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  1. Prevention of Esophageal Variceal Rebleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Ho Lo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of rebleeding of esophageal varices remains high after cessation of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Many measures have been developed to prevent the occurrence of rebleeding. When considering their effectiveness in reduction of rebleeding, the associated complications cannot be neglected. Due to unavoidable high incidence of complications, shunt surgery and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy are now rarely used. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt was developed to replace shunt operation but is now reserved for rescue therapy. Nonselective beta-blockers alone or in combination with isosorbide mononitrate and endoscopic variceal ligation are currently the first choices in the prevention of variceal rebleeding. The combination of nonselective beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal ligation appear to enhance the efficacy. With the advent of newly developed measures, esophageal variceal rebleeding could be greatly reduced and the survival of cirrhotics with bleeding esophageal varices could thereby be prolonged.

  2. Meta-analysis: banding ligation and medical interventions for the prevention of rebleeding from oesophageal varices

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    Thiele, Maja; Krag, A; Rohde, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    In patients with oesophageal varices, the combination of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and medical therapy is recommended as standard of care for prevention of rebleeding. The results of previous meta-analyses on this topic are equivocal.......In patients with oesophageal varices, the combination of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) and medical therapy is recommended as standard of care for prevention of rebleeding. The results of previous meta-analyses on this topic are equivocal....

  3. Antibiotic prophylaxis after endoscopic therapy prevents rebleeding in acute variceal hemorrhage: a randomized trial.

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    Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Han-Chieh; Liu, Tsu-Te; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tieu; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2004-03-01

    Bacterial infection may adversely affect the hemostasis of patients with gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (GEVB). Antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent bacterial infection in such patients, but its role in preventing rebleeding is unclear. Over a 25-month period, patients with acute GEVB but without evidence of bacterial infection were randomized to receive prophylactic antibiotics (ofloxacin 200 mg i.v. q12h for 2 days followed by oral ofloxacin 200 mg q12h for 5 days) or receive antibiotics only when infection became evident (on-demand group). Endoscopic therapy for the GEVB was performed immediately after infection work-up and randomization. Fifty-nine patients in the prophylactic group and 61 patients in the on-demand group were analyzed. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics of the gastroesophageal varices, time to endoscopic treatment, and period of follow-up were not different between the two groups. Antibiotic prophylaxis decreased infections (2/59 vs. 16/61; P actuarial probability of rebleeding was higher in patients without prophylactic antibiotics (P =.0029). The difference of rebleeding was mostly due to early rebleeding within 7 days (4/12 vs. 21/27, P =.0221). The relative hazard of rebleeding within 7 days was 5.078 (95% CI: 1.854-13.908, P <.0001). The multivariate Cox regression indicated bacterial infection (relative hazard: 3.85, 95% CI: 1.85-13.90) and association with hepatocellular carcinoma (relative hazard: 2.46, 95% CI: 1.30-4.63) as independent factors predictive of rebleeding. Blood transfusion for rebleeding was also reduced in the prophylactic group (1.40 +/- 0.89 vs. 2.81 +/- 2.29 units, P <.05). There was no difference in survival between the two groups. In conclusion, antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent infection and rebleeding as well as decrease the amount of blood transfused for patients with acute GEVB following endoscopic treatment.

  4. Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices.

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    Seo, Yeon Seok

    2018-03-01

    Bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Although there has been significance improvement in the prognosis of variceal bleeding with advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for its management, mortality rate still remains high. Therefore, appropriate prevention and rapid, effective management of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is very important. Recently, various studies about management of gastoesophageal varices, including prevention of development and aggravation of varices, prevention of first variceal bleeding, management of acute variceal bleeding, and prevention of variceal rebleeding, have been published. The present article reviews published articles and practice guidelines to present the most optimal management of patients with gastroesophageal varices.

  5. Variceal recurrence, rebleeding and survival after injection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study tested the validity of the hypothesis that eradication of oesophageal varices by repeated injection sclerotherapy would reduce recurrent variceal bleeding and death from bleeding oesophageal varices in a high risk cohort of patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Patients and Methods: 306 alcoholic ...

  6. Antibiotic prophylaxis using third generation cephalosporins can reduce the risk of early rebleeding in the first acute gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Wan-Sik; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun; Kim, Sei-Jong; Kim, Young-Dae

    2006-10-01

    Bacterial infection may be a critical trigger for variceal bleeding. Antibiotic prophylaxis can prevent rebleeding in patients with acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding (GEVB). The aim of the study was to compare prophylactic third generation cephalosporins with on-demand antibiotics for the prevention of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding. In a prospective trial, patients with the first acute GEVB were randomly assigned to receive prophylactic antibiotics (intravenous cefotaxime 2 g q 8 hr for 7 days, prophylactic antibiotics group) or to receive the same antibiotics only when infection became evident (on-demand group). Sixty-two patients in the prophylactic group and 58 patients in the on-demand group were included for analysis. Antibiotic prophylaxis decreased infection (3.2% vs. 15.5%, p=0.026). The actuarial rebleeding rate in the prophylactic group was significantly lower than that in the on-demand group (33.9% vs. 62.1%, p=0.004). The difference of rebleeding rate was mostly due to early rebleeding within 6 weeks (4.8% vs. 20.7%, p=0.012). On multivariate analysis, antibiotic prophylaxis (relative hazard: 0.248, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.067-0.919, p=0.037) and bacterial infection (relative hazard: 3.901, 95% CI: 1.053-14.448, p=0.042) were two independent determinants of early rebleeding. In conclusion, antibiotic prophylaxis using third generation cephalosporins can prevent bacterial infection and early rebleeding in patients with the first acute GEVB.

  7. Alcohol Abuse Increases Rebleeding Risk and Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

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    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.

  8. [Frequency and mortality by rebleeding in cirrhotic patients treated for bleeding esophagic varices in two hospitals in Lima Peru during years 2009 to 2011].

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    Pichilingue Reto, Catherina; Queirolo Rodriguez, Fiorella Sabrinna; Ruiz Llenque, José Jonathan; Bravo Paredes, Eduar; Guzmán Rojas, Patricia; Gallegos López, Roxana; Corzo Maldonado, Manuel Alejandro; Valdivia Roldán, Mario

    2013-01-01

    During the first 6 weeks after a variceal hemorrhage there is a 30-40% of probability of recurrence and those who rebleed 20- 30% die. Passed this period, the risk of rebleeding is of 60% and reaches a mortality of 60-70% in two years without treatment. Describe the frequency of rebleeding and mortality due to rebleeding in cirrhotic patients treated for variceal hemorrhage at Endoscopic Centers of Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru and Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza, Lima, Peru during the years 2009-2011. The study type is a transversal, periodic and retrospective one in which were included 176 cirrhotic patients older than 14 years who have bleed for esophageal varices and that have received endoscopic therapy. The instruments used were a data sheet with all the information obtained from the clinical chart of each patient, the CHILD score to assess severity of hepatic disease, endoscopic informs and phone calls. The frequency of rebleeding before 6 weeks was 32.20% (56 patients). Also, the frequency of rebleeding after that time was 22.56% (37 patients). There was a mortality rate of 5.70% (10 patients) and a mortality rate due to rebleeding of 13.33% (6 patients). Variceal hemorrhage is an important cause of mobimortality in peruvian people. The frequency of rebleeding and mortality due to rebleeding resulted slightly lower than in other countries.

  9. Esophageal variceal ligation in the secondary prevention of variceal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pan African Medical Journal ... Introduction: Long-term outcome of patients after band ligation have been poorly defined. ... endoscopic band ligation, liver cirrhosis, complication of band ligation, esophageal varices, secondary prevention ...

  10. [Related factors to re-bleeding and mortality in cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding at Hipolito Unanue Hospital, Lima, Peru].

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    Parra Pérez, Víctor Felipe; Raymundo Cajo, Roxana Magali; Gutiérrez de Aranguren, Constantino Fernando

    2013-01-01

    To determine related factors to 5 days re-bleeding and 6 week-mortality of an episode of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients. Observational, descriptive, co relational, retrospective study. In this study were included the cirrhotic patients who entered to Hipolito Unanue Hospital, Lima, Peru, between January 2006 and February 2012 with suspicion of variceal bleeding. Were excluded patients who bled from nonvariceal origin, or that did not have the data in clinical history to calculate the Child Pugh score, the Model for terminal diseases of the liver (MELD), or the endoscopic report detailing the bleeding source and the presence of esophageal and/or gastric varices. We include 63 patients, 35 (55.6%) were men. The median of age was of 64 years. 26 of them (41.3%) were Child Pugh C, where as the median of MELD score was 9. The multivariate analysis found that the Child Pugh score was related to 6 weeks-mortality (p=0,003), where as the presence of active bleeding during endoscopy (p=0.012) and the value of creatinine (p=0.012) were related to 5 days re-bleeding. The Child Pugh score was related to 6 weeks-mortality in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding. Active bleeding during endoscopy and the value of creatinine were related to 5 days re-bleeding.

  11. Intravenous Esomeprazole for Prevention of Peptic Ulcer Rebleeding: A Randomized Trial in Chinese Patients.

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    Bai, Yu; Chen, Dong-Feng; Wang, Rong-Quan; Chen, You-Xiang; Shi, Rui-Hua; Tian, De-An; Chen, Huifang; Eklund, Stefan; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2015-11-01

    High-dose intravenous esomeprazole is the only approved pharmacological treatment for the prevention of peptic ulcer rebleeding (currently approved in over 100 countries worldwide), but has not yet been approved in China. This study aimed to evaluate a high-dose esomeprazole intravenous regimen vs. an active control (cimetidine) for the prevention of rebleeding in Chinese patients with a high risk of peptic ulcer rebleeding who had undergone primary endoscopic hemostatic treatment. This was a parallel-group study conducted at 20 centers in China. The study comprised a randomized, double-blind, intravenous treatment phase of 72 h in which 215 patients received either high-dose esomeprazole (80 mg + 8 mg/h) or cimetidine (200 mg + 60 mg/h), followed by an open-label oral treatment phase in which all patients received esomeprazole 40 mg tablets once daily for 27 days. The primary outcome was the rate of clinically significant rebleeding within the first 72 h after initial endoscopic hemostatic therapy. Secondary outcomes included the rates of clinically significant rebleeding within 7 and 30 days; proportions of patients who had endoscopic retreatment and other surgery due to rebleeding; and number of blood units transfused. The rate of clinically significant rebleeding within 72 h was low overall (3.3%) and numerically lower in patients treated with esomeprazole compared with cimetidine (0.9% vs. 5.6%). Overall, the results of the secondary outcomes also showed a numerical trend towards superiority of esomeprazole over cimetidine. All treatments were well tolerated. In this phase 3, multicenter, randomized trial conducted in China, esomeprazole showed a numerical trend towards superior clinical benefit over cimetidine in the prevention of rebleeding in patients who had successfully undergone initial hemostatic therapy of a bleeding peptic ulcer, with a similar safety and tolerability profile. These findings suggest that esomeprazole may be an

  12. Efficacy of carvedilol versus propranolol versus variceal band ligation for primary prevention of variceal bleeding.

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    Abd ElRahim, Ayman Yosry; Fouad, Rabab; Khairy, Marwa; Elsharkawy, Aisha; Fathalah, Waleed; Khatamish, Haytham; Khorshid, Omayma; Moussa, Mona; Seyam, Moataz

    2018-01-01

    Band ligation and propranolol are the current therapies for primary prevention of variceal bleeding. Carvedilol is a rising nonselective beta-blocker used for reducing portal pressure with favorable outcome. The aim of this study to assess the efficacy of carvedilol, propranolol, and band ligation for primary prevention of variceal bleeding based on the effect of each regimen on progression of Child score and portal hypertensive gastropathy after 1 year. The study included 264 cirrhotic patients with medium/large-sized varices who were candidates for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. Patients were randomly divided into three groups: group I: band ligation; group II: propranolol; group III: carvedilol. Group I showed higher success rate of 75 %, followed by group III with 70.2 % and group II with 65.2 %. Risk of bleeding was comparable between the three groups, with group II carrying the highest rate of complications (34.7 %) followed by group III (14.2 %) and finally group I (5.7 %). After 1 year of follow-up, Child score did not improve in any of the studied groups, while portal hypertensive gastropathy significantly increased in group I but decreased in groups II and III. Band ligation is the best treatment option for primary prevention of variceal bleeding with minimal complications. Carvedilol is a good pharmaceutical alternative medicine to propranolol with lesser side-effects. Progress of liver disease as represented by Child score is not affected by any of the primary variceal prophylactic regimens, although medical treatment reduces portal hypertensive gastropathy. Choice of treatment depends on patient will, compliance with treatment, and endoscopist competence.

  13. Comparison of Endoscopic Variceal Ligation and Nadolol Plus Isosorbide-5-mononitrate in the Prevention of First Variceal Bleeding in Cirrhotic Patients

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    Huay-Min Wang

    2006-10-01

    Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that endoscopic variceal ligation is similar to the combination of nadolol plus ISMN with regard to effectiveness and safety in the prevention of first variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis.

  14. Rebleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Astrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms leading to rebleeding and the prevention of rebleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: A literature search was performed to investigate factors associated with rebleeding after SAH. RESULTS: The review of the literature...

  15. Pantoprazole for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Bleeding and Prevention of Rebleeding

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    Christo J. Van Rensburg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adding proton pump inhibitors (PPIs to endoscopic therapy has become the mainstay of treatment for peptic ulcer bleeding, with current consensus guidelines recommending high-dose intravenous (IV PPI therapy (IV bolus followed by continuous therapy. However, whether or not high-dose PPI therapy is more effective than low-dose PPI therapy is still debated. Furthermore, maintaining pH ≥ 4 appears to prevent mucosal bleeding in patients with acute stress ulcers; thus, stress ulcer prophylaxis with acid-suppressing therapy has been increasingly recommended in intensive care units (ICUs. This review evaluates the evidence for the efficacy of IV pantoprazole, a PPI, in preventing ulcer rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis, and in controlling gastric pH and protecting against upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding in high-risk ICU patients. The review concludes that IV pantoprazole provides an effective option in the treatment of upper GI bleeding, the prevention of rebleeding, and for the prophylaxis of acute bleeding stress ulcers.

  16. Acute Management and Secondary Prophylaxis of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding: A Western Canadian Survey

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    Justin Cheung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. Guidelines have been published in 1997; however, variability in the acute management and prevention of EVB rebleeding may occur.

  17. A pathophysiologic, gastroenterologic, and radiologic approach to the management of gastric varices.

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    Ryan, Barbara M; Stockbrugger, Reinhold W; Ryan, J Mark

    2004-04-01

    Gastric varices (GV) occur in 20% of patients with portal hypertension either in isolation or in combination with esophageal varices (EV). There is no consensus for optimum treatment of GV and because they comprise an inhomogeneous entity, accurate classification is vital to determine the appropriate management. Gastroesophageal varices (GOV) are classified as GOV1 (EV extending down to cardia or lesser curve) or GOV2 (esophageal and fundal varices). Isolated gastric varices (IGV) may be located in the fundus (IGV1) or elsewhere in the stomach (IGV2). GV possibly bleed less frequently than EV, but GV bleeding is typically difficult to control, associated with a high risk for rebleeding, and high mortality. Fundal varices, large GV (>5 mm), presence of a red spot, and Child's C liver status are associated with a high risk for bleeding. GOV1 have a much lower risk for bleeding. A portosystemic pressure gradient of > or =12 mm Hg is not necessary for GV bleeding, probably related to the high frequency of spontaneous gastrorenal shunts in these patients. GOV1 should be treated as for EV. First-line treatment of bleeding fundal varices is endoscopic variceal obturation. TIPS is currently second-line acute treatment and is used for prevention of rebleeding. The role of some newer interventional radiologic techniques requires further appraisal. This review describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, natural history, endoscopic, and interventional radiologic treatment options for GV.

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound coil placement of gastric varices: Emerging modality for recurrent bleeding gastric varices

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    Yogesh Harwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric varices are the probable source of bleeding in 10-36% of patients, with acute variceal bleeding and carry high mortality and rebleeding rates. Till date, cyanoacrylate glue injection is considered as the standard of care but has high complication rate. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS guided coil placement is a new emerging technique of management of gastric varices. In this case report, we detail the EUS guided coil placement for management of gastric varices after failed glue injections.

