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Sample records for prevent vision loss

  1. Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-24

    This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  2. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  3. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life. Alternative Names Loss of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness Images ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  4. Diagnosis System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Glaucoma Screening to Prevent Vision Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sundhara Raja DHANUSHKODI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR and glaucoma are two most common retinal disorders that are major causes of blindness in diabetic patients. DR caused in retinal images due to the damage in retinal blood vessels, which leads to the formation of hemorrhages spread over the entire region of retina. Glaucoma is caused due to hypertension in diabetic patients. Both DR and glaucoma affects the vision loss in diabetic patients. Hence, a computer aided development of diagnosis system for Diabetic retinopathy and Glaucoma screening is proposed in this paper to prevent vision loss. Method: The diagnosis system of DR consists of two stages namely detection and segmentation of fovea and hemorrhages. The diagnosis system of glaucoma screening consists of three stages namely blood vessel segmentation, Extraction of optic disc (OD and optic cup (OC region and determination of rim area between OD and OC. Results: The specificity and accuracy for hemorrhages detection is found to be 98.47% and 98.09% respectively. The accuracy for OD detection is found to be 99.3%. This outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion: In this paper, the diagnosis system is developed to classify the DR and glaucoma screening in to mild, moderate and severe respectively.

  5. Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit: a community health worker program to prevent vision loss and blindness among people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammary-Risch, Neyal J; Aguilar, Marcela; Goodman, Laura Saunders; Quiroz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic eye disease is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness in the United States and disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos. This article provides an overview of the Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit, a culturally and linguistically appropriate resource designed for community health workers to educate people with diabetes about eye health complications. The toolkit provides science-based, easy-to-understand information that can be used to conduct interactive, educational sessions about diabetes and eye health, the importance of comprehensive dilated eye examinations at least once a year for people with diabetes, and other ways to prevent vision loss and blindness.

  6. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the nerves that carry visual signals from the eye to the brain (the optic nerve and the visual pathways) Light ... of nerve impulses from the back of the eye to the brain will interfere with vision. Legal blindness is defined ...

  7. Natural Compounds from Saffron and Bear Bile Prevent Vision Loss and Retinal Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sánchez, Laura; Lax, Pedro; Noailles, Agustina; Angulo, Antonia; Maneu, Victoria; Cuenca, Nicolás

    2015-07-31

    All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.

  8. Natural Compounds from Saffron and Bear Bile Prevent Vision Loss and Retinal Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-Sánchez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available All retinal disorders, regardless of their aetiology, involve the activation of oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways. The administration of neuroprotective factors is crucial in all phases of the pathology, even when vision has been completely lost. The retina is one of the most susceptible tissues to reactive oxygen species damage. On the other hand, proper development and functioning of the retina requires a precise balance between the processes of proliferation, differentiation and programmed cell death. The life-or-death decision seems to be the result of a complex balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signals. It has been recently shown the efficacy of natural products to slow retinal degenerative process through different pathways. In this review, we assess the neuroprotective effect of two compounds used in the ancient pharmacopoeia. On one hand, it has been demonstrated that administration of the saffron constituent safranal to P23H rats, an animal model of retinitis pigmentosa, preserves photoreceptor morphology and number, the capillary network and the visual response. On the other hand, it has been shown that systemic administration of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA, the major component of bear bile, to P23H rats preserves cone and rod structure and function, together with their contact with postsynaptic neurons. The neuroprotective effects of safranal and TUDCA make these compounds potentially useful for therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases.

  9. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  10. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee eWong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age‐related increases in intraocular pressure, retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 ‐12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo‐spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the sensory impairment hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic‐XE, 0.00, 0.25 or 0.50% daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50% maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00% exhibited impaired performance in visually‐dependent, but not non‐visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  11. Rapid vision loss associated with fludarabine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Rachel J; Ding, Xiaoyan; Heller, Charles K; Illei, Gabor; Caruso, Rafael C; Cunningham, Denise; Pavletic, Steven; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the clinical and pathologic findings of three cases of rapid vision loss associated with fludarabine toxicity. A retrospective, single-center case series was conducted. Autopsies of the eyes from three cases were performed. A 23-year-old man (Case 1) with systemic lupus erythematosus developed rapid and severe vision loss, generalized neurologic decline, and eventual death after administration of fludarabine before stem cell transplantation. A 48-year-old woman (Case 2) and a 60-year-old man (Case 3), both with metastatic melanoma, had similar courses after receiving fludarabine as part of a preparatory regimen before adoptive cell therapy. Fundus examination showed punctuate yellow flecks in the macula after visual decline in two cases. In all three cases, serum antiretinal antibodies were negative before and after treatment; electrophysiological testing showed markedly decreased B-waves; and pathologic analysis showed loss of retinal bipolar and ganglion cells, gliosis within the retina and optic nerve, and optic nerve atrophy. Fludarabine toxicity can result in severe vision loss attributable to damage to retinal bipolar and ganglion cells. Although effective treatments are not known, care should be taken to consider fludarabine toxicity in patients who present with vision loss approximately 1 month after treatment.

  12. Global Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clifford Scott; Emmett, Susan D; Robler, Samantha Kleindienst; Tucci, Debara L

    2018-03-07

    Hearing loss is the fourth leading contributor to years lived with a disability worldwide. Most recent estimates indicate that one-half of a billion people suffer from disabling hearing loss worldwide. The social and economic burden is significant. When attributing monetary value to years lived with disability owing to hearing loss, there is greater than $US750 billion lost each year globally. There are numerous contributors to hearing loss, including congenital, infectious, noise exposure, age-related, traumatic, and immune-mediated causes. Understanding the pathophysiology of these factors allows for the development of preventative and treatment strategies specific to the underlying cause. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Vision Loss in Association with Silicone Oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tode, J; Roider, J

    2017-01-23

    Silicone oil tamponades have been a key feature of vitreoretinal surgery for more than 40 years. The use of these durable vitreous substitutes has not only been limited to tractive retinal detachments, inflammatory chorioretinopathies or other complicated vitreoretinal diseases, but also to macular holes and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. During the last 12 years, an increasing number of cases of vision loss during or after the removal of silicone oil have been reported in the literature. In up to one third of patients with uncomplicated macula-attached retinal detachment with good preoperative vision, continuing vision loss is seen. In most of these cases, thinning of the inner retinal layers can be found. The underlying pathological mechanism is unknown. A direct connection to silicone oil is likely, but has not been proven. However, the increasing number of reports raises evidence that silicone oil itself might be the reason for this phenomenon, which is not observed in gas tamponades. Vision loss during or after the removal of silicone oil is an underestimated problem. The safety and toxicity of silicone oil should be reexamined systematically. The search for novel vitreous replacements is indispensable. The use of silicone oil should be strictly evaluated and balanced against other possible tamponades in every individual case. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Complete Vision Loss following Orbital Cellulitis Secondary to Acute Dacryocystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Pfeiffer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 50-year-old woman with acute dacryocystitis that was complicated by posterior rupture of the lacrimal sac causing an orbital cellulitis with subsequent visual acuity of no light perception. Upon presentation, she was immediately started on broad-spectrum antibiotics and underwent surgical incision and drainage of the lacrimal sac abscess but never regained vision. There are 4 cases in the literature of permanent severe vision loss from acute dacryocystitis. Prompt diagnosis and close monitoring of acute dacryocystitis are therefore essential to prevent extension into the orbit and possible optic nerve compromise.

  15. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  16. Acute Vision Loss Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Byrd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle.

  17. Vision loss and hearing loss in painting and musical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the impact of vision and hearing loss on great painters and musical composers. The visual work of Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe, Edgar Degas, and Claude Monet all showed alterations as their vision failed. In contrast, Gabriel Fauré, Bedřich Smetana, and Ludwig von Beethoven wrote many of their best compositions while totally deaf, and Georg Friedrich Handel and Frederick Delius struggled to compose late in life when they lost their vision (although their hearing remained excellent). There are 2 major distinctions between the role of vision and hearing for these artistic disciplines. First, there is a surrogate means of "hearing" music, through the musical score, which allows composers to write and edit music while totally deaf. The greatest problem with deafness for a skilled composer is interference from internal noise (tinnitus). There is no surrogate for vision to allow a painter to work when the subject is a blur or the colors on the canvas cannot be distinguished. Second, although the appreciation of art is visual and that of music is auditory, the transcription of both art and musical composition is visual. Thus, visual loss does pose a problem for a composer accustomed to working with good sight, because it disrupts habitual methods of writing and editing music. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Loss of form vision impairs spatial imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B.; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (“cognitive style”) on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery ta...

  19. LOSS OF FORM VISION IMPAIRS SPATIAL IMAGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Valeria eOccelli; Jonathan B. Lin; Simon A Lacey; Krish eSathian; Krish eSathian

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (cognitive style) on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task...

  20. Central and Peripheral Vision Loss Differentially Affects Contextual Cueing in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Visual search for targets in repeated displays is more efficient than search for the same targets in random distractor layouts. Previous work has shown that this contextual cueing is severely impaired under central vision loss. Here, we investigated whether central vision loss, simulated with gaze-contingent displays, prevents the incidental…

  1. Vision Loss Following Episcleral Brachytherapy for Uveal Melanoma: Development of a Vision Prognostication Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Hassan A; Singh, Nakul; Bena, James; Wilkinson, Allan; Singh, Arun D

    2016-06-01

    Vision loss following episcleral brachytherapy for uveal melanoma is difficult to predict for individual patients. To generate a risk calculator for vision loss following episcleral brachytherapy for uveal melanoma. A retrospective review of data was conducted at a multispecialty tertiary care center in Cleveland, Ohio. All patients with primary ciliary body or choroidal melanoma treated with iodine 125 or ruthenium 106 episcleral brachytherapy between January 1, 2004, and December 30, 2013, were included. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards were used to determine the influence of baseline patient factors on vision loss. Kaplan-Meier curves (log-rank analyses) were used to estimate freedom from vision loss. Bootstrap resampling was performed to bias correct this estimate. Vision loss (to visual acuity [VA] worse than 20/50 and worse than 20/200). A total of 311 patients were included in the study, with a mean (SD) age of 62 (14.7) years at start of treatment and a median follow-up of 36 months (interquartile range, 18-60 months). At presentation, VA was better than or equal to 20/50 in 199 patients (64%) and better than or equal to 20/200 in 289 patients (93%). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, VA less than 20/200 at 3 years was not associated with sex, diabetes, systemic hypertension, or hypercholesterolemia but was associated with history of ocular comorbidities, type of isotope (ruthenium 106 or iodine 125), and initial VA ( >20/50 or radiation dose to the fovea (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = .001) and optic disc (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01; P = .005), and initial VA worse than 20/50 (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.20-2.85; P = .005) were predictive of vision loss to a VA of less than 20/200. The concordance index for the full data set was 0.77. Using these data, an online risk calculator was developed to predict vision loss following episcleral brachytherapy. The vision prognostication tool presented herein needs to be validated by

  2. LOSS OF FORM VISION IMPAIRS SPATIAL IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria eOccelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (cognitive style on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4x4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ. Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches.

  3. Loss of form vision impairs spatial imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences ("cognitive style") on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4 × 4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS) and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ). Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches.

  4. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  5. Visual Memory for Objects Following Foveal Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B.; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual…

  6. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit

    2005-01-01

    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  7. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as isolated acute monocular painless vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav M Kasundra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system, is known to affect the brain, eyes, muscular tissues and subcutaneous tissues. However, it is very rare for patients with ocular cysts to have concomitant cerebral cysts. Also, the dominant clinical manifestation of patients with cerebral cysts is either seizures or headache. We report a patient who presented with acute monocular painless vision loss due to intraocular submacular cysticercosis, who on investigation had multiple cerebral parenchymal cysticercal cysts, but never had any seizures. Although such a vision loss after initiation of antiparasitic treatment has been mentioned previously, acute monocular vision loss as the presenting feature of ocular cysticercosis is rare. We present a brief review of literature along with this case report.

  8. The prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in the Australian National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Stuart; Xie, Jing; Foreman, Joshua; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in Australia. The National Eye Health Survey (NEHS) is a population-based cross-sectional study that examined 3098 non-Indigenous Australians (aged 50-98 years) and 1738 Indigenous Australians (aged 40-92 years) living in 30 randomly selected sites, stratified by remoteness. An eye was considered to have vision loss due to trauma if the best-corrected visual acuity was worse than 6/12 and the main cause was attributed to ocular trauma. This determination was made by two independent ophthalmologists and any disagreements were adjudicated by a third senior ophthalmologist. The sampling weight adjusted prevalence of vision loss due to ocular trauma in non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older and Indigenous Australians aged 40 years and over was 0.24% (95%CI: 0.10, 0.52) and 0.79% (95%CI: 0.56, 1.13), respectively. Trauma was attributed as an underlying cause of bilateral vision loss in one Indigenous participant, with all other cases being monocular. Males displayed a higher prevalence of vision loss from ocular trauma than females in both the non-Indigenous (0.47% vs. 1.25%, p=0.03) and Indigenous populations (0.12% vs. 0.38%, p=0.02). After multivariate adjustments, residing in Very Remote geographical areas was associated with higher odds of vision loss from ocular trauma. We estimate that 2.4 per 1000 non-Indigenous and 7.9 per 1000 Indigenous Australian adults have monocular vision loss due to a previous severe ocular trauma. Our findings indicate that males, Indigenous Australians and those residing in Very Remote communities may benefit from targeted health promotion to improve awareness of trauma prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute bilateral vision loss in emergency department: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren sen Tanrikulu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke occurs due to the interruption of blood flow to the brain and it is divided into ischemic and hemorrhagic. In the ischemic strokes, while the most commonly affected vessel is median cerebral artery (MCA, it is particularly affected bilateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA is very rare condition. In this study, a case of sudden loss of vision and bilateral occipital infarct associated with bilateral vertebral system pathology and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene mutation were reported. A 62-year-old man was admitted with sudden loss of vision complaint starting 10 h before applying to emergency department. The patient was oriented and cooperative. On neurological examination, there was complete loss of vision in the right eye and only a response to light in the left eye. On the brain computerized tomography (CT, ischemic lesions were observed in the bilateral occipital areas and on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, there were foci showing diffusion limitation in cortico-subcortical areas of bilateral parieto-occipital region. On the detailed examination at the clinic, MTHFR (a1298c gene mutation was detected. Bilateral occipital infarction is rare and its diagnosis can be difficult because of its atypical symptoms. Therefore, occipital infarction should be suspected when the only sign is isolated vision loss in patients with risk factor for thromboembolism in their history and detailed visual-neurological examination of these patients should be performed. Keywords: MTHFR, Occipital infarctus, Visual loss

  10. Anterior communicating artery aneurysm presenting with vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval P Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior communicating artery aneurysm rarely presents with symptoms of compression of anterior visual pathways. We report a case of 65 years old man, who had complete loss of vision in right eye and temporal hemianopsia in left eye due to giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  11. Anterior communicating artery aneurysm presenting with vision loss

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Dhaval P.; Bhat, Dhananjaya I.; Devi, Bhagavatula I.

    2013-01-01

    Anterior communicating artery aneurysm rarely presents with symptoms of compression of anterior visual pathways. We report a case of 65 years old man, who had complete loss of vision in right eye and temporal hemianopsia in left eye due to giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  12. Anterior communicating artery aneurysm presenting with vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dhaval P; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Devi, Bhagavatula I

    2013-07-01

    Anterior communicating artery aneurysm rarely presents with symptoms of compression of anterior visual pathways. We report a case of 65 years old man, who had complete loss of vision in right eye and temporal hemianopsia in left eye due to giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  13. Visual memory for objects following foveal vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hofmüller, Wolfram; Hoffmann, Michael B; Pollmann, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Allocation of visual attention is crucial for encoding items into visual long-term memory. In free vision, attention is closely linked to the center of gaze, raising the question whether foveal vision loss entails suboptimal deployment of attention and subsequent impairment of object encoding. To investigate this question, we examined visual long-term memory for objects in patients suffering from foveal vision loss due to age-related macular degeneration. We measured patients' change detection sensitivity after a period of free scene exploration monocularly with their worse eye when possible, and under binocular vision, comparing sensitivity and eye movements to matched normal-sighted controls. A highly salient cue was used to capture attention to a nontarget location before a target change occurred in half of the trials, ensuring that change detection relied on memory. Patients' monocular and binocular sensitivity to object change was comparable to controls, even after more than 4 intervening fixations, and not significantly correlated with visual impairment. We conclude that extrafoveal vision suffices for efficient encoding into visual long-term memory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Eye health and sight loss: the UK Vision Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightstone, Anita

    2008-01-01

    The UK Vision Strategy is a Vision 2020 UK initiative, led by the Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB), to develop a unified plan for action on all issues relating to eye health and sight loss across the four countries of the UK. The Strategy was developed in response to a World Health Assembly resolution of 2003, which urged the development of national plans to tackle sight loss. Launched in April 2008, the UK Vision Strategy is a bold, ambitious plan to radically improve the eye health of the nation, eliminate avoidable sight loss, improve services to people, including children, with sight loss, and increase inclusion in society for blind and partially sighted people. Health and social care professionals joined the voluntary sector, Government representatives, service users and individuals with experience of sight loss to develop the Strategy. Local groups of health and social service professionals and service users are being formed across the UK to find ways to implement the Strategy. Any health professional with an interest in this work can contribute to their local group either through their professional representative on the group or directly.

  15. Modality planning for preventing tunnel vision in crisis management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Y.; Nijholt, Antinus; Theune, Mariët; van der Sluis, Ielka; Bachvarova, Yulia; Andre, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Crisis management is a time-critical task with high uncertainty and high risk. Stress and cognitive overload often result in a set of bias in crisis manager’s situation understanding and information confirming processes, known as 'tunnel vision'. Aiming at preventing tunnel vision, we propose an

  16. Subconjunctival hemorrhage and vision loss after regional ocular anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Umesh Chandra; Panda, Lapam; Gupta, Sumi; Modi, Rohit Ramesh

    2017-04-22

    To report two cases of retinal vascular occlusion and associated subconjunctival hemorrhage in needle optic nerve injury during local bulbar anesthesia. Surgical records of these two subjects who presented with acute vision loss after cataract extraction were studied, and systemic workup and ocular imaging were carried out to establish the cause. Computerized tomography showed evidence of optic nerve injury. Subconjunctival hemorrhage could be an associated clinical finding in hypodermic needle injury-related retinal vascular occlusion during ocular anesthesia.

  17. Loss of binocular vision as direct cause for misrouting of temporal retinal fibers in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banihani, Saleh M

    2015-10-01

    In humans, the nasal retina projects to the contralateral hemisphere, whereas the temporal retina projects ipsilaterally. The nasotemporal line that divides the retina into crossed and uncrossed parts coincides with the vertical meridian through the fovea. This normal projection of the retina is severely altered in albinism, in which the nasotemporal line shifted into the temporal retina with temporal retinal fibers cross the midline at the optic chiasm. This study proposes the loss of binocular vision as direct cause for misrouting of temporal retinal fibers and shifting of the nasotemporal line temporally in albinism. It is supported by many observations that clearly indicate that loss of binocular vision causes uncrossed retinal fibers to cross the midline. This hypothesis may alert scientists and clinicians to find ways to prevent or minimize the loss of binocular vision that may occur in some diseases such as albinism and early squint. Hopefully, this will minimize the misrouting of temporal fibers and improve vision in such diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Information Security - Data Loss Prevention Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to extend and provide specificity to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Security Policy regarding data loss prevention and digital rights management.

  19. Color vision loss in patients treated with chloroquine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventura Dora F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients that make use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, drugs which are frequently administered for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erithromatosus or malaria, may suffer alterations in color vision and in contrast sensitivity. The present work evaluates the visual function of these patients in a joint study of the University of São Paulo (USP, in São Paulo, and of the Federal University of Pará (UFPA, in Belém. Thirty two chloroquine user patients without alterations in the eye fundus exam were evaluated in São Paulo (n=10; aged 38 to 71 years; mean=55,8 years and in Belém (n=22; aged 20 to 67; mean=40 years. The prescribed accumulated chloroquine dose was 45 to 430 g (mean=213 g; sd = 152 g for the São Paulo group, and 36 to 540 g (mean=174 g; sd=183 g for the Belém group. Tests were performed monocularly with corrected eye refractive state. Color discrimination was evaluated using the Cambridge Colour Test (CCT: the color discrimination threshold was measured first in the protan, deutan and tritan axes and, in succession, three MacAdam's ellipses were determined. The patient's color vision was also evaluated with color arrangement tests: the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue (FM100, the Farnsworth-Munsell D15, and the Lanthony Desaturated (D15d tests. We also measured the contrast sensitivity for black-and-white sine wave grating of twenty two patients. The results were compared with controls without ophthalmologic or neuro-ophthalmologic pathologies. Twenty four patients presented acquired dyschromatopsia. There were cases of selective loss (11 patients and of diffuse loss (13 patients. Although losses were present in the FM100 there was no correlation between the FM100 error score and the ellipse area measured by the CCT. Moreover, three patients that scored normal in the FM100, failed to reach normal threshold in the CCT. The Lanthony test was less sensitive than the other two tests, since it failed to indicate loss in about

  20. Increasing Communication in Children With Concurrent Vision and Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C; Bashinski, Susan M

    2008-03-01

    Nine children with complex communication needs and concurrent vision and hearing losses participated in an intervention program aimed at increasing intentional prelinguistic communication. The intervention constituted a pilot, descriptive study of an adapted version of prelinguistic milieu teaching, hence referred to as A-PMT. In A-PMT, natural gestures and vocalizations were targeted in child-focused, one-on-one activities conducted by a member of the project staff. Adaptations included using more physical prompts than in other forms of PMT and using means other than directed eye gaze to determine directionality of gestures. All nine participants increased their rates of initiated, intentional communication substantially during the course of intervention; in addition, each participant acquired new forms of natural gestures. Results were limited primarily to requests (as opposed to other communication functions). Discussion centers on how to promote more generalized communication developments in future implementations of the program.

  1. Retinal Structures and Visual Cortex Activity are Impaired Prior to Clinical Vision Loss in Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Matthew C.; Conner, Ian P.; Teng, Cindy Y.; Lawrence, Jesse D.; Safiullah, Zaid; Wang, Bo; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.; Chan, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we measured the structure, metabolism and function of the visual system by optical coherence tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and glaucoma patients with different degrees of vision loss. We found that inner retinal layer thinning, optic nerve cupping and reduced visual cortex activity occurred before patients showed visual field impairment. The primary visual cortex also exhibited more severe functional deficits than higher-order visual brain areas in glaucoma. Within the visual cortex, choline metabolism was perturbed along with increasing disease severity in the eye, optic radiation and visual field. In summary, this study showed evidence that glaucoma deterioration is already present in the eye and the brain before substantial vision loss can be detected clinically using current testing methods. In addition, cortical cholinergic abnormalities are involved during trans-neuronal degeneration and can be detected non-invasively in glaucoma. The current results can be of impact for identifying early glaucoma mechanisms, detecting and monitoring pathophysiological events and eye-brain-behavior relationships, and guiding vision preservation strategies in the visual system, which may help reduce the burden of this irreversible but preventable neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27510406

  2. Uncovering effective strategies for hearing loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Thais C.; Meinke, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health agencies, researchers and policy makers have recognized the need for evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce or prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. While many workplaces comply with legal or obligatory requirements and implement recommended interventions, few publications exist documenting the effectiveness of these actions. Additionally, some workplaces have discovered through their own processes, novel ways to reduce the risk of injury. Peer-reviewed information on the effectiveness of the many strategies and approaches currently in use could help correct weaknesses, or further encourage their adoption and expansion. The evaluation of intervention effectiveness would certainly contribute to improved worker health and safety. This need is particularly relevant regarding noise exposure in the workplace and hearing loss prevention interventions. In a 2006 review of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hearing Loss Research Program, the independent National Academies of Sciences recommended that NIOSH place greater emphasis on identifying the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention measures on the basis of outcomes that are as closely related as possible to reducing noise exposure and work related hearing loss (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11721). NIOSH used two different approaches to address that recommendation: the first one was to conduct research, including broad systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. The second was to create an award program, the Safe-In-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award™, to identify and honor excellent real-world examples of noise control and other hearing loss prevention practices and innovations. PMID:27397968

  3. Adjustment to vision loss in a mixed sample of adults with established visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrett, Daryl R; Latham, Keziah

    2012-10-19

    To determine factors associated with the level of adjustment to vision loss in a cross-sectional sample of adults with mixed visual impairment. One hundred participants were administered the Acceptance and Self-Worth Adjustment Scale (AS-WAS) to assess adjustment to vision loss. The severity of vision loss was determined using binocular clinical visual function assessments including visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, reading performance, and visual fields. Key demographics including age, duration of visual impairment, general health, education, and living arrangements were evaluated, as were self-reported vision-related activity limitation (VRAL), depression, social support, and personality. Multivariate analysis showed that higher levels of depressive symptoms (β = -0.26, P personality trait neuroticism (β = -0.33, P personality trait of conscientiousness (β = 0.29, P personality (specifically neuroticism and conscientiousness), independent of the severity of vision loss, VRAL, and duration of vision loss. The results suggest certain individuals may be predisposed to exhibiting less adjustment to vision loss due to personality characteristics, and exhibit poorer adjustment owing to or as a consequence of depression, rather than due to other factors such as the onset and severity of visual impairment.

  4. Policosanol prevents bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noa, M; Más, R; Mendoza, S; Gámez, R; Mendoza, N; González, J

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by reduced bone mass, abnormal bone architecture and increased fracture risk. Ovariectomy impairs bone mass and metabolism in rats and ovariectomized rats are considered as a suitable model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Mevalonate is required for producing lipoids that are important in osteoclast activity and thus drugs affecting mevalonate production can prevent bone loss in rodents. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug isolated from sugar cane wax that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis through an indirect regulation of hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether policosanol could prevent bone loss in the bones of ovariectomized rats by comparing its effects with those induced by estradiol. Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly distributed in four groups: a sham-operated group treated with Tween/H2O vehicle and three groups of ovariectomized rats treated with 17beta-estradiol (30 microg/kg/day) or policosanol (50 and 200 mg/kg/day), respectively, for 3 months. At treatment completion the rats were sacrificed, their bones removed and variables of bone resorption and formation were investigated by histomorphometry. Ovariectomy increased trabecular separation but diminished the number and thickness of trabecules. Estradiol and policosanol prevented these effects compared with ovariectomized controls. Both treatments also prevented an increase in the number of osteoclasts and their surface area induced by ovariectomy. Estradiol, but not policosanol, significantly prevented an increase of osteoblast surface area compared with ovariectomized controls. In conclusion, policosanol prevented bone loss and decreased bone resorption in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that it should be potentially useful in preventing bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  5. Needs and Challenges of Seniors with Combined Hearing and Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnall, Michele C.; Crudden, Adele; LeJeune, B. J.; Steverson, Anne; O'Donnell, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to identify the needs and challenges of seniors with dual sensory loss (combined hearing and vision loss) and to determine priorities for training family members, community service providers, and professionals who work with them. Methods: Individuals (N = 131) with dual sensory loss between the ages of…

  6. Prevalence of Preventable Causes of Low Vision in Different Ages and Genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akhgary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the vision loss from age-related eye disease can be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine 5Tthe prevalence5T 5Tof preventable5T 5Tcauses5T 5Tof low5T 5Tvision. Materials and Methods: In this study, files of 204 patients were evaluated5T.5T Low vision was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye between 20/70 to 20/200. Diagnosis of anterior and posterior segment disease was based on the eye examination that performed with Topcon slit-lamp biomicroscope and direct and indirect ophthalmoscope examination7T. Results: The prevalence of 5Tpreventable5T 5Tcauses of5T 5Tlow 5Twas respectively:5T diabetic retinopathy,5T 5Tin 335T 5Tpatients (5T16.18%, 5Tglaucoma 5Tin 6 5Tpatients (5T2.94%, 5Tand amblyopia5T in 5T2 patients (1%5T. Conclusion: The majority of cases have treatable and/or preventable causes; reduction of low vision or blindness can be achieved by appropriate screening strategies.

  7. The Impact of Vision Loss on Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Koustriava, Eleni; Charalampidou, Maria; Gerapostolou, Ioanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the differences in personality traits amongst adults with blindness, adults with low vision and sighted adults. Moreover, the relationship between the four scales of Eysenck's personality questionnaire and the demographic characteristics of participants with visual impairments was examined. There are no…

  8. Role of vision loss, functional limitations and the supporting network in depression in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nispen, Ruth M A; Vreeken, Hilde L; Comijs, Hannie C; Deeg, Dorly J H; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2016-02-01

    Although the prevalence of depression in visually impaired older persons is high, the association between vision loss and depression seems to be influenced by factors other than visual impairment. In this study, the role of vision loss, functional limitations and social network characteristics in relation to depressive symptoms was investigated. Cross-sectional data (N = 1237) from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were used to investigate the prevalence of depression (Center of Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale) within subgroups with increasing vision loss. In linear regression models, functional limitations and social network characteristics were examined as possible mediators in the association between vision loss and depression. Having a partner was considered to be a potential moderator. Although a significant linear trend was found in the presence of depressive symptoms with 14% in normally sighted, 23% in mild and 37% in severe vision loss (χ(2)(1) = 14.9; p depression. Mediators were functional limitations (p social network size (p = 0.009). No interaction with partner status was found. In the presence of depression, a trend was found with increasing severity of vision loss, indicating the need for more attention in (mental) health care and low-vision rehabilitation. In the general older population, vision loss was not an independent determinant of depression but was mediated by functional limitations and social network size. Rather than receiving actual social support, the idea of having a social network to rely on when needed seemed to be associated with lower levels of depression. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of perinatal loss: towards personalized medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev M.V.; Davydova Iu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The literature review on the prevention of preterm labor is carried out. Preterm labor is the actual problem of modern obstetrics due to the impact on maternal and child health. It is affects the level of perinatal morbidity, disability and infant mortality. Preterm labor occupies a dominant position in the structure of perinatal losses. Introduction of the prophylactic modern technologies of the preterm labor using micronized progesterone containing preparations allows clearly reduce their f...

  11. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Khoshnevis, Matin; Gale, Jesse; Frousiakis, Starleen E; Hwang, Tiffany J; Poincenot, Lissa; Karanjia, Rustum; Baron, David; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support. A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13-65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR) on a 21-point psychometric scale from -10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR. Subjects were additionally asked about the use of low vision aids and sources of emotional support. A total of 103 participants (mean age =26.4±11.2 years at LHON diagnosis; mean ± standard deviation) completed the questionnaire. Nearly half (49.5%) met the depression criteria after vision loss. Negative impacts on interpersonal interactions (median IR = -5) and career goals (median IR = -6) were observed; both ratings were worse ( P depressed versus nondepressed subjects. Older age at diagnosis corresponded to higher depression prevalence and increased incidence of negative interpersonal IR and career IR. Sixty-eight percent of subjects used electronic vision aids; controlling for age, social well-being index was higher among these individuals than for those who did not use electronic aids ( P =0.03). Over half of the participants (52.4%) asserted that they derived emotional support from their ophthalmologist. Profound vision loss in adolescents, young

  12. Efficacy of gallium in tooth loss prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Milena D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in medicine. Radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human diseases. More recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may also function as antimicrobial agents. In the review, the potential application of gallium in the future treatment of periodontitis and prevention of tooth loss will be discussed. Gingival inflammation, bacterial infection, alveolar bone destruction and subsequent tooth loss are characteristic features of periodontal disease. Surgical techniques, mechanical debridement of the denuded root surface, and local or systemic application of antimicrobial agents are currently used treatments for periodontitis. However, the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has prompted a great need for new and alternative treatment methods for infection. Conclusion: The potential anti-periodontitis benefits of gallium are related to eradicating infection due to bacterial biofilms, increasing bone deposition and downregulating unwanted immune responses. Adjunctive use of gallium laser therapy with mechanical instrumentation in combination with gallium-containing gingival gels, toothpastes and mouth rinses may represent the final solutions for tooth loss prevention.

  13. Association of Vision Loss With Cognition in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephanie P; Bhattacharya, Jay; Pershing, Suzann

    2017-09-01

    Visual dysfunction and poor cognition are highly prevalent among older adults; however, the relationship is not well defined. To evaluate the association of measured and self-reported visual impairment (VI) with cognition in older US adults. Cross-sectional analysis of 2 national data sets: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002, and the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), 2011-2015. The NHANES was composed of a civilian, noninstitutionalized community, and the NHATS comprised Medicare beneficiaries in the contiguous United States. Vision was measured at distance, near, and by self-report in the NHANES and by self-report alone in the NHATS. Sample weights were used to ensure result generalizability. The NHANES measured Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) score and relative DSST impairment (DSST score ≤28, lowest quartile in study cohort), and the NHATS measured probable or possible dementia, classified per NHATS protocol. The NHANES comprised 2975 respondents aged 60 years and older who completed the DSST measuring cognitive performance. Mean (SD) age was 72 (8) years, 52% of participants were women (n = 1527), and 61% were non-Hispanic white (n = 1818). The NHATS included 30 202 respondents aged 65 years and older with dementia status assessment. The largest proportion (40%; n = 12 212) were between 75 and 84 years of age. Fifty-eight percent were women (n = 17 659), and 69% were non-Hispanic white (n = 20 842). In the NHANES, distance VI (β = -5.1; 95% CI, -8.6 to -1.6; odds ratio [OR], 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1-6.7) and subjective VI (β = -5.3; 95% CI, -8.0 to -2.6; OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.8) were both associated with lower DSST scores and higher odds of DSST impairment after full adjustment with covariates. Near VI was associated with lower DSST scores but not higher odds of DSST impairment. The NHATS data corroborated these results, with all vision variables associated with higher

  14. Prevention of perinatal loss: towards personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev M.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review on the prevention of preterm labor is carried out. Preterm labor is the actual problem of modern obstetrics due to the impact on maternal and child health. It is affects the level of perinatal morbidity, disability and infant mortality. Preterm labor occupies a dominant position in the structure of perinatal losses. Introduction of the prophylactic modern technologies of the preterm labor using micronized progesterone containing preparations allows clearly reduce their frequency in a number of clinics that use the destination progesterone protocol for ultrasound cervical length less than 25 mm, as well as in women with preterm labor in history.

  15. Origins of strabismus and loss of binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui Quoc, Emmanuel; Milleret, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Strabismus is a frequent ocular disorder that develops early in life in humans. As a general rule, it is characterized by a misalignment of the visual axes which most often appears during the critical period of visual development. However other characteristics of strabismus may vary greatly among subjects, for example, being convergent or divergent, horizontal or vertical, with variable angles of deviation. Binocular vision may also vary greatly. Our main goal here is to develop the idea that such “polymorphy” reflects a wide variety in the possible origins of strabismus. We propose that strabismus must be considered as possibly resulting from abnormal genetic and/or acquired factors, anatomical and/or functional abnormalities, in the sensory and/or the motor systems, both peripherally and/or in the brain itself. We shall particularly develop the possible “central” origins of strabismus. Indeed, we are convinced that it is time now to open this “black box” in order to move forward. All of this will be developed on the basis of both presently available data in literature (including most recent data) and our own experience. Both data in biology and medicine will be referred to. Our conclusions will hopefully help ophthalmologists to better understand strabismus and to develop new therapeutic strategies in the future. Presently, physicians eliminate or limit the negative effects of such pathology both on the development of the visual system and visual perception through the use of optical correction and, in some cases, extraocular muscle surgery. To better circumscribe the problem of the origins of strabismus, including at a cerebral level, may improve its management, in particular with respect to binocular vision, through innovating tools by treating the pathology at the source. PMID:25309358

  16. Origins of strabismus and loss of binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBui Quoc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Strabismus is a frequent ocular disorder that develops early in life in humans. As a general rule, it is characterized by a misalignment of the visual axes which most often appears during the critical period of visual development. However other characteristics of strabismus may vary greatly among subjects, for example, being convergent or divergent, horizontal or vertical, with variable angles of deviation. Binocular vision may also vary greatly. Our main goal here is to develop the idea that such polymorphy reflects a wide variety in the possible origins of strabismus. We propose that strabismus must be considered as possibly resulting from abnormal genetic and/or acquired factors, anatomical and/or functional abnormalities, in the sensory and/or the motor systems, both peripherally and/or in the brain itself. We shall particularly develop the possible central origins of strabismus. Indeed, we are convinced that it is time now to open this black box in order to move forward. All of this will be developed on the basis of both presently available data in literature (including most recent data and our own experience. Both data in medicine and biology will be referred to. Our conclusions will hopefully help ophthalmologists to better understand strabismus and to develop new therapeutic strategies in the future. Presently, physicians eliminate or limit the negative effects of such pathology both on the development of the visual system and visual perception through the use of optical correction and, in some cases, extraocular muscle surgery. To better circumscribe the problem of the origins of strabismus, including at a cerebral level, may improve its management, in particular with respect to binocular vision, through innovating tools by treating the pathology at the source.

  17. Vision Screening in Children Aged 6 Months to 5 Years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, David C; Curry, Susan J; Owens, Douglas K; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-09-05

    One of the most important causes of vision abnormalities in children is amblyopia (also known as "lazy eye"). Amblyopia is an alteration in the visual neural pathway in a child's developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye. Among children younger than 6 years, 1% to 6% have amblyopia or its risk factors (strabismus, anisometropia, or both). Early identification of vision abnormalities could prevent the development of amblyopia. Studies show that screening rates among children vary by race/ethnicity and family income. Data based on parent reports from 2009-2010 indicated identical screening rates among black non-Hispanic children and white non-Hispanic children (80.7%); however, Hispanic children were less likely than non-Hispanic children to report vision screening (69.8%). Children whose families earned 200% or more above the federal poverty level were more likely to report vision screening than families with lower incomes. To update the 2011 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for amblyopia and its risk factors in children. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the accuracy of vision screening tests and the benefits and harms of vision screening and treatment. Surgical interventions were considered to be out of scope for this review. Treatment of amblyopia is associated with moderate improvements in visual acuity in children aged 3 to 5 years, which are likely to result in permanent improvements in vision throughout life. The USPSTF concluded that the benefits are moderate because untreated amblyopia results in permanent, uncorrectable vision loss, and the benefits of screening and treatment potentially can be experienced over a child's lifetime. The USPSTF found adequate evidence to bound the potential harms of treatment (ie, higher false-positive rates in low-prevalence populations) as small. Therefore, the USPSTF concluded with moderate certainty that the overall net benefit is moderate for

  18. TrkB Activators for the Treatment of Traumatic Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    acid between brine and 85 : 15 CHCl3 / i-PrOH is ~0.3). The combined organics were dried over Na2SO4 and concentrated in vacuo to give 2-oxopiperidine...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0436 TITLE: TrkB Activators for the Treatment of Traumatic Vision Loss PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: P. Michael Iuvone...for the Treatment of Traumatic Vision Loss 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0436 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  19. Profound vision loss impairs psychological well-being in young and middle-aged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia GA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo A Garcia,1,2 Matin Khoshnevis,1,3 Jesse Gale,1,4 Starleen E Frousiakis,1,5 Tiffany J Hwang,1,6 Lissa Poincenot,1 Rustum Karanjia,1,7–9 David Baron,6 Alfredo A Sadun1,7 1Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, Wellington, NZ; 5Department of Ophthalmology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 6Department of Psychiatry & The Behavioral Sciences, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 7Doheny Eye Centers, Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles California, CA, USA; 8Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 9Ottawa Hospital Health Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of profound vision loss on psychological well-being in adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults with regard to mood, interpersonal interactions, and career-related goals. In addition, we assessed the significance of the resources that may be used to enhance psychological well-being in cases of profound vision loss, and in particular, examined the utility of low vision aids and the role of the ophthalmologist as a provider of emotional support.Methods: A questionnaire was issued to individuals aged 13–65 years with profound vision loss resulting from Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. Depression prevalence was evaluated with questions regarding major depressive disorder symptomatology. Participants appraised the effects of vision loss on their interpersonal interactions and career goals by providing an impact rating (IR on a 21-point psychometric scale from −10 to +10. Social well-being index was defined as the average of interpersonal IR and career IR

  20. Neurogenic vision loss: Causes and outcome. An experience from a tertiary center in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vision loss can be a consequence of numerous disorders of eye and neural pathway conveying visual input to brain. A variety of conditions can affect visual pathway producing neurogenic vision loss. The presentation and course of vision loss depends on the site of involvement and underlying etiology. We conducted this unprecedented study to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of various diseases of the visual pathway. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated 64 patients with neurogenic visual impairment. Ophthalmological causes were excluded in all of them. Their presentation, ophthalmological characteristics and investigation findings were recorded. These patients were followed up till 6 months. Results: Out of 69 patients evaluated, 5 were excluded as they had ophthalmological abnormalities. The remaining 64 cases (113 eyes were enrolled. 54 cases were due to diseases of anterior visual pathway and rest 10 had cortical vision loss. The etiologic distribution is as follows: Isolated optic neuritis- 12 (19%, multiple sclerosis- 4 (6.3%, neuromyelitis optica- 5 (7.9%, tubercular meningitis- 15 (23.8%, non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, ischemic optic neuropathy complicating cavernous sinus thrombosis, cryptococcal meningitis, malignant infiltration of optic nerve, Crouzon′s syndrome, calvarial thickening and traumatic occipital gliosis- 1 (1.6% case each, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, pituitary adenoma, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy- 3 (4.8% cases each, cortical venous thrombosis 5 (7.9%, subacute scleroing panencephalitis- 4 (6.3% cases. Conclusions: The diseases of anterior visual pathway were much more common than cortical vision loss. A majority of our patients had severe impairment of vision at presentation.

  1. [Ocular myositis as a rare cause of vision loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollnik, J D; Requadt, H

    2017-04-01

    Ocular myositis is a rare disease characterized by painful diplopia but loss of vision rarely occurs. The article reviews the literature focusing on the differential diagnostics. We report the case of an 80-year-old women suffering from slowly progressive loss of vision in the left eye. Diplopia was only present at the beginning and there was only moderate pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a swelling of the left medial, lateral and inferior rectus muscles of the orbit leading to compression of the optic nerve in the orbital cone. An intravenous prednisolone stoss therapy (1000 mg per day for 3 consecutive days) was initiated, followed by oral medication of 100 mg per day then tapering over 10 weeks. Vision improved and no relapses were observed. Physicians should be aware of this rare disease to ensure quick diagnosis and treatment of ocular myositis.

  2. Bilateral idiopathic optic perineuritis with severe vision loss: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee-Min Teh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Optic perineuritis is an orbital inflammatory disorder that is either idiopathic or secondary to other conditions such as infection or systemic inflammatory disorders. This condition is very similar to demyelinating optic neuritis, but certain features of the history and magnetic resonance imaging findings are characteristic for and aid in the diagnosis of optic perineuritis. Vision loss varies greatly, from minimal clouding of vision up to only light perception. We report a case of a 44-year-old female with idiopathic bilateral optic perineuritis with vision loss of up to no light perception in both eyes. Radio imaging studies were typical of optic perineuritis and she was started on systemic corticosteroids. She responded very well to steroid therapy and achieved nearly complete visual recovery. There had been no relapse despite cessation of therapy.

  3. Vision loss associated with the use and removal of intraocular silicone oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Williams

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick D Williams1, Christopher G Fuller1, Ingrid U Scott2, Dwain G Fuller1, Harry W Flynn Jr31Texas Retina Associates, Dallas, TX, USA; 2Departments of Ophthalmology and Health Evaluation Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAPurpose: To describe vision loss associated with the use or removal of silicone oil retinal tamponade.Methods: Records were reviewed of all patients with a decrease in visual acuity of at least 3 Snellen lines from best acuity with 5000 centistoke silicone oil in place or after removal of silicone oil at a single retina-only practice between 1996 and 2006.Results: Nine patients (6 men, 3 women with a mean age of 48 years (range, 16–61 met study inclusion criteria. Seven patients lost at least three Snellen lines of vision while the silicone oil was in place. Four patients had late modest improvements in acuity when compared to their final recorded Snellen vision before silicone oil removal, however no patients exhibited visual improvement when comparing their final recorded visual acuities after oil removal with best recorded acuities under oil tamponade. Loss of the foveal depression was a consistent feature on optical coherence tomography.Conclusions: Vision loss is a possible complication of silicone oil use and removal. Late visual improvement may occur in some patients. Further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s of vision loss associated with the use or removal of silicone oil.Keywords: retinal tamponade, visual acuity, snellen vision, silicone oil

  4. Vision and hearing impairments and their associations with falling and loss of instrumental activities in daily living in acute hospitalized older persons in five Nordic hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, Else Vengnes; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Jensdóttir, Anna Birna; Ljunggren, Gunnar; Bucht, Gösta; Björnson, Leif Jan; Jonsén, Elisabeth; Schroll, Marianne; Jónsson, Palmi V

    2009-12-01

    Many older people believe sensory problems are inevitably, a part of growing old, and avoid assessment and help. Such problems are often also overlooked by health professionals. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of hearing and vision impairment and their associations with loss of instrumental activities in daily living (IADL) and risk of falling in patients aged 75 years or older, admitted to a medical ward in an acute hospital in each of the five Nordic countries. The Minimum Data Set for Acute Care was used for data collection in 770 patients. Premorbid data, admission data and history of falls over 3 months were obtained on admission by interview and observation. Hearing impairment was present if the patient required a quiet setting to be able to hear normal speech. Vision impairment was defined as unable to read regular print in a newspaper. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were performed. Forty-eight per cent of the patients had a hearing impairment, 32.3% had vision impairment and 20.1% had both. Hearing impairment was associated with falling but not in the logistic regression model. Hearing and vision impairment were associated with loss of IADL but only combined impairment was independently. Hearing and vision impairments were frequent among older patients in the medical wards. Falling was associated with hearing loss and IADL loss with hearing, vision and combined impairments. Sensory loss was also associated with fear of falling. It is recommended routinely to screen sensory functions in older patients in a medical setting. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether improvements in hearing and vision can prevent falls and further loss of function in this patient population.

