and act on relevant evidence. The Propel Center and colleagues are implementing this approach in Youth Excel-a pan-Canadian initiative that brings together national and provincial organizations from health and education sectors and capitalizes on a history of collaboration. The objective of Youth Excel is to build sustainable capacity for knowledge development and exchange that can guide and redirect prevention efforts in a rapidly evolving social environment. This goal is to contribute to creating health-promoting environments and to accelerate progress in preventing cancer and other diseases among youth and young adults and in the wider population. Although prevention is the aim, health-promoting environments also can support health gains for individuals of all ages and with established illness. In addition, the approach Youth Excel is taking to link evidence and action may be applicable to early intervention and treatment components of cancer control. © 2011 American Cancer Society

  3. Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp: A Summer Approach to Prevent Obesity in Low-Income Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Gretchen Lynn; Schneider, Constance; Kaiser, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of participation in a summer camp focused on nutrition and fitness among low-income youth. In 2011-2012, overweight and obese youth (n = 126) from Fresno, CA participated in a free 6-week summer program, Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Camp (HLFC), which included 3 h/wk of nutrition education provided by University of California CalFresh and 3 hours of daily physical activity through Fresno Parks and Recreation. The researchers used repeated-measures ANOVA to examine changes in weight, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) between HLFC and the comparison group (n = 29). Significant pre-post WHtR reductions were observed in HLFC: 0.64 to 0.61 (P obesity prevention among low-income youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The 2007 National Federation of the Blind Youth Slam: Making Astronomy Accessible to Students Who are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2008-05-01

    In the summer of 2007, nearly two hundred blind and visually impaired high school students participated in a weeklong enrichment program at Johns Hopkins University called the National Federation of the Blind Youth Slam. They spent four days participating in hands-on science and engineering classes and exploring careers previously thought inaccessible to those without sight. The students were separated into "tracks” with each group focusing on a different field. Want to know what happened in the astronomy track? Come by this paper and see examples of accessible astronomy activities, including accessible star parties, from the Youth Slam!

  5. Youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... Politics and Conflict in Africa4 offers readings on youth involvement in ... youth from a religious perspective seems primarily to be focused on education .... Conflict. An anthropological definition of war offered in No Peace, No War: An An- thropology of Contemporary Armed Conflicts28 is: 'All war is long-term ...

  6. Access to Firearms Among Orange County Youth: A School-based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorchynski, Julie

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: School-associated firearm violence among children and adolescents is a national public concern. The objective of this study was to determine the accessibility of firearms, methods of firearm access and firearm safety knowledge among middle and high school students in Orange County, California. Methods: After permission from school officials and parents was obtained, a 24-question survey was distributed to 176 students in grades 6 through 12 at four schools in Orange County. Data was collected over a 12-month period beginning in February 2003. Data analysis was presented in proportions. In addition, cross tabulations were performed to determine which factors were associated with access to guns, having fired a gun, and firearm possession at school. Results: The mean age of participants was 16.1 years. Seventy-seven (45% were male, 121 (69% Hispanic, and 171 (94% were of middle income. Four participants (2.3% admitted to gang involvement, 47 (26.7% had fired a gun. Those more likely to have fired a gun appeared to be non-Hispanic males (p= 0.001. Seventy-five (43% reported access to a gun. Older students and those in grades 9 to 12 were more likely to have access to a gun (p= 0.01, which they stated could be obtained from their homes, friends or relatives (4.5% to 22%. No students admitted to bringing a gun to school. Two (1.1% students stated that they had thought of using a gun at school. One hundred one students (62% were taught firearm safety by their parent(s. Conclusion: Almost half of the students in this study acknowledged that they could gain access to a gun and two students had thought about using a gun at school. Firearm education, safety and counseling are of paramount importance to ensure safety among school youths.

  7. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Ki Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.

  8. A Sexual Assault Primary Prevention Model with Diverse Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smothers, Melissa Kraemer; Smothers, D. Brian

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a nonprofit community mental health clinic developed a socioecological model of sexual abuse prevention that was implemented in a public school. The goal of the program was to promote and create community change within individuals and the school community by reducing tolerance of sexual violence and sexual harassment. Participants…

  9. Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Guide for Youth Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…

  10. The role of the pediatrician in youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Nam Su

    2013-01-01

    School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.

  11. Preventive risk assessment in forensic child and youth care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, M.

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment is central to the work of forensic mental health professionals, since it serves as a guide for prevention and intervention strategies. For effective risk assessment, knowledge on risk factors and their effects as well as the availability of valid and reliable instruments for risk

  12. Early prevention of the antisocial behaviour of youth: situation in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kronberga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public opinion on prevention is often very narrow and stigmatised: the concept of prevention is more often related to a crime than to antisocial behaviour. Often such approach limits not only the understanding of the usability and content of prevention methods but also the age of children at which a successful use of these methods is acceptable. Due to the aforementioned, it is possible to put forward a hypothesis: successful prevention of antisocial behaviour in the work with children at a young age decreases the necessity of crime prevention in later years of children and youth development. Therefore, this publication will focus on the use and practice of prevention methods in the early period of child development – pre-school and primary school.

  13. Opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H; Montgomery, P; Gardner, F E M

    2008-04-16

    Youth gangs have long been studied in the United States and interest elsewhere is increasing. Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency. One theory of gang involvement, drawing on anomie and strain theories, proposes that the gang provides a means of fulfilling the economic needs of youth excluded from legitimate labour markets. Opportunities provision is a gang prevention strategy based on this theory and the principle that providing youth with educational and employment opportunities may reduce gang involvement. Common techniques within opportunities provision include tutoring, remedial education, job training, and job placement. To determine the effectiveness of opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people aged 7 to 16. Electronic searches were conducted of ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Cochrane Library, Dissertations Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists. All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions that have opportunities provision as the majority component, delivered to children and youths aged 7 to 16 not involved in a gang, compared to any other or no intervention. Searches yielded 2,696 unduplicated citations. 2,676 were excluded based on title and abstract. Two were excluded based on personal communication with study authors. Full-text reports for 18 citations were retrieved. 16 were excluded because they were not evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, did not include gang-related outcomes, did not include opportunities provision intervention components, or presented preliminary findings for outcomes reported in another citation. The remaining two

  14. Midwives at youth clinics attitude to HPV vaccination and their role in cervical cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oscarsson, Marie G; Dahlberg, Annica; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-11-01

    To explore youth clinic midwives role in cervical cancer prevention and their attitude to HPV vaccination. Individual interviews with 13 midwives working at youth clinics in Sweden. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed by qualitative content analysis. Three themes were identified in the qualitative content analysis: "Cervical cancer prevention not a prioritised area", "Ambivalence to the HPV vaccine", and "Gender and socioeconomic controversies". Few midwives talked spontaneously about cervical cancer prevention. The responsibility for providing information about HPV vaccination was considered as primarily that of school health nurses and parents. Midwives were positive about the HPV vaccination, but recognised certain risks, such as its potential negative impact on cervical cancer screening and increased sexual risk taking. The midwives expressed concerns with medical risks, such as side effects and unknown long-term effects of the HPV vaccine. The midwives in the study had ethical concerns that boys were not included in the program and not all families had the financial resources to vaccinate their children. Thus, weak socioeconomic groups might be excluded. The midwives considered cervical cancer prevention as important, but did not integrate information on the HPV vaccine into their routine work, mainly because young people visiting youth clinics had had their sexual debut and they were concerned about the medical risks and that the vaccine was too expensive. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gamification strategy on prevention of STDs for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Schopf, Thomas; Serrano, J Artur; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Dorronzoro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and especially chlamydia is a worrying problem among North-Norwegian youngsters. Gamified web applications should be valued for sexual health education, and thus STDs prevention, for their potential to get users engaged and involved with their healthcare. Aiming to achieve that youngsters become more aware of STDs we have developed "sjekkdeg.no", a gamified web application focused on sexual health targeting North-Norwegian youngsters. Gamification techniques like avatars, achievement-based gifts and social network sharing buttons have been implemented in the site that includes educational content on sexual health and a STDs symptom checker. Preliminary results show that the game-style web app could be useful to encourage users to learn more on sexual health and STDs and thus changing their risky behaviors and preventing sexually transmitted diseases.

  16. Evaluation of a Youth-Led Program for Preventing Bullying, Sexual Harassment, and Dating Aggression in Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Josephson, Wendy; Schnoll, Jessica; Simkins-Strong, Emily; Pepler, Debra; MacPherson, Alison; Weiser, Jessica; Moran, Michelle; Jiang, Depeng

    2015-01-01

    Although youth-led programs (YLP) have been successful in many areas of public health, youth leadership is rarely used in the prevention of peer aggression. A YLP to reduce bullying, sexual harassment, and dating aggression was compared experimentally with the board-mandated usual practice (UP). Four middle schools in an urban Canadian school…

  17. Best Practices in Community-Based Prevention for Youth Substance Reduction: Towards Strengths-Based Positive Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Jeong Woong

    2008-01-01

    Substance use among youth remains a major public health and safety concern. One fundamental way to address youth substance use prevention is to keep young people on a positive trajectory by engaging them in positive activities from early years of their childhood. In this article, the author offers a best practice analysis of systematic review…

  18. Who Am I? Identity and the Facilitation of Local Youth Lives within Sexuality Education as an HIV Prevention Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacoin, Andrée E.

    2016-01-01

    Sexuality education as an HIV prevention strategy is positioned as a way to empower youth in relation to their sexual identities and behaviours. While the youth subject is recognized as complex, the underlying premise is that identity can be targeted "through" sexuality education. In this paper, I present data from an ethnographic…

  19. Macro-Level Approaches to HIV Prevention among Ethnic Minority Youth: State of the Science, Opportunities, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Guillermo; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2013-01-01

    The HIV epidemic continues to disproportionately affect ethnic minority youth. These disconcerting health disparities indicate that although existing HIV preventive strategies for ethnic minority youth have been efficacious, they have not significantly reduced the impact of the epidemic in this population. Macro-level interventions, such as…

  20. Recurrent issues in efforts to prevent homicidal youth violence in schools: expert opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G

    2011-01-01

    Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. Data Linkage Strategies to Advance Youth Suicide Prevention: A Systematic Review for a National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Kharrazi, Hadi; Wilson, Renee F; Musci, Rashelle J; Susukida, Ryoko; Gharghabi, Fardad; Zhang, Allen; Wissow, Lawrence; Robinson, Karen A

    2016-12-06

    Linking national, state, and community data systems to data from prevention programs could allow for longer-term assessment of outcomes and evaluation of interventions to prevent suicide. To identify and describe data systems that can be linked to data from prevention studies to advance youth suicide prevention research. A systematic review, an environmental scan, and a targeted search were conducted to identify prevention studies and potentially linkable external data systems with suicide outcomes from January 1990 through December 2015. Studies and data systems had to be U.S.-based and include persons aged 25 years or younger. Data systems also had to include data on suicide, suicide attempt, or suicidal ideation. Information about participants, intervention type, suicide outcomes, primary analytic method used for linkage, statistical approach, analyses performed, and characteristics of data systems was abstracted by 2 reviewers. Of 47 studies (described in 59 articles) identified in the systematic review, only 6 were already linked to data systems. A total of 153 unique and potentially linkable data systems were identified, but only 66 were classified as "fairly accessible" and had data dictionaries available. Of the data systems identified, 19% were established primarily for research, 11% for clinical care or operations, 29% for administrative services (such as billing), and 52% for surveillance. About one third (37%) provided national data, 12% provided regional data, 63% provided state data, and 41% provided data below the state level (some provided coverage for >1 geographic unit). Only U.S.-based studies published in English were included. There is untapped potential to evaluate and enhance suicide prevention efforts by linking suicide prevention data with existing data systems. However, sparse availability of data dictionaries and lack of adherence to standard data elements limit this potential. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

  2. Importance of multidisciplinary trauma prevention program for youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir Escocia Dorigatti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: present the experience of the P.A.R.T.Y. program in Campinas, thereby changing the habits of young people.METHODS: The organizers visited the participating schools talking to the students, who are aged between 14-18 years. These students spent an afternoon at the Clinics Hospital of Unicamp, where, for four hours, they attended lectures of the organizers, partners and municipal sectors, and also visited the hospital, talking with trauma victims. Questionnaires were evaluated between2010-2012, being applied before and after the project.RESULTS:2,450 high school students attended the program. The mean age is 16 ± 0,99 years and 37.6% were male. 3.6% of males already drive while drunk versus 0.8% of women. Before the project 116 (11.3% thought that drunk driving wasn't a risk, and only 37 (3.6% knew the alcohol effects. After the project, 441 (43% began to consider drunk driving a risk and 193 (18.8% know the alcohol effects when driving. 956 (93.3% considered that prevention projects have a huge impact on their formation.CONCLUSION: It's expected that the attendees will act as multipliers of information, conveying the message of prevention to their entire social circles resulting in reduction in the number of trauma events involving the young, in the long term.

  3. Framing Public Policy and Prevention of Chronic Violence in American Youths

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Metaphors can both inspire and mislead the public. Current metaphors for youth violence are inconsistent with scientific evidence about how chronic violence develops and evoke inaccurate or harmful reactions. Popular, problematic metaphors include superpredator, quarantining the contagious, corrective surgery, man as computer, vaccine, and chronic disease. Four new metaphors that more accurately reflect the science of child development are proposed to shape the field. Preventive dentistry off...

  4. Peer education, gender and the development of critical consciousness: participatory HIV prevention by South African youth

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Campbell, C

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available 55 (2002) 331?345 Peer education, gender and the development of critical consciousness: participatory HIV prevention by South African youth Catherine Campbella,*, Catherine MacPhailb a Department of Social Psychology, London School of Economics... of empowerment, which believesthat people can be empowered at the individual level through methods such as assertiveness training courses. Others have been fiercely critical of the psychological reduction- ism inherent in this understanding of empowerment...

  5. Access to livelihood assets among youth with and without disabilities in South Africa: Implications for health professional education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Lorenzo (Theresa); J.M. Cramm (Jane)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. This study compared access to 5 livelihood assets among disabled and non-disabled youth, to inform health professionals on inequities related to disability and to monitor the transformation agenda aimed at creating an inclusive society. Methods. Fieldworkers interviewed 989

  6. A Social Marketing Intervention to Prevent Drowning Among Inner-City Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J; Castor, Tom; Karmakar, Monita; Blavos, Alexis; Dagenhard, Paige; Domigan, Julianne; Sweeney, Erin; Diehr, Aaron; Kucharewski, Ruthie

    2018-03-01

    Water-related injuries and fatalities pose serious public health issues, especially to African American youth, a demographic group that drowns at disproportionately high rates. The purpose of this study was to determine if a social marketing intervention targeting the parents and guardians of inner-city youth (U.S. Midwest) could positively influence their perceptions concerning water safety. Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design using matched pairs to evaluate the intervention. Participants consisted of parents who enrolled their children in a six-session survival-swimming course. Guided by the Health Belief Model, the researchers disseminated six prevention messages using six different channels (brochure, e-mail, SMS text message, postcard, Facebook, and window cling). The findings from a two-way analysis of covariance revealed that treatment group participants' knowledge and perceptions of water-related threat all changed favorably. Additionally, all participants planned to reenroll their children in swim lessons. A social marketing campaign using the Health Belief Model improved inner-city parents' knowledge regarding water safety and enhanced their self-efficacy. This study provides practitioners with feasible strategies (prevention messages) to supplement swim lessons, with the ultimate goal of preventing drowning among at-risk youth.

  7. State legislators' beliefs about legislation that restricts youth access to tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nell H; Goldstein, Adam O; Flynn, Brian S; Cohen, E Joanna E; Bauman, Karl E; Solomon, Laura J; Munger, Michael C; Dana, Greg S; McMorris, Laura E

    2003-04-01

    Better understanding of the cognitive framework for decision making among legislators is important for advocacy of health-promoting legislation. In 1994, the authors surveyed state legislators from North Carolina, Texas, and Vermont concerning their beliefs and intentions related to voting for a hypothetical measure to enforce legislation preventing the sale of tobacco to minors, using scales based on the theory of planned behavior. Attitude (importance), subjective norm (whether most people important to you would say you should or should not vote for the law), perceived behavioral control (ability to cast one's vote for the law), and home state were independently and significantly related to intention to vote for the law's enforcement. The results, including descriptive data concerning individual beliefs, suggest specific public health strategies to increase legislative support for passing legislation to restrict youth tobacco sales and, more generally, a framework for studying policy making and advocacy.

  8. Access control violation prevention by low-cost infrared detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Andrew N.

    2004-09-01

    A low cost 16x16 un-cooled pyroelectric detector array, allied with advanced tracking and detection algorithms, has enabled the development of a universal detector with a wide range of applications in people monitoring and homeland security. Violation of access control systems, whether controlled by proximity card, biometrics, swipe card or similar, may occur by 'tailgating' or 'piggybacking' where an 'approved' entrant with a valid entry card is accompanied by a closely spaced 'non-approved' entrant. The violation may be under duress, where the accompanying person is attempting to enter a secure facility by force or threat. Alternatively, the violation may be benign where staff members collude either through habit or lassitude, either with each other or with third parties, without considering the security consequences. Examples of the latter could include schools, hospitals or maternity homes. The 16x16 pyroelectric array is integrated into a detector or imaging system which incorporates data processing, target extraction and decision making algorithms. The algorithms apply interpolation to the array output, allowing a higher level of resolution than might otherwise be expected from such a low resolution array. The pyroelectric detection principle means that the detection will work in variable light conditions and even in complete darkness, if required. The algorithms can monitor the shape, form, temperature and number of persons in the scene and utilise this information to determine whether a violation has occurred or not. As people are seen as 'hot blobs' and are not individually recognisable, civil liberties are not infringed in the detection process. The output from the detector is a simple alarm signal which may act as input to the access control system as an alert or to trigger CCTV image display and storage. The applications for a tailgate detector can be demonstrated across many medium security applications where there are no physical means to prevent this

  9. AIDS Impact special issue 2009: HIV prevention through sport: the case of the Mathare Youth Sport Association in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Delva , Wim; Michielsen , Kristien; Meulders , Bert; Groeninck , Sandy; Wasonga , Edwin; Ajwang , Pauline; Temmerman , Marleen; Vanreusel , Bart

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Sport has become a popular tool for HIV prevention, based on claims that it can foster life skills that are necessary to translate knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions into actual behaviour. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention programmes is, however, sorely lacking. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof among 454 youth of the Mathare Youth Sport Association (MYSA)...

  10. Access to livelihood assets among youth with and without disabilities in South Africa: implications for health professional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Theresa; Cramm, Jane Murray

    2012-05-23

    This study compared access to 5 livelihood assets among disabled and non-disabled youth, to inform health professionals on inequities related to disability and to monitor the transformation agenda aimed at creating an inclusive society. Fieldworkers interviewed 989 youth (18 - 35 years; 523 (52.9%) disabled youth (DY), 466 (47.1%) non-disabled youth (NDY)) at 9 sites in 5 South African provinces. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic characteristics and livelihood assets. Chi-squared and t-tests were used for comparisons. Doctors at hospitals and nurses at clinics are health professionals most frequently seen. Far fewer DY than NDY attended and completed school. Unemployment was markedly more common among DY than among NDY. Barriers to accessing employment for DY were poor health and lack of skills development, and a lack of job opportunities for NDY. Both groups received the same amount of support from immediate household members, but significantly more NDY received support from extended family, friends, partners, and neighbours. They spent significantly more time engaging in all free-time activities. NDY reported more access to bathrooms, phone, and newspapers, as well as public services and the business sector. Participation and access were limited for both groups because of inaccessible public transport. This paper shows that DY have a greater struggle to access livelihood assets than non-disabled peers. The Disability Studies Academic Programme at the University of Cape Town is an initiative that seeks to take specific focused action with disability organisations in order to address the inequities faced by disabled youth to ensure their inclusion in development to the same degree as their non-disabled peers.

  11. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  12. Gang youth as a vulnerable population for nursing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill; Schneiderman, Janet U; Loken, Alisha; Lankenau, Stephen E; Bloom, Jennifer Jackson

    2009-01-01

    Gang youth often come from socially and economically marginalized communities. Such youth report significantly higher rates of participation in violence, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors than their nongang peers. This manuscript argues that gang-identified youth constitute a vulnerable population. Data are drawn from the general research literature and a case example of how a nurse in Los Angeles partnered with law enforcement to provide preventive health care to gang youth and youth at-risk for joining gangs. Gang youth are a vulnerable population amenable to nursing intervention. Gang youth may have particular health care needs and may need special access to health care.

  13. School- and Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Interventions: Hot Idea, Hot Air, or Sham?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Behzadi, Pegah

    2017-06-01

    Suicide in young people is a significant health concern, with numerous community- and school-based interventions promising to prevent suicide currently being applied across Canada. Before widespread application of any one of these, it is essential to determine its effectiveness and safety. We systematically reviewed the global literature on one of the most common community suicide prevention interventions in Canada and summarized data on 2 commonly applied school-based suicide prevention programmes. None of these has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing youth suicide or safety in application. Concurrently with their widespread distribution in Canada, the suicide rate in young women has increased-the first time in over 3 decades. Policy and regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Social Capital and Homeless Youth: Influence of Residential Instability on College Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.; Hallett, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the experiences homeless youth face and the influence of social networks on their education. Using a social capital framework, we analyze the experiences that are different for poor youth in general and those homeless. Data used include interviews with 123 homeless youth and more than 40 policymakers, school counselors, and…

  15. "It's Crazy Being a Black, Gay Youth." Getting Information about HIV Prevention: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Shiu, Chen-Shi; Krieger, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Access and adoption of HIV prevention information are important criteria for reducing HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men. Methods: Using focus group data, researchers sought to identify sources of HIV prevention information and barriers to adopting protective behaviors among young African American men who have sex with…

  16. Promoting physical activity among youth through community-based prevention marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang

    2010-05-01

    Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.

  17. Role of Religion in Preventing Youth Sexual Activity in Malaysia: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani

    2017-12-01

    One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.

  18. The impact of culturally relevant violence prevention models on school-age youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Laxley W; Johnson, Dana L; Srivastava, Rameshwar P

    2005-09-01

    The Family and Community Violence Prevention (FCVP) Program was established in 1994 to address the escalation of youth violence among ethnic minorities. This federally funded program adapted the public health model and organized Family Life Centers throughout the country to serve youth who were considered to be at risk for violence and other abusive behaviors. The purpose of this three-year study, 1999-2002, was to determine the effectiveness of the FCVP Program's six-component curriculum in reducing violence among participants. Results from posttest scores of 2,315 youth showed girls 12 and over to be most at risk for deviant behaviors; the program was most effective with boys under age 12. Academic performance and bonding to school were protective factors whereas exposure to violence was a risk factor for all four ethnic groups studied--African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Native Hawaiians. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Cultural anthropologists, public health specialists, and school officials should know that prevention programs can be designed to reflect the unique, culturally appropriate norms of specific ethnic minority groups, even as these programs address shared risk factors. The authors discuss the promising strategy of enhancing academic performance and school bonding to serve as protective factors against school violence, but they also describe age, gender, and cultural differences that must be addressed in future research.

  19. YOUTH: decisions and challenges in designing an osteoporosis prevention intervention for teen girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBar, Lynn L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Vuckovic, Nancy; Stevens, Victor J; Aickin, Mikel; Elliot, Diane; Moe, Esther; Orwoll, Eric; Ernst, Denise; Irving, Lori M

    2004-11-01

    This paper describes decisions about the experimental design for the Youth, Osteoporosis, and Understanding Total Health Project (YOUTH), a trial designed to test the efficacy of a health plan-based lifestyle intervention for increasing bone mineral density among adolescent women 14 to 16 years of age. This randomized controlled trial recruited adolescent women who were at higher risk for developing osteoporosis (body mass index 16-23) from a large HMO in the Pacific Northwest. The intervention focused on improving diet (high calcium foods, fruits, and vegetables) and increasing physical activity (high impact and spinal motion). The intervention included both group and individual activities. The primary endpoint in the study was total bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Baseline data were collected on the trial cohort of 228 adolescent women and their families. This paper discusses how researchers met the following challenges in designing and implementing the trial: determining appropriate dietary and exercise targets to affect bone mineral density in adolescents; choosing suitable assessments; and developing an intervention well suited for implementation in a non-school (health plan) setting. We also discuss the rationale for the specific study population chosen (females, younger adolescents). The YOUTH project is one of very few preventive research interventions with adolescents conducted in a health plan setting. Many of the recruitment and intervention strategies used in this trial may be appropriate for adoption in other health plan-based prevention studies.

  20. Associations between Gun Violence Exposure, Gang Associations, and Youth Aggression: Implications for Prevention and Intervention Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Forster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using cross-sectional data collected from three middle schools in Southeast Los Angeles, we assessed the association of neighborhood violence exposure, gang associations, and social self-control with past week aggression in a sample of minority youth (n=164. Results from Poisson and logistic regression models showed that direct exposure to gun violence, having friends in gangs, and low social self control were all positively associated with past week aggression. Among girls, having gang affiliated family members was positively associated with aggression, whereas among boys having friends in gangs was associated with past week aggression. Subjective expectations of engagement in future interpersonal violence were associated with being male, having friends in gangs, and fear of neighborhood gun violence. We recommend that youth violence prevention and intervention programs address the impact of family, peers, and gun violence on student coping and identify students with low social self-control who could benefit from social and emotional skills training.

  1. Neuromuscular training injury prevention strategies in youth sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem

    2015-07-01

    Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Multisite Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009......) to analyze drug prevention campaigns in Sweden. After this a more detailed analysis of how the two campaigns articulate pleasure is done. Results – Both campaigns recognize recreational motives for consuming alcohol. In both campaigns pleasure is central to the regulation of alcohol consumption among young...

  4. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  5. Preventing youth violence and delinquency through a universal school-based prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J; Griffin, Kenneth W; Nichols, Tracy Diaz

    2006-12-01

    Violence is an important public health problem among adolescents in the United States. Substance use and violence tend to co-occur among adolescents and appear to have similar etiologies. The present study examined the extent to which a comprehensive prevention approach targeting an array of individual-level risk and protective factors and previously found effective in preventing tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is capable of decreasing violence and delinquency. Schools (N=41) were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Participants in the 20 intervention schools received the Life Skills Training prevention program including material focusing on violence and the media, anger management, and conflict resolution skills. Survey data were collected from 4,858 sixth grade students prior to the intervention and three months later after the intervention. Findings showed significant reductions in violence and delinquency for intervention participants relative to controls. Stronger prevention effects were found for students who received at least half of the preventive intervention. These effects include less verbal and physical aggression, fighting, and delinquency. The results of this study indicate that a school-based prevention approach previously found to prevent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use can also prevent violence and delinquency.

  6. From the Classroom to Facebook: A Fresh Approach for Youth Tobacco Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Kympouropoulos, Stylianos P; Pouli, Dimitra K; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Vardavas, Constantine I

    2016-05-01

    The explosive rise in Internet use calls for effective ways to utilize new forms of social media to enhance school smoking prevention programs. We attempted to design and test an educational intervention for youth tobacco prevention. Intervention design and posttest pilot implementation. A single high school in Athens, Greece. Two hundred twenty-five students (aged 15-18 years). A Facebook-integrated educational intervention in six simple steps was designed and tested during an ad hoc smoking prevention lecture to high school students in Greece in order to stimulate social mobilization in online networks. Number of students with an active Facebook account, percentage posting antismoking messages within a 72-hour period, number of Facebook friends reached. Descriptive statistics. Assessed 3 days after the lecture, 15.9% of students had posted a smoking-related sentence in their Facebook account, a take-home message that was spread as a note on their wall via news feed to their 20,095 cumulative Facebook friends. One smoking-related take-home message can spread virally to a large number of adolescents through their Facebook friends. This intervention provides insight into a novel way of providing health information to youth, a hard-to-reach and vulnerable population. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Practicas optimas para la prevencion de la violencia juvenil: Libro de referencia para la accion comunitaria (Best Practices of Youth Violence Prevention: A Sourcebook for Community Action).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Timothy N., Comp.; Craft, Carole A., Comp.; Dahlberg, Linda L., Comp.; Lynch, Barbara S., Comp.; Baer, Katie, Comp.

    The Spanish-language version of this best practices sourcebook builds on a 1993 publication, "The Prevention of Youth Violence: A Framework for Community Action." It offers insight into tested strategies to prevent violence by children and adolescents. It was developed with input from people working to prevent youth violence and people…

  8. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Kumaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  9. Working with High-Risk Youth in Prevention and Early Intervention Programs: Toward a Comprehensive Wellness Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Roger C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Addresses issues such as dropouts, teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, suicide, and other health-damaging behaviors. Presents a theory of youth development and learning, and an integrated, interactive and reciprocal model for the prevention of health-damaging behavior. Addresses the role of the schools in prevention. (Author/BH)

  10. Understanding gender roles in teen pregnancy prevention among American Indian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2014-11-01

    To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.

  11. "To Trust in My Root and to Take That to Go Forward": Supporting College Access for Immigrant Youth in the Global City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe-Walter, Reva; Lee, Stacey J.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of immigrant youth are coming of age within global cities that are characterized by growing inequalities and few opportunities for social mobility. These youth face numerous educational obstacles that complicate college and labor market access. This article draws from an ethnographic study of public high schools serving…

  12. STI Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low and Middle Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care

    OpenAIRE

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Access to sexual and reproductive health services (SRH) is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001?2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10?24 years) an...

  13. Youth Voucher Program in Madagascar Increases Access to Voluntary Family Planning and STI Services for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Eva; Gold, Judy; Razafinirinasoa, Lalaina; Mackay, Anna

    2017-03-24

    Young people often express a preference for seeking family planning information and services from the private sector. However, in many Marie Stopes International (MSI) social franchise networks, the proportion of young clients, and particularly those under 20 years of age, remains low. Marie Stopes Madagascar (MSM) piloted a youth voucher program that joins a supply-side intervention-youth-friendly social franchisee training and quality monitoring-with a corresponding demand-side-component, free vouchers that reduce financial barriers to family planning access for young people. Young people identified by MSM's community health educators (CHEs) received a free voucher redeemable at a BlueStar social franchisee for a package of voluntary family planning and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information and services. BlueStar social franchisees-private providers accredited by MSM-are reimbursed for the cost of providing these services. We reviewed service statistics data from the first 18 months of the youth voucher program, from July 2013 to December 2014, as well as client demographic profile data from July 2015. Findings: Between July 2013 and December 2014, 58,417 vouchers were distributed to young people by CHEs through a range of community mobilization efforts, of which 43,352 (74%) were redeemed for family planning and STI services. Most clients (78.5%) chose a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC), and just over half (51%) of young people benefited from STI counseling as part of their voucher service. Most (78%) services were provided in the Analamanga region (the capital and its surroundings), which was expected given the population density in this region and the high concentration of BlueStar franchisees. The client profile data snapshot from July 2015 revealed that 69% of voucher clients had never previously used a contraceptive method, and 96% of clients were aged 20 or younger, suggesting that the voucher program is successfully reaching the

  14. Exposure and Response Prevention Process Predicts Treatment Outcome in Youth with OCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Katharina; Peris, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the treatment of adults with anxiety disorders suggests that aspects of the in-session exposure therapy process are relevant to clinical outcomes. However, few comprehensive studies have been conducted with children and adolescents. In the present study, 35 youth diagnosed with primary obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; M age=12.9 years, 49% male, 63% Caucasian) completed 12 sessions of exposure and response prevention (ERP) in one of two treatment conditions as part of a pilot randomized controlled testing of a family focused intervention for OCD. Key exposure process variables, including youth self-reported distress during ERP and the quantity and quality of ERP completed, were computed. These variables were examined as predictors of treatment outcomes assessed at mid-treatment, post-treatment, and three-month follow-up, partialing treatment condition. In general, greater variability of distress during ERP and completing a greater proportion of combined exposures (i.e., exposures targeting more than one OC symptom at once) were predictive of better outcomes. Conversely, greater distress at the end of treatment was generally predictive of poorer outcomes. Finally, several variables, including within- and between-session decreases in distress during ERP, were not consistently predictive of outcomes. Findings signal potentially important facets of exposure for youth with OCD and have implications for treatment. A number of results also parallel recent findings in the adult literature, suggesting that there may be some continuity in exposure processes from child to adult development. Future work should examine additional measures of exposure process, such as psychophysiological arousal during exposure, in youth. PMID:25052626

  15. IP and Data Access | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following outlines the different patent and licensing mechanisms applicable to studies of third-party agents in the PREVENT Program. Please note that the NCI has a variety of agreement mechanisms by which these terms may be applied and will work with the NCI Technology Transfer Center to determine the appropriate agreement for the studies approved by the PREVENT Program. | The section outlines the different patent and licensing mechanisms applicable to studies of third-party agents in the PREVENT Program.

  16. SaludableOmaha: development of a youth advocacy initiative to increase community readiness for obesity prevention, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Stewart, Catherine; Robbins, Regina; Riggs, Cara; Mayberger, Susan; Cervantes, Alberto; Huang, Terry T-K

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in minority populations continue to rise despite leveling national trends. Although interventions that address social and environmental factors exist, processes that create demand for policy and environmental change within communities have not been identified. We developed a pilot program in South Omaha, a Nebraska Latino community, based on the community readiness model (CRM), called SaludableOmaha. We used CRM to explore the potential of youth advocacy to shift individual and community norms regarding obesity prevention in South Omaha and to advocate for health-promoting community environments. We used CRM to assess supply and demand for health programs, engage the community, determine the community's baseline readiness to address childhood obesity, and guide youth advocacy program development. We conducted our project in 2 phases. In the first, we trained a cohort of youth. In the second, the youth cohort created and launched a Latino health movement, branded as SaludableOmaha. A third phase, which is currently under way, is directed at institutionalizing youth advocacy in communities. At baseline, the community studied was at a low stage of readiness for change. Our program generated infrastructure and materials to support the growth and institutionalization of youth advocacy as a means of increasing community readiness for addressing obesity prevention. CRM is an important tool for addressing issues such as childhood obesity in underserved communities because it provides a framework for matching interventions to the community. Community partnerships such as SaludableOmaha can aid the adoption of obesity prevention programs.