  19. Banding ligation versus beta-blockers for primary prevention in oesophageal varices in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Krag, Aleksander

    2012-01-01

    Non-selective beta-blockers are used as a first-line treatment for primary prevention in patients with medium- to high-risk oesophageal varices. The effect of non-selective beta-blockers on mortality is debated and many patients experience adverse events. Trials on banding ligation versus non...

  20. A Randomized Controlled Study of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule for Prevention of Esophageal Variceal Bleeding in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

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    Jie Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the role of Fuzheng Huayu Capsule, a herbal formula, in the prevention of esophageal variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients, a multicenter randomized and placebo-controlled trial was carried out. One hundred forty-six cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices were enrolled to compare the probability of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and survival between Fuzheng Huayu Capsule group and controlled group for the duration of 2 years. The results demonstrated that the FZHYC could effectively reduce the risk of variceal bleeding and improve survival rates for cirrhotic patients with varices, especially the combination of the capsule and Propranolol, which presented a better effect; FZHYC could reduce the varices size in patients with small ones. Its effect may be related to the amelioration of hepatic fibrosis.

  1. Prospective comparison of three risk scoring systems in non-variceal and variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

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    Thanapirom, Kessarin; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Thungsuk, Rattikorn; Noophun, Phadet; Wongjitrat, Chatchawan; Luangjaru, Somchai; Vedkijkul, Padet; Lertkupinit, Comson; Poonsab, Swangphong; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Hansomburana, Piyathida; Pornthisarn, Bubpha; Thongbai, Thirada; Mahachai, Varocha; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat

    2016-04-01

    Data regarding the efficacy of the Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS), full Rockall score (FRS) and pre-endoscopic Rockall scores (PRS) in comparing non-variceal and variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) are limited. Our aim was to determine the performance of these three risk scores in predicting the need for treatment, mortality, and re-bleeding among patients with non-variceal and variceal UGIB. During January, 2010 and September, 2011, patients with UGIB from 11 hospitals were prospectively enrolled. The GBS, FRS, and PRS were calculated. Discriminative ability for each score was assessed using the receiver operated characteristics curve (ROC) analysis. A total of 981 patients presented with acute UGIB, 225 patients (22.9%) had variceal UGIB. The areas under the ROC (AUC) of the GBS, FRS, and PRS for predicting the need for treatment were 0.77, 0.69, and 0.61 in non-variceal versus 0.66, 0.66, and 0.59 in variceal UGIB. The AUC for predicting mortality and re-bleeding during admission were 0.66, 0.80, and 0.76 in non-variceal versus 0.63, 0.57, and 0.63 in variceal UGIB. AUC score was not statistically significant for predicting need for therapy and clinical outcome in variceal UGIB. The GBS ≤ 2 and FRS ≤ 1 identified low-risk non-variceal UGIB patients for death and re-bleeding during hospitalization. In contrast to non-variceal UGIB, the GBS, FRS, and PRS were not precise scores for assessing the need for therapy, mortality, and re-bleeding during admission in variceal UGIB. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration versus endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for isolated gastric varices: a comparative study.

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    Emori, Keigo; Toyonaga, Atsushi; Oho, Kazuhiko; Kumamoto, Masafumi; Haruta, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hiroto; Morita, Yukihiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Isolated gastric varices (IGV) have a lower risk of bleeding than esophageal varices, however IGV bleeding is associated with a higher mortality than bleeding of esophageal varices. In recent years, two widely used treatments for IGV have been balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) using cyanoacrylate or ethanolamine oleate (EO). This study compared these two treatment methods for IGV. The subjects were 112 patients who were treated at our hospital for IGV bleeding between October 1990 and December 2003. Forty-nine (49) patients were treated with B-RTO and 63 patients with EIS. These two patient groups were compared as regards content of treatment, post-treatment incidence of variceal bleeding, incidence of IGV rebleeding, survival rate, cause of death, and complications. Multivariate analysis was performed on post-treatment variceal bleeding and survival. Although EO was used in higher amounts in the B-RTO group than in the EIS group, the B-RTO group had a significantly lower number of treatment sessions and a significantly shorter treatment period (pIGV rebleeding after treatment than the B-RTO group. Treatment method was the only independent prognostic factor of IGV bleeding after treatment (p=0.024). The two groups did not differ significantly in the percentage of patients with aggravated esophageal varices after treatment. Bleeding from ectopic varices was not observed in any patient. There was no significant difference in survival by treatment method. The presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was the only independent prognostic factor for survival (p=0.003). It is concluded that B-RTO was more effective than EIS in the eradication of IGV and prevention of IGV recurrence and rebleeding.

  3. Analysis of risk factors for rebleeding after splenectomy and pericardial devascularization in treatment of portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis

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    ZHANG Lei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the possible risk factors for rebleeding after splenectomy and pericardial devascularization in the treatment of portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, and to provide a certain basis for reducing the incidence of digestive tract re-hemorrhage for these patients. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on 238 cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension who underwent splenectomy and pericardial devascularization in the First Hospital of Lanzhou University from December 2003 to December 2013. These patients were divided into postoperative rebleeding group (n=32 and non-bleeding group (n=206. Univariate analysis (t test or chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to investigate the risk factors for rebleeding after splenectomy and pericardial devascularization. ResultsOf the 32 patients with postoperative rebleeding, 17 had esophagogastric variceal bleeding, 11 had bleeding due to portal hypertensive gastropathy, and 4 had stress ulcer bleeding. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in the following factors: Child-Pugh classification of liver function, degree of liver cirrhosis evaluated intraoperatively, pathological changes of the gastric mucosa, platelet count, prothrombin time (PT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, and presence of diabetes (all P<0.05. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the significant independent influential factors for postoperative rebleeding were presence of diabetes, Child-Pugh classification of liver function, degree of liver cirrhosis evaluated intraoperatively, diffuse lesion of the gastric mucosa, PT, and APTT. ConclusionFor cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension, the appropriate methods for managing these risk factors are of great clinical significance for preventing rebleeding after splenectomy and pericardial devascularization.

  4. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker after endoscopic gastric variceal obturation for first acute episode of gastric variceal bleeding

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    Moon Han Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsThe most appropriate treatment for acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB is currently endoscopic gastric variceal obturation (GVO using Histoacryl®. However, the secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker (BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB has not yet been established. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB was evaluated in this study.MethodsNinety-three patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital with acute GVB who received GVO using Histoacryl® were enrolled between June 2001 and March 2010. Among these, 42 patients underwent GVO alone (GVO group and 51 patients underwent GVO with adjuvant BB therapy (GVO+BB group. This study was intended for patients in whom a desired heart rate was reached. The rates of rebleeding-free survival and overall survival were calculated for the two study groups using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Cox's proportional-hazards model.ResultsThe follow-up period after the initial eradication of gastric varices was 18.14±25.22 months (mean±SD. During the follow-up period, rebleeding occurred in 10 (23.8% and 21 (41.2% GVO and GVO+BB patients, respectively, and 39 patients died [23 (54.8% in the GVO group and 16 (31.4% in the GVO+BB group]. The mean rebleeding-free survival time did not differ significantly between the GVO and GVO+BB groups (65.40 and 37.40 months, respectively; P=0.774, whereas the mean overall survival time did differ (52.54 and 72.65 months, respectively; P=0.036.Conclusions Adjuvant BB therapy after GVO using Histoacryl® for the first acute episode of GVB could decrease the mortality rate relative to GVO alone. However, adjuvant BB therapy afforded no benefit for the secondary prevention of rebleeding in GV.

  5. Early initiation of beta blockers following primary endoscopic therapy for bleeding esophageal varices in cirrhotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, A.; Malik, K.; Farooq, M.O.; Butt, U.; Butt, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Beta-blockers provide secondary prophylaxis following endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding. Guidelines recommend starting beta-blockers 6 days after endoscopy to prevent masking hemodynamic signs of rebleeding. We aimed to see safety of earlier initiation of beta-blockers. Methods: Cirrhotic patients with upper GI bleed were given I.V vasoactive agents until undergoing endoscopy. Patients with only esophageal varices as source of bleed were recruited. Vasoactive agents were discontinued following variceal banding. The patients were observed for 12-18 hours, discharged on oral carvedilol 6.25 mg BID and monitored for 6 weeks for rebleeding and mortality. Results: 50 patients were included, 27 (54%) male and 23 (46%) female. Average age was 43+3 years. Etiology of cirrhosis was HCV in 42 (84%), HBV in 6 (12%), HCV and HBV in 2 (4%) and indeterminate in 1 (2%) patient. 17 (34%) patients had Child A, 22 (44%) Child B and 11 (22%) had Child C disease. Hospital stay was under 24 hours in 24 (48%), 24-48 hours in 15 (30%) and 48-72 hours in 11 (22%) patients. 5 (10%) patients underwent EGD within 6 hours of admission, 28 (56%) within 12 hours, 14 (28%) within 24 hours and 3 (6%) within 36 hours. No rebleeding, mortality or drug related adverse effects were noted during 6 weeks after discharge. Conclusions:Our study proves possibility of shorter management of variceal bleeding by having a 12-18 hour monitoring after endoscopic banding, followed by beta-blocker initiation and discharge. This will safely reduce physical and financial burden on health services. Background: Beta-blockers provide secondary prophylaxis following endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding. Guidelines recommend starting beta-blockers 6 days after endoscopy to prevent masking hemodynamic signs of re-bleeding. We aimed to see safety of earlier initiation of beta-blockers. Methods: Cirrhotic patients with upper GI bleed were given intravenous vasoactive agents until undergoing endoscopy. Patients

  6. Esophagus after injection sclerotherapy of varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H J; Billmann, P; Hoppe-Seyler, P; Buechsel, R

    1985-11-01

    Endoscopic sclerotherapy of esophageal varices is a widely used procedure. It reduces the frequency of rebleeding and improves the survival of cirrhotics with portal hypertension. The intravariceal or paravariceal injection of sclerosing agents causes structural changes of the esophageal wall recognisable radiologically. Stricture is a late complication which occurs in about 10 percent. In residual dysphagia balloon dilatation is recommended.

  7. Banding ligation or beta-blockers for primary prevention of variceal bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Cotoras Viedma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La hemorragia digestiva alta variceal es una de las complicaciones más serias de la cirrosis hepática. Los betabloqueadores no selectivos y la ligadura endoscópica se consideran efectivos como estrategia de prevención primaria de hemorragia variceal, pero no hay consenso sobre cuál de las dos constituye la mejor opción. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos siete revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 21 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que la ligadura variceal probablemente disminuye el riesgo de sangrado digestivo variceal y se asocia a menos efectos adversos al ser comparada con betabloqueadores no selectivos, aunque probablemente no existen diferencias en términos de mortalidad.

  8. Banding ligation versus no intervention for primary prevention in adults with oesophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, Charles Wei Kit; Vadera, Sonam; Morgan, Marsha Y.

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of banding ligation versus no intervention in adults with cirrhosis and gastro-oesophageal varices that have not bled.......This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of banding ligation versus no intervention in adults with cirrhosis and gastro-oesophageal varices that have not bled....

  9. Early rebleeding and death at 6 weeks in alcoholic cirrhotic patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. This study evaluated the incidence of rebleeding and death at 6 weeks after a first episode of acute variceal haemorrhage (AVH) treated by emergency endoscopic sclerotherapy in a large cohort of alcoholic cirrhotic patients. Methods. From January 1984 to December 2006, 310 alcoholic cirrhotic patients (242 ...

  10. Surgical management of bleeding esopageal varices: the Tikur Anbessa hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Endale; Jhonson, Orval

    2005-10-01

    Surgery is one of the modalities of treatment of portal hypertension with bleeding esophageal varices. Between 1992 and 2003, a total of 33 patients with esophageal varices secondary to hepatic or pre-hepatic causes of portal hypertension underwent proto-azygeal disconnection surgery at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa University. Twenty-five, (69. 7%) were men and 8 (24.3%) were women. Their age ranged between 13 and 54 years with a mean age of 24.3 years. Eighty two percent of the patients had hematemesis and melena. Thirty-two, (97%) patients had splenomegaly and of these; 27 (84%) had splenomegaqly with hyperslenism. Twenty-one, (63.6%) and 12 (36.6%) patients had child's A and B functional class, respectively. None of the patients was in class C. The condition of the liver as assessed macroscopically at surgery showed portal fibrosis in 22 (66.7%), cirrhosis in 3 (9.1%) and normal liver in 8 (24.2%) patients. There was no significant correlation between variceal bleeding episode and type of liver pathology. Four patients (12%) died after surgery and re-bleeding occurred in one (3%) patients. Porto-azygeal disconnection surgery can be done safely in patients with esophageal varices and good liver function in order to prevent further bleeding episode.

  11. Management of acute gastric varices bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Jung Chang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastroesophageal varices bleeding is a major complication in patients with cirrhosis. Gastric varices (GVs occur in approximately 20% of patients with portal hypertension. However, GV bleeding develops in only 25% of patients with GV and requires more transfusion and has higher mortality than esophageal variceal (EV bleeding. The best strategy for managing acute GV bleeding is similar to that of acute EV bleeding, which involves airway protection, hemodynamic stabilization, and intensive care. Blood transfusion should be cautiously administered in order to avoid rebleeding. Vasoactive agents such as terlipressin or somatostatin should be used when GV bleeding is suspected. Routine use of prophylactic antibiotics reduces bacterial infection and lowers rebleeding rates. By administering endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection, the initial hemostasis rate achieved is at least 90% in most cases; the average mortality rate of GV bleeding is approximately 10–30% and the rebleeding rate is between 22% and 37%. Although endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate is superior to sclerotherapy and band ligation, and has remained the treatment of choice for treating acute GV bleeding, the outcome of this treatment is still unsatisfactory. New treatment options, such as thrombin injection, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts, or balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration, have shown promising results for acute GV bleeding. However, randomized controlled trials are needed to compare the efficacy of these therapies with cyanoacrylate.

  12. Asymptomatic Esophageal Varices Should Be Endoscopically Treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nib Soehendra

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic treatment has generally been accepted in the management of bleeding esophageal varices. Both the control of acute variceal bleeding and elective variceal eradication to prevent recurrent bleeding can be achieved via endoscopic methods. In contrast to acute and elective treatment, the role of endoscopic therapy in asymptomatic patients who have never had variceal bleeding remains controversial because of the rather disappointing results obtained from prophylactic sclerotherapy. Most published randomized controlled trials showed that prophylactic sclerotherapy had no effect on survival. In some studies, neither survival rate nor bleeding risk was improved. In this article, the author champions the view that asymptomatic esophageal varices should be endoscopically treated.

  13. Retrospective Study to Compare Selective Decongestive Devascularization and Gastrosplenic Shunt versus Splenectomy with Pericardial Devascularization for the Treatment of Patients with Esophagogastric Varices Due to Cirrhotic Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haili; He, Qikuan; Dai, Ninggao; Ye, Ruifan; Zhang, Qiyu

    2017-06-08

    BACKGROUND For patients with esophagogastric varices secondary to portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, portosystemic shunts and devascularization have become the most commonly used treatment methods. We have developed a novel surgical approach for the treatment of patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, selective decongestive devascularization, and shunt of the gastrosplenic region (SDDS-GSR). This aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of SDDS-GSR with splenectomy with pericardial devascularization (SPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective study was undertaken between 2006 and 2013 and included 110 patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension, 34 of whom underwent SDDS-GSR; 76 patients underwent SPD. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate clinical outcomes, mortality, the incidence of re-bleeding, encephalopathy, and portal venous system thrombosis (PVST). RESULTS Postoperatively portal venous pressure decreased by 20% in both groups. The long-term incidence of re-bleeding and PVST was significantly lower in the SDDS-GSR group compared with the SPD group (P=0.018 and P=0.039, respectively). CONCLUSIONS This preliminary retrospective study has shown that SDDS-GSR was an effective treatment for patients with esophagogastric varices secondary to portal hypertension that may be used as a first-line treatment to prevent variceal bleeding and lower the incidence of PVST.