  5. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  6. Acute loss of vision in a young woman: A case report on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute loss of vision needs urgent attention and treatment. We report on a young Ethiopian woman who experienced acute bilateral blindness. In the presence of normal ophthalmological findings psychogenic blindness has to be considered. Case Details: A 21 years old woman was admitted to the psychiatry ...

  7. Dural metastasis from prostatic adenocarcinoma mimicking meningioma: Report of a case with unilateral loss of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokgoz, Ozlem; Voyvoda, Nuray; Tokgoz, Husnu

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of PCa (prostatic adenocarcinoma) with transdural metastasis which radiologically simulated a meningioma. During the course of the disease, the patient complained of progressive unilateral loss of vision as the first presentation of intracranial, extra-axial metastasis

  8. Adjustment to acquired vision loss in adults presenting for visual disability certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Aditya; Rohatgi, Jolly; Bhatia, Manjeet S; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2017-03-01

    Rehabilitation of the visually disabled depends on how they adjust to loss; understanding contributing factors may help in effective rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to assess adjustment to acquired vision loss in adults. This observational study, conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology at a tertiary-level teaching hospital, included thirty persons (25-65 years) with visual disability, might contribute to reducing stress and depression.

  9. 76 FR 62093 - Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... stakeholder meeting on preventing occupational hearing loss. Every year, between 20,000 and 25,000 workers suffer from preventable hearing loss due to high workplace noise levels. The purpose of this meeting is... nearly 125,000 workers have suffered significant, permanent hearing loss since 2004. Neither surgery nor...

  10. Patterns of functional vision loss in glaucoma determined with archetypal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Pasquale, Louis R.; Shen, Lucy Q.; Chen, Teresa C.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Bex, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy accompanied by vision loss which can be mapped by visual field (VF) testing revealing characteristic patterns related to the retinal nerve fibre layer anatomy. While detailed knowledge about these patterns is important to understand the anatomic and genetic aspects of glaucoma, current classification schemes are typically predominantly derived qualitatively. Here, we classify glaucomatous vision loss quantitatively by statistically learning prototypical patterns on the convex hull of the data space. In contrast to component-based approaches, this method emphasizes distinct aspects of the data and provides patterns that are easier to interpret for clinicians. Based on 13 231 reliable Humphrey VFs from a large clinical glaucoma practice, we identify an optimal solution with 17 glaucomatous vision loss prototypes which fit well with previously described qualitative patterns from a large clinical study. We illustrate relations of our patterns to retinal structure by a previously developed mathematical model. In contrast to the qualitative clinical approaches, our results can serve as a framework to quantify the various subtypes of glaucomatous visual field loss. PMID:25505132

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness and vision loss among young and middle-age U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Zebardast, Nazlee; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between vision loss and cardiorespiratory fitness among young and middle-age U.S. adults. The study had a cross-sectional design. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 served as the study setting. Study subjects included 3135 adults ages 20 to 49 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from cardiorespiratory extrapolation using heart rate response during submaximal treadmill testing, with inadequate cardiorespiratory fitness defined as below the 60th percentile for age and gender. Visual acuity was objectively assessed for each eye. Multivariable regression (linear and logistic) models were computed to examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and vision. Poorer cardiorespiratory fitness (β = -3.7 mL O2/kg per minute; 95% confidence interval: -5.3 to -2.2) was observed in subjects with visual impairment after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and comorbid illness. Participants with vision impairment, as compared with those with normal sight, had 4.4-fold higher odds of having inadequate cardiorespiratory fitness (95% confidence interval: 1.04-18.97), whereas participants with uncorrected refractive error were not more likely to demonstrate poorer cardiorespiratory fitness. Adults with visual impairment, but not adults with uncorrected refractive error, demonstrate a significant reduction in cardiorespiratory fitness and are much more likely to have inadequate fitness compared with those with normal vision. Evaluation and implementation of strategies to increase cardiorespiratory fitness among those with vision impairment, in particular, are needed.

  12. Interventions to prevent occupational noise induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wout; Sorgdrager, Bas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing

  13. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing

  14. Craniopharyngioma causing bilateral vision loss 4 months after unremarkable magnetic resonance imaging of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainy Betts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old man developed bilateral vision loss 4 months after magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no lesion in the vicinity of the optic chiasm, hypothalamus, and suprasellar tissues. Repeat computed tomography 3 months later showed a predominantly cystic mass of the suprasellar cistern with extension into the anterior third ventricle, which histologically was a craniopharyngioma. The clinical course of this case fuels the controversy whether craniopharyngiomas arise from embryonic rests or can be acquired. From a clinical perspective, it raises questions about when to obtain imaging studies dedicated to the chiasm and the appropriate interval in which a scan should be repeated to exclude structural causes of bilateral vision loss.

  15. Dependence of reading speed on letter spacing in central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Susana T L

    2012-09-01

    Crowding, the difficulty in recognizing a letter in close proximity with other letters, has been suggested as an explanation for slow reading in people with central vision loss. The goals of this study were (1) to examine whether increased letter spacing in words, which presumably reduces crowding among letters, would benefit reading for people with central vision loss and (2) to relate our finding to the current account of faulty feature integration of crowding. Fourteen observers with central vision loss read aloud single sentences, one word at a time, using rapid serial visual presentation. Reading speeds were calculated based on the rapid serial visual presentation exposure durations yielding 80% accuracy. Letters were rendered in Courier, a fixed-width font. Observers were tested at 1.4× the critical print size (CPS), three were also tested at 0.8× CPS. Reading speed was measured for five center-to-center letter spacings (range: 0.5-2× the standard spacing). The preferred retinal locus for fixation was determined for nine of the observers, from which we calculated the horizontal dimension of the integration field for crowding. All observers showed increased reading speed with letter spacing for small spacings, until an optimal spacing, beyond which reading speed either showed a plateau, or dropped as letter spacing further increased. The optimal spacing averaged 0.95 ± 0.06× [±95% confidence interval] the standard spacing for 1.4× CPS (similar for 0.8× CPS), which was not different from the standard. When converted to angular size, the measured values of the optimal letter spacing for reading show a good relationship with the calculated horizontal dimension of the integration field. Increased letter spacing beyond the standard size, which presumably reduces crowding among letters in text, does not improve reading speed for people with central vision loss. The optimal letter spacing for reading can be predicted based on the preferred retinal locus.

  16. Maximum reading speed and binocular summation in patients with central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarita-Nistor, Luminita; Brent, Michael H; Markowitz, Samuel N; Steinbach, Martin J; González, Esther G

    2013-10-01

    Visual acuity is a poor predictor of the maximum reading speed of patients with central vision loss. This study examines the effects of binocular summation of acuity on the maximum reading speed of these patients. Prospective, observational case series. Twenty patients with central vision loss participated. Maximum reading speed was measured binocularly using the MNREAD acuity charts. Monocular and binocular acuities were measured with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Binocular summation was evaluated with a binocular ratio (BR) calculated as the ratio between the acuity of the better eye to binocular acuity. Fixation stability and preferred retinal locus (PRL) distance from the former fovea were evaluated with the MP-1 microperimetre. Six patients experienced acuity summation (BR > 1.05), 5 experienced acuity inhibition (BR reading speed was significantly slower (p reading speed for the overall sample (r[18] = 0.49, p = 0.03). BR together with PRL distance from the former fovea in the better eye explained 45% of the variance in maximum reading speed. Binocular summation of acuity rather than visual acuity alone affects maximum reading speed of patients with central vision loss. Patients with binocular inhibition read significantly slower than those with binocular summation or equality. Assessment of binocular summation is important when devising reading rehabilitation techniques. © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Heuristics in primary care for recognition of unreported vision loss in older people: a technology development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyekoon, Skanda; Kharicha, Kalpa; Iliffe, Steve

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate heuristics (rules of thumb) for recognition of undetected vision loss in older patients in primary care. Vision loss is associated with ageing, and its prevalence is increasing. Visual impairment has a broad impact on health, functioning and well-being. Unrecognised vision loss remains common, and screening interventions have yet to reduce its prevalence. An alternative approach is to enhance practitioners' skills in recognising undetected vision loss, by having a more detailed picture of those who are likely not to act on vision changes, report symptoms or have eye tests. This paper describes a qualitative technology development study to evaluate heuristics for recognition of undetected vision loss in older patients in primary care. Using a previous modelling study, two heuristics in the form of mnemonics were developed to aid pattern recognition and allow general practitioners to identify potential cases of unreported vision loss. These heuristics were then analysed with experts. Findings It was concluded that their implementation in modern general practice was unsuitable and an alternative solution should be sort.

  18. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1989-01-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to...

  19. The reading accessibility index and quality of reading grid of patients with central vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarita-Nistor, Luminita; González, Esther G; Mandelcorn, Mark S; Brent, Michael H; Markowitz, Samuel N; Steinbach, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the reading accessibility index (ACC) and a quality of reading grid as assessment tools for reading and as outcome measures for reading rehabilitation of patients with central vision loss. Reading performances on the MNRead chart (www.precision-vision.com) were reviewed from our research database. Participants were 24 controls with normal vision [mean age: 34 (SD, 14) years] and 61 patients with bilateral central vision loss [mean age: 81 (SD, 9) years] among which a subgroup of 18 patients [mean age, 76 (SD, 13) years] had undergone perceptual learning training for reading rehabilitation. The outcome measures were maximum reading speed, reading acuity, critical print size, ACC, and the reading quality. A reading quality grid that classified reading speed as spot, slow, functional, or fluent and print size as small, regular, medium, or large was used. All reading speed values were normalised (i.e., divided by 200, the average reading speed in young adults with normal vision measured with the MNRead). The ACC was associated perfectly with the maximum reading speed in the control group (r 22  = 0.99, P reading in the patient group (smallest r value: r 59  = -0.66, P reading was functional for large print, but slow for medium print and spot for regular print. For some patients with the same ACC values, the quality of reading grid revealed important performance differences. For the subgroup (n = 18) of patients who were trained, the ACC revealed a greater effect of training than the other three parameters of reading, and although there were statistically significant improvements across all print size categories, a qualitative improvement in reading was noticed only for the medium print sizes. The ACC is a good measure of reading performance in patients with central vision loss. Examining reading quality for different print size categories can provide a more detailed picture of reading impairment and should be considered as an outcome

  20. The prevention of losses in cured fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1981-01-01

    The paper reviews problems of the post-harvest losses in cured fish. The importance of this commodity in the tropics and existing methods of its handling, processing, storage and distribution are discussed...

  1. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoldt, Daniel L.

    1989-09-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to assist in the creation of specific prevention plans. An intelligent tutoring system (ITS) contains two types of knowledge—domain and tutoring. The domain knowledge for wildfire prevention is structured around several foci: (1) individual concepts used in prevention planning; (2) explicitly specified interrelationships between concepts; (3) deductive methods that contain subjective judgment normally unavailable to less-experienced users; (4) analytical models of fire behavior used for identification of hazard areas; (5) how-to guidance needed for performance of planning tasks; and (6) expository information that provides a rationale for planning steps and ideas. Combining analytical, procedure, inferential, conceptual, and expositional knowledge into a tutoring environment provides the student and/or user with a multiple perspective of the subject matter. A concept network provides a unifying framework for structuring and utilizing these diverse forms of prevention planning knowledge. This network structure borrows from and combines semantic networks and frame-based knowledge representations. The flexibility of this organization facilitates an effective synthesis and organization of multiple knowledge forms.

  2. Low vision rehabilitation for a target-shooting marksman with visual field loss and diplopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamara, Richard; Potaznick, Walter; Matjucha, Ippolit

    2008-05-01

    In the United States in 2006, there were 17.8 million hunters and 17.1 million target shooters. When these sportsmen suffer significant visual loss, it can have a devastating effect on their participation in the shooting sports. According to the National Rifle Association, there are no reliable data sources on the number of target shooters with visual impairment. This case report describes a retired, nationally ranked, competitive target shooter who suffered bilateral visual field loss secondary to nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and diplopia secondary to cerebral vascular accident. A retired 67-year-old white man was referred by a local optometrist to a neuro-ophthalmologist with a suspicious finding of disc pallor and a restriction of the visual field. Examination revealed right hypertropia and visual field defects: binocular superior altitudinal losses and inferior arcuate loss in his dominant, right eye. He had best-corrected distance acuity of 20/20 - 2 in the right eye and 20/25 - 2 in the left eye. Because of this, he received several adaptive rehabilitation devices to help him regain his shooting performance. These included a single-vision add for the pistol sight, yellow tint, low-power telescope, and patching. In this report, the fundamentals of eye care for competitive shooting are described with an emphasis on providing the best acuity for presbyopic patient prescriptions at nonstandard distances and the avoidance of diplopia. A visually impaired sportsman who participated in shooting sports at a high level was attempting to return to his previous shooting performance. This case report shows how sports vision and low vision rehabilitation techniques can improve the visual function of a competitive shooter.

  3. Revisiting Postoperative Vision Loss following Non-Ocular Surgery: A Short Review of Etiology and Legal Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Mendel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative vision loss (POVL following non-ocular surgery is a serious complication where the causes are not fully understood. Studies have identified several causes of POVL as well as risk factors and prevention strategies. POVL research is made difficult by the fact that cases are often subject to malpractice claims, resulting in a lack of public access to case reports. This literature review was conducted in order to identify legal issues as a major barrier to studying POVL and address how this affects current knowledge. Informed consent provides an opportunity to overcome legal challenges by reducing malpractice litigation through educating the patient on this outcome. Providing pertinent information regarding POVL during the informed consent process has potential to reduce malpractice claims and increase available clinical information.

  4. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TANGENTIAL CONTRACTION AND EARLY VISION LOSS IN IDIOPATHIC EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Pak, Kang Yeun; Kwon, Han Jo; Park, Sung Who; Lee, Ji Eun; Byon, Ik Soo

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the clinical features associated with early visual loss in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane with visual acuity of ≥20/40, intact ellipsoid zone, and follow-up duration of at least 24 months were included in this retrospective age-matched control study. The disk-fovea-vascular (DFV) distance, central macular thickness, membrane configuration, and ellipsoid zone were assessed using fundus photography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. We analyzed the progression group (n = 15; vision loss ≥2 lines because of membrane progression) and the control group (n = 30; age matched). Compared with the controls, the mean DFV distance decreased (P membrane) was significantly lower (P = 0.001) in the progression group. No differences were observed in the follow-up membrane configuration and ellipsoid zone. Factors associated with early vision loss were the DFV distance change (ρ = 0.657; P = 0.008) and traction index of membrane (ρ = -0.636; P = 0.011). Their area under receiver-operating characteristic curves were significant (DFV distant change: 0.915, traction index of membrane: 0.910, respectively; P membrane.

  5. NEURORETINITIS : A RARE CASE REPORT OF SUDDEN LOSS OF VISION IN YOUNG ADULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuro retinitis (NR though a rare disease occurring in young adults , mostly unilateral is an inflammatory disorder characterized by swelling of optic nerve head and adjoining retinal nerve fibre layer resulting in a typical Macular star configuration due to lipid exudation within macula and fovea. Neuroretinitis can be due to an infectious process involving the disc , a post viral event , of an autoimmune inflammatory mechanism or sometimes idiopathic in nature resulting in a sudden loss of vision in affected eye along with multiple pupillary defects in form of Anisokoria ( dilated on affected side , Marcus Gunn pupil or ill sustained pupillary reactions . Patients may also present with painful ocular movements mostly adduction and elevation of the eye . Features common to above all 3 groups included age , absence of pain and fundus findings . Preceding systemic symptoms and visual field loss are more common in patient with Cat scratch disease and Multiple Sclerosis and uncommon in those with recurrences . With today’s technological advances , decision making regarding evaluation and treatment of NR is made accurately to reduce the incidence of optic atrophy which leads to total loss of vision

  6. Experiences of vision impairment in Papua New Guinea: implications for blindness prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Anthea; Yashadhana, Aryati; Cabrera Aguas, Maria; Hanni, Yvonne; Yu, Mitasha

    2016-01-01

    A person's capability to access services and achieve good eye health is influenced by their behaviours, perceptions, beliefs and experiences. As evidence from Papua New Guinea (PNG) about people's lived experience with vision impairment is limited, the purpose of the present study was to better understand the beliefs, perceptions and emotional responses to vision impairment in PNG. A qualitative study, using both purposive and convenience sampling, was undertaken to explore common beliefs and perceptions about vision impairment, as well as the emotional responses to vision impairment. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 51 adults from five provinces representing culturally and geographically diverse regions of PNG. Grounded theory was used to elicit key themes from interview data. Participants described activities of everyday life impacted by vision impairment and the related worry, sadness and social exclusion. Common beliefs about the causes of vision impairment were environmental stressors (sun, dust, dirt and smoke), ageing and sorcery. Findings provide insight into the unique social context in PNG and identify a number of programmatic and policy implications, such as the need for preventative eye health information and services, addressing persisting beliefs in sorcery when developing health information packages, and the importance of coordinating with counselling and well-being services for people experiencing vision impairment.

  7. Psychologic adjustment to irreversible vision loss in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senra, Hugo; Barbosa, Fernando; Ferreira, Patrícia; Vieira, Cristina R; Perrin, Paul B; Rogers, Heather; Rivera, Diego; Leal, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    To summarize relevant evidence investigating the psychologic adjustment to irreversible vision loss (IVL) in adults. Irreversible vision loss entails a challenging medical condition in which rehabilitation outcomes are strongly dependent on the patient's psychologic adjustment to illness and impairment. So far, no study has systematically reviewed the psychologic adjustment to IVL in adults. We reviewed all articles examining the psychologic adjustment to IVL in adults. We included articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals. We performed a keyword literature search using 4 databases (PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and Science Direct) for all years through July 2014. We assessed risk of bias of selected studies using the RTI Item Bank for Assessing Risk of Bias and Confounding for Observational Studies of Interventions or Exposures and the Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials. Of a total of 3948 citations retrieved, we selected 52 eligible studies published between 1946 and 2014. The majority of studies were observational and cross-sectional in nature. Our review suggests that high levels of depression occur during the adjustment to IVL. Better adjustment to IVL was associated with greater acceptance of vision loss and use of instrumental coping, good social support, positivity, and use of assistive aids. The overall findings indicate that IVL often has negative effects on patients' quality of life and mental health and that such effects tend to remain over time. Specific factors and variables associated with the adjustment to IVL need to be clarified through further in-depth and longitudinal research. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Takayasu arteritis presenting as sudden onset vision loss simulates multiple sclerosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ashjazadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological manifestation may complicate Takayasu arteritis (TA. A 23-year-old girl with sudden onset of vision loss was admitted to hospital. Her brain MRI showed abnormal T2-signal hyperintensity and visual evoked potential revealed prolonged P100 latency. Consequently, optic neuritis was diagnosed. A review on history of dizziness, falling, and weak pulses of upper extremities led to more investigation. Angiography revealed a total occlusion of right and left carotids, left vertebral arteries, aneurismal dilatation of innominate artery and critical stenosis of right vertebral artery. Following diagnosis of TA, stenting of right vertebral artery was done, but she passed away because of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  9. Interleukin-6 Deficiency Attenuates Retinal Ganglion Cell Axonopathy and Glaucoma-Related Vision Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin D. Echevarria

    2017-05-01

    axons—likely occur via independent mechanisms. Our data suggest that IL-6 is part of a mechanism that specifically leads to structural degeneration of axons. Furthermore, its absence is sufficient to prevent both structural degeneration of the optic nerve and vision loss. Overall, our work supports the proposition that functional deficits in axon transport represent a therapeutic window for RGC axonopathy and identify IL-6 signaling as a strong target for such a therapeutic.

  10. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  11. Diet, Weight Loss, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A.; Ryan, Donna H.; Harsha, David W.

    2003-08-01

    Body weight, like cholesterol and blood pressure, are continuous variables. Overweight results when energy intake as food exceeds energy expenditure from exercise for a considerable period of time. When body weight becomes sufficiently high, it poses a risk to cardiovascular and metabolic health. The types of treatments considered by the physician and discussed with a patient should be based on this risk-benefit assessment. The body mass is the basic measurement for this assessment, and should be part of the "vital signs" when a patient is first evaluated by the medical staff. When the body mass index (BMI) is below 25 kg/m(2), there is little risk from the body weight, but because obesity is a "stigmatized" condition, many patients, particularly women, desire to lose weight even within the normal range. For this purpose, a high-quality diet like the Dietary Approaches to Stopping Hypertension (DASH) diet at a reduced-calorie intake would be our recommendation. When the BMI is above 25 kg/m(2), patients deserve dietary advice, but in addition to a reduced-calorie DASH-like diet, this is a place to consider using "portion-control" strategies, such as the nutrition labels that manufacturers provide on canned and frozen foods to guide patients in reducing calorie intake. In overweight individuals at high risk (ie, those with a BMI above 30 kg/m(2) or impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, or the metabolic syndrome), the use of orlistat or sibutramine along with diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, and portion control should be considered. When the BMI is above 35 kg/m(2), bariatric surgery should also be discussed as an option for the "at-risk" individual. Evidence reviewed here shows that modest weight losses of 5% to 10% can reduce the risk of conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to diabetes and can maintain lower blood pressure over extended periods. All of the approaches described above can produce weight losses of this magnitude.

  12. Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Rupert R A; Stevens, Gretchen A; White, Richard A; Smith, Jennifer L; Flaxman, Seth R; Price, Holly; Jonas, Jost B; Keeffe, Jill; Leasher, Janet; Naidoo, Kovin; Pesudovs, Konrad; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R

    2013-12-01

    Data on causes of vision impairment and blindness are important for development of public health policies, but comprehensive analysis of change in prevalence over time is lacking. We did a systematic analysis of published and unpublished data on the causes of blindness (visual acuity in the better eye less than 3/60) and moderate and severe vision impairment ([MSVI] visual acuity in the better eye less than 6/18 but at least 3/60) from 1980 to 2012. We estimated the proportions of overall vision impairment attributable to cataract, glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, trachoma, and uncorrected refractive error in 1990-2010 by age, geographical region, and year. In 2010, 65% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 61-68) of 32·4 million blind people and 76% (73-79) of 191 million people with MSVI worldwide had a preventable or treatable cause, compared with 68% (95% UI 65-70) of 31·8 million and 80% (78-83) of 172 million in 1990. Leading causes worldwide in 1990 and 2010 for blindness were cataract (39% and 33%, respectively), uncorrected refractive error (20% and 21%), and macular degeneration (5% and 7%), and for MSVI were uncorrected refractive error (51% and 53%), cataract (26% and 18%), and macular degeneration (2% and 3%). Causes of blindness varied substantially by region. Worldwide and in all regions more women than men were blind or had MSVI due to cataract and macular degeneration. The differences and temporal changes we found in causes of blindness and MSVI have implications for planning and resource allocation in eye care. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Fight for Sight, Fred Hollows Foundation, and Brien Holden Vision Institute. Copyright © 2013 Bourne et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  13. Progressive loss of vision caused by asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma: role of OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, Víctor Manuel; Foncubierta, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Most pituitary adenomas are clinically inactive. In patients with long-standing compression of the optic chiasm, ganglion cells may undergo axonal degeneration. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is able to identify retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell loss in the retina. We present a case in which SD-OCT was used to diagnose an asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma. A 48-year-old female presented with progressive vision loss in both eyes. SD-OCT identified atrophy of the ganglion cell and nerve layers, with preservation of outer layers bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a pituitary macroadenoma. The pathological diagnosis was nonfunctioning adenoma. As macroadenomas enlarge, they can induce uncrossed axon loss, resulting in nasal field defects and reduced visual acuity. In these cases, there is atrophy of the nasal and temporal portions of the optic disc, thus occupying a horizontal band across the disc. SD-OCT is able to identify RNFL loss in eyes with band atrophy of the optic nerve, which correlates with visual field defects found in perimetry. SD-OCT is a useful tool to assess the structural and functional damage of ganglion cells. In our case the SD-OCT demonstrated a symmetrical loss of the RNFL and the ganglion cell layer in both eyes, indicating important optic nerve damage.

  14. Visual system plasticity in mammals: the story of monocular enucleation-induced vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nys, Julie; Scheyltjens, Isabelle; Arckens, Lutgarde

    2015-01-01

    The groundbreaking work of Hubel and Wiesel in the 1960’s on ocular dominance plasticity instigated many studies of the visual system of mammals, enriching our understanding of how the development of its structure and function depends on high quality visual input through both eyes. These studies have mainly employed lid suturing, dark rearing and eye patching applied to different species to reduce or impair visual input, and have created extensive knowledge on binocular vision. However, not all aspects and types of plasticity in the visual cortex have been covered in full detail. In that regard, a more drastic deprivation method like enucleation, leading to complete vision loss appears useful as it has more widespread effects on the afferent visual pathway and even on non-visual brain regions. One-eyed vision due to monocular enucleation (ME) profoundly affects the contralateral retinorecipient subcortical and cortical structures thereby creating a powerful means to investigate cortical plasticity phenomena in which binocular competition has no vote.In this review, we will present current knowledge about the specific application of ME as an experimental tool to study visual and cross-modal brain plasticity and compare early postnatal stages up into adulthood. The structural and physiological consequences of this type of extensive sensory loss as documented and studied in several animal species and human patients will be discussed. We will summarize how ME studies have been instrumental to our current understanding of the differentiation of sensory systems and how the structure and function of cortical circuits in mammals are shaped in response to such an extensive alteration in experience. In conclusion, we will highlight future perspectives and the clinical relevance of adding ME to the list of more longstanding deprivation models in visual system research. PMID:25972788

  15. Reason analysis and preventive treatment countermeasure of impaired vision after LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Bing Mu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the reasons of impaired vision after LASIK and explore its preventive treatment measures preliminarily. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 175 eyes of 134 patients whose vision was decreased after LASIK were included. The constituent ratio of every reason was counted and uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAbetween pre-treatment and post-treatment were compared by paired t-test respectively. RESULTS: The overall incidence of impaired vision after LASIK was 1.86%. The constituent ratio of regression was 51.43% and UCVA increased from 0.61±0.22 to 0.90±0.38(t=8.00, Pt=20.00, Pt=8.14, Pt=6.33, Pt=2.53, P0.05after treatment. The constituent ratio of fundus lesions and diffuse lamellar keratitis(DLKwas 2.86% and UCVA all increased by different degrees after treatment. CONCLUSION: The reasons of impaired vision after LASIK are many and varied. These cases could recover their vision by discovery and treatment in time, and the appropriate preventive measures were essential.

  16. "Why would I want to go out?": Age-related Vision Loss and Social Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliberte Rudman, Debbie; Gold, Deborah; McGrath, Colleen; Zuvela, Biljana; Spafford, Marlee M; Renwick, Rebecca

    2016-12-01

    Social participation, a key determinant of healthy aging, is often negatively impacted by age-related vision loss (ARVL). This grounded theory study aimed to understand social participation as a process negotiated in everyday life by older adults with ARVL. Interviews, audio diaries, and life space maps were used to collect data with 21 older adults in two Ontario cities. Inductive data analysis resulted in a transactional model of the process of negotiating social participation in context. This model depicts how environmental features and resources, skills and abilities, and risks and vulnerabilities transacted with values and priorities to affect if and how social participation occurred within the context of daily life. The findings point to several ways that research and services addressing the social participation of older adults with ARVL need to expand, particularly in relation to environmental features and resources, risk, and the prioritization of independence.

  17. A case report of primary orbital non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma causing complete vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba, Neerav

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old male with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome presented with a week of left eye blurriness, which then progressed to complete vision loss. On exam, the left pupil was nonreactive to light, and fundoscopy showed significant optic nerve edema. CT and MRI of the left orbit showed a mass lesion compressing the posterior aspect of the sclera with diffuse thickening and contrast enhancement of the retrobulbar portion of the left optic nerve. The lesion demonstrated low T1 and intermediate T2 intensities and heterogeneous contrast enhancement and measured 17.4 mm x 15 mm x 10.6 mm. Anterior orbitotomy with exploration and biopsy were performed. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and a workup showed no systemic involvement. Plans for treatment with chemotherapy and radiation were initiated. Even though rare, primary orbital NHL should be in the differential for relatively acute blindness without other symptoms, especially in patients with AIDS.

  18. Progressive loss of vision caused by asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma: role of OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asensio-Sánchez VM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Víctor Manuel Asensio-Sánchez, Javier Foncubierta Ophthalmology Department, Clinical University Hospital of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain Introduction: Most pituitary adenomas are clinically inactive. In patients with long-standing compression of the optic chiasm, ganglion cells may undergo axonal degeneration. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT is able to identify retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and ganglion cell loss in the retina. We present a case in which SD-OCT was used to diagnose an asymptomatic pituitary macroadenoma.Clinical case: A 48-year-old female presented with progressive vision loss in both eyes. SD-OCT identified atrophy of the ganglion cell and nerve layers, with preservation of outer layers bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a pituitary macroadenoma. The pathological diagnosis was nonfunctioning adenoma.Discussion: As macroadenomas enlarge, they can induce uncrossed axon loss, resulting in nasal field defects and reduced visual acuity. In these cases, there is atrophy of the nasal and temporal portions of the optic disc, thus occupying a horizontal band across the disc. SD-OCT is able to identify RNFL loss in eyes with band atrophy of the optic nerve, which correlates with visual field defects found in perimetry. SD-OCT is a useful tool to assess the structural and functional damage of ganglion cells. In our case the SD-OCT demonstrated a symmetrical loss of the RNFL and the ganglion cell layer in both eyes, indicating important optic nerve damage. Keywords: OCT, pituitary, adenoma, RNFL, ganglion cell layer

  19. Gender inequality in vision loss and eye diseases: Evidence from the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandekar Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The data from surveys of vision loss and monitoring of services were used to assess changes in gender inequality in Oman. Study Design : Retrospective review of data collection instruments. Materials and Method : The data sets of 12 years between 1996 and 2007 were abstracted to assess the gender equality for vision loss, eye disease prevalence, and service use. They included two surveys (1996 and 2005, Health Information from eye units (1998 and 2007, and eye screening in schools. Results : In 1996, the prevalence of bilateral blindness in ≥ 40 years of age was higher in females [Odd′s Ratio (OR = 0.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.24 - 0.53]. Gender differences in the prevalence of cataract [OR = 0.82 (95% CI 0.63 - 1.03] were not significant while trachomatous trichaisis (TT was less in males [OR = 0.33 (95% CI 0.22-0.48]. In 2005, gender differences in the prevalence of bilateral blindness [OR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.71 - 1.34] and TT [OR = 0.66 (95% CI 0.42- 1.04] were not statistically significant.But males were associated with higher prevalence of cataract [OR = 1.26 (95% CI 1.00 - 1.59]. Surgery rates for cataract, glaucoma and TT were not different by gender. More male compared to female patients with diabetic retinopathy were treated. Myopia was significantly higher in girls. Compliance of spectacle wear was higher in girls. Conclusions : Gender inequality for eye care seems to have reduced in the last 10 years in Oman. However, apart from TT and glaucoma patients the difference in service utilization by gender was not statistically significant.

  20. Gender inequality in vision loss and eye diseases: evidence from the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Mohammed, A J

    2009-01-01

    The data from surveys of vision loss and monitoring of services were used to assess changes in gender inequality in Oman. Retrospective review of data collection instruments. The data sets of 12 years between 1996 and 2007 were abstracted to assess the gender equality for vision loss, eye disease prevalence, and service use. They included two surveys (1996 and 2005), Health Information from eye units (1998 and 2007), and eye screening in schools. In 1996, the prevalence of bilateral blindness in > or = 40 years of age was higher in females [Odd's Ratio (OR) = 0.36 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.24 - 0.53)]. Gender differences in the prevalence of cataract [OR = 0.82 (95% CI 0.63 - 1.03)] were not significant while trachomatous trichaisis (TT) was less in males [OR = 0.33 (95% CI 0.22-0.48)]. In 2005, gender differences in the prevalence of bilateral blindness [OR = 0.97 (95% CI 0.71 - 1.34)] and TT [OR = 0.66 (95% CI 0.42- 1.04)] were not statistically significant.But males were associated with higher prevalence of cataract [OR = 1.26 (95% CI 1.00 - 1.59)]. Surgery rates for cataract, glaucoma and TT were not different by gender. More male compared to female patients with diabetic retinopathy were treated. Myopia was significantly higher in girls. Compliance of spectacle wear was higher in girls. Gender inequality for eye care seems to have reduced in the last 10 years in Oman. However, apart from TT and glaucoma patients the difference in service utilization by gender was not statistically significant.

  1. The Prevalence and Causes of Vision Loss in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Australians: The National Eye Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Joshua; Xie, Jing; Keel, Stuart; van Wijngaarden, Peter; Sandhu, Sukhpal Singh; Ang, Ghee Soon; Fan Gaskin, Jennifer; Crowston, Jonathan; Bourne, Rupert; Taylor, Hugh R; Dirani, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    To conduct a nationwide survey on the prevalence and causes of vision loss in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. Nationwide, cross-sectional, population-based survey. Indigenous Australians aged 40 years or older and non-Indigenous Australians aged 50 years and older. Multistage random-cluster sampling was used to select 3098 non-Indigenous Australians and 1738 Indigenous Australians from 30 sites across 5 remoteness strata (response rate of 71.5%). Sociodemographic and health data were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Trained examiners conducted standardized eye examinations, including visual acuity, perimetry, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure, and fundus photography. The prevalence and main causes of bilateral presenting vision loss (visual acuity Indigenous Australians and 6.5% (95% CI, 5.3-7.9) in non-Indigenous Australians. Vision loss was 2.8 times more prevalent in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians after age and gender adjustment (17.7%, 95% CI, 14.5-21.0 vs. 6.4%, 95% CI, 5.2-7.6, P Indigenous Australians, the leading causes of vision loss were uncorrected refractive error (61.3%), cataract (13.2%), and age-related macular degeneration (10.3%). In Indigenous Australians, the leading causes of vision loss were uncorrected refractive error (60.8%), cataract (20.1%), and diabetic retinopathy (5.2%). In non-Indigenous Australians, increasing age (odds ratio [OR], 1.72 per decade) and having not had an eye examination within the past year (OR, 1.61) were risk factors for vision loss. Risk factors in Indigenous Australians included older age (OR, 1.61 per decade), remoteness (OR, 2.02), gender (OR, 0.60 for men), and diabetes in combination with never having had an eye examination (OR, 14.47). Vision loss is more prevalent in Indigenous Australians than in non-Indigenous Australians, highlighting that improvements in eye healthcare in Indigenous communities are required. The leading causes of

  2. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion.

  3. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Ferrite, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of

  4. Spatial contrast sensitivity vision loss in children with cortical visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, William V; Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony M

    2012-11-19

    Although cortical visual impairment (CVI) is the leading cause of bilateral vision impairment in children in Western countries, little is known about the effects of CVI on visual function. The aim of this study was to compare visual evoked potential measures of contrast sensitivity and grating acuity in children with CVI with those of age-matched typically developing controls. The swept parameter visual evoked potential (sVEP) was used to measure contrast sensitivity and grating acuity in 34 children with CVI at 5 months to 5 years of age and in 16 age-matched control children. Contrast thresholds and spatial frequency thresholds (grating acuities) were derived by extrapolating the tuning functions to zero amplitude. These thresholds and maximal suprathreshold response amplitudes were compared between groups. Among 34 children with CVI, 30 had measurable but reduced contrast sensitivity with a median threshold of 10.8% (range 5.0%-30.0% Michelson), and 32 had measurable but reduced grating acuity with median threshold 0.49 logMAR (9.8 c/deg, range 5-14 c/deg). These thresholds were significantly reduced, compared with age-matched control children. In addition, response amplitudes over the entire sweep range for both measures were significantly diminished in children with CVI compared with those of control children. Our results indicate that spatial contrast sensitivity and response amplitudes are strongly affected by CVI. The substantial degree of loss in contrast sensitivity suggests that contrast is a sensitive measure for evaluating vision deficits in patients with CVI.

  5. The relationship between visual function, duration and main causes of vision loss and falls in older people with low vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoureux, Ecosse; Gadgil, Sandeep; Pesudovs, Konrad; Keeffe, Jill; Fenwick, Eva; Dirani, Mohamed; Salonen, Satu; Rees, Gwyn

    2010-04-01

    Falls are an alarming health problem and a major cause of injury among the elderly. The healthcare cost associated with falls is considerable. Visual acuity has been found to be an independent risk factor for falls; however, the results are not unanimous. Moreover, other aspects of visual function such as visual field, contrast sensitivity and depth perception have not been adequately investigated in relation to falls. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the relationship between visual function, duration, and main causes of visual impairment, and falls in individuals with low vision. This was a cross-sectional study involving participants attending a public tertiary eye care hospital. Participants were mobile, aged 60 years or above, and had low vision (visual acuity >0.3 LogMAR in the better eye). Details about falls in the previous 12 months and other information were collected, and patients completed a questionnaire about activities of daily living. The duration and main causes of visual impairment, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, depth perception, and visual field were assessed. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to characterize the participants' sociodemographic and clinical data. One hundred and twenty seven patients (53%; 67 males) with a mean age of 76.3+/-8.3 years were recruited. Thirty seven percent of the participants (n=47) had mild, 50% (n=64) moderate and 13% (n=16) severe visual impairment (>0.3-0.5; >0.5-1.0; and >1.0 LogMAR respectively). The frequencies of single and multiple falls were 42.5% and 12.6% respectively. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, depth perception, visual field, main cause, and duration of visual impairment were not significantly associated with falls (p>0.05). In multiple regression analyses, physical inactivity remained the only variable independently associated with falls in all models except for visual field. Overall, visually impaired people were three times more likely to fall if they

  6. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R.; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L.; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S.; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C.; Sizer, Nigel C.; Davis, Crystal L.; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R.

    2016-01-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km2) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km2, 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001–2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km2) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km2 (x¯=24km2, SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km2). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near–real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion. PMID:27051881

  7. Intervention to Prevent Child Custody Loss in Mothers with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary V. Seeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Depending on jurisdiction, time period studied, and specifics of the population, approximately 50 percent of mothers who suffer from schizophrenia lose custody of their children. The aim of this paper is to recommend interventions aimed at preventing unnecessary custody loss. This paper reviews the social work, nursing, psychology, psychiatry, and law literature on mental illness and custody loss, 2000–2011. Recommendations to mothers are to (a ensure family health (b prevent psychotic relapse, (c prepare in advance for crisis, (d document daily parenting activities, (e take advantage of available parenting resources, and f become knowledgeable about legal issues that pertain to mental health and custody. From a policy perspective, child protection and adult mental health agencies need to dissolve administrative barriers and collaborate. Access to appropriate services will help mothers with schizophrenia to care appropriately for their children and allow these children to grow and develop within their family and community.

  8. Does platform switching really prevent crestal bone loss around implants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hagiwara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To maintain long-term implant stability, it is important to minimize bone loss around the implant. Several clinical studies have shown a mean marginal bone loss around dental implants of 1.5–2 mm in the first year after prosthetic restoration. Currently, concepts to prevent bone loss around dental implants have been reported as the platform switching (PLS. This technique use of prosthetic abutments with reduced width in relation to the implant platform diameter seems to have the greatest potential to limit the crestal resorption. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanism of action or the extent of bone loss prevention, and as such, it is difficult to say that the effect of PLS has been thoroughly examined. Excluding case reports, articles on PLS can be broadly categorized into: (1 radiographic evaluation of crestal bone level in humans, (2 histological and histomorphometrical analysis in animals, or (3 finite element analysis. This review revealed a shortage of published data for above three categories related PLS. Researchers have attempted to explain the mechanism of action of PLS; however, it is necessary to conduct further studies, including histological studies using animals, to clarify the mechanism fully.

  9. Vision and Relevant Risk Factor Interventions for Preventing Falls among Older People: A Network Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Yi; Shuai, Jian; Li, Li-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Our study objective was to determine the effect of vision intervention and combinations of different intervention components on preventing falls and fall-related injuries among older people. Six electronic databases were searched to identify seven articles published before May, 2014. We conducted a systematic review of data from seven randomized controlled trails and identified eight regimens: vision intervention alone (V), vision plus exercise (referred to as physical exercise) interventions (V + E), vision plus home hazard interventions (V + HH), vision plus exercise plus home hazard interventions (V + E + HH), vision plus exercise plus sensation interventions (V + E + S), vision plus hearing interventions (V + H), vision plus various risk factor assessment and interventions (V + VRF), and the control group (C, no intervention group). The main outcome was the incidence of falls during the follow-up period. Seven papers included 2723 participants. Network meta-analysis of seven trials, using pairwise comparisons between each intervention, indicated there was no significant difference. However, there was a trend in which intervention incorporating V + VRF had more advantages than any other combination of interventions. In conclusion, V + VRF proves to be more effective than other V combination interventions in preventing falls in older people (≥65 years of age). V alone appears less effective in our network meta-analysis.

  10. Prevent Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Prevent Shingles Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can result in vision loss. Older Adults & Shingles As you get older, you are more likely ...

  11. Acute vision loss in post-partum period as presenting symptom of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis-an unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Aniruddha; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Kumar, Neeraj; Uniyal, Ravi

    2016-10-19

    Acute vision loss in the post-partum period can occur due to many reasons. Eclampsia, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), pituitary apoplexy, and central serous retinopathy are some of the important causes. Cryptococcal meningitis as a cause of acute vision loss in the post-partum period has not been mentioned in literature. A 25-year-old female presented to us with acute bilateral complete vision loss in the post-partum period. Her serum was tested positive for HIV antibodies. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed cryptococcal meningitis. She was started on amphotericin B, antiretroviral drugs, and steroids. Though symptoms of meningitis resolved after treatment no significant improvement in vision was observed at 3 months. Cryptococcal meningitis may be considered as one of the causes of acute vision loss in pregnant/post-partum females with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positivity.

  12. Perceived overprotection, instrumental support and rehabilitation use in elders with vision loss: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R; Boerner, Kathrin; Reinhardt, Joann P; Horowitz, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate changes in perceived overprotection - a problematic aspect of close relationships - over time in relationship to instrumental support receipt and vision rehabilitation service use in a sample of older adults with vision impairment. Participants were 584 older adults with chronic vision impairment who were interviewed three times over a 12-month period. Longitudinal data were analysed using a latent growth curve methodology to examine change over time in perceived overprotection and instrumental support in relation to vision rehabilitation service use. Self-reported levels of overprotection and receipt of instrumental support. Results. Over time perceived overprotection increased but not instrumental support. While perceived overprotection was positively associated with instrumental support initially, over time this relationship did not emerge. Perceived overprotection and instrumental support functioned as predictors of vision rehabilitation hours. However, over time vision rehabilitation service use did not influence these social supports. Perceived overprotection increases over time, yet this change is unaffected by rehabilitation service use and instrumental support. Both family members and elders need to be involved in the vision rehabilitation process and educated about how some level of independence can be regained.