  17. SOCIAL ATTITUDES TO DRUGS ABUSE AMONG YOUTH AND DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Nakhimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The formation of responsibility for one’s health in the youth environment is one of the tasks of the institution of education that determines the process of socialization. The future of sustainable development of country is determined, among other things, by the formation of negative social attitudes towards drug use.The aim of the publication is to study the specifics of the social orientation among young people on drug use and to justify the need for prevention in the educational environment.Methodology and research methods. Methodological basis of work involves classical theories of social installation; anomies; cultural conflict; subcultures; stigmatizations; social control; social space. The analysis and synthesis of scientific publications and data of the government statistics, including results of a number of social researches of 2010–2015 conducted in the Tyumen region are used. Sociological methods, including poll, questioning and the formalized interviews are applied at an experimental investigation phase. Data processing is carried out in technique of the factorial and classification analysis.Results and scientific novelty. Drug abuse among young people is a result of the contradiction between youth attitudes and social norms. It is shown that the prevention of drug abuse in Russia is institutionally ineffective. The social attitudes and motives connected with drug abuse among young people aged 18–30 years are revealed. It is established that acceptance of drug abuse experience is not defined by a gender, social and/or material status. The main types of the attitude to drug abuse experience are designated: 1 complete negation of a possibility of drug abuse; 2 refusal of drug abuse, but indifference or loyal attitude to drug abuse by others; 3 readiness for periodic drug usage; 4 steady stereotype of regular use of narcotic substances.The necessity of flexible forms of influence on youth for formation of sustainable

  18. Early childhood family intervention and long-term obesity prevention among high-risk minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Theise, Rachelle; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Wang, Jing; Petkova, Eva; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that family intervention to promote effective parenting in early childhood affects obesity in preadolescence. Participants were 186 minority youth at risk for behavior problems who enrolled in long-term follow-up studies after random assignment to family intervention or control condition at age 4. Follow-up Study 1 included 40 girls at familial risk for behavior problems; Follow-up Study 2 included 146 boys and girls at risk for behavior problems based on teacher ratings. Family intervention aimed to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems during early childhood; it did not focus on physical health. BMI and health behaviors were measured an average of 5 years after intervention in Study 1 and 3 years after intervention in Study 2. Youth randomized to intervention had significantly lower BMI at follow-up relative to controls (Study 1 P = .05; Study 2 P = .006). Clinical impact is evidenced by lower rates of obesity (BMI ≥95th percentile) among intervention girls and boys relative to controls (Study 2: 24% vs 54%, P = .002). There were significant intervention-control group differences on physical and sedentary activity, blood pressure, and diet. Two long-term follow-up studies of randomized trials show that relative to controls, youth at risk for behavior problems who received family intervention at age 4 had lower BMI and improved health behaviors as they approached adolescence. Efforts to promote effective parenting and prevent behavior problems early in life may contribute to the reduction of obesity and health disparities.

  19. Homelessness, Mental Health and Suicidality Among LGBTQ Youth Accessing Crisis Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Harmony; Rusow, Joshua A; Bond, David; Lanteigne, Amy; Fulginiti, Anthony; Goldbach, Jeremy T

    2018-01-10

    LGBTQ youth experience increased risks of homelessness, mental health disorder symptoms, and suicidality. Utilizing data from LGBTQ youth contacting a suicide crisis services organization, this study examined: (a) rates of homelessness among crisis services users, (b) the relationship between disclosure of LGBTQ identity to parents and parental rejection and homelessness, and (c) the relationship between homelessness and mental health disorder outcomes and suicidality. A nationwide sample of LGBTQ youth was recruited for a confidential online survey from an LGBTQ-focused crisis services hotline. Overall, nearly one-third of youth contacting the crisis services hotline had experienced lifetime homelessness, and those who had disclosed their LGBTQ identity to parents or experienced parental rejection because of LGBTQ status experienced higher rates of homelessness. Youth with homelessness experiences reported more symptoms of several mental health disorders and higher rates of suicidality. Suggestions for service providers are discussed.

  20. Evaluation, management and prevention of lower extremity youth ice hockey injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkin CA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Charles A Popkin,1 Brian M Schulz,2 Caroline N Park,1 Thomas S Bottiglieri,1 T Sean Lynch1 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Center for Shoulder, Elbow and Sports Medicine at Columbia University, New York, NY, 2Kerlan‑Jobe Orthopedic Clinic, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Ice hockey is a fast-paced sport played by increasing numbers of children and adolescents in North America and around the world. Requiring a unique blend of skill, finesse, power and teamwork, ice hockey can become a lifelong recreational activity. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is ongoing concern about the high frequency of musculoskeletal injury associated with participation in ice hockey. Injury rates in ice hockey are among the highest in all competitive sports. Numerous research studies have been implemented to better understand the risks of injury. As a result, rule changes were adopted by the USA Hockey and Hockey Canada to raise the minimum age at which body checking is permitted to 13–14 years (Bantam level from 11–12 years (Pee Wee. Continuing the education of coaches, parents and players on rules of safe play, and emphasizing the standards for proper equipment use are other strategies being implemented to make the game safer to play. The objective of this article was to review the evaluation, management and prevention of common lower extremity youth hockey injuries. Keywords: youth hockey, body checking, injury prevention, femoroacetabular impingement, apophyseal avulsions

  1. Evaluation of safety balls and faceguards for prevention of injuries in youth baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Stephen W; Mueller, Frederick O; Kirby, Daniel P; Yang, Jingzhen

    2003-02-05

    Safety balls and faceguards are widely used in youth baseball, but their effectiveness in reducing injury is unknown. To evaluate the association of the use of faceguards and safety balls and injuries in youth baseball. Ecological study using a national database of compensated insurance claims maintained by Little League Baseball Incorporated, combined with data on the number of participants in Little League and data from a census of protective equipment usage for youth aged 5 to 18 years participating in Little League Baseball in the United States during 1997-1999. Rate of injury and injury rate ratio comparing users with nonusers of protective equipment. A total of 6 744 240 player-seasons of follow-up and 4233 compensated injury claims were available for analysis. The absolute incidence of compensated injury per 100 000 player-seasons was 28.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 26.76-29.29) for ball-related injury and 2.71 (95% CI, 2.32-3.11) for facial injury. Overall, use of safety balls was associated with a reduced risk of ball-related injury (adjusted rate ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93). This reduction was essentially due to 1 type of safety ball, known as the reduced-impact ball (adjusted rate ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.91). Use of faceguards reduced the risk of facial injury (adjusted rate ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.43-0.98). Metal and plastic guards appeared to be equally effective. Safety balls appeared to be more effective in the minor division (ages 7-12 years) than in the regular division (ages 9-12 years). Reduced-impact balls and faceguards were associated with a reduced risk of injury in youth baseball. These findings support increased usage of these items; however, it should be noted that the absolute incidence of injury in youth baseball is low and that these equipment items do not prevent all injuries.

  2. The effects of the evidence-based Safe Dates dating abuse prevention program on other youth violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Luz McNaughton; Agnew-Brune, Christine B; Simon, Thomas R; Vagi, Kevin J; Lee, Rosalyn D; Suchindran, Chiravath

    2014-12-01

    In response to recent calls for programs that can prevent multiple types of youth violence, the current study examined whether Safe Dates, an evidence-based dating violence prevention program, was effective in preventing other forms of youth violence. Using data from the original Safe Dates randomized controlled trial, this study examined (1) the effectiveness of Safe Dates in preventing peer violence victimization and perpetration and school weapon carrying 1 year after the intervention phase was completed and (2) moderation of program effects by the sex or race/ethnicity of the adolescent. Ninety percent (n = 1,690) of the eighth and ninth graders who completed baseline questionnaires completed the 1-year follow-up assessment. The sample was 51 % female and 26 % minority (of whom 69 % was black and 31 % was of another minority race/ethnicity). There were no baseline treatment group differences in violence outcomes. Treatment condition was significantly associated with peer violence victimization and school weapon carrying at follow-up; there was 12 % less victimization and 31 % less weapon carrying among those exposed to Safe Dates than those among controls. Treatment condition was significantly associated with perpetration among the minority but not among white adolescents; there was 23 % less violence perpetration among minority adolescents exposed to Safe Dates than that among controls. The observed effect sizes were comparable with those of other universal school-based youth violence prevention programs. Implementing Safe Dates may be an efficient way of preventing multiple types of youth violence.

  3. STI Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low and Middle Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S.; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2017-01-01

    Access to sexual and reproductive health services (SRH) is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001–2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10–24 years) and/or health service providers. Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion from fifteen countries. Thematic analyses identified key themes across the studies. Findings suggest that youth lacked knowledge about STIs and services. Additionally, youth experienced barriers related to service availability and a lack of integration of services. The most reported barriers were related to acceptability of services. Youth reported avoiding services or having confidentiality concerns based on provider demographics and some behaviors. Finally, experiences of shame and stigma were common barriers to seeking care. Adolescents in low and middle income countries experience significant barriers in obtaining STI and SRH services. Improving uptake may require efforts to address clinic systems and provider attitudes, including confidentiality issues. Moreover, addressing barriers to STI services may require addressing cultural norms related to adolescent sexuality. PMID:27338664

  4. Opening Access to Economic Data to Prevent Tobacco and Alcohol ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will increase awareness and access to economic and policy data for tobacco and alcohol-related policies in sub-Saharan Africa among researchers, policymakers, and public health advocates. Data available, but low awareness There is a general perception that little to no data is available for tobacco and ...

  5. Youth-violence prevention in the aftermath of the San Diego East county school shootings: a qualitative assessment of community explanatory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Prussing, Erica; Landsverk, John; Reznik, Vivian

    2003-01-01

    In March, 2001, 2 separate incidents of school shootings occurred within the same school district in San Diego's East County. To examine community explanatory models of the causes of the school shootings and strategies for preventing such events. A qualitative study was undertaken in 4 East County communities over a 6-month period following the 2 events. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 85 community residents identified through maximum variation sampling. Interview transcripts were analyzed by coding consensus, co-occurrence and comparison, using NVivo text analysis software. Four sets of theories as to the cause of these events were identified, based on the following: 1) unique or idiosyncratic characteristics of the 2 shooters (newcomer to community who was a victim of bullying, victim of child abuse with a history of mental illness), 2) universal factors (culture of violence, violence in the media), 3) family-centered characteristics (single-parent households, dysfunctional relationships), and 4) community-specific characteristics (reputation for social intolerance, widespread access to guns). Beliefs in family-centered and community-centered theories of etiology were associated with optimism in preventing such events from occurring in the future through increased recognition and response to problem behaviors, while beliefs in idiosyncratic or universal determinants of youth violence were associated with pessimistic assessments of prevention. In this community, youth-violence-prevention programs that focus on taking responsibility for recognizing and responding to problem behaviors in at-risk youth are more likely to gain community support and participation than programs that focus on increased security, surveillance, or behavior change.

  6. Theories and models supporting prevention approaches to alcohol problems among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E M; Amatetti, S; Funkhouser, J E; Johnson, S

    1988-01-01

    The Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration's Office for Substance Abuse Prevention (OSAP) was established to initiate programs to provide prevention and early intervention services for young people, especially high-risk youth. OSAP's starting point was the theories and models that provide the background body of knowledge. The models summarized here guide new prevention efforts and provide a framework for analyzing diverse experiences in the field. The goal has been to develop strategies based on theories and models of prevention that can reverse or prevent adolescent alcohol use. Among the psychosocial models, research in social learning theory is the theoretical basis for prevention efforts using the team approach among individuals, small groups, families, and communities. A prevention technique based on cognitive dissonance theory proposes verbal inoculations to establish or strengthen beliefs and attitudes, helping a young person to resist drinking, which may be in conflict with another, more desirable goal. In the developmental concept adolescence is a period of role confusion out of which the person's identity should emerge. Prevention efforts built on this view seek to help adolescents to form positive identities by achievement as students, athletes, and in community roles. Behavioral intention theory provides a framework for understanding the role of perceived social norms in directing behaviors. In the social development model, prevention programs should create positive peer groups and ensure that the social environment does not give mixed messages. Health behavior theory is the basis for prevention strategies directed toward a person's entire behavior instead of one aspect. The stages of the drug involvement model form the basis for prevention programs providing early intervention directed at the so-called gateway drugs.Among the communications models, the health promotion concept advocates a comprehensive approach in developing health

  7. The Baltimore Youth Ammunition Initiative: A Model Application of Local Public Health Authority in Preventing Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Nancy L.; Vernick, Jon S.; Beilenson, Peter L.; Mair, Julie S.; Lindamood, Melisa M.; Teret, Stephen P.; Webster, Daniel W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, the Baltimore City Health Department, in collaboration with the Baltimore Police Department and the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research, launched the Youth Ammunition Initiative. The initiative addressed Baltimore’s problem of youth gun violence by targeting illegal firearm ammunition sales to the city’s young people. The initiative included undercover “sting” investigations of local businesses and issuance of health department violation and abatement notices. Intermediate results included the passage of 2 Baltimore city council ordinances regulating ammunition sales and reducing the number of outlets eligible to sell ammunition. Although it is too early to assess effects on violent crime, the intervention could theoretically reduce youth violence by interrupting one source of ammunition to youths. More important, the initiative can serve as a policy model for health commissioners seeking to become more active in gun violence prevention efforts. PMID:15855448

  8. HIV prevention through sport: the case of the Mathare Youth Sport Association in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Wim; Michielsen, Kristien; Meulders, Bert; Groeninck, Sandy; Wasonga, Edwin; Ajwang, Pauline; Temmerman, Marleen; Vanreusel, Bart

    2010-08-01

    Sport has become a popular tool for HIV prevention, based on claims that it can foster life skills that are necessary to translate knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions into actual behaviour. Empirical evidence of the effectiveness of sport-based HIV prevention programmes is, however, sorely lacking. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional survey assessing sexual behaviour and the determinants thereof among 454 youth of the Mathare Youth Sport Association (MYSA) in Kenya and a control group of 318 non-MYSA members. Multiple (ordinal) logistic regression models were applied to measure the association between MYSA membership and attitudes, subjective norms and self-efficacy related to condom use as well as sexual experience, age at sexual debut, condom use, history of concurrent relationships and number of partners in the last year. MYSA members were more likely to use condoms during the first sex act (odds ratio (OR)=2.10; 95% CI: 1.10-3.99). Consistent condom use with the current/last partner was 23.2% (36/155) among MYSA members vs. 17.2% (17/99) among the control group. Even after adjusting for media exposure - a factor associated with both MYSA membership and higher frequency of condom use - MYSA members were still found to use condoms more frequently with their current/last partner (adjusted OR=1.64; 95% CI: 1.01-2.68). Nevertheless, levels of condom use remain disturbingly low. More rigorous evaluations of sport programmes for HIV prevention are needed. When possible, programmes should be preceded by baseline assessments, trends in risk behaviour of the intervention group should be compared with those of a control group, and protocols for data collection and analysis should include measuring of and adjusting for potentially confounding factors.

  9. Why Adolescents Fight: A Qualitative Study of Youth Perspectives on Fighting and Its Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lee, Simon C.; Tillitski, John; Wilson, Connie; Flores, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify risk factors for fighting, factors that protect against fighting, and strategies to prevent fighting, among adolescents who fight and those uninvolved in fighting. Methods Focus groups were conducted with middle and high-school students, stratified by fighting (fighter/non-fighter) status, race/ethnicity, and gender. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and thematic content analysis. Themes were independently identified by three coders; disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results The 65 participants in the 12 focus groups were 13–17 years old. Reasons for fighting include self-defense, to gain/maintain respect, or due to anger; having goals for the future is protective. Non-fighters state that their parents condone fighting only when physically attacked, and teach adolescents strategies to avoid fighting. Fighters describe mixed messages from parents, and pro-fighting attitudes and modeling of aggressive behavior among some family members. Non-fighters avoid fighting by ignoring insults or walking away. Fighters feel unable to use nonviolent conflict-resolution methods effectively. Peers may instigate or encourage fights. Suggested prevention strategies include anger-management and conflict-resolution programs, relationships with caring adults, and physicians counseling youth about the consequences of fighting. Conclusions Non-fighters use various strategies to avoid fighting, whereas fighters are aware of few alternatives to fighting. Conflicting parental messages about fighting may enhance the likelihood of fighting. Physicians can counsel youth about the negative consequences of fighting. Interventions that teach anger management and conflict resolution, promote adolescent self-efficacy for using non-violent strategies, and address parental attitudes about fighting may be effective in preventing fighting. PMID:25528128

  10. Why adolescents fight: a qualitative study of youth perspectives on fighting and its prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lee, Simon C; Tillitski, John; Wilson, Connie; Flores, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    To identify risk factors for fighting, factors that protect against fighting, and strategies to prevent fighting, among adolescents who fight and those uninvolved in fighting. Focus groups were conducted with middle and high school students, stratified by fighting (fighter/nonfighter) status, race/ethnicity, and gender. Groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and thematic content analysis. Themes were independently identified by 3 coders; disagreements were resolved by consensus. The 65 participants in the 12 focus groups were 13 to 17 years old. Reasons for fighting include self-defense, to gain/maintain respect, or anger; having goals for the future is protective. Nonfighters state that their parents condone fighting only when physically attacked and that they teach adolescents strategies to avoid fighting. Fighters describe mixed messages from parents, and pro-fighting attitudes and modeling of aggressive behavior among some family members. Nonfighters avoid fighting by ignoring insults or walking away. Fighters feel unable to use nonviolent conflict-resolution methods effectively. Peers may instigate or encourage fights. Suggested prevention strategies include anger-management and conflict-resolution programs, relationships with caring adults, and physicians counseling youth about the consequences of fighting. Nonfighters use various strategies to avoid fighting, whereas fighters are aware of few alternatives to fighting. Conflicting parental messages about fighting may enhance the likelihood of fighting. Physicians can counsel youth about the negative consequences of fighting. Interventions that teach anger management and conflict resolution, promote adolescent self-efficacy for using nonviolent strategies, and address parental attitudes about fighting may be effective in preventing fighting. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Engaging Minority Youth in Diabetes Prevention Efforts Through a Participatory, Spoken-Word Social Marketing Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah C; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari B; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean

    2017-07-01

    To examine the reach, efficacy, and adoption of The Bigger Picture, a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) social marketing campaign that uses spoken-word public service announcements (PSAs) to teach youth about socioenvironmental conditions influencing T2DM risk. A nonexperimental pilot dissemination evaluation through high school assemblies and a Web-based platform were used. The study took place in San Francisco Bay Area high schools during 2013. In the study, 885 students were sampled from 13 high schools. A 1-hour assembly provided data, poet performances, video PSAs, and Web-based platform information. A Web-based platform featured the campaign Web site and social media. Student surveys preassembly and postassembly (knowledge, attitudes), assembly observations, school demographics, counts of Web-based utilization, and adoption were measured. Descriptive statistics, McNemar's χ 2 test, and mixed modeling accounting for clustering were used to analyze data. The campaign included 23 youth poet-created PSAs. It reached >2400 students (93% self-identified non-white) through school assemblies and has garnered >1,000,000 views of Web-based video PSAs. School participants demonstrated increased short-term knowledge of T2DM as preventable, with risk driven by socioenvironmental factors (34% preassembly identified environmental causes as influencing T2DM risk compared to 83% postassembly), and perceived greater personal salience of T2DM risk reduction (p < .001 for all). The campaign has been adopted by regional public health departments. The Bigger Picture campaign showed its potential for reaching and engaging diverse youth. Campaign messaging is being adopted by stakeholders.

  12. Impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Stephen; Ray, Alice; Berg, Sarah; Covington, Larry; Albarran, Nadine M.; Vasquez, Max

    2009-01-01

    Youths in gang-ridden neighborhoods are at risk for trauma-related mental health disorders, which are early indicators of likely school failure and delinquency. Such youths rarely seek out services for these problems. The Juvenile Intervention and Prevention Program (JIPP), a school-based gang intervention and prevention program in Los Angeles,…

  13. Preventing diabetes in obese Latino youth with prediabetes: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica G. Soltero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese Latino adolescents are disproportionately impacted by insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is an intermediate stage in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and represents a critical opportunity for intervention. However, to date, no diabetes prevention studies have been conducted in obese Latino youth with prediabetes, a highly vulnerable and underserved group. Therefore, we propose a randomized-controlled trial to test the short-term (6-month and long-term (12-month efficacy of a culturally-grounded, lifestyle intervention, as compared to usual care, for improving glucose tolerance and reducing diabetes risk in 120 obese Latino adolescents with prediabetes. Methods Participants will be randomized to a lifestyle intervention or usual care group. Participants in the intervention group will attend weekly nutrition and wellness sessions and physical activity sessions twice a week for six months, followed by three months of booster sessions. The overall approach of the intervention is framed within a multilevel Ecodevelopmental model that leverages community, family, peer, and individual factors during the critical transition period of adolescence. The intervention is also guided by Social Cognitive Theory and employs key behavioral modification strategies to enhance self-efficacy and foster social support for making and sustaining healthy behavior changes. We will test intervention effects on quality of life, explore the potential mediating effects of changes in body composition, total, regional, and organ fat on improving glucose tolerance and increasing insulin sensitivity, and estimate the initial incremental cost effectiveness of the intervention as compared with usual care for improving glucose tolerance. Discussion The proposed trial builds upon extant collaborations of a transdisciplinary team of investigators working in concert with local community agencies to address critical gaps in how diabetes

  14. Access for all: contextualising HIV treatment as prevention in Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, E.; Mehlo, M.; Hardon, A.; Reis, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how notions of the individual and population are evoked in two ongoing HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) implementation studies in Swaziland. By contrasting policy discourses with lived kinship experiences of people living with HIV, we seek to understand how TasP unfolds in

  15. Taking snapshots of preventive interventions : On the effectiveness of preventive interventions for youth and how it relates to implementation and conflict of interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, F.X.

    2017-01-01

    Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and

  16. Street conflict mediation to prevent youth violence: conflict characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S

    2013-06-01

    Mediation of potentially violent conflicts is a key component of CeaseFire, an effective gun violence-prevention programme. To describe conflicts mediated by outreach workers (OW) in Baltimore's CeaseFire replication, examine neighbourhood variation, and measure associations between conflict risk factors and successful nonviolent resolution. A cross-sectional study was conducted using records for 158 conflicts mediated between 2007 and 2009. Involvement of youth, gangs, retaliation, weapons and other risk factors were described. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for data-reduction purposes before the relationship between conflict risk components and mediation success was assessed with multivariate logistic regression. Most conflicts involved 2-3 individuals. Youth, persons with a history of violence, gang members and weapons were commonly present. OWs reported immediate, nonviolent resolution for 65% of mediated conflicts; an additional 23% were at least temporarily resolved without violence. PCA identified four dimensions of conflict risk: the risk-level of individuals involved; whether the incident was related to retaliation; the number of people involved; and shooting likelihood. However, these factors were not related to the OW's ability to resolve the conflict. Neighbourhoods with programme-associated reductions in homicides mediated more gang-related conflicts; neighbourhoods without programme-related homicide reductions encountered more retaliatory conflicts and more weapons.

  17. Safe care spaces and places: exploring urban Aboriginal families' access to preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herk, Kimberley A; Smith, Dawn; Tedford Gold, Sara

    2012-05-01

    Many Aboriginal children living in Canadian cities experience high levels of perinatal and infant health challenges. Despite efforts to reduce inequities in early childhood development, numerous urban Aboriginal families have poor access to preventive care. In this paper, we challenge conventional notions of access and use a postcolonial population health perspective to explain how access to preventive care for Aboriginal families is influenced by safety and responsiveness within care experiences. We explore an approach to care that addresses the safety of care spaces and care places. The potential of this approach for improving access to preventive services for Aboriginal families may be of considerable interest to urban preventive health policy or health system managers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Suicide Prevention Interventions for Sexual & Gender Minority Youth: An Unmet Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alexandra

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is currently the second leading cause of death in the U.S. among youth ages 10 to 24. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth face heightened risk for suicide and report greater odds of attempting suicide than their heteronormative peers. Contributing factors of experience, which are distinctly different from the experiences of heteronormative youth, place SGM youth at heightened risk for suicide. While interventions aimed at addressing suicide risk factors for all youth are being implemented and many have proven effective in the general population, no evidence-based intervention currently exists to reduce suicide risk within this special population. This perspective article discusses this need and proposes the development of an evidence-based suicide risk reduction intervention tailored to SGM youth. Creating a supportive school climate for SGM youth has been shown to reduce suicide risk and may provide protective effects for all youth while simultaneously meeting the unique needs of SGM youth.

  19. Study protocol: incentives for increased access to comprehensive family planning for urban youth using a benefits card in Uganda. A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuwasiima, Afra; Nuwamanya, Elly; Navvuga, Patricia; Babigumira, Janet U; Asiimwe, Francis T; Lubinga, Solomon J; Babigumira, Joseph B

    2017-10-27

    The use of contraception is one of the most cost-effective public health interventions and has the potential to prevent about 30% of maternal and 10% of child deaths in developing countries. Voucher-based initiatives for family planning are an effective and viable means of increasing contraceptive use. In this paper, we present a protocol for a pilot study of a novel incentive, a family planning benefits card (FPBC) program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda while leveraging private sector funding. The study employs both impact and health economic evaluation methods to assess the effect of the FPBC program. We propose a quasi-experimental study design with two separate pre- and post-samples to measure program effectiveness. The main outcome of the impact evaluation is the percentage change in the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and unmet need for contraception. We will also conduct model-based incremental cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses. The main outcomes of the economic evaluation are the cost per enrolled youth and cost per pregnancy averted, and cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted. We will also pilot a corporate social responsibility model of sponsorship for the FPBC program in partnership with local corporations. Budget impact analysis will examine the potential affordability of scaling up the FPBC program and the fiscal implications of this scale up to the corporate social responsibility (CSR) budgets of partner corporations, the government, and the individual taxpayer. In this study, we propose an impact and economic evaluation to establish the proof concept of using a FPBC program to increase uptake of family planning services among urban poor youth in Uganda. The results of this study will present stakeholders in Uganda and internationally with a potentially viable option for corporate-sponsored access to family planning in urban poor communities. MUREC1/7 No. 10

  20. Cancer prevention among rural youth: building a "bridge" to better health with genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, A Lisa; Westerberg, Alice L; Bond, Dale S; Hoy, Kristyn N; Fries, Elizabeth A; Danish, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    The Bridge to Better Health (BRIDGE) project is a program that focuses on providing rural high school youth with motivation, knowledge, and skills essential to cancer prevention. In this pilot intervention, we used instruction in personal health genealogy as a means of increasing awareness and knowledge of health risk and motivation to change several screening and cancer-related behaviors. We administered a Bridge to Better Health survey to 173 ninth- and 10th-grade students from a rural Southeastern Virginia high school before and after delivery of the BRIDGE pilot intervention. Significant preintervention to postintervention changes were observed for general genealogy knowledge, personal health genealogy, self-efficacy, and intention to practice self-examinations (breast, testicular, and skin) and eating a high-fiber and low-fat diet. These project results demonstrate the importance of theory-driven interventions for increasing cancer knowledge and changing cancer-related dietary and screening behaviors.

  1. Prevention of serious conduct problems in youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T; Pfiffner, Linda J; McBurnett, Keith

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss issues in the prevention of serious conduct problems among children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The authors began by reviewing research on the common genetic and environmental etiological factors, developmental trajectories, characteristics and impairments associated with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. Next, the authors presented empirically based models for intervention with children and adolescents with ADHD that are at risk of developing serious conduct problems and detailed the evidence supporting these models. Researchers have demonstrated the utility of medication and psychosocial intervention approaches to treat youth with these problems, but current evidence appears to support the superiority of multimodal treatments that include both approaches. Future directions for researchers are discussed.

  2. Suicide Risk Protocols: Addressing the Needs of High Risk Youths Identified through Suicide Prevention Efforts and in Clinical Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…

  3. Monitoring stress and recovery : New insights for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.S.; Visscher, C.; Arends, S.; Zwerver, Hans; Post, Wendy; Lemmink, K.A.

    Objective Elite youth soccer players have a relatively high risk for injuries and illnesses due to increased physical and psychosocial stress. The aim of this study is to investigate how measures to monitor stress and recovery, and its analysis, provide useful information for the prevention of

  4. An Assessment of Cost, Quality and Outcomes for Five HIV Prevention Youth Peer Education Programs in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, H. M.; Pedersen, K. F.; Williamson, N. E.

    2012-01-01

    Youth peer education (YPE) programs are a popular strategy for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. However, research on the effectiveness of YPE programs is scarce and the wide variation in programs makes it difficult to generalize research findings. Measuring quality and comparing program effectiveness require the use of standardized…

  5. Young Women's Lived Experience of Participating in a Positive Youth Development Programme: The "Teens & Toddlers" Pregnancy Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorhaindo, Annik; Mitchell, Kirstin; Fletcher, Adam; Jessiman, Patricia; Keogh, Peter; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the Teens & Toddlers (T&T) positive youth development (PYD) and teenage pregnancy prevention programme suggested that the intervention had minimal effectiveness partly due to its unclear theory of change. The purpose of this paper is to examine the lived experiences of young women participating in the programme to…

  6. A Participatory Action Research Approach to Developing Youth-Friendly Strategies for the Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley; Hendricks, Farah

    2017-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy among school-going youth is a concern worldwide, but in socially-economically challenged environments it is a result of, and contributory factor to, a complex web of social injustice. In South Africa, most of the school-based prevention interventions to date have been adult-designed and imparted, with the voice of the target…

  7. Reducing Youth Gun Violence. Part One--An Overview [and] Part Two--Prevention and Intervention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Alan, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document contains two issues of a journal on reducing youth gun violence, reprinted from a report by the U.S. Department of Justice. The first issue, part one, provides an overview of programs and initiatives. The second issue, part two, describes prevention and intervention programs. To reduce violence and build healthy communities requires…

  8. Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects.

  9. High Mobility and Low Use of Malaria Preventive Measures among the Jarai Male Youth along the Cambodia–Vietnam Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Peeters Grietens, Koen; Dierickx, Susan; Xuan, Xa Nguyen; Uk, Sambunny; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Ribera, Joan Muela; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Gerrets, René; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Sochantha, Tho; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Malaria control along the Vietnam–Cambodia border presents a challenge for both countries' malaria elimination targets as the region is forested, inhabited by ethnic minority populations, and potentially characterized by early and outdoor malaria transmission. A mixed methods study assessed the vulnerability to malaria among the Jarai population living on both sides of the border in the provinces of Ratanakiri (Cambodia) and Gia Lai (Vietnam). A qualitative study generated preliminary hypotheses that were quantified in two surveys, one targeting youth (N = 498) and the other household leaders (N = 449). Jarai male youth, especially in Cambodia, had lower uptake of preventive measures (57.4%) and more often stayed overnight in the deep forest (35.8%) compared with the female youth and the adult population. Among male youth, a high-risk subgroup was identified that regularly slept at friends' homes or outdoors, who had fewer bed nets (32.5%) that were torn more often (77.8%). The vulnerability of Jarai youth to malaria could be attributed to the transitional character of youth itself, implying less fixed sleeping arrangements in nonpermanent spaces or non-bed sites. Additional tools such as long-lasting hammock nets could be suitable as they are in line with current practices. PMID:26283747

  10. Staying healthy "under the sheets": Inuit youth experiences of access to sexual and reproductive health and rights in Arviat, Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corosky, Gregory J; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Inuit youth are reported to experience considerably worse sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) outcomes than Canadian youth in general, as evidenced through public health data on sexually transmitted infections, unintended young pregnancies and rates of sexual violence in Nunavut compared to national averages. Existing literature on Inuit SRHR has identified the impact of westernization and colonialism on health outcomes, though gaps remain in addressing youth- and community-specific experiences of SRHR. This study aims to generate youth-focused evidence on experiences of SRHR relating to access to care in Arviat in order to better inform locally authored interventions geared towards improving youth SRHR. The Piliriqatigiinniq Partnership Community Health Research Model (PRM) developed by the Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre was followed to generate data on youth experiences of SRHR support access in Arviat. In-depth interviews were conducted with 9 male youth (ages 17-22 years), 10 female youth (ages 16-22 years) and 6 community leaders (aged 25+). Snowball sampling was used to engage informants, and data analysis followed an approach similar to conventional content analysis, where emphasis was placed on "immersion and crystallization" of data, corresponding to the Inuit concept of Iqqaumaqatigiinniq in the PRM. Findings were continuously checked with community members in Arviat during the analysis phase, and their feedback was incorporated into the report. Youth in Arviat were found to face significant barriers to SRHR care and support. Three major themes emerged as important factors conditioning youth access to SRHR resources in the community: trust of support workers in the community; stigma/taboos surrounding SRHR topics; and feelings of powerlessness impeding female and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender/queer youth in particular from accessing care. The locally specific ways these themes emerged revealed important structural factors at play in

  11. Prevention and Control of Dental Disease through Improved Access to Comprehensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Dental Association, Chicago, IL.

    Prevention of dental disease is the key to improving the nation's oral health. The American Dental Association (ADA) program of prevention and control of dental disease through improved access to comprehensive care concentrates on those who have special difficulties in receiving care: the poor, the elderly, the handicapped, the institutionalized…

  12. Preventing, Reducing and Ending LGBTQ2S Youth Homelessness: The Need for Targeted Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Abramovich, Alex

    2016-01-01

    "Gender non-conforming and sexual minority youth are overrepresented in the homeless youth population and are frequently discriminated against in shelters and youth serving organizations. This paper provides a contextual understanding of the ways that institutional and governmental policies and standards often perpetuate the social exclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2-Spirit (LGBTQ2S) youth, by further oppression and marginalization. Factors, including institutional ...