  14. Outcome of band ligation in oesophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Bhutto, A.R.; Bhatti, K.I.; Mahmood, K.; Lal, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the outcome og band ligation of oesophageal varices in decompensated chronic liver disease patients. Methods: The quasi experimental study was conducted at the Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, and Civil Hospital, Karachi, unit from September 2007 to August 2011. Subjects were eligible if they had a diagnosis of cirrhosis based on history, physical examination, biochemical parameters and liver biopsy in some cases. Patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class C), antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus, hepatocellular carcinoma, portal vein thrombosis evident on ultrasonography, parenteral drug addiction, current alcohol abuse, previous or current treatment with β-blockers were excluded from the study. All patients were asked about alcohol intake and tested to determine the cause of liver cirrhosis. Tests for other causes of cirrhosis were carried out only if there was a suggestive clue. All patients under-went upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after consent. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The age of the 173 patients who met the inclusion criteria ranged from 15 to 85 years, with a mean of 48.39+-13.38 years. There were 112 (64.7%) males. High-grade varices were seen in 130 (75.1%) patients, while low-grade varices were observed in 43 (24.9%) on first endoscopy. At initial endoscopy, 111 (64.2%) patients had portal hypertensive gastropathy. The patients were followed up for a mean period of 5.20+-2.67 months. Variceal obliteration was achieved in 138 (79.8%), while 33 (19.1%) cases developed re-bleeding. Mean number of endoscopy sessions for these patients were 2.28+-.918 with a maximum of 4. Conclusion: Band ligation eradicated oesophageal varices with less complications and a lower re-bleeding rate, but at the same time eradication was associated with more frequent development of portal hypertensive gastropathy. (author)

  15. Treatment of acute variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Krag, Aleksander Ahm; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The management of variceal bleeding remains a clinical challenge with a high mortality. Standardisation in supportive and new therapeutic treatments seems to have improved survival within the last 25 years. Although overall survival has improved in recent years, mortality is still closely related...... to failure to control initial bleeding or early re-bleeding occurring in up to 30-40% of patients. Initial procedures are to secure and protect the airway, and administer volume replacement to stabilize the patient. Treatment with vasoactive drugs should be started as soon as possible, since a reduction...... in portal pressure is associated with a better control of bleeding and may facilitate later endoscopic procedures. Vasopressin and its analogues Terlipressin and somatostatin and analogues are the two types of medicine, which has been evaluated. In meta-analysis, only Terlipressin have demonstrated effects...

  16. Somatostatin analogues for acute bleeding oesophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Hrobjartsson, A.

    2008-01-01

    or recent bleeding from oesophageal varices. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The outcome measures extracted were: mortality, blood transfusions, use of balloon tamponade, initial haemostasis and rebleeding. Intention-to-treat analyses including all randomised patients were conducted if possible; a random...... it was substantially reduced in the other trials, relative risk 0.36 (0.19 to 0.68). Use of balloon tamponade was rarely reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The need for blood transfusions corresponded to one half unit of blood saved per patient. It is doubtful whether this effect is worthwhile. The findings do...

  17. Endoscopic therapy and beta-blockers for secondary prevention in adults with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise Lotte; Morgan, Marsha Y.

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of endoscopic therapy and beta-blockers used as a combination therapy versus monotherapy with either endoscopic therapy or beta-blockers for secondary prevention...

  18. Usefulness of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Management of Bleeding Ectopic Varices in Cirrhotic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, V.; Joly, L.; Perreault, P.; Bouchard, L.; Lafortune, M.; Pomier-Layrargues, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in the control of bleeding from ectopic varices. Methods. From 1995 to 2004, 24 cirrhotic patients, bleeding from ectopic varices, mean age 54.5 years (range 15-76 years), were treated by TIPS. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic in 13 patients and nonalcoholic in 11 patients. The location of the varices was duodenal (n = 5), stomal (n = 8), ileocolic (n = 6), anorectal (n = 3), umbilical (n = 1), and peritoneal (n 1). Results. TIPS controlled the bleeding in all patients and induced a decrease in the portacaval gradient from 19.7 ± 5.4 to 6.4 ± 3.1 mmHg. Postoperative complications included self-limited intra-abdominal bleeding (n = 2), self-limited hemobilia (n = 1), acute thrombosis of the shunt (n = 1), and bile leak treated by a covered stent (n = 1). Median follow-up was 592 days (range 28-2482 days). Rebleeding occurred in 6 patients. In 2 cases rebleeding was observed despite a post-TIPS portacaval gradient lower than 12 mmHg and was controlled by variceal embolization; 1 patient underwent surgical portacaval shunt and never rebled; in 3 patients rebleeding was related to TIPS stenosis and treated with shunt dilatation with addition of a new stent. The cumulative rate of rebleeding was 23% and 31% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 80% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion. The present series demonstrates that bleeding from ectopic varices, a challenging clinical problem, can be managed safely by TIPS placement with low rebleeding and good survival rates

  19. The clinical results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration in treatment of gastric varices compared with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Chang Won; Jeon, Ung Bae; Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Jo, Mong; Heo, Jeong

    2007-01-01

    To compare the clinical results of BRTO in the gastric varices with those of TIPS. From January 2004 to March 2006, eight patients who had been followed up for more than 1 month after BRTO were enrolled in this study. This study compared the clinical efficacy of BRTO with than of TIPS in 13 patients who had undergone TIPS from January 2000 to March 2006. The change in laboratory parameters before and after each procedure and the incidence of rebleeding, encephalopathy, asictes and varices were analyzed after each procedure. In the BRTO group, the level of albumin increased, and the levels of ammonia and the Child-Pugh score decreased. The TIPS group showed no improvement in the liver function. In the BRTO group, the gastric varices were eradicated in 7 patients. Gastric variceal rebleeding and encephalopathy did not occur. However, the esophageal varices worsened in 6 patients. In the TIPS group, rebleeding (n = 4), encephalopathy (n = 7) and a worsening of the gastric (n = 5) or esophageal varices (n = 2) occurred. BRTO improves the metabolic activity of the liver and has a lower incidence of encephalopathy. Hence, BRTO is a good alternative to TIPS in the gastric varices accompanied by a gastrorenal shunt although a treatment for a worsening of the esophageal varices may be needed after BRTO

  20. The clinical results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration in treatment of gastric varices compared with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Chang Won; Jeon, Ung Bae; Kim, Suk; Lee, Jun Woo; Jo, Mong; Heo, Jeong [Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    To compare the clinical results of BRTO in the gastric varices with those of TIPS. From January 2004 to March 2006, eight patients who had been followed up for more than 1 month after BRTO were enrolled in this study. This study compared the clinical efficacy of BRTO with than of TIPS in 13 patients who had undergone TIPS from January 2000 to March 2006. The change in laboratory parameters before and after each procedure and the incidence of rebleeding, encephalopathy, asictes and varices were analyzed after each procedure. In the BRTO group, the level of albumin increased, and the levels of ammonia and the Child-Pugh score decreased. The TIPS group showed no improvement in the liver function. In the BRTO group, the gastric varices were eradicated in 7 patients. Gastric variceal rebleeding and encephalopathy did not occur. However, the esophageal varices worsened in 6 patients. In the TIPS group, rebleeding (n = 4), encephalopathy (n = 7) and a worsening of the gastric (n = 5) or esophageal varices (n = 2) occurred. BRTO improves the metabolic activity of the liver and has a lower incidence of encephalopathy. Hence, BRTO is a good alternative to TIPS in the gastric varices accompanied by a gastrorenal shunt although a treatment for a worsening of the esophageal varices may be needed after BRTO.

  1. Guidelines for endoscopic management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Kakushima, Naomi; Kato, Motohiko; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Hoteya, Shu; Kataoka, Mikinori; Shimaoka, Shunji; Yahagi, Naohisa; Fujimoto, Kazuma

    2016-05-01

    Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society (JGES) has compiled a set of guidelines for endoscopic management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding using evidence-based methods. The major cause of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is peptic gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. As a result, these guidelines mainly focus on peptic gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding, although bleeding from other causes is also overviewed. From the epidemiological aspect, in recent years in Japan, bleeding from drug-related ulcers has become predominant in comparison with bleeding from Helicobacter pylori (HP)-related ulcers, owing to an increase in the aging population and coverage of HP eradication therapy by national health insurance. As for treatment, endoscopic hemostasis, in which there are a variety of methods, is considered to be the first-line treatment for bleeding from almost all causes. It is very important to precisely evaluate the severity of the patient's condition and stabilize the patient's vital signs with intensive care for successful endoscopic hemostasis. Additionally, use of antisecretory agents is recommended to prevent rebleeding after endoscopic hemostasis, especially for gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. Eighteen statements with evidence and recommendation levels have been made by the JGES committee of these guidelines according to evidence obtained from clinical research studies. However, some of the statements that are supported by a low level of evidence must be confirmed by further clinical research. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  2. Psuedotumoral gastric varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Choon Won

    1974-01-01

    The roentgenographic recognition of gastric varices often is difficult, even when there is a history of liver disease or splenomegaly without demonstrable esophageal varices. An apparant polypoid filling defect with exaggerated mucosal folds in proximal portion of the gastric body and funds on upper GI series, accompanied by hematemesis and splenomegly should suggest the presence of pseudotumoral gastric varices. We have an experience a case of polypoid filling defects in gastric fundus of psudotumoral gastric varices of 49 years old Korean woman, which was diagnosed by surgical and histopathological findings

  3. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR imaging for management of hemorrhagic esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Hideaki; Aikata, Hiroshi; Takaki, Shintaro; Azakami, Takahiro; Katamura, Yoshio; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Hiramatsu, Akira; Waki, Koji; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Takahashi, Shoichi; Toyota, Naoyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation between changes in portosystemic collaterals, evaluated by multidetector-row computed tomography imaging using multiplanar reconstruction (MDCT-MPR), and prognosis in patients with hemorrhagic esophageal varices (EV) after endoscopic treatment. Methods: Forty-nine patients with primary hemostasis for variceal bleeding received radical endoscopic treatment: endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Patients were classified according to the rate of reduction in feeding vessel diameter on MDCT-MPR images, into the narrowing (n = 24) and no-change (n = 25) groups. We evaluated changes in portosystemic collaterals by MDCT-MPR before and after treatment, and determined rebleeding and survival rates. Results: The left gastric and paraesophageal (PEV) veins were recognized as portosystemic collaterals in 100 and 80%, respectively, of patients with EV on MDCT-MPR images. The rebleeding rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years after endoscopic treatment were 10, 15, 23, and 23%, respectively, for the narrowing group, and 17, 24, 35, and 67%, respectively, for the no-change group (P = 0.068). Among no-change group, the rebleeding rate in patients with large PEV was significantly lower than that with small PEV (P = 0.027). The rebleeding rate in patients with small PEV of the no-change group was significantly higher than that in the narrowing group (P = 0.018). There was no significant difference in rebleeding rates between the no-change group with a large PEV and narrowing group (P = 0.435). Conclusion: Changes in portosystemic collaterals evaluated by MDCT-MPR imaging correlate with rebleeding rate. Evaluation of portosystemic collaterals in this manner would provide useful information for the management of hemorrhagic EV.

  4. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in treatment and prognostic evaluation of esophageal and gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a comprehensive evaluation of collateral circulation establishment in portal hypertension, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS not only helps to predict and evaluate the risks of first bleeding from esophageal and gastric varices and recurrence and rebleeding after treatment, but also guides and participates in the treatment of varices. This article introduces the unique advantages of EUS in the treatment and prognostic evaluation of esophageal and gastric varices and provides an important reference for individualized treatment of patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by esophageal and gastric varices. EUS also helps to improve treatment safety and response rate. EUS for the systematic treatment of portal hypertension has become a hot research topic in recent years.

  5. Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Children: Variceal and Nonvariceal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is generally defined as bleeding proximal to the ligament of Treitz, which leads to hematemesis. There are several causes of UGI bleeding necessitating a detailed history to rule out comorbid conditions, medications, and possible exposures. In addition, the severity, timing, duration, and volume of the bleeding are important details to note for management purposes. Despite the source of the bleeding, acid suppression with a proton-pump inhibitor has been shown to be effective in minimizing rebleeding. Endoscopy remains the interventional modality of choice for both nonvariceal and variceal bleeds because it can be diagnostic and therapeutic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jaemdphd@gmail.com; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  7. Estudio coste-efectividad sobre la medición del gradiente de presión venosa hepática en la profilaxis secundaria de la hemorragia digestiva varicosa A cost-effectiveness study of hepatic venous pressure gradient measurement in the secondary prevention of variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Amorós

    2008-07-01

    favorable comparado con la no realización del mismo.Objective: variceal rebleeding is common following a first episode of hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients. The objective of this study was to determine the cost-effectiveness of monitoring hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG to guide secondary prophylaxis. Methods: we created a Markov decision model to calculate cost-effectiveness for two strategies: Group 1: HVPG monitoring to decide treatment -when portal pressure was reduced by at least 20 percent or HVPG was less than 12 mmHg after beta-blocker administration, patients received beta-blockers; when portal pressure did not meet these criteria therapy was endoscopic band ligation. Group 2: in this group there was no monitoring of HVPG. Patients with large varices received treatment with beta-blockers combined with EBL; patients with small varices received beta-blockers plus isosorbide mononitrate. Results: there was no recurrent variceal bleeding in group 1 for good responders, and for 17% of poor responders. In group 2 a 25% rebleeding rate was detected in patients with small varices and 13% for those with big varices. Overall cost in group 1 was 14,100.49 euros, and 14,677.16 in group 2. Conclusions: HVPG measurement is cost-effective for the secondary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding.

  8. Management of Bleeding Duodenal Varices with Combined TIPS Decompression and Trans-TIPS Transvenous Obliteration Utilizing 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael E Saad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Endoscopic experience in the management of duodenal varices (DVs is limited and challenging given the anatomic constraints and limited experience. The endovascular management of DVs is not yet established and the controversy of whether to manage them by decompression with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS or by transvenous obliteration is unresolved. In the literature, the 6-12 month rebleeding rate of DVs after TIPS is 21-37% and after transvenous obliteration is 13%. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of combined TIPS decompression and transvenous obliteration/sclerosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study (case series of two institutions, evaluating patients who underwent TIPS and/or transvenous obliteration/sclerosis for bleeding DVs (from January 2009 to June 2013. TIPS was performed according to a standard procedure using covered stents. Transvenous obliteration (variceal sclerosis from the systemic and/or portal venous circulation was performed utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Transvenous obliteration was commonly augmented with coils and/or vascular plugs. Technical (technical success of establishing TIPS and completely obliterating the DVs and clinical outcomes (rebleeding rate and survival were evaluated. Results: Five patients with liver cirrhosis presenting with bleeding DVs were included in the study with all eventually (and coincidentally receiving TIPS and transvenous obliteration. Two of the five patients underwent concomitant TIPS and transvenous obliteration in the same procedural setting. However, three patients underwent transvenous obliteration due to bleeding despite a patent TIPS that had been previously placed. The average time from TIPS placement to transvenous obliteration was 125 days (range: 3-324 days. After having both procedures, there was no rebleeding in the patients during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (6-50 months

  9. Management of Bleeding Duodenal Varices with Combined TIPS Decompression and Trans-TIPS Transvenous Obliteration Utilizing 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Wael E; Lippert, Allison; Schwaner, Sandra; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Sabri, Saher; Saad, Nael

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic experience in the management of duodenal varices (DVs) is limited and challenging given the anatomic constraints and limited experience. The endovascular management of DVs is not yet established and the controversy of whether to manage them by decompression with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) or by transvenous obliteration is unresolved. In the literature, the 6-12 month rebleeding rate of DVs after TIPS is 21-37% and after transvenous obliteration is 13%. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the clinical outcome of combined TIPS decompression and transvenous obliteration/sclerosis. This is a retrospective study (case series) of two institutions, evaluating patients who underwent TIPS and/or transvenous obliteration/sclerosis for bleeding DVs (from January 2009 to June 2013). TIPS was performed according to a standard procedure using covered stents. Transvenous obliteration (variceal sclerosis) from the systemic and/or portal venous circulation was performed utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam. Transvenous obliteration was commonly augmented with coils and/or vascular plugs. Technical (technical success of establishing TIPS and completely obliterating the DVs) and clinical outcomes (rebleeding rate and survival) were evaluated. Five patients with liver cirrhosis presenting with bleeding DVs were included in the study with all eventually (and coincidentally) receiving TIPS and transvenous obliteration. Two of the five patients underwent concomitant TIPS and transvenous obliteration in the same procedural setting. However, three patients underwent transvenous obliteration due to bleeding despite a patent TIPS that had been previously placed. The average time from TIPS placement to transvenous obliteration was 125 days (range: 3-324 days). After having both procedures, there was no rebleeding in the patients during a mean follow-up period of 22 months (6-50 months). Coils and/or metallic vascular plugs were used to augment

  10. Management of non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: position statement of the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Pilar; Botargues, Josep-Maria; Feu Caballé, Faust; Villanueva Sánchez, Càndid; Calvet Calvo, Xavier; Brullet Benedi, Enric; Cánovas Moreno, Gabriel; Fort Martorell, Esther; Gallach Montero, Marta; Gené Tous, Emili; Hidalgo Rosas, José-Manuel; Lago Macía, Amelia; Nieto Rodríguez, Ana; Papo Berger, Michel; Planella de Rubinat, Montserrat; Saló Rich, Joan; Campo Fernández de Los Ríos, Rafel

    2017-05-01

    In recent years there have been advances in the management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding that have helped reduce rebleeding and mortality. This document positioning of the Catalan Society of Digestologia is an update of evidence-based recommendations on management of gastrointestinal bleeding peptic ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Bleeding esophageal varices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000268.htm Bleeding esophageal varices To use the sharing features on ... veins in the esophagus to balloon outward. Heavy bleeding can occur if the veins break open. Any ...