  13. Low Vision Depression Prevention Trial in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Massof, Robert W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Ho, Allen C.; Tasman, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the efficacy of behavior activation (BA) + low vision rehabilitation (LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) + LVR to prevent depressive disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized, clinical trial with outcome assessment at 4 months. Participants Patients with AMD and subsyndromal depressive symptoms attending retina practices (n = 188). Interventions Before randomization, all subjects had 2 outpatient LVR visits, and were then randomized to in-home BA+LVR or ST+LVR. Behavior activation is a structured behavioral treatment that aims to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. Main Outcome Measures The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV defined depressive disorder based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (primary outcome), Activities Inventory, National Eye Institute Vision Function Questionnaire–25 plus Supplement (NEI-VFQ), and NEI-VFQ quality of life (secondary outcomes). Results At 4 months, 11 BA+LVR subjects (12.6%) and 18 ST+LVR subjects (23.4%) developed a depressive disorder (relative risk [RR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27–1.06; P = 0.067). In planned adjusted analyses the RR was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.27–0.98; P = 0.04). A mediational analysis suggested that BA+LVR prevented depression to the extent that it enabled subjects to remain socially engaged. In addition, BA+LVR was associated with greater improvements in functional vision than ST+LVR, although there was no significant between-group difference. There was no significant change or between-group difference in quality of life. Conclusions An integrated mental health and low vision intervention halved the incidence of depressive disorders relative to standard outpatient LVR in patients with AMD. As the population ages, the number of persons with AMD and the adverse effects of comorbid

  14. Low vision depression prevention trial in age-related macular degeneration: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Massof, Robert W; Leiby, Benjamin E; Ho, Allen C; Tasman, William S

    2014-11-01

    To compare the efficacy of behavior activation (BA) + low vision rehabilitation (LVR) with supportive therapy (ST) + LVR to prevent depressive disorders in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Single-masked, attention-controlled, randomized, clinical trial with outcome assessment at 4 months. Patients with AMD and subsyndromal depressive symptoms attending retina practices (n = 188). Before randomization, all subjects had 2 outpatient LVR visits, and were then randomized to in-home BA+LVR or ST+LVR. Behavior activation is a structured behavioral treatment that aims to increase adaptive behaviors and achieve valued goals. Supportive therapy is a nondirective, psychological treatment that provides emotional support and controls for attention. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV defined depressive disorder based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (primary outcome), Activities Inventory, National Eye Institute Vision Function Questionnaire-25 plus Supplement (NEI-VFQ), and NEI-VFQ quality of life (secondary outcomes). At 4 months, 11 BA+LVR subjects (12.6%) and 18 ST+LVR subjects (23.4%) developed a depressive disorder (relative risk [RR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27-1.06; P = 0.067). In planned adjusted analyses the RR was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.27-0.98; P = 0.04). A mediational analysis suggested that BA+LVR prevented depression to the extent that it enabled subjects to remain socially engaged. In addition, BA+LVR was associated with greater improvements in functional vision than ST+LVR, although there was no significant between-group difference. There was no significant change or between-group difference in quality of life. An integrated mental health and low vision intervention halved the incidence of depressive disorders relative to standard outpatient LVR in patients with AMD. As the population ages, the number of persons with AMD and the adverse effects of comorbid depression will increase. Promoting interactions between ophthalmology, optometry

  15. Amlexanox Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Jing; Fang, Zhong; Chen, Wenjian; Li, Feng

    2015-09-04

    The activity of protein kinases IKK-ε and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) has been shown to be associated with inflammatory diseases. As an inhibitor of IKK-ε and TBK1, amlexanox is an anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, immunomodulator and used for treatment of ulcer, allergic rhinitis and asthma in clinic. We hypothesized that amlexanox may be used for treatment of osteoclast-related diseases which frequently associated with a low grade of systemic inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of amlexanox on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and ovariectomy-mediated bone loss in vivo. In primary bone marrow derived macrophages (BMMs), amlexanox inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption. At the molecular level, amlexanox suppressed RANKL-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), c-Fos and NFATc1. Amlexanox decreased the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, MMP9, Cathepsin K and NFATc1. Moreover, amlexanox enhanced osteoblast differentiation of BMSCs. In ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model, amlexanox prevented OVX-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that amlexanox suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents OVX-induced bone loss. Therefore, amlexanox may be considered as a new therapeutic candidate for osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Severity of vision loss interacts with word-specific features to impact out-loud reading in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Priya M; Rubin, Gary S; McCloskey, Michael; Salek, Sherveen; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2015-03-03

    To assess the impact of glaucoma-related vision loss on measures of out-loud reading, including time to say individual words, interval time between consecutive words, lexical errors, skipped words, and repetitions. Glaucoma subjects (n = 63) with bilateral visual field loss and glaucoma suspect controls (n = 57) were recorded while reading a standardized passage out loud. A masked evaluator determined the start and end of each recorded word and identified reading errors. Glaucoma subjects demonstrated longer durations to recite individual words (265 vs. 243 ms, P words (154 vs. 124 ms, P word/post-word interval complexes (the time spanned by the word and the interval following the word; 419 vs. 367 ms, P word/post-interval complex (95% confidence interval [CI] = 9.6-20.4; P word length, word frequency, and word location at the end of a line with regards to word/post-word interval complex duration (P words. Glaucoma patients with greater vision loss make more lexical errors, are slower in reciting longer and less frequently used words, and more slowly transition to new lines of text. These problem areas may require special attention when designing methods to rehabilitate reading in patients with glaucoma. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  17. A population study of correlates of social participation in older adults with age-related vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R; Boerner, Kathrin; Reinhardt, Joann P; Horowitz, Amy; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver; Brennan-Ing, Mark

    2017-01-01

    To examine personal characteristics, disease-related impairment variables, activity limitations, and environmental factors as correlates of social participation in older adults with vision loss guided by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Model. Baseline data of a larger longitudinal study. Community-based vision rehabilitation agency. A total of 364 older adults with significant vision impairment due to age-related macular degeneration. In-person interviews assessing social participation (i.e. frequency of social support contacts, social/leisure challenges faced due to vision loss, and of social support provided to others) and hypothesized correlates (e.g. visual acuity test, Functional Vision Screening Questionnaire, ratings of attachment to house and neighborhood, environmental modifications in home). Regression analyses showed that indicators of physical, social, and mental functioning (e.g. better visual function, fewer difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living, fewer depressive symptoms) were positively related to social participation indicators (greater social contacts, less challenges in social/leisure domains, and providing more support to others). Environmental factors also emerged as independent correlates of social participation indicators when functional variables were controlled. That is, participants reporting higher attachment to their neighborhood and better income adequacy reported having more social contacts; and those implementing more environmental strategies were more likely to report greater challenges in social and leisure domains. Better income adequacy and living with more people were related to providing more social support to others. Environmental variables may play a role in the social participation of older adults with age-related macular degeneration.

  18. PrevenTing Falls in a high-risk, vision-impaired population through specialist ORientation and Mobility services: protocol for the PlaTFORM randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Dillon, Lisa; Clemson, Lindy; Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; McCluskey, Peter; Ramulu, Pradeep; Jan, Stephen; Rogers, Kris; Martin, Jodi; Tinsley, Frances; Jakobsen, Kirsten Bonrud; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2017-02-13

    Older people with vision impairment have significant ongoing morbidity, including risk of falls, but are neglected in fall prevention programmes. PlaTFORM is a pragmatic evaluation of the Lifestyle-integrated Functional Exercise fall prevention programme for older people with vision impairment or blindness (v-LiFE). Implementation and scalability issues will also be investigated. PlaTFORM is a single-blinded, randomised trial designed to evaluate the v-LiFE programme compared with usual care. Primary outcomes are fall rate over 12 months, measured using prospective monthly fall calendars, and function and participation assessed by the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument (Late-Life FDI) Function component. The secondary outcome is rate of falls requiring medical care. Activity-normalised fall rate will be estimated using accelerometer-measured physical activity data. EuroQol 5-dimension 5-level questionnaire will measure quality of life and impact of falls. Health record linkage will estimate resource use associated with falls. v-LiFE cost-effectiveness will be determined compared with usual care. 500 participants (250 per group) can provide 90% power to detect a significant between-group difference in fall rates; 588 will be recruited to allow for drop-out. Falls per person-year and Late-Life FDI will be compared between groups. PlaTFORM will determine if falls can be prevented among older people with vision loss through a home-based exercise programme. v-LiFE embeds balance and strength training within everyday activities with the aim of preventing falls. The study will also determine whether the programme can be effectively delivered by personnel who provide Orientation and Mobility training for people with vision impairment. ACTRN12616001186448p. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Braille Reading Accuracy of Students Who Are Visually Impaired: The Effects of Gender, Age at Vision Loss, and Level of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, Vassilis; Papadimitriou, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present study assesses the performance of students who are visually impaired (that is, those who are blind or have low vision) in braille reading accuracy and examines potential correlations among the error categories on the basis of gender, age at loss of vision, and level of education. Methods: Twenty-one visually impaired…

  20. Cost effectiveness of strategies to combat vision and hearing loss in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia: mathematical modelling study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.; Smith, A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relative costs, effects, and cost effectiveness of selected interventions to control cataract, trachoma, refractive error, hearing loss, meningitis and chronic otitis media. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis of or combined strategies for controlling vision and hearing

  1. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Ferrite, Silvia

    2017-07-07

    This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the CENTRAL; PubMed; Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; and OSH UPDATE to 3 October 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time-series (ITS) of non-clinical interventions under field conditions among workers to prevent or reduce noise exposure and hearing loss. We also collected uncontrolled case studies of engineering controls about the effect on noise exposure. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. We categorised interventions as engineering controls, administrative controls, personal hearing protection devices, and hearing surveillance. We included 29 studies. One study evaluated legislation to reduce noise exposure in a 12-year time-series analysis but there were no controlled studies on engineering controls for noise exposure. Eleven studies with 3725 participants evaluated effects of personal hearing protection devices and 17 studies with 84,028 participants evaluated effects of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs). Effects on noise exposure Engineering interventions following legislationOne ITS study found that new legislation in the mining industry reduced the median personal noise exposure dose in underground coal mining by 27.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) -36.1 to -19.3 percentage points) immediately after the implementation of stricter legislation. This roughly translates to a 4.5 dB(A) decrease in

  2. The Impact of Vision Loss Among Survivors of Childhood Central Nervous System Astroglial Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blank, Peter MK; Fisher, Michael J; Lu, Lu; Leisenring, Wendy M; Ness, Kirsten K; Sklar, Charles A; Stovall, Marilyn; Vukadinovich, Chris; Robison, Leslie L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Krull, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of impaired vision on cognitive and psychosocial outcomes among long-term survivors of childhood low-grade gliomas has not been investigated previously, but could inform therapeutic decision-making. Methods Data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study was used to investigate psychological (measures of cognitive/emotional function) and socioeconomic (education, income, employment, marital status, independent living) outcomes among astroglial tumors survivors grouped by: (a) vision without impairment, (b) vision with impairment including unilateral blindness, visual field deficits or amblyopia, or (c) bilateral blindness. The effect of vision status on outcomes was examined using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, cranial radiation therapy and medical comorbidities. Results Among 1,233 survivors of childhood astroglial tumor ≥ 5 years post-diagnosis, 277 (22.5%) had visual impairment. In multivariable analysis, survivors with bilateral blindness were more likely to be unmarried (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 4.7 [1.5, 15.0]), live with a caregiver (3.1 [1.3, 7.5]), and be unemployed (2.2 [1.1, 4.5]) compared to those without visual impairment. Bilateral blindness had no measureable effect on cognitive or emotional outcomes, and vision with impairment was not significantly associated with any psychological or socio-economic outcomes. Conclusions Adult survivors of childhood astroglial tumors with bilateral blindness are more likely to live unmarried and dependently and be unemployed. Survivors with visual impairment but some remaining vision did not differ significantly with regard to psychological function and socioeconomic status from those without visual impairment. PMID:26755438

  3. Impact of vision loss among survivors of childhood central nervous system astroglial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blank, Peter M K; Fisher, Michael J; Lu, Lu; Leisenring, Wendy M; Ness, Kirsten K; Sklar, Charles A; Stovall, Marilyn; Vukadinovich, Chris; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Krull, Kevin R

    2016-03-01

    The impact of impaired vision on cognitive and psychosocial outcomes among long-term survivors of childhood low-grade gliomas has not been investigated previously but could inform therapeutic decision making. Data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study were used to investigate psychological outcomes (measures of cognitive/emotional function) and socioeconomic outcomes (education, income, employment, marital status, and independent living) among astroglial tumor survivors grouped by 1) vision without impairment, 2) vision with impairment (including unilateral blindness, visual field deficits, and amblyopia), or 3) bilateral blindness. The effect of vision status on outcomes was examined with multivariate logistic regression with adjustments for age, sex, cranial radiation therapy, and medical comorbidities. Among 1233 survivors of childhood astroglial tumors 5 or more years after their diagnosis, 277 (22.5%) had visual impairment. In a multivariate analysis, survivors with bilateral blindness were more likely to be unmarried (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-15.0), live with a caregiver (adjusted OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.3-7.5), and be unemployed (adjusted OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5) in comparison with those without visual impairment. Bilateral blindness had no measurable effect on cognitive or emotional outcomes, and vision with impairment was not significantly associated with any psychological or socioeconomic outcomes. Adult survivors of childhood astroglial tumors with bilateral blindness were more likely to live unmarried and dependently and to be unemployed. Survivors with visual impairment but some remaining vision did not differ significantly with respect to psychological function and socioeconomic status from those without visual impairment. Cancer 2016;122:730-739. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Seeing the difference-Painless progressive vision loss in a vasculopath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepschke, Jenny L; Masselos, Katherine; Sandbach, Jennifer; Fraser, Clare L

    2017-09-18

    A 78-year-old Caucasian man with significant vascular disease reported sudden onset of worsened vision during a routine wound-care appointment for nonhealing necrotic leg ulcers. He described painless blurring of vision with grey scotomas in his right eye, his only well-seeing eye, after trauma to the left eye as a child. He presented with retinal ischemia, a cotton wool spot, and optic nerve swelling. Temporal artery biopsy showed myxoid degeneration and extensive calcium deposition, which also was present on imaging throughout his carotid and vertebral arterial system-the clinical picture of calciphylaxis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Causes of vision loss worldwide, 1990–2010: a systematic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bourne, Rupert R A; Stevens, Gretchen A; White, Richard A; Smith, Jennifer L; Flaxman, Seth R; Price, Holly; Jonas, Jost B; Keeffe, Jill; Leasher, Janet; Naidoo, Kovin; Pesudovs, Konrad; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R

    2013-01-01

    Background: Data on causes of vision impairment and blindness are important for development of public health policies, but comprehensive analysis of change in prevalence over time is lacking. Methods: We did a systematic analysis of published and unpublished data on the causes of blindness (visual acuity in the better eye less than 3/60) and moderate and severe vision impairment ([MSVI] visual acuity in the better eye less than 6/18 but at least 3/60) from 1980 to 2012. We estimated the pr...

  6. A lack of clinically apparent vision loss among patients treated with vigabatrin with infantile spasms: The UCLA experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Madeline D; Li, Menglu; Tsao, Jackie; Zhou, Raymond; Wu, Yvonne W; Sankar, Raman; Wu, Joyce Y; Hussain, Shaun A

    2016-04-01

    Vigabatrin (VGB) is one of two FDA-approved medications for treatment of infantile spasms. Despite demonstrated efficacy, its use has been curtailed by reports indicating a substantial risk of VGB-associated visual field loss (VAVFL). As these reports have conflicted with our clinical observations in routine practice, we systematically reviewed the experiences of patients treated with VGB at UCLA to estimate the prevalence of clinically apparent VAVFL. Patients with video-EEG-confirmed infantile spasms evaluated at our center between February 2007 and February 2014 were retrospectively identified. Among patients with VGB exposure, we documented relevant clinical factors and determined the duration of therapy, peak dosage, and cumulative dosage. Based on a review of serial neurologic and ophthalmologic reports and aided by electroretinography (ERG) assessments when available, we ascertained whether each patient had evidence of clinically apparent vision impairment (i.e., recognized by a neurologist or ophthalmologist during any follow-up visit) and whether or not the vision loss was attributed to VGB exposure (i.e., evidence of bilateral, symmetric, and peripheral visual field loss), either by the treating physician or on retrospective review by the study team. During the study period, 257 patients with video-EEG-confirmed infantile spasms were identified. One hundred and forty-three (56%) patients received VGB. Although visual loss of any cause was common among patients with (31%) and without (32%) VGB exposure, there were no cases in which visual field defects were plausibly linked to VGB. We estimate that the risk of clinically significant VAVFL does not exceed 3.2% (95% CI upper bound). Vision loss was never characterized as exclusively peripheral and was always better explained by other causes (e.g., hemianopsia following hemispherectomy and cortical vision impairment after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy). Precise quantitative exposure data were available for

  7. Design of a vehicle based system to prevent ozone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sean R.; Bunker, Deborah; Hesbach, Thomas D., Jr.; Howerton, Everett B.; Hreinsson, G.; Mistr, E. Kirk; Palmer, Matthew E.; Rogers, Claiborne; Tischler, Dayna S.; Wrona, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced quantities of ozone in the atmosphere allow greater levels of ultraviolet light (UV) radiation to reach the earth's surface. This is known to cause skin cancer and mutations. Chlorine liberated from Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and natural sources initiate the destruction of stratospheric ozone through a free radical chain reaction. The project goals are to understand the processes which contribute to stratospheric ozone loss, examine ways to prevent ozone loss, and design a vehicle-based system to carry out the prevention scheme. The 1992/1993 design objectives were to accomplish the first two goals and define the requirements for an implementation vehicle to be designed in detail starting next year. Many different ozone intervention schemes have been proposed though few have been researched and none have been tested. A scheme proposed by R.J. Cicerone, Scott Elliot and R.P.Turco late in 1991 was selected because of its research support and economic feasibility. This scheme uses hydrocarbon injected into the Antarctic ozone hole to form stable compounds with free chlorine, thus reducing ozone depletion. Because most polar ozone depletion takes place during a 3-4 week period each year, the hydrocarbon must be injected during this time window. A study of the hydrocarbon injection requirements determined that 100 aircraft traveling Mach 2.4 at a maximum altitude of 66,000 ft. would provide the most economic approach to preventing ozone loss. Each aircraft would require an 8,000 nm. range and be able to carry 35,000 lbs. of propane. The propane would be stored in a three-tank high pressure system. Missions would be based from airport regions located in South America and Australia. To best provide the requirements of mission analysis, an aircraft with L/D(sub cruise) = 10.5, SFC = 0.65 (the faculty advisor suggested that this number is too low) and a 250,000 lb TOGW was selected as a baseline. Modularity and multi-role functionality were selected to be key

  8. Pre-operative therapeutic eyelid hygiene in the prevention of complications following excimer laser vision correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kurenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the effectiveness of pre-operative therapeutic eyelid hygiene in the prevention and treatment of dry eye and meibomian glands dysfunction following excimer laser vision surgery.Methods: In enrolled 144 patients (288 eyes, ocular surface and meibomian glands functions were evaluated before and following refractive surgery (LASIK and REIK. In pre- and post-operative period, standard ophthalmological studies were performed, including best-corrected visual acuity determination, biomicroscopy, Schirmer’s test and Norn’s test (tear break-up time. In pre-operative pe- riod, ocular surface microbial profile was assessed. Subjective symptoms of impaired tear production were revealed via questioning. In study group (70 patients, 140 eyes, therapeutic eyelid hygiene using Blefarogel 1 or Blefarogel 2 (Ltd. Heltec-Medica, Moscow, Russia was prescribed one week before surgery. In control group, no therapeutic eyelid hygiene was prescribed. All patients were received antibacterial treatment including Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, tX. In both groups, Natural tears and Systane Ultra (Alcon were used as tear replacement therapy.Results: Complex treatment, including therapeutic eyelid hygiene in study group, significantly improved tear film and ocular sur- face health as well as meibomian glands functions. Inflammatory complications rate was estimated as 5.7% in study group and 10.6% in control group.Conclusion: therapeutic eyelid hygiene is highly effective in the prophylaxis and treatment of post-operative complications duу to ocular surface pathology and meibomian glands dysfunction. the procedure is safe and can be recommended as a part of complex preventive treatment before excimer laser vision correction.

  9. Pre-operative therapeutic eyelid hygiene in the prevention of complications following excimer laser vision correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kurenkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess the effectiveness of pre-operative therapeutic eyelid hygiene in the prevention and treatment of dry eye and meibomian glands dysfunction following excimer laser vision surgery.Methods: In enrolled 144 patients (288 eyes, ocular surface and meibomian glands functions were evaluated before and following refractive surgery (LASIK and REIK. In pre- and post-operative period, standard ophthalmological studies were performed, including best-corrected visual acuity determination, biomicroscopy, Schirmer’s test and Norn’s test (tear break-up time. In pre-operative pe- riod, ocular surface microbial profile was assessed. Subjective symptoms of impaired tear production were revealed via questioning. In study group (70 patients, 140 eyes, therapeutic eyelid hygiene using Blefarogel 1 or Blefarogel 2 (Ltd. Heltec-Medica, Moscow, Russia was prescribed one week before surgery. In control group, no therapeutic eyelid hygiene was prescribed. All patients were received antibacterial treatment including Vigamox (Alcon, Fort Worth, tX. In both groups, Natural tears and Systane Ultra (Alcon were used as tear replacement therapy.Results: Complex treatment, including therapeutic eyelid hygiene in study group, significantly improved tear film and ocular sur- face health as well as meibomian glands functions. Inflammatory complications rate was estimated as 5.7% in study group and 10.6% in control group.Conclusion: therapeutic eyelid hygiene is highly effective in the prophylaxis and treatment of post-operative complications duу to ocular surface pathology and meibomian glands dysfunction. the procedure is safe and can be recommended as a part of complex preventive treatment before excimer laser vision correction.

  10. Impairments to Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

  11. Black patients sustain vision loss while White and South Asian patients gain vision following delamination or segmentation surgery for tractional complications associated with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, R; Luo, Y H-L; Cheah, Y S; Egan, C; Lewis, J J; da Cruz, L

    2017-10-01

    PurposeThis retrospective comparative case series aims to determine whether patient ethnicity (White versus South Asian versus Black) is related to the outcome of surgical treatment for traction complications of severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).SettingMoorfields Eye Hospital London, UK.MethodsAll patients who underwent vitrectomy with, delamination and/or segmentation for PDR over a 5-year period (2009-2014) were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into White, South Asian or Black groups, and their age, gender, HbA1C and type of diabetes were recorded. A total of 484 patients (253 White, 117 South Asian, 114 Black) were included. Twenty-one patients were excluded due to inadequate documentation.OutcomesLogMAR Visual acuity (converted from Snellen) (VA), was recorded pre-operatively and ~6 months post surgery (range 5-8 months). Surgical outcome was classified according to the type and duration of tamponade required post-operatively.ResultsPre-operative VA and HbA1C values were similar across all three ethnic groups (P=0.64 and 0.569, respectively). Change in VA (mean±SD) was 0.41±0.78, 0.14±0.76 and -0.26±0.57 in White, South Asian and Black patient groups respectively (PAsian patient groups.ConclusionsThis study demonstrates that Black patients on average lose vision following delamination surgery for traction complications of PDR while White and South Asian patients gain vision. The same group is also at higher risk of retaining silicone more than 6 months after surgery. This difference remains even when corrected for glycaemic control. The higher risk of visual loss and long-term retention of silicone oil in black patients requires further investigation. If these results are confirmed, surgeons should consider their patients' ethnicity before proceeding with surgical treatment of diabetic tractional detachment.

  12. Pediatric Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Low Vision What is Low Vision? Partial vision loss that cannot be corrected causes ... and play. What are the signs of Low Vision? Some signs of low vision include difficulty recognizing ...

  13. [A Case of Ruptured Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm with Visual Field Defects and Deteriorating to Severe Vision Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakura, Kazuki; Ikeda, Go; Nakai, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Shiigai, Masanari; Uemura, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira

    2017-10-01

    Although Terson's syndrome is a well-known cause of vision loss due to intracerebral aneurysm rupture, optic nerve neuropathy can also occur because of other causes. Here, we report such a case, i.e., a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm accompanied by vision loss and visual field disturbances due to a cause other than Terson's syndrome. A 47-year-old man presented with right superior altitudinal hemianopia. Computed tomography (CT) showed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and three-dimensional CT angiography revealed an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Coil embolization was performed. Right visual acuity degenerated to blindness in the acute stage. MRI performed on day 7 post-admission revealed that the aneurysm had swollen and made contact with the right optic disk. On the basis of the patient's clinical course, we believe that the deterioration in his visual acuity could have been due to ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) resulting from SAH, and the subsequent edema and poor blood perfusion may be attributed to spasm. In cases of visual disturbance associated with SAH, as in our case, it is important to perform MRI to evaluate the damage or risk to the optic nerve as soon as possible. (Received December 26, 2016; Accepted June 9, 2017; Published October 1, 2017).

  14. Neurologic state transitions in the eye and brain: kinetics of loss and recovery of vision and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Typ; Forster, Estrella M

    2015-01-01

    Visual alterations, peripheral light loss (PLL) and blackout (BO), are components of acceleration (+Gz) induced loss of consciousness (LOC) and recovery of consciousness (ROC). The kinetics of loss of vision (LOV) and recovery of vision (ROV) were determined utilizing ocular pressure induced retinal ischemia and compared to the kinetics of LOC and ROC resulting from +Gz-induced cephalic nervous system (CPNS) ischemia. The time from self-induced retinal ischemia in completely healthy subjects (N = 104) to the onset of PLL and complete BO was measured. The time from release of ocular pressure, with return of normal retinal circulation, to the time for complete recovery of visual fields was also measured. The kinetics of pressure induced LOV and ROV was compared with previously developed kinetics of +Gz-induced LOC and ROC focusing on the rapid onset, vertical arm, of the +Gz-induced LOC and ROC curves. The time from onset of increased ocular pressure, immediately inducing retinal ischemia, to PLL was 5.04 s with the time to BO being 8.73 s. Complete recovery of the visual field from BO following release of ocular pressure, immediately abolishing retinal ischemia, was 2.74 s. These results confirm experimental findings that visual loss is frequently not experienced prior to LOC during exposure to rapid onset, high levels of +Gz-stress above tolerance. Offset of pressure induced retinal ischemia to ROV was 2.74 s, while the time from offset of +Gz-induced CPNS ischemia to ROC was 5.29 s. Recovery of retinal function would be predicted to be complete before consciousness is regained following +Gz-induced LOC. Ischemia onset time normalization in neurologic tissues permits comparison between different stress-induced times to altered function. The +Gz-time tolerance curves for LOV and LOC provide comparison and integration of neurologic state transition kinetics in the retina and CPNS.

  15. Contemporary noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułkowski, Wiesław; Owczarek, Kalina; Olszewski, Jurek

    2017-08-31

    Hearing impairment caused by noise, traditionally called - depending on the duration of exposure - acute or chronic acoustic trauma, includes, in addition to presbyacusis, the most common adult population of hearing impaired. In Poland - according to the report of the Central Statistical Office (GUS, 2011), the number of workers employed in NDN exceeded the noise level (85 dB) is about 200 thousand, the highest in the mining, metal and metal products production, textiles and wood production. According to the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of on June 30, 2009, on the list of occupational diseases (Journal of Laws No. 132, item 1115), it is defined as "bilateral permanent hearing loss of the cochlear or sensory-nerve type, expressed as an increase in hearing threshold of at least 45 dB in the ear better heard, calculated as an arithmetic mean for frequencies 1,2 and 3 kHz. Hearing impairments also occur in the military and police during field training and in combat where the source of acoustic injuries are firearms and pulse-inducing explosions (as in some industries) with high C peak levels (Lc peak) Time to rise to a maximum of <1 ms. The prevalence of loud music listening, particularly by personal stereo players, is also affecting children and adolescents with audiometric hearing loss, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of around 15-20%. The preventive action strategy is defined by the European Union legislation and the national implementing legislation that reduces or eliminates the risk and reduces (if not eliminated), taking into account available technical and organizational solutions to minimize the risk of hearing damage. If you can not reduce the noise levels with technical and organizational methods, you need individual hearing protectors. Ear protectors may be equipped with electronic systems with active noise reduction (which can improve low and medium frequency performance), adjustable attenuation (improves speech

  16. Weight loss in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    The American Diabetes Association nutrition and lifestyle recommendations for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes focus on losing 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150minperweek. This emphasis is largely based on results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trials. DPP demonstrated that a lifestyle intervention aimed at 7% weight loss and 150min of activity per week reduced diabetes incidence by 58% after 2.8years of follow-up and resulted in sustained improvements in hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure and lipid levels. After 15years of follow-up, DPP's lifestyle intervention sustained a 27% risk reduction in progression to diabetes. Look AHEAD's lifestyle intervention significantly reduced hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, and the amount and costs of medications needed to treat these conditions when compared with diabetes support and education. Other clinical and psychological benefits achieved with lifestyle intervention were greater reductions in c-reactive protein, less self-reported retinopathy, reduced risk of nephropathy, less sexual dysfunction, decreased incidence of urinary incontinence and fatty liver, remission of sleep apnea, better physical functioning, less knee pain, more remission of diabetes, reduced incidence of depression, less body image dissatisfaction and improved quality-of-life. A number of DPP translation studies have demonstrated weight losses of 4 to 7% at 6month and 1year follow-up which has led to Medicare coverage for CDC recognized DPP lifestyle programs starting in April 2018. Translation studies of Look AHEAD using a variety of delivery formats are underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1% presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential.

  18. Childhood Hearing Health: Educating for Prevention of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Giselle; Lobato, Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos, Luciana; Moreira, Aline Carlezzo; Ribas, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. PMID:25992146

  19. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia: 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Flaxman, Seth R; Keeffe, Jill; Leasher, Janet; Naidoo, Kovin; Pesudovs, Konrad; Price, Holly; Vijaya, Lingam; White, Richard A; Wong, Tien Y; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R; Bourne, Rupert R A

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns and trends of vision impairment and its causes from 1990 to 2010 in Central and South Asia. Based on the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 and ongoing literature searches, we examined prevalence and causes of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity Central Asia, the estimated age-standardised prevalence of blindness decreased from 0.4% (95% CI 0.3% to 0.6%) to 0.2% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.3%) and of MSVI from 3.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 4.7%) to 1.9% (95% CI 1.2% to 3.2%), and in South Asia blindness decreased from 1.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 2.1%) to 1.1% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.3%) and MSVI from 8.9% (95% CI 6.9% to 10.9%) to 6.4% (95% CI 5.2% to 8.2%). In 2010, 135 000 (95% CI 99,000 to 194,000) people were blind in Central Asia and 10,600,000 (95% CI 8,397,000 to 12,500,000) people in South Asia. MSVI was present in 1,178,000 (95% CI 772,000 to 2,243,000) people in the Central Asia, and in 71,600,000 (95% CI 57,600,000 to 92,600,000) people in South Asia. Women were generally more often affected than men. The leading causes of blindness (cataract) and MSVI (undercorrected refractive error) did not change from 1990 to 2010. The prevalence of blindness and MSVI in South Asia is still three times higher than in Central Asia and globally, with women generally more often affected than women. In both regions, cataract and undercorrected refractive error were major causes of blindness and MSVI.

  20. [Analysis of the changes in the causes of blindness and significant vision loss among children and young adults born between 1974 and 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroczyńska, Małgorzata; Grałek, Mirosława; Kanigowska, Krystyna

    2007-01-01

    Visual impairment develops serious medical, psychological, social and economical problems. Thus, of most importance is improvement in prophylaxis, early diagnosis and treatment. THE AIM of this paper is to define the reasons of blindness and significant loss of vision in children and youths in Poland, and changes in them among children and youths under the age of 24, born between 1974-2004, with classification by age. Included in the study were the records of 2,518 children and youths under the age of 24, associates of the Polski Zwiazek Niewidomych (PZN, Polish Association of the Blind); these were analyzed for the prevalence of each cause of vision loss. There were two groups. The first group were files of 1,504 students and pupils in the institutions for blind and visually impaired children, and the archives of PZN, describing the members who joined it between year 1974 and 1998. The second, comparative group, was based on files of 1,014 children and students, who joined PZN between year 1999 and 2004. Each group was also analysed within different age groups. The most important causes of visual impairment are: optic nerve atrophy, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), high myopia, congenital cataract and retinal degradations. Changes in them between 1998-2004 introduce a percentage growth of optic nerve atrophy from 21.66% to 25.41% and decrement in vision degrading stages of ROP from 14.14% to 10.71%, in development disorders from 8.09% to 7.10%. There is an alarming growth in congenital toxoplasmosis percentage, from 1.06% to 2.39%, and of congenital cataract, from 3.02% to 4.47%. High myopia among the visually impaired remains at the same level. There is a big growth in the percentage of heavy (bilateral) injuries, which cause significant vision loss. Less often, the cause of serious vision damage are uveitis, secondary glaucoma and toxocariasis. The study conducted between 1998-2004 revealed changes in the causes of blindness and significantly vision loss in

  1. Bilateral vision loss due to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy after long-term alcohol, nicotine and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Johanna; Matthé, Egbert

    2018-04-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is relatively rare, and no clinical pathognomonic signs exist. We present a rare case of bilateral vision loss of a patient with multiple drug abuse in the history. A 31-year-old man presented with a history of progressive, decreased vision in both eyes for 6 month. On examination, his visual acuity was hand motion in both eyes. Funduscopy demonstrated a temporal pallor of the optic disc. Goldmann visual field perimetry showed a crescent visual field in the right eye and a circular decrease to less than 50 ° in the left eye. Electroretinogram showed a scotopic b-wave amplitude reduction. Optical coherence tomographies, Heidelberg Retina tomography, visual evoked potentials, and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast as well as blood tests were normal. The patient reported to consume various kinds of drugs as well as recreational drug use and alcohol consumption since he was 16 years old. We started a hemodilution therapy, believing the patient suffered from a bilateral, toxic optic neuropathy due to his lifestyle. Laboratory results later on showed Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a rare disease without a typical, pathognomonic presentation. Even though the patient gave good reasons for a toxic optic neuropathy, one should never stop to test for other diseases.

  2. [(Neurological CPC-59). A 65-year-old man with a history of gastric cancer who presented progressive loss of vision, memory loss and consciousness disturbance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, C; Matsumine, H; Suzuki, K; Saito, A; Ohtaka, M; Mori, H; Suda, K; Kondo, T; Hayakawa, M; Kanai, J; Mizuno, Y

    1997-11-01

    We report a 65-year-old man with progressive loss of vision and consciousness disturbance. The patient was well until his age of 63 when he was found to have a gastric cancer. He was treated by the tumor resection and chemotherapy; he was apparently well, but hepatic metastases were found in the next year (1996). In June, 1996, he noted an onset of blurred vision more on the left. He was admitted to the ophthalmology service of our hospital on July 14, 1996. His vision was 0.8 on the right and 0.15 on the left. He was treated with oral prednisolone with slight improvement. He was also found to have IgM kappa-type monoclonal gammopathy; Bence-Jones protein was positive and a bone marrow aspiration revealed that approximately 10% of bone marrow cells were atypical plasma cells. His vision had progressively got worse and he became blind by the end of October 1996. A chest X-ray and cranial CT scan revealed multiple abnormal nodular densities. In the middle of November 1996, he became confused, disoriented and agitated. His mental symptoms had progressively became worse, and a neurologic consultation was asked on December 10, 1996. Neurologic examination revealed that he was somnolent with decreased attention to his surroundings. He showed marked disorientation and memory loss. Higher cerebral functions appeared intact. He was able to recognize only light and dark. Pupils were moderately dilated with very sluggish light reflex remained. Vertical gaze was moderately restricted and horizontal nystagmus was noted upon left and right lateral gaze. The remaining of the neurologic examination were unremarkable. General physical examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly; the liver was palpable by 3 cm below the right costal margin. Laboratory examination revealed anemia (Hb10.1 g/dl) and thrombocytopenia (43,000/microliter). A cranial CT scan and MRI revealed a mass lesion in involving the chiasmatic and bilateral hypothalamic areas. The tumor showed intense homogeneous

  3. Gender Differences and the Risk of Falls in Individuals with Profound Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christopher T.; Wolf, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments experience a loss of balance and mobility, which presents a barrier to independence and is associated with the fear of falling. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which visual status, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and the strength of quadriceps and hamstrings contribute to compromised…

  4. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2006-05-03

    In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01-2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49-3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce

  5. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and

  6. The efficiency of voluntary incentive policies for preventing biodiversity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Andrew J. Plantinga; Erik Nelson; Stephen. Polasky

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is a primary cause of loss of biodiversity but conserving habitat for species presents challenges. Land parcels differ in their ability to produce returns for landowners and landowners may have private information about the value of the land to them. Land parcels also differ in the type and quality of habitat and the spatial pattern of land use across...

  7. The mechanisms of vision loss associated with a cotton wool spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Toco Y P; Thibos, Larry N; Bradley, Arthur; Burns, Stephen A

    2009-11-01

    We characterized the perceptual, functional, and structural abnormalities associated with retinal ischemia during a cotton wool spot episode and its sequelae. The border of the visually salient field anomaly mirrored the quantitatively measured relative scotoma. Results of resolution perimetry and high resolution imaging indicated that there was a substantial loss of retinal ganglion cells within the affected region. A disruption in retinal nerve fiber arrangement was found at the cotton wool spot and within the arcuate relative scotoma. The presence of the arcuate relative scotoma is consistent with the hypothesis of failed signal transmission along the axons that pass through the cotton wool spot. The different levels of loss associated with the arcuate and focal scotomas indicate different underlying pathologies.

  8. The mechanisms of vision loss associated with a cotton wool spot

    OpenAIRE

    Chui, Toco YP; Thibos, Larry N; Bradley, Arthur; Burns, Stephen A.

    2009-01-01

    We characterized the perceptual, functional, and structural abnormalities associated with retinal ischemia during a cotton wool spot episode and its sequelae. The border of the visually salient field anomaly mirrored the quantitatively measured relative scotoma. Results of resolution perimetry and high resolution imaging indicated that there was a substantial loss of retinal ganglion cells within the affected region. A disruption in retinal nerve fiber arrangement was found at the cotton wool...

  9. Reducing security risk using data loss prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow, John

    2015-11-01

    Data loss/leakage protection (DLP) technology seeks to improve data security by answering three fundamental questions: > Where are confidential data stored? > Who is accessing the information? > How are data being handled?

  10. Analysis and Prevention of Usable Fiber Loss from a Fine Paper Mill

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Steven Donald

    1998-01-01

    Reducing losses of usable waste fiber from paper mills conserves valuable resources and has the capacity to produce considerable economic returns to the manufacturer. The purpose of this research effort was to evaluate the potential for the prevention of loss and/or recovery of usable waste fiber from paper machines within a fine paper mill. Further, a preliminary evaluation of fiber loss prevention strategies and fiber recovery technologies was conducted. The paper mill in questio...

  11. Refractive error, visual acuity and causes of vision loss in children in Shandong, China. The Shandong Children Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian Feng; Bi, Hong Sheng; Wang, Shu Mei; Hu, Yuan Yuan; Wu, Hui; Sun, Wei; Lu, Tai Liang; Wang, Xing Rong; Jonas, Jost B

    2013-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of refractive errors and prevalence and causes of vision loss among preschool and school children in East China. Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergartens, primary schools, and junior and senior high schools in the rural Guanxian County and the city of Weihai. All children underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of uncorrected (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and auto-refractometry under cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as refractive error of ≤-0.5 diopters (D), high myopia as ≤ -6.0D, and amblyopia as BCVA ≤ 20/32 without any obvious reason for vision reduction and with strabismus or refractive errors as potential reasons. Out of 6364 eligible children, 6026 (94.7%) children participated. Prevalence of myopia (overall: 36.9 ± 0.6%;95% confidence interval (CI):36.0,38.0) increased (PPrevalence of high myopia (2.0 ± 0.2%) increased from 0.7 ± 0.3% (95%CI:0.1,1.3) in 10-years olds to 13.9 ± 3.0 (95%CI:7.8,19.9) in 17-years olds. It was associated with older age (OR:1.50;95%CI:1.41,1.60;Prefractive error (Prefractive error as cause in 1975 (32.9%) children. Amblyopia (BCVA ≤ 20/32) was detected in 44 (0.7%) children (11 children with bilateral amblyopia). In coastal East China, about 14% of the 17-years olds were highly myopic, and 80% were myopic. Prevalence of myopia increased with older age, female gender and urban region. About 0.7% of pre-school children and school children were amblyopic.

  12. RNA Interference Prevents Autosomal-Dominant Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Seiji B; Ranum, Paul T; Moteki, Hideaki; Pan, Bifeng; Goodwin, Alexander T; Goodman, Shawn S; Abbas, Paul J; Holt, Jeffrey R; Smith, Richard J H

    2016-06-02

    Hearing impairment is the most common sensory deficit. It is frequently caused by the expression of an allele carrying a single dominant missense mutation. Herein, we show that a single intracochlear injection of an artificial microRNA carried in a viral vector can slow progression of hearing loss for up to 35 weeks in the Beethoven mouse, a murine model of non-syndromic human deafness caused by a dominant gain-of-function mutation in Tmc1 (transmembrane channel-like 1). This outcome is noteworthy because it demonstrates the feasibility of RNA-interference-mediated suppression of an endogenous deafness-causing allele to slow progression of hearing loss. Given that most autosomal-dominant non-syndromic hearing loss in humans is caused by this mechanism of action, microRNA-based therapeutics might be broadly applicable as a therapy for this type of deafness. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  14. Principal causes and ways of prevention of early reproductive losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebelev В. G.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature on principal causes of early abortions and ways of treatment in the first trimester was studied. Reproductive losses in the first trimester were found out to be the most active because of 5 main groups of reasons. In each group the therapeutic way of abortion was considered

  15. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  16. Investment in paediatric tuberculosis prevention in Pakistan: Loss or gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, E.U.; Ejaz, K.; Lone, S.; Raza, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of paediatric tuberculosis prevention, by reevaluation factors in children exposed to tuberculosis from less privileged strata of Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted at National Institute of Child Health, from January 2004 to December 2005. Paediatric patients under 15 years of either gender, diagnosed with active tuberculosis were enrolled. Interviews were conducted with parents regarding common preventive measures and factors advocating tuberculosis spread. Later factors leading to non-compliance to safety recommendations were also evaluated. Results: Fifty five (70%) children younger than 5 years, had index cases in direct contact within their own house. Fifteen (14%) patients contracted the infection from neighbours, with 11 being older than 5 years. There were 82 (51%) cases with Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PCM). Total of 66(41%) cases of PCM were <5 years age (p <0.005). Data showed 123(77%) children living in a family with 5 or more members. Sixty eight (55%) children of these large families had to live in a single room house. Conclusion: There is a high frequency of direct contact tuberculosis in children belonging to the lower socioeconomic class. This is attributed to poor housing condition and over crowding. The current paediatric tuberculosis prevention strategies as adapted from World Health Organizations' Millennium Development Goals are ineffectual to make changes in children exposed to tuberculosis from less privileged strata of Pakistan. Our societal and demographic factors remain static, continually exposing our children to higher risk of tuberculosis exposure. (author)

  17. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Stokholm, Zara A.

    2017-01-01

    statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). CONCLUSIONS: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which...... insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (-0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only...

  18. Metformin therapy prevents early pregnancy loss in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, J.A.; Anbareen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study was done to compare the early pregnancy loss rate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who received or did not receive metformin in pregnancy. Study type, settings and duration: A case control interventional study carried out at Civil Hospital Karachi, Hamdard University Hospital and Private Gynaecology clinics from January 2005 to July 2008. Subjects and Methods Eighty two non diabetic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome who became pregnant were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled for all patients that included information on basic demography and mean age, parity, weight. Fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were done for all these women. Only patients with raised insulin levels (more than 10 mu/l) were included in the study and all were offered to use oral metformin throughout pregnancy as 500 mg three times a day with folic acid supplements 5 mg once daily. Those who agreed to take the drug throughout pregnancy and to comply with the therapy were taken as cases, while those who did not agree to take the medicine acted as controls. Patients with other causes of recurrent pregnancy loss were excluded from the study. All pregnancies were followed using serial ultrasound examination to see any pregnancy loss in the two groups. Eighty two cases of polycystic ovaries with pregnancy were seen during the study period. All cases had raised serum insulin levels. Fifty patients agreed to take metformin through out pregnancy while, 32 cases did not agree to take metformin during pregnancy and thus acted as controls. The two groups did not differ in mean age, parity, weight and mean fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting insulin levels were high in metformin group (18.40 mu/l ) than in controls (12.53 mu/l). Missed abortion rate was significantly lower (12%) in metformin group than in controls (28%) (p<0.028). No congenital anomalies were found in both the groups on ultrasound at 16-19 weeks. Metformin treatment during

  19. Reading Performance Improvements in Patients with Central Vision Loss without Age-Related Macular Degeneration after Undergoing Personalized Rehabilitation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco-Martín, María B; López-Miguel, Alberto; Cuadrado, Rubén; Mayo-Iscar, Agustín; Herrero, Azael J; Pastor, José C; Maldonado, Miguel J

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a reading rehabilitation program (RRP) in patients with central visual loss (CVL) and assess the impact of the RRP on the quality of life (QoL). The RRP included four in-office and 39 in-home training sessions over 6 weeks. Reading speed, duration, and font size were evaluated during each in-office session. The subjective perception of the QoL was assessed before and after the RRP using the short version of a questionnaire (World Health Organization Quality of Life). A control group who received advice about ocular conditions and low-vision aids also was included. Seventeen patients with Stargardt's disease (STGD), 11 with adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AFVD), and eight with myopic macular degeneration (MMD) were included. The control group included five patients each with STGD, AFVD, and MMD. The respective mean corrected distance visual acuities (VAs) in patients with STGD, AFVD, MMD, and the control group were 0.57 ± 0.38, 0.51 ± 0.38, 0.49 ± 0.24, and 0.55 ± 0.25 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; the mean corrected near VAs were 0.89 ± 0.20, 1.08 ± 0.17, 0.99 ± 0.34, and 1.18 ± 0.37 (M notation) using low-vision aids. The reading speed, duration, and font size improved in all groups. The RRP groups obtained (p ≤ 0.01) greater improvements than the control group in each reading performance variable assessed. Patients with STGD obtained greater improvements in the subjective evaluation; the control group did not obtain noteworthy improvement in any domain. The RRP improved reading performance in patients with CVL and positively impacted the subjective perception of the QoL.

  20. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Living with Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life TIPS To Its Fullest LIVING WITH LOW VISION Savings Medical Bills A VARIETY OF EYE CONDITIONS, ... which occupational therapy practitioners help people with low vision to function at the highest possible level. • Prevent ...

  2. Effectiveness of Earplugs in Preventing Recreational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakers, Geerte G J; Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Cattani, Guido; van Zanten, Gijsbert A.; Grolman, Wilko

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of hearing loss has risen in past years. Attendance at music festivals and concerts may contribute to this increasing problem. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of earplugs in preventing temporary hearing loss immediately following music exposure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND

  3. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  4. Storage Losses in Feedstuffs and How to Prevent Them | Eze | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological deterioration of feedstuffs entails losses both in quantity and quality, including deterioration in chemical composition, contamination by mycotoxins, rancidity, loss in nutritive value and change in colour and smell. In this paper, the conditions for the safe storage of feedstuffs and also the methods for the prevention ...

  5. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... with their contact lenses in A doctor's examination Culture of a sample taken from the ulcer, done ...

  6. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  7. Internet Use and Television Viewing in Children and its Association with Vision Loss: A Major Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Mahdi, Huda S

    2012-03-07

    Little is known about the distribution of eye and vision conditions among school children in Qatar. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of excessive internet use and television viewing on low vision and its prevalence with socio-demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in the public and private schools of the Ministry of Education and Higher Education of the State of Qatar from September 2009 to April 2010. A total of 3200 students aged 6-18 years were invited to take part of whom 2586 (80.8%) agreed. A questionnaire, that included questions about socio-demographic factors, internet use, and television viewing and computer games, co-morbid factors, and family history and vision assessment, was designed to collect information from the students. This was distributed by the school authorities. Of the school children studied (n=2586), 52.8% were girls and 47.2% boys. The overall prevalence of low vision was 15.2%. The prevalence of low vision was significantly higher in the age group 6-10 years (17.1%; P=0.05). Low vision was more prevalent among television viewers (17.2%) than in infrequent viewers (14.0%). The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher in frequent internet users and television viewers (21.3%). Also, low vision without aid was higher in frequent viewers. The study findings revealed a greater prevalence of low vision among frequent internet users and television viewers. The proportion of children wearing glasses was higher among frequent viewers. The prevalence of low vision decreased with increasing age.