  13. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  14. Access to Employee Wellness Programs and Use of Preventive Care Services Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, Oluwaseyi O; Carlton, Erik L; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Yu; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F; Fijabi, Daniel; Bhuyan, Soumitra S

    2017-12-01

    There is little research at the national level on access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. This study examined the use of seven preventive care services among U.S working adults with access to employee wellness programs. The study population comprised 17,699 working adults aged ≥18 years, obtained from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship between access to employee wellness programs and use of seven preventive care services: influenza vaccination, blood pressure check, diabetes check, cholesterol check, Pap smear test, mammogram, and colon cancer screening. Data analysis began in Fall 2016. Overall, 46.6% of working adults reported having access to employee wellness programs in 2015. Working adults with access to employee wellness programs had higher odds of receiving influenza vaccination (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.43, 1.72, pwellness programs and the use of Pap smear test and colon cancer screening services. Using a nationally representative sample of individuals, this study found a positive association between access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. The results support favorable policies to encourage implementing wellness programs in all worksites, especially those with <50 employees. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Asian/Pacific Islander youth violence prevention center: interpersonal violence and deviant behaviors among youth in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeda, David T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Nishimura, Stephanie T; Garcia-Santiago, Orlando; Mark, Gregory Y

    2006-08-01

    This study investigates the prevalence rates of violent and deviant behaviors among a sample of Filipino, Hawaiian, Japanese, and Samoan public high school students residing in Hawai'i, and is the first relatively large-scale study of its kind regarding a disaggregated sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) youth. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan adolescents were the chosen ethnic groups for this study's focus due to their over-representation in Hawai'i's juvenile justice system. Data for this study were gathered collaboratively by researchers, community groups, and school officials who agreed that youth violence was a community concern worthy of deeper understanding and community response. The study's process included three phases: a focus group consultation phase, field-testing, and the final risk and protective factor study. For the final study, 326 randomly selected students representing three Hawai'i public high schools were surveyed on a one-on-one basis.A smaller sample of Japanese students was also included in the study, serving as a control group. Findings illustrate the importance of disaggregating specific ethnic and gender groups within the AAPI ethnic category when examining adolescent issues. As examples, Samoan youth reported significantly higher rates of violence than other ethnic groups surveyed, and Hawaiian girls reported higher rates of substance use than Hawaiian boys, which was not commensurate with other ethnic groups. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan youth all reported significantly higher rates than Japanese on overall deviant behavior. Implications for further research and community development include enhancing minority youths' bicultural self-efficacy.

  16. Hip-hop to prevent substance use and HIV among African-American youth: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O; Rhodes, Warren A; Harper, P Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the efficacy of a hip-hop based substance use and HIV preventive intervention that targets African-American middle-school youth. The sample consists of 68 middle-school students who completed baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments. Findings suggest that students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to have higher knowledge of perception of drug risk and more knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared to students in the comparison group at the 6-month post-intervention assessment. Discussion is centered on implications of hip-hop as a viable approach for preventing substance use and HIV within a high-risk group.

  17. Enhancing a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program with text messaging: engaging minority youth to develop TOP ® Plus Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Sharon; Bull, Sheana; Dreisbach, Susan; Shlay, Judith

    2014-03-01

    To develop and pilot a theory-based, mobile phone texting component attractive to minority youth as a supplement to the Teen Outreach Program(®), a youth development program for reducing teen pregnancy and school dropout. We conducted iterative formative research with minority youth in multiple focus groups to explore interest in texting and reaction to text messages. We piloted a month-long version of TOP(®) Plus Text with 96 teens at four sites and conducted a computer-based survey immediately after enrollment and at the end of the pilot that collected information about teens' values, social support, self-efficacy, and behaviors relating to school performance, trouble with the law, and sexual activity. After each of the first three weekly sessions we collected satisfaction measures. Upon completion of the pilot we conducted exit interviews with twelve purposively selected pilot participants. We successfully recruited and enrolled minority youth into the pilot. Teens were enthusiastic about text messages complementing TOP(®). Results also revealed barriers: access to text-capable mobile phones, retention as measured by completion of the post-pilot survey, and a need to be attentive to teen literacy. Piloting helped identify improvements for implementation including offering text messages through multiple platforms so youth without access to a mobile phone could receive messages; rewording texts to allow youth to express opinions without feeling judged; and collecting multiple types of contact information to improve follow-up. Thoughtful attention to social and behavioral theory and investment in iterative formative research with extensive consultation with teens can lead to an engaging texting curriculum that enhances and complements TOP(®). Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Digital divides in the era of widespread Internet access : Migrant youth negotiating hierarchies in digital culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, K.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter I analyse the digital practices of migrant youth as situated, power-laden, pleasurable and sometimes painful everyday experiences. I develop Walter Benjamin’s theorisations of the nineteenth century “arcade” or commercial passageway (Benjamin W (1999) The Arcades project. Harvard

  19. Internet Access and Youth of Yakutia Awareness on the Health-Promotion Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakhsanova, Elizabeth Afanasyevna; Ignatyev, Vladimir Petrovich; Savvinov, Vasily Mikhaylovich; Olesova, Sargulana Gavrilievna

    2016-01-01

    Thematic justification is determined by the fact that in the conditions of the steady growth of mobile technology the youth accurately does not represent health promotion value when using the Internet at home, at school and other entertainment leisure recreation. With respect thereto this paper is aimed at monitoring general awareness of seniors…

  20. Staying healthy “under the sheets”: Inuit youth experiences of access to sexual and reproductive health and rights in Arviat, Nunavut, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Corosky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inuit youth are reported to experience considerably worse sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR outcomes than Canadian youth in general, as evidenced through public health data on sexually transmitted infections, unintended young pregnancies and rates of sexual violence in Nunavut compared to national averages. Existing literature on Inuit SRHR has identified the impact of westernization and colonialism on health outcomes, though gaps remain in addressing youth- and community-specific experiences of SRHR. Objective: This study aims to generate youth-focused evidence on experiences of SRHR relating to access to care in Arviat in order to better inform locally authored interventions geared towards improving youth SRHR. Design: The Piliriqatigiinniq Partnership Community Health Research Model (PRM developed by the Qaujigiartiit Health Research Centre was followed to generate data on youth experiences of SRHR support access in Arviat. In-depth interviews were conducted with 9 male youth (ages 17–22 years, 10 female youth (ages 16–22 years and 6 community leaders (aged 25+. Snowball sampling was used to engage informants, and data analysis followed an approach similar to conventional content analysis, where emphasis was placed on “immersion and crystallization” of data, corresponding to the Inuit concept of Iqqaumaqatigiinniq in the PRM. Findings were continuously checked with community members in Arviat during the analysis phase, and their feedback was incorporated into the report. Results: Youth in Arviat were found to face significant barriers to SRHR care and support. Three major themes emerged as important factors conditioning youth access to SRHR resources in the community: trust of support workers in the community; stigma/taboos surrounding SRHR topics; and feelings of powerlessness impeding female and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender/queer youth in particular from accessing care. Conclusions: The locally specific

  1. Youth in Dead End

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    Duygu TANRIKULU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.

  2. Parent, Teacher, and School Stakeholder Perspectives on Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Programming for Latino Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; Moses, Mindi; Kann, Tiffany Koloroutis; Mariscal, E Susana; Levy, Michelle; Navarro, Carolina; Fite, Paula J

    2016-12-01

    Teen pregnancy remains a public health concern particularly among Latinos, whose pregnancy rate of 83.5 per 1000 girls constitutes one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy among all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. To enhance the effectiveness of interventions for diverse Latino populations in the US, it is crucial to assess the community's understanding of the etiology of the problem of adolescent pregnancy and to implement programs that reflect the local community's beliefs and preferences. We present findings from six focus groups held with parents (n = 18), teachers (n = 23) and school stakeholders (n = 8) regarding teen pregnancy prevention among Latino youth at a high school located in a large, Midwestern city. Two investigators analyzed data iteratively using a template organizing approach. A consensus emerged across the groups regarding content that emphasized respect for oneself and one's family, a focus on personal and shared responsibility in reproductive health behavior, information about the "realities" or consequences associated with engaging in sexual activity, and information about contraceptives. The strong request from participants to include a parental education component reflects the community's belief that parents play a crucial, protective role in the socialization and development of adolescent sexual behavior, a view that is supported by empirical research. Findings highlight the importance of involving local school communities in identifying adolescent pregnancy prevention strategies that are responsive to the community's cultural values, beliefs, and preferences, as well as the school's capacity and teacher preferences.

  3. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Chronic Diseases of Youths and Access to Health Care in the United States

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    James H. Price

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial/ethnic minorities are 1.5 to 2.0 times more likely than whites to have most of the major chronic diseases. Chronic diseases are also more common in the poor than the nonpoor and this association is frequently mediated by race/ethnicity. Specifically, children are disproportionately affected by racial/ethnic health disparities. Between 1960 and 2005 the percentage of children with a chronic disease in the United States almost quadrupled with racial/ethnic minority youth having higher likelihood for these diseases. The most common major chronic diseases of youth in the United States are asthma, diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, dental disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, mental illness, cancers, sickle-cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of genetic and other birth defects. This review will focus on the psychosocial rather than biological factors that play important roles in the etiology and subsequent solutions to these health disparities because they should be avoidable and they are inherently unjust. Finally, this review examines access to health services by focusing on health insurance and dental insurance coverage and access to school health services.

  4. Ibobbly mobile health intervention for suicide prevention in Australian Indigenous youth: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Joseph; Shand, Fiona; Ridani, Rebecca; Mackinnon, Andrew; De La Mata, Nicole; Christensen, Helen

    2017-01-27

    Rates of youth suicide in Australian Indigenous communities are 4 times the national youth average and demand innovative interventions. Historical and persistent disadvantage is coupled with multiple barriers to help seeking. Mobile phone applications offer the opportunity to deliver therapeutic interventions directly to individuals in remote communities. The pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a self-help mobile app (ibobbly) targeting suicidal ideation, depression, psychological distress and impulsivity among Indigenous youth in remote Australia. Remote and very remote communities in the Kimberley region of North Western Australia. Indigenous Australians aged 18-35 years. 61 participants were recruited and randomised to receive either an app (ibobbly) which delivered acceptance-based therapy over 6 weeks or were waitlisted for 6 weeks and then received the app for the following 6 weeks. The primary outcome was the Depressive Symptom Inventory-Suicidality Subscale (DSI-SS) to identify the frequency and intensity of suicidal ideation in the previous weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9), The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Although preintervention and postintervention changes on the (DSI-SS) were significant in the ibobbly arm (t=2.40; df=58.1; p=0.0195), these differences were not significant compared with the waitlist arm (t=1.05; df=57.8; p=0.2962). However, participants in the ibobbly group showed substantial and statistically significant reductions in PHQ-9 and K10 scores compared with waitlist. No differences were observed in impulsivity. Waitlist participants improved after 6 weeks of app use. Apps for suicide prevention reduce distress and depression but do not show significant reductions on suicide ideation or impulsivity. A feasible and acceptable means of lowering symptoms for mental health disorders in remote communities is via

  5. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masemola-Yende, J P F; Mataboge, Sanah M

    2015-11-05

    The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens. Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information. Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.

  6. Mobilizing Homeless Youth for HIV Prevention: A Social Network Analysis of the Acceptability of a Face-to-Face and Online Social Networking Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Adhikari, Anamika Barman; Milburn, Norweeta G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth. Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F…

  7. Tanning Salon Compliance Rates in States With Legislation to Protect Youth Access to UV Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa S; Buhalog, Brittany; Blumenthal, Laura; Stratman, Erik J

    2018-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has classified tanning beds as carcinogenic. Most states have enacted legislation to prevent or create barriers for minors accessing tanning establishments. Determining tanning salon compliance with legislation would provide an indication of the influence of legislation at preventing exposure to the carcinogen in minors. To investigate compliance rates in the 42 states and the District of Columbia with legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors and to identify differences in compliance based on population, regional location, salon ownership, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. This investigation was a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted between February 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, by callers posing as minors attempting to schedule a tanning appointment. The setting was tanning salons in the 42 states and the District of Columbia that currently have legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors. Included in the study were 427 tanning salons, 10 randomly selected from each state or territory with tanning legislation. Overall compliance of tanning salons with state tanning legislation and differences in compliance based on community population, regional location, independent vs chain tanning salon, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. Of the 427 tanning salons surveyed, overall noncompliance with state legislation was 37.2% (n = 159). There were more noncompliant tanning salons in rural locations (45.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-53.7%; P = .009), southern regions of the United States (49.4%; 95% CI, 41.4%-57.4%; P = .001), independently owned salons (43.9%; 95% CI, 37.3%-50.6%; P = .003), states with younger age groups being regulated (53.5%; 95% CI, 45.7%-61.2%; P legislation aimed at limiting tanning bed use among US minors is unsatisfactory, indicating that additional efforts to enforce the laws and education of the harmful effects of UV tanning are

  8. Sociodemographic Factors Associated With Trans*female Youth's Access to Health Care in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Elizabeth A; Jin, Harry; Auerswald, Colette L; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-08-01

    Trans*female youth (TFY) are an underserved population at risk for a variety of poor health outcomes, in part related to barriers to accessing health and mental health care. We conducted a secondary analysis of data collected with 250 TFY aged 16-24 years in the San Francisco Bay Area from 2012 to 2014. Logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and barriers to gender identity-based medical and mental health care. Having a history of unstable housing was associated with significantly higher odds of problems accessing both medical care (odds ratio: 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.12-4.13) and mental health care due to gender identity (odds ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-6.45). Conversely, identifying as genderqueer/genderfluid, Latina, or living in dependent housing was associated with access to either medical or mental health care. Interventions are needed to address housing and discrimination barring access to health care among TFY. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of participatory community communication on HIV preventive behaviors among ethnic minority youth in central Vietnam

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    Nguyen Huy V

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam, socially marginalized groups such as ethnic minorities in mountainous areas are often difficult to engage in HIV research and prevention programs. This intervention study aimed to estimate the effect of participatory community communication (PCC on changing HIV preventive ideation and behavior among ethnic minority youth in a rural district from central Vietnam. Methods In a cross-sectional survey after the PCC intervention, using a structured questionnaire, 800 ethnic minority youth were approached for face-to-face interviews. Propensity score matching (PSM technique was then utilized to match these participants into two groups-intervention and control-for estimating the effect of the PCC. Results HIV preventive knowledge and ideation tended to increase as the level of recall changed accordingly. The campaign had a significant indirect effect on condom use through its effect on ideation or perceptions. When intervention and control group statistically equivalently reached in terms of individual and social characteristics by PSM, proportions of displaying HIV preventive knowledge, ideation and condom use were significantly higher in intervention group than in matched control counterparts, accounting for net differences of 7.4%, 12.7% and 5%, respectively, and can be translated into the number of 210; 361 and 142 ethnic minority youth in the population. Conclusions The study informs public health implications both theoretically and practically to guide effective HIV control programs for marginalized communities in resources-constrained settings like rural Vietnam and similar contexts of developing countries.

  10. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane

    OpenAIRE

    J.P.F. Masemola-Yende; Sanah M. Mataboge

    2015-01-01

    Background: The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. Objective: To explore and describe access to information and decision making...

  11. The Effect of Child Access Prevention Laws on Non-Fatal Gun Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone; Sara Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many states have passed child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold the gun owner responsible if a child gains access to a gun that is not securely stored. Previous CAP law research has focused exclusively on gun-related deaths even though most gun injuries are not fatal. We use annual hospital discharge data from 1988-2001 to investigate whether CAP laws decrease non-fatal gun injuries. Results from Poisson regressions that control for various hospital, county and state characteristics, i...

  12. Taking snapshots of preventive interventions : On the effectiveness of preventive interventions for youth and how it relates to implementation and conflict of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, F.X.

    2017-01-01

    Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and mental health problems in students in secondary education (Preventure), and empower adolescent second generation migrants (POWER). The results revealed no effectiveness of the PATHS intervention, w...

  13. Beyond Culture and Language: Access to Diabetes Preventive Health Services among Somali Women in Norway

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    Abdi A. Gele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in some immigrant and refugee communities in Norway, there is very little information available on their utilization of diabetes prevention interventions, particularly for women from Somali immigrant communities. A qualitative study of 30 Somali immigrant women aged 25 years and over was carried out in the Oslo area. Unstructured interviews were used to explore women’s knowledge of diabetes, their access to preventive health facilities, and factors impeding their reception of preventive health programs targeted for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. The study participants were found to have a good knowledge of diabetes. They knew that a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet are among the risk factors for diabetes. Regardless of their knowledge, participants reported a sedentary lifestyle accompanied with the consumption of an unhealthy diet. This was attributed to a lack of access to tailored physical activity services and poor access to health information. Considering gender-exclusive training facilities for Somali immigrant women and others with similar needs, in addition to access to tailored health information on diet, may encourage Somali women to adopt a healthy lifestyle, and it will definitely contribute to a national strategy for the prevention of diabetes.

  14. Cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H; Gardner, F E M; Montgomery, P

    2008-04-16

    Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency, with gang members disproportionately involved in crime compared to non-gang peers. Research also indicates that both delinquent youth and youth who join gangs often show a wide range of deficient or distorted social-cognitive processes compared to non-delinquent peers. Cognitive-behavioural interventions are designed to address cognitive deficits in order to reduce maladaptive or dysfunctional behaviour, and studies have documented their positive impact on a number of behavioural and psychological disorders among children and youth. To determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (ages 7-16). Electronic searches of ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Cochrane Library, Dissertations Abstracts A, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals, and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists. All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions with a cognitive-behavioural intervention as the majority component, delivered to youth and children aged 7-16 not involved in a gang. Searching yielded 2,284 unduplicated citations, 2,271 of which were excluded as irrelevant based on title and abstract. One was excluded following personal communication with investigators. One citation, of a large randomised prevention trial, awaits assessment; personal communication with study authors yielded unpublished reports addressing gang outcomes, but insufficient detail precluded determining inclusion status. Seven remaining reports were excluded as irrelevant because they were narrative reviews or descriptions of programs without evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, or did not

  15. Meeting the challenges of North-South collaboration: the case of HIV prevention for rural youth, Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onokerhoraye, Andrew G; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2012-06-01

    Despite the significant contributions of the various North-South research partnerships during the past five decades to enhancing research capacity in the South, they have faced a number of challenges associated with the various partnerships. There have been limited attempts to critically examine the successes and challenges associated with these partnerships. Based on the experiences of implementing the 'HIV Prevention for Rural Youth' programme by a Canadian-Nigerian partnership during a four year period, this paper outlines the successes achieved and the challenges faced. The paper reviews the context of contemporary North-South research collaboration which provided the framework for the implementation of the HIV Prevention for Rural Youth. It then examines the benefits which the implementation of the programme have stimulated as well as the various challenges which confronted the partnership and how they were handled. The implications of the project's implementation experiences for future North-South collaborative research programmes are highlighted.

  16. Evaluation, management and prevention of lower extremity youth ice hockey injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Charles A; Schulz, Brian M; Park, Caroline N; Bottiglieri, Thomas S; Lynch, T Sean

    2016-01-01

    Ice hockey is a fast-paced sport played by increasing numbers of children and adolescents in North America and around the world. Requiring a unique blend of skill, finesse, power and teamwork, ice hockey can become a lifelong recreational activity. Despite the rising popularity of the sport, there is ongoing concern about the high frequency of musculoskeletal injury associated with participation in ice hockey. Injury rates in ice hockey are among the highest in all competitive sports. Numerous research studies have been implemented to better understand the risks of injury. As a result, rule changes were adopted by the USA Hockey and Hockey Canada to raise the minimum age at which body checking is permitted to 13–14 years (Bantam level) from 11–12 years (Pee Wee). Continuing the education of coaches, parents and players on rules of safe play, and emphasizing the standards for proper equipment use are other strategies being implemented to make the game safer to play. The objective of this article was to review the evaluation, management and prevention of common lower extremity youth hockey injuries. PMID:27920584

  17. Measurement of availability and accessibility of food among youth : a systematic review of methodological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Vaqué-Crusellas, Cristina; Andersen, Lene F; Stok, F Marijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/318869705; Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Comprehensive and psychometrically tested measures of availability and accessibility of food are needed in order to explore availability and accessibility as determinants and predictors of dietary behaviors. The main aim of this systematic review was to update the evidence regarding the

  18. Accessibility to information and communications technology for the social participation of youths with disabilities: a two-way street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, Naomi; Keter, Ayala; Sachs, Dalia

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined by mixed method the effectiveness of an accessibility to Information and Communications Technology (ICT) program that provided computers, assistive technology, tutors, and internet connection to 65 youths with severe disabilities (aged 13.22 ± 3.4 years) in their homes. The quantitative evaluation included assessment of computer task performance, computer skills, and participation in social ICT leisure activities before and after the program. Findings revealed low baseline and significant progress on most outcome measures 6 months after the program, mostly among those youths who had tutors. Additional in-depth interviews were conducted 1 year later with 10 participants to explore their ICT use and its impact on their social participation. The analysis revealed a significant contribution of the ICT use, while critical thinking about its risks and some disappointment with the social needs that ICT does not address. Our findings raise awareness of 'two-way streets' policies and programs to ensure e-inclusion. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. How to Design Tobacco Prevention and Control Games for Youth and Adolescents: A Qualitative Analysis of Expert Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Mercado, Rebeccah; Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Darville, Gabrielle; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2015-12-01

    Games for health, including digital videogames and gaming-based approaches, are increasingly being used in health promotion research and practice. Recently published research has shown that videogames have significant potential to promote healthy behaviors among youth and adolescents. Yet, there is a lack of available evidence-based resources to guide practitioners on the integration of games into tobacco prevention and smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap, expert researchers and game developers were interviewed to further define games for health, explore the current research, and provide recommendations for developing, evaluating, and promoting effective anti-tobacco games. Nationally recognized experts on game development, games for health, tobacco, and health behavior were asked to participate. A qualitative analysis of 25 in-depth individual interviews using a constant comparative approach for emerging themes was conducted. Main themes that emerged from the data analysis included the following: (1) the current state of games for health research to facilitate health behavior change, (2) strategies for how to develop and evaluate games for quality and impact, and (3) recommendations for how to effectively design tobacco prevention and smoking cessation educational videogames that engage youth and adolescents. The synthesized findings identified through these expert interviews offer stakeholders strategies for how to incorporate games for health within their current and future work. Specific recommendations are presented for developers and researchers to consider when developing and evaluating videogames for tobacco prevention and smoking cessation targeted at youth and adolescents.

  20. Ecodevelopmental and Intrapersonal Moderators of a Family Based Preventive Intervention for Hispanic Youth: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Cordova, David; Malcolm, Shandey; Estrada, Yannine; Cano, Nicole; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bacio, Guadalupe; Rosen, Alexa; Pantin, Hilda; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2012-01-01

    Hispanic adolescents are disproportionately affected by externalizing disorders, substance use and HIV infection. Despite these health inequities, few interventions have been found to be efficacious for this population, and even fewer studies have examined whether the effects of such interventions vary as a function of ecodevelopmental and intrapersonal risk subgroups. The aim of this study was to determine whether and to what extent the effects of Familias Unidas, an evidence-based preventive intervention, vary by ecodevelopmental and intrapersonal risk subgroups. Data from 213 Hispanic adolescents (mean age = 13.8, SD = 0.76) who were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating the relative efficacy of Familias Unidas on externalizing disorders, substance use, and unprotected sexual behavior were analyzed. The results showed that Familias Unidas was efficacious over time, in terms of both externalizing disorders and substance use, for Hispanic youth with high family ecodevelopmental risk (e.g., poor parent-adolescent communication), but not with youth with moderate ecodevelopmental or low ecodevelopmental risk. The results suggest that classifying adolescents based on their family ecodevelopmental risk may be an especially effective strategy for examining moderators of family-based preventive interventions such as Familias Unidas. Moreover, these results suggest that Familias Unidas should potentially be targeted towards youth with high family ecodevelopmental risk. The utility of the methods presented in this article to other prevention scientists, including genetic, neurobiological and environmental scientists, is discussed. PMID:23408280

  1. Self-Consent for HIV Prevention Research Involving Sexual and Gender Minority Youth: Reducing Barriers Through Evidence-Based Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Celia B; Arbeit, Miriam R; Dumont, Melissa S; Macapagal, Kathryn; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-02-01

    This project examined the attitudes of sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY) toward guardian permission for a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence trial and their preparedness to provide informed, rational, and voluntary self-consent. Sixty sexually active SGMY (ages 14-17) participated in online survey and asynchronous focus group questions after watching a video describing a PrEP adherence study. Youth responses highlighted guardian permission as a significant barrier to research participation, especially for those not "out" to families. Youth demonstrated understanding of research benefits, medical side effects, confidentiality risks, and random assignment and felt comfortable asking questions and declining participation. Reasoning about participation indicated consideration of health risks and benefits, personal sexual behavior, ability to take pills every day, logistics, and post-trial access to PrEP. Results demonstrate youth's ability to self-consent to age- and population-appropriate procedures, and underscore the value of empirical studies for informing institutional review board (IRB) protections of SGMY research participants. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Obesity Prevention among Latino Youth: School Counselors' Role in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Amy L.; Hayden, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Given the burgeoning obesity problem among Latino youth and concomitant health problems (Spiotta & Luma, 2008), school counselors have begun to recognize the need for culturally sensitive programming to promote healthy lifestyles. More theoretical, evidence-based programs are needed, however, to ensure Latino youth receive appropriate…

  3. Neuromuscular training injury prevention strategies in youth sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emery, C.A.; Roy, T.O.; Whittaker, J.L.; Nettel-Aguirre, A.; van Mechelen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The

  4. An Evaluation of UV-Monitoring Enhanced Skin Cancer Prevention among Farm Youth in Rural Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Ohanehi, Donatus C.; Redican, Kerry J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health districts in southwest Virginia have one of the highest ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure and sunburn rate. Due to higher levels of UV exposure, rural farm youth are at higher risk for skin cancer than non-farm youth. Few studies have been published that explore best practices for decreasing UV exposure among this population.…

  5. La Esperanza del Valle: alcohol prevention novelas for Hispanic youth and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, B; Rabinowitz, P; Shefsky, M L; Washienko, K

    1997-10-01

    With extensive Hispanic community involvement, a television, radio, and storybook novela were developed to improve Hispanic parent-youth communications and youth attitudes regarding alcohol. Focus groups with the target audiences determined the novelas' concentration on alcohol, their medium and language of choice for Hispanic youth versus parents, and the health messages and cultural values to be portrayed. Reactions to the novelas were obtained via self-report surveys, random street interviews, radio listener call-ins, and community group meetings. Favorable reactions were obtained regarding the novelas' cultural sensitivity and appropriateness, and their potential to affect future behavior change. The affect of the television novela on Hispanic youth was evaluated by a pre-post self-report survey administered to middle and high school students. Survey results indicated the television novela may have had some positive impact on Hispanic youth attitudes and behavioral intentions regarding alcohol. The evaluation time line was limiting, however, and further evaluation is required.

  6. Insights in public health: Building support for an evidence-based teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention program adapted for foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R

    2015-01-01

    Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth.

  7. Greater access to information on how to prevent oral cancer among elderly using primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; dos Santos-Neto, Pedro Eleutério; de Sá, Maria Aparecida Barbosa; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Haikal, Desireé Sant'Ana; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Educative actions are an important component of health promotion in Brazil's primary healthcare program, the Family Health Strategy (FHS). The efficacy of these actions is evidenced by compliance with healthy behaviors and in the reduction of rates of mortality and morbidity. The objective of this study was to identify whether access to information regarding the prevention of oral cancer is greater among elders whose residences are registered with the FHS. SPSS® was utilized to obtain estimates that were corrected for sample design, considering the magnitude of the associations between access to such information with personal determinants, the use and cost of healthcare, health-related behaviors and health outcomes. 58.9% of the 492 participating elders reported having access to such information. We verified that there was a greater chance for access among residents of houses registered by the FHS; those with greater per capita income (2.01/1.183.43); non-smokers (2.00/1.16-3.46); those that realized oral self-examination (6.35/3.46-11.64); and those that did not perceive discomfort in the mouth, head or neck (2.06/1.02-4.17). Access was greater among residents of homes registered by the FHS. Personal determinants of health, health-related behaviors and health outcomes are influenced or influence access to information regarding the prevention and management of oral diseases.

  8. Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A

    2011-06-01

    Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment

  9. Access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.F. Masemola-Yende

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in the number of teenage pregnancies and its negative consequences has encouraged various researchers to explore the possible causes of teenage pregnancy. Findings from previously-conducted research have indicated different preventable factors that predispose female teenagers to pregnancy, such as staff attitudes and the lack of information resulting from poor access to health facilities. Objective: To explore and describe access to information and decision making on teenage pregnancy prevention by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Method: In this study, the researchers used a descriptive qualitative and exploratory research design to explore and describe the verbal reports regarding prevention of teenage pregnancy by females using a primary healthcare clinic in Tshwane, South Africa. Face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 female participants aged between 15 and 26, who had been pregnant once or more during their teens. Results: Two themes emerged, namely, access to information and decision making by female teenagers. Five categories that emerged were: access to information on pregnancy prevention; ignoring of provided information; the use of alternative medicine with hormonal contraception; personal reasons for use and non-use of contraception; and decisions made by teenagers to not fall pregnant. Females in this study fell pregnant in their teens, even though they had access to information. Conclusion: Given the complexity of this problem, female teenagers should use their families as primary sources of information for reproductive health promotion and educational institutions should build on this to aid the prevention of teenage pregnancy.

  10. Evaluation of the expect respect support group program: A violence prevention strategy for youth exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Holland, Kristin M; Cortina, Kai; Ball, Barbara; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2017-07-01

    In the present study, we assess the effects of the Expect Respect Support Groups (ERSG) on frequency of teen dating violence (TDV) and general youth violence. ERSG is a school-based violence prevention program for youth who have been exposed to violence in their home, school, or community. Boys and girls (N=1,678, M age =14.3, S.D.=1.7, Range=11-17) from 36 schools in Texas participated in this accelerated longitudinal (7-year trajectory) study beginning in 2011. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted using three waves of data from three cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents. Among boys, the number of ERSG sessions attended related to incremental declines in psychological TDV perpetration and victimization, physical TDV victimization, sexual TDV perpetration and victimization, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression. Girls attending ERSG demonstrated reductions in reactive and proactive aggression. The present findings suggest ERSG may be an effective cross-cutting strategy to reduce TDV and other forms of violence among high-risk boys and possibly girls. This information provides valuable understanding of TDV and youth violence in high-risk populations and may be useful in tailoring future prevention efforts to different groups of teens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hohman-Billmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14–19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12–14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  13. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman-Billmeier, Kathryn; Nye, Margaret; Martin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b) difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c) the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  14. Rural-Urban Differences in Access to Preventive Health Care Among Publicly Insured Minnesotans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, John; Allen, Elizabeth M; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2018-02-01

    Reduced access to care and barriers have been shown in rural populations and in publicly insured populations. Barriers limiting health care access in publicly insured populations living in rural areas are not understood. This study investigates rural-urban differences in system-, provider-, and individual-level barriers and access to preventive care among adults and children enrolled in a public insurance program in Minnesota. This was a secondary analysis of a 2008 statewide, cross-sectional survey of publicly insured adults and children (n = 4,388) investigating barriers associated with low utilization of preventive care. Sampling was stratified with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities. Rural enrollees were more likely to report no past year preventive care compared to urban enrollees. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.00-1.88). Provider- and system-level barriers associated with low use of preventive care among rural enrollees included discrimination based on public insurance status (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.34-2.38), cost of care concerns (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89) and uncertainty about care being covered by insurance (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.85). These and additional provider-level barriers were also identified among urban enrollees. Discrimination, cost of care, and uncertainty about insurance coverage inhibit access in both the rural and urban samples. These barriers are worthy targets of interventions for publicly insured populations regardless of residence. Future studies should investigate additional factors associated with access disparities based on rural-urban residence. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  15. Mobilizing homeless youth for HIV prevention: a social network analysis of the acceptability of a face-to-face and online social networking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Tulbert, Eve; Cederbaum, Julie; Barman Adhikari, Anamika; Milburn, Norweeta G

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study is to use social network analysis to examine the acceptability of a youth-led, hybrid face-to-face and online social networking HIV prevention program for homeless youth.Seven peer leaders (PLs) engaged face-to-face homeless youth (F2F) in the creation of digital media projects (e.g. You Tube videos). PL and F2F recruited online youth (OY) to participate in MySpace and Facebook communities where digital media was disseminated and discussed. The resulting social networks were assessed with respect to size, growth, density, relative centrality of positions and homophily of ties. Seven PL, 53 F2F and 103 OY created two large networks. After the first 50 F2F youth participated, online networks entered a rapid growth phase. OY were among the most central youth in these networks. Younger aged persons and females were disproportionately connected to like youth. The program appears highly acceptable to homeless youth. Social network analysis revealed which PL were the most critical to the program and which types of participants (younger youth and females) may require additional outreach efforts in the future.

  16. Provider Perspectives on School-Based Mental Health for Urban Minority Youth: Access and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Brandon E.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2014-01-01

    This article provides results from a qualitative study on the efforts of school-based mental health providers (SBMHPs) who serve students in urban, suburban, and ethnically diverse settings to help families access quality mental health services. School-based mental health plays a key role in the provision of direct and indirect intervention…

  17. Informal Caregiver Disability and Access to Preventive Care in Care Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Joshua M; Thorpe, Carolyn T; Schulz, Richard; Van Houtven, Courtney H; Schleiden, Loren

    2015-09-01

    Many informal caregivers of dependent midlife and older adults suffer from their own functional limitations. The impact of caregiver functional limitations on care recipient receipt of preventive services is unknown. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between caregiver functional limitations and decreased access to recommended preventive services in dependent care recipients. Dependent adults (those receiving assistance with activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living) and their primary informal caregiver were identified from pooled alternate years (2000-2008) of the nationally representative Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (data analyzed February-October 2014). The impact of caregiver limitations (cognitive, mobility, sensory, emotional health) on care recipient's receipt of up to seven different preventive services was assessed via survey-weighted linear and logistic regression. Of the 5-year weighted estimate of 14.2 million caregiver-care recipient dyads, 38.0% of caregivers reported at least one functional limitation. The percentage of recommended preventive services received by care recipients was significantly lower if the caregiver had cognitive, mobility, or emotional health limitations. Each type of caregiver functional limitation was negatively associated with at least four different preventive services. Informal caregivers burdened by their own functional impairments may face challenges in facilitating access to preventive care in dependent midlife and older adults. Policies and interventions designed to prevent or mitigate the impact of caregiver functional impairments are critical to the success of community-based models of care for dependent adults. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accessibility to sexual and reproductive health and rights education among marginalized youth in selected districts of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngilangwa, David Paul; Rajesh, Sharanya; Kawala, Mercy; Mbeba, Rita; Sambili, Benatus; Mkuwa, Serafina; Noronha, Rita; Meremo, Alfred Jackson; Nyagero, Josephat

    2016-01-01

    Access to information, education and services is central in the promotion of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) among young people. It enables young people make informed choices on sexuality matters, hence reduce teenage pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study assessed accessibility of SRH rights' information among marginalized young people in three municipalities of Iringa, Ilala and Kinondoni in Tanzania. A cross-sectional study design using mixed methods was conducted in 2013 in three selected districts of Tanzania. We randomly selected 398 young people including those with disabilities to partake in quantitative survey while 48 community members were purposely selected for qualitative part. Quantitative data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and chi square test with the assistance of the Statistical Package for Social Science(SPSS) version 20, while qualitative data was thematically analyzed. There were 396 (99%) participants (144 Males and 251 females), with a mean age of 20.1years. The majority were out of school female, cohabiting and had completed secondary education. Overall, 317 (79.6%) had SRH rights knowledge. The leading sources of SRH rights information were peer educators (36.7%) and radio (22.8%). Awareness regarding laws and policies related to SRH right was 55.1%. However, young people living with HIV and school truants had more access to SRHR education and services than the other youth groups(χ2 30.69, prights information is high but decreases when it is disaggregated across different age groups. There is a need for diversified approach for reaching specific groups of young people depending on their needs and circumstances.