  12. Esophageal variceal ligation for hemostasis of acute variceal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Endoscopic variceal ligation is widely accepted as the optimum endoscopic treatment for esophageal variceal hemorrhage. In Morocco, there are no data regarding the efficacy of this technique. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic variceal ligation in the management of ...

  13. Percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of stomal variceal hemorrhage from an ileal conduct: Case report and brief literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seung Hyun; Lee, Shin Jae; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Man Deuk [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Young [Institute of Gastroenterology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Variceal bleeding is an unusual complication of ileal conduits. We report a case in which recurrent stomal variceal hemorrhage from an ileal conduit for bladder cancer was successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO) using microcoils and N-butyl cyanoacrylate. Therefore, PTO can be one treatment option to prevent recurrent stomal variceal bleeding from ileal conduits.

  14. Thrombosis of orbital varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi Oyhenart, J.; Tenyi, A.; Boschi Pau, J.

    2002-01-01

    Orbital varices are venous malformations produced by an abnormal dilatation of one or more orbital veins, probably associated with congenital weakness of the vascular wall. They are rare lesions, usually occurring in young patients, that produce intermittent proptosis related to the increase in the systemic venous pressure. The presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis is associated with rapid development of proptosis, pain and decreased ocular motility. We report the cases of two adult patients with orbital varices complicated by thrombosis in whom the diagnosis was based on computed tomography. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance findings are also discussed. (Author) 16 refs

  15. [Comparison of band ligation with sclerotherapy for the treatment of bleeding esophageal varices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Eddy; Sierralta, Armando; Abarzúa, Marigraciela; Bastías, Joaquín; Barra, María Inés

    2012-06-01

    Endoscopic band ligation is the treatment of choice for bleeding esophageal varices. However it is not clear if this procedure is associated with less early and late mortality than sclerotherapy. To assess rates of re-bleeding and mortality in cohorts of patients with bleeding esophageal varices treated with endoscopic injection or band ligation. Analysis of medical records and endoscopy reports of two cohorts of patients with bleeding esophageal varices, treated between 1990 and 2010. Of these, 54 patients were treated with sclerotherapy and 90 patients with band ligation. A third cohort of 116 patients that did not require endoscopic treatment, was included. The mean analyzed follow up period was 2.5 years (range 1-16). Collection of data was retrospective for patients treated with sclerotherapy and prospective for patients treated with band ligation. Rates of re-bleeding and medium term mortality were assessed. During the month ensuing the first endoscopic treatment, re-bleeding was recorded in 39 and 72% of patients treated with band ligation and sclerotherapy, respectively (p < 0.01). The relative risk of bleeding after band ligation was 0.53 (95% confidence limits 0.390.73). Death rates until the end of follow up were 20 and 48% among patients with treated with band ligation and sclerotherapy, respectively (p < 0.01), with a relative risk of dying for patients subjected to band ligation of 0.41 (95% confidence limits 0.25-0.68). Band ligation was associated with lower rates of re-bleeding and mortality in these cohorts of patients.

  16. Transcatheter arterial embolization for endoscopically unmanageable non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Hee; Park, Jae Myung; Chun, Ho Jong; Oh, Jung Suk; Ahn, Hyo Jun; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-07-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) is a therapeutic option for endoscopically unmanageable upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We aimed to assess the efficacy and clinical outcomes of TAE for acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding and to identify predictors of recurrent bleeding within 30 days. Visceral angiography was performed in 66 patients (42 men, 24 women; mean age, 60.3 ± 12.7 years) who experienced acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding that failed to be controlled by endoscopy during a 7-year period. Clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. Outcomes included technical success rates, complications, and 30-day rebleeding and mortality rates. TAE was feasible in 59 patients. The technical success rate was 98%. Rebleeding within 30 days was observed in 47% after an initial TAE and was managed with re-embolization in 8, by endoscopic intervention in 5, by surgery in 2, and by conservative care in 12 patients. The 30-day overall mortality rate was 42.4%. In the case of initial endoscopic hemostasis failure (n = 34), 31 patients underwent angiographic embolization, which was successful in 30 patients (96.8%). Rebleeding occurred in 15 patients (50%), mainly because of malignancy. Two factors were independent predictors of rebleeding within 30 days by multivariate analysis: coagulopathy (odds ratio [OR] = 4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-15.29; p = 0.021) and embolization in ≥2 territories (OR = 4.93; 95% CI: 1.43-17.04; p = 0.012). Catheterization-related complications included hepatic artery dissection and splenic embolization. TAE controlled acute non-variceal upper GI bleeding effectively. TAE may be considered when endoscopic therapy is unavailable or unsuccessful. Correction of coagulopathy before TAE is recommended.

  17. Accuracy of rockall score for in hospital re bleeding among cirrhotic patients with variceal bleed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgher, S.; Saleem, M.K.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Roc kall scoring system for predicting in-hospital re-ble- eding in cirrhotic patients presenting with variceal bleed. Material and Methods: This descriptive case series study was conducted at Department of Medicine Combined Military Hospital Lahore from December 2013 to May 2014. We included patients with liver cirrhosis who presented with upper GI bleeding and showed varices as the cause of bleeding on endoscopy. Clinical and endoscopic features were noted to calculate Rockall score. Patients with score < 2 and > 8 were included. After treating with appropriate pharmacological and endoscopic therapy, patients were followed for re-bleeding for 10 days. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values using 2 x 2 tables. Results: In the study, 175 patients were included. Mean age was 51.5 ± 1.22 years. Male to female ratio was 1.5 to 1.0 out of 175 patients, 157 patients (89.7%) were of low risk group (score = 2) while 18 patients (10.3%) were in high risk group (score > 8). In low risk group, re-bleeding occurred only in 2 patients (1.2%) while in high risk group, re-bleeding occurred in 14 patients (78%). Rockall score was found to have good diagnostic accuracy with sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 97.48%, positive predictive value of 77.8% and negative predictive value of 98.7%. Conclusion: In cases of variceal bleed, frequency of re-bleed is less in patients who are in low risk category with lower Rockall score and high in high risk patients with higher rockall score. The Rockall score has a good diagnostic accuracy in prediction of re-bleed in variceal bleeding. (author)

  18. Profilaxis preprimaria de la hemorragia por varices Pre-primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-Alonso

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La formación de colaterales portosistémicas, en especial en la unión esofagogástrica, es una de las consecuencias más graves de la hipertensión portal. El aumento de la presión portal es la fuerza más importante que dirige la formación de varices esofagogástricas, siendo necesario para que esto ocurra que la presión portal (estimada por el gradiente de presión venosa hepática alcance un valor mínimo de 10 mmHg. Posteriormente, la hiperemia esplácnica también contribuye al desarrollo de las varices. Las colaterales portosistémicas se forman por repermeabilización de vasos preexistentes, remodelado vascular y angiogénesis. El objetivo de la profilaxis preprimaria es evitar o retrasar la formación de varices esofagogástricas. En modelos experimentales de hipertensión portal, la administración precoz de vasoconstrictores esplácnicos como los beta-bloqueantes, de inhibidores de la síntesis de óxido nítrico o de sustancias anti-angiogénicas, inhibe la formación de colaterales portosistémicas. Sin embargo, los ensayos clínicos con beta-bloqueantes realizados en pacientes con cirrosis sin varices con objeto de retrasar su formación no han alcanzado los resultados esperados.Portosystemic collateral formation, particularly at the gastroesophageal junction, is a most serious consequence of portal hypertension. Increased portal pressure is the most significant force underlying gastroesophageal variceal formation, to which end portal pressure (estimated from the hepatic venous pressure gradient must reach at least 10 mmHg. Subsequently, splanchnic hyperemia also contributes to variceal development. Portoystemic collaterals result from repermeabilization of pre-extant vessels, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis. The goal of pre-primary prophylaxis is preventing or delaying the formation of gastroesophageal varices. In experimental models of portal hypertension, early administration of splanchnic vasoconstrictors such as beta

  19. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Rescue treatment with a modified cyanoacrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Roberto; Capone, Pietro; Iiritano, Elena; Vjero, Katerina; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Martinotti, Mario; Rozzi, Gabriele; Buffoli, Federico

    2016-12-28

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a modified cyanoacrylate [N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate associated with methacryloxysulfolane (NBCA + MS)] to treat non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NV-UGIB). In our retrospective study we took into account 579 out of 1177 patients receiving endoscopic treatment for NV-UGIB admitted to our institution from 2008 to 2015; the remaining 598 patients were treated with other treatments. Initial hemostasis was not achieved in 45 of 579 patients; early rebleeding occurred in 12 of 579 patients. Thirty-three patients were treated with modified cyanoacrylate: 27 patients had duodenal, gastric or anastomotic ulcers, 3 had post-mucosectomy bleeding, 2 had Dieulafoy's lesions, and 1 had duodenal diverticular bleeding. Of the 45 patients treated endoscopically without initial hemostasis or with early rebleeding, 33 (76.7%) were treated with modified cyanoacrylate glue, 16 (37.2%) underwent surgery, and 3 (7.0%) were treated with selective transarterial embolization. The mean age of patients treated with NBCA + MS (23 males and 10 females) was 74.5 years. Modified cyanoacrylate was used in 24 patients during the first endoscopy and in 9 patients experiencing rebleeding. Overall, hemostasis was achieved in 26 of 33 patients (78.8%): 19 out of 24 (79.2%) during the first endoscopy and in 7 out of 9 (77.8%) among early rebleeders. Two patients (22.2%) not responding to cyanoacrylate treatment were treated with surgery or transarterial embolization. One patient had early rebleeding after treatment with cyanoacrylate. No late rebleeding during the follow-up or complications related to the glue injection were recorded. Modified cyanoacrylate solved definitively NV-UGIB after failure of conventional treatment. Some reported life-threatening adverse events with other formulations, advise to use it as last option.

  20. Clinical effect of esophageal variceal ligation in treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Dongxu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical effect of endoscopic esophageal variceal ligation (EVL in the treatment of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 84 liver cirrhosis patients with EVB who were admitted to The Third People′s Hospital of Shenzhen, Guangdong Medical University, from December 2010 to July 2013 were divided into ligation group (group A, treated with EVL combined with somatostatin and esomeprazole and control group (group B, treated with somatostatin and esomeprazole, with 42 patients in each group. The hemostasis rate, rebleeding rate, incidence rate of complications, and mortality rate were observed in both groups, as well as the variceal eradication rate after EVL and risk factors for early rebleeding. The t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups, and an analysis of variance was used for comparison between multiple groups; the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test was used for comparison within each group, and the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison between multiple groups. The chi-square test or Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates, and the log-rank test was used to compare survival rates between groups. The logistic regression method was used to investigate the influencing factors for dichotomous data. ResultsThere was a significant difference in the hemostasis rate between groups A and B (97.62% vs 80.95%, P=0.029. Compared with group B, group A had significantly lower rebleeding rates in 1-2 years (15.38% vs 38.89%, χ2=5.323, P=0.021 and 2-3 years (15.38% vs 48.48%, χ2=10.448, P=0.001. A total of 14 patients (33.33% in group A and 7 patients (16.67% in group B experienced adverse events, and 4 patients in

  1. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric variceal bleeding: its feasibility compared with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Yoon, Chang Jin; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Kwon, Jong Won [Seoul Natioonal University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Guk Myung [Cheju National University College of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    To assess the feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) in active gastric variceal bleeding, and to compare the findings with those of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Twenty-one patients with active gastric variceal bleeding due to liver cirrhosis were referred for radiological intervention. In 15 patients, contrast-enhanced CT scans demonstrated gastrorenal shunt, and the remaining six (Group 1) underwent TIPS. Seven of the 15 with gastrorenal shunt (Group 2) were also treated with TIPS, and the other eight (Group 3) underwent BRTO. All patients were followed up for 6 to 21 (mean, 14.4) months. For statistical inter-group comparison of immediate hemostasis, rebleeding and encephalopathy, Fisher's exact test was used. Changes in the Child-Pugh score before and after each procedure in each group were statistically analyzed by means of Wilcoxon's signed rank test. One patient in Group 1 died of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and persistent bleeding three days after TIPS, while the remaining 20 survived the procedure with immediate hemostasis. Hepatic encephalopathy developed in four patients (one in Group 1, three in Group 2, and none in Group 3); one, in Group 2, died while in an hepatic coma 19 months after TIPS. Rebleeding occurred in one patient, also in Group 2. Except for transient fever in two Group-3 patients, no procedure-related complication occurred. In terms of immediate hemostasis, rebleeding and encephalopathy, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05). In Group 3, the Child-Pugh score showed a significant decrease after the procedure (p = 0.02). BRTO can effectively control active gastric variceal bleeding, and because of immediate hemostasis, the absence of rebleeding, and improved liver function, is a good alternative to TIPS in patients in whom such bleeding, accompanied by gastrorenal shunt, occurs.

  2. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric variceal bleeding: its feasibility compared with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Ho; Yoon, Chang Jin; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, Jin Wook; Kwon, Jong Won; Choi, Guk Myung

    2003-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) in active gastric variceal bleeding, and to compare the findings with those of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Twenty-one patients with active gastric variceal bleeding due to liver cirrhosis were referred for radiological intervention. In 15 patients, contrast-enhanced CT scans demonstrated gastrorenal shunt, and the remaining six (Group 1) underwent TIPS. Seven of the 15 with gastrorenal shunt (Group 2) were also treated with TIPS, and the other eight (Group 3) underwent BRTO. All patients were followed up for 6 to 21 (mean, 14.4) months. For statistical inter-group comparison of immediate hemostasis, rebleeding and encephalopathy, Fisher's exact test was used. Changes in the Child-Pugh score before and after each procedure in each group were statistically analyzed by means of Wilcoxon's signed rank test. One patient in Group 1 died of sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and persistent bleeding three days after TIPS, while the remaining 20 survived the procedure with immediate hemostasis. Hepatic encephalopathy developed in four patients (one in Group 1, three in Group 2, and none in Group 3); one, in Group 2, died while in an hepatic coma 19 months after TIPS. Rebleeding occurred in one patient, also in Group 2. Except for transient fever in two Group-3 patients, no procedure-related complication occurred. In terms of immediate hemostasis, rebleeding and encephalopathy, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups (p > 0.05). In Group 3, the Child-Pugh score showed a significant decrease after the procedure (p = 0.02). BRTO can effectively control active gastric variceal bleeding, and because of immediate hemostasis, the absence of rebleeding, and improved liver function, is a good alternative to TIPS in patients in whom such bleeding, accompanied by gastrorenal shunt, occurs

  3. Pharmacologic influence on esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunderquist, A.; Owman, T.

    1983-01-01

    Selective catherization of the left gastric vein was performed after percutaneous transhepatic portography (PTP) in patients with portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Following the hypothesis that drugs increasing the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure may obstruct the variceal blood flow throught the lower esophagus, the effect of different drugs (i.e., intravenous injection of vasopressin, pentagastrin, domperidone and somatostatin and subcutaneous injection of metacholine) on the variceal blood flow was examined. Vasopressin did not change the variceal blood flow; pentagastrine, with its known effect of increasing the LES pressure produced a total interruption of the flow in four of eight patients; domperiodone, also known to increase the LES pressure obstructed the variceal blood flow in the only patient examined with this drug; somatostatin has no reported action on the LES but blocked the flow in one of two patients; and metacholine, reported to increase the LES pressure did not produce any change in the flow in the three patients examined. LES pressure was recorded before and during vasopressin infusion in seven patients with portal hypertension and esophageal varices. No reaction on the pressure was found. The patient number in the study is small and the results are nonuniform but still they suggest that drugs increasing the LES tonus might be useful to control variceal blood flow. (orig.)