  8. Adjusting the fairshare policy to prevent computing power loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pra, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    On a typical WLCG site providing batch access to computing resources according to a fairshare policy, the idle time lapse after a job ends and before a new one begins on a given slot is negligible if compared to the duration of typical jobs. The overall amount of these intervals over a time window increases with the size of the cluster and the inverse of job duration and can be considered equivalent to an average number of unavailable slots over that time window. This value has been investigated for the Tier-1 at CNAF, and observed to occasionally grow and reach up to more than the 10% of the about 20,000 available computing slots. Analysis reveals that this happens when a sustained rate of short jobs is submitted to the cluster and dispatched by the batch system. Because of how the default fairshare policy works, it increases the dynamic priority of those users mostly submitting short jobs, since they are not accumulating runtime, and will dispatch more of their jobs at the next round, thus worsening the situation until the submission flow ends. To address this problem the default behaviour of the fairshare have been altered by adding a correcting term to the default formula for the dynamic priority. The LSF batch system, currently adopted at CNAF, provides a way to define its value by invoking a C function, which returns it for each user in the cluster. The correcting term works by rounding up to a minimum defined runtime the most recently done jobs. Doing so, each short job looks almost like a regular one and the dynamic priority value settles to a proper value. The net effect is a reduction of the dispatching rate of short jobs and, consequently, the average number of available slots greatly improves. Furthermore, a potential starvation problem, actually observed at least once is also prevented. After describing short jobs and reporting about their impact on the cluster, possible workarounds are discussed and the selected solution is motivated. Details on the

  9. [FEDERAL CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS IN DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS DUE TO NOISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeninskaya, E E; Bukhtiarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Dayhes, N A; Denisov, E I; Izmerov, N F; Mazitova, N N; Pankova, V B; Preobrazhenskaya, E A; Prokopenko, L V; Simonova, N I; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is a slowly developing hearing impairment, caused by occupational exposure to excessive noise levels, constitutes a lesion of the auditory analyzer and clinically manifested as chronic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Currently, there is not a treatment that provide a cure of sensorineural hearing loss. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and specific clinical symptoms of hearing loss, as well as the prevention of complications. We recommend using non-drug therapies that can improve blood flow in labyrinth, tissue and cellular metabolism.

  10. Refractive error, visual acuity and causes of vision loss in children in Shandong, China. The Shandong Children Eye Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Feng Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of refractive errors and prevalence and causes of vision loss among preschool and school children in East China. METHODS: Using a random cluster sampling in a cross-sectional school-based study design, children with an age of 4-18 years were selected from kindergartens, primary schools, and junior and senior high schools in the rural Guanxian County and the city of Weihai. All children underwent a complete ocular examination including measurement of uncorrected (UCVA and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA and auto-refractometry under cycloplegia. Myopia was defined as refractive error of ≤-0.5 diopters (D, high myopia as ≤ -6.0D, and amblyopia as BCVA ≤ 20/32 without any obvious reason for vision reduction and with strabismus or refractive errors as potential reasons. RESULTS: Out of 6364 eligible children, 6026 (94.7% children participated. Prevalence of myopia (overall: 36.9 ± 0.6%;95% confidence interval (CI:36.0,38.0 increased (P<0.001 from 1.7 ± 1.2% (95%CI:0.0,4.0 in the 4-years olds to 84.6 ± 3.2% (95%CI:78.0,91.0 in 17-years olds. Myopia was associated with older age (OR:1.56;95%CI:1.52,1.60;P<0.001, female gender (OR:1.22;95%CI:1.08,1.39;P = 0.002 and urban region (OR:2.88;95%CI:2.53,3.29;P<0.001. Prevalence of high myopia (2.0 ± 0.2% increased from 0.7 ± 0.3% (95%CI:0.1,1.3 in 10-years olds to 13.9 ± 3.0 (95%CI:7.8,19.9 in 17-years olds. It was associated with older age (OR:1.50;95%CI:1.41,1.60;P<0.001 and urban region (OR:3.11;95%CI:2.08,4.66;P<0.001. Astigmatism (≥ 0.75D (36.3 ± 0.6%;95%CI:35.0,38.0 was associated with older age (P<0.001;OR:1.06;95%CI:1.04,1.09, more myopic refractive error (P<0.001;OR:0.94;95%CI:0.91,0.97 and urban region (P<0.001;OR:1.47;95%CI:1.31,1.64. BCVA was ≤ 20/40 in the better eye in 19 (0.32% children. UCVA ≤ 20/40 in at least one eye was found in 2046 (34.05% children, with undercorrected refractive error as cause in 1975 (32.9% children. Amblyopia

  11. Vision Screening for Alzheimer’s Disease: Prevention from an Ophthalmologist’s Perspective (There is More to Vision than Meets the Eye)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Peter N

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that memory impairment and vision impairment are closely linked in Alzheimer’s disease and that special testing for vision impairment can improve early detection and treatment of dementia. Visual images, attention, memory, awareness, and salience are tightly bound together in the cerebral cortex; under normal circumstances, these functions perform seamlessly to produce a visual reality of the external world. Alzheimer’s disease—now considered a chronic illness—unravel...

  12. New visions for basic research and primary prevention of pediatric allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelman, E.; Herz, U.; Holt, P.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrolyzed formula feeding, delayed introduction of solid food, indoor allergen avoidance, smoke and pollutants avoidance have been applied for several decades as primary preventive measures for allergic diseases. Unfortunately, some of these strategies have had no or modest success. Therefore......, definitely need to be further investigated. The benefit of efficient allergy prevention, based on focusing resources on novel and promising research lines, will be of prime importance to both affluent countries and other parts of the world where allergy is only currently emerging....

  13. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... most often associated with a hearing loss. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: a group treated with intratympanic betamethasone and 2 control groups treated with either intratympanic or systemic saline. Treatment was initiated 21 hours after infection and repeated once a day...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  14. Mandibular Symphyseal/Parasymphyseal Fracture with Incisor Tooth Loss: Preventing Lower Arch Constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Abdollahpour, Somayeh

    2016-03-01

    Mandibular fractures are the second most common fractures of the face after the nasal bone. Mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fracture comprises 15.6 to 29.3% of mandibular fractures. Tooth loss in the fracture line is a known phenomenon, but space loss has not been evaluated comprehensively in the literature. In a retrospective study, patients with mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fractures, who had been treated from 2012 to 2013 in Mashhad University, Iran, Emdadi Hospital, were recalled. Patients with mandibular incisor tooth/teeth loss were included in the study. Space loss, the technique used to replace the lost tooth/teeth, upper and lower dental midline relationship, combination fracture or fractures in other facial skeleton, and type of treatment were evaluated. Of 98 patients with mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fractures, 22.5% had incisor tooth/teeth loss. In this group, 73% had space loss. Only four patients had replaced the lost tooth/teeth. Dental midlines did not match each other in patients whose feature was evaluated. Open reduction and internal fixation with miniplates were used in symphyseal/parasymphyseal fractures except one. Space loss after mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fracture with incisor tooth loss is a common error. The most important factor to prevent complications related to space loss following mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fracture accompanying incisor tooth loss is space preservation.

  15. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Mischke, Christina

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI - 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed.

  16. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: A Cochrane systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Design We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. Study sample We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. Results One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI – 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Conclusions Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed. PMID:24564697

  17. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preventing bone loss associated with menopause and aging and maintaining the normal micro-architecture of bone provide important opportunities for the prevention of osteoporosis and fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of alendronate, an aminobisphosphonate, for ...

  18. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: a Cochrane systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and

  19. Suppression of NADPH oxidases prevents chronic ethanol-induced bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the molecular mechanisms through which chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces osteopenia and osteoporosis are largely unknown, potential treatments for prevention of alcohol-induced bone loss remain unclear. We have previously demonstrated that, chronic ethanol (EtOH) treatment leads to...

  20. Non-pharmacological interventions for preventing job loss in workers with inflammatory arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan L.; Lacaille, Diane; Urquhart, Donna M.; Hannu, Timo J.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Work participation of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) is important not only economically but also for physical and psychological health. There is no Cochrane Review to date on studies of non-pharmacological interventions specifically aimed at preventing job loss in people with IA. To

  1. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Up to 3 years of treatment with alendronate, 5 mg/d, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the effect of alendronate is sustained at 4 years of treatment and persists after treatment is discontinued. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: United St...

  2. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  3. Charts for weight loss to detect hypernatremic dehydration and prevent formula supplementing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Boer, Suzanne; Unal, Sevim; van Wouwe, Jacobus P

    2014-06-01

    Most breast-fed newborns get the milk they need. However, very rarely milk intake is insufficient mostly as a result of poor breastfeeding techniques. Dramatic weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration may occur. Our aim was to construct charts for weight loss. A case-control study was performed. Charts with standard deviation score (SDS) lines for weight loss in the first month were constructed for 2,359 healthy breast-fed term newborns and 271 cases with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration with serum sodium level > 149 mEq/L. Day 0 was defined as the day of birth. Many cases with (or who will develop) hypernatremic dehydration (84%; +1 SDS line) fell below the -1 SDS line at day 3, the -2 SDS line at day 4, and the -2.5 SDS line at day 5 in the chart of the healthy breast-fed newborns. Weight loss of cases with permanent residual symptoms was far below the -2.5 SDS. Already at an early age, weight loss differs between healthy breast-fed newborns and those with hypernatremic dehydration. Charts for weight loss are, therefore, useful tools to detect early, or prevent newborns from developing, breastfeeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration, and also to prevent unnecessary formula supplementing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth

  5. Controlled delivery of tauroursodeoxycholic acid from biodegradable microspheres slows retinal degeneration and vision loss in P23H rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-Sánchez

    Full Text Available Successful drug therapies for treating ocular diseases require effective concentrations of neuroprotective compounds maintained over time at the site of action. The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of intravitreal controlled delivery of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA encapsulated in poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA microspheres for the treatment of the retina in a rat model of retinitis pigmentosa. PLGA microspheres (MSs containing TUDCA were produced by the O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. Particle size and morphology were assessed by light scattering and scanning electronic microscopy, respectively. Homozygous P23H line 3 rats received a treatment of intravitreal injections of TUDCA-PLGA MSs. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinography at P30, P60, P90 and P120. The density, structure and synaptic contacts of retinal neurons were analyzed using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy at P90 and P120. TUDCA-loaded PLGA MSs were spherical, with a smooth surface. The production yield was 78%, the MSs mean particle size was 23 μm and the drug loading resulted 12.5 ± 0.8 μg TUDCA/mg MSs. MSs were able to deliver the loaded active compound in a gradual and progressive manner over the 28-day in vitro release study. Scotopic electroretinografic responses showed increased ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes in TUDCA-PLGA-MSs-treated eyes as compared to those injected with unloaded PLGA particles. TUDCA-PLGA-MSs-treated eyes showed more photoreceptor rows than controls. The synaptic contacts of photoreceptors with bipolar and horizontal cells were also preserved in P23H rats treated with TUDCA-PLGA MSs. This work indicates that the slow and continuous delivery of TUDCA from PLGA-MSs has potential neuroprotective effects that could constitute a suitable therapy to prevent neurodegeneration and visual loss in retinitis pigmentosa.

  6. A child's vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Christina

    2014-06-01

    Implementing standard vision screening techniques in the primary care practice is the most effective means to detect children with potential vision problems at an age when the vision loss may be treatable. A critical period of vision development occurs in the first few weeks of life; thus, it is imperative that serious problems are detected at this time. Although it is not possible to quantitate an infant's vision, evaluating ocular health appropriately can mean the difference between sight and blindness and, in the case of retinoblastoma, life or death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Disease prevention in the age of convergence - the need for a wider, long ranging and collaborative vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Susan L

    2014-03-01

    It is time to bring our imagination, creativity and passion to the fore in solving the global challenges of our age. Our global health crisis and the pandemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is clearly rooted in complex modern societal and environmental changes, many of which have effects on developing immune and metabolic responses. It is intimately related to wider environmental challenges. And it is unsurprising that many NCDs share similar risk factors and that many are associated with a rising predisposition for inflammation. Allergy is one of the earliest signs of environmental impact on these biological pathways, and may also offer an early barometer to assess the effects of early interventions. There is dawning awareness of how changing microbial diversity, nutritional patterns, sedentary indoor behaviours and modern pollutants adversely affect early metabolic and immune development, but still much to understand the complexity of these interactions. Even when we do harness the science and technology, these will not provide solutions unless we also address the wider social, cultural and economic determinants of health - addressing the interconnections between human health and the health of our environment. Now more than ever, we need a wider vision and a greater sense of collective responsibility. We need long-range approaches that aim for life long benefits of a 'healthier start to life', and stronger cross-sectoral collaborations to prevent disease. We need to give both our hearts and our minds to solving these global issues.

  8. Disease Prevention in the Age of Convergence - the Need for a Wider, Long Ranging and Collaborative Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Prescott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is time to bring our imagination, creativity and passion to the fore in solving the global challenges of our age. Our global health crisis and the pandemic of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs is clearly rooted in complex modern societal and environmental changes, many of which have effects on developing immune and metabolic responses. It is intimately related to wider environmental challenges. And it is unsurprising that many NCDs share similar risk factors and that many are associated with a rising predisposition for inflammation. Allergy is one of the earliest signs of environmental impact on these biological pathways, and may also offer an early barometer to assess the effects of early interventions. There is dawning awareness of how changing microbial diversity, nutritional patterns, sedentary indoor behaviours and modern pollutants adversely affect early metabolic and immune development, but still much to understand the complexity of these interactions. Even when we do harness the science and technology, these will not provide solutions unless we also address the wider social, cultural and economic determinants of health - addressing the interconnections between human health and the health of our environment. Now more than ever, we need a wider vision and a greater sense of collective responsibility. We need long-range approaches that aim for life long benefits of a ‘healthier start to life’, and stronger cross-sectoral collaborations to prevent disease. We need to give both our hearts and our minds to solving these global issues.

  9. Vision loss due to coincident ocular and central causes in a patient with Heidenhain variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundas, Maria; Donaldson, Mark D; McAllister, Ian L; Bridges, Leslie R

    2008-03-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a degenerative disease of the brain associated with a rapidly progressive spongiform encephalopathy. Visual symptoms and neuro-ophthalmological signs are not infrequent, and presentation to an ophthalmologist may result. A case is reported of an 89-years-old gentleman who presented with a short history of isolated deterioration in vision. He underwent ocular intervention but subsequently developed progressive dementia, asterixis, myoclonus, cerebellar and extrapyramidal signs, and cortical blindness. An electroencephalogram was consistent with CJD. The patient progressively deteriorated and died 9 weeks after symptom onset. Limited post-mortem examination confirmed CJD.

  10. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  11. Andrographolide prevents human breast cancer-induced osteoclastic bone loss via attenuated RANKL signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zanjing; Qu, Xinhua; Yan, Wei; Li, Haowei; Liu, Guangwang; Liu, Xuqiang; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-02-01

    Bone metastasis is a common and serious complication in advanced cancers such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma. Agents that prevent bone loss could be used to develop an alternative therapy for bone metastasis. RANKL, a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, has been shown to play a significant role in cancer-associated bone loss. In this study, we examined the efficacy of the natural compound andrographolide (AP), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, in reducing breast cancer-induced osteolysis. AP prevented human breast cancer-induced bone loss by suppressing RANKL-mediated and human breast cancer cell-induced osteoclast differentiation. Molecular analysis revealed that AP prevented osteoclast function by inhibiting RANKL-induced NF-κB and ERK signaling pathway in lower dose (20 μM), as well as inducing apoptosis at higher dose (40 μM). Thus, AP is a potent inhibitor of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis.

  12. Complete prevention of blood loss with self-sealing haemostatic needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mikyung; Park, Sung-Gurl; Oh, Byung-Chang; Kim, Keumyeon; Jo, Seongyeon; Lee, Moon Sue; Oh, Seok Song; Hong, Seon-Hui; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kang, Sun-Woong; Lee, Haeshin

    2017-01-01

    Bleeding is largely unavoidable following syringe needle puncture of biological tissues and, while inconvenient, this typically causes little or no harm in healthy individuals. However, there are certain circumstances where syringe injections can have more significant side effects, such as uncontrolled bleeding in those with haemophilia, coagulopathy, or the transmission of infectious diseases through contaminated blood. Herein, we present a haemostatic hypodermic needle able to prevent bleeding following tissue puncture. The surface of the needle is coated with partially crosslinked catechol-functionalized chitosan that undergoes a solid-to-gel phase transition in situ to seal punctured tissues. Testing the capabilities of these haemostatic needles, we report complete prevention of blood loss following intravenous and intramuscular injections in animal models, and 100% survival in haemophiliac mice following syringe puncture of the jugular vein. Such self-sealing haemostatic needles and adhesive coatings may therefore help to prevent complications associated with bleeding in more clinical settings.

  13. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  14. Loss of Control Prevention and Recovery: Onboard Guidance, Control, and Systems Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) is one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. LOC accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. These LOC hazards include vehicle impairment conditions, external disturbances; vehicle upset conditions, and inappropriate crew actions or responses. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. NASA previously defined a comprehensive research and technology development approach for reducing LOC accidents and an associated integrated system concept. Onboard technologies for improved situation awareness, guidance, and control for LOC prevention and recovery are needed as part of this approach. Such systems should include: LOC hazards effects detection and mitigation; upset detection, prevention and recovery; and mitigation of combined hazards. NASA is conducting research in each of these areas. This paper provides an overview of this research, including the near-term LOC focus and associated analysis, as well as preliminary flight system architecture.

  15. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  16. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  17. Improving patient access to prevent sight loss: ophthalmic electronic referrals and communication (Scotland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Mustafa, M Z; Sanders, R

    2015-02-01

    With the number of people with sight loss predicted to double to four million people in the UK by the year 2050, preventable visual loss is a significant public health issue. Sight loss is associated with an increased risk of falls, accidents and depression and evidence suggests that 50% of sight loss can be avoided. Timely diagnosis is central to the prevention of sight loss. Access to care can be a limiting factor in preventable cases. By improving referrals and access to hospital eye services it is possible to treat and minimise the number of patients with preventable sight loss and the impact this has on wider society. In 2005, NHS Fife took part in a flagship pilot funded by the Scottish government e-health department to evaluate the feasibility, safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost of electronic referral with images of patients directly from community optometrists to Hospital Eye Service (HES). The pilot study showed that electronic referral was feasible, fast, safe, and obviated the need for outpatient appointments in 128 (37%) patients with a high patient satisfaction. The results of the pilot study were presented and in May 2007, the electronic referral system was rolled out regionally in southeast Scotland. Referrals were accepted at a single site with vetting by a trained team and appointments were allocated within 48 hours. Following the implementation of electronic referral, waiting times were reduced from a median of 14 to 4 weeks. Significantly fewer new patients were seen (7462 vs 8714 [p communication between community optometry practices and hospital eye departments. Five electronic forms were specifically designed for cataract, glaucoma, macula, paediatric and general ophthalmic disease. A Virtual Private Network was created which enabled optometrists to connect to the Scottish clinical information gateway system and send referrals to hospital and receive referral status feedback. Numerous hurdles have been encountered and overcome in order

  18. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisina, Robert D; Ding, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P

    2016-09-23

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL.

  19. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  20. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  1. Synthetic PreImplantation Factor (PIF prevents fetal loss by modulating LPS induced inflammatory response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Di Simone

    Full Text Available Maternal control of inflammation is essential during pregnancy and an exaggerated response is one of the underlying causes of fetal loss. Inflammatory response is mediated by multiple factors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs are central. Activation of TLRs results in NALP-3 mediated assembly of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC and caspase-1 into the inflammasome and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Given that preventing measures are lacking, we investigated PreImplantation Factor (PIF as therapeutic option as PIF modulates Inflammation in pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic PIF (PIF analog protects against multiple immune disorders. We used a LPS induced murine model of fetal loss and synthetic PIF reduced this fetal loss and increased the embryo weight significantly. We detected increased PIF expression in the placentae after LPS insult. The LPS induced serum and placenta cytokines were abolished by synthetic PIF treatment and importantly synthetic PIF modulated key members of inflammasome complex NALP-3, ASC, and caspase-1 as well. In conclusion our results indicate that synthetic PIF protects against LPS induced fetal loss, likely through modulation of inflammatory response especially the inflammasome complex. Given that synthetic PIF is currently tested in autoimmune diseases of non-pregnant subjects (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02239562, therapeutic approach during pregnancy can be envisioned.

  2. Evidence that increased calcium intake does not prevent early postmenopausal bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D J; Ross, P D; Thompson, D E

    1998-01-01

    Calcium's ability to prevent bone loss in early postmenopausal women is controversial. We used data on 394 women from the placebo group of the Early Postmenopausal Interventional Cohort study, a clinical trial of alendronate, to investigate the relation of calcium intake to bone loss. Calcium...... intake was recorded, and bone mineral density (BMD) (in the lumbar spine, total body, forearm, and hip) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum total alkaline phosphatase, serum osteocalcin, and urinary N-telopeptide crosslink levels) were measured at baseline and annually thereafter. Women whose...... were not significantly associated with changes in BMD or bone turnover. Even women whose total calcium intake was >1333 mg/d (the highest tertile of total calcium intake) showed a decline in BMD of almost 2%, similar to declines in the lower two tertiles of total calcium intake (

  3. Promotion of axonal maturation and prevention of memory loss in mice by extracts of Astragalus mongholicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, C; Tamura, T; Matsuyama, S; Komatsu, K

    2006-11-01

    Neurons with atrophic neurites may remain alive and therefore may have the potential to regenerate even when neuronal death has occurred in some parts of the brain. This study aimed to explore effects of drugs that can facilitate the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses even in severely damaged neurons. We investigated the effects of extracts of Astragalus mongholicus on the cognitive defect in mice caused by injection with the amyloid peptide Abeta(25-35). We also examined the effect of the extract on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in cultured neurons damaged by Abeta(25-35). A. mongholicus extract (1 g kg(-1) day(-1) for 15 days, p.o.) reversed Abeta(25-35)-induced memory loss and prevented the loss of axons and synapses in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice. Treatment with Abeta(25-35) (10 microM) induced axonal atrophy and synaptic loss in cultured rat cortical neurons. Subsequent treatment with A. mongholicus extract (100 microg/ml) resulted in significant axonal regeneration, reconstruction of neuronal synapses, and prevention of Abeta(25-35)-induced neuronal death. Similar extracts of A. membranaceus had no effect on axonal atrophy, synaptic loss, or neuronal death. The major known components of the extracts (astragalosides I, II, and IV) reduced neurodegeneration, but the activity of the extracts did not correlate with their content of these three astragalosides. A. mongholicus is an important candidate for the treatment of memory disorders and the main active constituents may not be the known astragalosides.

  4. Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevalence Rates for Low Vision by Age, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Low Vision by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Low Vision ...

  5. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those thatmay exist...

  6. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Systemic Bone Loss in Collagen-Induced Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Manasa G; Kour, Supinder; Piprode, Vikrant; Mittal, Monika; Kumar, Anil; Rani, Lekha; Pote, Satish T; Mishra, Gyan C; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Wani, Mohan R

    2015-12-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammatory synovitis leading to joint destruction and systemic bone loss. The inflammation-induced bone loss is mediated by increased osteoclast formation and function. Current antirheumatic therapies primarily target suppression of inflammatory cascade with limited or no success in controlling progression of bone destruction. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by virtue of their tissue repair and immunomodulatory properties have shown promising results in various autoimmune and degenerative diseases. However, the role of MSCs in prevention of bone destruction in RA is not yet understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) on in vitro formation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and pathological bone loss in the mouse collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model of RA. We observed that ASCs significantly inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in both a contact-dependent and -independent manner. Additionally, ASCs inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in the presence of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-1β. Furthermore, treatment with ASCs at the onset of CIA significantly reduced clinical symptoms and joint pathology. Interestingly, ASCs protected periarticular and systemic bone loss in CIA mice by maintaining trabecular bone structure. We further observed that treatment with ASCs reduced osteoclast precursors in bone marrow, resulting in decreased osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, ASCs suppressed autoimmune T cell responses and increased the percentages of peripheral regulatory T and B cells. Thus, we provide strong evidence that ASCs ameliorate inflammation-induced systemic bone loss in CIA mice by reducing osteoclast precursors and promoting immune tolerance. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. PREVENTION OF BLOOD LOSS IN THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR BY PLACENTAL BLOOD DRAINAGE- A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Placental cord drainage is a simple, safe and non-invasive method which reduces the duration and blood loss in the third stage of labour thereby preventing PPH. This method is of great use in day to day obstetric practices not requiring any extra effort, cost or equipment, so this type of practice is more relevant in rural areas. The objectives of the study were1. To evaluate the effectiveness of placental blood drainage via umbilical cord in reducing duration and blood loss in third stage of labour. 2. Reducing the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. 3. Decreasing the complications in third stage of labour and reduce maternal mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in 100 full term pregnant women admitted in the labour room in Gauhati medical college and hospital in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology since 1st August 2007 to 30th August 2008. Cases were divided into two. Study group and control group. RESULTS In control group the average duration of third stage was 7.41 minutes and in study group 5.57 minutes and p value was <0.001 which is very highly significant. The blood loss in third stage of labour was more in case of control group, the mean blood loss in control was 169.48 ml and study group was 110.38 ml after delivery of placenta. The post-partum haemorrhage was present in 2% of cases in control group while in study group it was present in 0% case. CONCLUSION Placental blood drainage is one of the additional components in active management of third stage of labour, which is safe, simple and non-invasive method. It reduces the duration of third stage of labour, amount of blood loss and decreases the duration of placental separation time.

  8. Vision Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Vision Lab personnel perform research, development, testing and evaluation of eye protection and vision performance. The lab maintains and continues to develop...

  9. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  10. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kae; Ito, Osamu; Nagai, Satsuki; Onishi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    To prevent water loss in the early stage of high altitude training, we focused on the effect of electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage (EC). Subjects were 16 male university students who belonged to a ski club. They had ski training at an altitude of 1,800 m. The water (WT) group drank only water, and the EC group drank only an electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage. They arrived at the training site in the late afternoon. The study started at 7 pm on the day of arrival and continued until noon of the 4(th) day. In the first 12 hours, 1 L of beverages were given. On the second and third days, 2.5 L of beverages were given. All subjects ate the same meals. Each morning while in fasting condition, subjects were weighed and blood was withdrawn for various parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium and aldosterone). Urine was collected at 12 hour intervals for a total 60 hours (5 times). The urine volume, gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured during sleep with a pulse oximeter. Liquid intakes in both groups were similar, hence the electrolytes intake was higher in the EC group than in the WT group. The total urine volume was lower in the EC group than in the WT group, respectively (paltitude training may be effective in decreasing urinary output and preventing loss of blood plasma volume.

  11. Dried Root of Rehmannia glutinosa Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried root of Rehmannia glutinosa is a kidney-tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use in traditional folk medicine for the treatment of joint diseases. This study was conducted to investigate prevention of bone loss by a standardized dried root of R. glutinosa in an ovariectomized (OVX rat model of osteoporosis. The OVX groups were divided into five groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (E2 10 µg/kg, once daily, i.p and dried root of R. glutinosa extracts (DRGE 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o for eight weeks. We measured the body, organs, and uterus weights, and femur and lumbar vertebrae bone mineral density (BMD, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, estradiol levels. The treatments with DRGE 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited BMD decrease in the femur and lumbar (17.5% and 16.4%, p < 0.05, respectively by OVX without affecting the body, organs, and uterus weights. Also, serum ALP level in the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group was significantly decreased, but the estradiol level did not change in serum of the DRGE 300 mg/kg treated group. These results show that DRGE is able to prevent OVX-induced bone loss without influencing hormones such as estrogen.

  12. A perda da visão: estratégias de prevenção Visual loss: prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edméa Rita Temporini

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A perda visual representa conseqüências adversas para o indivíduo e sociedade. O aumento da população mundial, com proporção maior de idosos, acarreta aumento de indivíduos com perda visual. A identificação e tratamento precoces de distúrbios oculares na infância constituem prioridades de programas de prevenção da cegueira. Medidas preventivas para doenças oculares devem ser planejadas e estabelecidas. COMENTÁRIOS: Apresentam-se estimativas referentes à prevalência da cegueira e de baixa visão realizadas pela Organização Mundial de Saúde. Discutem-se aspectos relacionados à problemática e estratégias com vistas ao planejamento de programas preventivos. Ressalta-se a necessidade de realizar pesquisas epidemiológicas e operacionais para conhecimento da realidade, formação de recursos humanos e aperfeiçoamento da infra-estrutura de serviços especializados. Destaca-se a importância de identificar fatores psicossocioculturais para direcionar tais intervenções.INTRODUCTION: Visual loss represents an adversity for the affected person and society as a whole. As the world's population increases and as a greater proportion survives into late adulthood, the number of people with visual loss will inexorably rise. The control of blindness in children is a priority within any blindness prevention programme. Preventive measures have to be planned and established. COMMENTS: The World Health Organization estimates on blindness and low vision are discussed and some strategies and planning of preventive programs are pointed out. Epidemiological and operational researches would contribute to health system needs, assessment and program management. Identifying social and cultural factors would better direct interventional efforts of blindness prevention.

  13. Eliminating microglia in Alzheimer’s mice prevents neuronal loss without modulating amyloid-β pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Elizabeth E.; Lee, Rafael J.; Najafi, Allison R.; Rice, Rachel A.; Elmore, Monica R. P.; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; West, Brian L.

    2016-01-01

    In addition to amyloid-β plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle deposition, neuroinflammation is considered a key feature of Alzheimer’s disease pathology. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounding amyloid plaques, implicating their role in disease pathogenesis. Microglia in the healthy adult mouse depend on colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signalling for survival, and pharmacological inhibition of this receptor results in rapid elimination of nearly all of the microglia in the central nervous system. In this study, we set out to determine if chronically activated microglia in the Alzheimer's disease brain are also dependent on CSF1R signalling, and if so, how these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis. Ten-month-old 5xfAD mice were treated with a selective CSF1R inhibitor for 1 month, resulting in the elimination of ∼80% of microglia. Chronic microglial elimination does not alter amyloid-β levels or plaque load; however, it does rescue dendritic spine loss and prevent neuronal loss in 5xfAD mice, as well as reduce overall neuroinflammation. Importantly, behavioural testing revealed improvements in contextual memory. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglia contribute to neuronal loss, as well as memory impairments in 5xfAD mice, but do not mediate or protect from amyloid pathology. PMID:26921617

  14. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-determination theory and weight loss in a Diabetes Prevention Program translation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trief, Paula M; Cibula, Donald; Delahanty, Linda M; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2017-06-01

    We examined self-determination theory (SDT) and weight loss, and hypothesized that the Diabetes Prevention Program's (DPP) intervention would result in an increase in autonomous regulation of motivation (AR) in participants. Further, that those with higher AR, and those who perceived educators as supporting SDT-defined needs, would lose more weight. Support, Health Information, Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) Study data (N = 257) were analyzed. SHINE was a randomized, controlled DPP translation trial (2-years, telephonic, primary care staff). Autonomous motivation in males increased significantly, while females showed no change. Males with high AR, but not females, lost more weight. However, the significance of these relationships varied over time. Participants who perceived educators as more supportive of psychological needs lost more weight (especially males). However, effect of support on weight loss was not mediated by AR change. Autonomous motivation and educator support are relevant to male weight loss. Future research might develop interventions to enhance autonomous motivation and educator support, and understand change pathways.

  16. A Preliminary Study of a Spanish Graphic Novella Targeting Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Wakefield, Emily

    2017-09-18

    This preliminary study developed a digital graphic novella targeting hearing protection beliefs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Researchers used pretest-posttest interview surveys to establish if the novella had an immediate influence on the participants' beliefs about noise-induced hearing loss and usage of hearing protection devices. Researchers developed a digital graphic novella directed to increase knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and increase the proper use of hearing protection devices. The novella was tailored to meet the specific linguistic and literacy needs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Thirty-one Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Mexican nationality participated. This study included an interview survey with specific questions on noise-induced hearing loss, myths, and hearing protection device usage. A pretest-posttest design was applied to measure the graphic novella's immediate influence on workers. The posttest scores on Hearing Protection Beliefs statements were significantly better than pretest scores, with a large effect size observed. Digital media may be an effective way to overcome language and literacy barriers with Spanish-speaking workers when providing health education and prevention efforts.

  17. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  18. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tsuyoshi; Enoki, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Yokota, Kazuhiro; Okubo, Masahiko; Matsumoto, Masahito; Hayashi, Naoki; Usui, Michihiko; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Mimura, Toshihide; Nakazato, Yoshihiko; Araki, Nobuo; Fukuda, Toru; Okazaki, Yasushi; Suda, Tatsuo; Takeda, Shu; Yoda, Tetsuya

    2015-09-01

    Donepezil, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) targeting the brain, is a common medication for Alzheimer's disease. Interestingly, a recent clinical study found that administration of this agent is associated with lower risk of hip fracture independently of falling, suggesting its direct effect on bone tissues as well. AChE has been reported to be involved in osteoblast function, but the role of AChE on osteoclastogenesis still remains unclear. We analyzed the effect of AChE and donepezil on osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Cell-based assays were conducted using osteoclasts generated in cultures of murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) with receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL). The effect of donepezil was also determined in vivo using a mouse model of RANKL-induced bone loss. Recombinant AChE in BMMs cultured with RANKL further promoted RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast differentiation. RANKL also upregulated AChE expression in BMMs. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of AChE significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed gene expression specific for osteoclasts. AChE upregulated expression of RANK, the receptor of RANKL, in BMMs. Donepezil decreased cathepsin K expression in BMMs and the resorptive function of osteoclasts on dentine slices. Donepezil decreased RANK expression in BMMs, resulting in the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation with downregulation of c-Fos and upregulation of Id2. Moreover, administration of donepezil prevented RANKL-induced bone loss in vivo, which was associated with the inhibition of bone resorption by osteoclasts. AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Matrine prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Zhi, Xin; Pan, Panpan; Cui, Jin; Cao, Liehu; Weng, Weizong; Zhou, Qirong; Wang, Lin; Zhai, Xiao; Zhao, Qingiie; Hu, Honggang; Huang, Biaotong; Su, Jiacan

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone density and strength due to excessive loss of bone protein and mineral content. The imbalance between osteogenesis by osteoblasts and osteoclastogenesis by osteoclasts contributes to the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Estrogen withdrawal leads to increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Overactivated osteoclasts by inflammation play a vital role in the imbalance. Matrine is an alkaloid found in plants from the Sophora genus with various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here we demonstrate that matrine significantly prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss and inhibited osteoclastogenesis in vivo with decreased serum levels of TRAcp5b, TNF-α, and IL-6. In vitro matrine significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and M-CSF in bone marrow monocytes and RAW264.7 cells as demonstrated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and actin-ring formation as well as bone resorption through pit formation assays. For molecular mechanisms, matrine abrogated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB, AKT, and MAPK pathways and suppressed osteoclastogenesis-related marker expression, including matrix metalloproteinase 9, NFATc1, TRAP, C-Src, and cathepsin K. Our study demonstrates that matrine inhibits osteoclastogenesis through modulation of multiple pathways and that matrine is a promising agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis.—Chen, X., Zhi, X., Pan, P., Cui, J., Cao, L., Weng, W., Zhou, Q., Wang, L., Zhai, X. Zhao, Q., Hu, H., Huang, B., Su, J. Matrine prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:28739641

  20. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miin Roh

    Full Text Available Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. Age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP are the main risk factors for glaucomatous loss of vision. Several studies have implicated the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as a link between elevated IOP and RGC death, but the cellular source of TNF-α and its causative role in RGC death remain uncertain. Here, using a rat model of glaucoma, we investigated the source of elevated TNF-α and examined whether Etanercept, a TNF-α blocker that is in common clinical use for other indications, is protective against RGC death.Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC caused intraocular pressure (IOP to be elevated for at least 28 days. IOP elevation resulted in a dramatic increase in TNF-α levels within a few days, axonal degeneration, and a 38% loss of RGCs by 4 weeks. Immunostaining coupled with confocal microscopy showed that OHT induced robust induction of TNF-α in Iba-1-positive microglia around the optic nerve head (ONH. Despite persistent elevation of IOP, Etanercept reduced microglial activation, TNF-α levels, axon degeneration in the optic nerve, and the loss of RGCs.Ocular hypertension (OHT triggers an inflammatory response characterized by the appearance of activated microglia around the ONH that express TNF-α. Blocking TNF-α activity with a clinically approved agent inhibits this microglial response and prevents axonal degeneration and loss of RGCs. These findings suggest a new treatment strategy for glaucoma using TNF-α antagonists or suppressors of inflammation.

  1. Increased steroidogenesis promotes early-onset and severe vision loss in females with OPA1 dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarzi, Emmanuelle; Seveno, Marie; Angebault, Claire

    2016-01-01

    OPA1 mutations are responsible for autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), a progressive blinding disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and large phenotypic variations, the underlying mechanisms of which are poorly understood. OPA1 encodes a mitochondrial protein...... with essential biological functions, its main roles residing in the control of mitochondrial membrane dynamics as a pro-fusion protein and prevention of apoptosis. Considering recent findings showing the importance of the mitochondrial fusion process and the involvement of OPA1 in controlling steroidogenesis, we...... tested the hypothesis of deregulated steroid production in retina due to a disease-causing OPA1 mutation and its contribution to the visual phenotypic variations. Using the mouse model carrying the human recurrent OPA1 mutation, we disclosed that Opa1 haploinsufficiency leads to very high circulating...

  2. Targeting cellular senescence prevents age-related bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Xu, Ming; Weivoda, Megan M; Monroe, David G; Fraser, Daniel G; Onken, Jennifer L; Negley, Brittany A; Sfeir, Jad G; Ogrodnik, Mikolaj B; Hachfeld, Christine M; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Drake, Matthew T; Pignolo, Robert J; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Tchkonia, Tamara; Oursler, Merry Jo; Kirkland, James L; Khosla, Sundeep

    2017-09-01

    Aging is associated with increased cellular senescence, which is hypothesized to drive the eventual development of multiple comorbidities. Here we investigate a role for senescent cells in age-related bone loss through multiple approaches. In particular, we used either genetic (i.e., the INK-ATTAC 'suicide' transgene encoding an inducible caspase 8 expressed specifically in senescent cells) or pharmacological (i.e., 'senolytic' compounds) means to eliminate senescent cells. We also inhibited the production of the proinflammatory secretome of senescent cells using a JAK inhibitor (JAKi). In aged (20- to 22-month-old) mice with established bone loss, activation of the INK-ATTAC caspase 8 in senescent cells or treatment with senolytics or the JAKi for 2-4 months resulted in higher bone mass and strength and better bone microarchitecture than in vehicle-treated mice. The beneficial effects of targeting senescent cells were due to lower bone resorption with either maintained (trabecular) or higher (cortical) bone formation as compared to vehicle-treated mice. In vitro studies demonstrated that senescent-cell conditioned medium impaired osteoblast mineralization and enhanced osteoclast-progenitor survival, leading to increased osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these data establish a causal role for senescent cells in bone loss with aging, and demonstrate that targeting these cells has both anti-resorptive and anabolic effects on bone. Given that eliminating senescent cells and/or inhibiting their proinflammatory secretome also improves cardiovascular function, enhances insulin sensitivity, and reduces frailty, targeting this fundamental mechanism to prevent age-related bone loss suggests a novel treatment strategy not only for osteoporosis, but also for multiple age-related comorbidities.

  3. Sappanone A inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in BMMs and prevents inflammation-mediated bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Young-Yeon; Tran, Phuong Thao; Min, Byung-Sun; Kim, Okwha; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Kwon, Seung-Hae; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2017-11-01

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) is a key factor in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Suppressing osteoclastogenesis is considered an effective therapeutic approach for bone-destructive diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Sappanone A (SPNA), a homoisoflavanone compound isolated from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects; however, the effects of SPNA on osteoclastogenesis have not been investigated. In the present study, we describe for the first time that SPNA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppresses inflammation-induced bone loss in a mouse model. SPNA inhibited the formation of osteoclasts from BMMs, osteoclast actin-ring formation, and bone resorption in a concentration-dependent manner. At the molecular level, SPNA significantly inhibited RANKL-induced activation of the AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) signaling pathway without affecting its activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) JNK, p38, and ERK. In addition, SPNA suppressed the induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which is a crucial transcription factor in osteoclast differentiation. As a result, SPNA decreased osteoclastogenesis-related marker gene expression, including CtsK, TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), MMP-9 and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). In a mouse inflammatory bone loss model, SPNA significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss by suppressing the number of osteoclasts. Taken together, these findings suggest that SPNA inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption by inhibiting the AKT/GSK-3β signaling pathway and may be a potential candidate compound for the prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory bone loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure.

  5. Effectiveness of Earplugs in Preventing Recreational Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakers, Geerte G J; Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Cattani, Guido; van Zanten, Gijsbert A; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of hearing loss has risen in past years. Attendance at music festivals and concerts may contribute to this increasing problem. To assess the effectiveness of earplugs in preventing temporary hearing loss immediately following music exposure. A randomized, single-blind clinical trial was conducted on September 5, 2015, at an outdoor music festival in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Normal-hearing adult volunteers were recruited via social media. An exclusion criterion was the participants' intention to wear earplugs. Of the 86 volunteers assessed, 51 were included in the study. All analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Participants were randomly assigned to a group using earplugs or an unprotected group during a 4½-hour festival visit. The primary study outcome was a temporary threshold shift (TTS) on the audiogram, primarily for frequencies at 3 and 4 kHz. Secondary study outcomes included distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements and claims of tinnitus using a questionnaire and tinnitus matching experiments. Of 51 participants included, 25 were randomized to the earplug group and 26 to the unprotected group. Nine in each group (36% and 35%, respectively) were men, and the mean (SD) ages were 27.3 (5.6) years in the earplug group and 27.0 (6.2) years in the unprotected group. Baseline demographics were similar in both groups. The time-averaged, equivalent A-weighted sound pressure level experienced was 100 dBA during the festival. A TTS over frequencies at 3 and 4 kHz after exposure was seen in 4 of 50 ears (8%) in the earplug group compared with 22 of 52 ears (42%) in the unprotected group (P preventing 1 TTS was 2.9. The DPOAE amplitudes decreased significantly more over the frequencies 2 to 8 kHz in the unprotected group: the mean (SD) decrease in magnitude was 0.6 (2.8) dB in the earplug group vs 2.2 (1.9) dB in the unprotected group (P = .04). Newly induced tinnitus following sound exposure occurred in 3 of

  6. Surface Acting and Job-Related Affective Wellbeing: Preventing Resource Loss Spiral and Resource Loss Cycle for Sustainable Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwook Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the synergistic negative effect of two kinds of job demand on job-related affective wellbeing (JAW and the accelerating effects of cynicism in the negative relationships between job demands and JAW using a sample of 299 employees in the Chinese banking industry. Job demands include quantitative role overload and surface acting to represent the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job demands. Cynicism is introduced as a state where one’s energy resource is lost. The results of this study show that surface acting has a negative relationship with JAW, but quantitative role overload has no relationship with JAW. High levels of quantitative role overload exacerbate the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW. Cynicism also exacerbates the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW but does not have any moderating effect in the relationship between quantitative role overload and JAW. These results are consistent with the relationships predicted by resource loss spiral and resource loss cycle. The resource loss spiral means that resource loss, caused by handling with a quantitative role overload, lessens the employee’s ability to cope with surface acting. The resource loss cycle represents a vicious circle that amplifies the resource loss caused by surface acting. Surface acting reduces the level of one’s resources. Furthermore, surface acting reduces JAW and resources more strongly when an individual has low levels of previous energy resources than it reduces JAW and resources when he or she has high levels of previous energy resources.

  7. Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker-Anthony, Courtney; Rex, Tonia S

    2015-01-01

    Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury), flying debris (secondary injury), blunt force trauma (tertiary injury), and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury). In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology) were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

  8. Neurodegeneration and Vision Loss after Mild Blunt Trauma in the C57Bl/6 and DBA/2J Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Bricker-Anthony

    Full Text Available Damage to the eye from blast exposure can occur as a result of the overpressure air-wave (primary injury, flying debris (secondary injury, blunt force trauma (tertiary injury, and/or chemical/thermal burns (quaternary injury. In this study, we investigated damage in the contralateral eye after a blast directed at the ipsilateral eye in the C57Bl/6J and DBA/2J mouse. Assessments of ocular health (gross pathology, electroretinogram recordings, optokinetic tracking, optical coherence tomography and histology were performed at 3, 7, 14 and 28 days post-trauma. Olfactory epithelium and optic nerves were also examined. Anterior pathologies were more common in the DBA/2J than in the C57Bl/6 and could be prevented with non-medicated viscous eye drops. Visual acuity decreased over time in both strains, but was more rapid and severe in the DBA/2J. Retinal cell death was present in approximately 10% of the retina at 7 and 28 days post-blast in both strains. Approximately 60% of the cell death occurred in photoreceptors. Increased oxidative stress and microglial reactivity was detected in both strains, beginning at 3 days post-injury. However, there was no sign of injury to the olfactory epithelium or optic nerve in either strain. Although our model directs an overpressure air-wave at the left eye in a restrained and otherwise protected mouse, retinal damage was detected in the contralateral eye. The lack of damage to the olfactory epithelium and optic nerve, as well as the different timing of cell death as compared to the blast-exposed eye, suggests that the injuries were due to physical contact between the contralateral eye and the housing chamber of the blast device and not propagation of the blast wave through the head. Thus we describe a model of mild blunt eye trauma.

  9. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-07-21

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chondrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histological analysis and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. The BMD value in TGP rabbits was significantly higher compared with that seen in the AIA model rabbits. In addition, the subchondral bone plate was almost completely preserved by TGP treatment, while there was a decrease in bone plate integrity in AIA rabbits. There was less damage to the chondrocytes of the TGP treated group. Immunohistochemical examination of the TGP group showed that a higher percentage of TGP treated chondrocytes expressed OPG as compared to the chondrocytes isolated from AIA treated animals. In contrast, RANKL expression was significantly decreased in the TGP treated group compared to the AIA group. In support of the immunohistochemistry data, the expression of RANKL mRNA was decreased and OPG mRNA expression was enhanced in the TGP group when compared to that of the AIA model group. These results reveal that TGP suppresses juxta-articular osteoporosis and prevents subchondral bone loss. The decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression seen in TGP treated animals could explain how administration of TGP maintains higher BMD.