  19. Dose-Response Relationship of Neuromuscular Training for Injury Prevention in Youth Athletes: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Steib

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth athletes with intensive sports participation are at an increased risk of sustaining injuries. Neuromuscular training programs reduce sports-related injury risk in this population, however, the dose-response relationship is largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis was to identify the optimal frequency, volume, duration, and period of neuromuscular training to prevent injuries in youth athletes.Methods: Computerized database searches (PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, The Cochrane Library, PEDro were conducted in January 2017, with search terms related to youth sports, neuromuscular training, and injury prevention. Eligible trials (i evaluated a neuromuscular training program; (ii included youth athletes of 21 years or younger; (iii had an analytical design (RCTs, quasi-experimental, cohort studies; (iv contained original data; (v and provided injury data. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality of eligible studies. Injury rate ratios (IRRs for lower extremity injuries were pooled meta-analytically, and moderator analyses examined the effect of training frequency, duration, volume, and period.Results: Data from 16 trials yielded an overall risk reduction of 42% with neuromuscular training (IRR = 0.58, 95%CI 0.47–0.72. Training frequencies of two (IRR = 0.50; 95%CI 0.29–0.86 or three times (IRR = 0.40; 95%CI 0.31–0.53 per week revealed the largest risk reduction, and a weekly training volume of more than 30 min tended to be more effective compared to lower volumes. Programs with 10–15 min (IRR = 0.55; 95%CI 0.42–0.72 session duration produced effects comparable to those with longer session duration (IRR = 0.60; 95%CI 0.46–0.76. Interventions lasting more than 6 months were not superior to shorter programs.Conclusion: This meta-analysis revealed that NMT performed in short bouts of 10–15 min, two to three times per week, with a weekly training volume of 30–60 min had the largest

  20. Back to the basics: identifying positive youth development as the theoretical framework for a youth drug prevention program in rural Saskatchewan, Canada amidst a program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Duncan, Charles Randy; DesRoches, Andrea; Bendig, Melissa; Steeves, Megan; Turner, Holly; Quaife, Terra; McCann, Chuck; Enns, Brett

    2013-10-22

    Despite endorsement by the Saskatchewan government to apply empirically-based approaches to youth drug prevention services in the province, programs are sometimes delivered prior to the establishment of evidence-informed goals and objectives. This paper shares the 'preptory' outcomes of our team's program evaluation of the Prince Albert Parkland Health Region Mental Health and Addiction Services' Outreach Worker Service (OWS) in eight rural, community schools three years following its implementation. Before our independent evaluation team could assess whether expectations of the OWS were being met, we had to assist with establishing its overarching program goals and objectives and 'at-risk' student population, alongside its alliance with an empirically-informed theoretical framework. A mixed-methods approach was applied, beginning with in-depth focus groups with the OWS staff to identify the program's goals and objectives and targeted student population. These were supplemented with OWS and school administrator interviews and focus groups with school staff. Alignment with a theoretical focus was determined though a review of the OWS's work to date and explored in focus groups between our evaluation team and the OWS staff and validated with the school staff and OWS and school administration. With improved understanding of the OWS's goals and objectives, our evaluation team and the OWS staff aligned the program with the Positive Youth Development theoretical evidence-base, emphasizing the program's universality, systems focus, strength base, and promotion of assets. Together we also gained clarity about the OWS's definition of and engagement with its 'at-risk' student population. It is important to draw on expert knowledge to develop youth drug prevention programming, but attention must also be paid to aligning professional health care services with a theoretically informed evidence-base for evaluation purposes. If time does not permit for the establishment of

  1. Prevention of vascular access hand ischemia using the axillary artery as inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, William; Brown, Robert; Blebea, John; Taubman, Kevin; Messiner, Ryan

    2013-11-01

    Avoiding dialysis access-associated ischemic steal syndrome (DASS) in patients with upper extremity peripheral vascular occlusive disease while creating a functional hemodialysis vascular access may be challenging. We constructed an autogenous access with primary proximalization of the arterial inflow to prevent hand ischemia in patients at high risk for this complication. Patients requiring hemodialysis access with physical findings suggesting a high risk of access-related hand ischemia (absent radial, ulnar, and brachial palpable pulses associated with small calcified vessels by ultrasound examination) underwent a primary arteriovenous fistula transposition procedure utilizing the axillary artery for inflow. The arteriovenous fistula was either a reversed flow basilic vein transposition supplemented by valvulotomy (n = 22); a translocated reversed basilic vein (n = 4); a cephalic vein harvested into the forearm and placed in a loop configuration for axillary artery inflow (n = 3); or a translocated reversed saphenous vein (n = 1). Thirty patients with a mean age of 60 years (range, 31-83 years) underwent successful primary axillary artery inflow procedures during a 3-year period. Of these, 23 (77%) were female and 25 (83%) were diabetic. Twenty-one (70%) had previous vascular access procedures and 10 (33%) were obese. No patient developed postoperative ischemia. Three individuals died 2, 14, and 19 months following surgery, none related to vascular access. Three accesses failed after 1, 5, and 7 months and could not be salvaged. Life-table primary, primary assisted, and cumulative patency rates were 57%, 78%, and 87% respectively at 1 year with a mean follow-up of 7 months (range, 1-25 months). Cephalic vein outflow was associated with fewer access failures, fewer interventions postoperatively, and lower rates of arm swelling (P vascular access utilizing axillary artery inflow is a good option for patients with severe peripheral vascular disease. It offers a high

  2. Prioritizing Research to Reduce Youth Suicide and Suicidal Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Horowitz, Lisa M.; Fontanella, Cynthia A.; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention (Action Alliance) is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care–based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth; and (2) improving continuity of care fo...

  3. Improving access to preventive dental services through a school-based dental sealant program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Dee; Henshaw, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    The lack of access to preventive dental services, such as dental sealants, can be a major barrier to optimal dental health. School-based dental sealant programs can serve as programs to improve access to preventive dental services. This school-based dental sealant program managed by a Boston dental school with collaborating partners in the metro west area of Massachusetts provides free dental sealants to second grade children. The number of second grade children having dental sealants was tracked for 6 school years and compared with the Healthy People 2010 objective of 50% of all children aged 8 years to have at least 1 dental sealant. From school years 2003 to 2004 through 2008 to 2009, 1,609 dental screenings were provided for second grade children. Of those, 1,189 received dental sealants. To determine whether or not the Healthy People 2010 objective was met, the number of children who received dental sealants from the school-based program was added to the number of children who already had their permanent first molars sealed by their own dentist at the time of the dental screening, plus children with sealants per parent report. In total, the aggregate second grade enrollment having sealants during the designated school years was 54%. The specific Healthy People 2010 objective was achieved over the designated time period. School-based dental sealant programs can help to decrease or eliminate barriers for access to preventive dental services by increasing the number of children who receive dental sealants.

  4. Problems of 14–18 Years Old Youth and the Trends of Organisation of Prevention Activities: Lithuanian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valantiejienė Sandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (since 1998 recognises that many modern diseases and disorders (including social problems are caused by risky behaviour. Youth risky behaviour is generally defined as a behaviour that directly or indirectly threatens the young person’s well-being and health. This is usually understood as smoking, abuse of alcohol and psychoactive substances and early initiated and unprotected sexual relations. However, the risky behaviour also includes basic things such as the failure to comply with diet regimen, sedentary lifestyle, not wearing the safety belt in the car and failure to wear a helmet whilst cycling or rollerblading. Adolescence itself is a risky span of the human life, as it is associated with moving from childhood into the adult world and intensive search for the personal identity. To ensure a consistent development of personality, adolescent risky behaviour prevention include harmonisation of education processes to help teenagers to develop responsible behaviour skills by reducing the risk factors and increasing protective factors. The article aims to overview the factors that influence youth risky behaviour and the factors that determine the planning and organisation of preventive activities for the pupils in the higher classes of the schools of general education. The study was completed in the form of a questionnaire that was conducted in the schools of the Lithuanian Republic in 2016. The results of the study describe trends of the prevention policies applied in the system of education, considering the national context of the individual Member States of the European Union.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of the youth crime prevention program ‘New Perspectives’ (NP) : Post-treatment changes and moderator effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, S.L.A.; Hoeve, M.; Wibbelink, C.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives New Perspectives (NP) aims to prevent that youth at onset of a criminal career will develop a more persistent criminal behavior pattern. The study aim was to examine whether NP was effective relative to care as usual in preventing and reducing (persistent) delinquency. Moreover, we

  6. Adolescent/Youth Reproductive Mobile Access and Delivery Initiative for Love and Life Outcomes (ARMADILLO) Study: formative protocol for mHealth platform development and piloting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Lianne; L'Engle, Kelly L; Tamrat, Tigest; Plourde, Kate F; Mangone, Emily R; Agarwal, Smisha; Say, Lale; Hindin, Michelle J

    2015-08-07

    There is a high unmet need for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information and services among youth (ages 15-24) worldwide (MacQuarrie KLD. Unmet Need for Family Planning among Young Women: Levels and Trends 2014). With the proliferation of mobile technology, and its popularity with this age group, mobile phones offer a novel and accessible platform for a discreet, on-demand service providing SRH information. The Adolescent/Youth Reproductive Mobile Access and Delivery Initiative for Love and Life Outcomes (ARMADILLO) formative study will inform the development of an intervention, which will use the popular channel of SMS (text messages) to deliver SRH information on-demand to youth. Following the development of potential SMS message content in partnership with SRH technical experts and youth, formative research activities will take place over two phases. Phase 1 will use focus group discussions (FGDs) with youth and parents/caregivers to develop and test the appropriateness and acceptability of the SMS messages. Phase 2 will consist of 'peer piloting', where youth participants will complete an SRH outcome-focused pretest, be introduced to the system and then have three weeks to interact with the system and share it with friends. Participants will then return to complete the SRH post-test and participate in an in-depth interview about their own and their peers' opinions and experiences using ARMADILLO. The ARMADILLO formative stage will culminate in the finalization of country-specific ARMADILLO messaging. Reach and impact of ARMADILLO will be measured at later stages. We anticipate that the complete ARMADILLO platform will be scalable, with the potential for national-level adoption.

  7. The Long-Term Effects of the Youth Crime Prevention Program "New Perspectives" on Delinquency and Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sanne L A; Hoeve, Machteld; Asscher, Jessica J; Stams, Geert Jan J M

    2018-01-01

    New Perspectives (NP) aims to prevent persistent criminal behavior. We examined the long-term effectiveness of NP and whether the effects were moderated by demographic and delinquency factors. At-risk youth aged 12 to 19 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (NP, n = 47) or care as usual (CAU, n = 54). Official and self-report data were collected to assess recidivism. NP was not more effective in reducing delinquency levels and recidivism than CAU. Also, no moderator effects were found. The overall null effects are discussed, including further research and policy implications.

  8. [The preventive and health promotion services for infants, children and youth. What is problematic for clients of the CLSCs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Lucie; D'Amour, Danielle; Labadie, Jean-François; Brodeur, Jean-Marc; Pineault, Raynald; Séguin, Louise; Latour, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the results of a survey on preventive and health promotion (PHP) services provided by Quebec CLSCs for infants, children and youth. Two dimensions of services are examined: the diversity of PHP issues addressed and the type of clientele targeted by the CLSC team. Questionnaire survey. Although identified a priori as public health priorities, many PHP issues remain less often addressed by CLSCs. This is particularly the case for activities aimed at children and youth as compared to infants. In addition, the data show that CLSC teams are less inclined to target specific clienteles; when they do so, it is more often in the context of services for infants. This study is important in that it constitutes one of the first efforts to systematically document PHP services for infants, children, and youth. In shedding new light on intervention sectors that need to be reinforced, these results should help managers and policymakers as they reflect on the role of PHP services in CLSCs within the context of health reform.

  9. Effects of Exposure to the Communities That Care Prevention System on Youth Problem Behaviors in a Community-Randomized Trial: Employing an Inverse Probability Weighting Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Isaac C; Oesterle, Sabrina; Coffman, Donna; Hawkins, J David

    2018-01-01

    Earlier intention-to-treat (ITT) findings from a community-randomized trial demonstrated effects of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system on reducing problem behaviors among youth. In ITT analyses, youth were analyzed according to their original study community's randomized condition even if they moved away from the community over the course of follow-up and received little to no exposure to intervention activities. Using inverse probability weights (IPWs), this study estimated effects of CTC in the same randomized trial among youth who remained in their original study communities throughout follow-up. Data were from the Community Youth Development Study, a community-randomized trial of 24 small towns in the United States. A cohort of 4,407 youth was followed from fifth grade (prior to CTC implementation) to eighth grade. IPWs for one's own moving status were calculated using fifth- and sixth-grade covariates. Results from inverse probability weighted multilevel models indicated larger effects for youth who remained in their study community for the first 2 years of CTC intervention implementation compared to ITT estimates. These effects included reduced likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, smokeless tobacco use, and delinquent behavior. These findings strengthen support for CTC as an efficacious system for preventing youth problem behaviors.

  10. Public Health Investment in Team Care: Increasing Access to Clinical Preventive Services in Los Angeles County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Kuo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of federal and local efforts to increase access to high quality, clinical preventive services (CPS in underserved populations, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH partnered with six local health system and community organization partners to promote the use of team care for CPS delivery. Although these partners were at different stages of organizational capacity, post-program review suggests that each organization advanced team care in their clinical or community environments, potentially affecting >250,000 client visits per year. Despite existing infrastructure and DPH’s funding support of CPS integration, partner efforts faced several challenges. They included lack of sustainable funding for prevention services; limited access to community resources that support disease prevention; and difficulties in changing health-care provider behavior. Although team care can serve as a catalyst or vehicle for delivering CPS, downstream sustainability of this model of practice requires further state and national policy changes that prioritize prevention. Public health is well positioned to facilitate these policy discussions and to assist health system and community organizations in strengthening CPS integration.

  11. Preventing Family and Educational Disconnection through Wilderness-Based Therapy Targeting Youth at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronalds, Lisa; Allen-Craig, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to address the issue of youth homelessness in Australia, Regional Extended Family Services (REFS) have developed a wilderness-based therapeutic intervention. REFS aim to provide early intervention services for young people at risk of homelessness, and their families. This study examined the outcomes of the REFS wilderness program by…

  12. Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior and HIV/AIDS Prevention Education: Survey Results, 1991. Bulletin No. 93253.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Judy; Nehls-Lowe, Barbara

    This report contains data from the 1991 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, administered to 1,440 high school students throughout Wisconsin. Included are data on the prevalence of injuries; drug use; sexual behaviors; dietary behaviors; and physical activity. The results revealed that over 80% of students rarely or never wear bicycle helmets and 50%…

  13. Educators' Perspectives Regarding Youth Gang Activity and Prevention Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fussy, Brooklyne

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing gang activity in inner city neighborhoods is an essential component to reducing violence and improving our society as a whole. This study was conducted to help generate awareness and a better understanding as to how schools can be best utilized as a protective factor against youth gang activity. The participants consisted of 6 educators…

  14. Promoting life skills and preventing tobacco use among low-income Mumbai youth: effects of Salaam Bombay Foundation intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glorian Sorensen

    Full Text Available In response to India's growing tobacco epidemic, strategies are needed to decrease tobacco use among Indian youth, particularly among those who are economically disadvantaged. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based life-skills tobacco control program for youth of low socio-economic status in Mumbai and the surrounding state of Maharashtra. We hypothesized that compared to youth in control schools, youth exposed to the program would have greater knowledge of effects of tobacco use; be more likely to take action to prevent others from using tobacco; demonstrate more positive life skills and attitudes; and be less likely to report tobacco use.Using a quasi-experimental design, we assessed program effectiveness by comparing 8(th and 9(th grade students in intervention schools to 8(th grade students in comparable schools that did not receive the program. Across all schools, 1851 students completed a survey that assessed core program components in early 2010. The program consisted of activities focused on building awareness about the hazards of tobacco, developing life skills, and advocacy development. The primary outcome measure was self-reported tobacco use in the last 30 days. Findings indicate that 4.1% of 8(th grade intervention students (OR = 0.51 and 3.6% of 9(th grade intervention students (OR = 0.33 reported using tobacco at least once in the last 30 days, compared to 8.7% of students in the control schools. Intervention group students were also significantly more knowledgeable about tobacco and related legislation, reported more efforts to prevent tobacco use among others, and reported stronger life skills and self-efficacy than students in control schools. Limitations to the study include schools not being randomly assigned to condition and tobacco use being measured by self-report.This program represents an effective model of school-based tobacco use prevention that low-income schools in India

  15. Access to health information may improve behavior in preventing Avian influenza among women

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    Ajeng T. Endarti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improving human behavior toward Avian influenza may lessen the chance to be infected by Avian influenza. This study aimed to identify several factors influencing behavior in the community.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2008. Behavior regarding Avian influenza was measured by scoring the variables of knowledge, attitude, and practice. Subjects were obtained from the sub district of Limo, in Depok, West Java, which was considered a high risk area for Avian influenza. The heads of household as the sample unit were chosen by multi-stage sampling.Results: Among 387 subjects, 29.5% of them was had good behavior toward Avian influenza. The final model revealed that gender and access to health information were two dominant factors for good behavior in preventing Avian influenza. Compared with men, women had 67% higher risk to have good behavior [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.67; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.92-3.04; P = 0.092]. Compared to those with no access to health information, subjects with access to health information had 3.4 fold increase to good behavior (RRa = 3.40; 95% CI =  0.84-13.76; P = 0.087.Conclusion: Acces to health information concerning Avian influenza was more effective among women in promoting good behavior toward preventing Avian influenza. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:56-61Keywords: avian influenza, behavior, gender, health promotion

  16. Monitoring stress and recovery: new insights for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Michel S; Visscher, Chris; Arends, Suzanne; Zwerver, Johannes; Post, Wendy J; Lemmink, Koen Apm

    2010-09-01

    Elite youth soccer players have a relatively high risk for injuries and illnesses due to increased physical and psychosocial stress. The aim of this study is to investigate how measures to monitor stress and recovery, and its analysis, provide useful information for the prevention of injuries and illnesses in elite youth soccer players. 53 elite soccer players between 15 and 18 years of age participated in this study. To determine physical stress, soccer players registered training and match duration and session rating of perceived exertion for two competitive seasons by means of daily training logs. The Dutch version of the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was administered monthly to assess the psychosocial stress-recovery state of players. The medical staff collected injury and illness data using the standardised Fédération Internationale de Football Association registration system. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated for injuries and illnesses using multinomial regression analyses. The independent measures were stress and recovery. During the study period, 320 injuries and 82 illnesses occurred. Multinomial regression demonstrated that physical stress was related to both injury and illness (range OR 1.01 to 2.59). Psychosocial stress and recovery were related the occurrence of illness (range OR 0.56 to 2.27). Injuries are related to physical stress. Physical stress and psychosocial stress and recovery are important in relation to illness. Individual monitoring of stress and recovery may provide useful information to prevent soccer players from injuries and illnesses.

  17. Romanian Minister of Education, Research, Youth and Sport, Daniel Petru Funeriu, and CERN Director General, Rolf Heuer, signed an agreement that formally recognises Romania as a Candidate for Accession to membership of CERN.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Romanian Minister of Education, Research, Youth and Sport, Daniel Petru Funeriu, and CERN Director General, Rolf Heuer, signed an agreement that formally recognises Romania as a Candidate for Accession to membership of CERN.

  18. Community Adaptation of Youth Accessing Residential Programs or a Home-Based Alternative: School Attendance and Academic Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frensch, Karen; Cameron, Gary; Preyde, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers of 210 youth receiving residential treatment (RT) or intensive family services (IFS) in Ontario were interviewed about the long term community adaptation of youth after leaving these programs. School attendance and academic functioning data at admission, discharge, and 12-18 months post-discharge were analyzed to explore predictors of…

  19. Increasing Access to Higher Education for Unaccompanied Youth: Information for Colleges and Universities. Best Practices in Homeless Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…

  20. Within but without: human rights and access to HIV prevention and treatment for internal migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon Joseph J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment.

  1. Within but without: human rights and access to HIV prevention and treatment for internal migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:19925647

  2. The use of puppetry for health promotion and suicide prevention among Mi'Kmaq youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacono, John; Jacono, Brenda

    2008-03-01

    North American aboriginal youth have been shown to exhibit some of the highest suicide rates in the world. In this article, the authors examine the main factors related to suicide among aboriginal youth and ways to redress what many consider the most important factor. While many factors contribute to suicide plans, the literature would suggest "discontinuity" with heritage to have a particularly negative impact that needs priority redress. A group of Mi'Kmaq elders and an interdisciplinary group of academicians blended traditional Mi'Kmaq knowledge and Western Science knowledge to develop a strategy to address such discontinuity. It involved using puppets made from natural forest materials to promote culture, language, and history. This article describes the strategy, its rationale, as well as its relevance for, and application to, holistic nursing.

  3. Youth Acquisition of Alcohol and Drinking Contexts: An In-Depth Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This article fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative…

  4. A systematic review of the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programmes for First Nations, Inuit and Métis youth in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T

    2015-06-01

    First Nations, Inuit and Métis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving Métis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. © 2015 World Obesity.

  5. Adolescents' alcohol use and strength of policy relating to youth access, trading hours and driving under the influence: findings from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria; Azar, Denise; Faulkner, Agatha; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Room, Robin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2018-01-22

    To determine (i) whether the strength of Australian alcohol control policy in three domains (youth access, trading hours and drink driving) changed during the 2000s; and (ii) estimate associations between these policies and adolescent drinking after adjusting for television alcohol advertising exposures, alcohol outlet density, alcohol price changes, exposure to negative articles about alcohol in daily newspapers and adult drinking prevalence. Repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted triennially from 2002 to 2011. Multi-level modelling examined the association between alcohol control policies and drinking prevalence after adjusting for covariates. Four Australian capital cities between 2002 and 2011. Students aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial national representative school-based survey (sample size range/survey: 9805-13 119). Outcome measures were: past month drinking and risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day) in the past 7 days. Policy strength in each of three domains (youth access, trading hours, drink-driving) were the key predictor variables. Covariates included: past 3-month television alcohol and alcohol-control advertising, alcohol outlet density, alcohol price change, negatively framed newspaper alcohol articles, adult drinking prevalence and student demographic characteristics. During the study period, the strength of youth access policies increased by 10%, trading hours policies by 14% and drink-driving policies by 58%. Past-month and risky drinking prevalence decreased (e.g. past-month: 2002: 47.4% to 2011: 26.3%). Multivariable analyses that included all policy variables and adjusted for year, student and other covariates showed past-month drinking to be associated inversely with stronger trading hours policies [odds ratio (OR) = 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69, 0.94], but not youth access (OR = 0.92 95% CI = 0.81, 1.04) or drink-driving (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.93, 1.09). Risky drinking was associated inversely with

  6. Intra-accumbens Raclopride Administration Prevents Behavioral Changes Induced by Intermittent Access to Sucrose Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué O. Suárez-Ortiz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS, it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus. Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of

  7. Intra-accumbens Raclopride Administration Prevents Behavioral Changes Induced by Intermittent Access to Sucrose Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Ortiz, Josué O; Cortés-Salazar, Felipe; Malagón-Carrillo, Ariadna L; López-Alonso, Verónica E; Mancilla-Díaz, Juan M; Tejas-Juárez, Juan G; Escartín-Pérez, Rodrigo E

    2018-01-01

    Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether sugar binging induced by intermittent access to a sucrose solution produced changes in the structure of feeding behavior and whether blocking D2 receptors prevented these changes. We used the intermittent access model to a 10% sucrose solution (2 h/day for 4 weeks) to induce sugar binging in Sprague Dawley female rats. Experimental subjects consumed in a 2-h period more than 50% of the caloric intake consumed by the subjects with ad-lib access to the sweetened solution without any increase in body weight or fat accumulation. Furthermore, we evaluated whether sugar binging was associated to the estrous cycle and we did not find differences in caloric intake (estrous vs. diestrus). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of feeding behavior (microstructural analysis) and the motivation for palatable food (breakpoints) of the subjects with sugar binging and found that feeding episodes had short latencies, high frequencies, as well as short durations and inter-episode intervals. The intermittent access model did not increase breakpoints, as occurred in subjects with ad-lib access to the sucrose. Finally, we evaluated the effects of D2 receptor blockade in the NAcS, and found that raclopride (18 nM) prevented the observed changes in the frequency and duration of episodes induced by

  8. HEALING OF THE CANOE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A CULTURALLY GROUNDED INTERVENTION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PROMOTE TRIBAL IDENTITY FOR NATIVE YOUTH IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-Based and tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth. PMID:25768390

  9. Healing of the canoe: preliminary results of a culturally tailored intervention to prevent substance abuse and promote tribal identity for Native youth in two Pacific Northwest tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Dennis M; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-based and Tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S'Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth.

  10. Suicide Prevention Strategies for Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving access to and utilization of adolescent preventive health care: the perspectives of adolescents and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Tumaini R; Sareen, Harvinder G; Chung, Paul J; Kennedy, David P; Weidmer, Beverly A; Schuster, Mark A

    2010-08-01

    To examine the perspectives of publicly insured adolescents and their parents on ways to encourage adolescent utilization of preventive health services. We conducted eight focus groups with 77 adolescents enrolled in a large Medicaid managed care plan in Los Angeles County, California, and two focus groups with 21 of their parents. Discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis. Adolescents and parents reported that the most effective way to encourage preventive care utilization among teens was to directly address provider-level barriers related to the timeliness, privacy, confidentiality, comprehensiveness, and continuity of their preventive care. They reported that incentives (e.g., cash, movie tickets, gift cards) might also be an effective way to increase preventive care utilization. To improve adolescent receipt of surveillance and guidance on sensitive health-related topics, most adolescents suggested that the best way to encourage clinician-adolescent discussion was to increase private face-to-face discussions with a clinician with whom they had a continuous and confidential relationship. Adolescents reported that the use of text messaging, e-mail, and Internet for providing information and counseling on various sensitive health-related topics would also encourage adolescent utilization of preventive health services. Parents, however, more often preferred that their teen receive these services through in-office discussions and clinician-provided brochures. State agencies, health plans, clinics, and individual providers may consider focusing their efforts to improve adolescents' utilization of preventive services on basic structural and quality of care issues related to the clinician-patient relationship, access to services, and confidentiality. (c) 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of Substance Messages in Music Videos on Youth: Beware the Influence of Connectedness and Its Potential Prevention-Shielding Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Régnier-Denois, Véronique; Chapoton, Boris; Buhrau, Denise

    2017-09-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the role of connectedness with music videos in affecting youths' beliefs about substances (alcohol and tobacco) embedded therein and the potential for a prevention message to limit the impact of these images. The first study used cross-sectional data from a national sample of 1,023 adolescents (54.3% male) to evaluate the relationship between youths' consumption of music videos and their beliefs about the consequences of consuming alcohol and tobacco. A controlled experiment with 151 participants (57% male) then tested whether exposure to smoking in a video affects youths' smoking beliefs and the preventive potential of a pre-video warning. Connectedness to music videos, not overall amount of viewing, is the main correlate of beliefs about the positive outcomes of consuming alcohol/tobacco. A single exposure to a music video with smoking images can increase beliefs that smoking leads to positive consequences, and connected viewers are especially receptive to these images. Alerting youths to the presence of substance messages in a video leads to differential results as a function of connectedness. Many youths spend hours every day watching music videos in which positive visuals about drinking and smoking abound. Rather than the quantity of viewing, it is the degree to which youths immerse themselves in these music videos that enhances their beliefs that smoking and drinking have positive consequences. Interventions that warn youths about the presence of substances in music videos can minimize their influence, but youths highly connected with the music video content are especially resistant to warnings.

  13. Sexually Transmitted Infection Services for Adolescents and Youth in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Perceived and Experienced Barriers to Accessing Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Levinson, Anna; Leichliter, Jami S; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2016-07-01

    Access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services is vital for sexually active adolescents; yet, their SRH care needs are often unmet. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of mixed methods studies to assess adolescent and provider views of barriers to seeking appropriate medical care for sexually transmitted infection (STI) services for adolescents. We searched peer-reviewed literature for studies published between 2001 and 2014 with a study population of youth (aged 10-24 years) and/or health service providers. Nineteen studies were identified for inclusion from 15 countries. Thematic analyses identified key themes across the studies. Findings suggest that youth lacked knowledge about STIs and services. In addition, youth experienced barriers related to service availability and a lack of integration of services. The most reported barriers were related to acceptability of services. Youth reported avoiding services or having confidentiality concerns based on provider demographics and some behaviors. Finally, experiences of shame and stigma were common barriers to seeking care. Adolescents in low- and middle-income countries experience significant barriers in obtaining STI and SRH services. Improving uptake may require efforts to address clinic systems and provider attitudes, including confidentiality issues. Moreover, addressing barriers to STI services may require addressing cultural norms related to adolescent sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. How Well Is CHIP Addressing Primary and Preventive Care Needs and Access for Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly V; Dye, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To examine differences in primary care outcomes under the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) compared to private coverage and being uninsured in 10 states. We used data from a survey of parents of recent and established CHIP enrollees conducted from January 2012 through March 2013. We compared the primary care experiences of established CHIP enrollees to the preenrollment experiences of previously uninsured and privately insured recent CHIP enrollees to estimate differences in care outcomes. Parents of 4142 recent enrollees and 5518 established enrollees responded to the survey (response rates were 46% for recent enrollees and 51% for established enrollees). Compared to being uninsured, CHIP enrollees were more likely to have a well-child visit, receive a range of preventive care services, and have patient-centered care experiences. They were also more likely than uninsured children to have a regular source of care or provider, an easy time making appointments, and shorter wait times for those appointments. Relative to privately insured children, CHIP enrollees received preventive care services at similar rates and to be more likely to receive effective care coordination services. However, CHIP enrollees were less likely than privately insured children to have a regular source of care or provider and nighttime and weekend access to a usual source of care. CHIP continues to provide high levels of access to primary care, especially compared to uninsured children, and to provide benefits comparable to private insurance. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Feasibility of a parenting program to prevent substance use among Latino youth: a community-based participatory research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michele L; Hurtado, Ghaffar A; Yon, Kyu Jin; Okuyemi, Kola S; Davey, Cynthia S; Marczak, Mary S; Stoppa, Patricia; Svetaz, Veronica M

    2013-01-01

    Family-skills training programs prevent adolescent substance use, but few exist for immigrant Latino families. This study assesses the feasibility of a family-skills training intervention developed using a community-based participatory research framework, and explores parental traditional values as a modifier of preliminary effects. One-group pretest-posttest. Four Latino youth-serving sites (school, clinic, church, social-service agency). Immigrant Latino parents of adolescents aged 10 to 14 years (N  =  83). Eight-session program in Spanish to improve parenting practices and parent-youth interpersonal relations designed with Latino parents and staff from collaborating organizations. Feasibility was assessed through retention, program appropriateness, and group interaction quality. Preliminary outcomes evaluated were (1) parenting self-efficacy, discipline, harsh parenting, monitoring, conflict, attachment, acceptance, and involvement, and (2) parent perception of adolescent internalizing, externalizing, and substance use behaviors. Covariates included sociodemographics and parental endorsement of traditional values. Feasibility outcomes were assessed with descriptive statistics. Paired t-tests measured changes in parenting outcomes. Adjusted multiple regression models were conducted for change in each outcome, and t-tests compared mean changes in outcomes between parents with high and low traditional values scores. Program appropriateness and group interaction scores were positive. Improvement was noted for eight parenting outcomes. Parents perceived that adolescent internalizing behaviors decreased. Parents with lower endorsement of traditional values showed greater pretest-posttest change in attachment, acceptance, and involvement. This intervention is feasible and may influence parenting contributors to adolescent substance use.

  16. A model for evaluating academic research centers: Case study of the Asian/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Stephanie T; Hishinuma, Earl S; Goebert, Deborah A; Onoye, Jane M M; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2018-02-01

    To provide one model for evaluating academic research centers, given their vital role in addressing public health issues. A theoretical framework is described for a comprehensive evaluation plan for research centers. This framework is applied to one specific center by describing the center's Logic Model and Evaluation Plan, including a sample of the center's activities. Formative and summative evaluation information is summarized. In addition, a summary of outcomes is provided: improved practice and policy; reduction of risk factors and increase in protective factors; reduction of interpersonal youth violence in the community; and national prototype for prevention of interpersonal youth violence. Research centers are important mechanisms to advance science and improve people's quality of life. Because of their more infrastructure-intensive and comprehensive approach, they also require substantial resources for success, and thus, also require careful accountability. It is therefore important to comprehensively evaluate these centers. As provided herein, a more systematic and structured approach utilizing logic models, an evaluation plan, and successful processes can provide research centers with a functionally useful method in their evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of geographic information systems for planning HIV prevention interventions for high-risk youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanuracos, Catherine G; Cunningham, Shayna D; Weiss, George; Forte, Draco; Reid, Lisa M Henry; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2007-11-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) analysis is an emerging tool for public health intervention planning. Connect to Protect, a researcher-community collaboration working in 15 cities to reduce HIV infection among youths, developed GIS databases of local health, crime, and demographic data to evaluate the geographic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk among adolescents. We describe the process and problems of data acquisition, analysis, and mapping in the development of structural interventions, demonstrating how program planners can use this technology to inform and improve planning decisions. The Connect to Protect project's experience suggests strategies for incorporating public data and GIS technology into the next generation of public health interventions.

  18. Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project: HIV prevention education for runaway and homeless youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Podschun, G D

    1993-01-01

    Each year, there are approximately 2 million homeless and runaway youths in the United States. On any given night, there are 1,000 homeless youngsters living on the streets of San Diego, CA. Homeless young people are commonly involved in one or more of the following activities that place them at risk for HIV infection--unprotected sexual intercourse, needle-sharing in the use of injectable drugs, sex with someone who injects drugs. The Teen Peer Outreach-Street Work Project trains teen peer e...