  4. Treatment of Non variceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Transcatheter Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Ul Haq, T.; Salam, B.; Beg, M.; Sayani, R.; Azeemuddin, M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of mesenteric angiography, technical success of hemostasis, clinical success rate, and complications of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of acute non variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of 200 consecutive patients who underwent mesenteric arteriography for acute non variceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage between February 2004 and February 2011 was done. Results. Of 200 angiographic studies, 114 correctly revealed the bleeding site with mesenteric angiography. 47 (41%) patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 67 (59%) patients had lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Out of these 114, in 112 patients (98%) technical success was achieved with immediate cessation of bleeding. 81 patients could be followed for one month. Clinical success was achieved in 72 out of these 81 patients (89%). Seven patients rebled. 2 patients developed bowel ischemia. Four patients underwent surgery for bowel ischemia or rebleeding. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is highly successful and relatively safe with 98% technical success and 2.4% post embolization ischemia in our series. In 89% of cases it was definitive without any further intervention.

  5. Ectopic Varices in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Thanila A.; Andrews, James C.; Kamath, Patrick S.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the results of percutaneous management of ectopic varices, a retrospective review was carried out of 14 patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age 58 years) who between 1992 and 2001 underwent interventional radiological techniques for management of bleeding ectopic varices. A history of prior abdominal surgery was present in 12 of 14 patients. The interval between the surgery and percutaneous intervention ranged from 2 to 38 years. Transhepatic portal venography confirmed ectopic varices to be the source of portal hypertension-related gastrointestinal bleeding. Embolization of the ectopic varices was performed by a transhepatic approach with coil embolization of the veins draining into the ectopic varices. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed in the standard fashion. Eighteen procedures (12 primary coil embolizations, 1 primary TIPS, 2 re-embolizations, 3 secondary TIPS) were performed in 13 patients. One patient was not a candidate for percutaneous treatment. All interventions but one (re-embolization) were technically successful. In 2 of 18 interventions, re-bleeding occurred within 72 hr (both embolization patients). Recurrent bleeding (23 days to 27 months after initial intervention) was identified in 9 procedures (8 coil embolizations, 1 TIPS due to biliary fistula). One patient had TIPS revision because of ultrasound surveillance findings. New encephalopathy developed in 2 of 4 TIPS patients. Percutaneous coil embolization is a simple and safe treatment for bleeding ectopic varices; however, recurrent bleeding is frequent and reintervention often required. TIPS can offer good control of bleeding at the expense of a more complex procedure and associated risk of encephalopathy

  6. Management of stomal varices with transvenous obliteration utilizing sodium tetradecyl sulfate foam sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Wael E A; Schwaner, Sandra; Lippert, Allison; Sabri, Saher S; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah; Matsumoto, Alan H; Angle, John F; Caldwell, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    The management of parastomal varices is not established. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is the most commonly described treatment; however, the rebleed rate after TIPS is 21-37%. The purpose of the study is to determine the effectiveness of transvenous obliteration using sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) and to describe a new simplified technique in obliterating these varices. Four patients are presented who underwent transvenous obliteration using STS. One was obliterated using balloon occlusion from the systemic veins, the second was obliterated without balloon from a transhepatic antegrade approach, and the last two patients were obliterated using the direct antegrade technique. This simplified technique requires only a micropuncture kit (not requiring balloons or coils) and ultrasound transducer compression of the systemic draining veins, relying on high portal pressure to keep the sclerosant confined to the varices. The sclerosant is essentially trapped between the portal pressure and the ultrasound-transducer compression (10-15 min). Technical success was achieved in all four patients without procedural or postprocedural complications and no rebleeding for a mean follow-up of 17 (range 2-33) months. Transvenous obliteration of parastomal varices utilizing STS as a sclerosant is safe and effective. The newly described technique is simple, feasible, and requires minimal equipment (no balloons or coils or catheters).

  7. The Significance of Variceal Haemorrhage in Ghana: A Retrospective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archampong, T N A; Tachi, K; Agyei, A A; Nkrumah, K N

    2015-09-01

    This study describes the burden of bleeding oesophageal varices at the main tertiary referral centre in Accra. Retrospective design to describe the endoscopic spectrum and review mortality data following acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Endoscopic data was reviewed in the Endoscopy Unit between 2007 and 2010. Mortality data was collated from the Department of Medicine between 2010 and 2013. The study questionnaire compiled clinical and demographic characteristics, endoscopic diagnoses, length of hospital admission and treatment regimens. Aetiology and time-trend analysis of mortality rates following acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding; variceal bleeding treatment modalities. On review of the endoscopic diagnoses, gastro-oesophageal varices were identified in 21.9% of cases followed by gastritis 21.7%, duodenal ulcer, 17.0%, and gastric ulcer, 13.2%. Gastro-oesophageal varices were the predominant cause of death from acute upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage from 46% in 2010 to 76% in 2013. Outcomes following acute upper gastro-intestinal bleeding were dismal with some 38% of fatalities occurring within the first 24 hours. Injection sclerotherapy was the dominant endoscopic modality for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding in comparison with band ligation, mainly as a result of cost and availability. At the tertiary centre in Accra, variceal bleeding is an increasingly common cause of acute upper gastro-intestinal haemorrhage in comparison with previous reviews in Ghana. Its significantly high in-hospital mortality reflects inadequate facilities to deal with this medical emergency. A strategic approach to care with endoscopic services equipped with all the necessary therapeutic interventions will be vital in improving the outcomes of variceal bleeding in Ghana.

  8. Perfil evolutivo das varizes esofágicas pós esplenectomia associada à ligadura da veia gástrica esquerda e escleroterapia na hipertensão portal esquistossomótica Evolutional profile of the esophageal varices after splenectomy associated with ligation of the left gastric vein and sclerotherapy in schistosomal portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista-Neto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A esquistossomose mansônica afeta 200 milhões de pessoas em 70 países do mundo. Estima-se que 10% dos infectados evoluirão para a forma hepatoesplênica e, destes, 30% progredirão para hipertensão portal e varizes esofagogástricas, cuja expressão será através de hemorragia digestiva com mortalidade relevante no primeiro episódio hemorrágico. Múltiplas técnicas cirúrgicas foram desenvolvidas para prevenir o ressangramento. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil evolutivo das varizes esofágicas após esplenectomia + ligadura da veia gástrica esquerda associada à escleroterapia endoscópica na hipertensão portal esquistossomótica. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo, observacional, de pacientes esquistossomóticos com antecedentes de hemorragia digestiva alta, submetidos à esplenectomia + ligadura da veia gástrica esquerda e escleroterapia. As variáveis estudadas foram perfil evolutivo das varizes esofágicas antes e após a operação e índice de recidiva hemorrágica. RESULTADOS: Amostra foi constituída por 30 pacientes distribuídos, quanto ao gênero, em 15 doentes para cada sexo. A idade variou de 19 a 74 anos (mediana=43 anos. Houve redução do grau, calibre e red spots em todos os pacientes (pBACKGROUND: The schistosomiasis affects 200 million people in 70 countries worldwide. It is estimated that 10% of those infected will develop hepatosplenic status and of these, 30% will progress to portal hypertension and esophagogastric varices, whose expression is through gastrointestinal bleeding with significant mortality in the first bleeding episode. Multiple surgical techniques have been developed to prevent re-bleeding. AIM: To evaluate the evolutional profile of esophageal varices after splenectomy + ligation of the left gastric vein associated with endoscopic sclerotherapy in schistosomal portal hypertension. METHODS: Prospective and observational study including schistosomiasis patients with previous history of upper digestive

  9. Combined embolization with multiple materials for the treatment of esophagogastric varices: an analysis of clinical therapeutic effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yanping; Qin Haopu; Zhang Mengzeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic combined embolization with multiple materials in treating esophagogastric varices. Methods: A total of 48 patients with esophagogastric varices complicated by bleeding due to ruptured varices were enrolled in this study. Percutaneous transhepatic combined embolization with Gelfoam, ethanol and stainless steel coils was carried out in all patients. The clinical results were analyzed. Results: Superselective catheterization and subsequent combined embolization procedure were successfully completed in all patients. In 17 patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, one died seven days after the treatment because of general failure. Postoperative gastroscopic examination was performed in 33 patients, which showed that esophagogastric varices were completely obliterated in 27 patients and markedly improved in six patients. A total of 35 patients were followed up for 4-36 months. During the follow-up period rebleeding occurred in 5 and death in 2 patients. Conclusion: For the treatment of esophagogastric varices, combined embolization with multiple materials is mini-invasive, safe and effective. It is of value to popularize this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  10. Radionuclide transit in esophageal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, S.H.; Wang, S.J.; Wu, L.C.; Liu, R.S.; Tsai, Y.T.; Chiang, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    This study assessed esophageal motility in patients with esophageal varices by radionuclide transit studies. Data were acquired in list mode after an oral dose of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid in 10 ml of water in the supine position above a low-energy all-purpose collimator of a gamma camera. The condensed image (CI) superimposed with a centroid curve was also produced in each case. Twenty-five normal subjects (N) and 32 patients (pts) with esophageal varices by endoscopy (large varices in Grades IV and V in 8 and small varices in Grade III or less in 24) were studied. TMTT, RTT, RF, and RI were all significantly increased in pts as compared to N. Especially, the transit time for the middle third (6.7 +- 2.6 sec vs 3.5 +- 0.9 sec in N, rho < 0.005) had the optimal sensitivy and specificity of 88% each at the cutoff value of 4.2 sec as determined by ROC analysis. In summary, radionuclide transit disorders occur in the majority of pts with esopageal varices. The middle RTT and CI are both optimal in sensitivity and specificity for detecting the abnormalities

  11. An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An observational study on oesophageal variceal endoscopic injection sclerotherapy in patients with portal hypertension seen at the Centre for Clinical Research, ... The report concludes that variceal injection sclerotherapy is a useful method of treating oesophageal varices and can be performed on an out patient basis.

  12. Controlling Oesophageal Variceal Bleeding by Reloading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A special reloading kit (produced by McGown; USA) was used to reload previously used and sterilized Opti-vu caps from Saeed six shooter variceal band ligators (North Carolina, USA). Subjects with oesophageal varices underwent banding of the varices down the lower 5cm of the oesophagus using this technique.

  13. Thrombosis of orbital varices; Trombosis de varices orbitarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschi Oyhenart, J.; Tenyi, A.; Boschi Pau, J. [Hospital Italiano, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2002-07-01

    Orbital varices are venous malformations produced by an abnormal dilatation of one or more orbital veins, probably associated with congenital weakness of the vascular wall. They are rare lesions, usually occurring in young patients, that produce intermittent proptosis related to the increase in the systemic venous pressure. The presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis is associated with rapid development of proptosis, pain and decreased ocular motility. We report the cases of two adult patients with orbital varices complicated by thrombosis in whom the diagnosis was based on computed tomography. The ultrasound and magnetic resonance findings are also discussed. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. A simplified clinical risk score predicts the need for early endoscopy in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Leonardo; Buda, Andrea; Di Paolo, Maria Carla; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Riccio, Elisabetta; Vassallo, Roberto; Caserta, Luigi; Anderloni, Andrea; Natali, Alessandro

    2014-09-01

    Pre-endoscopic triage of patients who require an early upper endoscopy can improve management of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To validate a new simplified clinical score (T-score) to assess the need of an early upper endoscopy in non variceal bleeding patients. Secondary outcomes were re-bleeding rate, 30-day bleeding-related mortality. In this prospective, multicentre study patients with bleeding who underwent upper endoscopy were enrolled. The accuracy for high risk endoscopic stigmata of the T-score was compared with that of the Glasgow Blatchford risk score. Overall, 602 patients underwent early upper endoscopy, and 472 presented with non-variceal bleeding. High risk endoscopic stigmata were detected in 145 (30.7%) cases. T-score sensitivity and specificity for high risk endoscopic stigmata and bleeding-related mortality was 96% and 30%, and 80% and 71%, respectively. No statistically difference in predicting high risk endoscopic stigmata between T-score and Glasgow Blatchford risk score was observed (ROC curve: 0.72 vs. 0.69, p=0.11). The two scores were also similar in predicting re-bleeding (ROC curve: 0.64 vs. 0.63, p=0.4) and 30-day bleeding-related mortality (ROC curve: 0.78 vs. 0.76, p=0.3). The T-score appeared to predict high risk endoscopic stigmata, re-bleeding and mortality with similar accuracy to Glasgow Blatchford risk score. Such a score may be helpful for the prediction of high-risk patients who need a very early therapeutic endoscopy. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mannitol-induced rebleeding from intracranial aneurysm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenørn, J; Westergaard, L; Hansen, P H

    1983-01-01

    A case is presented in which rebleeding from an intracranial saccular aneurysm occurred a few minutes after intravenous administration of mannitol during surgery. The relationship between the reducing effect of mannitol on elevated intracranial pressure and the increased pressure gradient across...

  16. Mannitol-induced rebleeding from intracranial aneurysm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenørn, J; Westergaard, L; Hansen, P H

    1983-01-01

    A case is presented in which rebleeding from an intracranial saccular aneurysm occurred a few minutes after intravenous administration of mannitol during surgery. The relationship between the reducing effect of mannitol on elevated intracranial pressure and the increased pressure gradient across ...

  17. Evaluation of percutaneous transhepatic gastroesophageal varices embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Hongxiang; Chen Gensheng; Sun Huiling; Zeng Yun; Yan Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of percutaneous transheaptic gastroesophgeal varices embolization (PTVE) for treatment and prevention of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Methods: 48 patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension and gastroesophageal varices were treated with PTVE for the prevention and control of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Results: The technical success of PTVE was 97.9% and the rate of hemostasis was 100%. During the procedure, steel coil displacement occurred in 1 case, vagus nerve reflection with blood pressure degression and heart rate decline in 4 cases. After the procedure, 1 patients developed refractory ascites and 1 patients died of abdominal bleeding. 2 cases died of hepatic failure and 2 cases occurred rehaemorrhagia in fore 6 mon. after one year follow-up; 3 cases losed follow-up and 5 cases occurred rehaemorrhagia in the late 6 mon. Conclusion: PTVE is mini-invasive and efficient in treating acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Increase of technical success and decreases of morbidity can be achieved on the condition of' proper maneuver. (authors)

  18. Acute variceal haemorrhage in the United Kingdom: patient characteristics, management and outcomes in a nationwide audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Rehal, Sunita; Logan, Richard; Kahan, Brennan; Hearnshaw, Sarah; Stanworth, Simon; Travis, Simon; Murphy, Michael; Palmer, Kelvin; Burroughs, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Despite advances in treatment, acute variceal haemorrhage remains life-threatening. To describe contemporary characteristics, management and outcomes of patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal haemorrhage and risk factors for rebleeding and mortality. Multi-centre clinical audit conducted in 212 UK hospitals. In 526 cases of acute variceal haemorrhage, 66% underwent endoscopy within 24h with 64% (n=339) receiving endoscopic therapy. Prior to endoscopy, 57% (n=299) received proton pump inhibitors, 44% (n=232) vasopressors and 27% (n=144) antibiotics. 73% (n=386) received red cell transfusion, 35% (n=184) fresh frozen plasma and 14% (n=76) platelets, with widely varying transfusion thresholds. 26% (n=135) experienced further bleeding and 15% (n=80) died by day 30. The Model for End Stage Liver Disease score was the best predictor of mortality (area under the receiver operating curve=0.74, Prisk stratification tools are required to identify patients needing more intensive support. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Oesophageal Varices in Newly Diagnosed Chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Variceal bleeding is an important complication of portal ... This study was carried out to document the occurrence of oesophageal varices and its ... They had upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to detect and characterize varices.

  20. Delayed Rebleeding of Cerebral Aneurysm Misdiagnosed as Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Seung-Yoon; Kim, Dae-Won; Park, Jong-Tae; Kang, Sung-Don

    2016-01-01

    An intracranial saccular aneurysm is uncommonly diagnosed in a patient with closed head trauma. We herein present a patient with delayed rebleeding of a cerebral aneurysm misdiagnosed as traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 26-year-old female visited our emergency department because of headache after a motorcycle accident. Brain computed tomography (CT) showed a right-side dominant SAH in Sylvian fissure. Although traumatic SAH was strongly suggested because of the history of head traum...