  10. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  11. A nutritional education program could prevent weight loss and slow cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, S; Gillette-Guyonnet, S; Voisin, T; Reynish, E; Andrieu, S; Lauque, S; Salva, A; Frisoni, G; Nourhashemi, F; Micas, M; Vellas, B

    2001-01-01

    Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). It is a predictive factor of mortality and it decreases patients' and caregivers' quality of life. To determine if a nutritional education program can prevent weight loss in AD patients. 151 AD patients and their caregivers were enrolled to follow the intervention and 74 AD patients and their caregivers constituted a control group. Caregivers in the intervention group followed 9 nutritional sessions of one hour each, over one year. Caregivers in the control group didn't follow any sessions but were offered advice provided in a normal follow-up. Patients weight, nutritional state, cognitive function, autonomy, mood, behaviour disorders at baseline and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Caregivers burden, nutritional and AD knowledge at the baseline and at the 12-month follow-up. During the year follow-up, the mean weight increased in the intervention group (0.7+/-3.6 kg) whereas it decreased in the control group (-0.7+/-5.4 kg) (pnutritional status (MNA) was maintained in the intervention group (0.3+/-2.6) whereas it decreased significantly in the control group (-1.0+/-3.4) (pnutritional state, eating behaviour disorders, depression), the weight change between the two groups was not significant (0.6+/-0.4 kg vs. -0.6+/-0. 6 kg respectively in intervention group and control group). However, the percentage of patients with significant weight loss is decreased. The MMSE change became significant between the two groups: -2.3+/-0.3 vs. -3.4+/-0.4 respectively in intervention group and control group (pnutritional educational program intended for caregivers of AD patients could have a positive effect on patients weight and cognitive function.

  12. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  13. Data on medicinal plants used in Central America to manage diabetes and its sequelae (skin conditions, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, urinary problems and vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giovannini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data described in this article is related to the review article “Medicinal plants used in the traditional management of diabetes and its sequelae in Central America: a review” (Giovannini et al., 2016 [1]. We searched publications on the useful plants of Central America in databases and journals by using selected relevant keywords. We then extracted reported uses of medicinal plants within the disease categories: diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, urinary problems, skin diseases and infections, cardiovascular disease, sexual dysfunction, vision loss, and nerve damage. The following countries were included in our definition of Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were compiled in a bespoke Access database. Plant names from the published sources were validated against The Plant List (TPL, (The Plant List, 2013 [2] and accepted names and synonyms were extracted. In total, the database includes 607 plant names obtained from the published sources which correspond to 537 plant taxa, 9271 synonyms and 1055 use reports.

  14. Preventive treatment of intrauterine device-induced menstrual blood loss with tranexamic acid in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X; Gao, E S; Li, D; Zhang, M; Dou, L X; Yuan, W

    2007-01-01

    To investigate whether tranexamic acid (Transamin) therapy reduces the amount of menstrual blood loss (MBL) and occurrence of menorrhagia after intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Some 175 Chinese women attending for IUD insertion were equally assigned into 2 Transamin groups (1,000 and 500 mg, twice daily) and a placebo group. Their MBL was recorded with a pictorial chart in 3 subsequent menstrual cycles after insertion, while the MBL of 64 patients, collecting used sanitary towels, was also measured by an alkaline hematin method. A significant decline in post-insertion MBL and occurrence of menorrhagia was found in the 2 Transamin groups compared with the placebo group (p<0.05), whereas the difference in the results from the pictorial chart score was not statistically significant between the 1 g group and placebo group. Transamin treatment with a generally recommended dosage can effectively reduce the amount of IUD-induced MBL and prevent menorrhagia in Chinese women. A lower dosage than recommended (50% of recommended dosage) may have a similar preventive effect.

  15. Bcl-2 prevents loss of mitochondria in CCCP-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Aniek O. de; Heuvel, Lambert P. van den; Dijkman, Henry B.P.M.; Abreu, Ronney A. de; Birkenkamp, Kim U.; Witte, Theo de; Reijden, Bert A. van der; Smeitink, Jan A.M.; Jansen, Joop H.

    2004-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis at the level of mitochondria. To examine the mechanism of Bcl-2 function, we investigated the effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) on two hematopoietic cell lines and Bcl-2 overexpressing transfectants. CCCP directly interferes with mitochondrial function and induces apoptosis. We show that Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis and that the antiapoptotic effect of Bcl-2 takes place upstream of caspase activation and nuclear changes associated with apoptosis, since these were markedly inhibited in cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Bcl-2 does not prevent the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential nor the alterations in cellular ATP content induced by CCCP in FL5.12 and Jurkat cells. A higher number of mitochondria was observed in untreated Bcl-2 transfected cells compared to parental cells, as shown by electron microscopy. Exposure to CCCP induced a dramatic decrease in the number of mitochondria and severely disrupted mitochondrial ultrastructure, with apparent swelling and loss of cristae in parental cells. Bcl-2 clearly diminished the disruption of mitochondrial structure and preserved a higher number of mitochondria. These data suggest that CCCP induces apoptosis by structural disruption of mitochondria and that Bcl-2 prevents apoptosis and mitochondrial degeneration by preserving mitochondrial integrity

  16. Retinal photography screening programs to prevent vision loss from diabetic retinopathy in rural and urban Australia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Robyn J; Svoboda, Jean; Fredericks, Bronwyn; Jackson, A Jonathan; Taylor, Hugh R

    2015-02-01

    This review assessed the effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening programs, using retinal photography in Australian urban and rural settings, and considered implications for public health strategy and policy. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase for studies published between 1 January 1996 and the 30 June 2013 was undertaken. Key search terms were "diabetic retinopathy," "screening," "retinal photography" and "Australia." Twelve peer-reviewed publications were identified. The 14 DR screening programs identified from the 12 publications were successfully undertaken in urban, rural and remote communities across Australia. Locations included a pathology collection center, and Indigenous primary health care and Aboriginal community controlled organizations. Each intervention using retinal photography was highly effective at increasing the number of people who underwent screening for DR. The review identified that prior to commencement of the screening programs a median of 48% (range 16-85%) of those screened had not undergone a retinal examination within the recommended time frame (every year for Indigenous people and every 2 years for non-Indigenous people in Australia). A median of 16% (range 0-45%) of study participants had evidence of DR. This review has shown there have been many pilot and demonstration projects in rural and urban Australia that confirm the effectiveness of retinal photography-based screening for DR.

  17. Retrospective data on causes of childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Bhayal, Bharat Kumar; Adhikary, Rabindra; Shrestha, Arjun; Sah, Rabindra Prasad

    2017-11-22

    Proper information on causes of childhood vision loss is essential in developing appropriate strategies and programs to address such causes. This study aimed at identifying the causes of vision loss in children attending the national referral eye hospital with the only pediatric ophthalmology service in Eritrea. A retrospective data review was conducted for all the children (Causes of vision loss for children with vision impairment (recorded visual acuity less than 6/18 for distance in the better eye) was classified by the anatomical site affected and by underlying etiology based on the timing of the insult and causal factor. The medical record cards of 22,509 children were reviewed, of whom 249 (1.1%) were visually impaired. The mean age of the participants was 7.82 ± 5.43 years (range: one month to 16 years) and male to female ratio was 1:0.65. The leading causes of vision loss were cataract (19.7%), corneal scars (15.7%), refractive error and amblyopia (12.1%), optic atrophy (6.4%), phthisis bulbi (6.4%), aphakia (5.6%) and glaucoma (5.2%). Childhood factors including trauma were the leading causes identified (34.5%) whereas other causes included hereditary factors (4%), intrauterine factors (2.0%) and perinatal factors (4.4%). In 55.0% of the children, the underlying etiology could not be attributed. Over two-thirds (69.9%) of vision loss was potentially avoidable in nature. This study explored the causes of vision loss in Eritrean children using hospital based data. Cataract corneal opacities, refractive error and amblyopia, globe damage due to trauma, infection and nutritional deficiency, retinal disorders, and other congenital abnormalities were the leading causes of childhood vision impairment in children attending the tertiary eye hospital in Eritrea. As majority of the causes of vision loss was due to avoidable causes, we recommended primary level public health strategies to prevent ocular injuries, vitamin A deficiency, perinatal infections and

  18. PHYSIOTHERAPY OF BLIND AND LOW VISION INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Tatjana Sterle

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The authors present a preventive physiotherapy programme intended to improve the well-being of persons who have been blind or visually impaired since birth or experience partial or complete loss of vision later in life as a result of injury or disease.Methods. Different methods and techniques of physiotherapy, kinesitherapy and relaxation used in the rehabilitation of visually impaired persons are described.Results. The goals of timely physical treatment are to avoid unnecessary problems, such as improper posture, tension of the entire body, face and eyes, and deterioration of facial expression, that often accompany partial or complete loss of vision. Regular training improves functional skills, restores the skills that have been lost, and prevents the development of defects and consequent disorders of the locomotor apparatus.Conclusions. It is very difficult to change the life style and habits of blind and visually imapired persons. Especially elderly people who experience complete or partial loss of vision later in their lives are often left to their fate. Therefore blind and visually impaired persons of all age groups should be enrolled in a suitable rehabilitation programme that will improve the quality of their life.

  19. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Frisina, Robert D.; Ding, Bo; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs fo...

  20. VISION development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.; Whitman, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    VISION is a flexible and extensible object-oriented programming environment for prototyping computer-vision and pattern-recognition algorithms. This year's effort focused on three major areas: documentation, graphics, and support for new applications

  1. Chlorhexidine Prevents Root Dentine Mineral Loss and Fracture Caused by Calcium Hydroxide over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ranniery Garcia Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the mineral ion loss of root dentine after treatment with 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX and to compare its yield and flexural strength (fs after exposure to calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH2]. Materials and Methods. Dentine bars (DB were made from 90 roots of bovine incisors and randomized into three groups: GControl: distilled/deionized water (DDW, GNaOCl: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA, and GCHX: CHX + DDW. The release of phosphate (PO4 and calcium (Ca ions was measured by spectrophotometry. The DB were exposed to Ca(OH2 paste for 0, 30, 90, and 180 days. DB were subjected to the three-point bending test to obtain yield and fs values. The fracture patterns were evaluated (20x. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post hoc tests or one- and two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test (α=0.05. Results. GCHX showed lower PO43- and Ca2+ ionic release than GNaOCl (pGNaOCl in all periods (p<0.001, except for yield strength values on 90 days (p=0.791. A larger frequency of vertical fractures was observed in GNaOCl and that of oblique fractures in GCHX (p<0.05. Conclusions. CHX prevented PO43- and Ca2+ loss and showed a tendency to preserve the yield and fs of root dentine over time following exposure to Ca(OH2 paste.

  2. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; So, Hong-Seob; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine 727 . Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser 727 signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  3. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  4. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Wojda, Samantha J.; Barlow, Lindsay N.; Drummer, Thomas D.; Castillo, Alesha B.; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W.; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L.; Nelson, O. Lynne; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2009-01-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus a...

  5. Program Sustainability: Hearing Loss and Tinnitus Prevention in American Indian Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William Hal; Sobel, Judith L; Griest, Susan E; Howarth, Linda C; Becker, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    An important goal of any health promotion effort is to have it maintained in delivery and effectiveness over time. The purpose of this study was to establish a community-based noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus prevention program in three different types of American Indian communities and evaluate them for evidence of long-term sustainability. The target population was fourth- and fifth-grade students from three different models of American Indian communities. The evidenced-based Dangerous Decibels ® program was adapted to include local media, classroom education, family and community outreach, and web-based activities. Sustainability was attempted by promoting funding stability, political support, partnerships, organizational capacity, program adaptation, program evaluation, communications, public health impacts, and strategic planning. Currently, there is evidence suggesting that the hearing health promotion program is self-sustaining in all three American Indian communities. The intervention was effective at changing knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in the target population, but program adoption and self-sustenance faced challenges that required patience, persistence, and creativity by the program team. Components of the intervention continue to be delivered by local members of each community. Critical factors that led to self-sustaining programs included approval of community leaders and engagement of community members in the design, administration, and evaluation of the effort; use of a well-developed, evidence-based intervention; and high-level training of local participants who could confidently and effectively continue delivering the program following a gradual transition to independence. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Andrographolide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and prevents inflammatory bone loss in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Z J; Li, H W; Liu, G W; Qu, X H; Tian, B; Yan, W; Lin, Z; Tang, T T; Qin, A; Dai, K R

    2014-02-01

    Osteoclasts play a pivotal role in diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumour bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. Here, we examined changes in osteoclastogenesis and LPS-induced osteolysis in response to andrographolide (AP), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from the traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata. Effects of AP on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were measured in vitro. Western blots and RT-PCR techniques were used to examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. The bone protective activity of AP in vivo was assessed in a mouse model of osteolysis. AP concentration-dependently suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptors and cathepsin K. Further molecular analysis revealed that AP impaired RANKL-induced NF-κB signalling by inhibiting the phosphorylation of TGF-β-activated kinase 1, suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and subsequently preventing the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit. AP also inhibited the ERK/MAPK signalling pathway without affecting p38 or JNK signalling. AP suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through attenuating NF-κB and ERK/MAPK signalling pathways in vitro, thus preventing bone loss in vivo. These data indicated that AP is a promising natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Extract Prevents Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone resorbing disorders such as osteoporosis, periodontitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, discovery of agents capable of suppressing osteoclast differentiation may aid the development of a therapeutic access for the treatment of pathological bone loss. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata has been used as herbal folk medicine to treat liver diseases and inflammation in Asia. However, its effects on osteoclast differentiation are unknown. We were aimed to investigate the anti-osteoclastogenic activity in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of Ampelopsis brevipedunculata extract (ABE. In this study, ABE inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, the formation of filamentous actin rings and the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. ABE inhibited RANKL-induced p38 and IκB phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Also, ABE suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1 and c-Fos, and the mRNA expression of genes required for cell fusion and bone resorption, such as osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cathepsin K, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, β3-integrin and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP. Furthermore, results of micro-CT and histologic analysis indicated that ABE remarkably prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced bone erosion. These results demonstrate that ABE prevents LPS-induced bone erosion through inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and function, suggesting the promise of ABE as a potential cure for various osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  8. Computational vision

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1990-01-01

    The book is suitable for advanced courses in computer vision and image processing. In addition to providing an overall view of computational vision, it contains extensive material on topics that are not usually covered in computer vision texts (including parallel distributed processing and neural networks) and considers many real applications.

  9. The role of the health system in the prevention of hearing loss among children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, Fayrouz Mohammed; Omar, Mayeh Abu

    2011-01-01

    Around 1.2 million children living in Sub-Saharan Africa have a hearing impairment (HI) or hearing loss (HL). Limited attention and scarce resources dedicated to this condition means that such children often receive no management for their problem. This has substantial negative effects on their development, and ultimately results in poverty. Half of the number of cases of HI in such countries results from preventable causes. Formulation of effective prevention strategies to address the causes...

  10. Analysis of Vision Loss Caused by Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Particle Therapy for Head-and-Neck and Skull-Base Tumors Adjacent to Optic Nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demizu, Yusuke; Murakami, Masao; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Niwa, Yasue; Akagi, Takashi; Sasaki, Ryohei; Terashima, Kazuki; Suga, Daisaku; Kamae, Isao; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the incident rates of vision loss (VL; based on counting fingers or more severe) caused by radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) after particle therapy for tumors adjacent to optic nerves (ONs), and to evaluate factors that may contribute to VL. Methods and Materials: From August 2001 to August 2006, 104 patients with head-and-neck or skull-base tumors adjacent to ONs were treated with carbon ion or proton radiotherapy. Among them, 145 ONs of 75 patients were irradiated and followed for greater than 12 months. The incident rate of VL and the prognostic factors for occurrence of VL were evaluated. The late effects of carbon ion and proton beams were compared on the basis of a biologically effective dose at α/β = 3 gray equivalent (GyE 3 ). Results: Eight patients (11%) experienced VL resulting from RION. The onset of VL ranged from 17 to 58 months. The median follow-up was 25 months. No significant difference was observed between the carbon ion and proton beam treatment groups. On univariate analysis, age (>60 years), diabetes mellitus, and maximum dose to the ON (>110 GyE 3 ) were significant, whereas on multivariate analysis only diabetes mellitus was found to be significant for VL. Conclusions: The time to the onset of VL was highly variable. There was no statistically significant difference between carbon ion and proton beam treatments over the follow-up period. Based on multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus correlated with the occurrence of VL. A larger study with longer follow-up is warranted.

  11. Yi-gan san for treatment of charles bonnet syndrome (visual hallucination due to vision loss): an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Tsuyoshi; Furuya, Motohide; Kristian, Liaury; Wake, Rei; Kawakami, Kazunori; Nagahama, Michiharu; Kawano, Kiminori; Ieda, Masa; Tsuchie, Keiko; Horiguchi, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the traditional Japanese herbal medicine yi-gan san (YGS, yokukan-san in Japanese) may be safe and useful for treating behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia, borderline personality disorder, neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia, and treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Visual hallucinations are common and often distressing consequences of vision loss, particularly in age-related macular degeneration. Charles Bonnet syndrome (CBS) is defined by the triad of complex visual hallucinations, ocular pathology causing visual deterioration, and preserved cognitive status. We aimed at evaluating both the efficacy and safety of YGS in patients with CBS. Twenty patients diagnosed with CBS were investigated, according to the diagnostic criteria established by Gold and Rabins and Teunisse. Participants were treated in a 4-week open-label study with YGS at an average daily dose of 5.8 ± 2.6 g (2.5-7.5 g). Psychometric instruments used to assess efficacy included the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, hallucination subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression. No cases of serious adverse events were attributed to the study's drug therapy. A significant decrease in visual hallucination was observed at 2 and 4 weeks in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, hallucination subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression scores. Yi-gan san may be an effective and safe therapy to control visual hallucination in patients with CBS and should be further tested in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Given the design characteristics of this trial, the present findings should be taken cautiously.

  12. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  13. Hearing Health in College Instrumental Musicians and Prevention of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna D; Gooding, Lori F; Shikoh, Fara; Graf, Julie

    2016-03-01

    College musicians exhibit greater declines in hearing than the general population and are at particular risk because they rehearse and perform daily in loud environments. Also, they engage in use of personal listening devices which increases the amount of "exposure" time. Despite increased risk, many do not use hearing protection devices (HPD). The purpose of this study was to (1) to identify the present level of education about hearing health, (2) identify the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using HPD, and (3) evaluate results among different musical instrument groups. A mixed-methods group design was used including both quantitative and qualitative instruments. SPSS was used to generate descriptive statistics, and non-parametric statistical analysis was performed on quantitative data. NVivo software was used to evaluate qualitative responses. Of the 90 college instrumental music students who participated, 12% reported a history of hearing loss, and over one-third reported tinnitus. Seventy-seven percent of participants had never received any training about hearing health and only a small percentage of students used HPD. The most cited reason for lack of protection use was its negative impact on sound quality. However, group differences were noted between brass, woodwind, and percussion musicians in terms of HPD uptake. Improving the type of information disseminated to college musicians may reduce the risk of ear-related deficits. Noise dosage information, HPD information, and prevention education grounded in theories like the Health Belief Model may increase awareness and promote greater use of HPDs in this population.

  14. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension

  15. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; So, Hong-Seob; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine(727). Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  17. Pigment epithelial detachment followed by retinal cystoid degeneration leads to vision loss in treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Deak, Gabor-Gyoergy; Kundi, Michael; Simader, Christian

    2015-04-01

    AMD is strongly determined by morphologic features. The subretinal pigment epithelium lesion underlying PED appears to be the primary indicator for progressive disease activity, whereas secondary cystoid degeneration is the most relevant imaging marker for visual function. Clinically, PED emerged as trigger for consecutive vision loss in PRN treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. NWT-02, a fixed combination of lutein, zeaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk and reduction of the loss of vision: evaluation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2018-01-01

    an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to NWT-02 and a reduction of the loss of vision. The food proposed by the applicant as the subject of the health claim is NWT-02. NWT02 is standardised by its content in lutein (≥ 1.10 mg), zeaxanthin (≥ 0.20 mg) and docosahexaenoic acid...... (DHA) (≥ 170 mg). The Panel considers that the food/constituent that is the subject of the health claim, NWT-02, a fixed combination of lutein, zeaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is ‘reduces loss of vision......’. The target population proposed by the applicant is ‘healthy adults over 50 years of age’. The Panel considers that a reduction of the loss of vision is a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided two human intervention studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim. The Panel considers...

  19. Schema reliance for developmental goals increases from early to late adulthood: improvement for the young, loss prevention for the old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Riediger, Michaela; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2009-06-01

    People tend to encode and retrieve information in terms of schemata, especially when processing resources are low. This study argues that the life-span schema about developmental goals constitutes a generalized expectation about the life course that associates young adults with growth and older adults with loss prevention. Predictions were that young and older adults possess this schema; that both age groups rely on it when remembering age-associated information about goals; and that this schema reliance is particularly pronounced among older adults, due to age-related difficulties in overcoming schemata. In Experiment 1, participants assigned growth or loss-prevention orientations to young and older faces and adhered to the life-span schema. In Experiment 2, participants were presented young and older faces paired with growth or loss prevention. When later asked to recognize faces and remember goal orientations, participants were more likely to remember young faces with growth and older faces with loss prevention than vice versa. This effect was more pronounced among older adults. Conclusions are that reliance on life-span schemata when remembering developmentally relevant information increases with age. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Feeding blueberry diets during early development is sufficient to prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  1. Feeding Blueberry Diets in Early Life Prevent Senescence of Osteoblasts and Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Adult Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for optimal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been extensively studied. In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented...

  2. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents: expert opinions from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2009-05-01

    To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth work, music entertainment, and enforcement authorities participated in a qualitative, electronic, 3-round, Web-based Delphi study. Multiple parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents were identified; the most relevant are the adolescents themselves, their parents, manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones, and the authorities. The experts did not expect that adolescents in general would perform the necessary protective behaviors to prevent MP3-induced hearing loss. Two environmental health protection measures were identified as both relevant and feasible to be implemented (ie, authorities encourage manufacturers to produce safer products, and public health campaigns will be held to improve knowledge of the risks of high-volume music, possible protective measures, and consequences of hearing loss). Authorities, the music industry in general, and especially manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones should recognize their responsibility and create a safer MP3-listening environment by taking measures to protect today's youth from the dangers of listening to high-volume music on MP3 players.

  3. Low doses of estradiol in combination with gestodene to prevent early postmenopausal bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnason, N H; Byrjalsen, I; Hassager, C; Haarbo, J; Christiansen, C

    2000-09-01

    Our purpose was to study combinations of estradiol and gestodene for prevention of bone loss in early postmenopausal women. We randomly assigned 278 healthy, early postmenopausal women to receive either 2 mg 17beta-estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 2/25s), 2 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 50 microg gestodene (group 2/50s), 1 mg estradiol sequentially combined with 25 microg gestodene (group 1/25s), 1 mg estradiol continuously combined with 25 mg gestodene (group 1/25c), or placebo. After 3 years the changes in bone mineral density of the spine were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, 7. 41% +/- 0.72%; group 2/50s, 8.53% +/- 0.90%; group 1.25s, 6.67% +/- 0.88%; group 1/25c, 4.44% +/- 0.59%; and placebo group, -2.03% +/- 0. 64%. The changes in bone mineral density were mirrored in the biochemical bone markers. The average responses for the urinary C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen corrected for creatinine excretion were as follows (mean of baseline +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -68.8% +/- 0.03%; group 2/50s, -72.8% +/- 0.02%; group 1/25s, -60.7% +/- 0.03%; group 1/25c, -52.28% +/- 0.04%; and placebo group, 6.5% +/- 0.09%. Beneficial lipid effects were found in all active groups. The decreases in low-density lipoprotein were as follows (mean +/- SEM): group 2/25s, -13.7% +/- 3.0%; group 2/50s, -14.6% +/- 3.2%; group 1/25s, -9.28% +/- 2.2%; group 1/25c, -9.92% +/- 2.4%; and placebo group, 1.53% +/- 1.9%. These results demonstrate that estradiol therapy with 1 mg estradiol is fully protective against early postmenopausal bone loss.

  4. Water extract of Rumex crispus prevents bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and inducing osteoblast mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ki-Shuk; Lee, Bohyoung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2017-10-26

    Rumex crispus root has traditionally been used in Asian medicine for the treatment of hemorrhage and dermatolosis. The aim of this study was to explore the pharmaceutical effects of water extract of Rumex crispus (WERC) on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. We also studied the effect of WERC on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced trabecular bone destruction mice model. High performance liquid chromatography analysis was used to identify three compounds (emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion) of WERC. The in vivo effect of WERC was examined using an administration of WERC or vehicle on the ICR mice with bone loss induced by intraperitoneal RANKL injection on day 0 and 1. All mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at day 7 and the femurs of mice were isolated for soft X-ray and Micro-CT analysis. The in vitro effect of WERC on osteoblast mineralization or osteoclast differentiation was examined by alizarin red S staining or by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and assay. To determine the transcription level of osteoblast or osteoclast-specific genes, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used. Western blot analysis was performed to study the effect of WERC on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling molecules. The presence of three compounds in WERC was determined. WERC significantly suppressed RANKL-induced trabecular bone loss by preventing microstructural deterioration. In vitro, WERC increased osteoblast mineralization by enhancing the transcription of runt-related transcription factor 2 and its transcriptional coactivators, and by stimulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation. Furthermore, WERC significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the activation of the RANKL signalings (MAPK and NF-κB) and the increasing inhibitory factors of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. This study showed that

  5. Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Model-Predictive Automatic Recovery System to Prevent Vehicle Loss of Control on Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Liu, Yuan; Sowers, Thomas S.; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  6. Knowledge of parents from urban and rural areas vs. prevention methods of hearing loss threats seen as challenges for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Danuta Głowacka

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge and awareness of factors that may trigger hearing loss is not synonymous with avoidance of the problem. Main components of hearing loss prevention among children and youths should be administrative actions, extensive education, and proper childcare at home.

  7. the evaluation of vision in children using monocular vision acuity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Monocular visual acuity (VA) is a direct method of detecting amblyopia, a leading cause of monocular vision loss in the 2 to 7years age group . Binocular vision is fully established by 6 moths of age, while fusion is consistently strengthened until the age of 6 years when it is fully developed . It was observed ...

  8. Recovering and preventing loss of detailed memory: differential rates of forgetting for detail types in episodic memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Kyra; St-Laurent, Marie; Pishdadian, Sara; Winocur, Gordon; Grady, Cheryl; Moscovitch, Morris

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memories undergo qualitative changes with time, but little is known about how different aspects of memory are affected. Different types of information in a memory, such as perceptual detail, and central themes, may be lost at different rates. In patients with medial temporal lobe damage, memory for perceptual details is severely impaired, while memory for central details is relatively spared. Given the sensitivity of memory to loss of details, the present study sought to investigate factors that mediate the forgetting of different types of information from naturalistic episodic memories in young healthy adults. The study investigated (1) time-dependent loss of “central” and “peripheral” details from episodic memories, (2) the effectiveness of cuing with reminders to reinstate memory details, and (3) the role of retrieval in preventing forgetting. Over the course of 7 d, memory for naturalistic events (film clips) underwent a time-dependent loss of peripheral details, while memory for central details (the core or gist of events) showed significantly less loss. Giving brief reminders of the clips just before retrieval reinstated memory for peripheral details, suggesting that loss of details is not always permanent, and may reflect both a storage and retrieval deficit. Furthermore, retrieving a memory shortly after it was encoded prevented loss of both central and peripheral details, thereby promoting retention over time. We consider the implications of these results for behavioral and neurobiological models of retention and forgetting. PMID:26773100

  9. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C

    1998-01-01

    increases in bone mineral density. Alendronate did not increase bone mineral density of the forearm, but it slowed the loss. The responses to estrogen-progestin were 1 to 2 percentage points greater than those to the 5-mg dose of alendronate. Alendronate was well tolerated, with a safety profile similar...... to that of placebo or estrogen-progestin. CONCLUSIONS: Alendronate prevents bone loss in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age to nearly the same extent as estrogen-progestin.......BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS...

  10. The role of the health system in the prevention of hearing loss among children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fayrouz Mohammed; Omar, Mayeh Abu

    2011-01-01

    Around 1.2 million children living in Sub-Saharan Africa have a hearing impairment (HI) or hearing loss (HL). Limited attention and scarce resources dedicated to this condition means that such children often receive no management for their problem. This has substantial negative effects on their development, and ultimately results in poverty. Half of the number of cases of HI in such countries results from preventable causes. Formulation of effective prevention strategies to address the causes requires an understanding of the factors that lead to the causes of HI in Sub-Saharan Africa. A number of preventable causes were shown to significantly contribute to the prevalence of HI. The most significant causes include perinatal problems, middle ear problems, infective diseases, and ototoxic drugs. These causes persist because there are few effective prevention strategies in place, and those which exist are poorly implemented. There is little public and health care worker awareness about HL and its prevention. Few resources are allocated to the prevention of HL, meaning that these issues are not addressed. Evidence have shown that current failings in the prevention of HI from such causes include widespread limited resources, inadequate staff training, and absent or ineffectual prevention guidelines. The burden of HL has been shown to be significantly reduced through effective prevention strategies, both in the developed and developing world, justifying the need for increased attention and more resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  11. Loss of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors during simulated extracorporeal circulation: prevention with prostaglandin E1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachtogel, Y.T.; Musial, J.; Jenkin, B.; Niewiarowski, S.; Edmunds, L.H. Jr.; Colman, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass prolongs bleeding time and increases postoperative blood loss. During in vitro recirculation in an extracorporeal circuit containing a membrane oxygenator and primed with fresh heparinized human blood, the authors previously observed thrombocytopenia, impaired platelet aggregation, and depletion of granular contents, all of which were prevented with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). To investigate these changes further, they studied the number and affinity of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by measuring the binding of /sup 3/H-yohimbine. Before recirculation, they found 235 alpha 2-adrenergic receptors per platelet, a Kd of 3.37 nmol/L, complete aggregation with 1.04 mumol/L epinephrine, and a platelet count of 281,000 microliters/sup -1/. After 2 minutes of recirculation, 9.44 mumol/L epinephrine was required to produce complete aggregation, and the platelet count was 104,000 microliters-1 (44% of control). After 2 hours of recirculation, the platelet count had increased to 123,000 microliters/sup -1/. However, epinephrine did not induce platelet aggregation even at 100 mumol/L. Moreover, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were not detectable, and affinity for yohimbine could not be calculated. Two minutes after PGE1 0.3 mumol/L was added to the circuit, platelet numbers, response to epinephrine, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites per platelet, and affinity for yohimbine were not significantly different from control values. At 2 hours, the number of alpha 2-adrenergic sites was not significantly changed from control, but the affinity of yohimbine for platelets was significantly decreased 2.5-fold.

  12. Loss of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors during simulated extracorporeal circulation: prevention with prostaglandin E1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtogel, Y.T.; Musial, J.; Jenkin, B.; Niewiarowski, S.; Edmunds, L.H. Jr.; Colman, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass prolongs bleeding time and increases postoperative blood loss. During in vitro recirculation in an extracorporeal circuit containing a membrane oxygenator and primed with fresh heparinized human blood, the authors previously observed thrombocytopenia, impaired platelet aggregation, and depletion of granular contents, all of which were prevented with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). To investigate these changes further, they studied the number and affinity of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by measuring the binding of 3 H-yohimbine. Before recirculation, they found 235 alpha 2-adrenergic receptors per platelet, a Kd of 3.37 nmol/L, complete aggregation with 1.04 mumol/L epinephrine, and a platelet count of 281,000 microliters -1 . After 2 minutes of recirculation, 9.44 mumol/L epinephrine was required to produce complete aggregation, and the platelet count was 104,000 microliters-1 (44% of control). After 2 hours of recirculation, the platelet count had increased to 123,000 microliters -1 . However, epinephrine did not induce platelet aggregation even at 100 mumol/L. Moreover, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were not detectable, and affinity for yohimbine could not be calculated. Two minutes after PGE1 0.3 mumol/L was added to the circuit, platelet numbers, response to epinephrine, alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites per platelet, and affinity for yohimbine were not significantly different from control values. At 2 hours, the number of alpha 2-adrenergic sites was not significantly changed from control, but the affinity of yohimbine for platelets was significantly decreased 2.5-fold

  13. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialiang Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS control (sham OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle, and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg−1∙day−1, respectively doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  14. Low Vision Rehabilitation and Diabetic Retinopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sarfaraz A.

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is emerging as a major cause of blindness. Diabetic retinopathy calls for a multidisciplinary to the patients. Management of the patient requires a team work by the internist, diabetologist, dietician, ophthalmologist and low vision therapist. Diabetic retinopathy very often results in vision loss. It is important for ophthalmologist to recognize the importance of low vision rehabilitation in formulating appropriate treatment strategies. People with low vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy usually experience difficulty in daily life. Most people with diabetic retinopathy (who have remaining useful vision) can be helped with low vision devices. However, often one low vision device may not be suitable for all purposes. A comprehensive low vision evaluation is required to assess the person's current visual status, identify the goals and the visual needs, and then design an individualized vision rehabilitation program to meet these needs. (author)

  15. [The concept of loss of chance: A major evolution in the definition of damage or how to prevent litigation for loss of chance?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T-D

    2016-07-01

    The concept of medical error in responsibility litigation was based until the past last years on a necessary direct and definite causal link between fault and injury. In France, since the 1960s and increasingly during the last decade, the idea of loss of chance arose, considered as a new and genuine prejudice (practically, a fixable damage); it became the subject of several legal precedents from the Cour de cassation and the Conseil d'État. Thus, plaintiffs may currently demand a compensation for a loss of chance even though a doubt exists on the causal link between the fault and the observed damage. The most frequent litigation circumstances implying a loss of chance are lack of information, lack or delay in diagnosis, delay in action, and default in medical assessment. Based on practical cases, the author presents the most propitious situations where litigation for loss of chance may occur and discusses possible preventive measures. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Causes of Childhood Vision Impairment in the School for the Blind in Eritrea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Moodley, Vanessa R

    2017-12-01

    Our study provides the much-needed evidence on causes of childhood blindness in Eritrea. This will assist authorities to plan appropriate strategies and implement preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services to address these causes of vision loss in children in this resource-limited country. This study aims to identify the causes of severe vision impairment and blindness in children attending the only school for the blind in Eritrea. All children enrolled in the school were examined, and the World Health Organization form for the examination of visually impaired children was used to record the data. Examination included visual acuity, refraction, anterior segment, and fundus assessment. Causes of vision loss for children with severe vision impairment (visual acuity blindness (visual acuity blindness. The major causes of vision loss were corneal scars (16.9%), cataract (12.7%), phthisis bulbi (11.3%), congenital eye deformities (11.3%), optic atrophy (9.3%), and presumed chorioretinal Toxoplasma scars (7.0%). Hereditary factors were the major known etiological category (15.5%) followed by the sequel of eye injuries (12.7%). Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency was not found, whereas infectious causes such as measles and ophthalmia neonatorum were relatively absent (one case each). Potentially avoidable causes of vision impairment were accounted for in 47.9% of children. This study provides the first direct evidence on childhood vision impairment in Eritrea. Despite the limitations, it is clearly shown that nearly half of the vision loss is due to avoidable causes. Thus, preventive public health strategies, specialist pediatric eye care, and rehabilitative services are recommended to address childhood vision impairment in Eritrea.

  17. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  18. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied.In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation.These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  19. The knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention among Chinese children with hearing loss in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Buyi; Chen, Jingqi; Jin, Yichen; Zhang, Wenjing; Feng, Yanan; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of any child sexual abuse (CSA) experience before the age of 16 years ranges from 10.2 to 35.2% in China, 1-5 but there has been no research so far exploring the level of awareness of CSA prevention and self-protection skills among Chinese children with hearing loss. The school based survey examines the CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills in Chinese children with hearing loss. Fifty-one students (30 boys, 21 girls) from 10 to 16 years old participated in the study. Children's CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills were tested by using anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was mainly designed based on previous Chinese CSA research questionnaires, the Personal Safety Questionnaire, and the 'What If' Situations Test (WIST). There were ten questions assessing the knowledge of CSA but none of the children could correctly answer all and seventy percent of the students could not answer more than five questions correctly. Only three students got the maximum skills score. If sexual abuse occurs, about fifty two percent of the children would report it to trusted adults and most of them would report it to their relatives. Girls received significantly higher scores than boys. Chinese children with hearing loss lack knowledge regarding child sexual abuse and the way to protect themselves. There is an urgent need to develop CSA prevention programs in the school for children with hearing loss in China. Parental training and parent-child interaction on CSA prevention should be developed and promoted as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  1. The epidemiology of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matende Ibrahim

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated vision status associated with trachomatous trichiasis (TT and explored age-sex patterns of low vision and blindness associated with trichiasis in Mankien district of southern Sudan where trachoma prevention and trichiasis surgery were absent. Methods A population based survey was undertaken and eligible persons underwent eye examination. Visual acuity (VA was tested using Snellen E chart and persons with TT identified. Vision status was defined using the WHO categories of visual impairment based on presenting VA: normal vision (VA ≥ 6/18 in better eye; low vision (VA Results Overall 341/3,567 persons examined had any TT. Analysis was based on 319 persons, 22 persons were excluded: 20 had both TT and cataract; and 2 had missing VA data. Of the 319 persons: 158(49.5% had trichiasis-related corneal opacity (CO; bilateral TT and bilateral CO were found in 251(78.7% and 110 (34.5%, respectively; 146 (45.8% had low vision or blindness; the ratio of low vision to blindness was 3.2:1; and no sex differences were observed. In our model the predicted distribution of vision status was: normal vision, 53.9% (95% CI 50.9–56.9; low vision, 35.3% (95% CI 33.3–37.2; and blindness, 10.9% (95% CI 9.7–12.0. Conclusion We have reported severe trichiasis and high prevalence of vision loss among persons with trichiasis. Our survey showed that almost 1 in 20 of the entire population suffered low vision or blindness associated with trachoma. The need for trichiasis surgery, trachoma prevention services, and rehabilitation of the blind is acute.

  2. Preventing Loss of Aircraft Control : Aiding pilots in manual recovery from roll-limited situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Loss of aircraft lateral control can be problem, specifically when multi engine propeller aircraft are faced with an engine failure. Another, less frequent phenomena is the loss of lateral control in case of aircraft damage. In this thesis, a method is developed to determine the minimum required

  3. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Micro Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Ohba, Kohtaro; Ohara, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    In the field of the micro vision, there are few researches compared with macro environment. However, applying to the study result for macro computer vision technique, you can measure and observe the micro environment. Moreover, based on the effects of micro environment, it is possible to discovery the new theories and new techniques.

  5. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...... = 8). The effects of acute running-induced fatigue and training on isokinetic and isometric peak torque, and rate of force development (RFD) were investigated. Before IERT, running-induced eccentric torque loss at 180° s(-1) was -8 %, and RFD loss was -11 %. Longitudinal IERT led to reduced or absent...

  6. Dendrobium alkaloids prevent Aβ25–35-induced neuronal and synaptic loss via promoting neurotrophic factors expression in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Nie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Neuronal and synaptic loss is the most important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and preventing synaptic loss are promising therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. In this study, we investigate the protective effects of Dendrobium alkaloids (DNLA, a Chinese medicinal herb extract, on β-amyloid peptide segment 25–35 (Aβ25-35-induced neuron and synaptic loss in mice. Method Aβ25–35(10 µg was injected into the bilateral ventricles of male mice followed by an oral administration of DNLA (40 mg/kg for 19 days. The Morris water maze was used for evaluating the ability of spatial learning and memory function of mice. The morphological changes were examined via H&E staining and Nissl staining. TUNEL staining was used to check the neuronal apoptosis. The ultrastructure changes of neurons were observed under electron microscope. Western blot was used to evaluate the protein expression levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Results DNLA significantly attenuated Aβ25–35-induced spatial learning and memory impairments in mice. DNLA prevented Aβ25–35-induced neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex, increased the number of Nissl bodies, improved the ultrastructural injury of neurons and increased the number of synapses in neurons. Furthermore, DNLA increased the protein expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, CNTF and GDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Conclusions DNLA can prevent neuronal apoptosis and synaptic loss. This effect is mediated at least in part via increasing the expression of BDNF, GDNF and CNTF in the hippocampus and cortex; improving Aβ-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice.

  7. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  8. An Ounce of Prevention: Probabilistic Loss Estimation for Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrani-Reiser, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) is a methodology that incorporates desired performance levels into the design process. Performance in PBEE can be expressed in economic terms, or as elapsed downtime, or in terms of life and building safety objectives. These performance objectives are relevant to various types of stakeholders. They should be addressed in building loss estimation procedures because after an earthquake, the repair cost will not be the only "loss" su...

  9. A Novel Therapeutic for the Treatment and Prevention of Hearing Loss from Acoustic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss Toll-like receptor (TLR) MAPK/JNK pathway Reactive oxygen species Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) Intra-cellular...compared to one day post noise exposure, indicating some degree of temporary hearing loss. The hearing thresholds measured at 7 weeks post noise were...Nothing to report  Actual or anticipated problems or delays and actions or plans to resolve them Nothing to report  Changes that had a significant

  10. Mandibular Symphyseal/Parasymphyseal Fracture with Incisor Tooth Loss: Preventing Lower Arch Constriction

    OpenAIRE

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Abdollahpour, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular fractures are the second most common fractures of the face after the nasal bone. Mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fracture comprises 15.6 to 29.3% of mandibular fractures. Tooth loss in the fracture line is a known phenomenon, but space loss has not been evaluated comprehensively in the literature. In a retrospective study, patients with mandibular symphyseal/parasymphyseal fractures, who had been treated from 2012 to 2013 in Mashhad University, Iran, Emdadi Hospital, were reca...

  11. Extending Our Vision: Access to Inclusive Dance Education for People with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seham, Jenny; Yeo, Anna J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental, organizational and attitudinal obstacles continue to prevent people with vision loss from meaningfully engaging in dance education and performance. This article addresses the societal disabilities that handicap access to dance education for the blind. Although much of traditional dance instruction relies upon visual cuing and…

  12. Computational vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The range of fundamental computational principles underlying human vision that equally apply to artificial and natural systems is surveyed. There emerges from research a view of the structuring of vision systems as a sequence of levels of representation, with the initial levels being primarily iconic (edges, regions, gradients) and the highest symbolic (surfaces, objects, scenes). Intermediate levels are constrained by information made available by preceding levels and information required by subsequent levels. In particular, it appears that physical and three-dimensional surface characteristics provide a critical transition from iconic to symbolic representations. A plausible vision system design incorporating these principles is outlined, and its key computational processes are elaborated.

  13. Computer vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennery, D.; Cunningham, R.; Saund, E.; High, J.; Ruoff, C.

    1981-01-01

    The field of computer vision is surveyed and assessed, key research issues are identified, and possibilities for a future vision system are discussed. The problems of descriptions of two and three dimensional worlds are discussed. The representation of such features as texture, edges, curves, and corners are detailed. Recognition methods are described in which cross correlation coefficients are maximized or numerical values for a set of features are measured. Object tracking is discussed in terms of the robust matching algorithms that must be devised. Stereo vision, camera control and calibration, and the hardware and systems architecture are discussed.