  19. Pasa la Voz: using peer driven interventions to increase Latinas' access to and utilization of HIV prevention and testing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rebecca L; Green, Nancy Lorenza; Shulman, Lawrence C

    2009-02-01

    Promotoras along the U.S.-Mexico border in the role of animadoras (motivators) used a chain referral strategy called Pasa la Voz (Spread the Word). Latinas at high to moderate risk of HIV infection became better informed about prevention, accessed prevention services, and referred other at-risk Latinas for services.

  20. A Youth Mentor-Led Nutritional Intervention in Urban Recreation Centers: A Promising Strategy for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-01-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…

  1. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  2. Collaborative Knowledge-Making in the Everyday Practice of Youth Suicide Prevention Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Morris, Jonathan; Hinbest, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The development and implementation of a new school-based suicide prevention education programme in one secondary school in Vancouver, British Columbia, recently provided us with an opportunity to conduct an in-depth, qualitative case study. The purpose of our study was to deepen our understanding of how school-based suicide prevention education…

  3. Surrounded by Safety: A Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Handbook for Youth. YWCA Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sherry Plaster

    This handbook introduces students to essential elements of preventing crime at school by making sure the design, use, and upkeep of the facility do not provide opportunities for criminal behavior--crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). It discusses how to identify problem areas and the steps to take to make sure these problems are…

  4. Suicide Prevention for Counselors Working with Youth in Secondary and Post-Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    According to the latest statistics, suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death in those aged 15-24 (CDC, 2010), when many are enrolled in secondary and post-secondary institutions. Because of such alarming statistics, the need for prevention education is great. However, many counselors and educators feel ill- equipped in prevention and intervention…

  5. Children of divorce-coping with divorce: A randomized control trial of an online prevention program for youth experiencing parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boring, Jesse L; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Horan, John J; Vélez, Clorinda E

    2015-10-01

    Evaluate an online coping skills program to prevent mental health problems in children and adolescents from divorced or separated families. Children ages 11-16 (N = 147) whose families had filed for divorce were recruited using public court records. Participants were blocked by risk-score and randomly assigned to either a control (Internet self-study condition, Best of the Net (BTN) or the experimental intervention, Children of Divorce-Coping With Divorce (CoD-CoD), a 5-module highly interactive online program to promote effective coping skills. Program effects were tested on measures of children's self-reported coping and parent and youth reports of children's mental health problems. Significant main effects indicated that youth in CoD-CoD improved more on self-reported emotional problems relative to BTN youth (d = .37) and had a lower rate of clinically significant self-reported mental health problems (OR = .58, p = .04). A significant Baseline × Treatment interaction indicated that the 55% of youth with highest baseline problems improved more than those in BTN on their self-report of total mental health problems. A significant interaction effect indicated that CoD-CoD improved youth coping efficacy for the 30% of those with the lowest baseline coping efficacy. For the 10% of youth with lowest parent-reported risk at baseline, those who received BTN had lower problems than CoD-CoD participants. CoD-CoD was effective in reducing youth-reported mental health problems and coping efficacy particularly for high risk youth. Parent-report indicated that, relative to BTN, CoD-CoD had a negative effect on mental health problems for a small group with the lowest risk. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Improving patient access to prevent sight loss: ophthalmic electronic referrals and communication (Scotland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Mustafa, M Z; Sanders, R

    2015-02-01

    With the number of people with sight loss predicted to double to four million people in the UK by the year 2050, preventable visual loss is a significant public health issue. Sight loss is associated with an increased risk of falls, accidents and depression and evidence suggests that 50% of sight loss can be avoided. Timely diagnosis is central to the prevention of sight loss. Access to care can be a limiting factor in preventable cases. By improving referrals and access to hospital eye services it is possible to treat and minimise the number of patients with preventable sight loss and the impact this has on wider society. In 2005, NHS Fife took part in a flagship pilot funded by the Scottish government e-health department to evaluate the feasibility, safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost of electronic referral with images of patients directly from community optometrists to Hospital Eye Service (HES). The pilot study showed that electronic referral was feasible, fast, safe, and obviated the need for outpatient appointments in 128 (37%) patients with a high patient satisfaction. The results of the pilot study were presented and in May 2007, the electronic referral system was rolled out regionally in southeast Scotland. Referrals were accepted at a single site with vetting by a trained team and appointments were allocated within 48 hours. Following the implementation of electronic referral, waiting times were reduced from a median of 14 to 4 weeks. Significantly fewer new patients were seen (7462 vs 8714 [p communication between community optometry practices and hospital eye departments. Five electronic forms were specifically designed for cataract, glaucoma, macula, paediatric and general ophthalmic disease. A Virtual Private Network was created which enabled optometrists to connect to the Scottish clinical information gateway system and send referrals to hospital and receive referral status feedback. Numerous hurdles have been encountered and overcome in order

  7. Efficacy of Web-Based Collection of Strength-Based Testimonials for Text Message Extension of Youth Suicide Prevention Program: Randomized Controlled Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiha, Phyo; Gurditta, Kunali; Cherry, Erin; Peterson, Derick R; Kautz, Henry; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Background Equipping members of a target population to deliver effective public health messaging to peers is an established approach in health promotion. The Sources of Strength program has demonstrated the promise of this approach for “upstream” youth suicide prevention. Text messaging is a well-established medium for promoting behavior change and is the dominant communication medium for youth. In order for peer ‘opinion leader’ programs like Sources of Strength to use scalable, wide-reaching media such as text messaging to spread peer-to-peer messages, they need techniques for assisting peer opinion leaders in creating effective testimonials to engage peers and match program goals. We developed a Web interface, called Stories of Personal Resilience in Managing Emotions (StoryPRIME), which helps peer opinion leaders write effective, short-form messages that can be delivered to the target population in youth suicide prevention program like Sources of Strength. Objective To determine the efficacy of StoryPRIME, a Web-based interface for remotely eliciting high school peer leaders, and helping them produce high-quality, personal testimonials for use in a text messaging extension of an evidence-based, peer-led suicide prevention program. Methods In a double-blind randomized controlled experiment, 36 high school students wrote testimonials with or without eliciting from the StoryPRIME interface. The interface was created in the context of Sources of Strength–an evidence-based youth suicide prevention program–and 24 ninth graders rated these testimonials on relatability, usefulness/relevance, intrigue, and likability. Results Testimonials written with the StoryPRIME interface were rated as more relatable, useful/relevant, intriguing, and likable than testimonials written without StoryPRIME, P=.054. Conclusions StoryPRIME is a promising way to elicit high-quality, personal testimonials from youth for prevention programs that draw on members of a target

  8. Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2017-01-01

    This contribution is timely as it addresses accessibility in regards system hardware and software aligned with introduction of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act (CVAA) and adjoined game industry waiver that comes into force January 2017. This is an act created...... by the USA Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to increase the access of persons with disabilities to modern communications, and for other purposes. The act impacts advanced communications services and products including text messaging; e-mail; instant messaging; video communications; browsers; game...... platforms; and games software. However, the CVAA has no legal status in the EU. This text succinctly introduces and questions implications, impact, and wider adoption. By presenting the full CVAA and game industry waiver the text targets to motivate discussions and further publications on the subject...

  9. Use of Geographic Information Systems for Planning HIV Prevention Interventions for High-Risk Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanuracos, Catherine G.; Cunningham, Shayna D.; Weiss, George; Forte, Draco; Henry Reid, Lisa M.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2007-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) analysis is an emerging tool for public health intervention planning. Connect to Protect, a researcher–community collaboration working in 15 cities to reduce HIV infection among youths, developed GIS databases of local health, crime, and demographic data to evaluate the geographic epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections and HIV risk among adolescents. We describe the process and problems of data acquisition, analysis, and mapping in the development of structural interventions, demonstrating how program planners can use this technology to inform and improve planning decisions. The Connect to Protect project’s experience suggests strategies for incorporating public data and GIS technology into the next generation of public health interventions. PMID:17901452

  10. Location Authentication based on Wireless Access Point Information to Prevent Wormhole Attack in Samsung Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RYU, G.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a location authentication method to prevent wormhole payment attack in Samsung Pay. The primary feature of this method is comparing wireless Access Point (AP information collected by the current Samsung Pay user and a wireless AP model (WM that was created from wireless AP information (WI sent by previous Samsung Pay users. To create the WM, an autoencoder is used. Unlike the existing location authentication techniques that use WI, our method does not require additional hardware, modification of the Point of Sale (POS software, or any pre-requisite information such as the location coordinates of the POS. We show that the proposed location authentication technique exhibits the minimum Equal Error Rate (EER of 2.4% in real payment environments.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trials of Technology-Based HIV/STI and Drug Abuse Preventive Interventions for African American and Hispanic Youth: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, David; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Ovadje, Lauretta; Hong, Ethan; Castillo, Berenice; Salas-Wright, Christopher P

    2017-12-13

    HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug abuse remain significant public health concerns in the United States, and African American and Hispanic youth are disproportionately affected. Although technology-based interventions are efficacious in preventing and reducing HIV/STI and licit/illicit drug use behaviors, relatively little is known regarding the state of the science of these interventions among African American and Hispanic youth. The aim of this review is to identify and examine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of technology-based HIV/STI and/or drug abuse preventive interventions for African American and Hispanic youth. We searched electronic databases (ie, PubMed, Proquest, PsycINFO, Ebscohost, Google Scholar) to identify studies between January 2006 and October 2016. RCTs of technology-based interventions targeting African American and Hispanic youth HIV/STI risk behaviors, including sexual risk, licit and illicit drug use, and HIV/STI testing were included. Our search revealed a total of three studies that used an RCT design and included samples comprised of >50% African American and/or Hispanic youth. The follow-up assessments ranged from two weeks to six months and the number of participants in each trial ranged from 72 to 141. The three interventions were theory-driven, interactive, and tailored. The long-term effects of the interventions were mixed, and outcomes included reductions in sex partners, licit drug use, and condomless anal sex acts. Although technology-based interventions seem promising in the prevention of HIV/STI and drug abuse among African American and Hispanic youth, more research is needed. ©David Córdova, Frania Mendoza Lua, Lauretta Ovadje, Ethan Hong, Berenice Castillo, Christopher P Salas-Wright. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 13.12.2017.

  12. Standardizing and Evaluating the "Presenter" Variable in the Peer vs. Adult Debate in Youth Drug Prevention Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Charles J.; McCarthy, Heather; Murff, Sherice; Thomas, Adrienne; Rosetti, Desila; Murillo, Natalie G.

    2009-01-01

    A "train-the-trainer" workshop was developed to evaluate and enhance presentational skills and offered to 14 youth in grades 6-12 and 9 administrators from youth-focused community agencies in Indiana. Upon workshop completion, 7 youth and 6 adults functioned as presenters of a 1 1/2-hour module on refusal and resistance skills to 95…

  13. Vascular access specialist teams for device insertion and prevention of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Peter J; Higgins, Niall S; Cooke, Marie L; Mihala, Gabor; Rickard, Claire M

    2018-03-20

    one registered clinical trial in progress. No studies could be included in the analysis or review. We assigned one study as awaiting classification, as it has not been accepted for publication. This systematic review failed to locate relevant published RCTs to support or refute the assertion that vascular access specialist teams are superior to the generalist model. A vascular access specialist team has advanced knowledge with regard to insertion techniques, clinical care, and management of vascular access devices, whereas a generalist model comprises nurses, doctors, or other designated healthcare professionals in the healthcare facility who may have less advanced insertion techniques and who care for vascular access devices amongst other competing clinical tasks. However, this conclusion may change once the one study awaiting classification and one ongoing study are published. There is a need for good-quality RCTs to evaluate the efficacy of a vascular access specialist team approach for vascular access device insertion and care for the prevention of failure.

  14. A Review of Teen Dating Violence Prevention Research: What About Hispanic Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Krithika; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Mitchell, Emma M

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature on evidence-based teen dating violence (TDV) prevention programs with a particular focus on highlighting gaps in the literature with regard to prevention efforts targeting Hispanic teens. The target populations, characteristics, designs, and results of TDV prevention studies reported in the scientific literature for the last 20 years were reviewed and analyzed according to cultural and contextual factors associated with TDV among Hispanic teens. To date, three studies have focused on a predominantly Hispanic population with only one study looking at the long-term effects of a TDV intervention. There is a growing need to develop and evaluate immediate and long-term effects of TDV prevention programs that address ethnic pride, acculturation and acculturative stress, familism, and gender norms within the context of Hispanic communities (e.g., machismo and marianismo). The authors discuss the implications for research, prevention practice, and policy regarding TDV prevention for Hispanic teens. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Engaging Chinese Immigrant Parents in Youth Suicide Prevention: Shifting Parenting Paradigm in a Culturally Relevant Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Irene Wai Ming; Chu, Hsiao-Ching; Bloom, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a school and community collaborative initiative that targeted students of Chinese descent as a suicide at-risk population. Its main focus was to reach out to immigrant parents to help them strengthen communication and relationships with their adolescent children and to facilitate their access to mental health services in the…

  16. Prevention of unhealthy behaviour by youth health care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegersma, P.A.; Hofman, A.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    Background In this study the effect is assessed of (repeated) well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools on the prevalence of adolescent health-compromising behaviour and later obesity. Methods An ecological case-referent study design was used with data from the

  17. Prioritizing research to reduce youth suicide and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Horowitz, Lisa M; Fontanella, Cynthia A; Grupp-Phelan, Jackie; Campo, John V

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention is to reduce suicide and suicide attempts in the U.S. by 40% in the next decade. In this paper, a public health approach is applied to suicide prevention to illustrate how reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior might be achieved by prioritizing research in two areas: (1) increasing access to primary care-based behavioral health interventions for depressed youth and (2) improving continuity of care for youth who present to emergency departments after a suicide attempt. Finally, some scientific, clinical, and methodologic breakthroughs needed to achieve rapid, substantial, and sustained reductions in youth suicide and suicidal behavior are discussed. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-07-07

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada's children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver's licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  19. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  20. Improving Prevention Curricula: Lessons Learned Through Formative Research on the Youth Message Development Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREENE, KATHRYN; CATONA, DANIELLE; ELEK, ELVIRA; MAGSAMEN-CONRAD, KATE; BANERJEE, SMITA C.; HECHT, MICHAEL L.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes formative research (a pilot study, interviews, and focus groups) conducted as part of a feasibility test of 2 versions (Analysis vs. Planning) of a brief media literacy intervention titled Youth Message Development (YMD). The intervention targets high school student alcohol use with activities to understand persuasion strategies, increase counter-arguing, and then apply these new skills to ad analysis or a more engaging ad poster planning activity. Based on the theory of active involvement (Greene, 2013), the Planning curriculum is proposed to be more effective than the Analysis curriculum. Overall, results of the formative research indicated that students (N = 182) and mentors/teachers (N = 53) perceived the YMD Planning curriculum as more interesting, involving, and novel, and these ratings were associated with increased critical thinking about the impact of advertising, lower alcohol use intentions, and fewer positive expectations about the effects of alcohol use. Qualitative feedback indicated a need to supplement alcohol-focused ad stimuli with ads targeting other advertising images, use incentives and competition-based activities to further enhance student motivation, and provide flexibility to enhance the appropriateness of the curriculum to various settings. These concerns led to the development of a revised curriculum and plans for further study. PMID:27684111

  1. Social cohesion and peace education: Alternatives for preventing child-youth violence in El Salvador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhina Cabezas Valencia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a general overview of the current situation of the phenomenon of childyouth violence in El Salvador. It describes some of the measures, both governmental and those deriving from international cooperation, that have been implemented to date, in order to seek a solution to the problem. The authors also explore more deeply the new trends in preventing the phenomenon. In this sense, the article is aimed at the prevention of violence through twospecific mechanisms: peace education and social cohesion. As the authors demonstrate, both mechanisms are potentially adaptable to the reality of El Salvador.

  2. School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention with Inner-City Minority Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; Epstein, Jennifer A.; Baker, Eli; Diaz, Tracy; Ifill-Williams, Michelle

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the effectiveness of a drug abuse prevention intervention with a predominantly minority sample of seventh-grade students (N=721). Results indicate that this approach was effective on several behavioral measures of current drug use, including measures of polydrug use and on intention measures relevant to future drug use. (RJM)

  3. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  4. Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds: Youth Violence Prevention for Acculturating Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Bacallao, Martica

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the efficacy of Entre Dos Mundos/Between Two Worlds (EDM) prevention for Latino adolescents. Method: In an experimental trial to compare implementation formats, 41 Latino families were randomly assigned to EDM action-oriented skills training groups, and 47 families were randomly assigned to unstructured EDM support…

  5. Youth Gambling Prevention: Can Public Service Announcements Featuring Celebrity Spokespersons Be Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, N. Will; Walsh, Kelly; Taylor, Amy; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are at increased risk of developing gambling problems compared to adults. A review of successful prevention campaigns targeting drinking and driving, smoking, unprotected sex, and drug use suggests that public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrity spokespersons have strong potential for raising awareness of the…

  6. Personal Drug Use and Attitudes toward Prevention among Youth Living in a High Risk Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, William R.; Dembo, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Compared non-users and users of alcohol and/or marijuana (N=1,020) in an inner city junior high school. Separate subcultures were strongly indicated with differences in attitudes, behavior, peer group, and significant adults. Almost any activity was seen as appropriate for a drug abuse prevention program. (JAC)

  7. The Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention: Secondary Prevention for Youth at Risk of Developing PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Steven J.; Stover, Carla Smith; Marans, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of a four-session, caregiver-child Intervention, the Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI), to prevent the development of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) provided within 30 days of exposure to a potentially traumatic event (PTE). Method: One-hundred seventy-six 7…

  8. A youth mentor-led nutritional intervention in urban recreation centers: a promising strategy for childhood obesity prevention in low-income neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila M; Steeves, Elizabeth A; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Trude, Angela C; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M J; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2016-04-01

    B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers within interventions targeting youth. This article evaluates the implementation of the BHCK intervention in recreation centers, and describes lessons learned. Sixteen youth leaders delivered bi-weekly, interactive sessions to 10- to 14-y olds. Dose, fidelity and reach are assessed, as is qualitative information regarding what worked well during sessions. Dose is operationalized as the number of interactive sessions, and taste tests, giveaways and handouts per session; fidelity as the number of youth leaders participating in the entire intervention and per session and reach as the number of interactions with the target population. Based on a priori set values, number of interactive sessions was high, and number of taste tests, giveaways and handouts was moderate to high (dose). The number of participating youth leaders was also high (fidelity). Of the 14 planned sessions, the intervention was implemented with high/moderate reach. Data suggest that working with cross-age peers is a promising nutritional intervention for recreation centers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An intersectional approach for understanding the vulnerabilities of English-speaking heterosexual Caribbean youth to HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections: Prevention and intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Elizabeth Sutherland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean youth comprise about 30 percent of the English-speaking Caribbean population, and about 81,000 Caribbean and Latin American youth are HIV infected. AIDS is the leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old English-speaking Caribbean youth. This article relies on intersectionality theory in the assessment of the macro-level, or structural variables, and micro-level, or individual level, variables that influence the risk-taking sexual behaviors of heterosexual English-speaking Caribbean youth and increase their vulnerability to HIV/sexually transmitted infections. This article offers macro- and micro-level prevention/intervention strategies for reducing the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in English-speaking Caribbean youth, including the promotion of condom use, voluntary male circumcision, and HIV testing and counseling. Suggestions are offered for future research investigations to explore the contributing factors to youth’s vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections and to empirically verify the relationship between and among variables that account for desired outcomes, including decreases in risky sexual behaviors.

  10. Escape Excel: A tool for preventing gene symbol and accession conversion errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Paul A.; Kuenzi, Brent M.; Eschrich, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Microsoft Excel automatically converts certain gene symbols, database accessions, and other alphanumeric text into dates, scientific notation, and other numerical representations. These conversions lead to subsequent, irreversible, corruption of the imported text. A recent survey of popular genomic literature estimates that one-fifth of all papers with supplementary gene lists suffer from this issue. Results Here, we present an open-source tool, Escape Excel, which prevents these erroneous conversions by generating an escaped text file that can be safely imported into Excel. Escape Excel is implemented in a variety of formats (http://www.github.com/pstew/escape_excel), including a command line based Perl script, a Windows-only Excel Add-In, an OS X drag-and-drop application, a simple web-server, and as a Galaxy web environment interface. Test server implementations are accessible as a Galaxy interface (http://apostl.moffitt.org) and simple non-Galaxy web server (http://apostl.moffitt.org:8000/). Conclusions Escape Excel detects and escapes a wide variety of problematic text strings so that they are not erroneously converted into other representations upon importation into Excel. Examples of problematic strings include date-like strings, time-like strings, leading zeroes in front of numbers, and long numeric and alphanumeric identifiers that should not be automatically converted into scientific notation. It is hoped that greater awareness of these potential data corruption issues, together with diligent escaping of text files prior to importation into Excel, will help to reduce the amount of Excel-corrupted data in scientific analyses and publications. PMID:28953918

  11. Escape Excel: A tool for preventing gene symbol and accession conversion errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Eric A; Stewart, Paul A; Kuenzi, Brent M; Eschrich, James A

    2017-01-01

    Microsoft Excel automatically converts certain gene symbols, database accessions, and other alphanumeric text into dates, scientific notation, and other numerical representations. These conversions lead to subsequent, irreversible, corruption of the imported text. A recent survey of popular genomic literature estimates that one-fifth of all papers with supplementary gene lists suffer from this issue. Here, we present an open-source tool, Escape Excel, which prevents these erroneous conversions by generating an escaped text file that can be safely imported into Excel. Escape Excel is implemented in a variety of formats (http://www.github.com/pstew/escape_excel), including a command line based Perl script, a Windows-only Excel Add-In, an OS X drag-and-drop application, a simple web-server, and as a Galaxy web environment interface. Test server implementations are accessible as a Galaxy interface (http://apostl.moffitt.org) and simple non-Galaxy web server (http://apostl.moffitt.org:8000/). Escape Excel detects and escapes a wide variety of problematic text strings so that they are not erroneously converted into other representations upon importation into Excel. Examples of problematic strings include date-like strings, time-like strings, leading zeroes in front of numbers, and long numeric and alphanumeric identifiers that should not be automatically converted into scientific notation. It is hoped that greater awareness of these potential data corruption issues, together with diligent escaping of text files prior to importation into Excel, will help to reduce the amount of Excel-corrupted data in scientific analyses and publications.

  12. Escape Excel: A tool for preventing gene symbol and accession conversion errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Welsh

    Full Text Available Microsoft Excel automatically converts certain gene symbols, database accessions, and other alphanumeric text into dates, scientific notation, and other numerical representations. These conversions lead to subsequent, irreversible, corruption of the imported text. A recent survey of popular genomic literature estimates that one-fifth of all papers with supplementary gene lists suffer from this issue.Here, we present an open-source tool, Escape Excel, which prevents these erroneous conversions by generating an escaped text file that can be safely imported into Excel. Escape Excel is implemented in a variety of formats (http://www.github.com/pstew/escape_excel, including a command line based Perl script, a Windows-only Excel Add-In, an OS X drag-and-drop application, a simple web-server, and as a Galaxy web environment interface. Test server implementations are accessible as a Galaxy interface (http://apostl.moffitt.org and simple non-Galaxy web server (http://apostl.moffitt.org:8000/.Escape Excel detects and escapes a wide variety of problematic text strings so that they are not erroneously converted into other representations upon importation into Excel. Examples of problematic strings include date-like strings, time-like strings, leading zeroes in front of numbers, and long numeric and alphanumeric identifiers that should not be automatically converted into scientific notation. It is hoped that greater awareness of these potential data corruption issues, together with diligent escaping of text files prior to importation into Excel, will help to reduce the amount of Excel-corrupted data in scientific analyses and publications.

  13. Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia youth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, E; Paavola, M; McAlister, A; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a school- and community-based smoking prevention program in Finland. Four intervention schools from North Karelia and two control schools from another province were chosen for the evaluation. Students who received the intervention were taught to resist social pressures to smoke. The program began in 1978 with seventh-grade students and ran through 1980, with a 15-year follow-up. In North Karelia, a community-based smoking cessation program for adults was also carried out. Mean lifetime cigarette consumption was 22% lower among program subjects than among control subjects. Smoking and prevalence were lower up to the age of 21. Long-term smoking prevention effects can be achieved if a school-based program using a social influence model is combined with community and mass media interventions.

  14. Barriers Prevent Patient Access to Personalized Therapies Identified by Molecular Tumor Profiling of Gynecologic Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tyler Hillman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was designed to evaluate the ability of commercial molecular tumor profiling to discover actionable mutations and to identify barriers that might prevent patient access to personalized therapies. Methods. We conducted an IRB-approved retrospective review of 26 patients with gynecologic malignancies who underwent commercial tumor profiling at our institution during the first 18 months of test availability. Tumor profiles reported targeted therapies and clinical trials matched to patient-specific mutations. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results. Most patients who underwent tumor profiling had serous epithelial ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma (46%. Patients underwent profiling after undergoing a median of two systemic therapies (range 0 to 13. A median of one targeted therapy was suggested per patient profile. Tumor profiling identified no clinically actionable mutations for seven patients (27%. Six patients sought insurance approval for a targeted therapy and two were declined (33%. One patient (4% received a targeted therapy and this was discontinued due to tumor progression. Conclusions. There are formidable barriers to targeted therapy for patients with gynecologic malignancies. These barriers include a dearth of FDA-approved targeted agents for gynecologic malignancies, lack of third party insurance coverage and limited geographic availability of clinical trials.

  15. Reexamining the association between child access prevention gun laws and unintentional shooting deaths of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D W; Starnes, M

    2000-12-01

    A previous study estimated that child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold adults criminally liable for unsafe firearm storage in the environment of children, were associated with a 23% decline in unintentional firearm mortality rates among children. To reassess the effects of CAP laws and more fully examine the consistency of the estimated law effects across states. A pooled time-series study of unintentional firearm mortality among children from 1979 through 1997. Setting. The 50 states and the District of Columbia. All children laws enacted before 1998 were aggregated, the laws were associated with a 17% decline unintentional firearm death rates among children. The laws' effects were not equal across states. Florida's CAP law was associated with a 51% decline; however, there were no statistically significant aggregate or state-specific law effects in the other 14 states with CAP laws. Florida's CAP law-1 of only 3 such laws allowing felony prosecution of violators-appears to have significantly reduced unintentional firearm deaths to children. However, there is no evidence of effects in the other 14 states with CAP laws.

  16. Radon testing in rapid access lung clinics: an opportunity for secondary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, R; Long, S; Wiseman, E; Sharpe, D; Breen, D; O'Regan, A

    2017-05-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas and a level 1 carcinogen. It acts synergistically with cigarette smoke to cause lung cancer. In Ireland, radon is estimated to be associated with 13 % of all lung cancers. Rapid access lung cancer clinics (RALC's) were established in the UK and Ireland to improve lung cancer management outcomes. There has been no attempt to date to provide advice on household radon exposure assessments in this setting. We performed a prospective feasibility study of radon assessment in our RALC to test the hypothesis that patients would avail of this service and that it would provide an opportunity for secondary prevention in at risk persons. We investigated household radon levels in consecutive patients who were newly referred with symptoms of lung cancer to the RALC in Galway University Hospital, Ireland over a 6-month period. Of 50 patients enrolled, 42 returned valid results. Overall 21 % of patients had radon levels recorded above the national reference level. Only 5 % of patients were aware of the association between radon gas and lung cancer. Smokers were significantly less likely to engage fully in radon testing. The development of RALC's offers a novel opportunity to integrate the concepts of radon exposure, cigarette smoking and the development of lung cancer, and to reinforce this message in the minds of at risk patients.

  17. A culturally adapted drug and alcohol abuse prevention program for aboriginal children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydala, Lola T; Sewlal, Betty; Rasmussen, Carmen; Alexis, Kathleen; Fletcher, Fay; Letendre, Liz; Odishaw, Janine; Kennedy, Merle; Kootenay, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In response to substance abuse within their community, the Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation invited the University of Alberta (UofA) to partner in a collaborative effort to establish a school-based substance abuse prevention program. An evidence-based substance abuse prevention program was reviewed and adapted by the community to ensure that it incorporated their cultural beliefs, values, language, and visual images. The adapted program was delivered to students at Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation School and changes in student participants' knowledge, attitudes, refusal skills, and self-beliefs were measured. Benefits and challenges of adapting the program were documented. The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, Guidelines for Research Involving Aboriginal People, provided a frame of reference for the work throughout the research process. A pre-/posttest questionnaire was used to measure changes in student participants' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use. Focus groups (FGs) documented community members' experiences of and responses to the program adaptations and delivery. Results included (1) positive changes in students' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use, (2) ownership of and investment in the program by the community, (3) teaching approaches that correspond with the learning contexts, worldview, and relationships of the community, and (4) participation of community Elders. Quantitative and qualitative measures provide evidence for the importance, benefits, and challenges of employing a culturally adapted evidence-based substance abuse prevention program with Aboriginal students attending a First Nations school.

  18. Efficacy of Bystander Programs to Prevent Dating Abuse Among Youth and Young Adults: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin; Herrenkohl, Todd

    2016-07-01

    Estimates suggest that between 10% and 25% of adolescents have experienced some form of physical violence within a dating relationship, and one in four college-age women experiences attempted or completed sexual violence on campus. Bystander programs focus on equipping young adults with the skills to safely intervene when they witness behaviors that can result in dating abuse. This approach is promoted for its capacity both to transform community norms that contribute to dating abuse and to foster more positive social interactions among youth, however, there has been limited review of the literature on the outcomes of bystander programs. Therefore, this article provides an in-depth systematic literature review, which describes the content and program components of bystander programs and summarizes what is currently known about the impact of bystander interventions on participants' behaviors and attitudes. Results indicate that bystander programs are promising from the standpoint of increasing young adults' willingness to intervene and confidence in their ability to intervene when they witness dating or sexual violence, however, the utilization of actual bystander behaviors was less straightforward. Implications for prevention practice and for future research are presented. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. [Access to information about how to prevent oral problems among school children in the public school network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Oliveira, Carolina de Castro; De Oliveira, Lorenna Fonseca Braga; Pelino, José Eduardo Pelizon; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; De Almeida, Eliete Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to identify the prevalence of access to information about how to prevent oral problems among schoolchildren in the public school network, as well as the factors associated with such access. This is a cross-sectional and analytical study conducted among 12-year-old schoolchildren in a Brazilian municipality with a large population. The examinations were performed by 24 trained dentists and calibrated with the aid of 24 recorders. Data collection occurred in 36 public schools selected from the 89 public schools of the city. Descriptive, univariate and multiple analyses were conducted. Of the 2510 schoolchildren included in the study, 2211 reported having received information about how to prevent oral problems. Access to such information was greater among those who used private dental services; and lower among those who used the service for treatment, who evaluated the service as regular or bad/awful. The latter use toothbrush only or toothbrush and tongue scrubbing as a means of oral hygiene and who reported not being satisfied with the appearance of their teeth. The conclusion drawn is that the majority of schoolchildren had access to information about how to prevent oral problems, though access was associated with the characteristics of health services, health behavior and outcomes.

  20. Access and Use of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Malaria among Pregnant Women in Kenya and Mali: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women's access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated

  1. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the

  2. ¿Qué sirve en la prevención de la violencia juvenil? Youth violence prevention, what works?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerrero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre los adolescentes, que representan 20.3%, y los jóvenes, que constituyen 31.6% de la población total de las Américas, la violencia alcanza proporciones epidémicas y se convierte en un serio problema de salud pública en la región. El presente trabajo es el resultado de una revisión documental sobre las intervenciones que han demostrado éxito en la prevención de este problema entre los jóvenes. De las intervenciones efectivas destaca la concesión de tiempo específico de los adultos para interactuar con niños y adolescentes, así como la aplicación de programas enfocados en el desarrollo infantil temprano y las prácticas educativas adecuadas entre los padres. Esta última es una de las intervenciones de mayor beneficio en términos del costo para la reducción de los comportamientos de riesgo entre los jóvenes. Los esfuerzos para desarmar a la población civil en periodos y espacios críticos sobresale también por su eficacia.Violence is currently considered to be both an epidemic problem and a public health problem among youth and adolescents, who represent 31.6% and 20.3% of the overall population of the Americas region, respectively. This paper analyzes the scientific literature on violence prevention as it relates to successful interventions among these populations. Some of the most successful interventions are those related to active engagement of adults with children and adolescents and programs oriented toward early child development and adequate educational practices among parents. The latter is one of the most cost-effective violence prevention interventions for children and adolescents. Efforts to disarm civilian populations during critical periods have also been shown to be effective.

  3. "You Can Try, But You Won't Stop It. It'll Always Be There": Youth Perspectives on Violence and Prevention in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2016-02-01

    The role of schools in preventing violence among teenagers has been highlighted, as has the development of youth-led prevention initiatives. This article explores how young people's views on violence influence their perceptions of its preventability, drawing on focus group discussions with 14- to 16-year-olds from six schools across the north of England. Young people view violence as a highly individualized phenomenon, and gender norms play an important role in shaping young people's perceptions of the preventability of violence. The findings presented here suggest that school-based violence prevention must fundamentally address gender norms and expectations to challenge young people's acceptance and tolerance of violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. What Adolescents Need to Prevent Relapse after Treatment for Substance Abuse: A Comparison of Youth, Parent, and Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acri, Mary C.; Gogel, Leah P.; Pollock, Michele; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about what factors and supports youths identify as important for their sustained recovery after substance abuse treatment, and if their caregivers and treatment staff identify similar needs. The purpose of this study was to explore what youths, caregivers, and staff perceive as important to remain substance free after…

  5. Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco Use among Canadian Youth: Do We Need More Multi-Substance Prevention Programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Data from the Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (n = 27,030 in 2006; n = 16,705 in 2004; n = 11,757 in 2002) were used to examine changes in the prevalence and comorbid use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana over time and examine if demographic factors and binge drinking are associated with comorbid substance use among youth. Alcohol was the most…

  6. European energy balance research to prevent excessive weight gain among youth (ENERGY) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stralen, Maartje M. van; Velde, Saskia J. te; Singh, Amika S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school...... environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer...... as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well...