  1. Ectopic Varices in Colonic Stoma: MDCT Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jin Yong [Guro Hospital of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    We describe the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT in a patient with an episode of acute bleeding from the colonic stoma. This case indicates that the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images are useful to detect this rare complication of portal hypertension, and they help to tailor adequate treatment for the patients with bleeding from stomal varices. Ectopic varices are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, but they account for up to 5% of all variceal bleedings (1). Bleeding from stomal varices has been reported in up to 20% of the patients suffering with chronic liver failure with permanent stoma (2). However, the diagnosis of stomal varices is difficult because bleeding from stoma may also be associated with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT for visualization of ectopic stomal varices have not been previously reported in the medical literature.

  2. Effectiveness of the polysaccharide hemostatic powder in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Using propensity score matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Chul; Kim, Yeong Jin; Kim, Eun Hye; Lee, Jinae; Yang, Hyun Su; Kim, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Kyu Yeon; Shin, Sung Kwan; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Yong Chan

    2018-02-07

    Recently, the application of hemostatic powder to the bleeding site has been used to treat active upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the polysaccharide hemostatic powder (PHP) in patients with non-variceal UGIB. We reviewed prospectively collected 40 patients with UGIB treated with PHP therapy between April 2016 and January 2017 (PHP group) and 303 patients with UGIB treated with conventional therapy between April 2012 and October 2014 (conventional therapy group). We compared the rate of successful hemostasis and the rebleeding between the two groups after as well as before propensity score matching using the Glasgow-Blatchford score and Forrest classification. Thirty patients treated with the PHP and 60 patients treated with conventional therapy were included in the matched groups. Baseline patient characteristics including comorbidities, vital signs, and bleeding scores were similar in the matched groups. The rate of immediate hemostasis and 7-day and 30-day rebleeding were also similar in the two groups before and after matching. In the subgroup analysis, no significant differences in immediate hemostasis or rebleeding rate were noted between PHP in monotherapy and PHP combined with a conventional hemostatic method. At 30 days after the therapy, there were no significant PHP-related complications or mortality. Given its safety, the PHP proved feasible for endoscopic treatment of UGIB, having similar effectiveness as that of conventional therapy. The PHP may become a promising hemostatic method for non-variceal UGIB. © 2018 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Bleeding stomal varices in portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Tran-Harding, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 50-year-old man with a history of liver cirrhosis and colon cancer post end colostomy presenting to the emergency department with stomal bleeding and passage of clots into the colostomy bag. The patient was treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS and concomitant embolization of the stomal varices via the TIPS shunt using N-butyl cyanoacrylate mixed with ethiodol. Although stomal variceal bleeding is uncommon, this entity can have up to 40% mortality upon initial presentation, given the challenges in diagnosis and management. Currently, there are no established standard treatments for stomal variceal bleeding. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, there are no cases in the current literature in which treatment of this entity is performed with a combination of TIPS shunt placement and N-butyl cyanoacrylate variceal embolization. Keywords: Stomal varices, TIPS, Cirrhosis, Colon cancer, Embolization, NBCA

  4. Comparison of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with covered stent and ballon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration in managing isolated gastric varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lee, Kristen A.; Sauk, Steven; Korenblat, Kevin [Washington University St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Although a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is commonly placed to manage isolated gastric varices, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has also been used. We compare the long-term outcomes from these procedures based on our institutional experience. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with isolated gastric varices who underwent either TIPS with a covered stent or BRTO between January 2000 and July 2013. We identified 52 consecutive patients, 27 who had received TIPS with a covered stent and 25 who had received BRTO. We compared procedural complications, re-bleeding rates, and clinical outcomes between the two groups. There were no significant differences in procedural complications between patients who underwent TIPS (7%) and those who underwent BRTO (12%) (p = 0.57). There were also no statistically significant differences in re-bleeding rates from gastric varices between the two groups (TIPS, 7% [2/27]; BRTO, 8% [2/25]; p = 0.94) or in developing new ascites following either procedure (TIPS, 4%; BRTO, 4%; p = 0.96); significantly more patients who underwent TIPS developed hepatic encephalopathy (22%) than did those who underwent BRTO (0%, p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in mean survival between the two groups (TIPS, 30 months; BRTO, 24 months; p = 0.16); median survival for the patients who received TIPS was 16.6 months, and for those who underwent BRTO, it was 26.6 months. BRTO is an effective method of treating isolated gastric varices with similar outcomes and complication rates to those of TIPS with a covered stent but with a lower rate of hepatic encephalopathy.

  5. Risk of rebleeding after treatment of acute hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellingman, Catharine A.; van den Bergh, Walter M.; Beijer, Inge S.; van Dijk, Gert W.; Algra, Ale; van Gijn, Jan; Rinkel, Gabriël J. E.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid drainage is often indicated in patients with acute hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage but is believed to increase the risk of rebleeding. We studied the risk of rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage during treatment for

  6. Successful Management of Neobladder Variceal Bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwal, Dinesh; Chatterjee, Kshitij, E-mail: kchatterjee@uams.edu [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Residency Program: Slot 634 (United States); Osborne, Scott [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Kakkera, Krishna; Deas, Steven [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Residency Program: Slot 634 (United States); Li, Ruizong [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Erbland, Marcia [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Department of Internal Medicine, Residency Program: Slot 634 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Hematuria from a neobladder can occur due to a variety of pathologies including tumors, stones, and fistulas. Variceal bleeding in a neobladder is a very rare condition with only one case reported in literature. We present a case of a patient with cirrhosis and portal hypertension and an ileocolic orthotopic neobladder presenting with hematuria. Computed tomographic angiography showed dilated varices around the neobladder which were successfully embolized. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report case of variceal bleeding in a neobladder successfully managed with the combination of TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) procedure and embolization.

  7. Esophageal Stent for Refractory Variceal Bleeding: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preliminary studies suggest that covered self-expandable metal stents may be helpful in controlling esophageal variceal bleeding. Aims. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of esophageal stent in refractory variceal bleeding in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods. A comprehensive literature search was conducted on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library covering the period from January 1970 to December 2015. Data were selected and abstracted from eligible studies and were pooled using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 test. Results. Five studies involving 80 patients were included in the analysis. The age of patients ranged from 18 to 91 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 46.8 d (range, 30–60 d. The success rate of stent deployment was 96.7% (95% CI: 91.6%–99.5% and complete response to esophageal stenting was in 93.9% (95% CI: 82.2%–99.6%. The incidence of rebleeding was 13.2% (95% CI: 1.8%–32.8% and the overall mortality was 34.5% (95% CI: 24.8%–44.8%. Most of patients (87.4% died from hepatic or multiple organ failure, and only 12.6% of patients died from uncontrolled bleeding. There was no stent-related complication reported and the incidence of stent migration was 21.6% (95% CI: 4.7%–46.1%. Conclusion. Esophageal stent may be considered in patients with variceal bleeding refractory to conventional therapy.

  8. First-line endoscopic treatment with over-the-scope clips significantly improves the primary failure and rebleeding rates in high-risk gastrointestinal bleeding: A single-center experience with 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Glatz, Torben; Walker, Christine; Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate rebleeding, primary failure (PF) and mortality of patients in whom over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) were used as first-line and second-line endoscopic treatment (FLET, SLET) of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB, LGIB). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database identified all patients with UGIB and LGIB in a tertiary endoscopic referral center of the University of Freiburg, Germany, from 04-2012 to 05-2016 ( n = 93) who underwent FLET and SLET with OTSCs. The complete Rockall risk scores were calculated from patients with UGIB. The scores were categorized as < or ≥ 7 and were compared with the original Rockall data. Differences between FLET and SLET were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate the factors that influenced rebleeding after OTSC placement. Primary hemostasis and clinical success of bleeding lesions (without rebleeding) was achieved in 88/100 (88%) and 78/100 (78%), respectively. PF was significantly lower when OTSCs were applied as FLET compared to SLET (4.9% vs 23%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, patients who had OTSC placement as SLET had a significantly higher rebleeding risk compared to those who had FLET (OR 5.3; P = 0.008). Patients with Rockall risk scores ≥ 7 had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to those with scores < 7 (35% vs 10%, P = 0.034). No significant differences were observed in patients with scores < or ≥ 7 in rebleeding and rebleeding-associated mortality. Our data show for the first time that FLET with OTSC might be the best predictor to successfully prevent rebleeding of gastrointestinal bleeding compared to SLET. The type of treatment determines the success of primary hemostasis or primary failure.

  9. Arterial embolization for management of hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis : factors of rebleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kwan Soo; Kim, Young Ju; Kim, Sung Min; Sung, Ki Joon; Kim, Dong Jin; Park, Joong Wha; Oh, Jin Hwan; Shim, Soo Yeon

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of arterial embolization in reducing hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis, and rebleeding factors after embolization. Fifty-nine patients with massive or recurrent hemoptysis from pulmonary tuberculosis were underwent percutaneous transcatheter embolotherapy and thirteen were subsequently operated on. In 46 patients, we retrospectively analyzed on plain chest PA the extent of pulmonary tuberculosis lesions, the period from initial diagnosis to embolization, and angiographic findings. The extent of lesions shown on plain chest PA were classified into minimal, moderately advanced, and far advanced. If there was no evidence of rebleeding after the first embolization,this was regarded as initial success in the control of hemoptysis. Angiographic findings were classified into hypervascularity, shunt, aneurysmal dilatation, and extravasation. Using the chi-square test, differences in these findings between rebleedig and non-rebleeding cases were anlysed. Immediate control of hemoptysis was achieved in 27 (58.7%) of 46 patients. Hemoptysis recurred in 19 (41.3%) of 46 patients followed up. Rebleeding cases showed more nonbronchial systemic collateral vessels and shunt than non-rebleeding cases (p<0.05). More advanced lesions of pulmonary tuberculosis on plain chest PA showed an increased rebleeding rate after embolization, but this was not statistically significant. There was no correlation between the period from initial diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis to embolization and the rate of rebleeding. But the longer the period, the greater the number of nonbronchial systemic collateral vessels. In cases with more advanced lesions of pulmonary tuberculosis on plain chese PA and a long period from initial diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis to embolization, angiographic findings showed numerous nonbronchial systemic collateral vessels but increases in the rebleeding rate were statistically not significant. The greater the number of nonbronchial

  10. Prediction of esophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockey, Don C; Elliott, Alan; Lyles, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), identifying those with esophageal variceal hemorrhage prior to endoscopy would be clinically useful. This retrospective study of a large cohort of patients with UGIB used logistic regression analyses to evaluate the platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI), AST to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ratio (AAR) and Lok index (all non-invasive blood markers) as predictors of variceal bleeding in (1) all patients with UGIB and (2) patients with cirrhosis and UGIB. 2233 patients admitted for UGIB were identified; 1034 patients had cirrhosis (46%) and of these, 555 patients (54%) had acute UGIB due to esophageal varices. In all patients with UGIB, the platelet count (cut-off 122,000/mm(3)), APRI (cut-off 5.1), AAR (cut-off 2.8) and Lok index (cut-off 0.9) had area under the curve (AUC)s of 0.80 0.82, 0.64, and 0.80, respectively, for predicting the presence of varices prior to endoscopy. To predict varices as the culprit of bleeding, the platelet count (cut-off 69,000), APRI (cut-off 2.6), AAR (cut-off 2.5) and Lok Index (0.90) had AUCs of 0.76, 0.77, 0.57 and 0.73, respectively. Finally, in patients with cirrhosis and UGIB, logistic regression was unable to identify optimal cut-off values useful for predicting varices as the culprit bleeding lesion for any of the non-invasive markers studied. For all patients with UGIB, non-invasive markers appear to differentiate patients with varices from those without varices and to identify those with a variceal culprit lesion. However, these markers could not distinguish between a variceal culprit and other lesions in patients with cirrhosis. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  11. Portal hypertension in children: High-risk varices, primary prophylaxis and consequences of bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duché, Mathieu; Ducot, Béatrice; Ackermann, Oanez; Guérin, Florent; Jacquemin, Emmanuel; Bernard, Olivier

    2017-02-01

    Primary prophylaxis of bleeding is debated for children with portal hypertension because of the limited number of studies on its safety and efficacy, the lack of a known endoscopic pattern carrying a high-risk of bleeding for all causes, and the assumption that the mortality of a first bleed is low. We report our experience with these issues. From 1989 to 2014, we managed 1300 children with portal hypertension. Endoscopic features were recorded; high-risk varices were defined as: grade 3 esophageal varices, grade 2 varices with red wale markings, or gastric varices. Two hundred forty-six children bled spontaneously and 182 underwent primary prophylaxis. The results of primary prophylaxis were reviewed as well as bleed-free survival, overall survival and life-threatening complications of bleeding. High-risk varices were found in 96% of children who bled spontaneously and in 11% of children who did not bleed without primary prophylaxis (pportal hypertension. Life-threatening complications of bleeding were recorded in 19% of children with cirrhosis and high-risk varices who bled spontaneously. Ten-year probabilities of bleed-free survival after primary prophylaxis in children with high-risk varices were 96% and 72% for non-cirrhotic causes and cirrhosis respectively. Ten-year probabilities of overall survival after primary prophylaxis were 100% and 93% in children with non-cirrhotic causes and cirrhosis respectively. In children with portal hypertension, bleeding is linked to the high-risk endoscopic pattern reported here. Primary prophylaxis of bleeding based on this pattern is fairly effective and safe. In children with liver disease, the risk of bleeding from varices in the esophagus is linked to their large size, the presence of congestion on their surface and their expansion into the stomach but not to the child's age nor to the cause of portal hypertension. Prevention of the first bleed in children with high-risk varices can be achieved by surgery or endoscopic

  12. Vocal fold varices and risk of hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christopher Guan-Zhong; Askin, Gülce; Christos, Paul J; Sulica, Lucian

    2016-05-01

    To establish risk of hemorrhage in patients with varices compared to those without, determine additional risk factors, and make evidence-based treatment recommendations. Retrospective cohort study. Patients who were vocal performers presenting for care during a 24-month period were analyzed to determine incidence of hemorrhage. Patients with varices were compared to those without. Demographic information and examination findings (presence, location, character, and size of varices; presence of mucosal lesions or paresis) were analyzed to determine predictors of hemorrhage. A total of 513 patients (60.4% female, mean age 36.6 years ± 13.95 years) were evaluated; 14 patients presenting with hemorrhage were excluded. One hundred and twelve (22.4%) patients had varices; 387 (77.6%) did not. The rate of hemorrhage in patients with varices was 2.68% at 12 months compared to 0.8% in patients without. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 10.1 for patients with varix developing hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients (P hemorrhage was 3.3 cases per 1,000 person-months for varix patients compared to 0.5 cases per 1,000 person-months in the nonvarix group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of paresis, mucosal lesions, location of varix (left or right side; medial or lateral), or varix morphology (pinpoint, linear, lake) between patients who hemorrhaged and those that did not. The presence of varices increases the risk of hemorrhage. Varix patients had 10 times the rate of hemorrhage compared to nonvarix patients, although the overall incidence is low. This data may be used to inform treatment of patients with varices. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1163-1168, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Adherence to guidelines in bleeding oesophageal varices and effects on outcome: comparison between a specialized unit and a community hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Krag, Aleksander; Malchow-Møller, Axel

    2010-01-01

    is difficult. Our aims were to compare adherence to evidence-based guidelines in BOV between a specialized unit and a community hospital, and to investigate whether differences in adherence affected the outcome. METHODS: Two cohorts hospitalized during 2000-2007 with a first episode of BOV were retrospectively...... rebleeding were not statistically different. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that patients with BOV are more likely to receive therapy according to guidelines when hospitalized in a specialized unit compared with a community hospital. This however did not affect mortality.......OBJECTIVES: Randomized controlled trials have shown beneficial effects of vasoactive drugs, endoscopic treatment and prophylactic antibiotics on the outcome of bleeding oesophageal varices (BOV). However, translating guidelines based on randomized controlled trials into clinical practice...

  14. Oesophageal variceal band ligation using a Saeed Six-Shooter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oesophageal varices are common sequelae of cirrhosis, which when they bleed can be difficult to control. Oesophageal variceal band ligation, being the best modality for controlling variceal bleeding has not been common practice in West Africa, a region recognized to have a high prevalence of liver diseases.