  14. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Robert A; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identified that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatej, Simona M; Marino, Victor; Bright, Richard; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Gully, Neville; Zilm, Peter; Gibson, Rachel J; Edwards, Suzanne; Bartold, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone loss and local and systemic inflammation in an in vivo mouse model of experimental periodontitis (PD). Experimental PD was induced in mice by oral inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum over a period of 44 days. The probiotic LGG was administered via oral inoculation or oral gavage prior to, and during disease induction. The antimicrobial activity of LGG on the inoculum was also tested. Alveolar bone levels and gingival tissue changes were assessed using in vivo microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Serum levels of mouse homologues for IL-8 were measured using multiplex assays. Pre-treatment with probiotics either via oral gavage or via oral inoculation significantly reduced bone loss (p Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG effectively suppresses bone loss in a mouse model of induced PD irrespective of the mode of administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, G.J. de; Spaans, P.; Jansen, B.; Riet, J.P. van 't

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents’ intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of

  17. Prevention of adolescents' music-induced hearing loss due to discotheque attendance: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, van der C.P.B.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant social and public health problem, which is found in increasing numbers of adolescents. Young people are particularly likely to expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds during leisure activities. Visiting discotheques is one of the most popular

  18. The Effect of Earplugs in Preventing Hearing Loss From Recreational Noise Exposure : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijenga, Véronique J C; Ramakers, Geerte G J; Grolman, Wilko

    Importance: The prevalence of hearing loss among children and adolescents is rising dramatically, caused mainly by increased exposure to recreational noise. Objective: To present a systematic overview of the effectiveness of wearing earplugs to music venues, such as nightclubs and concert halls, to

  19. Testosterone prevents protein loss via the hepatic urea cycle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Teresa; Poljak, Anne; McLean, Mark; Bahl, Neha; Ho, Ken K Y; Birzniece, Vita

    2017-04-01

    The urea cycle is a rate-limiting step for amino acid nitrogen elimination. The rate of urea synthesis is a true indicator of whole-body protein catabolism. Testosterone reduces protein and nitrogen loss. The effect of testosterone on hepatic urea synthesis in humans has not been studied. To determine whether testosterone reduces hepatic urea production. An open-label study. Eight hypogonadal men were studied at baseline, and after two weeks of transdermal testosterone replacement (Testogel, 100 mg/day). The rate of hepatic urea synthesis was measured by the urea turnover technique using stable isotope methodology, with 15 N 2 -urea as tracer. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were calculated. Testosterone administration significantly reduced the rate of hepatic urea production (from 544.4 ± 71.8 to 431.7 ± 68.3 µmol/min; P  Testosterone treatment significantly reduced net protein loss, as measured by percent Lox/LRa, by 19.3 ± 5.8% ( P  testosterone administration ( r 2  = 0.59, P  Testosterone replacement reduces protein loss and hepatic urea synthesis. We conclude that testosterone regulates whole-body protein metabolism by suppressing the urea cycle. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  20. Winter-catastrophies in the reindeer husbandry of Finland: Losses and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Helle

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurreance of disastrous winters to the reindeer industry in Finland with special attention on the winter catastrophies and tje condition of the pastures, the influence of the disasters upon the population dynamic of the reindeer and the methods used to prevent catastrophies. A reindeer catastrophy has been defined as a situation where the number of reindeer stays 20% below the mean of the reindeer numbers during the two preceeding years. During the winter-catastrophies from 1970/71 to 1980/81 4.5% of the total reindeer number was lost. The highest losses were found in the northwesternmost part of Lappland, where there is no alternative to the reindeer lichen as it is in the middle and southern part of the reindeer industry area (arboreal lichens and supplemental feeding. In Kaldoaivi reindeer association (district, which has been studied in detail, the calf percentage is depending upon how the reindeer is able to manage the winter (r=0.62, n=ll, p«0.05. There is also a positive correlation between the slaughterweight of the calves in the early winter and the calf rate (r=0.79, n=7, p«0.05.During severe winters the mortality rate of males exceeds that of the females. Winter-catastrophies may be prevented by deminishing the numer of reindeer and by guiding the harvest to the most risky cohorts of the population. It has been proved that supplementary and emergency feeding are the most effective methods. In a normal year during the 1970s the total use of dry hay was 0.5—1.5 mill, kg., being up to 5.9—12.5 kg. per reindeer/year. In normal winters 10—16% of the total reindeer stock was intensively fed in enclosures. Supplementary feeding in enclosures is most common in the middle and southern parts of the reindeer industry area, where the essential feed is grown on own land.Katotalvet suomen poronhoidossa: menetykset ja Niiden Torjunta.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Artikkeli käsittelee katastrofitalvien

  1. Vision in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A; Valentine, Emma L; Gibson, Georgina; Thomas, Hannah R; Oh, Sera; Pyo, Young Ah; Lacherez, Philippe; Mathur, Ankit

    2013-09-06

    The purpose of this study is to determine visual performance in water, including the influence of pupil size. The water environment was simulated by placing goggles filled with saline in front of the eyes with apertures placed at the front of the goggles. Correction factors were determined for the different magnification under this condition in order to estimate vision in water. Experiments were conducted on letter visual acuity (seven participants), grating resolution (eight participants), and grating contrast sensitivity (one participant). For letter acuity, mean loss of vision in water, compared to corrected vision in air, varied between 1.1 log min of arc resolution (logMAR) for a 1 mm aperture to 2.2 logMAR for a 7 mm aperture. The vision in min of arc was described well by a linear relationship with pupil size. For grating acuity, mean loss varied between 1.1 logMAR for a 2 mm aperture to 1.2 logMAR for a 6 mm aperture. Contrast sensitivity for a 2 mm aperture deteriorated as spatial frequency increased with a 2 log unit loss by 3 c/°. Superimposed on this deterioration were depressions (notches) in sensitivity with the first three notches occurring at 0.45, 0.8, and 1.3 c/° with estimates for water of 0.39, 0.70, and 1.13 c/°. In conclusion, vision in water is poor. It becomes worse as pupil size increases, but the effects are much more marked for letter targets than for grating targets.

  2. Effectiveness of videos improving cancer prevention knowledge in people with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W

    2012-06-01

    Deaf persons have a poorer understanding of cancer prevention, which is felt to be partly due to communication barriers. One hundred ninety-seven d/Deaf persons completed a survey and video on cancer prevention. Half viewed a spoken English program designed for hearing persons (control group); the other half viewed an amended program that had American Sign Language, captions, and printed English options added (experimental group). Knowledge was measured before and after the video, including 1 and 6 months later. Respondents were primarily Caucasian, had low incomes, lost hearing at young ages, and had d/Deaf spouses. Although overall knowledge improved after viewing the video, the presence of culture-specific communications (American Sign Language, captions) did not improve scores compared to the control group, either immediately after the intervention or over time. Moreover, percentage correct on all pretest, and almost all post-test, questions was <50% for both experimental and control groups. For all subjects, regardless of which group they were in, a hearing spouse (p  < 0.001) and more healthcare information sources (p = 0.001) improved knowledge, while African-Americans showed a trend to lesser improvement (p = 0.06). Using culture-specific language did not improve cancer prevention knowledge in this d/Deaf population, and overall knowledge remained low. More study is needed to determine the best way to increase cancer prevention knowledge in this population.

  3. GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Treatment Increases Bone Formation and Prevents Bone Loss in Weight-Reduced Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie R; Hartmann, Bolette; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Jensen, Jens-Erik B; Holst, Jens J; Madsbad, Sten; Torekov, Signe S

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss-induced bone mass reduction. Randomized control study. Outpatient research hospital clinic. Thirty-seven healthy obese women with body mass index of 34 ± 0.5 kg/m(2) and age 46 ± 2 years. After a low-calorie-diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2 mg/d) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be replaced with a low-calorie-diet product to maintain the weight loss. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone markers [C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX-1) and N-terminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (P1NP)] were investigated before and after weight loss and after 52-week weight maintenance. Primary endpoints were changes in BMC and bone markers after 52-week weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. Total, pelvic, and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance in the control group (P GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low-calorie diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent.

  4. Bee venom ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced memory loss by preventing NF-kappaB pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Sun Mi; Park, Mi Hee; Hwang, Chul Ju; Song, Ho Sueb; Lee, Ung Soo; Han, Sang Bae; Oh, Ki Wan; Ham, Young Wan; Song, Min Jong; Son, Dong Ju; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulation of beta-amyloid and neuroinflammation trigger Alzheimer?s disease. We previously found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused neuroinflammation with concomitant accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides leading to memory loss. A variety of anti-inflammatory compounds inhibiting nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B) activation have showed efficacy to hinder neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis. We also found that bee venom (BV) inhibits NF-?B. Methods A mouse model of LPS-induced me...

  5. A Class I UV-Blocking (senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVA-induced Yellow Fluorescence and NADH loss in the Rabbit Lens Nucleus in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J.; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Fick, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm2 on the cornea) for 1 hour using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 hour. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  6. Resistance Training Prevents Muscle Loss Induced by Caloric Restriction in Obese Elderly Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V. Sardeli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear as to what extent resistance training (RT can attenuate muscle loss during caloric restriction (CR interventions in humans. The objective here is to address if RT could attenuate muscle loss induced by CR in obese elderly individuals, through summarized effects of previous studies. Databases MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were used to perform a systematic search between July and August 2017. Were included in the review randomized clinical trials (RCT comparing the effects of CR with (CRRT or without RT on lean body mass (LBM, fat body mass (FBM, and total body mass (BM, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, on obese elderly individuals. The six RCTs included in the review applied RT three times per week, for 12 to 24 weeks, and most CR interventions followed diets of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 30% fat. RT reduced 93.5% of CR-induced LBM loss (0.819 kg [0.364 to 1.273], with similar reduction in FBM and BM, compared with CR. Furthermore, to address muscle quality, the change in strength/LBM ratio tended to be different (p = 0.07 following CRRT (20.9 ± 23.1% and CR interventions (−7.5 ± 9.9%. Our conclusion is that CRRT is able to prevent almost 100% of CR-induced muscle loss, while resulting in FBM and BM reductions that do not significantly differ from CR.

  7. Choice of an Infusion Agent for the Prevention of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Acute Massive Blood Loss (Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Yakovlev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform an experimental study of the effect of sterofundin isotonic on the biochemical parameters characterizing the degree of organ injury after acute massive blood loss (AMBL. Material and methods. Experiments were carried out on 36 male Wistar rats weighing 230—250 g. Hemorrhagic stroke was simulated via AMBL in a volume of 2.5 ml/100 g at a rate of 2 ml/min. An hour after AMBL, there was hypovolemia compensation within 60 minutes in a volume of 200% of the blood loss: by Ringer’s solution in a control group and by sterofundin isotonic in an experimental group. Then blood reinfu-sion was made in a volume of 70% of blood loss. The biochemical parameters of multiple organ dysfunction (glucose, lactate, urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total protein, albumin, enzymemia (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine phosphokinase, lactate dehydrogenase, amylase, endotoxemia (low- and medium-molecular-weight substances in the plasma and erythrocytes, acid-base condition, electrolytes of venous blood, and animal survival were determined on days 1 and 3 following AMBL. Results. There was a reduction in the time and degree of posthemorrhagic metabolic, biochemical, and electrolyte disorders, enzymemia, and endotoxemia in the experimental animals. Conclusion. The experimental studies suggest that Ringer’s solution is inadequately effective in preventing multiple organ dysfunction due to AMBL. The malate-containing blood substitute sterofundin isotonic that is used during early therapy for AMBL exerts a marked preventive effect on the development of visceral organ injuries when multiple organ dysfunction occurs in the early and late posthemorrhagic period. The experimental findings make it possible to recommend that sterofundin isotonic should be used in intensive care of hypovolemic shock arising from AMBL. Key words: acute massive blood loss, malate, sterofun dinisotonic, lactate, endotoxemia, multiple organ

  8. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  9. Melanin precursors prevent premature age-related and noise-induced hearing loss in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Contreras, Julio; Zurita, Esther; Cediel, Rafael; Cantero, Marta; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Montoliu, Lluís

    2010-02-01

    Strial melanocytes are required for normal development and correct functioning of the cochlea. Hearing deficits have been reported in albino individuals from different species, although melanin appears to be not essential for normal auditory function. We have analyzed the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) of two transgenic mice: YRT2, carrying the entire mouse tyrosinase (Tyr) gene expression-domain and undistinguishable from wild-type pigmented animals; and TyrTH, non-pigmented but ectopically expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in melanocytes, which generate the precursor metabolite, L-DOPA, but not melanin. We show that young albino mice present a higher prevalence of profound sensorineural deafness and a poorer recovery of auditory thresholds after noise-exposure than transgenic mice. Hearing loss was associated with absence of cochlear melanin or its precursor metabolites and latencies of the central auditory pathway were unaltered. In summary, albino mice show impaired hearing responses during ageing and after noise damage when compared to YRT2 and TyrTH transgenic mice, which do not show the albino-associated ABR alterations. These results demonstrate that melanin precursors, such as L-DOPA, have a protective role in the mammalian cochlea in age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.

  10. Applications of Solar Technology for Catastrophe Response, Claims Management, and Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deering, A.; Thornton, J.P.

    1999-02-17

    Today's insurance industry strongly emphasizes developing cost-effective hazard mitigation programs, increasing and retaining commercial and residential customers through better service, educating customers on their exposure and vulnerabilities to natural disasters, collaborating with government agencies and emergency management organizations, and exploring the use of new technologies to reduce the financial impact of disasters. In June of 1998, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the National Association of Independent Insurers (NAII) sponsored a seminar titled, ''Solar Technology and the Insurance Industry.'' Presentations were made by insurance company representatives, insurance trade groups, government and state emergency management organizations, and technology specialists. The meeting was attended by insurers, brokers, emergency managers, and consultants from more than 25 US companies. Leading insurers from the personal line and commercial carriers were shown how solar technology can be used in underwriting, claims, catastrophe response, loss control, and risk management. Attendees requested a follow-up report on solar technology, cost, and applications in disasters, including suggestions on how to collaborate with the utility industry and how to develop educational programs for business and consumers. This report will address these issues, with an emphasis on pre-disaster planning and mitigation alternatives. It will also discuss how energy efficiency and renewable technologies can contribute to reducing insurance losses.

  11. Memory enhancing drugs and Alzheimer's disease: enhancing the self or preventing the loss of it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Wim; Rikkert, Marcel Olde

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we analyse some ethical and philosophical questions related to the development of memory enhancing drugs (MEDs) and anti-dementia drugs. The world of memory enhancement is coloured by utopian thinking and by the desire for quicker, sharper, and more reliable memories. Dementia is characterized by decline, fragility, vulnerability, a loss of the most important cognitive functions and even a loss of self. While MEDs are being developed for self-improvement, in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) the self is being lost. Despite this it is precisely those patients with AD and other forms of dementia that provide the subjects for scientific research on memory improvement. Biomedical research in the field of MEDs and anti-dementia drugs appears to provide a strong impetus for rethinking what we mean by 'memory', 'enhancement', 'therapy', and 'self'. We conclude (1) that the enhancement of memory is still in its infancy, (2) that current MEDs and anti-dementia drugs are at best partially and minimally effective under specific conditions, (3) that 'memory' and 'enhancement' are ambiguous terms, (4) that there is no clear-cut distinction between enhancement and therapy, and (5) that the research into MEDs and anti-dementia drugs encourages a reductionistic view of the human mind and of the self.

  12. Noise-induced hearing loss prevention in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available prevention © CSIR 2010 Slide 5 Introduction • Mining industry • use of drilling and rock breaking equipment results in widespread exposure to high levels of noise • USA • 80% of miners exposed above OEL • USA coal miners • stage loaders = 82-103d....4-104.9 dBA • Target: by December 2013 total noise emitted by all equipment not exceed 110 dBA • MHSC baseline project © CSIR 2010 Slide 7 Methodology • Multi-task research design • Adapted from Concawe Health Management Group - gasoline vapour...

  13. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  14. Personal listening devices and the prevention of noise induced hearing loss in children: The cheers for ears pilot program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunay Schmulian Taljaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the Cheers for Ears Program on noise induced hearing loss prevention was effective in improving current knowledge of noise impact of personal listening devices on hearing, and in changing self-reported listening behavior of primary school students aged between 9 years and 13 years. A survey study was implemented at participating primary schools. Schools represented various levels of socio-economic status. Informed consent (parents and teachers and informed assent (pupils were obtained. All pupils participated in two interactive sessions (the second 6 weeks after first and only those who provided assent and consent were surveyed at three points during the study: Prior to the first session (baseline, directly post-session and at 3 months post-session. A total of 318 pupils were surveyed. The median age of the participants was 11 years (nearly 50% of the total cohort. Significant changes are reported in their knowledge about hearing and in listening behavior of the participants as measured by pre- and post-measurement. The changes in behaviors were stable and sustained at 3 months post-intervention survey point and the success of the program can be attributed to the multimodal interactive nature of the sessions, the spacing of the sessions and the survey points. Wide-ranging support from schools and departments also played a role. The pilot Cheers for Ears Program is effective in increasing knowledge on the harmful effects of noise and therefore, it may prevent future noise-induced hearing loss.

  15. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-11

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  16. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Spilmont

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  17. Iguratimod prevents ovariectomy‑induced bone loss and suppresses osteoclastogenesis via inhibition of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Xing; Sun, Yue; Ye, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jia-Chao; Huang, Jun-Ming; Jing, Xing-Zhi; Xiang, Wei; Yu, Shi-Ying; Guo, Feng-Jing

    2017-12-01

    Iguratimod is known for its anti‑inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. It has previously been demonstrated that iguratimod attenuates bone destruction and osteoclast formation in the Walker 256 rat mammary gland carcinoma cell‑induced bone cancer pain model. Therefore, it was hypothesized that iguratimod may additionally exhibit therapeutic effects on benign osteoclast‑associated diseases including postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the present study, ovariectomized mice were used to investigate the effects of iguratimod in vivo. Bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured to detect the effects of iguratimod on receptor activator of nuclear factor‑κB ligand (RANKL)‑induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and the molecular mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated that iguratimod may prevent ovariectomy‑induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast activity in vivo. Consistently, iguratimod may inhibit RANKL‑induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in primary bone marrow mononuclear cells. At the molecular level, peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ (PPAR‑γ)/c‑Fos pathway, which is essential in RANKL‑induced osteoclast differentiation, was suppressed by iguratimod. Subsequently, iguratimod decreased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 and downstream osteoclast marker genes. The results of the present study demonstrated that iguratimod may inhibit ovariectomy‑induced bone loss and osteoclastogenesis by modulating RANKL signaling. Therefore, iguratimod may act as a novel therapeutic to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  18. Randomized trial of four noise-induced hearing loss and tinnitus prevention interventions for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William Hal; Griest, Susan E; Sobel, Judith L; Howarth, Linda C

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of four NIHL prevention interventions at improving knowledge, attitudes, and intended behaviors regarding sound exposure and appropriate use of hearing protective strategies in children. A randomized trial of the four interventions with a non-intervention comparison group. Questionnaires were completed prior to, immediately after, and three months after each intervention. Interventions included: (1) A classroom presentation by older-peer educators, (2) A classroom presentation by health professionals, (3). Exploration of a museum exhibition, and (4). Exploration of an internet-based virtual museum. A comparison group received no intervention. Fifty-three fourth grade classrooms (1120 students) participated in the study. All interventions produced significant improvements but the number of improvements decreased over time. In terms of effectiveness, the classroom programs were more effective than the internet-based virtual exhibit, which was more effective than the visit to the museum exhibition. Self-reported exposures indicated that as many as 94.5% of participants were at risk for NIHL. Interpersonal, interactive educational interventions such as the classroom program are more effective and have longer impact than self-directed learning experiences for NIHL and tinnitus prevention, however each may have an important role in promoting hearing health in elementary school students.

  19. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  20. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an efficient and cost-effective method to identify children with visual impairment or eye conditions that are likely to lead ... main goal of vision screening is to identify children who have or are at ... visual impairment unless treated in early childhood. Other problems that ...

  1. REV-ERBs agonism suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss partially via FABP4 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Wei; Dong, Yonghui; Zhao, Liming; Liu, Huiyong; Guan, Hanfeng; Li, Feng

    2018-01-22

    REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are transcription repressors and circadian regulators. Previous investigations have shown that REV-ERBs repress the expression of target genes, including MMP9 and CX3CR1, in macrophages. Because MMP9 and CX3CR1 reportedly participate in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis, we inferred that REV-ERBs might play a role in osteoclastogenesis. In the present study, we found that the REV-ERBα level decreased significantly during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). REV-ERBα knockdown by small interfering RNA in BMMs resulted in the enhanced formation of osteoclasts, whereas REV-ERBβ knockdown showed no effect on osteoclast differentiation. Moreover, the REV-ERB agonist SR9009 inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Intraperitoneal SR9009 administration prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss; this effect was accompanied by decreased serum RANKL and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen levels and increased osteoprotegerin levels. Further investigation revealed that NF-κB and MAPK activation and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1, and c-fos expression were suppressed by SR9009. The level of reactive oxygen species was also decreased by SR9009, with NADPH oxidase subunits also being down-regulated. In addition, an expression microarray showed that FABP4, an intracellular lipid-binding protein, was up-regulated by REV-ERB agonism. BMS309403, an inhibitor of FABP4, partially prevented the suppression of osteoclastogenesis by SR9009 through stabilizing phosphorylation of p65. To summarize, our results proved that the REV-ERB agonism inhibited osteoclastogenesis partially via FABP4 up-regulation.-Song, C., Tan, P., Zhang, Z., Wu, W., Dong, Y., Zhao, L., Liu, H., Guan, H., Li, F. REV-ERBs agonism suppresses osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss partially via FABP4 upregulation.

  2. Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Hansen, B; Lee, B S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review the literature on non-pharmacological prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. All identified papers were read by title, abstract and full-length article when...... and outcome measures that could be improved. Five studies on weight-bearing early post-injury are conflicting, but standing or walking may help retain bone mineral. In the chronic phase, there was no effect of weight bearing (12 studies). One study found that an early commencement of sports after SCI improved...... bone mineral, and the longer the period of athletic career, the higher the (leg) bone mineral. Early after SCI, there may be some effects of electrical stimulation (ES) (five studies). Chronic-phase ES studies vary (14 studies, including mixed periods after injury), but improvement is seen with longer...

  3. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Hays, Laura M.; Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle interv...

  4. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control remains the leading contributor to aviation accident fatalities, with stall upsets being the leading causal factor. The February 12, 2009. Colgan Air, Inc., Continental Express flight 3407 accident outside Buffalo, New York, brought this issue to the forefront of public consciousness and resulted in recommendations from the National Transportation Safety Board to conduct training that incorporates stalls that are fully developed and develop simulator standards to support such training. In 2010, Congress responded to this accident with Public Law 11-216 (Section 208), which mandates full stall training for Part 121 flight operations. Efforts are currently in progress to develop recommendations on implementation of stall training for airline pilots. The International Committee on Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE) is currently defining simulator fidelity standards that will be necessary for effective stall training. These recommendations will apply to all civil transport aircraft including straight-wing turboprop aircraft. Government-funded research over the previous decade provides a strong foundation for stall/post-stall simulation for swept-wing, conventional tail jets to respond to this mandate, but turboprops present additional and unique modeling challenges. First among these challenges is the effect of power, which can provide enhanced flow attachment behind the propellers. Furthermore, turboprops tend to operate for longer periods in an environment more susceptible to ice. As a result, there have been a significant number of turboprop accidents as a result of the early (lower angle of attack) stalls in icing. The vulnerability of turboprop configurations to icing has led to studies on ice accumulation and the resulting effects on flight behavior. Piloted simulations of these effects have highlighted the important training needs for recognition and mitigation of icing effects, including the reduction of stall margins

  5. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  6. Evaluation in a Dog Model of Three Antimicrobial Glassy Coatings: Prevention of Bone Loss around Implants and Microbial Assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López-Píriz

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate, in a ligature-induced peri-implantitis model, the efficacy of three antimicrobial glassy coatings in the prevention of biofilm formation, intrasulcular bacterial growth and the resulting peri-implant bone loss.Mandibular premolars were bilaterally extracted from five beagle dogs. Four dental implants were inserted on each hemiarch. Eight weeks after, one control zirconia abutment and three with different bactericidal coatings (G1n-Ag, ZnO35, G3 were connected. After a plaque control period, bacterial accumulation was allowed and biofilm formation on abutments was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Peri-implantitis was induced by cotton ligatures. Microbial samples and peri-implant crestal bone levels of all implant sites were obtained before, during and after the breakdown period.During experimental induce peri-implantitis: colony forming units counts from intrasulcular microbial samples at implants with G1n-Ag coated abutment remained close to the basal inoculum; G3 and ZnO35 coatings showed similar low counts; and anaerobic bacterias counts at control abutments exhibited a logarithmic increase by more than 2. Bone loss during passive breakdown period was no statistically significant. Additional bone loss occurred during ligature-induce breakdown: 0.71 (SD 0.48 at G3 coating, 0.57 (SD 0.36 at ZnO35 coating, 0.74 (SD 0.47 at G1n-Ag coating, and 1.29 (SD 0.45 at control abutments; and statistically significant differences (p<0.001 were found. The lowest bone loss at the end of the experiment was exhibited by implants dressing G3 coated abutments (mean 2.1; SD 0.42.Antimicrobial glassy coatings could be a useful tool to ward off, diminish or delay peri-implantitis progression.

  7. GIS Approach for Preventive Evaluation of Roads Loss of Efficiency in Hydrogeological Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiameli, M.; Mussumeci, G.

    2013-01-01

    The theme of the simulation of hydrogeological risk with GIS technology is analyzed with focus on the modeling of the architecture of a Spatial Data Base to support risk analysis and on the construction of a specialized frame with free and open source software. For this purpose a model of analysis of the vulnerability of roads developed by (Cafiso et al., 2002) has been adopted. The case of study is represented by a seismic land characterized by steep slopes and frequent instability phenomena. In detail, the area of interest is a mountainous land in Sicily with a city, Enna (about 30 000 people), that lies on the top. The access to the city is assured by few and very winding roads which are also highly vulnerable to seismic and hydrogeological hazards. The loss of efficiency of these roads for exceptional rainfall events should compromise timeliness and effectiveness of rescue operations. The data of the sample area have been implemented in the specialized GIS appositely constructed in order to forecast the possible damage to roads and the results of some simulations have been related to the effects registered after some extreme events, obtaining useful indications for the validation of the approach.

  8. 77 FR 75494 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... least 70[deg] in the horizontal meridian in each eye, and the ability to recognize the colors of traffic... vision, iris damage, and complete loss of vision. In most cases, their eye conditions were not recently...

  9. Healthy Vision Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids >> Healthy Vision Tips Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Healthy Vision Tips Healthy vision starts with you! Use these ...

  10. Naringin prevents bone loss in a rat model of type 1 Diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoira, M; Rodríguez, V; Picotto, G; Battaglino, R; Tolosa de Talamoni, N

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to know whether naringin (NA) could prevent the bone complications in a model of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes. Rats were divided in: 1) controls, 2) STZ-rats, 3) STZ-rats treated with 40 mg NA/kg, and 4) STZ-rats treated with 80 mg NA/kg. BMD and BMC were performed by DEXA. Bone histomorphometry and histology as well as TRAP staining were done in tibia. Osteocalcin (OCN) was determined in bone and serum. Glutathione content and SOD and catalase activities were assayed in bone marrow from femur. The data showed that NA80 increased the BMD and BMC from the long bones of STZ-rats. Both NA40 and NA80 normalized the trabecular number and the trabecular separations. An increase in the number of adipocytes and TRAP(+) cells in tibia from STZ-rats was blocked by NA. NA40 treatment increased the number of OCN(+) cells, but only the NA80 treatment allowed to reach the control values. NA normalized the SOD and catalase activities in bone marrow of femur from STZ-rats. In conclusion, NA avoids alterations in the physical properties and microstructure of bone from STZ-rats probably by stimulation of osteoblastogenesis, inhibition of the osteoclastogenesis and adipogenesis via blocking the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Branch migration prevents DNA loss during double-strand break repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S P Mawer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The repair of DNA double-strand breaks must be accurate to avoid genomic rearrangements that can lead to cell death and disease. This can be accomplished by promoting homologous recombination between correctly aligned sister chromosomes. Here, using a unique system for generating a site-specific DNA double-strand break in one copy of two replicating Escherichia coli sister chromosomes, we analyse the intermediates of sister-sister double-strand break repair. Using two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis, we show that when double-strand breaks are formed in the absence of RuvAB, 4-way DNA (Holliday junctions are accumulated in a RecG-dependent manner, arguing against the long-standing view that the redundancy of RuvAB and RecG is in the resolution of Holliday junctions. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we explain the redundancy by showing that branch migration catalysed by RuvAB and RecG is required for stabilising the intermediates of repair as, when branch migration cannot take place, repair is aborted and DNA is lost at the break locus. We demonstrate that in the repair of correctly aligned sister chromosomes, an unstable early intermediate is stabilised by branch migration. This reliance on branch migration may have evolved to help promote recombination between correctly aligned sister chromosomes to prevent genomic rearrangements.

  12. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  13. Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol. Periodontitis is induced by oral pathogens, where a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress is the major event initiating disease. We investigated how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). We also explored whether resveratrol protects rats against alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced around the first upper molar of the rats by applying ligature infused with LPS. Stimulating hGFs with 5μg/ml LPS augmented the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and Toll-like receptor-4. LPS treatment also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of several protein kinases in the cells. However, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) was inhibited by the addition of LPS. Resveratrol treatment almost completely inhibited all of these changes in LPS-stimulated cells. Specifically, resveratrol alone augmented HO-1 induction via Nrf2-mediated signaling. Histological and micro-CT analyses revealed that administration of resveratrol (5mg/kg body weight) improved ligature/LPS-mediated alveolar bone loss in rats. Resveratrol also attenuated the production of inflammation-related proteins, the formation of osteoclasts, and the production of circulating ROS in periodontitis rats. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed LPS-mediated decreases in HO-1 and Nrf2 levels in the inflamed periodontal tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol protects rats from periodontitic tissue damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses and by stimulating antioxidant defense systems. The aims of this study were to investigate how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in

  14. Salvianolic acid B prevents bone loss in prednisone-treated rats through stimulation of osteogenesis and bone marrow angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Cui

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC induced osteoporosis (GIO is caused by the long-term use of GC for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The GC related disruption of bone marrow microcirculation and increased adipogenesis contribute to GIO development. However, neither currently available anti-osteoporosis agent is completely addressed to microcirculation and bone marrow adipogenesis. Salvianolic acid B (Sal B is a polyphenolic compound from a Chinese herbal medicine, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Sal B on osteoblast bone formation, angiogenesis and adipogenesis-associated GIO by performing marrow adipogenesis and microcirculation dilation and bone histomorphometry analyses. (1 In vivo study: Bone loss in GC treated rats was confirmed by significantly decreased BMD, bone strength, cancellous bone mass and architecture, osteoblast distribution, bone formation, marrow microvessel density and diameter along with down-regulation of marrow BMPs expression and increased adipogenesis. Daily treatment with Sal B (40 mg/kg/d for 12 weeks in GC male rats prevented GC-induced cancellous bone loss and increased adipogenesis while increasing cancellous bone formation rate with improved local microcirculation by capillary dilation. Treatment with Sal B at a higher dose (80 mg/kg/d not only prevented GC-induced osteopenia, but also increased cancellous bone mass and thickness, associated with increase of marrow BMPs expression, inhibited adipogenesis and further increased microvessel diameters. (2 In vitro study: In concentration from 10(-6 mol/L to 10(-7 mol/L, Sal B stimulated bone marrow stromal cell (MSC differentiation to osteoblast and increased osteoblast activities, decreased GC associated adipogenic differentiation by down-regulation of PPARγ mRNA expression, increased Runx2 mRNA expression without osteoblast inducement, and, furthermore, Sal B decreased Dickkopf-1 and increased β-catenin m

  15. A cross-sectional analysis of age and sex patterns in grip strength, tooth loss, near vision and hearing levels in Chinese aged 50-74 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yili; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2012-01-01

    By focusing on four health variables, handgrip strength, near visual acuity, tooth loss and hearing level, this study examined the different patterns of age-related changes in these variables in Chinese aged from 50 to 74 years, as well as explored the relationship among the variables in a cross-...

  16. Combat, prevention and optimization of commercial losses of power energy; Combate, prevencao e otimizacao das perdas comerciais da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Carlos Alexandre de Sousa

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the problem of NTL using a wide approach, analyze the experience of dealerships in Brazil and abroad, discuss the best practices for mitigation of those losses and propose improvements in the combat and prevention processes, and the legal procedures for recovery of incomes, leaning on a careful regulatory context. This study draws attention to Brazil's socioeconomic diversity, comparing it to various international examples, and intends to identify the most relevant aspects that must be considered on the theme, discussing procedures and methodologies for the equation of the amount of resources to be applied by distributing companies to achieve the appropriate reduction of NTL. (author)

  17. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  18. Lambda Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Michael

    2014-06-01

    There is an explosion in the quantity and quality of IMINT data being captured in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) today. While automated exploitation techniques involving computer vision are arriving, only a few architectures can manage both the storage and bandwidth of large volumes of IMINT data and also present results to analysts quickly. Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (ATL) has been actively researching in the area of applying Big Data cloud computing techniques to computer vision applications. This paper presents the results of this work in adopting a Lambda Architecture to process and disseminate IMINT data using computer vision algorithms. The approach embodies an end-to-end solution by processing IMINT data from sensors to serving information products quickly to analysts, independent of the size of the data. The solution lies in dividing up the architecture into a speed layer for low-latent processing and a batch layer for higher quality answers at the expense of time, but in a robust and fault-tolerant way. This approach was evaluated using a large corpus of IMINT data collected by a C-130 Shadow Harvest sensor over Afghanistan from 2010 through 2012. The evaluation data corpus included full motion video from both narrow and wide area field-of-views. The evaluation was done on a scaled-out cloud infrastructure that is similar in composition to those found in the Intelligence Community. The paper shows experimental results to prove the scalability of the architecture and precision of its results using a computer vision algorithm designed to identify man-made objects in sparse data terrain.

  19. Cartesian visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Few original portraits exist of René Descartes, yet his theories of vision were central to Enlightenment thought. French philosophers combined his emphasis on sight with the English approach of insisting that ideas are not innate, but must be built up from experience. In particular, Denis Diderot criticised Descartes's views by describing how Nicholas Saunderson--a blind physics professor at Cambridge--relied on touch. Diderot also made Saunderson the mouthpiece for some heretical arguments against the existence of God.

  20. Preventing Excessive Blood Loss During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy by Using Tranexamic Acid: A Double Blinded Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Siddiq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is most frequently performed procedure for renal stones 2 cm and larger. Perioperative hemorrhage being most common complication, warrants as important predicting factor of adverse outcomes. Prevention with inexpensive and safe drug like tranexamic acid (TA would ultimately turn out to be cornerstone for establishing future guidelines. Aim of this study is to evaluate whether TA is efficacious in preventing blood loss during PCNL. Materials and Methods: Ethical review board approval taken. Sample size calculation yielded 240 patients, comprising 120 in each group. Group A receiving TA and group B receiving placebo. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI, stone size, volume and location, preoperative blood count, creatinine, urine analysis, coagulation profile and necessary radiological investigations done. Randomization through lottery method. Both patient and investigator were blinded. Hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels done at 24 hours postoperatively and fall in values recorded. Results: Both groups were equal in characteristics like age, gender, BMI, stone size, volume and location (p>0.05. Operative variables like calyx punctured, position of puncture and operative time were also found to be similar in both groups. Median change in Hb in placebo group was 1.6 interquartile range (IQR 4, while in TA group was 1.3 (IQR 7.8 (p=0.001. Similarly, median change in Hct level in placebo group was 3.6 (IQR 11.8 and in TA group was 2.4 (IQR 13 (p<0.001. Sixteen patients were transfused after surgery; 12 (75% belonged to placebo group while 4 (25% belonged to TA group (p=0.038. Hospital stay was not significantly different in both groups (p=0.177 with median of 4.0 and IQR of 0 in both groups. Conclusion: TA during PCNL reduces blood loss and minimizes blood transfusion rate.

  1. The normal increase in insulin after a meal may be required to prevent postprandial renal sodium and volume losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsik, Debra L; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L; Staruschenko, Alexander; Brands, Michael W

    2017-06-01

    Despite the effects of insulinopenia in type 1 diabetes and evidence that insulin stimulates multiple renal sodium transporters, it is not known whether normal variation in plasma insulin regulates sodium homeostasis physiologically. This study tested whether the normal postprandial increase in plasma insulin significantly attenuates renal sodium and volume losses. Rats were instrumented with chronic artery and vein catheters, housed in metabolic cages, and connected to hydraulic swivels. Measurements of urine volume and sodium excretion (UNaV) over 24 h and the 4-h postprandial period were made in control (C) rats and insulin-clamped (IC) rats in which the postprandial increase in insulin was prevented. Twenty-four-hour urine volume (36 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2 ml/day) and UNaV (3.0 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 mmol/day) were greater in the IC compared with C rats, respectively. Four hours after rats were given a gel meal, blood glucose and urine volume were greater in IC rats, but UNaV decreased. To simulate a meal while controlling blood glucose, C and IC rats received a glucose bolus that yielded peak increases in blood glucose that were not different between groups. Urine volume (9.7 ± 0.7 vs. 6.0 ± 0.8 ml/4 h) and UNaV (0.50 ± 0.08 vs. 0.20 ± 0.06 mmol/4 h) were greater in the IC vs. C rats, respectively, over the 4-h test. These data demonstrate that the normal increase in circulating insulin in response to hyperglycemia may be required to prevent excessive renal sodium and volume losses and suggest that insulin may be a physiological regulator of sodium balance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  3. Artificial vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarbin, M; Montemagno, C; Leary, J; Ritch, R

    2011-09-01

    A number treatment options are emerging for patients with retinal degenerative disease, including gene therapy, trophic factor therapy, visual cycle inhibitors (e.g., for patients with Stargardt disease and allied conditions), and cell transplantation. A radically different approach, which will augment but not replace these options, is termed neural prosthetics ("artificial vision"). Although rewiring of inner retinal circuits and inner retinal neuronal degeneration occur in association with photoreceptor degeneration in retinitis pigmentosa (RP), it is possible to create visually useful percepts by stimulating retinal ganglion cells electrically. This fact has lead to the development of techniques to induce photosensitivity in cells that are not light sensitive normally as well as to the development of the bionic retina. Advances in artificial vision continue at a robust pace. These advances are based on the use of molecular engineering and nanotechnology to render cells light-sensitive, to target ion channels to the appropriate cell type (e.g., bipolar cell) and/or cell region (e.g., dendritic tree vs. soma), and on sophisticated image processing algorithms that take advantage of our knowledge of signal processing in the retina. Combined with advances in gene therapy, pathway-based therapy, and cell-based therapy, "artificial vision" technologies create a powerful armamentarium with which ophthalmologists will be able to treat blindness in patients who have a variety of degenerative retinal diseases.

  4. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen; Chen, Fulin

    2013-05-03

    Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial prevention of long-term femoral bone loss in aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calomme, M; Geusens, P; Demeester, N; Behets, G J; D'Haese, P; Sindambiwe, J B; Van Hoof, V; Vanden Berghe, D

    2006-04-01

    Silicon (Si) deficiency in animals results in bone defects. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) was found to have a high bioavailability compared to other Si supplements. The effect of ch-OSA supplementation was investigated on bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 58, age 9 months) were randomized in three groups. One group was sham-operated (sham, n = 21), and bilateral OVX was performed in the other two groups. OVX rats were supplemented orally with ch-OSA over 30 weeks (OVX1, n = 20; 1 mg Si/kg body weight daily) or used as controls (OVX0, n = 17). The serum Si concentration and the 24-hour urinary Si excretion of supplemented OVX rats was significantly higher compared to sham and OVX controls. Supplementation with ch-OSA significantly but partially reversed the decrease in Ca excretion, which was observed after OVX. The increase in bone turnover in OVX rats tended to be reduced by ch-OSA supplementation. ch-OSA supplementation increased significantly the femoral bone mineral content (BMC) in the distal region and total femoral BMC in OVX rats, whereas lumbar BMC was marginally increased. Femoral BMD was significantly increased at two sites in the distal region in OVX rats supplemented with ch-OSA compared to OVX controls. Total lumbar bone mineral density was marginally increased by ch-OSA supplementation. In conclusion, ch-OSA supplementation partially prevents femoral bone loss in the aged OVX rat model.

  6. Evaluation of vaccination with Neospora caninum protein for prevention of fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Mark C; Tuo, Wenbin; Dubey, J P

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the immunologic response of a killed tachyzoite vaccine against Neospora caninum and its effectiveness in preventing fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in sheep. 30 Dorset ewes. Ewes were randomly allocated to receive vaccination on days 1 and 60 of the study with a killed N caninum tachyzoite preparation in a commercially available adjuvant or a saline-adjuvant mixture. A ram was placed on pasture with the ewes from days 15 to 60. Blood was collected from ewes before primary and booster vaccinations and prior to experimental challenge with N caninum tachyzoite performed on day 90; sera were assessed via Neospora agglutination (NA) and immunofluorescence antibody (IFA) assays. Blood was collected from lambs before they suckled, and sera were tested for antibodies against N caninum. Of the 14 vaccinated ewes that became pregnant, 12 gave birth to live-born lambs; in contrast, 5 of 11 pregnant control ewes gave birth to live-born lambs. Whereas vaccination improved fetal survival in pregnant ewes challenged with N caninum tachyzoites, it did not appear to have any appreciable effect on transmission of N caninum to offspring, as indicated by results of NA and IFA assays. The N caninum tachyzoite vaccine used in this study appeared to provide protection against fetal loss associated with experimentally induced neosporosis in a high proportion of pregnant ewes.

  7. Potassium citrate prevents increased osteoclastogenesis resulting from acidic conditions: Implication for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    Full Text Available The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells. OC and OB were maintained in neutral (pH 7.4 versus acidic (pH 6.9 culture medium, and treated with different K citrate concentrations. We evaluated the OC differentiation at seven days, by counting of multinucleated cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the activity of mature OC at 14 days, by quantifying of collagen degradation. To evaluate the effects on OB, we analyzed proliferation, mineralization, and expression of bone-related genes. We found that the low pH increased OC differentiation and activity and decreased OB function. The osteoclastogenesis was also promoted by RANKL concentrations ineffective at pH 7.4. Non-cytotoxic K citrate concentrations were not sufficient to steadily neutralize the acidic medium, but a inhibited the osteoclastogenesis, the collagen degradation, and the expression of genes involved in RANKL-mediated OC differentiation, b enhanced OB proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas it did not affect the in vitro mineralization, and c were effective also in OC cultures resistant to alendronate, i.e. the positive control of osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In conclusion, K citrate prevents the increase in OC activity induced by the acidic microenvironment, and the effect does not depend exclusively on its alkalizing capacity. These data provide the biological basis for the use of K citrate in preventing the osteopenia progression resulting from low

  8. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taro; Yoneyama, Masanori; Onaka, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h), hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days), there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin ® , a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bcl-2 over-expression fails to prevent age-related loss of calretinin positive neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Mingbo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive performance declines with increasing age. Possible cellular mechanisms underlying this age-related functional decline remain incompletely understood. Early studies attributed this functional decline to age-related neuronal loss. Subsequent studies using unbiased stereological techniques found little or no neuronal loss during aging. However, studies using specific cellular markers found age-related loss of specific neuronal types. To test whether there is age-related loss of specific neuronal populations in the hippocampus, and subsequently, whether over-expression of the B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2 in these neurons could delay possible age-related neuronal loss, we examined calretinin (CR positive neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus during aging. Result In normal mice, there was an age-related loss of CR positive cells in the dentate gyrus. At the same region, there was no significant decrease of total numbers of neurons, which suggested that age-related loss of CR positive cells was due to the decrease of CR expression in these cells instead of cell death. In the transgenic mouse line over-expressing Bcl-2 in neurons, there was an age-related loss of CR positive cells. Interestingly, there was also an age-related neuronal loss in this transgenic mouse line. Conclusion These data suggest an age-related loss of CR positive neurons but not total neuronal loss in normal mice and this age-related neuronal change is not prevented by Bcl-2 over-expression.

  10. Embodied Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    melodramas - from evolutionary and psychological perspectives, the author also reflects on social issues at the intersection of film theory and neuropsychology. These include moral problems in film viewing, ow we experience realism and character identification, and the value of the subjective forms......Embodied Visions presents a groundbreaking analysis of film through the lens of bioculturalism, revealing how human biology as well as human culture determine how films are made and experienced. Throughout the book the author uses the breakthroughs of modern brain science to explain general...

  11. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  12. Evidence for the prevention of bone loss in elderly and old early non-metastatic breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunmalm, V.; Jørgensen, N. R.; Abrahamsen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer amongst women worldwide. Bone health is emerging as an important issue for BC survivors. In this literature study, we focus on agents for preventing bone loss in early non-metastatic estrogen receptor positive BC in treatment with aromatase inhibitors...... (AI) and to assess the evidence for antiresorptive treatment of bone loss in early non-metastatic breast cancer. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's) comparing: (a) bisphosphonates and control; (b) different bisphosphonates; (c) denosumab and control and (d) bisphosphonates vs. denosumab...... in early non-metastatic BC women in AI treatment. Among antiresorptives, zoledronic acid currently has the highest evidence for prevention of AI associated bone loss in early non-metastatic BC. Data on fracture prevention among all patients, elderly and old is sparse. More randomized controlled studies...

  13. Bone loss during long term space flight is prevented by the application of a short term impulsive mechanical stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodship, A. E.; Cunningham, J. L.; Oganov, V.; Darling, J.; Miles, A. W.; Owen, G. W.

    In long term space flight, the mechanical forces applied to the skeleton are substantially reduced and are altered in character. This reduced skeletal loading results in a reduction in bone mass. Exercise techmques currently used in space can maintain muscle mass but the mechanical stimulus provided by this exercise does not prevent bone loss. By applying an external impulsive load for a short period each day, which is intended to mimic the heel strike transient, to the lower limb of an astronaut during a long term space flight (5 months), this study tests the hypothesis that the bone cells can be activated by an appropriate external mechanical stimulus to maintain bone mass throughout prolonged periods of weightlessness. A mechanical loading device was developed to produce a loading of the os-calcis similar to that observed during the heel strike transient. The device is activated by the astronaut to provide a transient load to the heel of one leg whilst providing an equivalent exercising load to the other leg. During the EUROMIR95 mission on the MIR space station, an astronaut used this device for a short period daily throughout the duration of the mission. Pre- and post-flight measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) of the os-calcis and femoral neck of the astronaut were made to determine the efficacy of the device in preventing loss of bone mineral during the mission. On the os-calcis which received the mechanical stimulus, BMD was maintained throughout the period of the flight, while it was reduced by up to 7% on the os-calcis which received no stimulus. Post-flight, BMD in both the stimulated and non-stimulated os-calcis reduces, the extent of this reduction however is less in the stimulated os-calcis. For the femoral neck, the mechanical Stimulation does not produce a positive effect. On the os-calcis which received the mechanical stimulus, BMD was maintained throughout the period of the flight, while it was reduced by up to 7% on the os-calcis which

  14. How Diabetics Lose Vision: Molecular and Biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic patients are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality from macrovascular and microvascular complications. The increased risk of the vascular complications includes genetic factors, hyperglycaemia, hypertension, hyperlipidaemiaand oxidative stress. The mechanisms by which hyperglycaemia causes vision loss ...