  7. Discussing Firearm Ownership and Access as Part of Suicide Risk Assessment and Prevention: "Means Safety" versus "Means Restriction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Hom, Melanie A; Rogers, Megan L; Anestis, Michael D; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the relative utility of the terms "means safety" versus "means restriction" in counseling individuals to limit their access to firearms in the context of a mock suicide risk assessment. Overall, 370 participants were randomized to read a vignette depicting a clinical scenario in which managing firearm ownership and access was discussed either using the term "means safety" or "means restriction." Participants rated the term "means safety" as significantly more acceptable and preferable than "means restriction." Participants randomized to the "means safety" condition reported greater intentions to adhere to clinicians' recommendations to limit access to a firearm for safety purposes (F[1,367] = 7.393, p = .007, [Formula: see text]). The term "means safety" may be more advantageous than "means restriction" when discussing firearm ownership and access in clinical settings and public health-oriented suicide prevention efforts.

  8. Systematic review of occupational therapy and mental health promotion, prevention, and intervention for children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesman, Marian; Bazyk, Susan; Nochajski, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a systematic review of the literature on children's mental health using a public health model consisting of three levels of mental health service: universal, targeted, and intensive. At the universal level, strong evidence exists for the effectiveness of occupation- and activity-based interventions in many areas, including programs that focus on social-emotional learning; schoolwide bullying prevention; and after-school, performing arts, and stress management activities. At the targeted level, strong evidence indicates that social and life skills programs are effective for children who are aggressive, have been rejected, and are teenage mothers. The evidence also is strong that children with intellectual impairments, developmental delays, and learning disabilities benefit from social skills programming and play, leisure, and recreational activities. Additionally, evidence of the effectiveness of social skills programs is strong for children requiring services at the intensive level (e.g., those with autism spectrum disorder, diagnosed mental illness, serious behavior disorders) to improve social behavior and self-management. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  9. Prescription drug misuse among homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Prescription drug misuse (PDM) is highly prevalent among youth in the U.S., and can have serious health consequences. Homeless youth are a particularly vulnerable population with high rates of substance use. However, PDM has not been studied in a sample comprised exclusively of homeless youth. A sample of 451 homeless youth recruited from drop-in centers in Los Angeles, CA, provided information on substance use, mental health, service utilization, trauma, and sexual risk behavior. Multivariable logistic regression assessed correlates of past month PDM. Nearly 50% reported lifetime PDM and 21.6% reported PDM in the past month. The most frequently used prescriptions in the past month were: opioids only (24.5%), sedatives only (23.4%), and stimulants only (10.6%); 14.9% used some combination of these three types of prescription medications. Homeless youth reported that prescriptions were most commonly obtained for free from friends or relatives (24.5%). Foster care involvement was associated with decreased PDM, while hard drug use, suicidal ideation, and unprotected sex were associated with increased PDM. Homeless youth report high rates of PDM, and access these medications most frequently from friends and family. PDM among homeless youth clusters with other risk factors, including hard drug use, unprotected sex, and suicidal ideation. Surprisingly, foster care history was associated with decreased PDM. Programs aimed at preventing PDM among homeless youth should recognize the clustering of risk behaviors, assess prescription use/access when providing mental health services, and educate the general public about proper disposal of prescriptions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Understanding access and use of technology among youth with first-episode psychosis to inform the development of technology-enabled therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Amal; Lal, Shalini; D-Charron, Olivier; Stip, Emmanuel; Kara, Nadjia

    2017-02-01

    Computers, video games and technological devices are part of young people's everyday lives. However, their use in first-episode psychosis (FEP) treatment is rare. The purpose of this study was to better understand the access and use of technology among individuals with FEP, including gaming activities, to inform future development of technology-enabled therapeutic applications. Self-administered survey on use of technological tools in 71 FEP individuals. PCs/laptops were used by all participants; cellphones/smartphones by 92%, consoles by 83% (mainly male and younger participants). Women texted and used social networks more frequently; men played games (mainly action) more often. The younger individuals reported playing games frequently (32% daily) with less use of the Web and social networks (favourite: Facebook). These data will be useful for developing Web-based psychoeducation tools and cognitive remediation video games for youth with FEP. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.

  12. Native Teen Voices: adolescent pregnancy prevention recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwick, Ann W; Rhodes, Kristine L; Peterson-Hickey, Melanie; Hellerstedt, Wendy L

    2008-01-01

    American Indian adolescent pregnancy rates are high, yet little is known about how Native youth view primary pregnancy prevention. The aim was to identify pregnancy prevention strategies from the perspectives of both male and female urban Native youth to inform program development. Native Teen Voices (NTV) was a community-based participatory action research study in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota. Twenty focus groups were held with 148 Native youth who had never been involved in a pregnancy. Groups were stratified by age (13-15 and 16-18 years) and sex. Participants were asked what they would do to prevent adolescent pregnancy if they were in charge of programs for Native youth. Content analyses were used to identify and categorize the range and types of participants' recommendations within and across the age and sex cohorts. Participants in all cohorts emphasized the following themes: show the consequences of adolescent pregnancy; enhance and develop more pregnancy prevention programs for Native youth in schools and community-based organizations; improve access to contraceptives; discuss teen pregnancy with Native youth; and use key messages and media to reach Native youth. Native youth perceived limited access to comprehensive pregnancy prevention education, community-based programs and contraceptives. They suggested a variety of venues and mechanisms to address gaps in sexual health services and emphasized enhancing school-based resources and involving knowledgeable Native peers and elders in school and community-based adolescent pregnancy prevention initiatives. A few recommendations varied by age and sex, consistent with differences in cognitive and emotional development.

  13. An Ounce of Prevention: Technologists Use Network-Access Control to Protect System Resources, Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Whether for an entire district, a single campus, or one classroom, allowing authorized access to a computer network can be fraught with challenges. The login process should be fairly seamless to approved users, giving them speedy access to approved Web sites, databases, and other sources of information. It also should be tough on unauthorized…

  14. Unpacking barriers to healthy lifestyles from the perspective of youth with disabilities and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Balcazar, Yolanda; Agudelo Orozco, Alexander; Mate, Melina; Garcia, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with disabilities experience several health inequalities and challenges in maintaining healthy lifestyles. As a group, individuals with disabilities experience higher rates of obesity compared to youth without disabilities. This study was designed to examine the types of challenges experienced by youth with disabilities and parents of youth with disabilities in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Strong evidence indicates that having a healthy lifestyle and preventing obesity are not only the result of an individual's behavior related to physical activity and consumption of healthy products but also several complex factors in the person's environment. This study was designed to understand the perceptions of youth with disabilities and their parents about the challenges they experience in engaging in physical activity and consuming healthy products, and ideas and strategies for promoting healthy lifestyles. Overall, youth with disabilities lack access to opportunities for engaging in physical activity as well as access to affordable foods. Implications for systems and policy changes are discussed.

  15. Physical therapists' role in prevention and management of patellar tendinopathy injuries in youth, collegiate, and middle-aged indoor volleyball athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M.; Reischl, Stephen F.; Landel, Rob F.

    2015-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels. PMID:26537811

  16. Physical therapists' role in prevention and management of patellar tendinopathy injuries in youth, collegiate, and middle-aged indoor volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Kulig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPatellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.

  17. Physical therapists' role in prevention and management of patellar tendinopathy injuries in youth, collegiate, and middle-aged indoor volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Kornelia; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa M; Reischl, Stephen F; Landel, Rob F

    2015-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is highly prevalent in all ages and skill levels of volleyball athletes. To illustrate this, we discuss the clinical, biomechanical, and ultrasound imaging presentation and the intervention strategies of three volleyball athletes at different stages of their athletic career: youth, middle-aged, and collegiate. We present our examination strategies and interpret the data collected, including visual movement analysis and dynamics, relating these findings to the probable causes of their pain and dysfunction. Using the framework of the EdUReP concept, incorporating Education, Unloading, Reloading, and Prevention, we propose intervention strategies that target each athlete's specific issues in terms of education, rehabilitation, training, and return to sport. This framework can be generalized to manage patellar tendinopathy in other sports requiring jumping, from youth to middle age, and from recreational to elite competitive levels.

  18. Investing in Youth: Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  19. Investing in Youth: Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. The present report on Lithuania is the fourth of a new…

  20. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  1. Disparities in health care access and receipt of preventive services by disability type: analysis of the medical expenditure panel survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Dobbertin, Konrad; Lee, Jae Chul; Andresen, Elena M

    2014-12-01

    To examine differences in access to health care and receipt of clinical preventive services by type of disability among working-age adults with disabilities. Secondary analysis of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) data from 2002 to 2008. We conducted cross-sectional logistic regression analyses comparing people with different types of disabilities on health insurance status and type; presence of a usual source of health care; delayed or forgone care; and receipt of dental checkups and cancer screening. We pooled annualized MEPS data files across years. Our analytic sample consisted of adults (18-64 years) with physical, sensory, or cognitive disabilities and nonmissing data for all variables of interest. Individuals with hearing impairment had better health care access and receipt than people with other disability types. People with multiple types of limitations were especially likely to have health care access problems and unmet health care needs. There are differences in health care access and receipt of preventive care depending on what type of disability people have. More in-depth research is needed to identify specific causes of these disparities and assess interventions to address health care barriers for particular disability groups. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Water Quality vs. Sanitation Accessibility: What is the most effective intervention point for preventing cholera in Dhaka, Bangladesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, M. S.; Gute, D.; Faruque, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Every year, 3 to 5 million individuals contract cholera, an acute diarrheal infection that is caused by the ingestion of food or water containing the Vibrio cholerae bacterium. Because cholera is a waterborne disease, it can be transmitted quickly in environments with inadequate water and sanitation systems where infected waste can easily pollute drinking water. Today, Bangladesh continues to struggle with endemic cholera. Donor organizations address water and sanitation via localized initiatives, including the installation of community water collection sites (i.e. tubewells; water-boiling points; etc.). At this small-scale level, water quality and sanitation accessibility can be improved independently of one another, and when resources are limited, donors must invest in the most effective disease prevention options. This study used laboratory-confirmed cholera incidence data (2000-2009) collected by the International Centre of Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh at their on-site hospital to compare the efficacy of interventions addressing water quality versus sanitation accessibility in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data regarding use of sanitary latrines and boiling of drinking water were extracted from sequential patient interviews conducted at the Dhaka facility and used as surrogate variables for sanitation accessibility and water quality respectively. Our analysis indicates that boiling water is 10 times more effective at preventing cholera than the use of a sanitary latrine. This finding suggests that regulating water quality is perhaps more critical to cholera prevention than increasing sanitation accessibility in an urban environment like that of Dhaka. At present, WaterAid - one of Bangladesh's most significant water and sanitation donor organizations - invests the majority of its budget on improving sanitation accessibility. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Millennium Development Goals also prioritize sanitation accessibility. However, in

  3. Hot Idea or Hot Air: A Systematic Review of Evidence for Two Widely Marketed Youth Suicide Prevention Programs and Recommendations for Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yifeng; Kutcher, Stan; LeBlanc, John C

    2015-01-01

    Youth suicide is highly related to mental disorders. While communities and schools are marketed to with a plethora of suicide prevention programs, they often lack the capacity to choose evidence-based programs. We conducted a systematic review of two youth suicide prevention programs to help determine if the quality of evidence available justifies their wide spread dissemination. We searched Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration SPECTR database, SocIndex, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, ERIC, Social Work Abstracts, Research Library, and Web of Science, for relevant studies. We included studies/systematic reviews/meta-analysis that evaluated the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and/or safety of Signs of Suicide (SOS) and Yellow Ribbon (YR) suicide prevention programs that target adolescents. We applied the Office of Justice Program What Works Repository (OJP-R) to evaluate the quality of the included studies as effective, effective with reservation, promising, inconclusive evidence, insufficient evidence, and ineffective. Two SOS studies were ranked as "inconclusive evidence" based on the OJP-R. One SOS study was ranked as having "insufficient evidence" on OJP-R. The YR study was ranked as "ineffective" using OJP-R. We only included studies in peer-reviewed journals in English and therefore may have missed reports in grey literature or non-English publications. We cannot recommend that schools and communities implement either the SOS or YR suicide prevention programs. Purchasers of these programs should be aware that there is no evidence that their use prevents suicide. Academics and organizations should not overstate the positive impacts of suicide prevention interventions when the evidence is lacking.

  4. Association Between Parental Barriers to Accessing a Usual Source of Care and Children's Receipt of Preventive Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellettiere, John; Chuang, Emmeline; Hughes, Suzanne C; Quintanilla, Isaac; Hofstetter, C Richard; Hovell, Melbourne F

    Preventive health services are important for child development, and parents play a key role in facilitating access to services. This study examined how parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were associated with their children's receipt of preventive services. We used pooled data from the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey (n = 34 843 participants). Parents' reasons for not having a usual source of care were framed within the Penchansky and Thomas model of access and measured through 3 dichotomous indicators: financial barriers (affordability), attitudes and beliefs about health care (acceptability), and all other nonfinancial barriers (accessibility, accommodation, and availability). We used multivariable logistic regression models to test associations between parental barriers and children's receipt of past-year well-child care visits and influenza vaccinations, controlling for other child, family, and contextual factors. In 2014, 14.3% (weighted percentage) of children had at least 1 parent without a usual source of care. Children of parents without a usual source of care because they "don't need a doctor and/or haven't had any problems" or they "don't like, trust, or believe in doctors" had 35% lower odds of receiving well-child care (adjusted odds ratio = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.56-0.74) and 23% lower odds of receiving influenza vaccination (adjusted odds ratio = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.69-0.86) than children of parents without those attitudes and beliefs about health care. Financial and other nonfinancial parental barriers were not associated with children's receipt of preventive services. Results were independent of several factors relevant to children's access to preventive health care, including whether the child had a usual source of care. Parents' attitudes and beliefs about having a usual source of care were strongly associated with their children's receipt of recommended preventive health services. Rates of receipt of child preventive

  5. The Linking Lives Health Education Program: A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Parent-Based Tobacco Use Prevention Program for African American and Latino Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, James; Dittus, Patricia; Gonzalez, Bernardo; Bouris, Alida; Banspach, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effectiveness of a parent-based add-on component to a school-based intervention to prevent cigarette smoking among African American and Latino middle school youths. Methods. Mother–adolescent dyads (n = 1386) were randomly assigned to 2 groups: (1) a school-based smoking-prevention intervention or (2) the same intervention with a parent-based add-on component called Raising Smoke-Free Kids. Mothers in the experimental condition received the parent add-on component. Mothers in the control condition received information on selecting a high school. All adolescents received a version of Project Towards No Tobacco Use (TNT). The primary outcome was a reduction in adolescent cigarette smoking. Follow-up data were obtained from 1096 mother–adolescent dyads at 15 months postintervention. Results. At follow-up, the odds of smoking cigarettes were reduced by 42% for adolescents in the parent add-on condition versus the TNT-only condition. Mothers in the parent add-on condition were more likely than were mothers in the TNT-only condition to set rules about risk-sensitive social activities and to be perceived as trustworthy by their child. Group differences also were found in the frequency and quality of mother–adolescent communication. Conclusions. Including parent add-on components in school-based smoking prevention programs can reduce smoking behavior on the part of inner-city middle school youths. PMID:20634469

  6. Adaptation of a U.S. evidence-based Positive Prevention intervention for youth living with HIV/AIDS in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L.; Maman, S.; Pettifor, A.; Chalachala, J.L.; Edmonds, A.; Golin, C.E.; Moracco, K.; Behets, F.

    2013-01-01

    Effective HIV prevention programs for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are important to reduce new infections and to ensure PLWH remain healthy. This paper describes the systematic adaptation of a U.S.-developed Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of Adaption Process for use at a Pediatric Hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The adapted intervention, Supporting Youth and Motivating Positive Action or SYMPA, a six-session risk reduction intervention targeted for youth living with HIV/AIDS (YLWH) in Kinshasa was adapted from the Healthy Living Project and guided by the Social Action Theory. This paper describes the process of implementing the first four steps of the ADAPT framework (Assess, Select, Prepare, and Pilot). Our study has shown that an EBI developed and implemented in the U.S. can be adapted successfully for a different target population in a low-resource context through an iterative process following the CDC ADAPT framework. This process included reviewing existing literature, adapting and adding components, and focusing on increasing staff capacity. This paper provides a rare, detailed description of the adaptation process and may aid organizations seeking to adapt and implement HIV prevention EBIs in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. PMID:23063699

  7. School-based programs aimed at the prevention and treatment of obesity: evidence-based interventions for youth in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K; Nagle, Brian J; Arredondo, Elva M; Barquera, Simón; Elder, John P

    2013-09-01

    Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be gathered from such interventions. We performed a systematic review of papers published between 1965 and December 2010. Interventions were considered eligible if they had a school-based component, were done in Latin America, evaluated an obesity related outcome (body mass index [BMI], weight, %body fat, waist circumference, BMI z-score), and compared youth exposed vs not exposed. Ten studies were identified as having a school-based component. Most interventions had a sample of normal and overweight children. The most successful interventions focused on prevention rather than treatment, had longer follow-ups, a multidisciplinary team, and fewer limitations in execution. Three prevention and 2 treatment interventions found sufficient improvements in obesity-related outcomes. We found sufficient evidence to recommend school-based interventions to prevent obesity among youth in Latin America. Evidence-based interventions in the school setting should be promoted as an important component for integrated programs, policies, and monitoring frameworks designed to reverse the childhood obesity in the region. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to the Implementation of Interventions to Prevent Youth Violence in Latin America: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atienzo, Erika E; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Baxter, Susan K

    2016-08-12

    Youth violence in Latin America is an important public health problem. However, the evidence from preventive programs within the region to address this problem is limited. Identifying context-specific factors that facilitate or hinder the success of interventions is necessary to guarantee the successful implementation of new preventive strategies. We present a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to identify factors affecting the implementation of programs to prevent youth violence in Latin America. We searched 10 electronic databases and websites of international institutions. The quality of the studies was assessed using the critical appraisal skills program checklist, while the certainty of the findings of the synthesis was assessed using the certainty of the qualitative evidence approach. We included eight papers describing five programs in Argentina, Venezuela, Peru, El Salvador, and Mexico. Most of the factors affecting the implementation of programs were aspects related to features of the programs and social/political constraints. The synthesis suggests that future programs can benefit from having a multidisciplinary and/or multisectoral approach involving different key players. At the same time, potential strategies for avoiding problems related to such active engagement should be planned via promoting effective channels for communication and supervision. The review also suggests the importance of increasing awareness and motivation toward the problem of youth violence among relevant agencies and stakeholders. While the limited volume and quality of the literature impact on the ability to draw conclusions, the results could be useful for new programs being designed and the ones seeking to be adapted from other contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. EEO Review : youth employment measures, 2010 - Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Debono, Manwel

    2010-01-01

    This report explores youth employment measures in Malta. It outlines the trends in youth employment. Then it examines measures taken to promote youth employment, focusing on school education and training policies, labour market and employment-related policies, and access to benefits. Finally, the report focuses on the roles of labour market actors in the promotion of youth employment.

  10. Implementing Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy-Prevention Interventions in a Community-Wide Initiative: Building Capacity and Reaching Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, L Duane; Tevendale, Heather D; Martinez-Garcia, Genevieve

    2017-03-01

    To describe efforts to implement evidence-based interventions (EBIs) within multicomponent, community-wide initiatives to reduce teen pregnancy. During 2011-2014, we collected information about the capacity (i.e., knowledge, confidence, training, and experience) of state and community-based organizations to support implementation of the following: EBIs, number and characteristics of youth served by EBIs, type of EBIs implemented, EBI settings, hours of training, and technical assistance provided. State and community-based organizations reported these data annually; however, training and technical assistance was reported monthly. We used aggregated data from these annual and monthly reports to describe the implementation of EBIs in the community-wide initiative project. From baseline in 2011-2014, state and community-based organizations increased their capacities to support program partners in delivering EBIs. They provided 5,015 hours of technical assistance and training on topics, including ensuring adequate capacity, process and outcome evaluation, program planning, and continuous quality improvement. Program partners increased the number of youth reached by an EBI in targeted communities by 349%, from 4,304 in the first year of implementation in 2012 to 19,344 in 2014. Most youth in 2014 received sexuality education programs (59%), whereas smaller percentages received abstinence-based, youth development, and clinic-based programs. Most youth were reached through schools (72%) and community-based organizations (16%), and smaller numbers were reached in other settings (e.g., faith-based organizations, health centers). Building and monitoring the capacity of program partners to deliver EBIs through technical assistance and training is important. In addition, partnering with schools leads to reaching more youth. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention and Punishment: Barriers to Accessing Health Services for Undocumented Immigrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Monga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Undocumented immigrants face significant challenges in accessing health care. Throughout the United States, these challenges may relate to the structure of the public health system in which the undocumented find themselves. In addition, local, regional, and national practices aimed at targeting immigrants for deportation or other non-health reasons may serve to punish them for seeking health services or care. Spain and the United Kingdom serve as useful case studies in comparing the ability of the undocumented to seek health services in Europe and the United States. Overall, promoting access to comprehensive health services for the undocumented should be a national priority, along with analysis of any immigration-related laws or policies for potential harmful impact on health care access.

  12. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE): implications for public health and drug policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons) and psychiatric (26 French prisons) units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST), HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence) to 10 (maximum adherence) and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66%)) of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners) of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5]) but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions. PMID:21619573

  13. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE: implications for public health and drug policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Jerôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons and psychiatric (26 French prisons units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST, HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence to 10 (maximum adherence and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66% of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5] but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions.

  14. Can Access to Data Prevent Army Suicides Identifying Optimal Response Strategies for Army Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    impulsivity ), life events (e.g., relationship problems, death of a loved one), firearm access, and exposure to the suicides of others raise individual...actionable. Because of the large number of actual or hypothesized risk factors for suicide, it was important to ensure “ buy -in” among all experts on the

  15. Do Laws Restricting Access to Firearms by Domestic Violence Offenders Prevent Intimate Partner Homicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdor, Elizabeth Richardson; Mercy, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence imposes a large cost on society. The authors exploit state variation in timing to examine the impact of three types of law on intimate partner homicides. These laws restrict access to firearms by individuals who are subject to a restraining order or have been convicted of a domestic violence misdemeanor or allow law enforcement…

  16. Make a move : A comprehensive effect evaluation of a sexual harassment prevention program in Dutch residential youth care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jonker, Marianne; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-01-01

    Sexual harassment-unwanted sexual comments, advances, or behaviors-and sexual violence are still prevalent worldwide, leading to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems among those being harassed. In particular, youth in care are at risk of becoming perpetrators (and victims) of

  17. A Family-Centered Preventive Intervention within Pediatric Oncology: Adapting the FOCUS Intervention for Latino Youth and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ediza; Wijesekera, Kanchana; Lester, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric cancer can disrupt the behavioral and emotional well-being of youth and their families, representing a potential psychological health risk for the entire family. Among ethnic minority families, cultural factors such as acculturation and language competency may affect the experience of this illness, which can, in turn, affect overall…

  18. Youths' and Parents' Views on the Acceptability and Design of a Video-Based Tobacco Prevention Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Vaughn, Lisa; Gordon, Judith S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability of a brief, video-based parental intervention that modeled parent-child communication about tobacco, delivered within an emergency department (ED) setting. While waiting to be seen by a physician in the ED, 20 parent-youth dyads watched the video together and then private, semi-structured…

  19. Youths Perceive Some Improvement in Substance Abuse Prevention Knowledge, Skills, and Assets from Participation in 4-H Health Rocks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Kane T.; Donaldson, Joseph L.; Naylor, Mitchell; LeBleu, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The 4-H Health Rocks! curriculum aims to reduce use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs and promote healthful lifestyle choices among 8- to 14-year-old youths. A retrospective "post-then-pre" survey of Tennessee participants was aimed at describing the demographic characteristics of participants and investigating respondents'…

  20. Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE): Panacea for Empowering Youths and Preventing Joblessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiwole, Remigius O.

    2015-01-01

    Youths from Nigerian schools and tertiary institutions are usually unemployable after schooling because they are not empowered with the required saleable skills to earn them a job or with which to establish as entrepreneurs. This paper examines the relevance of Supervised Agricultural Experience Programme (SAEP) and Work Linked Education (WLE) as…

  1. Is cost a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men accessing condoms? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubrihien, Ashley; Davies, Stephen C; Driscoll, Tim

    2016-11-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to determine whether cost is a structural barrier preventing men who have sex with men (MSM) accessing condoms. Studies were examined from a range of countries where condoms have been distributed free to particular populations and also those where condoms were available at a cost to the individual. The study inclusion criteria were: published between January 1990 and September 2014 inclusive; published in any language, discussed cost as a barrier to condom use, discussed cost barriers to MSM accessing condoms and included a measure of outcome. Articles were systematically extracted from MEDLINE, Embase, PyschINFO and Informat using the five search terms; Male Homosexuality, Access, Cost, Cost and Cost analysis, Condoms. Sixty-four articles were initially identified and 11 included in the final review. The included studies used cost-utility analysis, qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort or randomised control trial design. Large-scale free distribution programmes and smaller targeted programmes showed positive correlations in reducing the burden of disease from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through eliminating the issue of cost. Decreasing the cost of condoms, and providing them for no cost, appears to increase their utilisation amongst MSM and possibly reduce the burden from HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Inequality and stigma remain important barriers to MSM accessing and using condoms particularly in the developing world.

  2. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels of academic achievement Low self-image or self-esteem Exposure to tobacco advertising Reducing Youth Tobacco Use ... Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  3. The accessibility of HIV-infected Poor Women to the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission Service in Surakarta Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argyo Demartoto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV transmission from HIV-infected mother to child can occur through pregnancy, birth and lactation process; therefore, there should be Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission or PMTCT. Aims & Objectives: This research aimed to study the HIV-infected poor women’s accessibility to the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission Service in Surakarta Indonesia. Material & Methods: This study was a qualitative research with explorative approach conducted in October-December 2015 and HIV-infected poor women as the unit of analysis. The sampling technique used was maximum variation sampling. Techniques of collecting data used were observation, in-depth interview and documentation, while data analysis was conducted using an Interactive Model of analysis with materialist theory. Results: Structural, financial and personal or cultural constraints were found: less target-appropriate health insurance policy, expensive cost of delivery with section caesarian surgery and breastfeed-substituting formula milk, and limited knowledge, experience and negotiation with the service provider leading to the HIV-infected Poor Women’s limited accessibility to comprehensive and sustainable PMTCT. PMTCT socialization, the giving-birth insurance and Food Supplementation program activation by Empowerment Work Group in AIDS Coping Commission in Surakarta City was the opportunity to access PMTCT service. Conclusion: Although PMTCT resulted in some problems, particularly formula milk administration and delivery process with section caesarian surgery, this attempt should be taken to make the baby born healthy. For that reasons, PMTCT service and health insurance should be improved from beneficiary data to accessible and sustainable procedure.

  4. Ventanillas de Salud: A Collaborative and Binational Health Access and Preventive Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel Gomez, Maria Gudelia; Tonda, Josana; Zapata, G Rogelio; Flynn, Michael; Gany, Francesca; Lara, Juanita; Shapiro, Ilan; Rosales, Cecilia Ballesteros

    2017-01-01

    While individuals of Mexican origin are the largest immigrant group living in the U.S., this population is also the highest uninsured. Health disparities related to access to health care, among other social determinants, continue to be a challenge for this population. The government of Mexico, in an effort to address these disparities and improve the quality of life of citizens living abroad, has partnered with governmental and non-governmental health-care organizations in the U.S. by developing and implementing an initiative known as Ventanillas de Salud -Health Windows-(VDS). The VDS is located throughout the Mexican Consular network and aim to increase access to health care and health literacy, provide health screenings, and promote healthy lifestyle choices among low-income and immigrant Mexican populations in the U.S.

  5. Ventanillas de Salud: A Collaborative and Binational Health Access and Preventive Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel Gomez, Maria Gudelia; Tonda, Josana; Zapata, G. Rogelio; Flynn, Michael; Gany, Francesca; Lara, Juanita; Shapiro, Ilan; Rosales, Cecilia Ballesteros

    2017-01-01

    While individuals of Mexican origin are the largest immigrant group living in the U.S., this population is also the highest uninsured. Health disparities related to access to health care, among other social determinants, continue to be a challenge for this population. The government of Mexico, in an effort to address these disparities and improve the quality of life of citizens living abroad, has partnered with governmental and non-governmental health-care organizations in the U.S. by developing and implementing an initiative known as Ventanillas de Salud—Health Windows—(VDS). The VDS is located throughout the Mexican Consular network and aim to increase access to health care and health literacy, provide health screenings, and promote healthy lifestyle choices among low-income and immigrant Mexican populations in the U.S. PMID:28713806

  6. Ventanillas de Salud: A Collaborative and Binational Health Access and Preventive Care Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gudelia Rangel Gomez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While individuals of Mexican origin are the largest immigrant group living in the U.S., this population is also the highest uninsured. Health disparities related to access to health care, among other social determinants, continue to be a challenge for this population. The government of Mexico, in an effort to address these disparities and improve the quality of life of citizens living abroad, has partnered with governmental and non-governmental health-care organizations in the U.S. by developing and implementing an initiative known as Ventanillas de Salud—Health Windows—(VDS. The VDS is located throughout the Mexican Consular network and aim to increase access to health care and health literacy, provide health screenings, and promote healthy lifestyle choices among low-income and immigrant Mexican populations in the U.S.

  7. Bridging the silos in HIV and Hepatitis C prevention: a cross-provincial qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Anik; Harris, Greg; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Doucet, Shelley

    2017-09-01

    The Our Youth Our Response (OYOR) study explored the scope and accessibility of existing youth-oriented human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) prevention in Atlantic Canada. A cross-provincial, qualitative population health and gender-based analytic approach was used in this study. Four hundred and twenty-five documents were part of the initial scoping review, while 47 in-depth interviews across youth-relevant sectors were undertaken to explore the perceptions related to current approaches to youth-oriented HIV/HCV prevention policies and programs. The study also conducted focus group discussions with 21 key informants aimed at identifying strategies to address the challenges identified from the interview data. Five overarching themes emerged from our triangulated data in relation to the present state of youth-related HIV/HCV prevention. These included: inter-organizational and intersectoral collaboration; youth engagement; access to testing; harm reduction; and education. Our findings will assist in informing the next generation for HIV/HCV prevention aimed at youth. Specifically, the results indicate that future prevention initiatives should support the use of intersectoral collaboration, gender-based approaches, and HIV/HCV testing innovation to help de-stigmatize prevention efforts.

  8. Enhancing nutritional environments through access to fruit and vegetables in schools and homes among children and youth: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganann, Rebecca; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ciliska, Donna; Peirson, Leslea J; Warren, Rachel L; Fieldhouse, Paul; Delgado-Noguera, Mario F; Tort, Sera; Hams, Steven P; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José; Wolfenden, Luke

    2014-07-04

    Low fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption is one of the top 10 global risk factors for mortality, and is related to increased risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many environmental, sociodemographic and personal factors affect FV consumption. The purpose of this review is to examine the effects of interventions delivered in the home, school and other nutritional environments designed to increase FV availability for five to 18-year olds. The search included: 19 electronic bibliographic databases; grey literature databases; reference lists of key articles; targeted Internet searching of key organization websites; hand searching of key journals and conference proceedings; and consultation with experts for additional references. Articles were included if: in English, French and Spanish; from high-, middle-, and low-income countries; delivered to anyone who could bring about change in FV environment for 5 to 18 year olds; with randomized and non-randomized study designs that provided before-after comparisons, with or without a control group. Primary outcomes of interest were measures of FV availability. The search strategy retrieved nearly 23,000 citations and resulted in 23 unique studies. Interventions were primarily policy interventions at the regional or state level, a number of curriculum type interventions in schools and community groups and a garden intervention. The majority of studies were done in high-income countries.The diversity of interventions, populations, outcomes and outcome measurements precluded meta-analysis. The most promising strategies for improving the FV environment for children are through local school food service policies. Access to FV was successfully improved in four of the six studies that evaluated school-based policies, with the other two studies finding no effect. Broader state or federally mandated policies or educational programs for food service providers and decision makers had mixed or small impact. Similarly

  9. The cycle of violence and victimization: a study of the school-based intervention of a multidisciplinary youth violence-prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, H; Spellmann, M; Alvarez-Canino, T; Lausell-Bryant, L L; Landsberg, G

    1996-01-01

    This article reports on the school-based intervention component of a multidisciplinary program intended to reduce and prevent youth violence in the East New York neighborhood of Brooklyn. This intervention is based on three theories. The first theory posits that modifying beliefs, attitudes, and norms will help youths develop behaviors that support nonviolence. The second theoretical construct asserts that enhancing relationships with peers and family will buffer youths from the effects of exposure to violence. Finally, the third theory suggests that changing aspects of the setting and climate that contribute to violent behavior will prevent violence. The school-based intervention, the Safe Harbor, is a victim-assistance and violence-prevention program. The Safe Harbor offers activities including a 20-lesson violence-prevention and victim-assistance curriculum, counseling, parent involvement, teacher training, and school-change campaigns. The evaluation design is a panel study, with cohorts surveyed longitudinally at nonequivalent intervals. One hundred and fifteen seventh- and eighth-grade students who receive the curriculum and other services are the experimental group; the other 879 students in the seventh and eighth grades serve as the comparison group. Baseline data were collected through a survey of the entire school before the program's implementation in January 1995. Subsequent data collection will include interviews and focus groups; future analysis will address how participation in other parts of the Safe Harbor program or other programs in the school affects outcomes. The participation rate for the baseline survey in the experimental group was 86%, in the comparison group 76%. Responses to the survey questions were virtually identical between the two groups. Preliminary analyses reflect a climate of pervasive violence in the school, family, and community. More than half of the sample reported witnessing a severe beating in the school or their community

  10. Factors that influence the preventive care offered to adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services, NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoe AV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia Background: Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists. Senior clinicians (SCs can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs' ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1 clinical leadership and administrative support, 2 professional support network, 3 clinical and educational resources, 4 the clinician's patient management aptitude, and 5 clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents' confidence toward self-care. Conclusion: This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist's offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem

  11. Inequities in access to HIV prevention services for transgender men: results of a global survey of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheim, Ayden I; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Hebert, Patrick; Thomann, Matthew; Ayala, George

    2016-01-01

    Free or low-cost HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants are foundational HIV prevention strategies, yet are often inaccessible for men who have sex with men (MSM). In the global context of stigma and poor healthcare access, transgender (trans) MSM may face additional barriers to HIV prevention services. Drawing on data from a global survey of MSM, we aimed to describe perceived access to prevention services among trans MSM, examine associations between stigma and access, and compare access between trans MSM and cisgender (non-transgender) MSM. The 2014 Global Men's Health and Rights online survey was open to MSM (inclusive of trans MSM) from any country and available in seven languages. Baseline data (n=3857) were collected from July to October 2014. Among trans MSM, correlations were calculated between perceived service accessibility and anti-transgender violence, healthcare provider stigma, and discrimination. Using a nested matched-pair study design, trans MSM were matched 4:1 to cisgender MSM on age group, region, and HIV status, and conditional logistic regression models compared perceived access to prevention services by transgender status. About 3.4% of respondents were trans men, of whom 69 were included in the present analysis. The average trans MSM participant was 26 to 35 years old (56.5%); lived in western Europe, North America, or Oceania (75.4%); and reported being HIV-negative (98.6%). HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants were accessible for 43.5, 53.6, and 26.1% of trans MSM, respectively. Ever having been arrested or convicted due to being trans and higher exposure to healthcare provider stigma in the past six months were associated with less access to some prevention services. Compared to matched cisgender controls, trans MSM reported significantly lower odds of perceived access to HIV testing (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.98) and condom-compatible lubricants (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30, 0.98). This first look at access to HIV prevention services for trans MSM

  12. Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. Methods Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 – 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, including votes for the legalization of medical marijuana and the number of medical marijuana cards were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings Living in a county with more medical marijuana cards was not related to lifetime or 30 day marijuana use. However, voter approval of medical marijuana was positively related to lifetime and 30 day use. Perceived ease of access to marijuana was positively related to medical marijuana cards, but this relation became non-significant when voter approval was controlled. Among marijuana users, marijuana cards and voter approval were positively related to perceived ease of access. Conclusions The relation between medical marijuana cards and youth use may be related to an overall normative environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. Interventions to prevent youth marijuana use should focus on adult norms regarding use by and provision of marijuana to youths. PMID:23641127

  13. Sexual behavior of HIV-positive adults not accessing HIV treatment in Mombasa, Kenya: Defining their prevention needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Avina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV spread continues at high rates from infected persons to their sexual partners. In 2009, an estimated 2.6 million new infections occurred globally. People living with HIV (PLHIV receiving treatment are in contact with health workers and therefore exposed to prevention messages. By contrast, PLHIV not receiving ART often fall outside the ambit of prevention programs. There is little information on their sexual risk behaviors. This study in Mombasa Kenya therefore explored sexual behaviors of PLHIV not receiving any HIV treatment. Results Using modified targeted snowball sampling, 698 PLHIV were recruited through community health workers and HIV-positive peer counsellors. Of the 59.2% sexually-active PLHIV, 24.5% reported multiple sexual partners. Of all sexual partners, 10.2% were HIV negative, while 74.5% were of unknown HIV status. Overall, unprotected sex occurred in 52% of sexual partnerships; notably with 32% of HIV-negative partners and 54% of partners of unknown HIV status in the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis, controlling for intra-client clustering, showed non-disclosure of HIV status (AOR: 2.38, 95%CI: 1.47-3.84, p Conclusions High-risk sexual behaviors are common among PLHIV not accessing treatment services, raising the risk of HIV transmission to discordant partners. This population can be identified and reached in the community. Prevention programs need to urgently bring this population into the ambit of prevention and care services. Moreover, beginning HIV treatment earlier might assist in bringing this group into contact with providers and HIV prevention services, and in reducing risk behaviors.