  15. Hemothorax following Uncomplicated Endoscopic Variceal Sclerotherapy and Ligation for Esophageal Varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Ochiai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy and ligation are standard treatment modalities used for the management of esophageal varices. Reportedly, sclerotherapy and ligation are associated with complications such as hematuria, pulmonary thrombus formation, pleural effusion, renal dysfunction, and esophageal stenosis. However, hemothorax following sclerotherapy and ligation has not yet been reported. We treated a patient who presented with liver cirrhosis and polycythemia vera and later developed hemothorax following the above-mentioned procedures. An 86-year-old man diagnosed with liver cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis type B and alcohol abuse underwent variceal sclerotherapy using ethanolamine oleate to treat his esophageal varices. Oozing from the esophageal varices continued even after the sclerotherapy procedure; therefore, we performed endoscopic variceal ligation. The patient developed left-sided hemothorax within 24 h after treatment of his varices, and an emergency thoracotomy was performed. A pulmonary ligament of the left lung was bulging and ripping because of mediastinal hematoma, and oozing was noted. Cessation of bleeding was noted after the laceration of the left pulmonary ligament had been sutured. Ours is the first case of hemothorax reported in a patient following an uncomplicated procedure of sclerotherapy and ligation.

  16. Risk factors for re-bleeding of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfotih, Gobran Taha Ahmed; Li, FangCheng; Xu, XinKe; Zhang, ShangYi

    2014-01-01

    The mortality of re-bleeding following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is high, and surviving patients often have poor clinical condition and worse outcome than patients with a single bleed. In this study, we performed an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the most common risk factors for re-bleeding in this patient population, with the goal of providing neurologists, neurosurgeons, neuro-interventionalists with a simple and fast method to evaluate the re-bleeding risk for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. We conducted a thorough meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with re-bleeding or re-rupture of intracranial aneurysms in cases published between 2000 and 2013. Pooled mean difference was calculated for the continuous variables (age), and pooled odds ratio (OR) was calculated for categorical factors. If heterogeneity was significant (pbleeding, resulting in a weighted average rate of re-bleeding of 11.3% with 95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.1-12.6. In this population, sex (OR 1.46; 95% CI: 1.11-1.92), high systolic blood pressure [SBP] (OR 2.52; 95% CI: 1.40-4.53), aneurysm size (OR 3.00; 95% CI: 2.06-4.37), clinical condition (Hunt & Hess) (OR 4.94; 95% CI: 2.29,10.68), and Fisher grade (OR 2.29; 95% CI: 1.45, 3.61) were statistically significant risk factors for re-bleeding. Sex, high SBP, high Fisher grade, aneurysm size larger than 10mm, and poor clinical condition were independent risk factors for aneurysmal re-bleeding. The importance of early aneurysm intervention and careful consideration of patient risk factors should be emphasized to eliminate the risk of re-bleeding and poor outcome. Copyright © 2014 Polish Neurological Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk factors for rebleeding of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rebleeding is a serious complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhaging. To date, there are conflicting data regarding the factors contributing to rebleeding and their significance. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed and Embase databases was conducted for studies pertaining to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH and rebleeding in order to assess the associated risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated from fourteen studies comprised of a total of 5693 patients that met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Higher rebleeding rates were observed 10 mm in size (OR  = 1.70, 95% CI  = 1.35-2.14. CONCLUSIONS: Aneurysmal rebleeding occurs more frequently within the first 6 hours after the initial aSAH. Risk factors associated with rebleeding include high systolic pressure, the presence of an intracerebral or intraventricular hematoma, poor Hunt-Hess grade (III-IV, aneurysms in the posterior circulation, and an aneurysm >10 mm in size.

  18. [Esophageal motor disorders in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices non-submitted to endoscopic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Priscila Pollo; Lemme, Eponina Maria de Oliveira; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio Moraes

    2005-01-01

    The hepatic cirrhosis has as one of the main morbid-mortality causes, the portal hypertension with the development of esophageal varices, the possibility of a digestive hemorrhage and worsening of hepatic insufficiency. It is important to identify causal predictive or aggravating factors and if possible to prevent them. In the last years, it has been observed the association of esophageal motor disorders and gastro-esophageal reflux in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. To study the prevalence of the esophageal motility disorders and among them, the ineffective esophageal motility, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and esophageal varices, without previous endoscopic therapeutic and the predictive factors. Prospectively, it has been evaluate 74 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis and esophagic varices, without previous endoscopic treatment. All of them were submitted to a clinical protocol, esophageal manometry and 55 patients also held the ambulatory esophageal pHmetry. Esophageal motility disorders have been found in 44 patients (60%). The most prevalent was the ineffective esophageal motility, observed in 28%. The abnormal reflux disease was diagnosed through the pHmetry in 35% of the patients. There were no correlation between the manometrical abnormality in general and the ineffective esophageal motility in particular and the esophageal or gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, the abnormal reflux, the disease seriousness, the ascites presence and the gauge of the varices. The majority of cirrhotic patients with non-treated esophageal varices present esophageal motor disorders. No predictive factor was found. The clinical relevance of these findings need more researches in the scope to define the real meaning of theses abnormalities.

  19. Effect of endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate in treatment of acute esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Xiaoxing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the effect and safety of endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate in the treatment of esophageal and gastric variceal bleeding (EGVB in children. MethodsThe clinical data of 35 children with acute EGVB who were treated with endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate in Children′s Hospital of Baoji Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital from August 2010 to August 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. The emergency response rate, rebleeding rate, and incidence of complications after the treatment were analyzed statistically. ResultsThirty-five patients received 46 times of endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate in total. The response rate to the initial injection was 95.6% (44/46. The volume of cyanoacrylate injected was 0.2-0.6 ml, with a mean volume of 0.4±0.2 ml. The emergency hemostasis rate was 93.4% (43/46, the rebleeding rate was 11.4% (4/35, and the cycle for 4 patients with the recurrence of bleeding to be cured was 1.2-23.0 months (mean 121±10.9 months. One patient experienced abdominal pain, and no patients experienced ectopic embolism. Two patients died after injection. ConclusionFrequent, small-volume endoscopic injection of cyanoacrylate is an effective and convenient therapeutic method for EGVB in children, has few complications, and holds promise for clinical application.

  20. Esophageal varices in cirrhotics on dynamic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Masaru; Takahashi, Osamu; Shimura, Tadanori

    1985-07-01

    Dynamic CT was performed on fifteen cirrhotics. The cirrhotics with esophageal varices were compared with those without esophageal varices in regard to the enhanced capacity of the liver and the spleen and the declining ratio of the spleen following the enhancement. Both the liver and the spleen in cirrhotics were enhanced less than non-cirrhotics, especially in those with esophageal varices (p<0.01). Splenic declining ratio following splenic enhancement clearly distinguish cirrhotics with esophageal varices from those without esophageal varices (p<0.01). These parameters on dynamic CT could be useful for the diagnosis of portal hypertension in cirrhotics.

  1. C-reactive protein as a prognostic indicator for rebleeding in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han Hee; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, Soon-Wook; Kang, Seung Hun; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, Bo-In; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2015-05-01

    In patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, rebleeding after an initial treatment is observed in 10-20% and is associated with mortality. To investigate whether the initial serum C-reactive protein level could predict the risk of rebleeding in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This was a retrospective study using prospectively collected data for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Initial clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and C-reactive protein levels were compared between those with and without 30-day rebleeding. A total of 453 patients were included (mean age, 62 years; male, 70.9%). The incidence of 30-day rebleeding was 15.9%. The mean serum C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in these patients than in those without rebleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding, indicating a possible role as a useful screening indicator for predicting the risk of rebleeding. Copyright © 2015 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adherence to guidelines in bleeding oesophageal varices and effects on outcome: comparison between a specialized unit and a community hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise; Krag, Aleksander; Malchow-Møller, Axel

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Randomized controlled trials have shown beneficial effects of vasoactive drugs, endoscopic treatment and prophylactic antibiotics on the outcome of bleeding oesophageal varices (BOV). However, translating guidelines based on randomized controlled trials into clinical practice is diffi......OBJECTIVES: Randomized controlled trials have shown beneficial effects of vasoactive drugs, endoscopic treatment and prophylactic antibiotics on the outcome of bleeding oesophageal varices (BOV). However, translating guidelines based on randomized controlled trials into clinical practice...... is difficult. Our aims were to compare adherence to evidence-based guidelines in BOV between a specialized unit and a community hospital, and to investigate whether differences in adherence affected the outcome. METHODS: Two cohorts hospitalized during 2000-2007 with a first episode of BOV were retrospectively...... enrolled, one in a community hospital comprising 66 patients and one in a specialized unit comprising 111 patients. Data on treatment, rebleeding and mortality were collected from medical records according to the Baveno III/IV Criteria. RESULTS: Treatments in the specialized unit versus the community...

  3. RESEARCH Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for bleeding varices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portal hypertension due to intrahepatic disease or extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) is an important cause of upper gastro- intestinal bleeding in children. About 50% of children with EHPVO present with bleeding from oesophageal varices.1-3 Improvements in the management of children with intrahepatic ...

  4. Obliteration of gastric bleeding varices with NBCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zaibo; Li Zhengran; Qian Jiesheng; Zhu Kangshun; Huang Mingsheng; Zhao Dabing; Pang Pengfei; Guan Shouhai; Shan Hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of obliteration with NBCA(N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate)for the treatment of gastric bleeding varices in terminal stage of portal hypertension. Methods: All 17 cases of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage with portal hypertension, mean age 54 years, including 11 cases of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with portal venous tumor emboli, 6 eases of cirrhosis and 3 cases with moderate to severe ascites; were selected for this study. According to the Child-Pugh classification, 3 cases were in class B and 14 cases in class C at admission. Left gastric, posterior and short gastric varices were shown in all patients on CT or MRI enhancement scannings, together with splenorenal and gastrorenal shunts in 3 and 3 cases respectively. Seven cases were approached through right midaxillary line transhepatic route, 4 cases through infra-cartilago ensiformis transhepatic route, and 6 cases through transsplenic approach. Nine eases took scheduled operation, and 8 cases under emergency operation. According to blood flow rate and variceal internal diameter, the proportion 1:4 of NBCA and lipiodol was selected for the embolization. The survival and symptom relief of the patients were followed up. Results: All cases were successfully engaged in embolization with NBCA, with all varices disappeared on post-operation angiography and CT enhancement scanning during follow-up. Pressure of portal vein rised 3 cmH 2 O after operation with one case having with transient irritable cough. The average survival time was over 5 months during 3-12 months follow-up. Four cases died postoperatively because of hepatic function exhaustion. Conclusion: Utilization of NBCA in obliteration for gastric bleeding varices is effective, feasible and reliable; with less complication, Keeping strict indications would surely raise the long-term efficacy. (authors)

  5. A case of advanced gastric cancer resected for rebleeding after palliative radiotherapy for hemostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneoka, Yusuke; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) that was resected for rebleeding after palliative radiotherapy for hemostasis. A 74-year-old man with Stage IV gastric cancer received chemotherapy and achieved stable disease. After 23 months, he experienced continuous bleeding from the tumor due to regrowth. Palliative radiotherapy was conducted to control the bleeding, and the tumor successfully achieved hemostasis. However, 6 weeks later, the patient experienced rebleeding and developed hemostatic shock. We then performed a successful emergency gastrectomy. Bleeding negatively affects quality of life in patients with AGC and is potentially lethal. Although palliative radiotherapy for bleeding of gastric cancer is a safe and useful treatment within a short time frame in cases of rebleeding, emergency gastrectomy may be necessary. Therefore, when we select this treatment, the possibility of subsequent surgical treatment must be considered. (author)

  6. An observational European study on clinical outcomes associated with current management strategies for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ENERGIB-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungan, Zeynel

    2012-01-01

    This observational, retrospective cohort study assessed outcomes of the current management strategies for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in several European countries (Belgium, Greece, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Spain, and Turkey) (NCT00797641; ENERGIB). Turkey contributed 23 sites to this study. Adult patients (≥18 years old) consecutively admitted to hospital and who underwent endoscopy for overt non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (hematemesis, melena or hematochezia, with other clinical/laboratory evidence of acute upper GI blood loss) were included in the study. Data were collected from patient medical records regarding bleeding continuation, re-bleeding, pharmacological treatment, surgery, and mortality during a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 423 patients (67.4% men; mean age: 57.8 ± 18.9 years) were enrolled in the Turkish study centers, of whom 96.2% were admitted to hospital with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. At admission, the most common symptom was melena (76.1%); 28.6% of patients were taking aspirin, 19.9% were on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 7.3% were on proton pump inhibitors. The most common diagnoses were duodenal (45.2%) and gastric (27.7%) ulcers and gastritis/gastric erosions (26.2%). Patients were most often managed in general medical wards (45.4%). A gastrointestinal team was in charge of treatment in 64.8% of cases. Therapeutic procedures were performed in 32.4% of patients during endoscopy. After the endoscopy, most patients (94.6%) received proton pump inhibitors. Mean (SD) hospital stay was 5.36 ± 4.91 days. The cumulative proportions of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, complications and mortality within 30 days of the non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode were 9.0%, 5.7% and 2.8%, respectively. In the Turkish sub-group of patients, the significant risk factors for bleeding continuation or re-bleeding were age >65 years, presentation with hematemesis or shock

  7. Clinicopathological Features and Treatment of Ectopic Varices with Portal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Sato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding from ectopic varices, which is rare in patients with portal hypertension, is generally massive and life-threatening. Forty-three patients were hospitalized in our ward for gastrointestinal bleeding from ectopic varices. The frequency of ectopic varices was 43/1218 (3.5% among portal hypertensive patients in our ward. The locations of the ectopic varices were rectal in thirty-two, duodenal in three, intestinal in two, vesical in three, stomal in one, and colonic in two patients. Endoscopic or interventional radiologic treatment was performed successfully for ectopic varices. Hemorrhage from ectopic varices should be kept in mind in patients with portal hypertension presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  8. Gastric Varices Bleed at Lower Portosystemic Pressure Gradients than Esophageal Varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Joseph D; Mendoza-Elias, Nasya; Lipnik, Andrew J; Lokken, R Peter; Bui, James T; Ray, Charles E; Gaba, Ron C

    2018-05-01

    To quantify and compare portosystemic pressure gradients (PSGs) between bleeding esophageal varices (EV) and gastric varices (GV). In a single-center, retrospective study, 149 patients with variceal bleeding (90 men, 59 women, mean age 52 y) with EV (n = 69; 46%) or GV (n = 80; 54%) were selected from 320 consecutive patients who underwent successful transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation from 1998 to 2016. GV were subcategorized using the Sarin classification as gastroesophageal varices (GEV) (n = 57) or isolated gastric varices (IGV) (n = 23). PSG before TIPS was measured from the main portal vein to the right atrium. PSGs were compared across EV, GEV, and IGV groups using 1-way analysis of variance. Overall mean baseline PSG was 21 mm Hg ± 6. PSG was significantly higher in patients with EV versus GV (23 mm Hg vs 19 mm Hg; P IGV (16 mm Hg); this difference was statistically significant (P IGV 17 mm Hg; P IGV bled versus 9% (5/57) of GEV and 3% (2/69) of EVs (P = .169). Mean final PSG after TIPS was 8 mm Hg (IGV 6 mm Hg vs EV and GEV 8 mm Hg; P = .005). GV bleed at lower PSGs than EV. EV, GEV, and IGV bleeding is associated with successively lower PSGs. These findings highlight distinct physiology, anatomy, and behavior of GV compared with EV. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel Therapeutic Strategies in the Management of Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Garber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the most common etiology of which is peptic ulcer disease, remains a persistent challenge despite a reduction in both its incidence and mortality. Both pharmacologic and endoscopic techniques have been developed to achieve hemostasis, with varying degrees of success. Among the pharmacologic therapies, proton pump inhibitors remain the mainstay of treatment, as they reduce the risk of rebleeding and requirement for recurrent endoscopic evaluation. Tranexamic acid, a derivative of the amino acid lysine, is an antifibrinolytic agent whose role requires further investigation before application. Endoscopically delivered pharmacotherapy, including Hemospray (Cook Medical, EndoClot (EndoClot Plus Inc., and Ankaferd Blood Stopper (Ankaferd Health Products, in addition to standard epinephrine, show promise in this regard, although their mechanisms of action require further investigation. Non-pharmacologic endoscopic techniques use one of the following two methods to achieve hemostasis: ablation or mechanical tamponade, which may involve using endoscopic clips, cautery, argon plasma coagulation, over-the-scope clipping devices, radiofrequency ablation, and cryotherapy. This review aimed to highlight these novel and fundamental hemostatic strategies and the research supporting their efficacy.