  15. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  16. Lipoxin A4 suppresses osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changyu; Guan, Hanfeng; Cai, Cong; Li, Feng, E-mail: lifengmd@hust.edu.cn; Xiao, Jun, E-mail: jun_xiao@hust.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4; 5S, 6R, 15Strihydroxy- 7,9,13-trans-11-eicosatetraenoic acid) is a metabolic product of arachidonic acid under the action of lipoxidase. This lipid molecule plays important roles in several biological functions, especially inflammatory processes. In vivo, LXA4 regulates the inflammatory response through several signaling pathways. Its mechanism suggests that it might have an effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, it was here observed that LXA4 could significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts and these effects could be blocked by Boc-2, the specific inhibitor of FPR2/ALX (the receptor of LXA4). Meanwhile, LXA4 reduce the amount of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These protective effects was found to be associated with inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), PI3K-AKT, and p-38, ERK, and JNK in MAPKs. The expression of the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratio and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were decreased by LXA4. Moreover, LXA4 prevented the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (CK), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, RANK, and osteoclastic related transcription factors of c-Fos, NFATc1 could also be significantly inhibited by LXA4 in a dose-dependent manner. Studies have demonstrated that LXA4 can inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts through modulation of several pathways both upstream and downstream of RANKL signaling and FPR2/ALX was involved in the procedures. This shows that LXA4 may be used as a new strategy for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. - Highlights: • Lipoxin A4 can significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts. • Several pathways both upstream and downstream of RANKL signaling can be inhibit by Lipoxin A4. • Lipoxin A4 can

  17. Visions and visioning in foresight activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Grosu, Dan

    2007-01-01

    or not work. The theoretical part of the paper presents an actor-network theory approach to the analyses of visions and visioning processes, where the shaping of the visions and the visioning and what has made them work or not work is analysed. The empirical part is based on analyses of the roles of visions...... important aspect of visioning processes include the types of actors participating in the processes and the types of expertise included in the processes (scientific, lay, business etc.). The empirical part of the paper analyses eight national foresight activities from Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Malta...

  18. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  19. A Matrine Derivative M54 Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by Targeting Ribosomal Protein S5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhi; Jin, Cui; Chao, Liu; Zheng, Zhang; Liehu, Cao; Panpan, Pan; Weizong, Weng; Xiao, Zhai; Qingjie, Zhao; Honggang, Hu; Longjuan, Qin; Xiao, Chen; Jiacan, Su

    2018-01-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. The over-activated osteoclastogenesis, which plays an important role in osteoporosis, has become an important therapeutic target. M54 was a bioactive derivative of the Chinese traditional herb matrine. We found that M54 could suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow mononuclear cells and RAW264.7 cells through suppressing NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and MAPKs pathways activity in vitro , and prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo . Our previous study has proved that ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5) was a direct target of M19, based on which M54 was synthesized. Thus we deduced that M54 also targeted RPS5. During osteoclastogenesis, the RPS5 level in RAW264.7 cells was significantly down-regulated while M54 could maintain its level. After RPS5 was silenced, the inhibitory effects of M54 on osteoclastogenesis were partially compromised, indicating that M54 took effects through targeting RPS5. In summary, M54 was a potential clinical medicine for post-menopause osteoporosis treatment, and RPS5 is a possible key protein in PMOP.

  20. A Matrine Derivative M54 Suppresses Osteoclastogenesis and Prevents Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by Targeting Ribosomal Protein S5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMOP is a metabolic bone disorder characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue. The over-activated osteoclastogenesis, which plays an important role in osteoporosis, has become an important therapeutic target. M54 was a bioactive derivative of the Chinese traditional herb matrine. We found that M54 could suppress RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow mononuclear cells and RAW264.7 cells through suppressing NF-κB, PI3K/AKT, and MAPKs pathways activity in vitro, and prevent ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. Our previous study has proved that ribosomal protein S5 (RPS5 was a direct target of M19, based on which M54 was synthesized. Thus we deduced that M54 also targeted RPS5. During osteoclastogenesis, the RPS5 level in RAW264.7 cells was significantly down-regulated while M54 could maintain its level. After RPS5 was silenced, the inhibitory effects of M54 on osteoclastogenesis were partially compromised, indicating that M54 took effects through targeting RPS5. In summary, M54 was a potential clinical medicine for post-menopause osteoporosis treatment, and RPS5 is a possible key protein in PMOP.

  1. Robot vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    Almost all industrial robots use internal sensors such as shaft encoders which measure rotary position, or tachometers which measure velocity, to control their motions. Most controllers also provide interface capabilities so that signals from conveyors, machine tools, and the robot itself may be used to accomplish a task. However, advanced external sensors, such as visual sensors, can provide a much greater degree of adaptability for robot control as well as add automatic inspection capabilities to the industrial robot. Visual and other sensors are now being used in fundamental operations such as material processing with immediate inspection, material handling with adaption, arc welding, and complex assembly tasks. A new industry of robot vision has emerged. The application of these systems is an area of great potential

  2. Vision Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  3. All Vision Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevalence Rates for Vision Impairment by Age and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence ... Ethnicity 2010 Prevalence Rates of Vision Impairment by Race Table for 2010 Prevalence Rates of Vision Impairment ...

  4. The ROCK Inhibitor Fasudil Prevents Chronic Restraint Stress-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors and Dendritic Spine Loss in Rat Hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Gonzalo; Fresno, Cristóbal; Vilches, Natalia; Díaz-Véliz, Gabriela; Mora, Sergio; Aguayo, Felipe; Pacheco, Aníbal; Parra-Fiedler, Nicolás; Parra, Claudio S; Rojas, Paulina S; Tejos, Macarena; Aliaga, Esteban; Fiedler, Jenny L

    2017-04-01

    Dendritic arbor simplification and dendritic spine loss in the hippocampus, a limbic structure implicated in mood disorders, are assumed to contribute to symptoms of depression. These morphological changes imply modifications in dendritic cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are regulators of actin dynamics through their effector Rho kinase. We have reported that chronic stress promotes depressive-like behaviors in rats along with dendritic spine loss in apical dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, changes associated with Rho kinase activation. The present study proposes that the Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil may prevent the stress-induced behavior and dendritic spine loss. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline or Fasudil (i.p., 10 mg/kg) starting 4 days prior to and maintained during the restraint stress procedure (2.5 h/d for 14 days). Nonstressed control animals were injected with saline or Fasudil for 18 days. At 24 hours after treatment, forced swimming test, Golgi-staining, and immuno-western blot were performed. Fasudil prevented stress-induced immobility observed in the forced swimming test. On the other hand, Fasudil-treated control animals showed behavioral patterns similar to those of saline-treated controls. Furthermore, we observed that stress induced an increase in the phosphorylation of MYPT1 in the hippocampus, an exclusive target of Rho kinase. This change was accompanied by dendritic spine loss of apical dendrites of pyramidal hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, increased pMYPT1 levels and spine loss were both prevented by Fasudil administration. Our findings suggest that Fasudil may prevent the development of abnormal behavior and spine loss induced by chronic stress by blocking Rho kinase activity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  5. Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ): qualitative analysis of a clinical trial in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eveline; Barnes, Deborah E; Ackerman, Sara L; Lee, Jennifer; Chesney, Margaret; Mehling, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ) is a novel, integrative exercise program for individuals with dementia that combines elements of different conventional and complementary exercise modalities (e.g. tai-chi, yoga, Feldenkrais, and dance movement therapy) and focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand) while increasing mindful body awareness and facilitating social connection. This study presents analyses of qualitative data collected during a 36-week cross-over pilot clinical trial in 11 individuals. Qualitative data included exercise instructors' written notes, which were prepared after each class and also following biweekly telephone calls with caregivers and monthly home visits; three video-recorded classes; and written summaries prepared by research assistants following pre- and post-intervention quantitative assessments. Data were extracted for each study participant and placed onto a timeline for month of observation. Data were coded and analyzed to identify themes that were confirmed and refined through an iterative, collaborative process by the entire team including a qualitative researcher (SA) and the exercise instructors. Three overarching themes emerged: (1) Functional changes included increasing body awareness, movement memory and functional skill. (2) Emotional changes included greater acceptance of resting, sharing of personal stories and feelings, and positive attitude toward exercise. (3) Social changes included more coherent social interactions and making friends. These qualitative results suggest that the PLIÉ program may be associated with beneficial functional, emotional, and social changes for individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Further study of the PLIÉ program in individuals with dementia is warranted.

  6. Research-to-policy translation for prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors: A case example targeting dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Yu, Kimberly; Tran, Alvin; Mayer, Beth

    2017-04-01

    New approaches to universal eating disorders prevention and interventions targeting macro-environmental change are greatly needed, and research-to-policy translation efforts hold promise for advancing both of these goals. This paper describes as a policy-translation case example an academic-community-government partnership of the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, Multi-Service Eating Disorders Association, and the office of Massachusetts Representative Kay Khan, all based in Massachusetts, USA. The partnership's research-to-policy translation project focused on dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building, which have been linked with serious injury and death in consumers. Youth and people of all ages with eating disorders and body dysmorphic disorder may be especially vulnerable to use these products due to deceptive promises of fast and safe weight loss and muscle gain. The research-to-policy translation project was informed by a triggers-to-action framework to establish the evidentiary base of harm to consumers, operationalize policy solutions to mitigate harm through legislation, and generate political will to support action through legislation introduced in the Massachusetts legislature to restrict sales of weight-loss and muscle-building dietary supplements. The paper concludes with lessons learned from this unique policy translation effort for the prevention of disordered weight and shape control behaviors and offers recommendations for next steps for the field to advance research and practice for universal, macro-environmentally targeted prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  8. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  9. Loss of vision: imaging the visual pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.R. [Institute of Neurology, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    This is an overview of diseases presenting with visual impairment, which aims to provide an understanding of the anatomy and pathology of the visual pathways. It discusses the relevant clinical background and neuroimaging findings on CT and standard and advanced MRI of diseases affecting the globe; optic nerve/sheath complex; optic chiasm, tract and radiation; and visual cortex. The overview covers common tumours, trauma, inflammatory and vascular pathology, and conditions such as benign intracranial hypertension and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome. (orig.)

  10. A Lifestyle Program of Exercise and Weight Loss is Effective in Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Why Are Programs Not More Available?

    OpenAIRE

    Ades, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (< 1 year) can go into remission after weight loss and exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care ins...

  11. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  12. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  13. Prevention of bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women under 60 years of age. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosking, D; Chilvers, C E; Christiansen, C

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Estrogen-replacement therapy prevents osteoporosis in postmenopausal women by inhibiting bone resorption, but the balance between its long-term risks and benefits remains unclear. Whether other antiresorptive therapies can prevent osteoporosis in these women is also not clear. METHODS...

  14. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svendsen, Niels G; Kalita, Prasanta K; Gebhart, Dick L; Denight, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    ... for military training requirements. This report proposes several new range structure designs to begin the iterative process of developing new range edifices that reduce soil loss, control erosion, promote sustainability, and enhance training...

  15. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) this effect seems to be independent of attachment system and 3) mandibular osteoporosis prior to implant treatment may be a risk factor for bone loss around implants. However, this treatment can be recommended also in osteoporotic persons.......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar...

  16. Memory enhancing drugs and Alzheimer?s Disease: Enhancing the self or preventing the loss of it?

    OpenAIRE

    Dekkers, Wim; Rikkert, Marcel Olde

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyse some ethical and philosophical questions related to the development of memory enhancing drugs (MEDs) and anti-dementia drugs. The world of memory enhancement is coloured by utopian thinking and by the desire for quicker, sharper, and more reliable memories. Dementia is characterized by decline, fragility, vulnerability, a loss of the most important cognitive functions and even a loss of self. While MEDs are being developed for self-improvement, in Alzheimer?s Disease ...

  17. Tensor tenopexy: a clinical study to assess its effectiveness in improving Eustachian tube function and preventing hearing loss in patients with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Raja; Sharma, Ramesh K; Panda, Naresh K; Munjal, Sanjay; Makkar, Surinder

    2013-09-01

    There is a consensus about the occurrence of otitis media in children with cleft palate before repair. However, controversy continues regarding the recovery of Eustachian tube function and level of hearing loss in the patients after cleft palate repair. Levator sling palatoplasty is an important component of the cleft repair. Most surgeons would routinely transect the tensor tendon (tensor tenotomy) during the course of palatoplasty. However, this procedure may pose a risk to Eustachian tube function. Some authorities feel that addition of tensor tenopexy during palatoplasty would maintain the Eustachian tube in an open conformation, thereby improving middle ear ventilation. The present study assesses the effectiveness of tensor tenopexy in improving Eustachian tube function and preventing hearing loss in cleft palate patients treated with palatoplasty. A prospective randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery at a tertiary care institute in India. A total of 17 children in the age group of 9-24 months were assigned to one of two groups: palatoplasty with either tensor tenotomy (n = 8) or tensor tenotomy with tensor tenopexy (n = 9). All patients were subjected to tympanometry, otoscopy and brainstem evoked response audiometry before surgery and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery. Of these, 52.9% of patients already had hearing loss at the time of presentation. Hearing loss and middle ear effusion persisted even after palatoplasty. There was no significant difference in hearing loss and middle ear effusion between the two groups of patients. Thus, tensor tenopexy was not found to be helpful in maintaining Eustachian tube function or preventing hearing loss in cleft palate patients. However, further long-term studies are needed to confirm this study. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased Vision and Junctional Scotoma from Pituicytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Huynh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pituicytomas are rare neoplasms of the sellar region. We report a case of vision loss and a junctional scotoma in a 43-year-old woman caused by compression of the optic chiasm by a pituitary tumor. The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor were consistent with the diagnosis of pituicytoma. The tumor was debulked surgically, and the patient’s vision improved.

  19. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 Diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penn, L.; White, M.; Lindström, J.; Boer, den A.Th.; Blaak, E.E.; Eriksson, J.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Walker, M.; Mathers, J.C.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial

  20. Response to Intervention and Continuous School Improvement: Using Data, Vision, and Leadership to Design, Implement, and Evaluate a Schoolwide Prevention System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Victoria L.; Hebert, Connie L.

    2011-01-01

    Ensure the success of your school and improve the learning of "all" students by implementing Response-to-Intervention (RTI) as part of a continuous school improvement (CSI) process. This book shows you how to get your entire staff working together to design, implement, and evaluate a schoolwide prevention system. With specific examples, CSI expert…

  1. Cataract Vision Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Videos: What Do Cataracts Look Like? Cataract Vision Simulator Leer en Español: Simulador: Catarata Jun. 11, 2014 How do cataracts affect your vision? A cataract is a clouding of the eye's ...

  2. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003039.htm Vision - night blindness To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light. Considerations Night ...

  3. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  4. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    bone mass reductions. DESIGN: Randomized control study. SETTING: Out-patient research hospital clinic. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-seven healthy obese women. BMI 34±0.5 kg/m(2), age 46±2 years. INTERVENTION: After a low-calorie diet-induced 12% weight loss, participants were randomized to treatment......CONTEXT: Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) regulates bone turnover, but the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) on bone in obese weight-reduced individuals are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of GLP-1 RAs on bone formation and weight loss induced...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...

  5. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  6. Robot Vision Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Andrew B.; Ansar, Adnan I.; Litwin, Todd E.; Goldberg, Steven B.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Robot Vision Library (JPLV) provides real-time robot vision algorithms for developers who are not vision specialists. The package includes algorithms for stereo ranging, visual odometry and unsurveyed camera calibration, and has unique support for very wideangle lenses

  7. Comparing Active Vision Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  8. Comparing active vision models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  9. Blocking antibody to the beta-subunit of FSH prevents bone loss by inhibiting bone resorption and stimulating bone synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low estrogen levels undoubtedly underlie menopausal bone thinning. However, rapid and profuse bone loss begins three years prior to the last menstrual period, when serum estrogen is relatively normal. We have shown that the pituitary hormone FSH, the levels of which are high during the late peri-men...

  10. Fish oil combined with SCFA synergistically prevent tissue accumulation of NEFA during weight loss in obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Based on their proposed metabolic effects, we examined whether fish oil (FO) and SCFA, alone or in combination, accelerate weight loss and the resultant metabolic improvements. Obesity was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by high-energy feeding for 10 weeks. The mice were transferred to a low-fat diet...

  11. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  12. Computational approaches to vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, H. G.; Tenenbaum, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Vision is examined in terms of a computational process, and the competence, structure, and control of computer vision systems are analyzed. Theoretical and experimental data on the formation of a computer vision system are discussed. Consideration is given to early vision, the recovery of intrinsic surface characteristics, higher levels of interpretation, and system integration and control. A computational visual processing model is proposed and its architecture and operation are described. Examples of state-of-the-art vision systems, which include some of the levels of representation and processing mechanisms, are presented.

  13. Trimegestone in a low-dose, continuous-combined hormone therapy regimen prevents bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Spielman, Danièle

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of estrogen + progestogen therapy with 1 mg 17beta-estradiol and 0.125 mg trimegestone in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. DESIGN: For this study, 360 healthy, postmenopausal women with osteopenia [lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) between -1...

  14. Caffeine prevents sleep loss-induced deficits in long-term potentiation and related signaling molecules in the dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2010-04-01

    We have previously reported that caffeine prevented sleep deprivation-induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) of area CA1 as well as hippocampus-dependent learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze. In this report we examined the impact of long-term (4-week) caffeine consumption (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on synaptic plasticity (Alhaider et al., 2010) deficit in the dentate gyrus (DG) area of acutely sleep-deprived rats. The sleep deprivation and caffeine/sleep deprivation groups were sleep-deprived for 24 h by using the columns-in-water technique. We tested the effect of caffeine and/or sleep deprivation on LTP and measured the basal levels as well as stimulated levels of LTP-related molecules in the DG. The results showed that chronic caffeine administration prevented the impairment of early-phase LTP (E-LTP) in the DG of sleep-deprived rats. Additionally, chronic caffeine treatment prevented the sleep deprivation-associated decreases in the basal levels of the phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as well as in the stimulated levels of P-CaMKII in the DG area. The results suggest that chronic use of caffeine prevented anomalous changes in the basal levels of P-CaMKII and BDNF associated with sleep deprivation and as a result contributes to the revival of LTP in the DG region.

  15. Effects of changes in self-reported vision on cognitive, affective, and functional status and living arrangements among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Ostermann, Jan; Brown, Derek S; Lee, Paul P

    2005-10-01

    To study effects of changes in self-reported vision on functional status, cognition, depressive symptoms, and living arrangements. Longitudinal analysis of household survey data. A total of 6234 sample persons observed in the study of Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) 1995 were followed in 1998, 2000, and 2002 or until death or sample attrition. Effects of changes in self-reported vision and other factors were assessed by means of ordinary least-squares and logistic regression with panel data methods. Main outcome measures were limitations of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), activities of daily living (ADLs), and other, cognition, depressive symptoms, and living arrangements. A decline from excellent/good vision to fair/poor near and distance vision had statistically significant effects on several IADL limitations, and some ADL and other limitations. Largest effects were for driving (OR for no limitation: 0.55, P = .003), managing money (OR: 0.61, P blindness resulted in a 78% increase in the likelihood of an IADL limitation (OR for no limitation: 0.22, P cognition and depressive symptoms were statistically significant but small. Decline in vision increased the probability of nursing home residence. Visual impairment has major impacts on functional status. Preventing vision loss is likely to appreciably improve the functioning of elderly persons.

  16. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... of bone height around implants was measured on periodically identical intraoral radiographs. The fixed parts of the implant-system were stable during the trial in all patients. In conclusion: 1) the increased function after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation which minimizes...

  17. Colour vision deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  18. A Class I UV-blocking (senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVA-induced yellow fluorescence and NADH loss in the rabbit lens nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F; Leverenz, Victor R; Fick, Catherine E

    2012-09-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm(2) on the cornea) for 1 h using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 h. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  19. Loss of microRNA-22 prevents high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia and increases energy expenditure without affecting cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Liu, Jianming; Chen, Jinghai; Ding, Jian; Fonseca, Renata Inzinna; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Donato, Jose; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2017-12-15

    Obesity is associated with development of diverse diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. MiRNA-22 (miR-22) is a critical regulator of cardiac function and targets genes involved in metabolic processes. Previously, we generated miR-22 null mice and we showed that loss of miR-22 blunted cardiac hypertrophy induced by mechanohormornal stress. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-22 in the cardiac and metabolic alterations promoted by high-fat (HF) diet. We found that loss of miR-22 attenuated the gain of fat mass and prevented dyslipidemia induced by HF diet, although the body weight gain, or glucose intolerance and insulin resistance did not seem to be affected. Mechanistically, loss of miR-22 attenuated the increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation mediated by HF diet. Similarly, we found that miR-22 mediates metabolic alterations and inflammation induced by obesity in the liver. However, loss of miR-22 did not appear to alter HF diet induced cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis in the heart. Our study therefore establishes miR-22 as an important regulator of dyslipidemia and suggests it may serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  1. The Effectiveness of Crataegus orientalis M Bieber. (Hawthorn) Extract Administration in Preventing Alveolar Bone Loss in Rats with Experimental Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoğlu, Mükerrem; Sağlam, Mehmet; Köseoğlu, Serhat; Köksal, Ekrem; Keleş, Ali; Esen, Hacı Hasan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this animal study was to evaluate the effects of hawthorn (Crataeus orientalis M Bieber.) extract on serum oxidative status and alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Twenty-seven Wistar rats were assigned to one of the following groups: non- ligated+placebo (saline) (NL, n = 9), ligature only+placebo (saline) (LO, n = 9), and ligature and treated with hawthorn extract in saline (H, n = 9) (100 mg/kg orogastrically, once a day for 11 days). Periodontitis was induced by submerging a 4/0 silk ligature in the sulcus of the mandibular right first molars of rats, and the animals were sacrificed after 11 days. Micro-CT examinations were performed for linear and volumetric parameter assessment of alveolar bone. Periodontal tissues were histopathologically examined to assess the differences among the study groups. Levels of serum total antioxidant status (TAS)/total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were also analyzed. Alveolar bone loss was significantly reduced by hawthorn administration compared to LO group (pHawthorn extract showed inhibitory effect on periodontal inflammation and alveolar bone loss by regulating TAS, TOS and OSI levels in periodontal disease in rats when administered systemically.

  2. Brg1 loss attenuates aberrant wnt-signalling and prevents wnt-dependent tumourigenesis in the murine small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei Z Holik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumourigenesis within the intestine is potently driven by deregulation of the Wnt pathway, a process epigenetically regulated by the chromatin remodelling factor Brg1. We aimed to investigate this interdependency in an in vivo setting and assess the viability of Brg1 as a potential therapeutic target. Using a range of transgenic approaches, we deleted Brg1 in the context of Wnt-activated murine small intestinal epithelium. Pan-epithelial loss of Brg1 using VillinCreERT2 and AhCreERT transgenes attenuated expression of Wnt target genes, including a subset of stem cell-specific genes and suppressed Wnt-driven tumourigenesis improving animal survival. A similar increase in survival was observed when Wnt activation and Brg1 loss were restricted to the Lgr5 expressing intestinal stem cell population. We propose a mechanism whereby Brg1 function is required for aberrant Wnt signalling and ultimately for the maintenance of the tumour initiating cell compartment, such that loss of Brg1 in an Apc-deficient context suppresses adenoma formation. Our results highlight potential therapeutic value of targeting Brg1 and serve as a proof of concept that targeting the cells of origin of cancer may be of therapeutic relevance.

  3. The Efficacy of Supportive Peri-Implant Therapies in Preventing Peri-Implantitis and Implant Loss: a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Ramanauskaite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the efficacy of supportive peri-implant therapies in preventing clinical and radiological signs of peri-implantitis and implant loss. Material and Methods: Longitudinal human studies, published between January 1, 2006, and February 1, 2016, were included based on an electronic search using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and complemented by a manual search. Articles were included only if 1 they comprised a group of patients involved in/adhering to regular supportive peri-implant therapies (SPTs and a control group without such therapies or with poor adherence to them, 2 the protocol of the SPTs was clearly described and 3 the outcome was indicated by means of clinical/radiological changes or implant loss. Results: After initially identifying a total of 710 titles and abstracts, 12 full text articles were selected for eligibility assessment. Seven studies, three prospective and four retrospective, fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. The frequency of recall visits varied between the studies from a minimum of one visit every three months to an individually tailored regimen. In all the studies a lack of SPTs or poor adherence to them resulted in significantly higher frequencies of sites with mucosal bleeding, deepened peri-implant pockets or alveolar bone loss. In line with the above, a lack of/poor adherence to SPTs was associated with higher implant loss. Conclusions: To prevent peri-implantitis, an individually tailored supportive programme based on patient motivation and re-instruction in oral hygiene measures combined with professional implant cleaning seem to be crucial.

  4. CRALBP supports the mammalian retinal visual cycle and cone vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yunlu; Shen, Susan Q; Jui, Jonathan; Rupp, Alan C; Byrne, Leah C; Hattar, Samer; Flannery, John G; Corbo, Joseph C; Kefalov, Vladimir J

    2015-02-01

    Mutations in the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP, encoded by RLBP1) can lead to severe cone photoreceptor-mediated vision loss in patients. It is not known how CRALBP supports cone function or how altered CRALBP leads to cone dysfunction. Here, we determined that deletion of Rlbp1 in mice impairs the retinal visual cycle. Mice lacking CRALBP exhibited M-opsin mislocalization, M-cone loss, and impaired cone-driven visual behavior and light responses. Additionally, M-cone dark adaptation was largely suppressed in CRALBP-deficient animals. While rearing CRALBP-deficient mice in the dark prevented the deterioration of cone function, it did not rescue cone dark adaptation. Adeno-associated virus-mediated restoration of CRALBP expression specifically in Müller cells, but not retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, rescued the retinal visual cycle and M-cone sensitivity in knockout mice. Our results identify Müller cell CRALBP as a key component of the retinal visual cycle and demonstrate that this pathway is important for maintaining normal cone-driven vision and accelerating cone dark adaptation.

  5. Partial prevention of long-term femoral bone loss in aged ovariectomized rats supplemented with choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Calomme, M.; GEUSENS, Piet; Demeester, N.; Behets, G.; D'Haese, P.; Sindambiwe, J.; Van Hoof, V.; VAN DEN BERGHE, David

    2006-01-01

    Silicon (Si) deficiency in animals results in bone defects. Choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid (ch-OSA) was found to have a high bioavailability compared to other Si supplements. The effect of ch-OSA supplementation was investigated on bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 58, age 9 months) were randomized in three groups. One group was sham-operated (sham, n = 21), and bilateral OVX was performed in the other two groups. OVX rats were supplemented orally with...

  6. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  7. A Single-dose Zoledronic Acid Infusion Prevents Antiretroviral Therapy–induced Bone Loss in Treatment-naive HIV-infected Patients: A Phase IIb Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Titanji, Kehmia; Lahiri, Cecile D.; Vunnava, Aswani; Foster, Antonina; Sanford, Sara E.; Sheth, Anandi N.; Lennox, Jeffrey L.; Knezevic, Andrea; Ward, Laura; Easley, Kirk A.; Powers, Philip; Weitzmann, M. Neale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with bone loss leading to increased fracture rate among HIV-infected individuals. ART-induced bone loss is most intense within the first 48 weeks of therapy, providing a window for prophylaxis with long-acting antiresorptives. Methods. In a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomized 63 nonosteoporotic, ART-naive adults with HIV initiating ART with atazanavir/ritonavir + tenofovir/emtricitabine to a single zoledronic acid (ZOL) infusion (5 mg) vs placebo to determine the efficacy of ZOL in mitigating ART-induced bone loss. Plasma bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) were performed at weeks 0, 12, 24, and 48 weeks. Primary outcome was change in C-terminal telopeptide of collagen at 24 weeks. Repeated-measures analyses using mixed linear models were used to estimate and compare study endpoints. Results. The ZOL arm had a 65% reduction in bone resorption relative to the placebo arm at 24 weeks (0.117 ng/mL vs 0.338 ng/mL; P < .001). This effect of ZOL occurred as early as 12 weeks (73% reduction; P < .001) and persisted through week 48 (57% reduction; P < .001). The ZOL arm had an 8% higher lumbar spine BMD at 12 weeks relative to the placebo arm (P = .003), and remained 11% higher at 24 and 48 weeks. Similar trends were observed in the hip and femoral neck. Conclusions. A single dose of ZOL administered at ART initiation prevented ART-induced bone loss through the first 48 weeks of ART, the period when ART-induced bone loss is most pronounced. Validation of these results in larger multicenter randomized clinical trials is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01228318. PMID:27193748

  8. Vision Integrating Strategies in Ophthalmology and Neurochemistry (VISION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Figure 3 in Liu et al IOVS 2014) and functional changes to the retina by electroretinography ( ERG )) (Figures 6-7 in Kim et al. Mol Neurodegen 2013...7), decreased retinal function ( ERG b- waves) (Figure 9), and neuronal loss in the superior colliculus (vision center in the brain innervated by RGC...functionally ( ERG ) (Figure 7) in mice deficient in C1q (C1q+/- and C1q-/- mice) (Silverman et al., Mol Neurodegen 2016). C1q deficiency also suppressed

  9. Putting the Diabetes Prevention Program into practice: a program for weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction for patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, P E; Einerson, J A; Grant, H; Sargent, C; Underbakke, G; Vitcenda, M; Zeller, L; Stein, J H

    2008-12-01

    The increasing incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have significant implications on health world-wide. Large clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle program with a goal of moderate weight loss (5-7%) and regular exercise (150 minutes/week), resulting in a significant decrease in the incidence of type 2 DM and cardiovascular risk. This study reports on the translation of the multi-center Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) into a cardiac rehabilitation program, utilizing the expertise and experience of a cardiac rehabilitation program staff. The study adapted materials from the DPP to develop a program that fit local needs for diabetes prevention. Most participants completed the program (11 months) and their moderate weight loss was maintained for 11-12 months. At 11-12 months, waist circumference was reduced by approximately 2 inches, percent body fat was reduced by 5% (11% relative decrease, pExercise, nutrition, glucose, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were all were significantly improved at 11-12 months (pdiabetes. This program demonstrates that an intensive effort can significantly improve lifestyle and reduce body weight in patients with DM or at risk for DM. A program that simulates cardiac rehabilitation, translated from a successful clinical trial into practice, resulted in significant reduction and improvement in metabolic outcomes and cardiovascular risk. Support for cardiac rehabilitation from insurers to develop similar programs is encouraged and deserves further study.

  10. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Ferri, Sarah L; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object-location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object-location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415715-07$15.00/0.

  11. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Beluzi

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re

  12. Comparison of three different methods to prevent heat loss in healthy dogs undergoing 90 minutes of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Jones, Katherine R; Otto, Angela N; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-05-01

    To compare a towel under, a warm water pad under or a forced warm air blanket over dogs as techniques to reduce heat loss during a standardized anesthetic. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Eight, healthy, mixed breed dogs weighing 16.3-19.6 kg. Dogs were anesthetized four times for 90 minutes. Dogs were placed on a steel table (treatment TA), with a cotton towel (treatment TO) or a circulating warm water pad (treatment WP) between the dog and the table, or with, a towel under the dog and covered with a forced warm air blanket (treatment WAB). Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals. Changes in temperature (ΔRT) were calculated as the RT at a given point subtracted from the RT before anesthesia (baseline) and compared over time. After 90 minutes of anesthesia, the ΔRT was 3.42 °C ± 0.29 for TA, 2.78 °C ± 0.43 for TO, 1.98 °C ± 0.29 for WP, and 0.91 °C ± 0.27 for WAB. Significant differences in ΔRT occurred between TA and WAB at 20 minutes (0.94 °C ± 0.42, p = 0.0206), between TO and WAB at 30 minutes (1.16 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0063), between WP and WAB at 50 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.98, p = 0.0249), between TA and WP at 35 minutes (1.19 °C ± 0.54, p = 0.0091), between TO and WP at 70 minutes (1.12 °C ± 0.56, p = 0.0248), and between TA and TO at 75 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0313). These differences in ΔRT between each treatment persisted from the times indicated until the end of the anesthesia. During anesthesia, forced warm air blankets were superior to other methods tested for limiting heat loss. An efficient heat loss technique should be used for anesthesia longer than 20 minutes duration in medium sized dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  13. FPGA Vision Data Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfopoulos, Arin C.; Pham, Thang D.

    2013-01-01

    JPL has produced a series of FPGA (field programmable gate array) vision algorithms that were written with custom interfaces to get data in and out of each vision module. Each module has unique requirements on the data interface, and further vision modules are continually being developed, each with their own custom interfaces. Each memory module had also been designed for direct access to memory or to another memory module.

  14. Vision, reanimated and reimagined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Shimon

    2012-01-01

    The publication in 1982 of David Marr's Vision has delivered a singular boost and a course correction to the science of vision. Thirty years later, cognitive science is being transformed by the new ways of thinking about what it is that the brain computes, how it does that, and, most importantly, why cognition requires these computations and not others. This ongoing process still owes much of its impetus and direction to the sound methodology, engaging style, and unique voice of Marr's Vision.

  15. Vision and sketching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbus, Kenneth D

    2012-01-01

    This essay reflects on the revolution David Marr brought about in vision research, and in cognitive science more broadly. I start with an insider's view, then examine the methodological impact of his framework in cognitive science in general. My group's work on sketch understanding descends from Marr's approach to vision, a connection which I make to provide a concrete illustration. I close with a few thoughts about how research in vision and other areas of cognitive science might come together in the future.

  16. Oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey decreased transepidermal water loss and prevented the onset of sodium dodecylsulfate-induced dermatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hidehiko; Masuyama, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Chiaki; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Takano, Toshiaki; Ohki, Kohji

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of oral intake of Lactobacillus helveticus-fermented milk whey on the intact and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)-exposed skin of Hos:HR-1 hairless mice. The mice were allowed to drink 10% L. helveticus-fermented milk whey in distilled water ad libitum for 5 weeks. SDS solution was topically applied to the dorsal skin at 4 weeks, leading to the development of dermatitis. The skin moisture content, transepidermal water loss, and sizes of the dermatitis areas were periodically measured. Compared with oral intake of water alone, oral intake of water containing L. helveticus-fermented milk whey for 4 weeks significantly lowered transepidermal water loss from intact skin, significantly reduced in size the areas of early SDS-induced dermatitis, and ameliorated both the SDS-induced decrease in moisture content and the increase in transepidermal water loss. These results suggest that oral intake of L. helveticus-fermented milk whey might be effective in promoting the epidermal barrier function and in preventing the onset of dermatitis.

  17. Vision-based interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Turk, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In its early years, the field of computer vision was largely motivated by researchers seeking computational models of biological vision and solutions to practical problems in manufacturing, defense, and medicine. For the past two decades or so, there has been an increasing interest in computer vision as an input modality in the context of human-computer interaction. Such vision-based interaction can endow interactive systems with visual capabilities similar to those important to human-human interaction, in order to perceive non-verbal cues and incorporate this information in applications such

  18. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  19. Vision training methods for sports concussion mitigation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph F; Colosimo, Angelo; Ellis, James K; Mangine, Robert; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Hasselfeld, Kimberly; Graman, Patricia; Elgendy, Hagar; Myer, Gregory; Divine, Jon

    2015-05-05

    There is emerging evidence supporting the use vision training, including light board training tools, as a concussion baseline and neuro-diagnostic tool and potentially as a supportive component to concussion prevention strategies. This paper is focused on providing detailed methods for select vision training tools and reporting normative data for comparison when vision training is a part of a sports management program. The overall program includes standard vision training methods including tachistoscope, Brock's string, and strobe glasses, as well as specialized light board training algorithms. Stereopsis is measured as a means to monitor vision training affects. In addition, quantitative results for vision training methods as well as baseline and post-testing *A and Reaction Test measures with progressive scores are reported. Collegiate athletes consistently improve after six weeks of training in their stereopsis, *A and Reaction Test scores. When vision training is initiated as a team wide exercise, the incidence of concussion decreases in players who participate in training compared to players who do not receive the vision training. Vision training produces functional and performance changes that, when monitored, can be used to assess the success of the vision training and can be initiated as part of a sports medical intervention for concussion prevention.

  20. A standardized Humulus lupulus (L.) ethanol extract partially prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in the rat without induction of adverse effects in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Annekathrin M; Helle, Janina; Bader, Manuela I; Ehrhardt, Tino; Nestler, Kristin; Kretzschmar, Georg; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Vollmer, Günter; Nikolić, Dejan; Bolton, Judy L; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong; Dietz, Birgit M; van Breemen, Richard B; Zierau, Oliver

    2017-10-15

    Hops (Humulus lupulus (L.)) dietary supplements are of interest as herbal remedies to alleviate menopausal symptoms, such as hot flushes, depression and anxiety. So far, the evidence regarding estrogenic and related properties of hops preparations has been considered insufficient for a market authorization for menopausal indications. The study aims to investigate a chemically standardized hops extract regarding its safety in the uterus, as wells as its efficacy to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized rat model. Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and divided into a control group receiving phytoestrogen-free diet, a group treated with E 2 benzoate (0.93 mg/kg body weight/d) and a group treated with the standardized hops extract (60 mg/kg body weight/d) for 8 weeks. Micro-computed tomography of the tibiae and vertebrae, as wells as histological changes in the uterus and tibia were analyzed. Neither uterotrophic nor proliferative effects were observed in the endometrium in response to the oral 8-week administration of the hops extract. However, site-dependent skeletal effects were observed. The hops extract significantly decreased the number of osteoclasts in the tibial metaphysis and prevented reduction of the trabecular thickness that resulted from estradiol depletion. In contrast, the hops extract did not prevent the ovariectomy-induced micro-architectural changes in the lumbar vertebra. Certain parameters (e.g. thickness and number of trabeculae) were even found to be below the values determined in the ovariectomized control group. Taken together, the results provide evidence for the safety of the standardized hops extract and point to a weak bone type-specific, protective effect on bone loss following estradiol depletion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. Age-related epigenetic drift and phenotypic plasticity loss: implications in prevention of age-related human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2016-12-01

    Aging is considered as one of the most important developmental processes in organisms and is closely associated with global deteriorations of epigenetic markers such as aberrant methylomic patterns. This altered epigenomic state, referred to 'epigenetic drift', reflects deficient maintenance of epigenetic marks and contributes to impaired cellular and molecular functions in aged cells. Epigenetic drift-induced abnormal changes during aging are scantily repaired by epigenetic modulators. This inflexibility in the aged epigenome may lead to an age-related decline in phenotypic plasticity at the cellular and molecular levels due to epigenetic drift. This perspective aims to provide novel concepts for understanding epigenetic effects on the aging process and to provide insights into epigenetic prevention and therapeutic strategies for age-related human disease.

  2. Short-term blueberry-enriched diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Lee, David R; Goyarzu, Pilar; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Ennis, Lalanya J; Beckett, Elizabeth; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2011-03-01

    Previously, 4 mo of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aging rats. Experiment 1 determined whether 1- and 2-mo BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the diets. Experiment 2 determined whether a 1-mo BB diet could subsequently reverse existing object memory impairment in aging rats. In experiment 1, Fischer-344 rats were maintained on an appropriate control diet or on 1 or 2 mo of the BB diet before testing object memory at 19 mo postnatally. In experiment 2, rats were tested for object recognition memory at 19 mo and again at 20 mo after 1 mo of maintenance on a 2% BB or control diet. In experiment 1, the control group performed no better than chance, whereas the 1- and 2-mo BB diet groups performed similarly and significantly better than controls. The 2-mo BB-diet group, but not the 1-mo group, maintained its performance over a subsequent month on a standard laboratory diet. In experiment 2, the 19-mo-old rats performed near chance. At 20 mo of age, the rats subsequently maintained on the BB diet significantly increased their object memory scores, whereas the control diet group exhibited a non-significant decline. The change in object memory scores differed significantly between the two diet groups. These results suggest that a considerable degree of age-related object memory decline can be prevented and reversed by brief maintenance on BB diets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vision Rehabilitation is Part of AMD Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Colenbrander

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available AMD does not just affect the retina. It severely affects people’s lives. Paying attention to this aspect will only become more important as the population ages and more otherwise healthy individuals become affected. This paper will discuss the need for teamwork to overcome the difference between medical care, which addresses the causes of AMD, and rehabilitative care, which addresses the consequences. Different aspects and different degrees of vision loss ask for different interventions. Loss of detailed vision can be addressed by a wide variety of magnification devices. The means to address this aspect are well recognized. Surround vision is largely processed pre-attentively. Its loss cannot be remediated by devices, but must be addressed through patient education to bring previously subconscious reactions to conscious awareness. Loss of contrast vision is an aspect that is not sufficiently studied. It is important for early detection, and for the safety of the patient. When the eye condition cannot be modified, environmental modifications provide the most effective remediation.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of preventing loss to follow-up in HIV treatment programs: a Côte d'Ivoire appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Data from HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings show extensive rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU ranging from 5% to 40% within 6 mo of antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation. Our objective was to project the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent LTFU from HIV care in West Africa.We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC International model to project the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of LTFU-prevention programs from a payer perspective. These programs include components such as eliminating ART co-payments, eliminating charges to patients for opportunistic infection-related drugs, improving personnel training, and providing meals and reimbursing for transportation for participants. The efficacies and costs of these interventions were extensively varied in sensitivity analyses. We used World Health Organization criteria of <3x gross domestic product per capita (3x GDP per capita = US$2,823 for Côte d'Ivoire as a plausible threshold for "cost-effectiveness." The main results are based on a reported 18% 1-y LTFU rate. With full retention in care, projected per-person discounted life expectancy starting from age 37 y was 144.7 mo (12.1 y. Survival losses from LTFU within 1 y of ART initiation ranged from 73.9 to 80.7 mo. The intervention costing US$22/person/year (e.g., eliminating ART co-payment would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 12%. An intervention costing US$77/person/year (inclusive of all the components described above would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 41%.Interventions that prevent LTFU in resource-limited settings would substantially improve survival and would be cost-effective by international criteria with efficacy of at least 12%-41%, depending on the cost of intervention, based on a reported 18% cumulative incidence of LTFU at 1 y after ART initiation. The commitment to start ART and treat HIV in these settings should

  5. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 77 FR 38381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... weeks, accumulating 7,500 miles, and tractor-trailer combinations for 5 years, accumulating 323,000... moving violations in a CMV. Jeffrey Macysyn Mr. Macysyn, 35, has complete loss of vision in his right eye...

  7. 76 FR 67246 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ...] in the horizontal meridian in each eye, and the ability to recognize the colors of traffic signals..., including enucleation, prosthesis, complete loss of vision, macular scarring, retinal and iris coloboma...

  8. 78 FR 9772 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ..., branch retinal artery occlusion, medullated nerve fibers, and complete loss of vision. In most cases... interstate system and on other roads built to interstate standards. Moreover, driving in congested urban...

  9. Screening of Long Q-T Syndrome in Patients with Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Loss (Jervell and Lange Neilesen Syndrome: Prevention of Fatal Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Matin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The idiopathic long Q-T syndrome is an infrequently occurring disorder in which affected individuals have an unusual electrocardiographic repolarization abnormality presenting as syncope or loss of consciousness related to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Congenital long Q-T prolongation can be associated with congenital deafness in an autosomal recessive manner (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome. The purpose of this stuff was to screen this electrocardiographic abnormality in deaf-mute school children in our population, which has not been yet performed. Materials & Methods:  Of 1190 patients with hearing loss, 779 had congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD, aged 13±3.8 years (4-24, 63% female and 37% male. The family history of deafness was as follows: Cardiac axis deviation was found in 56 (7% patients. Electrical conduction abnormalities were found in 12 (15% patients, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, sinus bradycardia, and sinus arrhythmia were found in 2 (0.25%, 4 (0.5%, and 3 (0.38% patients, respectively. The Q-T interval, and Q-Tc duration were 312.6±28.9 ms (200-500 ms, median 320 ms, and 383.6±29.3 ms (232-527 ms, median 413ms, respectively. Long Q-T syndrome was found in 4 (0.5% patients (3F and 1M. Results: Two of these 4 patients had total deafness and 2 had profound hearing loss. None of the patients with mild deafness had Q-T prolongation. Only one of these patients was symptomatic, and had been treated as a case of epilepsy for several years. Conclusion: This data supports the presence of long Q-T syndrome in patients with sensorineural hearing loss in our population, so routine electrocardiographic screening of anyone with congenital deafness is warranted to prevent subsequent associated cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

  10. Bone Loss Prevention of Bisphosphonates in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates in improving bone mineral density (BMD and decreasing the occurrence rate of fractures and adverse events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs which use bisphosphonates in IBD patients were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE database, EMBASE database, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Databases between 1990 and June 2016. People received bisphosphonate or placebos with a follow-up of at least one year were also considered. STATA 12.0 software was used for the meta-analysis. Results. Eleven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The data indicated that the percentage change in the increased BMD in the bisphosphonates groups was superior to that of the control groups at the lumbar spine and total hip. At the femoral neck, there was no significant difference between the two groups. The incidence of new fractures during follow-up showed significant reduction. The adverse event analysis revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that bisphosphonates therapy has an effect on bone loss in patients with IBD but show no evident efficiency at increasing the incidence of adverse events.