  14. The 2015 National Canadian Homeless Youth Survey: Mental Health and Addiction Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A; Gaetz, Stephen; O'Grady, Bill

    2017-07-01

    This study was designed to provide a representative description of the mental health of youth accessing homelessness services in Canada. It is the most extensive survey in this area to date and is intended to inform the development of mental health and addiction service and policy for this marginalized population. This study reports mental health-related data from the 2015 "Leaving Home" national youth homelessness survey, which was administered through 57 agencies serving homeless youth in 42 communities across the country. This self-reported, point-in-time survey assessed a broad range of demographic information, pre-homelessness and homelessness variables, and mental health indicators. Survey data were obtained from 1103 youth accessing Canadian homelessness services in the Nunavut territory and all Canadian provinces except for Prince Edward Island. Forty-two per cent of participants reported 1 or more suicide attempts, 85.4% fell in a high range of psychological distress, and key indicators of risk included an earlier age of the first episode of homelessness, female gender, and identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and 2 spirit [LGBTQ2S]). This study provides clear and compelling evidence of a need for mental health support for these youth, particularly LGBTQ2S youth and female youth. The mental health concerns observed here, however, must be considered in the light of the tremendous adversity in all social determinants faced by these youth, with population-level interventions best leveraged in prevention and rapid response.

  15. Vascular access and infection prevention and control: a national survey of routine practices in Irish haemodialysis units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Margaret; Clarke, Michael; Mellotte, George; Plant, Liam; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2013-04-01

    National and international guidelines recommend the use of effective vascular access (VA) and infection prevention and control practices within the haemodialysis environment. Establishing an arterio-venous fistula (AVF) and preventing central venous catheter (CVC)-related infections are ongoing challenges for all dialysis settings. We surveyed VA and routine infection prevention and control practices in dialysis units, to provide national data on these practices in Ireland. A descriptive survey was emailed to nurse managers at all adult (n = 19) and children (n = 1) outpatient haemodialysis units in the Republic of Ireland. Data collected included AVF formation, CVC insertion and maintenance practices, VA use and surveillance of infection and screening protocols. Nineteen of the 20 units responded to the survey. The AVF prevalence was 49% for 1370 patients in 17 units who provided these data [mean prevalence per unit: 45.7% (SD 16.2)]; the CVC mean prevalence per unit was 52.5% (SD 16.0). Fourteen dialysis units experienced inadequate access to vascular surgical procedures either due to a lack of dedicated theatre time or hospital beds. Six units administered intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion with only two units using a CVC insertion checklist at the time of catheter insertion. In general, dialysis units in Ireland show a strong adherence to national guidelines. Compared with the 12 countries participating in the Dialysis Outcomes Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS 4), in 2010, AVF prevalence in Irish dialysis units is the second lowest. Recommendations include establishing an AVF national prevalence target rate, discontinuing the administration of intravenous prophylactic antimicrobials prior to CVC insertion and promoting the use of CVC insertion checklists.

  16. Epidemiology of electrical and lightning-related injuries among Canadian children and youth, 1997-2010: A Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhrer, Madeleine; Stewart, Samuel A; Hurley, Katrina F

    2017-06-27

    Introduction Although death due to electrical injury and lightning are rare in children, these injuries are often preventable. Twenty years ago, most injuries occurred at home, precipitated by oral contact with electrical cords, contact with wall sockets and faulty electrical equipment. We sought to assess the epidemiology of electrical injuries in children presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) that participate in the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP). This study is a retrospective review of electrical and lightning injury data from CHIRPP. The study population included children and youth aged 0-19 presenting to participating CHIRPP EDs from 1997-2010. Age, sex, year, setting, circumstance and disposition were extracted. Variables were tested using Fisher's exact test and simple linear regression. The dataset included 1183 electrical injuries, with 84 (7%) resulting in hospitalization. Most events occurred at home in the 2-5 year age group and affected the hands. Since 1997 there has been a gradual decrease in the number of electrical injuries per year (plightning were rare (n=19). No deaths were recorded in the database. Despite the decrease in the number of electrical injuries per year, a large portion of injuries still appear to be preventable. Further research should focus on effective injury prevention strategies.

  17. Black Youths and Illegal Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Janice; Pearson, Patricia G.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effect of drugs on black youths, discussing different types of drug involvement, reasons for drug involvement, extent and nature of involvement, drugs and crime, drugs and health issues, drug control strategies, and prevention. Policy implications include prioritizing drug prevention among black youths, providing alternatives to drug…

  18. Increasing Access to Higher Education for Unaccompanied Homeless Youth: Information for Colleges and Universities. Best Practices in Homeless Education Brief Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Each year, more than a million young people in the United States experience homelessness; some of these young people, known as unaccompanied homeless youth, will face the challenges of homelessness while living on their own without the support of a caring adult. Unaccompanied homeless youth face the same struggles as other young people: trying to…

  19. The Landing Error Scoring System as a Screening Tool for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury-Prevention Program in Elite-Youth Soccer Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padua, Darin A; DiStefano, Lindsay J; Beutler, Anthony I; de la Motte, Sarah J; DiStefano, Michael J; Marshall, Steven W

    2015-06-01

    Identifying neuromuscular screening factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a critical step toward large-scale deployment of effective ACL injury-prevention programs. The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) is a valid and reliable clinical assessment of jump-landing biomechanics. To investigate the ability of the LESS to identify individuals at risk for ACL injury in an elite-youth soccer population. Cohort study. Field-based functional movement screening performed at soccer practice facilities. A total of 829 elite-youth soccer athletes (348 boys, 481 girls; age = 13.9 ± 1.8 years, age range = 11 to 18 years), of whom 25% (n = 207) were less than 13 years of age. Baseline preseason testing for all participants consisted of a jump-landing task (3 trials). Participants were followed prospectively throughout their soccer seasons for diagnosis of ACL injuries (1217 athlete-seasons of follow-up). Landings were scored for "errors" in technique using the LESS. We used receiver operator characteristic curves to determine a cutpoint on the LESS. Sensitivity and specificity of the LESS in predicting ACL injury were assessed. Seven participants sustained ACL injuries during the follow-up period; the mechanism of injury was noncontact or indirect contact for all injuries. Uninjured participants had lower LESS scores (4.43 ± 1.71) than injured participants (6.24 ± 1.75; t1215 = -2.784, P = .005). The receiver operator characteristic curve analyses suggested that 5 was the optimal cutpoint for the LESS, generating a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 64%. Despite sample-size limitations, the LESS showed potential as a screening tool to determine ACL injury risk in elite-youth soccer athletes.

  20. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Multimodal Injury Prevention Programs in Youth Sports: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faude, Oliver; Rössler, Roland; Petushek, Erich J; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Donath, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Neuromuscular injury prevention programs (IPP) can reduce injury rate by about 40% in youth sport. Multimodal IPP include, for instance, balance, strength, power, and agility exercises. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of multimodal IPP on neuromuscular performance in youth sports. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search including selected search terms related to youth sports, injury prevention, and neuromuscular performance. Inclusion criteria were: (i) the study was a (cluster-)randomized controlled trial (RCT), and (ii) investigated healthy participants, up to 20 years of age and involved in organized sport, (iii) an intervention arm performing a multimodal IPP was compared to a control arm following a common training regime, and (iv) neuromuscular performance parameters (e.g., balance, power, strength, sprint) were assessed. Furthermore, we evaluated IPP effects on sport-specific skills. Results: Fourteen RCTs (comprising 704 participants) were analyzed. Eight studies included only males, and five only females. Seventy-one percent of all studies investigated soccer players with basketball, field hockey, futsal, Gaelic football, and hurling being the remaining sports. The average age of the participants ranged from 10 years up to 19 years and the level of play from recreational to professional. Intervention durations ranged from 4 weeks to 4.5 months with a total of 12 to 57 training sessions. We observed a small overall effect in favor of IPP for balance/stability (Hedges' g = 0.37; 95%CI 0.17, 0.58), leg power (g = 0.22; 95%CI 0.07, 0.38), and isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps strength as well as hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio (g = 0.38; 95%CI 0.21, 0.55). We found a large overall effect for sprint abilities (g = 0.80; 95%CI 0.50, 1.09) and sport-specific skills (g = 0.83; 95%CI 0.34, 1.32). Subgroup analyses revealed larger effects in high-level (g = 0.34-1.18) compared to low-level athletes (g

  1. Child and youth traffic-related injuries: use of a trauma registry to identify priorities for prevention in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivna, Michal; Barss, Peter; Stanculescu, Cristina; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M

    2013-01-01

    Traffic-related injuries are the main cause of death during childhood and youth in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), use of safety restraints by citizens is uncommon, rollovers are frequent, and current legislation does not protect rear-seat occupants. Because little was known about the circumstances of hospitalizations for traffic injuries to guide prevention, a trauma registry was used to assess causes and determinants for traffic-related injuries during childhood and youth (children and youth with traffic injuries were admitted for more than 24 h at surgical wards of the main trauma hospital in the Al-Ain region during a 36-month period (2003-2006). Injuries were analyzed by age, nationality, road user and vehicle types, severity, anatomical region, and the presence of head injury using Injury Severity Scores (ISS) and the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Traffic injuries represented 40 percent (n = 193) of injuries to 0- to 19-year-olds, followed by falls (39 percent). Among 15- to 19-year-olds, who accounted for 46 percent of child and youth victims, the incidence was 150/100,000 person years, compared to an incidence of 15 to 51 for younger age groups. Overall, 53 percent were vehicle occupants, 23 percent were pedestrians, 14 percent were bicyclists, 6 percent were motorcyclists, with 4 percent other. The ratio of male-to-female victims was 6.7:1; for drivers it was 33:0; and for pedestrians, bicyclists, and motorcyclists it was between 10:1 and 12:1; injured females were mainly rear-seat passengers and the male: female ratio was 1.4:1. Seventy-one percent of pedestrians were ≤9 years old. Although the ratio of UAE children to foreign children was estimated at 0.7:1 in the community, 58 percent of the injured were UAE citizens. The ratio of injured UAE: non-UAE citizens was 1.4:1 overall but 5.6:1 for drivers and 4.5:1 for motorcyclists. Forty-one percent of citizens were injured in 4-wheel drive sport utility vehicles compared to 13 percent of non

  2. Re-framing Gang Violence: A Pro-Youth Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Frederick

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on one aspect of contemporary youth violence, youth gangs and groups, in effort to open broad discussion of youth gangs and frame the process of developing a comprehensive prevention/intervention strategy in proyouth way. Examines three ways of framing youth gang phenomenon: youth violence as racism, alienation, and criminality. Considers…

  3. Motivations and experiences of women who accessed "see and treat" cervical cancer prevention services in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Heather L; Mulambia, Chishimba; Sinkala, Moses; Mwanahamuntu, Mulindi H; Parham, Groesbeck P; Kapambwe, Sharon; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam C; Chamot, Eric

    2012-06-01

    In Zambia, a country with a generalized HIV epidemic, age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence is among the highest worldwide. In 2006, the University of Alabama at Birmingham-Center for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia and the Zambian Ministry of Health launched a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) -based "see and treat" cervical cancer prevention program in Lusaka. All services were integrated within existing government-operated primary health care facilities. Study aims were to (i) identify women's motivations for cervical screening, (ii) document women's experiences with screening and (iii) describe the potentially reciprocal influences between women undergoing cervical screening and their social networks. Focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with women who accepted screening and with care providers. Low-level content analysis was performed to identify themes evoked by participants. Between September 2009 and July 2010, 60 women and 21 care providers participated in 8 FGD and 10 IDI. Women presented for screening with varying needs and expectations. A majority discussed their screening decisions and experiences with members of their social networks. Key reinforcing factors and obstacles to VIA screening were identified. Interventions are needed to gain support for the screening process from influential family members and peers.

  4. WOMEN'S ACCESSION TO THE PROGRAM FOR CANCER PREVENTION OF CERVICAL IN PRIMARY CARE, ANANINDEUA-PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Suelen Jacques Sousa de Assis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the adherence of women to take on the Prevention of Cervical Cancer (PCC, their difficulties and their knowledge. Methods: Cross-sectional study by interviewing women enrolled in a Family Health Strategy (FHS, Ananindeua-Pará. Results: Most women were between 20-39 years of age (72.6%, had low income and low education. Reported the exam annually (64.0% and every two years (17.0%, while 14.0% of them never realized. Of the participants who never performed the examination, the age group of 20-29 was the most prevalent (73.3% (p<0.05. It was found that the women had heard about the disease (97.1% and considered cancer as a wound that can lead to death (81.4%. There was a significant relationship between knowledge about cancer of the cervix (heard, concept, as it is known, timing, late detection, first sexual intercourse, condom use, contraceptive use and sexually transmitted disease with the examination (p<0.05. Shame was reported as greater difficulty (25.5%, followed by neglect (22.5% and lack of time (12.5%. Women who were examined rated as "Good" program PCC FHS. Conclusion: Women showed good adhesion to take PCC, said the main difficulty shame and demonstrated the concept on the subject.

  5. Make a Move: A Comprehensive Effect Evaluation of a Sexual Harassment Prevention Program in Dutch Residential Youth Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jonker, Marianne; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-06-27

    Sexual harassment-unwanted sexual comments, advances, or behaviors-and sexual violence are still prevalent worldwide, leading to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems among those being harassed. In particular, youth in care are at risk of becoming perpetrators (and victims) of sexual harassment. However, in general, there are very few interventions targeting this at-risk group, and no such programs exist in the Netherlands. To this end, a group intervention program-Make a Move-targeting determinants of sexual harassment was developed. This program was implemented and evaluated among boys (N = 177) in Dutch residential youth care (20 institutions). A pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up design including an intervention and a waiting list control group with randomized assignment of institutions (cluster randomized trial) was used to measure the effects of the intervention on determinants of sexual harassment. Multilevel (mixed) regression analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α = .005) showed no significant effects of Make a Move on determinants of sexual harassment (ps > .03, Cohen's ds < .44). Results are discussed in light of a three-way explanatory model focusing on intervention content, evaluation, and implementation as potential explanations for not finding any measurable intervention effects. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: the effect of new delivery approaches on access and compliance rates in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether traditional birth attendants, drug-shop vendors, community reproductive health workers and adolescent peer mobilizers can administer intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) with sulfadoxine-pyremethamine to pregnant women, and reach those most at risk of malaria...... and the proportion of women who completed two doses of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine. RESULTS: Two thousand seven hundred and eighty-five pregnant women (78% of those in the study area) participated. With new approaches, 92.4% of the women received IPT during the second trimester as recommended by the policy, vs. 76.......1% at health units, P women who received two doses of sulfadoxine-pyremethamine, 39.9% were at health units (control) vs. 67.5% through new approaches (P Women using the new approaches also accessed IPT early: the mean gestational age when receiving the first dose of sulfadoxine...

  7. The penal control of youth: the example of preventive detention decisions by Superior Appeal Court and Appeal Court of the State of Rio Grande do Sul in drug trafficking cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gutierrez Cornelius

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the role of the judicial branch in the penal control of youth. It addresses the decisions of the Superior Appeal Court and the Appeal Court of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, regarding preventive detention (custody before sentence of youth charged with criminal offenses.  Following the classification of the decisions, according to pre-established criteria, it finds that there are three major themes related to preventive detention of youth: prorogation of the legal term, detention before the decision becoming definitive and the reasoning for the decisions. This article investigates the reasons Courts use to decide whether or not preventive detention should be applied. After a new reduction of the empirical universe, guided by the observation of the collected data, the study focuses on the decisions related to drug trafficking, which places second in youth incarceration rates. The analysis finds that, despite some differences between the Courts, the discretion provided by the Child and Adolescent Act’s indeterminate language is used to widen the application of preventive detention. Also, in some cases, the legal provisions were given a flexible interpretation, to, once more, justify the increase of penal control. 

  8. Sexual risk attitudes and intentions of youth aged 12-14 years: survey comparisons of parent-teen prevention and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Regina P; Chan, Wenyaw; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared differences in sexual risk attitudes and intentions for three groups of youth (experimental program, n = 90; attention control, n = 80; and nonparticipant control, n = 634) aged 12-14 years. Two student groups participated with their parents in programs focused on strengthening family interaction and prevention of sexual risks, HIV, and adolescent pregnancy. Surveys assessed students' attitudes and intentions regarding early sexual and other health-risk behaviors, family interactions, and perceived parental disapproval of risk behaviors. The authors used general linear modeling to compare results. The experimental prevention program differentiated the total scores of the 3 groups (p < .05). A similar result was obtained for student intentions to avoid sex (p < .01). Pairwise comparisons showed the experimental program group scored higher than the nonparticipant group on total scores (p < .01) and on students' intention to avoid sex (p < .01). The results suggest this novel educational program involving both parents and students offers a promising approach to HIV and teen pregnancy prevention.

  9. Evidence-based monitoring and evaluation of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention among Christian and Muslim youth in Wakiso district in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagimu, M; Kaye, S; Ainomugisha, D; Lutalo, I; Walakira, Y; Guwatudde, D; Rwabukwali, C

    2012-06-01

    The Islamic Medical Association of Uganda, has been implementing the faith-based approach to HIV prevention without baseline data on expected positive outcomes. To establish evidence-based baseline data on expected positive outcomes of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention. A cross-sectional study of 15-24 year-old youths was analyzed for significant associations between HIV infections, risky behaviors, and religiosity HIV prevalence was 3.6% among Christians and 2.4% among Muslims. Abstaining from sex among teenagers was at 54% for Christians and 58% for Muslims. Being faithful in marriage among males was at 41% for Christians and 34% for Muslims and among females it was 65% for Christians and 69% for Muslims. Praying privately was associated with lower HIV infections and was observed among 60% of Christians. Sujda, the hyperpigmented marker of regular prayers on the forehead of Muslims was associated with lower HIV infections and observed in 42% of them. Ever drank alcohol was associated with higher HIV prevalence and observed in 52% of Christians and 17% of Muslims. Male circumcision rates were 15% for Christians and 98% for Muslims. A sero-behavioral-religiosity survey can provide evidence-based data for monitoring and evaluation of the faith-based approach to HIV prevention.

  10. Occupational injuries in Canadian youth: an analysis of 22 years of surveillance data collected from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pratt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inexperience, inadequate training and differential hazard exposure may contribute to a higher risk of injury in young workers. This study describes features of work-related injuries in young Canadians to identify areas for potential occupational injury prevention strategies. Methods: We analyzed records for youth aged 10–17 presenting to Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP emergency departments (EDs from 1991–2012. We classified work-related injuries into job groups corresponding to National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 codes and conducted descriptive analyses to assess injury profiles by job group. Age- and sex-adjusted proportionate injury ratios (PIRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to compare the nature of injuries between occupational and non-occupational events overall and by job group. Results: Of the 6046 injuries (0.72% of events in this age group that occurred during work, 63.9% were among males. Youth in food and beverage occupations (54.6% males made up 35.4% of work-related ED visits and 10.2% of work-related hospital admissions, while primary industry workers (76.4% males made up 4.8% of workrelated ED visits and 24.6% of work-related hospital admissions. PIRs were significantly elevated for burns (9.77, 95% CI: 8.94–10.67, crushing/amputations (6.72, 95% CI: 5.79–7.80, electrical injuries (6.04, 95% CI: 3.64–10.00, bites (5.09, 95% CI: 4.47–5.79, open wounds (2.68, 95% CI: 2.59–2.78 and eye injuries (2.50, 95% CI: 2.20–2.83 in occupational versus non-occupational events. These were largely driven by high proportional incidence of injury types unique to job groups. Conclusion: Our findings provide occupation group-specific information on common injury types that can be used to support targeted approaches to reduce incidence of youth injury in the workplace.

  11. Occupational injuries in Canadian youth: an analysis of 22 years of surveillance data collected from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, B.; Cheesman, J.; Breslin, C.; Do, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Inexperience, inadequate training and differential hazard exposure may contribute to a higher risk of injury in young workers. This study describes features of work-related injuries in young Canadians to identify areas for potential occupational injury prevention strategies. Methods: We analyzed records for youth aged 10–17 presenting to Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) emergency departments (EDs) from 1991–2012. We classified work-related injuries into job groups corresponding to National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 codes and conducted descriptive analyses to assess injury profiles by job group. Age- and sex-adjusted proportionate injury ratios (PIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the nature of injuries between occupational and non-occupational events overall and by job group. Results: Of the 6046 injuries (0.72% of events in this age group) that occurred during work, 63.9% were among males. Youth in food and beverage occupations (54.6% males) made up 35.4% of work-related ED visits and 10.2% of work-related hospital admissions, while primary industry workers (76.4% males) made up 4.8% of work-related ED visits and 24.6% of work-related hospital admissions. PIRs were significantly elevated for burns (9.77, 95% CI: 8.94–10.67), crushing/amputations (6.72, 95% CI: 5.79–7.80), electrical injuries (6.04, 95% CI: 3.64–10.00), bites (5.09, 95% CI: 4.47–5.79), open wounds (2.68, 95% CI: 2.59–2.78) and eye injuries (2.50, 95% CI: 2.20–2.83) in occupational versus non-occupational events. These were largely driven by high proportional incidence of injury types unique to job groups. Conclusion: Our findings provide occupation group-specific information on common injury types that can be used to support targeted approaches to reduce incidence of youth injury in the workplace. PMID:27172126

  12. Sex and grade level differences in marijuana use among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Hoffman, Ashlee R

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana in the past year, while 1 in 10 (10%) used marijuana in the past month. Students at highest risk for marijuana use were those who felt use was not harmful/somewhat harmful, felt it was easy/very easy to access marijuana, and had parents/peers who did not disapprove of use. Findings can assist prevention specialists to more thoroughly understand how perceived harm, ease of access, and parent/peer disapproval affect marijuana use among youth. Consistent parent-child communication on marijuana use should be encouraged.

  13. Challenges to immunization: the experiences of homeless youth

    OpenAIRE

    Doroshenko, Alexander; Hatchette, Jill; Halperin, Scott A; MacDonald, Noni E; Graham, Janice E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by ho...

  14. Assessing the Efficacy of Restricting Access to Barbecue Charcoal for Suicide Prevention in Taiwan: A Community-Based Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Yeh; Chen, Feng; Chang, Shu-Sen; Wong, Jacky; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-01-01

    Charcoal-burning suicide has recently been spreading to many Asian countries. There have also been several cases involving this new method of suicide in Western countries. Restricting access to suicide means is one of the few suicide-prevention measures that have been supported by empirical evidence. The current study aims to assess the effectiveness of a community intervention program that restricts access to charcoal to prevent suicide in Taiwan. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare method-specific (charcoal-burning suicide, non-charcoal-burning suicide) and overall suicide rates in New Taipei City (the intervention site, with a population of 3.9 million) with two other cities (Taipei City and Kaohsiung City, the control sites, each with 2.7 million residents) before (Jan 1st 2009- April 30th 2012) and after (May 1st 2012-Dec. 31st 2013) the initiation of a charcoal-restriction program on May 1st 2012. The program mandates the removal of barbecue charcoal from open shelves to locked storage in major retail stores in New Taipei City. No such restriction measure was implemented in the two control sites. Generalized linear regression models incorporating secular trends were used to compare the changes in method-specific and overall suicide rates before and after the initiation of the restriction measure. A simulation approach was used to estimate the number of lives saved by the intervention. Compared with the pre-intervention period, the estimated rate reduction of charcoal-burning suicide in New Taipei City was 37% (95% CI: 17%, 50%) after the intervention. Taking secular trends into account, the reduction was 30% (95% CI: 14%, 44%). No compensatory rise in non-charcoal-burning suicide was observed in New Taipei City. No significant reduction in charcoal-burning suicide was observed in the other two control sites. The simulation approach estimated that 91 (95%CI [55, 128]) lives in New Taipei City were saved during the 20 months of the intervention. Our

  15. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  16. A randomized trial of motivational interviewing and facilitated contraceptive access to prevent rapid repeat pregnancy among adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Lutz, Robyn; Osuagwu, Ngozi; Rotz, Dana; Goesling, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Most interventions designed to reduce teen pregnancy rates have not focused on pregnant and/or parenting adolescents. Therefore, a large randomized controlled trial was conducted regarding a motivational interviewing program entitled Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy in a low-income sample of adolescent mothers. This program recommended monthly sessions between a participant and a registered nurse over 18 months. This program also featured facilitated birth control access through transportation assistance and a part-time contraceptive clinic. The impact of this program on rapid repeat pregnancies at 18 months after enrollment was evaluated. Five hundred ninety-eight adolescent females were enrolled from 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics and 5 postpartum units of a large hospital system in a Midwestern city. Each participant was enrolled at least 28 weeks pregnant or less than 9 weeks postpartum. Each participant was randomized to either the Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy intervention or a usual-care control condition. Intervention participants averaged 4.5 hours of assistance. Participants were contacted by blinded research staff at 6 and 18 months to complete self-report surveys. Differences in outcomes between the intervention and control groups were assessed using ordinary least-squares regression. There was an 18.1% absolute reduction in self-reported repeat pregnancy in the intervention group relative to the control group (20.5% vs 38.6%%; P Teen Options to Prevent Pregnancy program represents one of the few evidence-based interventions to reduce rapid repeat teen pregnancy. This relatively brief intervention may be a viable alternative to more time-intensive programs that adolescent mothers may be unable or unwilling to receive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Achieving Universal Access for Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Tuberculosis: Potential Prevention Impact of an Integrated Multi-Disease Prevention Campaign in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Granich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, Government of Kenya with key stakeholders implemented an integrated multi-disease prevention campaign for water-borne diseases, malaria and HIV in Kisii District, Nyanza Province. The three day campaign, targeting 5000 people, included testing and counseling (HTC, condoms, long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets, and water filters. People with HIV were offered on-site CD4 cell counts, condoms, co-trimoxazole, and HIV clinic referral. We analysed the CD4 distributions from a district hospital cohort, campaign participants and from the 2007 Kenya Aids Indicator Survey (KAIS. Of the 5198 individuals participating in the campaign, all received HTC, 329 (6.3% tested positive, and 255 (5% were newly diagnosed (median CD4 cell count 536 cells/μL. The hospital cohort and KAIS results included 1,284 initial CD4 counts (median 348/L and 306 initial CD4 counts (median 550/μL, respectively (campaign and KAIS CD4 distributions P=0.346; hospital cohort distribution was lower P<0.001 and P<0.001. A Nyanza Province campaign strategy including ART <350 CD4 cell count could avert approximately 35,000 HIV infections and 1,240 TB cases annually. Community-based integrated public health campaigns could be a potential solution to reach universal access and Millennium Development Goals.

  18. Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  19. Faith and HIV prevention: the conceptual framing of HIV prevention among Pentecostal Batswana teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpofu, Elias; Nkomazana, Fidelis; Muchado, Jabulani A; Togarasei, Lovemore; Bingenheimer, Jeffrey Bart

    2014-03-05

    There is a huge interest by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere in HIV prevention interventions that build on the religious aspects of being. Successful partnerships between the public health services and FBOs will require a better understanding of the conceptual framing of HIV prevention by FBOS to access for prevention intervention, those concepts the churches of various denominations and their members would support or endorse. This study investigated the conceptual framing of HIV prevention among church youths in Botswana;--a country with one of the highest HIV prevalence in the world. Participants were 213 Pentecostal church members (67% female; age range 12 to 23 years; median age=19 years). We engaged the participants in a mixed-method inductive process to collect data on their implicit framing of HIV prevention concepts, taking into account the centrality of religion concepts to them and the moderating influences of age, gender and sexual experience. After, we analysed the data using multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to map the ways the church youths framed HIV prevention. The findings suggest the church youth to conceptually frame their HIV prevention from both faith-oriented and secular-oriented perspectives, while prioritizing the faith-oriented concepts based on biblical teachings and future focus. In their secular-oriented framing of HIV prevention, the church youths endorsed the importance to learn the facts about HIV and AIDS, understanding of community norms that increased risk for HIV and prevention education. However, components of secular-oriented framing of HIV prevention concepts were comparatively less was well differentiated among the youths than with faith-oriented framing, suggesting latent influences of the church knowledge environment to undervalue secular oriented concepts. Older and sexually experienced church youths in their framing of HIV prevention valued future

  20. Evaluating the impact of a school-based prevention program on self-esteem, body image, and risky dieting attitudes and behaviors among Kaua'i youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niide, Tiffany K; Davis, James; Tse, Alice M; Harrigan, Rosanne C

    2013-08-01

    Eating disorders and obesity (EDO) are increasing among youth, having serious long-term physical and psychological consequences. The purpose of this study was to determine if significant differences exist in EDO risk factors following participation of 4-6th grade students in a school-based EDO prevention curriculum. This community-based research project assessed students at baseline and one week following EDO intervention. Primary outcome variables measured self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, and high risk eating attitudes and behaviors. Pre and post-test differences were calculated using mixed models, correcting for clustering within schools and teachers. This study found mean changes in all scores in healthy directions, as well as movement of students into lower risk groups post-intervention. This program demonstrated that a classroom curriculum is associated with decreased risks of EDO in boys and girls, supporting prevention programs at an early age for both sexes. Studies to determine long term benefit and guide booster interventions are warranted.

  1. Hemodialysis access -- self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hemodialysis. Taking good care of your access helps make it last longer. Prevent Infection in Your Access Keep your access clean. Wash the access with soap and water every day to decrease your risk ...

  2. Youth, guns, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumstein, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Young people are overrepresented as both victims and perpetrators of violence. Indeed, some commentators have suggested that recent cohorts of youth have been composed of "superpredators" who have little regard for human life. The evidence, however, suggests that other factors are responsible for recent increases in youth gun violence. This article analyzes the extent and causes of youth violence in the United States, paying particular attention to the late 1980s and early 1990s, when rates of homicide and robbery committed by youth rose to extremely high levels. Examination of trends for these crimes shows that: The increase in violence in the United States during the late 1980s and early 1990s was due primarily to an increase in violent acts committed by people under age 20. Similarly, dramatic declines in homicide and robbery in recent years are attributable primarily to a decline in youth violence. The increase in youth homicide was predominantly due to a significant increase in the use of handguns, which converted ordinary teenage fights and other violent encounters into homicides. Several other interrelated factors also fueled the rise in youth violence, including the rise of illegal drug markets, particularly for crack cocaine, the recruitment of youth into those markets, and an increase in gun carrying among young people. The author points out that youth violence diminished as the crack markets shrank, law enforcement increased efforts to control youth access to guns, youth gun carrying declined, and the robust economy provided legitimate jobs for young people.

  3. Ethanol-lock therapy for the prevention of central venous access device infections in pediatric patients with intestinal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, M Petrea; Kovacevich, Debra S; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2011-01-01

    Central venous access device (CVAD) infections are a major complication in pediatric patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) and are particularly prevalent in patients with intestinal failure. This study evaluated the outcomes of outpatient ethanol-lock therapy (ELT) for the prevention of CVAD infections in children with intestinal failure. In this retrospective analysis, the primary outcome measure was the rate of bloodstream infection (BSI) due to CVAD infections per 1,000 catheter days, and secondary measures included type of organisms cultured and complications of ELT. Over the course of 2 years, 15 patients received outpatient ELT. Sixty-seven percent were male; patients had a mean ± standard deviation age at enrollment of 5.6 ± 6.9 years and body weight of 19.9 ± 15.4 kg. Mean duration of ELT was 263 ± 190 days. Mean BSI rate per 1,000 catheter days significantly decreased from 8.0 before ELT to 1.3 after ELT (P ELT included thrombosis (n = 1), difficulty withdrawing blood from the CVAD, requiring thrombolytic administration (n = 3), and repair of the CVAD for leakage/tear (n = 20). The rate of CVAD repair for leakage/tear with ELT was compared to prior rates per 1,000 catheter days and was found to be elevated after initiation of ELT (6.4 ± 10.0 vs 3.1 ± 5.2; P = .20). No signs and symptoms of ethanol intoxication were observed. ELT for the prevention of CVAD infections in pediatric intestinal failure patients significantly decreased BSI rates and may be used for extended periods of time in an outpatient setting.

  4. “Facoltà d’Amarsi”: when young people try to change the situation. Youth project as a tool for health communication and STD prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Massini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Since its discovery, AIDS has been a major pandemic infection. Nowadays, despite high levels of awareness, HIV infection is still one of the most complex phenomenon in our society and people, especially young people, don’t apply changes to reduce sexual risk behaviour to bring about prevention of HIV and AIDS. Condom use, particularly consistent use, is suboptimal in our communities. In our country, for Family Planning Worldwide 2008, just 38,3% of young people reported to use condoms. Monogamy and harmonious relationships play a positive role in young people and reduce their risk of HIV infection and such aspects of relationship contexts could form a significant part of the progressive strategies required for HIV-prevention interventions to be successful. Many prevention campaigns have been realized and in particular they try to explain the risk connected to HIV and give information about how to prevent infection and the infection’s course. The next generation of HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions should move beyond basic sex education and condom use / availability. Successful interventions must optimize strategies that support HIV risk reduction behaviours. Despite extensive behavioural research, current strategies have not resulted.

    Methods: In this article we explain why the old campaign didn’t work and why youth initiatives could be a possible answer to a prevention needs. We choose the method of peer education and scientific contents using transverse knowledge from expert of medicine, psychology and media science to face off at the needs of efficacy and reliability. 

    Results: The final sample is made by 271 students, 102 males, 164 females. 91,5% declare that had already sexual relations, instead 5,19% never had one. 38,% of sample affirm to use habitually condoms, 20,3% sometimes, 18,8% never used condoms

  5. Access to Basic HIV-Related Services and PrEP Acceptability among Men Who Have sex with Men Worldwide: Barriers, Facilitators, and Implications for Combination Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ayala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately impacted by HIV globally. Easily accessible combination HIV prevention strategies, tailored to the needs of MSM, are needed to effectively address the AIDS pandemic. Methods and Materials. We conducted a cross-sectional study among MSM (n=3748 from 145 countries from April to August 2012. Using multivariable random effects models, we examined factors associated with acceptability of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP and access to condoms, lubricants, HIV testing, and HIV treatment. Results. Condoms and lubricants were accessible to 35% and 22% of all respondents, respectively. HIV testing was accessible to 35% of HIV-negative respondents. Forty-three percent of all HIV-positive respondents reported that antiretroviral therapy was easily accessible. Homophobia, outness, and service provider stigma were significantly associated with reduced access to services. Conversely, community engagement, connection to gay community, and comfort with service providers were associated with increased access. PrEP acceptability was associated with lower PrEP-related stigma, less knowledge about PrEP, less outness, higher service provider stigma, and having experienced violence for being MSM. Conclusions. Ensuring HIV service access among MSM will be critical in maximizing the potential effectiveness of combination approaches, especially given the interdependence of both basic and newer interventions like PrEP. Barriers and facilitators of HIV service access for MSM should be better understood and addressed.

  6. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Multimodal Injury Prevention Programs in Youth Sports: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Faude

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neuromuscular injury prevention programs (IPP can reduce injury rate by about 40% in youth sport. Multimodal IPP include, for instance, balance, strength, power, and agility exercises. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effects of multimodal IPP on neuromuscular performance in youth sports.Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search including selected search terms related to youth sports, injury prevention, and neuromuscular performance. Inclusion criteria were: (i the study was a (cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT, and (ii investigated healthy participants, up to 20 years of age and involved in organized sport, (iii an intervention arm performing a multimodal IPP was compared to a control arm following a common training regime, and (iv neuromuscular performance parameters (e.g., balance, power, strength, sprint were assessed. Furthermore, we evaluated IPP effects on sport-specific skills.Results: Fourteen RCTs (comprising 704 participants were analyzed. Eight studies included only males, and five only females. Seventy-one percent of all studies investigated soccer players with basketball, field hockey, futsal, Gaelic football, and hurling being the remaining sports. The average age of the participants ranged from 10 years up to 19 years and the level of play from recreational to professional. Intervention durations ranged from 4 weeks to 4.5 months with a total of 12 to 57 training sessions. We observed a small overall effect in favor of IPP for balance/stability (Hedges' g = 0.37; 95%CI 0.17, 0.58, leg power (g = 0.22; 95%CI 0.07, 0.38, and isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps strength as well as hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio (g = 0.38; 95%CI 0.21, 0.55. We found a large overall effect for sprint abilities (g = 0.80; 95%CI 0.50, 1.09 and sport-specific skills (g = 0.83; 95%CI 0.34, 1.32. Subgroup analyses revealed larger effects in high-level (g = 0.34–1.18 compared to low-level athletes

  7. Promoting Positive Peer Relationships among Youths: A Study Examining the Effects of a Class-Wide Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, James Allen, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has revealed deleterious psychosocial consequences for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Programs aimed at preventing bullying have largely revealed limited positive outcomes. Efforts that have been associated with positive results have drawn from the social-ecological model, focusing on the constellation of individual…

  8. The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth: Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Aber, J. Lawrence; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the implications for prevention science of recent advances in research on family poverty and children's mental, emotional, and behavioral health. First, we describe definitions of poverty and the conceptual and empirical challenges to estimating the causal effects of poverty on children's mental, emotional, and behavioral…

  9. How Youth Picture Gender Injustice: Building Skills for HIV Prevention through a Participatory, Arts-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    Based on the existing literature on the positive relationship that exists between high instances of HIV infections and a high degree of gender injustices in southern Africa, there is clearly a need for HIV-prevention interventions, to focus on the need for changing the existing gender norms. Social change begins with change at the individual…

  10. Mobilizing Communities around HIV Prevention for Youth: How Three Coalitions Applied Key Strategies to Bring about Structural Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutuape, Kate S.; Willard, Nancy; Sanchez, Kenia; Straub, Diane M.; Ochoa, Tara N.; Howell, Kourtney; Rivera, Carmen; Ramos, Ibrahim; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts must focus on altering features of the social and physical environment to reduce risks associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. Community coalitions provide a vehicle for bringing about sustainable structural changes. This article shares lessons and key strategies regarding how three community…

  11. Keeping youth in play : The effects of sports-based interventions in the prevention of juvenile delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread implementation of sports-based crime prevention programs, there is little known about the effectiveness of these interventions and the validity of underlying theoretical assumptions. This dissertation consists of four studies. First, a meta-analysis on the relation between

  12. What Prevents Central Asian Migrant Workers from Accessing HIV Testing? Implications for Increasing HIV Testing Uptake in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Terloyeva, Dina; Primbetova, Sholpan; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-08-01

    Several barriers prevent key populations, such as migrant workers, from accessing HIV testing. Using data from a cross-sectional study among Central Asian migrant workers (n = 623) in Kazakhstan, we examined factors associated with HIV testing. Overall, 48% of participants had ever received an HIV test. Having temporary registration (AOR 1.69; (95% CI [1.12-2.56]), having an employment contract (AOR 2.59; (95% CI [1.58-4.23]), being able to afford health care services (AOR 3.61; (95% CI [1.86-7.03]) having a medical check-up in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85; 95% CI [1.18-2.89]), and having a regular doctor (AOR 2.37; 95% CI [1.20-4.70]) were associated with having an HIV test. HIV testing uptake among migrants in Kazakhstan falls far short of UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. Intervention strategies to increase HIV testing among this population may include initiatives that focus on improving outreach to undocumented migrants, making health care services more affordable, and linking migrants to health care.

  13. Changing the Frame: Queering Access to Higher Education for Trans* Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Susan B.

    2017-01-01

    College access and graduation results in significant life advantages, including higher lifetime incomes, better physical and mental health outcomes, and greater rates of civic engagement. Unfortunately, trans* youth have been systematically prevented from full participation in post-secondary education due to genderist practices and policies.…

  14. Cascade of access to interventions to prevent HIV mother to child transmission in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine S. Pires Araujo

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Access to the full package of interventions for the prevention of HIV vertical transmission was low, with no significant trend of improvement over the years. The vertical transmission rates observed were higher than those found in reference services in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro and in the richest regions of the country.

  15. Accessibility to, Acceptability of, and Adherence to HIV/AIDS Prevention Services by Men Who Have Sex with Men: Challenges Encountered at Facility Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. N. Otambo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM in Nairobi has been reported to be 16.4% which is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to determine factors that affected accessibility to, acceptability of, and adherence to HIV/AIDS prevention services by men who have sex with men in Nairobi County, Kenya. Methods. The study used a mixed methods design, applying both quantitative and qualitative methods. Results. Over 70% of MSM reported that TB drugs, antiretroviral drugs, lubricants, condoms, and other STI treatment services were accessible. However, 31.6% of MSM reported that discrimination at the health facility level was a hindrance to accessing HIV/AIDS prevention services while 26.3% reported encountering stigma. 48.4% of MSM consumed alcohol while taking of drugs was reported, at 36.1%. Conclusion. Discrimination and stigma adversely affected MSM seeking HIV/AIDS prevention services in health facilities. MSM engaged in alcohol and substance abuse that likely affected their health seeking behavior. Although most prevention services are reported as accessible, uptake of the same needs to be considered.

  16. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  17. A coordinated school health approach to obesity prevention among Appalachian youth: the Winning with Wellness Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; VonWerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Stern, H Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the United States, especially in rural areas. Effective prevention approaches are needed. This article describes the development, implementation, effectiveness, feasibility, and sustainability of a school-based obesity prevention pilot project, Winning with Wellness. The program was based on the coordinated school health model and included a community-based participatory research approach aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity in a rural Appalachian elementary school. Findings from this preliminary project revealed improvements in nutrition offerings and increased physical activity during the school day. In addition, the program was found to be acceptable to teachers, successfully implemented utilizing both existing and newly developed resources, and sustainable as evidenced in continued practice and expansion to other area schools.

  18. Limiting youth access to tobacco: comparing the long-term health impacts of increasing cigarette excise taxes and raising the legal smoking age to 21 in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sajjad; Billimek, John

    2007-03-01

    Although many states in the US have raised cigarette excise taxes in recent years, the size of these increases have been fairly modest (resulting in a 15% increase in the per pack purchase price), and their impact on adult smoking prevalence is likely insufficient to meet Healthy People 2010 objectives. This paper presents the results of a 75-year dynamic simulation model comparing the long-term health benefits to society of various levels of tax increase to a viable alternative: limiting youth access to cigarettes by raising the legal purchase age to 21. If youth smoking initiation is delayed as assumed in the model, increasing the smoking age would have a minimal immediate effect on adult smoking prevalence and population health, but would affect a large drop in youth smoking prevalence from 22% to under 9% for the 15-17-year-old age group in 7 years (by 2010)-better than the result of raising taxes to increase the purchase price of cigarettes by 100%. Reducing youth initiation by enforcing a higher smoking age would reduce adult smoking prevalence in the long-term (75 years in the future) to 13.6% (comparable to a 40% tax-induced price increase), and would produce a cumulative gain of 109 million QALYs (comparable to a 20% price increase). If the political climate continues to favor only moderate cigarette excise tax increases, raising the smoking age should be considered to reduce the health burden of smoking on society. The health benefits of large tax increases, however, would be greater and would accrue faster than raising the minimum legal purchase age for cigarettes.

  19. Physical activity and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Literature review. A large proportion of youth is insufficiently physically active. Estimates of population-wide levels of physical activity indicate that Black and Hispanic youth are less physically active than White youth, with disparities particularly evident for females. The population segments of youth with lowest levels of physical activity and fitness also have least access to school-based physical activity opportunities and resources. Physical activity affects metabolism and all major body systems, exerting powerful positive influences on the brain and spinal cord and, consequently, on emotional stability, physical health, and motivation and ability to learn. The cornerstone of school-based physical activity programs should be a high-quality physical education program based on national standards. Such programs are strongly recommended by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services as a way to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Physical inactivity is highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, has a negative impact on academic achievement through its effects on cognition, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Increasing students' physical activity and physical fitness can best be achieved through a comprehensive approach that includes physical education, wise use of recess and after-school times, co-curricular physical activity opportunities, and bicycling or walking to and from school. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  20. Youth Motivations for Program Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer K. McGuire

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Through their participation in youth programs, young people have access to opportunities to learn and build important skills. A total of 214 youth between the ages of 10-19 (mean 15.5 years completed an online survey about characteristics of youth programs they participated in, didn’t participate in, and had participated in but quit. We found that youth participated in activities that provided a benefit to meet personal goals or develop skills. However, our findings suggest that youth may leave activities, or never join them, based on different sets of motivations than the reasons they stay in activities. There was variability across demographic groups: Males reported more problems with past activities, sexual minority youth were more likely to endorse social problems with past and never joined activities, and ethnic minorities reported less support for personal goals and connection to adults in current activities and more logistic barriers for activities never joined.

  1. Youth media lifestyles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kruistum, Claudia; Leseman, Paul Pm; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the concept of "media lifestyles" is adopted in order to develop a comprehensive approach toward youth engagement in communication media. We explore how 503 Dutch eighth grade students with full access to new technology combine a broad range of media by focusing on their engagement

  2. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  3. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services for the South Asian population in Surrey, British Columbia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Sanaa; Douglas, Rachel; Lee, Victoria; Stacy, Elizabeth; Garg, Arun K; Ho, Kendall

    2016-01-01

    British Columbia falls short in uptake of recommended clinical prevention services, with even lower rates among immigrant populations. This study explored facilitators of and barriers to uptake of clinical prevention services among people from South Asia, who represent 31% of the population in Surrey, British Columbia. We used a qualitative descriptive approach and employed vignettes in a focus group setting to elicit perspectives of South Asian people on accessing clinical prevention services. Participants aged 40 years or more were recruited between October 2014 and February 2015 from health care and community settings such as older-adult housing, day programs and health education events. Letters of introduction to the study were provided in English or Punjabi or both to all potential participants. We conducted qualitative content analysis of the results. Sixty-two South Asian adults (36 women and 26 men) aged 40-87 years participated in 1 of 8 focus groups in health care or community settings. Facilitators of and barriers to accessing clinical prevention services were noted at the patient, primary care provider and health care system levels. Facilitators at the patient level included taking ownership over one's health, health literacy and respecting the provider's advice; barriers included fear of the diagnosis, death and/or procedures, perceived low risk of disease or utility of the intervention, and side effects of procedures. Provider factors centred on a trust-based patient-provider relationship, strong communication and adequate time during visits. Health care system factors included such facilitators as processes to routinely offer prevention services as part of other health care or social services, systems that encourage prevention-oriented family practice and services at low or no cost to the patient. Our findings validate previously identified facilitators of and barriers to accessing preventive care for immigrant populations. However, the results

  4. Development of a Systems Science Curriculum to Engage Rural African American Teens in Understanding and Addressing Childhood Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Young, Tiffany L; Dave, Gaurav; Stith, Doris; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2017-08-01

    Engaging youth from racial and ethnic minority communities as leaders for change is a potential strategy to mobilize support for addressing childhood obesity, but there are limited curricula designed to help youth understand the complex influences on obesity. Our aim was to develop and pilot test a systems science curriculum to elicit rural African American youth perspectives on childhood obesity and enhance their understanding of and support for obesity prevention solutions. The curriculum was designed so it could be integrated with existing positive youth development curricula that help youth advocate for and implement identified solutions. We conducted four workshop sessions with youth that engaged them in systems learning activities such as guided systems diagramming activities. The participants ( n = 21) completed validated surveys presession and postsession that assessed their causal attributions of obesity and support for obesity prevention policies. The youths' perception that environmental factors cause obesity increased ( p < .05), and perceptions that individual behavior and biology cause obesity did not change. Their support for policies that addressed food access and food pricing significantly increased ( p < .05). The youths' system diagrams elucidated links between multilevel factors such as personal attitudes, social influence, and the built environment, which provides important information for designing synergistic solutions. The changes we observed in youths' perceptions of obesity and support for policy changes have important implications for youths' interest and willingness to advocate for social and environmental changes in their community. The strategies have a promising role in supporting community mobilization to address childhood obesity.

  5. Youth bulges and youth unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    David Lam

    2014-01-01

    The youth population bulge is often mentioned in discussions of youth unemployment and unrest in developing countries, most recently in explaining the “Arab Spring.” But the youth share of the population has fallen rapidly in recent decades in most countries, and is projected to continue to fall. Evidence on the link between youth population bulges and youth unemployment is mixed. It should not be assumed that declines in the relative size of the youth population will translate into falling y...

  6. Integrating Behavioral HIV Interventions into Biomedical Prevention Trials with Youth: Lessons from Chicago’s Project PrEPare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Sybil G.; Green, Keith R.; Siberry, George; Lally, Michelle; Balthazar, Christopher; Serrano, Pedro A.; Kapogiannis, Bill

    2013-01-01

    On the heels of several trials demonstrating the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and the recent approval by the FDA of the supplemental indication for Truvada as PrEP, researchers, advocates, and community providers are calling for the investigation of implementation strategies that combine behavioral interventions with biomedical prevention. This paper describes the modification and integration of an evidence-based group-level intervention into a small PrEP pilot trial with young men who have sex with men (YMSM). The behavioral intervention as well as ongoing risk reduction counseling sessions were found to be highly acceptable among a sample of racially diverse YMSM. PMID:24223514

  7. THE MODEL OF PREVENTION OF VANDAL BEHAVIOR PROVIDED BY THE DEFORMATIONS AND DESTRUCTIONS OF VALUABLE SPHERE OF YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Vorobyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to discuss current opportunities for prevention of vandal behavior of young people, taking into account the structural features of valuable sphere of teenagers and young men. Methods. Methods involve psychognostic techniques such as an axiological questionnaire by S.Schwarz, a questionnaire «Motives of vandal behaviour» by I. V. Vorobyeva, O. V. Kruzhkova, S. A. Ostrikova; method of theoretical modelling. Results. Vandalism is described as a fairly common phenomenon among young people, which may be the result not only of deviant orientation of the individual, but also the result of a mismatch of individual values of teenager or young man and imposed by society requirements for his value orientations. 832 teenagers took part in the complex psychological studies. The following four different groups of respondents have been identified and studied: – with an agreed system of prosocial value orientations; – respondents with a mismatched (deformed system of values; – respondents with a destructive (antagonistic system of value orientations; – respondents with agreed antisocial system of value orientations. The model of prevention of vandalism among young people is developed on the basis of the psychological characteristics of these groups and the description of the genesis and causes of vandal behavior with following applying the method of theoretical modeling. This model is based on the principles of accounting axiological aspects of regulation of activity, consideration of personal values as a dynamic system, taking into account the degree of stability of the system of individual value orientations, differentiation and depth of the psychological impact of variation in the choice of forms and methods of psychological influence. The recommendations are proposed; the most appropriate psychological work aspects with each of the groups of respondents are described. Scientific novelty. The proposed authors

  8. L'acces des jeunes de regions rurales aux etudes postsecondaires (The Access of Youth from Rural Areas to Postsecondary Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawh, Natasha; Charron, Jocelyn

    2003-01-01

    The access to postsecondary education that is offered to students in rural areas differs significantly from the access available to urban students. An overview is given of the various factors and structural obstacles influencing rural access to postsecondary education, including aspirations, college preparation, socioeconomic characteristics of…

  9. Frequent inaccuracies in ABCD(2) scoring in non-stroke specialists' referrals to a daily Rapid Access Stroke Prevention service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bradley, David

    2013-09-15

    The \\'accuracy\\' of age, blood pressure, clinical features, duration and diabetes (ABCD(2)) scoring by non-stroke specialists referring patients to a daily Rapid Access Stroke Prevention (RASP) service is unclear, as is the accuracy of ABCD(2) scoring by trainee residents. In this prospective study, referrals were classified as \\'confirmed TIAs\\' if the stroke specialist confirmed a clinical diagnosis of possible, probable or definite TIA, and \\'non-TIAs\\' if patients had a TIA mimic or completed stroke. ABCD(2) scores from referring physicians were compared with scores by experienced stroke specialists and neurology\\/geriatric medicine residents at a daily RASP clinic; inter-observer agreement was examined. Data from 101 referrals were analysed (mean age=60.0years, 58% male). The median interval between referral and clinic assessment was 1day. Of 101 referrals, 52 (52%) were \\'non-TIAs\\': 45 (86%) of 52 were \\'TIA mimics\\' and 7 (14%) of 52 were completed strokes. There was only \\'fair\\' agreement in total ABCD(2) scoring between referring physicians and stroke specialists (κ=0.37). Agreement was \\'excellent\\' between residents and stroke specialists (κ=0.91). Twenty of 29 patients scored as \\'moderate to high risk\\' (score 4-6) by stroke specialists were scored \\'low risk\\' (score 0-3) by referring physicians. ABCD(2) scoring by referring doctors is frequently inaccurate, with a tendency to underestimate stroke risk. These findings emphasise the importance of urgent specialist assessment of suspected TIA patients, and that ABCD(2) scores by non-stroke specialists cannot be relied upon in isolation to risk-stratify patients. Inter-observer agreement in ABCD(2) scoring was \\'excellent\\' between residents and stroke specialists, indicating short-term training may improve accuracy.

  10. Prevention of suicide with regulations aimed at restricting access to highly hazardous pesticides: a systematic review of the international evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnell, David; Knipe, Duleeka; Chang, Shu-Sen; Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Lee, Won Jin; Eddleston, Michael

    2017-10-01

    pesticides in five of the six countries studied, including four studies using optimum analytical methods, were followed by reductions in pesticide suicides and, in three of these countries, falls in overall suicide mortality. Greece was the only country studied that did not show a decrease in pesticide suicide following a ban. There were no high-quality studies of restricting sales to people for occupational uses; four of the seven studies (in three of the five countries studied-India, Denmark, and the USA) showed sales restrictions were followed by decreases in pesticide suicides; one of the two studies investigating trends in overall suicide mortality reported a fall in deaths in Denmark, but there were also decreases in suicide deaths from other methods. National bans on highly hazardous pesticides, which are commonly ingested in acts of self-poisoning, seem to be effective in reducing pesticide-specific and overall suicide rates. Evidence is less consistent for sales restrictions. A worldwide ban on the use of highly hazardous pesticides is likely to prevent tens of thousands of deaths every year. None. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk behavior and access to HIV/AIDS prevention services in a community sample of homeless persons entering permanent supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric; Henwood, Ben

    2017-05-01

    Homeless persons suffer disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, and moving into permanent supportive housing (PSH) can provide a stable base from which to access needed prevention services. However, little is known about HIV risk or prevention behavior during this critical time of transition. The current study investigated STI and HIV risk and prevention behavior and recent use of prevention and treatment services (i.e., education, testing, medication) among homeless persons preparing to move into PSH. Data come from interviews with 421 homeless adults before they moved into PSH. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were sexually active; of those, 75.7% reported unprotected sex. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported past year HIV testing and 40% reported testing for another STI. Fewer than one-third (31%) of respondents reported receiving posttest counseling at their last HIV test. HIV seropositivity was self-reported by 10%. Among those persons who were HIV-positive, 57.1% reported less than 100% antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Among HIV-negative respondents, less than 1% had been prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Less than half (46.4%) of the sample reported any HIV prevention education in the past year. This population of homeless adults about to move into PSH report high rates of HIV risk behavior, but low rates of HIV prevention education and very little PrEP utilization. Further, low rates of ARV adherence among HIV-positive respondents indicate significant risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. Entering PSH is a period of transition for homeless persons when integrated care is critically important to ensure positive health outcomes, but these data suggest that PrEP and other HIV prevention services are poorly accessed among this population. As such, multipronged services that integrate PrEP and other HIV prevention services are needed to prevent transmission and acquisition of HIV in this high-risk, vulnerable population and ensure the

  12. Correlates of unequal access to preventive care in China: a multilevel analysis of national data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi; Liu, Chao-Jie; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Liu, Xiang; Li, Ning-Xiu

    2016-05-12

    Preventive care has an essential role in reducing income-related health inequalities. Despite a general consensus of the need of shifting focus from disease treatment to wellness and prevention, little is known about inequalities in access to preventive care in China. Our study aimed to explore the inequalities in preventive care usage and factors that were associated with such inequalities among Chinese adults. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed using national data from the 2011 Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey. The study sample comprised 13,483 adults who were covered by Basic Social Medical Insurance (BSMI). We analyzed individual socioeconomic status (marital status, education attainment, annual household income per capita, and medical insurance) and contextual factors for their influence on preventive care usage (region of residence and type of community) after controlling for health needs (age, sex, and health condition). Out of the participants, 6.9 % received preventive care services over the past four weeks and 3.9 % went for a general physical examination prior to the survey. We noted regional disparities in the overall use of preventive care and specific use of general physical examination, with residents from central and northeastern regions less likely to use preventive care including general physical examination than in the more affluent eastern region. Lower levels of education and income were associated with reduced use of preventive care. Subscriptions to less generous social medical insurance programs such as Urban Resident-based Medical Insurance Scheme or New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme were associated with decreased specific use of general physical examinations, but not overall use of preventive care. Inequalities in preventive care usage were evident in China, and were associated with health needs and socioeconomic characteristics. Current health insurance arrangements may fail to reduce inequalities relating to

  13. The European Initiative ProYouth for the promotion of mental health and the prevention of eating disorders screening results in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Kornélia; Czeglédi, Edit; Babusa, Bernadett; Szumska, Irena; Túry, Ferenc; Sándor, Imola; Bauer, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    The ProYouth programme focuses on the promotion of mental health and the prevention of eating disorders (EDs) among young people. The aim of our study was to explore whether the programme can address individuals who are at risk for developing 2EDs. This study is designed as an online cross-sectional survey (n = 664, 12.2% men, 87.8% women, mean age: 24.9 years, SD = 5.4 years, range: 18-40 years). Measures included demographic data, self-reported weight and height, the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety, Short Evaluation of Eating Disorders, Weight Concerns Scale and previous/current treatment for EDs. In terms of severity of EDs, 22.9% (n = 152) of the screened participants were symptom free, 48.8% (n = 324) had considerable concerns about their weight, 11.1% (n = 74) were slightly impaired, 15.1% (n = 100) had severe impairment and 2.1% (n = 14) of participants are currently under treatment for EDs. In total, 56.3% of users (n = 374) registered in the programme. According to our results, those who had considerable concerns about their weight and individuals who were severely impaired registered with a greater odds to the programme than those who were symptom free [odds ratio (OR) = 1.64, p = .021 and OR = 1.90, p = .023, respectively]. Furthermore, those who previously received treatment for their ED registered to the programme with greater odds than those who did not (OR = 2.40, p = .017). ProYouth successfully addressed those who have elevated concerns about their weight and who also registered with greater odds to the programme than those who were symptom free regarding EDs. The screening results show that there is a greater need for specialized care targeting EDs in Hungary than what is currently available. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  15. Reducing episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis within a youth population: a focus group study with patients and families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Roger; Albrechtsons, Daniel; Hagerty, Donna; Newhook, Leigh Anne

    2015-09-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality for youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This article reports qualitative data from focus groups with youth and parents of youth with T1DM on the barriers that they identify to DKA prevention and resources that may aid youth better manage their diabetes. Four focus groups were held in three communities, two rural and one urban, in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) with adolescents and parents of youth with diabetes. Open-ended questions focused on knowledge of DKA, diabetes education, personal experiences with DKA, barriers to diabetes self-management, situations which put them at risk for DKA and resources that could be developed to aid youth in preventing DKA. There were 19 participants (14 parents and 5 youth). Participants identified factors which increased their risk of DKA as difficulty in distinguishing cases of DKA from other illnesses; variations in diabetes education received; information overload about their condition; the long period from initial diagnosis, when most education about the condition was received; and stress regarding situations where youth are not in the direct care of their parents. Participants from rural areas reported geographical isolation and lack of regular access to specialist health care personnel as additional barriers to better diabetes management. The project identified barriers to DKA prevention for youth which were not previously identified in the medical literature, e.g., the stress associated with temporary guardians, risk of information overload at initial diagnosis and the long period from initial diagnosis when most diabetes education is received. Families from rural areas do report additional burdens, but in some cases these families have developed community supports to help offset some of these problems. Mobile and online resources, educational refreshers about DKA, concise resources for teachers and other

  16. Young people with depression and their experience accessing an enhanced primary care service for youth with emerging mental health problems: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCann Terence V

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the emergence of mental health problems during adolescence and early adulthood, many young people encounter difficulties accessing appropriate services. In response to this gap, the Australian Government recently established new enhanced primary care services (headspace that target young people with emerging mental health problems. In this study, we examine the experience of young people with depression accessing one of these services, with a focus on understanding how they access the service and the difficulties they encounter in the process. Method Individual, in-depth, audio-recorded interviews were used to collect data. Twenty-six young people with depression were recruited from a headspace site in Melbourne, Australia. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Four overlapping themes were identified in the data. First, school counsellors as access mediators, highlights the prominent role school counsellors have in facilitating student access to the service. Second, location as an access facilitator and inhibitor. Although the service is accessible by public transport, it is less so to those who do not live near public transport. Third, encountering barriers accessing the service initially. Two main service access barriers were experienced: unfamiliarity with the service, and delays in obtaining initial appointments for ongoing therapy. Finally, the service’s funding model acts as an access facilitator and barrier. While the model provides a low or no cost services initially, it limits the number of funded sessions, and this can be problematic. Conclusions Young people have contrasting experiences accessing the service. School counsellors have an influential role in facilitating access, and its close proximity to public transport enhances access. The service needs to become more prominent in young people’s consciousness, while the appointment system would benefit from

  17. Challenges to immunization: the experiences of homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, Alexander; Hatchette, Jill; Halperin, Scott A; MacDonald, Noni E; Graham, Janice E

    2012-07-04

    Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by homeless youth. A qualitative research study to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences surrounding immunization of hard-to-reach homeless youth was designed. Participants were recruited for focus groups from Phoenix House and Shelter, a non-profit, community-based organization assisting homeless youth in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. An experienced facilitator guided the recorded discussions. Transcripts of audiotapes were analyzed using a constant comparative method until data revealed a set of exemplars and themes that best captured participants' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences surrounding immunization and infectious diseases. Important themes emerged from our analysis. Considerable variability in knowledge about immunization and vaccine preventable diseases was found. The homeless youth in the study had limited awareness of meningitis in contrast to a greater knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and influenza, gained during the H1N1/09 public health campaign. They recognized their poverty as a risk for contracting infectious diseases, along with their inability to always employ known strategies to prevent infectious diseases, due to circumstances. They showed considerable insight into the detrimental effects of poor hygiene, sleeping locations and risk behaviour. Interviewed homeless youth regarded themselves as good compliers of health professional advice and offered valuable suggestions to improve immunization in their population. To provide effective

  18. Challenges to immunization: the experiences of homeless youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroshenko Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homelessness is a critical social issue, both a product of, and contributing to, poor mental and physical health. Over 150,000 young Canadians live on the streets. Homeless youth experience a high incidence of infectious diseases, many of which are vaccine preventable. Early departure from school and limited access to public health services makes them a particularly vulnerable high-risk group. This study explores challenges to obtaining essential vaccines experienced by homeless youth. Methods A qualitative research study to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and experiences surrounding immunization of hard-to-reach homeless youth was designed. Participants were recruited for focus groups from Phoenix House and Shelter, a non-profit, community-based organization assisting homeless youth in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. An experienced facilitator guided the recorded discussions. Transcripts of audiotapes were analyzed using a constant comparative method until data revealed a set of exemplars and themes that best captured participants’ knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and experiences surrounding immunization and infectious diseases. Results Important themes emerged from our analysis. Considerable variability in knowledge about immunization and vaccine preventable diseases was found. The homeless youth in the study had limited awareness of meningitis in contrast to a greater knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and influenza, gained during the H1N1/09 public health campaign. They recognized their poverty as a risk for contracting infectious diseases, along with their inability to always employ known strategies to prevent infectious diseases, due to circumstances. They showed considerable insight into the detrimental effects of poor hygiene, sleeping locations and risk behaviour. Interviewed homeless youth regarded themselves as good compliers of health professional advice and offered valuable suggestions to improve

  19. Gangs and Youth Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgar, Michelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Examines issues of gangs and youth violence. Provides statistics and other information on weapons in schools, crime in schools, gang effects on truancy and dropout rates, gang activity, appeal of membership, recruitment, ethnic groups, new gang types (white Supremist and "stoner" gangs and Satanic cults), preventive efforts, and community…

  20. The parent-adolescent relationship education (PARE) program: a curriculum for prevention of STDs and pregnancy in middle school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Regina P; Mian, Tahir S

    2003-01-01

    The Parent-Adolescent Relationship Education (PARE) Program, designed for parents and middle school students, focuses on strengthening family communication about sexual issues and behaviors to help prevent teen pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The program includes content about reproduction, STDs and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), contraception, sex risks, and safe-sex behaviors. The course uses social learning and cognitive behavioral concepts to enhance decision-making, refusal, and resistance skills. A randomized treatment or control group design is used to assign parent-child dyads to an experimental education group (social learning) or an attention-control group (traditional didactic teaching). Three post-program maintenance or booster sessions are held at 6-month intervals and at times prior to peak teen conception periods to reinforce the knowledge and skills learned. Pre- and posttests for parents and students assess group differences in parental involvement and communication, contraception, sex attitudes and intentions, sex behaviors (initiation of sexual intercourse, frequency, number of partners, contraceptive practices, refusal skills), and the incidence of pregnancy.