  11. Role of estrogen replacement therapy in memory enhancement and the prevention of neuronal loss associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, J W; Green, P S; Gridley, K E; Singh, M; de Fiebre, N C; Rajakumar, G

    1997-09-22

    Recent evidence supports a role for estrogens in both normal neural development and neuronal maintenance throughout life. Women spend 25-33% of their life in an estrogen-deprived state and retrospective studies have shown an inverse correlation between dose and duration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting a role for estrogen in the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. To explore these observations further, an animal model was developed using ovariectomy (OVX) and ovariectomy with estradiol replacement (E2) in female Sprague-Dawley rats to mimic postmenopausal changes. Using an active-avoidance paradigm and a spatial memory task, the effects of estrogen deprivation were tested on memory-related behaviors. OVX caused a decline in avoidance behavior, and estrogen replacement normalized the response. In the Morris water task of spatial memory, OVX animals showed normal spatial learning but were deficient in spatial memory, an effect that was prevented by estrogen treatment. Together these data indicate that OVX in rats results in an estrogen-reversible impairment of learning/memory behavior. Because a plethora of information has been generated that links decline in memory-related behavior to dysfunction of cholinergic neurons, the effects of estrogens on cholinergic neurons were tested. We demonstrated that OVX causes a decrease in high affinity choline uptake and choline acetyltransferase activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex; ERT reverses this effect. Further, we showed that estrogens promote the expression of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), 2 neurotrophic substances that have been shown to ameliorate the effects of age and injury on cholinergic neurons. Tissue culture models were used to evaluate whether estrogen treatment increases the survival of neurons when exposed to a variety of insults. 17-beta-Estradiol (beta-E2) protects

  12. Auditoria dos programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas em Curitiba (PPPA Hearing loss prevention programs control of Curitiba (HLPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C.M. Cavalli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo examinar se medidas práticas de prevenção de perdas auditivas, adotadas por indústrias de Curitiba e região metropolitana, atendem às exigências da legislação trabalhista vigente e recomendações científicas que abordam este tema. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um questionário elaborado pelo instituto americano National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH em 1996, para auditoria de programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas (PPPA, nos serviu de instrumento para a coleta de dados. O instrumento original possui 89 questões divididas em oito temas relacionados à prática dos programas: treinamento e educação, envolvimento do supervisor, medição do ruído, controle de Engenharia e Administrativo, monitoração audiométrica e manutenção dos registros, encaminhamentos, equipamento de proteção individual e questões administrativas. A coleta de dados foi realizada com Médicos do Trabalho, Engenheiros e/ou Técnicos de Segurança das indústrias. As empresas foram divididas em dois grupos: o das empresas que possuem um PPPA e o das que não possuem. CONCLUSÃO: Com base nos dados obtidos concluímos que não houve diferença significativa de conduta entre os grupos e que ambos cumprem parcialmente a legislação trabalhista relacionada à prevenção dos efeitos do ruído. Quanto às questões que abordam aspectos que se excedem às exigências legais, concluímos que as empresas que possuem PPPA dedicam maiores esforços à prevenção de perdas auditivas. Com estes dados identificamos pontos fortes e fracos das medidas que vêm sendo adotadas pelas indústrias da região, os quais poderão nos direcionar à elaboração de medidas preventivas mais efetivas e de propostas para revisão da legislação vigente.AIM: The objective of this study is to examine if the hearing loss prevention practices in industries located in the greater

  13. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of the prevalence of blindness and low vision was conducted in the Ingwavuma district of KwaZulu to assess the effectiveness of existing eye care facilities in the prevention and treatInent of impaired vision and blindness. One hundred subjects from each of 60 randomly selected clusters (N =6 090) were screened.

  14. Prevention of anastrozole-induced bone loss with monthly oral ibandronate during adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, James E; Dodwell, David; Purohit, Omprakash P; Gutcher, Sandra A; Ellis, Susan P; Thorpe, Ruth; Horsman, Janet M; Brown, Janet E; Hannon, Rosemary A; Coleman, Robert E

    2008-10-01

    The aromatase inhibitor anastrozole is a highly effective well-tolerated treatment for postmenopausal endocrine-responsive breast cancer. However, its use is associated with accelerated bone loss and an increase in fracture risk. The ARIBON trial is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the impact of bisphosphonate treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in women taking anastrozole. BMD was assessed in 131 postmenopausal, surgically treated women with early breast cancer at two U.K. centers. Of these, 50 patients had osteopenia (T score -1.0 to -2.5) at either the hip or lumbar spine. All patients were treated with anastrozole 1 mg once a day and calcium and vitamin D supplementation. In addition, osteopenic patients were randomized to receive either treatment with ibandronate 150 mg orally every month or placebo. After 2 years, osteopenic patients treated with ibandronate gained +2.98% (range -8.9, +19.9) and +0.60% (range -9.0, +6.9) at the lumbar spine and hip, respectively. Patients treated with placebo, however, lost -3.22% (range -16.0, +4.3) at the lumbar spine and -3.90% (range -12.3, +7.2) at the hip. The differences between the two treatment arms were statistically significant at both sites (P < 0.01). At 12 months, urinary n-telopeptide, serum c-telopeptide, and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels declined in patients receiving ibandronate (30.9%, 26.3%, and 22.8%, respectively) and increased in those taking placebo (40.3%, 34.9%, and 37.0%, respectively). Monthly oral ibandronate improves bone density and normalizes bone turnover in patients treated with anastrozole.

  15. TRAF6 Mediates Suppression of Osteoclastogenesis and Prevention of Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss by a Novel Prenylflavonoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ee Min; Li, Lei; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Chew, Nicholas; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2017-04-01

    Given the limitations of current therapeutic options for postmenopausal osteoporosis, there is a need for alternatives with minimal adverse effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of icaritin (ICT), a natural prenylflavonoid, on osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model and investigated its underlying molecular mechanism(s) of action. ICT inhibited osteoclast formation in two osteoclast precursor models, RAW 264.7 mouse monocyte cell line and human PBMC. ICT also inhibited sealing zone and resorption pit formation in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, ICT inhibited RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1 pathways to suppress gene expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)c1, the master transcription regulator of osteoclast differentiation. ICT, by inhibiting the TRAF6/c-Src/PI3K pathway, suppressed NADPH oxidase-1 activation to attenuate intracellular ROS production and downregulate calcineurin phosphatase activity. As a result, NFATc1 nuclear translocation and activity was suppressed. Crucially, ICT promoted proteasomal degradation of TRAF6, the critical adaptor protein that transduces RANKL/RANK signaling, and the inhibitory effect of ICT on osteoclastogenesis was reversed by the proteasomal inhibitor MG 132. ICT administration inhibited OVX-induced bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast formation and activity. Consistent with cellular studies, ICT downregulated TRAF6 and NFATc1 protein expression in CD11b + /Gr-1 -/low osteoclast precursors isolated from OVX rats. Put together, we present novel findings that ICT, by downregulating TRAF6, coordinates inhibition of NF-κB, MAPK/AP-1, and ROS signaling pathways to reduce expression and activity of NFATc1. These results demonstrate the potential of ICT for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and point to TRAF6 as a promising target for novel anti-osteoporotic drugs. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American

  16. Jane Addams’ Social Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2018-01-01

    resonated with key tenets of social gospel theology, which imbued her texts with an overarching vision of humanity’s progressive history. It is suggested that Addams’ vision of a major transition in industrial society, one involving a BChristian renaissance^ and individuals’ transformation into Bsocialized...

  17. Copenhagen Energy Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Connolly, David

    The short-term goal for The City of Copenhagen is a CO2 neutral energy supply by the year 2025, and the long-term vision for Denmark is a 100% renewable energy (RE) supply by the year 2050. In this project, it is concluded that Copenhagen plays a key role in this transition. The long-term vision...

  18. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  19. Light Vision Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Arne

    2005-04-01

    Light Vision Color takes a well-balanced, interdisciplinary approach to our most important sensory system. The book successfully combines basics in vision sciences with recent developments from different areas such as neuroscience, biophysics, sensory psychology and philosophy. Originally published in 1998 this edition has been extensively revised and updated to include new chapters on clinical problems and eye diseases, low vision rehabilitation and the basic molecular biology and genetics of colour vision. Takes a broad interdisciplinary approach combining basics in vision sciences with the most recent developments in the area Includes an extensive list of technical terms and explanations to encourage student understanding Successfully brings together the most important areas of the subject in to one volume

  20. Age-Related Psychophysical Changes and Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnelie, Gislin

    2013-01-01

    When considering the burden of visual impairment on aging individuals and society at large, it is important to bear in mind that vision changes are a natural aspect of aging. In this article, we consider vision changes that are part of normal aging, the prevalence of abnormal vision changes caused by disorders of the visual system, and the anticipated incidence and impact of visual impairment as the US population ages. We then discuss the services available to reduce the impact of vision loss, and the extent to which those services can and should be improved, not only to be better prepared for the anticipated increase in low vision over the coming decades, but also to increase the awareness of interactions between visual impairment and comorbidities that are common among the elderly. Finally, we consider how to promote improved quality, availability, and acceptance of low vision care to lessen the impact of visual impairment on individuals, and its burden on society. PMID:24335074

  1. Strategy for developing an evidence-based transdisciplinary vision rehabilitation team approach to treating vision impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Lori Latowski

    2008-04-01

    Many individuals with vision impairment experience significant loss of the ability to perform daily living activities, which often results in a further decline and loss of quality of life. Appropriate rehabilitation of the population with vision impairment has the potential to both improve individual abilities for health and personal management as well as maximize utilization of available health care resources. The case for an evidence-based model for the vision rehabilitation health care team as a medical rehabilitation program is presented. The recommended strategy has 3 main components: development of a consensus team clinical practice guideline leading to a future evidence-based team guideline for vision rehabilitation; evaluation and measurement of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the involved vision rehabilitation professionals before and after implementation of the new paradigm; and measurement of outcomes that estimate the effects of the proposed paradigm on patient care by measuring both the improvement in visual ability of the patient and the economic impact of the model on optometric practice. Development of a state-of-the-art evidence-based transdisciplinary team model guideline will facilitate improvement in the quality of life of individuals with diseases that result in chronic vision impairment.

  2. Oxygen ultra-fine bubbles water administration prevents bone loss of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in mice by suppressing osteoclast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, T; Ebina, K; Hirao, M; Morimoto, T; Koizumi, K; Kitaguchi, K; Matsuoka, H; Iwahashi, T; Yoshikawa, H

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUB) saline injection prevents bone loss of glucocorti\\coid-induced osteoporosis in mice, and OUB inhibit osteoclastogenesis via RANK-TRAF6-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and RANK-p38 MAPK signaling in vitro. Ultra-fine bubbles (osteoporosis (GIO) model mice. Prednisolone (PSL, 5 mg) was subcutaneously inserted in 6-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, and 200 μl of saline, OUB-diluted saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUB)-diluted saline was intraperitoneally injected three times per week for 8 weeks the day after operations. Mice were divided into four groups; (1) control, sham-operation + saline; (2) GIO, PSL + saline; (3) GIO + OUB, PSL + OUB saline; (4) GIO + NUB, PSL + NUB saline. The effects of OUB on osteoblasts and osteoclasts were examined by serially diluted OUB medium in vitro. Bone mass was significantly decreased in GIO [bone volume/total volume (%): control vs. GIO 12.6 vs. 7.9; p suppressed in GIO + OUB (GIO vs. GIO + OUB 11.6 vs. 7.5; p osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting RANK-TRAF6-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling, RANK-p38 MAPK signaling, and TRAP/Cathepsin K/DC-STAMP mRNA expression in a concentration-dependent manner. OUB did not affect osteoblastogenesis in vitro. OUB prevent bone loss in GIO mice by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  3. Licochalcone A Prevents the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons by Inhibiting Microglial Activation in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxu Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective effects of Licochalcone A (Lico.A, a flavonoid isolated from the herb licorice, in Parkinson’s disease (PD have not been elucidated. The prominent pathological feature of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons. The crucial role of neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia in dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been validated. In this study, we explore the therapeutic effects of Lico.A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced PD models in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lico.A significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial activation by blocking the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB p65 in BV-2 cells. In addition, through cultured primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cell experiments, we illustrate that Lico.A attenuates the decrease in [3H] dopamine (DA uptake and the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir neurons in LPS-induced PD models in vitro. Furthermore, LPS intoxication in rats results in microglial activation, dopaminergic neurodegeneration and significant behavioral deficits in vivo. Lico.A treatment prevents microglial activation and reduction of dopaminergic neuron and ameliorates PD-like behavioral impairments. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that the neuroprotective effects of Lico.A are associated with microglia and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models.

  4. Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinbauer, Hayo A; Anabalón, Jose L; Gutierrez, Daniela; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Olivares, Carla; Caro, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Our goal was to assess the impact of personal music players, earphones, and music styles on output, the subject's preferred listening levels, and outline recommendations for the prevention of music-induced hearing loss. Experimental study. Personal music players' output capabilities and volunteers' preferred output levels were assessed in different settings. Based on current noise-induced hearing loss exposure limits, recommendations were outlined. On three different devices and earphone types and 10 music styles, free field equivalent sound pressure output levels were assessed by applying a microphone probe inside the auditory canal. Forty-five hearing-healthy volunteers were asked to select preferred listening levels in different background noise scenarios. Sound pressure output reached 126 dB. No difference was found between device types, whereas earbud and supra-aural earphones showed significantly lower outputs than in-ear earphones (P music style groups were identified with as much as 14.4 dB difference between them. In silence, 17.8% of volunteers spontaneously selected a listening level above 85 dB. With 90 dB background noise, 40% selected a level above 94 dB. Earphone attenuation capability was found to correlate significantly with preferred level reductions (r = 0.585, P help in reducing comfortable listening levels and should be preferred. A risk table was elaborated, presenting time limits before reaching a risky exposure. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Salvia plebeia R.Br. inhibits signal transduction of IL-6 and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Hwa; Jung, Kyungsook; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Jang, Hyun-Jae; Lee, Seung Woong; Kim, Yesol; Park, Chan Sun; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Park, Jee Hun; Choi, Jung Ho; Rho, Mun-Chual; Oh, Hyun-Mee

    2016-12-01

    The interleukin-6 (IL-6) family of cytokines plays a key role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis through the regulation of bone formation and resorption. In this study, it was observed that ethanol extract of Salvia plebeia R.Br. (S.P-EE) inhibited IL-6-induced signaling cascade including phosphorylation of JAK2/STAT3 and ERK. Subsequently, it was examined whether S.P-EE treatment could recover bone loss in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Indeed, S.P-EE exhibited both preventive and therapeutic effect on OVX-induced bone loss in trabecular microarchitecture along with significant increase in bone mineral density and content. To understand the mechanism of action of S.P-EE in bone metabolism, the effect of S.P-EE on osteoclast differentiation and activity was investigated. S.P-EE significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by suppressing phosphorylation of MAPK and Akt, and expression of NFATc1 and osteoclast marker genes. S.P-EE also inhibited bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts. Furthermore, isolation and identification of the active compounds which are responsible for the inhibitory effect of S.P-EE on osteoclast differentiation was carried out. Six major flavonoids and plebeiolide A-C were isolated and examined their effects on osteoclast differentiation. Luteolin and hispidulin, and plebeiolide A and C, not B exhibited potent inhibitory activity on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation.

  6. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s

  7. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    Visions of the City is a dramatic account of utopian urbanism in the twentieth century. It explores radical demands for new spaces and ways of living, and considers their effects on planning, architecture and struggles to shape urban landscapes. Such visions, it shows, have played a crucial role...... to transform urban space and everyday life. He addresses in particular Constant's vision of New Babylon, finding within his proposals for future spaces produced through nomadic life, creativity and play a still powerful challenge to imagine cities otherwise. The book not only recovers vital moments from past...

  8. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...

  9. Eyeglasses for Vision Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... light. Another option for vision correction with UV protection is prescription sunglasses . Also, for people who prefer one set of eyeglasses for both inside and outdoors, photochromatic lenses are ...

  10. Your Child's Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rubbing extreme light sensitivity poor focusing poor visual tracking (following an object) abnormal alignment or movement of ... MD Date reviewed: June 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Amblyopia Can Vision Problems ...

  11. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  12. Color vision and fatigue: an incidental finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jeffery K; Ramaswamy, Shankaran

    2007-11-01

    Because there is little information available as to how fatigue and color vision interact, we present some incidental findings on how a protanope and a color-normal perform on several color vision tests after 1 night of sleep deprivation. A series of clinically and occupationally based color vision tests were administered to a protanope and a color-normal subject after they had stayed awake all night and after a regular night's sleep. There was essentially no change in their performance on the clinical color vision tests; however, both did worse on the occupationally based color vision tests after 1 night of sleep deprivation. The color-normal made numerous errors in identifying colors displayed on a video display terminal, whereas the protanope had a large increase in errors on the CN Lantern Test. Both subjects passed these respective tests after a regular night's sleep. The primary reason for color-normal's poor performance on the video display terminal test was probably due to a decrement in his visuo-motor control rather than a loss in color discrimination. In contrast, the protanope's poor performance on the lantern test was probably due to the additive effects of the inherent limitations of his visual system and fatigue.

  13. Preventing Catastrophes from Data Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    What's the worst thing that can happen to your computer? Worse than a hard disk crash, virus infection, spam assault, denial-of-service attack, hacker take-over, fire, flood, or other human, mechanical or natural disaster is a faulty backup when you really need it. If the computer blows up, as long as your data is backed up securely, you can…

  14. A randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss in overweight and obese women: Health In Pregnancy and Postpartum (HIPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Addy, Cheryl L; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Burgis, Judith T; Wingard, Ellen; Dahl, Alicia A; Whitaker, Kara M; Schneider, Lara; Boutté, Alycia K

    2018-03-01

    Interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss have yielded modest results, particularly in overweight and obese women. To examine the impact of a theory-based lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain, postpartum weight loss, and related maternal and child outcomes and to examine race differences in these outcomes. A randomized controlled trial (target N=400; 200 intervention, 200 standard care; 200 African American, 200 white). Overweight and obese African American and white women ≤16weeks gestation are recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in South Carolina. Intervention participants receive two in-depth counseling sessions (early pregnancy and postpartum), telephone counseling, behavioral podcasts, and social media support that target weight self-monitoring and increasing physical activity and healthy dietary behavior practices, guided by Social Cognitive Theory. Standard care participants receive monthly mailings and a matched number of podcasts on non-weight related topics. All intervention activities last from ≤18weeks gestation to 6months after delivery. Gestational weight gain is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are meeting gestational weight gain guidelines (inadequate, adequate, excessive), weekly rate of gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, physical activity and dietary behaviors, health-related quality of life, and offspring adiposity. Participants are assessed at baseline (≤16weeks gestation), 32weeks gestation, and 6 and 12months postpartum, and offspring are assessed at 6 and 12months. HIPP is an innovative study that addresses significant gaps in the literature. Primary outcome results are expected in 2019. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A review of the cost-effectiveness and suitability of mitigation strategies to prevent phosphorus loss from dairy farms in New Zealand and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Richard W; Nash, David

    2012-01-01

    The loss of phosphorus (P) from land to water is detrimental to surface water quality in many parts of New Zealand and Australia. Farming, especially pasture-based dairying, can be a source of P loss, but preventing it requires a range of fully costed strategies because little or no subsidies are available and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies varies with different farm management systems, topography, stream density, and climate. This paper reviews the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies for New Zealand and Australian dairy farms, grouping strategies into (i) management (e.g., decreasing soil test P, fencing streams off from stock, or applying low-water-soluble P fertilizers), (ii) amendments (e.g., alum or red mud [Bauxite residue]), and (iii) edge-of-field mitigations (e.g., natural or constructed wetlands). In general, on-farm management strategies were the most cost-effective way of mitigating P exports (cost range, $0 to $200 per kg P conserved). Amendments, added to tile drains or directly to surface soil, were often constrained by supply or were labor intensive. Of the amendments examined, red mud was cost effective where cost was offset by improved soil physical properties. Edge-of-field strategies, which remove P from runoff (i.e., wetlands) or prevent runoff (i.e., irrigation runoff recycling systems), were generally the least cost effective, but their benefits in terms of improved overall resource efficiency, especially in times of drought, or their effect on other contaminants like N need to be considered. By presenting a wide range of fully costed strategies, and understanding their mechanisms, a farmer or farm advisor is able to choose those that suit their farm and maintain profitability. Further work should examine the potential for targeting strategies to areas that lose the most P in time and space to maximize the cost-effectiveness of mitigation strategies, quantify the benefits of multiple strategies, and identify changes to

  16. The prevention and reduction of weight loss in an acute tertiary care setting: protocol for a pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial (the PRoWL project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition, with accompanying weight loss, is an unnecessary risk in hospitalised persons and often remains poorly recognised and managed. The study aims to evaluate a hospital-wide multifaceted intervention co-facilitated by clinical nurses and dietitians addressing the nutritional care of patients, particularly those at risk of malnutrition. Using the best available evidence on reducing and preventing unplanned weight loss, the intervention (introducing universal nutritional screening; the provision of oral nutritional supplements; and providing red trays and additional support for patients in need of feeding) will be introduced by local ward teams in a phased way in a large tertiary acute care hospital. Methods/Design A pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial with repeated cross section design will be conducted. The unit of randomisation is the ward, with allocation by a random numbers table. Four groups of wards (n = 6 for three groups, n = 7 for one group) will be randomly allocated to each intervention time point over the trial. Two trained local facilitators (a nurse and dietitian for each group) will introduce the intervention. The primary outcome measure is change in patient’s body weight, secondary patient outcomes are: length of stay, all-cause mortality, discharge destinations, readmission rates and ED presentations. Patient outcomes will be measured on one ward per group, with 20 patients measured per ward per time period by an unblinded researcher. Including baseline, measurements will be conducted at five time periods. Staff perspectives on the context of care will be measured with the Alberta Context Tool. Discussion Unplanned and unwanted weight loss in hospital is common. Despite the evidence and growing concern about hospital nutrition there are very few evaluations of system-wide nutritional implementation programs. This project will test the implementation of a nutritional intervention across one hospital system using a

  17. Technological process supervising using vision systems cooperating with the LabVIEW vision builder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryniewicz, P.; Banaś, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Foit, K.; Sękala, A.; Kost, G.

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important tasks in the production process is to supervise its proper functioning. Lack of required supervision over the production process can lead to incorrect manufacturing of the final element, through the production line downtime and hence to financial losses. The worst result is the damage of the equipment involved in the manufacturing process. Engineers supervise the production flow correctness use the great range of sensors supporting the supervising of a manufacturing element. Vision systems are one of sensors families. In recent years, thanks to the accelerated development of electronics as well as the easier access to electronic products and attractive prices, they become the cheap and universal type of sensors. These sensors detect practically all objects, regardless of their shape or even the state of matter. The only problem is considered with transparent or mirror objects, detected from the wrong angle. Integrating the vision system with the LabVIEW Vision and the LabVIEW Vision Builder it is possible to determine not only at what position is the given element but also to set its reorientation relative to any point in an analyzed space. The paper presents an example of automated inspection. The paper presents an example of automated inspection of the manufacturing process in a production workcell using the vision supervising system. The aim of the work is to elaborate the vision system that could integrate different applications and devices used in different production systems to control the manufacturing process.

  18. Loss of Nek11 Prevents G2/M Arrest and Promotes Cell Death in HCT116 Colorectal Cancer Cells Exposed to Therapeutic DNA Damaging Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Sabir

    Full Text Available The Nek11 kinase is a potential mediator of the DNA damage response whose expression is upregulated in early stage colorectal cancers (CRCs. Here, using RNAi-mediated depletion, we examined the role of Nek11 in HCT116 WT and p53-null CRC cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR or the chemotherapeutic drug, irinotecan. We demonstrate that depletion of Nek11 prevents the G2/M arrest induced by these genotoxic agents and promotes p53-dependent apoptosis both in the presence and absence of DNA damage. Interestingly, Nek11 depletion also led to long-term loss of cell viability that was independent of p53 and exacerbated following IR exposure. CRC cells express four splice variants of Nek11 (L/S/C/D. These are predominantly cytoplasmic, but undergo nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mediated through adjacent nuclear import and export signals in the C-terminal non-catalytic domain. In HCT116 cells, Nek11S in particular has an important role in the DNA damage response. These data provide strong evidence that Nek11 contributes to the response of CRC cells to genotoxic agents and is essential for survival either with or without exposure to DNA damage.

  19. A multi-ingredient dietary supplement abolishes large-scale brain cell loss, improves sensory function, and prevents neuronal atrophy in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, J A; Aksenov, V; Samigullina, R; Aksenov, S; Rodgers, W H; Rollo, C D; Boreham, D R

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic growth hormone mice (TGM) are a recognized model of accelerated aging with characteristics including chronic oxidative stress, reduced longevity, mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, muscle wasting, and elevated inflammatory processes. Growth hormone/IGF-1 activate the Target of Rapamycin known to promote aging. TGM particularly express severe cognitive decline. We previously reported that a multi-ingredient dietary supplement (MDS) designed to offset five mechanisms associated with aging extended longevity, ameliorated cognitive deterioration and significantly reduced age-related physical deterioration in both normal mice and TGM. Here we report that TGM lose more than 50% of cells in midbrain regions, including the cerebellum and olfactory bulb. This is comparable to severe Alzheimer's disease and likely explains their striking age-related cognitive impairment. We also demonstrate that the MDS completely abrogates this severe brain cell loss, reverses cognitive decline and augments sensory and motor function in aged mice. Additionally, histological examination of retinal structure revealed markers consistent with higher numbers of photoreceptor cells in aging and supplemented mice. We know of no other treatment with such efficacy, highlighting the potential for prevention or amelioration of human neuropathologies that are similarly associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular dysfunction. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:382-404, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Diapocynin, a dimer of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, reduces ROS production and prevents force loss in eccentrically contracting dystrophic muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M Ismail

    Full Text Available Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches.

  1. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  2. Curcumin inhibition of JNKs prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease through suppressing mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.

  3. Recurrent thrombosis prevention with intravenous immunoglobulin and hydroxychloroquine during pregnancy in a patient with history of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome and pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Nataliya; Kosowicz, Rebecca; Hook, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 36-year old patient with prior history of thrombosis in a setting of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) as well as pregnancy-associated catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS), resulting in multi-organ infarction and pregnancy loss. The episode of CAPS occurred while she was receiving antepartum low-dose aspirin and therapeutic-dose enoxaparin. This patient presented again at 6 weeks gestation and ultrasounds were consistent with fetal growth restriction, concerning for placental insufficiency and thrombosis. This time, hydroxychloroquine and monthly intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusions were added to her prophylaxis regimen, resulting in a successful delivery. Platelet count and antiphospholipid antibody titers were routinely monitored throughout pregnancy as markers of disease activity for APS. Current thromboprophylaxis guidelines do not address therapeutic options to prevent further pregnancy morbidity in women who develop recurrent episodes of thrombosis or CAPS despite receiving adequate anti-thrombotic treatment. Use of hydroxychloroquine and IVIG has been associated with good outcomes in this subset of patients.

  4. IDA's Energy Vision 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Hansen, Kenneth

    IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 provides a Smart Energy System strategy for a 100% renewable Denmark in 2050. The vision presented should not be regarded as the only option in 2050 but as one scenario out of several possibilities. With this vision the Danish Society of Engineers, IDA, presents its third...... contribution for an energy strategy for Denmark. The IDA’s Energy Plan 2030 was prepared in 2006 and IDA’s Climate Plan was prepared in 2009. IDA’s Energy Vision 2050 is developed for IDA by representatives from The Society of Engineers and by a group of researchers at Aalborg University. It is based on state......-of-the-art knowledge about how low cost energy systems can be designed while also focusing on long-term resource efficiency. The Energy Vision 2050 has the ambition to focus on all parts of the energy system rather than single technologies, but to have an approach in which all sectors are integrated. While Denmark...

  5. [Quality system Vision 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Evasio; Pitocchi, Oreste; de Luca, Italo; Ferrari, Roberto

    2002-12-01

    A recent document of the Italian Ministry of Health points out that all structures which provide services to the National Health System should implement a Quality System according to the ISO 9000 standards. Vision 2000 is the new version of the ISO standard. Vision 2000 is less bureaucratic than the old version. The specific requests of the Vision 2000 are: a) to identify, to monitor and to analyze the processes of the structure, b) to measure the results of the processes so as to ensure that they are effective, d) to implement actions necessary to achieve the planned results and the continual improvement of these processes, e) to identify customer requests and to measure customer satisfaction. Specific attention should be also dedicated to the competence and training of the personnel involved in the processes. The principles of the Vision 2000 agree with the principles of total quality management. The present article illustrates the Vision 2000 standard and provides practical examples of the implementation of this standard in cardiological departments.

  6. Colour, vision and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.

  7. Overview of sports vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.

    2003-03-01

    Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).

  8. Interoperability Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Knight, Mark R.; Melton, Ronald B.; Narang, David; Martin, Maurice; Nordman, Bruce; Khandekar, Aditya; Hardy, Keith S.

    2018-02-28

    The Interoperability Strategic Vision whitepaper aims to promote a common understanding of the meaning and characteristics of interoperability and to provide a strategy to advance the state of interoperability as applied to integration challenges facing grid modernization. This includes addressing the quality of integrating devices and systems and the discipline to improve the process of successfully integrating these components as business models and information technology improve over time. The strategic vision for interoperability described in this document applies throughout the electric energy generation, delivery, and end-use supply chain. Its scope includes interactive technologies and business processes from bulk energy levels to lower voltage level equipment and the millions of appliances that are becoming equipped with processing power and communication interfaces. A transformational aspect of a vision for interoperability in the future electric system is the coordinated operation of intelligent devices and systems at the edges of grid infrastructure. This challenge offers an example for addressing interoperability concerns throughout the electric system.

  9. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  10. Representing vision and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Patrick L; Cox, Alexander P; Jensen, Mark; Allen, Travis; Duncan, William; Diehl, Alexander D

    2016-01-01

    There have been relatively few attempts to represent vision or blindness ontologically. This is unsurprising as the related phenomena of sight and blindness are difficult to represent ontologically for a variety of reasons. Blindness has escaped ontological capture at least in part because: blindness or the employment of the term 'blindness' seems to vary from context to context, blindness can present in a myriad of types and degrees, and there is no precedent for representing complex phenomena such as blindness. We explore current attempts to represent vision or blindness, and show how these attempts fail at representing subtypes of blindness (viz., color blindness, flash blindness, and inattentional blindness). We examine the results found through a review of current attempts and identify where they have failed. By analyzing our test cases of different types of blindness along with the strengths and weaknesses of previous attempts, we have identified the general features of blindness and vision. We propose an ontological solution to represent vision and blindness, which capitalizes on resources afforded to one who utilizes the Basic Formal Ontology as an upper-level ontology. The solution we propose here involves specifying the trigger conditions of a disposition as well as the processes that realize that disposition. Once these are specified we can characterize vision as a function that is realized by certain (in this case) biological processes under a range of triggering conditions. When the range of conditions under which the processes can be realized are reduced beyond a certain threshold, we are able to say that blindness is present. We characterize vision as a function that is realized as a seeing process and blindness as a reduction in the conditions under which the sight function is realized. This solution is desirable because it leverages current features of a major upper-level ontology, accurately captures the phenomenon of blindness, and can be

  11. En vision for CBS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....

  12. Synergistic role of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and pulsed electromagnetic field therapy to prevent bone loss in rats following exposure to simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Prakash

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available D Prakash, J BehariSchool of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, IndiaAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to use capacitive coupling of pulsed electromagnetic field (CC-PEMF and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAp as a countermeasure to prevent osteoporosis induced by simulated microgravity. We used the hind-limb suspension (HLS rat model to simulate microgravity-induced bone losses for 45 days. In order to compare the resulting changes, mineralogical (bone mineral density [BMD], calcium [Ca], and phosphorus [P], biochemical (osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase [ALP], and type I collagen, and histological (scanning electron microscopy parameters were adopted. As a countermeasure to the above, the effect of PEMF and HAp application were examined. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (n = 8, HLS (n = 8, HLS with PEMF (n = 8, HLS with HAp nanoparticles (n = 8, and HLS with HAp and PEMF (n = 8. We observed: 1 significant decrease (p < 0.01 in BMD, Ca, P, type I collagen, and ALP activity in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin in HLS rats as compared with the ground control. 2 Nonsignificant increase in BMD (p < 0.1, Ca (p < 0.1, P (p < 0.5, type I collagen (p < 0.1, and ALP activity (p < 0.5 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin (p < 0.5 in HLS + PEMF rats compared with HLS rats. 3 Significant increase in BMD (p < 0.02, Ca (p < 0.05, P (p < 0.05, type I collagen (p < 0.02, and ALP activity (p > 0.02 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone with a nonsignificant increase in serum osteocalcin (p > 0.1 in HLS + HAp rats compared to HLS rats. 4 Significant increase in BMD (p > 0.01. Ca (p > 0.01. P (p > 0.01. type I collagen (p > 0.01. and ALP activity (p > 0.01 in femur and tibia in hind-limb bone and serum osteocalcin (p > 0.02 were also observed. Results suggest that a combination of low level PEMF and Hap nanoparticles has potential to control

  13. Gain-Framed Messages Do Not Motivate Sun Protection: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Trials Comparing Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Appeals for Promoting Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Daniel J.; Wu, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain—with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage. PMID:22829794

  14. Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Operational Based Vision Assessment Laboratory has developed a set of computer - based...Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine Operational Based Vision Assessment (OBVA) Laboratory has developed a set of computer -based, automated vision ...username of your computer ]  “App Data”  “Roaming”  Automated Vision Test”  “Settings”  “Calibration.” Once inside the “Calibration” folder

  15. Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) causes peripheral remodeling and does not prevent photoreceptor loss in canine RPGR mutant retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, William A; Wen, Rong; Acland, Gregory M; Aguirre, Gustavo D

    2007-04-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) rescues photoreceptors in several animal models of retinal degeneration and is currently being evaluated as a potential treatment for retinitis pigmentosa in humans. This study was conducted to test whether CNTF prevents photoreceptor cell loss in XLPRA2, an early onset canine model of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa caused by a frameshift mutation in RPGR exon ORF15. Four different treatment regimens of CNTF were tested in XLPRA2 dogs. Under anesthesia, the animals received at different ages an intravitreal injection of 12 microg of CNTF in the left eye. The right eye served as a control and was injected with a similar volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Ocular examinations were performed regularly during the treatment periods. At termination, the dogs were euthanatized, eyes collected and the retinas were processed for embedding in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) medium. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was evaluated on H&E sections and values in both CNTF- and PBS-treated eyes were compared. Morphologic alterations in the peripheral retina were characterized by immunohistochemistry using cell-specific markers. Cell proliferation in the retinas was examined on semi-thin plastic sections, and by BrdU pulse-labeling and Ki67 immunohistochemistry on cryosections. All CNTF-treated eyes showed early clinical signs of corneal epitheliopathy, subcapsular cataracts and uveitis. No statistically significant difference in ONL thickness was seen between the CNTF- and PBS-injected eyes. Prominent retinal remodeling that consisted in an abnormal increase in the number of rods, and in misplacement of some rods, cones, bipolar and Müller cells, was observed in the peripheral retina of CNTF-treated eyes. This was only seen when CNTF was in injected before the age at which the canine retina reaches full maturation. In XLPRA2 dogs, intravitreal injections of CNTF failed to prevent photoreceptors from undergoing cell death in the

  16. Intravitreal injection of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) causes peripheral remodeling and does not prevent photoreceptor loss in canine RPGR mutant retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, William A.; Wen, Rong; Acland, Gregory M.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

    2009-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) rescues photoreceptors in several animal models of retinal degeneration and is currently being evaluated as a potential treatment for retinitis pigmentosa in humans. This study was conducted to test whether CNTF prevents photoreceptor cell loss in XLPRA2, an early onset canine model of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa caused by a frameshift mutation in RPGR exon ORF15. Four different treatment regimens of CNTF were tested in XLPRA2 dogs. Under anesthesia, the animals received at different ages an intravitreal injection of 12 μg of CNTF in the left eye. The right eye served as a control and was injected with a similar volume of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Ocular examinations were performed regularly during the treatment periods. At termination, the dogs were euthanatized, eyes collected and the retinas were processed for embedding in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) medium. The outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness was evaluated on H&E sections and values in both CNTF- and PBS-treated eyes were compared. Morphologic alterations in the peripheral retina were characterized by immunohistochemistry using cell-specific markers. Cell proliferation in the retinas was examined on semi-thin plastic sections, and by BrdU pulse-labeling and Ki67 immunohistochemistry on cryosections. All CNTF-treated eyes showed early clinical signs of corneal epitheliopathy, subcapsular cataracts and uveitis. No statistically significant difference in ONL thickness was seen between the CNTF- and PBS-injected eyes. Prominent retinal remodeling that consisted in an abnormal increase in the number of rods, and in misplacement of some rods, cones, bipolar and Müller cells, was observed in the peripheral retina of CNTF-treated eyes. This was only seen when CNTF was in injected before the age at which the canine retina reaches full maturation. In XLPRA2 dogs, intravitreal injections of CNTF failed to prevent photoreceptors from undergoing cell death in the

  17. Effects of visual skills training, vision coaching and sports vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three different approaches to improving sports performance through improvements in “sports vision:” (1) a visual skills training programme, (2) traditional vision coaching sessions, and (3) a multi-disciplinary approach identified as sports vision dynamics.

  18. Near vision spectacle coverage and barriers to near vision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    easily help to address this visual disability.7 An average cost of near vision spectacle in Ghana is approximately. $ 5.8 Near-vision spectacle could be dispensed as single vision, bifocal or progressive eye glasses to meet near vi- sion needs.2. Recent evidence suggests that the ageing population in. Ghana is increasing ...

  19. Grounding Our Vision: Brain Research and Strategic Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mike

    2011-01-01

    While recognizing the value of "vision," it could be argued that vision alone--at least in schools--is not enough to rally the financial and emotional support required to translate an idea into reality. A compelling vision needs to reflect substantive, research-based knowledge if it is to spark the kind of strategic thinking and insight…

  20. KiWi Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffert, Sebastian; Bry, Francois; Dolog, Peter

    This deliverable describes the common vision of the KiWi project, ranging from motivation over use cases and usage scenarios to user interaction, system architecture and technologies, and the research that is performed as part of the project. The deliverable is intended for a wide audience to give...

  1. Vision eller verklighet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Jonas E

    2012-01-01

    and drawing analysis. This study suggests that there is a gap between reality and visions. Despite research-based guidelines, the architecture of contemporary residential care homes relies on universal qualities that are associated with the home environment rather than with the particular conditions...

  2. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kahn...

  3. Giving Machines the Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  4. Direct vision internal urethrotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, H; Willumsen, H; Søndergaard Jensen, L

    1984-01-01

    During a five-year period, direct vision internal urethrotomy was used for the treatment of urethral strictures in 34 men. After the primary operation the patients were followed for an average period of 29 months (range 3-73 months). During this period 53% of the patients were found to have one...

  5. Vision: Essential Scaffolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Torre, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Few concepts are more noted in the leadership effects research than vision. It is a cardinal element in the school improvement equation as well. Yet, it remains one of the least well-specified components of that algorithm. Based on a comprehensive review of the research on effective leadership and school improvement from 1995 to 2012, we bring…

  6. Tectonic vision in architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    1999-01-01

    By introducing the concept; Tectonic Visions, The Dissertation discusses the interrelationship between the basic idea, the form principles, the choice of building technology and constructive structures within a given building. Includes Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Eames, Jorn Utzon, Louis Kah...

  7. Home vision tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... missing areas. If any lines appear distorted or broken, note their location on the grid using a pen or pencil. DISTANCE VISION This is the standard eye chart doctors use, which has been adapted for home use. The chart is attached to a wall ...

  8. The Photodynamics of Vision

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rruion is one of our primary senses. It is the ability to identify, process and interpret what is seen by the eye. It is a powerful mechanism for parallel processing of information received at the speed of light from near and remote scenes. The volume of information received by vision is certainly more than that re- ceived by our ...

  9. MARR: active vision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podladchikova, Lubov N.; Gusakova, Valentina I.; Shaposhnikov, Dmitry G.; Faure, Alain; Golovan, Alexander V.; Shevtsova, Natalia A.

    1997-09-01

    Earlier, the biologically plausible active vision, model for multiresolutional attentional representation and recognition (MARR) has been developed. The model is based on the scanpath theory of Noton and Stark and provides invariant recognition of gray-level images. In the present paper, the algorithm of automatic image viewing trajectory formation in the MARR model, the results of psychophysical experiments, and possible applications of the model are considered. Algorithm of automatic image viewing trajectory formation is based on imitation of the scanpath formed by operator. Several propositions about possible mechanisms for a consecutive selection of fixation points in human visual perception inspired by computer simulation results and known psychophysical data have been tested and confirmed in our psychophysical experiments. In particular, we have found that gaze switch may be directed (1) to a peripheral part of the vision field which contains an edge oriented orthogonally to the edge in the point of fixation, and (2) to a peripheral part of the vision field containing crossing edges. Our experimental results have been used to optimize automatic algorithm of image viewing in the MARR model. The modified model demonstrates an ability to recognize complex real world images invariantly with respect to scale, shift, rotation, illumination conditions, and, in part, to point of view and can be used to solve some robot vision tasks.

  10. INL Vision and Strategy 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, Rekha Sukamar

    2015-01-01

    This Laboratory vision and strategy presents INL's vision and strategy for the Laboratory and is our introduction to a special place dedicated to improving our nation's energy security future.

  11. What is vision Hampton Roads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    What is Vision Hampton Roads? : Vision Hampton Roads is... : A regionwide economic development strategy based on the collective strengths of all : localities of Hampton Roads, created with the input of business, academia, nonprofits, : government,...

  12. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  13. Effect of absence of vision on posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Abdullah Z; Alghadir, Ahmad; Iqbal, Zaheen A; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The visual system is one of the sensory systems that enables the body to assess and process information about the external environment. In the absence of vision, a blind person loses contact with the outside world and develops faulty motor patterns, which results in postural deficiencies. However, literature regarding the development of such deficiencies is limited. The aim of this study was to discuss the effect of absence of vision on posture, the possible biomechanics behind the resulting postural deficiencies, and strategies to correct and prevent them. [Subjects and Methods] Various electronic databases including PubMed, Medline, and Google scholar were examined using the words "body", "posture", "blind" and "absence of vision". References in the retrieved articles were also examined for cross-references. The search was limited to articles in the English language. [Results] A total of 74 papers were shortlisted for this review, most of which dated back to the 1950s and 60s. [Conclusion] Blind people exhibit consistent musculoskeletal deformities. Absence of vision leads to numerous abnormal sensory and motor interactions that often limit blind people in isolation. Rehabilitation of the blind is a multidisciplinary task. Specialists from different fields need to diagnose and treat the deficiencies of the blind together as a team. Before restoring the normal mechanics of posture and gait, the missing link with the external world should be reestablished.

  14. Vision Care and the Nation's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Optometric Association, St. Louis, MO.

    Aspects of vision and vision care considered are the following: extent and types of vision defects of American children; importance of vision care in pre-school years, elementary, and secondary school and beyond; and manpower resources in vision care today, the extent of vision testing and care, special problem areas, and governmental support.…

  15. Realisering af Vision 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Repræsentanter for byggesektoren har på 11 dialogmøder drøftet Erhvervs- og Byggestyrelsens "Vision 2020 - Byggeri med mening". Drøftelserne førte til formulering af en lang række initiativforslag til realisering af visionen. Den mest centrale udfordring bliver at reducere fejl og mangler i...... byggeriet. Branchen lægger også vægt på, at styringen af Vision 2020s reaisering sker i byggesektoren. Initiativforslagene er i rapporten samlet under 3 hovedområder. Det første hovedområde lægger vægt på bygningerne, brugerbehov og det globale samfund. Det andet omhandler processen og leverancesystemet...

  16. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Conductive hearing loss (CHL) occurs because of a mechanical problem in the outer or middle ear. This may be ...

  17. Liraglutide and obesity in elderly: efficacy in fat loss and safety in order to prevent sarcopenia. A perspective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Guido, Davide; Bologna, Chiara; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Guerriero, Fabio; Isu, Antonio; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-12-01

    For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue (liraglutide) appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Given this background, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the liraglutide treatment, at doses up to 3.0 mg per day, on the body composition, focusing on sarcopenia, in overweight and obese elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A perspective study was carried out in overweight and obese T2DM patients with HbA1c equal to 7.0 % (53 mmol/mol) ~10.0 % (86), under 3-month treatment (at least) of maximal dose of metformin at stable regime, and additional liraglutide at doses up to 3.0 mg per day. Body composition markers such as skeletal muscle index (SMI), android and gynoid fat mass, and arms and legs fat free mass, was measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA) at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was also carried out by glucose and HbA1c. Nine subjects (male/female 6/3, mean age 68.22 ± 3.86 years, BMI 32.34 ± 4.89 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated. We noted a median decrease in BMI (-0.78 kg/m 2 ), weight (-2000 g), fat mass (-1498 g) and android fat (-0.9 %), and a increase in SMI (+0.03 kg/m 2 ) from baseline. Glycemic control also improved, with a median change HbA1c of -0.80 %. Twenty-four weeks of liraglutide treatment was associated with reductions in fat mass and android fat. In addition, in order to prevent sarcopenia, it preserved the muscular tropism.

  18. Predictors of loss to follow-up among children registered in an HIV prevention mother-to-child transmission cohort study in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Pedro Alves da Cruz; da Silva, Gerlane Alves Pontes; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fatima Pessoa Militão

    2014-11-27

    Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) is the major form of acquiring the disease among children. The loss to follow-up (LTF) of mothers and their children is a problem that affects the effectiveness of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). The aim of this study is to identify risk factors associated with the LTF of HIV-exposed children in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 1200 HIV-exposed children born between 2000 and 2009, registered up to the age of 2 months in a public health PMTCT program. Children were considered LTF if they did not return for scheduled visits to monitor infection status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for LTF. A total of 185 children (15.4%; CI: 95%: 13.4-17.4%) met the case definition of LTF before the determination of serological HIV status. Risk factors independently associated with LTF were mother-child pairs who reside in rural and remote areas (OR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.30-2.66) and mothers who use illicit drugs (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.08-3.0). Initiation of the PMTCT during pregnancy was a protective factor for LTF (OR 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96). The decentralization of support services for HIV-exposed children to other cities in the state seems to be crucial for the accurate monitoring of outcomes. It is also important to introduce additional measures addressing mothers who are drug users so that they remain in the program: an intensive follow-up program that actively searches for absentee mother-child pairs, support from social services and treatment for drug-dependency. The findings of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing mothers as early as possible in order to conduct a more complete follow-up period of the children. Solving the above-mentioned problems is a challenge, which must be overcome so as to improve the quality of PMTCT.

  19. Robotic Vision for Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Vision system for robotic welder looks at weld along axis of welding electrode. Gives robot view of most of weld area, including yet-unwelded joint, weld pool, and completed weld bead. Protected within welding-torch body, lens and fiber bundle give robot closeup view of weld in progress. Relayed to video camera on robot manipulator frame, weld image provides data for automatic control of robot motion and welding parameters.

  20. 2015 Enterprise Strategic Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This document aligns with the Department of Energy Strategic Plan for 2014-2018 and provides a framework for integrating our missions and direction for pursuing DOE’s strategic goals. The vision is a guide to advancing world-class science and engineering, supporting our people, modernizing our infrastructure, and developing a management culture that operates a safe and secure enterprise in an efficient manner.