  10. A Rare Case of Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage Secondary to Infiltrative B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Lenhart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Portal hypertension commonly arises in the setting of advanced liver cirrhosis and is the consequence of increased resistance within the portal vasculature. Less commonly, left-sided noncirrhotic portal hypertension can develop in a patient secondary to isolated obstruction of the splenic vein. We present a rare case of left-sided portal hypertension and isolated gastric varices in a patient with large B-cell lymphoma, who was treated with splenic artery embolization. The patient is a 73-year-old male with no previous history of liver disease, who presented with coffee ground emesis and melena. On admission to hospital, he was found to have a hemoglobin level of 3.4 g/l. Emergent esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed isolated bleeding gastric varices (IGV1 by Sarin classification in the fundus and cardia with subsequent argon plasma coagulation injection. He was transferred to our tertiary center where work-up revealed normal liver function tests, and abdominal ultrasound showed patent hepatic/portal vasculature without cirrhosis. MRI demonstrated a large heterogeneously enhancing mass in the pancreatic tail, with invasion into the spleen and associated splenic vein thrombosis. Surgery consultation was obtained, but urgent splenectomy was not recommended. The patient instead underwent splenic artery embolization to prevent future bleeding from his known gastric varices. Pathology from a CT-guided biopsy was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. PET imaging showed uptake in the splenic hilum/pancreatic tail region with no additional metastatic involvement. He was evaluated by the Hematology Department to initiate R-CHOP chemotherapy. During his outpatient follow-up, he reported no further episodes of melena or hematemesis. To the best of our knowledge, there have only been two published case reports of large B-cell lymphoma causing upper gastrointestinal bleeding from isolated gastric varices. These cases were treated with splenectomy or

  11. Perivesical varices and portal hypertension: imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallorquin Jimenez, F.; Medina Benitez, A.; Lopez Machado, E.; Pardo Moreno, M.D.; Garrido Moreno, C.; Pastor Rull, J.

    1995-01-01

    Nine patients with portal hypertension syndrome and Perivesical varices are studied retrospectively by means of imaging techniques including ultrasound, duplex Doppler, color Doppler, CT and angiography. All the patients presented portal thrombosis and thickening of the bladder wall. These collaterals either represent a shunting of hepato pedal flow or correspond to blood stasis associated with said syndrome. Ultrasound, whether involving duplex Doppler or color Doppler techniques, is highly useful to detect the presence of Perivesical varices which appear as tubular or rounded hypo echogenic areas in the bladder wall. Given the association of this entity with bladder wall thickening, it should be taken into account in any clinical situation involving said change, especially in patients with portal hypertension; moreover knowledge of its presence is of great importance when the possibility of creating shunts by means of interventional or surgical vascular procedures or other types of abdominal procedures are being considered because of the risk of bleeding. (Author)

  12. Prediction of delayed cerebral ischemia, rebleeding, and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijdra, A.; van Gijn, J.; Nagelkerke, N. J.; Vermeulen, M.; van Crevel, H.

    1988-01-01

    Using logistic regression, we analyzed the predictive value of a number of entry variables with respect to the outcome variables delayed cerebral ischemia, rebleeding, and poor outcome (death or severe disability) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The entry variables were clinical

  13. [Re-bleeding predictors in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and delayed neurosurgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Rodríguez, Dannys; Scherle Matamoros, Claudio; Fernández Cúe, Leda; Miranda Hernández, José Luis; Pernas Sánchez, Yanelis; Pérez Nellar, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the re-bleeding predictors in patients with delayed treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A prospective cohort study enrolled 261 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, attending in Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital from October 2005, and June 2014. An increased re-bleeding risk in the multivariate analysis was associated with grade III (OR 2.01; 95% CI; 1.06-3.84) and grade IV (OR 3.84; 95% CI; 2.06-7.31) on World Federation Neurological Surgeon (WFNS) scale; grade III (OR 2.04; 95% CI; 1.01-4.13) and grade IV (OR 2.12, 95% CI; 1.05-4.28) on the Fischer scale, aneurism location in posterior circulation (OR 2.45, 95% CI; 1.33-4.44), and anterior communicant artery (OR 1.57, 95% CI;1.00-2.46). Hypertension history was present in 60.9% (159 patients) and was also associated with risk of re-bleeding (OR 2.70, 95% CI; 1.00-7.30). Blood pressure, haematocrit, glycemic, aneurysm size, multiple aneurysms, and location in the middle cerebral artery, do not show any relationship. Hypertension history, poor grade (III and IV) on WFNS and Fisher scale and aneurysm location were independent risks factors of re-bleeding in patients with delayed aneurysmal treatment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Endoscopic variceal band ligation: a local experience | Jani | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the results of endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVBL) in the local set-up. Design: Retrospective analysis of data of all patients who had EVBL. Setting: Patients having EVBL at the office endoscopy suite. The Nairobi Hospital, the Aga Khan Hospital and M.P Shah Hospital. Methods: The varices were ...

  15. Base of tongue varices associated with portal hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Jassar, P; Jaramillo, M; Nunez, D

    2000-01-01

    A symptomatic case of tongue base varices in a patient with portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis is presented. There are no previously documented cases in the world literature. Oesophageal varices may not be the only source of expectorated blood in a patient with portal hypertension.


Keywords: portal hypertension; lingual; tongue; varicose vein

  16. Portographic Evaluation for Recurrent Esophagogastric Varices Following Devascularization Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, J.-S.; Huang, C.-J.; Wang, J.-Y.; Huang, T.-J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, by transhepatic portography, the changes in portosystemic collaterals and recurrent esophagogastric varices after devascularization surgery. Methods: Thirty-five patients, who had undergone devascularization surgery 2 - 8 years previously, underwent follow-up portography and the collaterals and drainage routes were compared with preoperative portography results. Results: Newly formed collaterals were present in 30 of 35 patients and the origins and drainage routes differed from preoperative ones. Most common were new collaterals arising from the junction of the portal and superior mesenteric veins; the next most frequent arose from a main portal branch, the portal trunk, or the superior mesenteric vein. New collaterals with recurrent varices were seen in 20 patients and without varices in 10; 5 patients had no collaterals or varices.Conclusion: Since the development of new collaterals is common in portal hypertensive patients following devascularization surgery, regular follow-up for recurrent varices is necessary

  17. Does domperidon influence the haemodynamics of oesophageal varices. Beeinflusst Domperidon die Haemodynamik von Oesophagusvarizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoevels, J [Staedtische Krankenanstalten Bielefeld (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Roentgendiagnostik und Nuklearmedizin

    1989-04-01

    In three patients with portal venous hypertension and oesophageal varices the effect of domperidon on the haemodynamics of the varices was studied. Following transhepatic catheterisation of the left gastric vein the perfusion of the oesophageal varices before and after the application of domperidon was evaluated angiographically. No decrease of the perfusion of the oesophageal varices secondary to domperidon was observed using this method. (orig.).

  18. Antithrombotic drugs and non-variceal bleeding outcomes and risk scoring systems: comparison of Glasgow Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ali S; McCloskey, Caroline; Craigen, Theresa; Angerson, Wilson J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Antithrombotic drugs (ATDs) cause non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). Risk scoring systems have not been validated in ATD users. We compared Blatchford, Rockall and Charlson scores in predicting outcomes of NVUGIB in ATD users and controls. Methods A total of 2071 patients with NVUGIB were grouped into ATD users (n=851) and controls (n=1220) in a single-centre retrospective analysis. Outcomes included duration of hospital admission, the need for blood transfusion, rebleeding requiring surgery and 30-day mortality. Results Duration of admission correlated with all scores in controls, but correlations were significantly weaker in ATD users. Rank correlation coefficients in control versus ATD: 0.45 vs 0.20 for Blatchford; 0.48 vs 0.32 for Rockall and 0.42 vs 0.26 for Charlson (all p<0.001). The need for transfusion was best predicted by Blatchford (p<0.001 vs Rockall and Charlson in both ATD users and controls), but all scores performed less well in ATD users. Area under the receiver operation characteristic curve (AUC) in control versus ATD: 0.90 vs 0.85 for Blatchford; 0.77 vs 0.61 for Rockall and 0.69 vs 0.56 for Charlson (all p<0.005). In predicting surgery, Rockall performed best; while mortality was best predicted by Charlson with lower AUCs in ATD patients than controls (p<0.05). Stratification showed the scores' performance to be age-dependent. Conclusions Blatchford score was the strongest predictor of transfusion, Rockall's had the strongest correlation with duration of admission and with rebleeding requiring surgery and Charlson was best in predicting 30-day mortality. Modifications of these systems should be explored to improve their efficiency in ATD users. PMID:28839866

  19. Frequency of rectal varices in patients with cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuberi, F.F; Khan, M.A.; Zuberi, B.F.; Khan, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To document the frequency of rectal varices in patients with cirrhosis of liver and compare it with that of oesophageal varices in liver and to compare the frequency of rectal varices with non-cirrhotic controls. Patients and Methods: All patients of confirmed cirrhosis of liver, presenting during the study period, were selected for initial workup. On the basis of upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, patients were segregated into those with oesophageal varices group-A) and those without them (Group-B). A matched control group (Group-C) was added, which consisted of patients of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who underwent sigmoidoscopic/colonoscopic examination during the study period. Fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy was done in all selected patients. Statistical analysis for continuous variables was done by student's 't' test while non-continuous variables were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U test. Results: A total of 104 patients (males 61; females 43) were included. Hepatic encephalopathy grade was significantly lower in group-B (p < 0.0001). Grade-I varices were seen in 13 patients, Grade-II in 38 and Grade-III in 33 patients of Group-A. Rectal varices were present in 59.9% of patients in Group-A as compared to Group-B in which no one had them (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Rectal varices are common in patients of portal hypertension. (author)

  20. [Varices of the vocal cord: report of 21 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-rang; Sun, Jian-jun

    2006-04-01

    To study the diagnosis and treatment of varices of the vocal cord. The clinical data of 21 cases with varix of vocal cord were analyzed. All the patients presented hoarseness. There were 15 female and 6 male cases with their ages ranged from 23 to 68 years (median 44 years old). The varix was found on the right vocal cord in 12 cases, on the left vocal cord in 9 cases. Isolated varix existed on the vocal cord in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord polyps or nodules in 10 cases, varix with vocal cord paralysis in 1 case. All the patients were diagnosed under the laryngovideoscopy. The lesions appeared on the superior surface of the vocal cord. Varices manifested as abnormally dilated capillary running in the anterior to posterior direction in 6 cases, as clusters of capillary in 3 cases, as a dot or small sheet or short line of capillary in 12 cases. The varices were disappeared in 2 of 8 cases with vocal cord varices and polyps after removed the polyps. The varices of others patients had no change after following up for more than 6 months, but one patient happened hemorrhage of the contralateral vocal cord. Varices are most commonly seen in female. Laryngovideoscopy is the key in determining the vocal fold varices. Management of patients with a varix includes medical therapy, speech therapy, and occasionally surgical vaporization.

  1. Predictors of Early Rebleeding after Endoscopic Therapy in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to High-Risk Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Maggio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In an era of increasingly shortened admissions, data regarding predictors of early rebleeding among patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB exhibiting high-risk stigmata (HRS having undergone endoscopic hemostasis are lacking.

  2. Outcome after endovascular therapy of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: morbidity and impact of rebleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, C.; Groden, C.; Zeumer, H.; Lammers, G.; Weineck, G.; Hansen, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated midterm functional outcome after endovascular occlusion of aneurysms in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and determined the incidence of late rebleeding as an additional prognostic parameter. We treated 79 consecutive patients with SAH from an intracranial aneurysm admitted from a neurological intensive care unit by the endovascular route between 1993 and 1997 and 52 survivors were followed up in 1999-2000. The mean interval between SAH and follow-up was 41 months (range 13-74 months). Outcome was determined by the Glasgow outcome (GOS) and Rankin (RS) scales and by questions concerning neuropsychological disorders. The patients were analysed according to Hunt and Hess (H and H) grades I-III or IV-V on admission. We observed two episodes of rebleeding (3%) with impact on outcome at 907 and 2010 days after SAH, respectively. A complete recovery (GOS 5) was achieved in 53% of H and H grade I-III and 17% of grade IV-V patients; with death rates 19% and 50%, and morbidity according to the RS (5-2) 18% and 29%, respectively. Midterm morbidity after endovascular therapy is thus low. Rebleeding with an impact on outcome can be observed up to 2010 days after SAH, suggesting that long-term angiographic follow-up is indispensable. (orig.)

  3. Meta-analysis shows similar re-bleeding rates among Western and Eastern populations after index video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Hassan, Cesare; Toth, Ervin; Zullo, Angelo; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the first-line diagnostic procedure for investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Different re-bleeding rates following index VCE have been reported among Western and Eastern studies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify studies examining re-bleeding rates after VCE for OGIB. Meta-analysis assessed the pooled proportion of re-bleeding events after VCE for OGIB according to study's origin (Western vs. Eastern) and according to the length of follow-up (≥24 months vs. Western and 16 Eastern) studies with 5796 patients. Significant heterogeneity was detected among meta-analyzed studies. Overall, the pooled re-bleeding rate was similar between Western (29%; 95% CI: 23-34) and Eastern (21%; 95% CI: 15-27) populations, irrespective of the length of follow-up. The odds of re-bleeding was significantly higher after positive as compared to negative index VCE in Eastern studies (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.94). Application of specific treatment after positive index VCE was associated with lower re-bleeding odds in both Western (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.16-0.87) and Eastern (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72) populations. Patients undergoing VCE for OGIB have similar re-bleeding rates in the East and the West, regardless of the length of follow-up. However, increased re-bleeding odds after positive index VCE is observed in Eastern studies. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perivesical varices and portal hypertension: imaging study; Varices perivesiculares e hipertension postal. Estudio por imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallorquin Jimenez, F; Medina Benitez, A; Lopez Machado, E; Pardo Moreno, M D; Garrido Moreno, C; Pastor Rull, J [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, Hospital General de Especialidades Virgen de la Nieve, Granada (Spain)

    1995-07-01

    Nine patients with portal hypertension syndrome and Perivesical varices are studied retrospectively by means of imaging techniques including ultrasound, duplex Doppler, color Doppler, CT and angiography. All the patients presented portal thrombosis and thickening of the bladder wall. These collaterals either represent a shunting of hepato pedal flow or correspond to blood stasis associated with said syndrome. Ultrasound, whether involving duplex Doppler or color Doppler techniques, is highly useful to detect the presence of Perivesical varices which appear as tubular or rounded hypo echogenic areas in the bladder wall. Given the association of this entity with bladder wall thickening, it should be taken into account in any clinical situation involving said change, especially in patients with portal hypertension; moreover knowledge of its presence is of great importance when the possibility of creating shunts by means of interventional or surgical vascular procedures or other types of abdominal procedures are being considered because of the risk of bleeding. (Author)

  5. SAGES Guidelines: Prevention and management of gastro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAGES Guidelines: Prevention and management of gastro-oesophageal varices and variceal haemorrhage in cirrhosis. J F Botha. Abstract. No Abstract South African Gastroenterology Review Vol. 6 (1) 2008: pp. 23-25. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Greek results of the “ENERGIB” European study on non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodoridis, George; Akriviadis, Evangelos; Evgenidis, Nikolaos; Kapetanakis, Anargyros; Karamanolis, Demetrios; Kountouras, Jannis; Mantzaris, Gerassimos; Potamianos, Spyros; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Tzathas, Charalambos

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-variceal upper gastro-intestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common and challenging emergency situation. We aimed to describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of patients with NVUGIB in Greece. Methods ENERGIB (NCT00797641) was an epidemiological survey conducted in 7 European countries including Greece. It included adult patients with overt NVUGIB from 10 tertiary hospitals across Greece. Data for each patient were collected on admission and up to 30 days thereafter. Results 201 patients were enrolled. A previous history of NVUGIB was reported by 14% of patients, while 61% had ≥ 1 co-morbidities. At presentation, 59% were on therapy that could harm the gastrointestinal mucosa, 14% on anticoagulant(s) and 42% had sign(s) of hemodynamic instability. 54% of patients showed stigmata of recent hemorrhage. Therapeutic endoscopy was performed in 25% and blood product(s) transfusions were required in 86% of cases. Proton pump inhibitors were administered before and after endoscopy in 70% and 95% of patients, respectively. Uncontrolled bleeding or rebleeding was observed in 11% being more common in elderly, hospitalized patients and patients with ≥1 co-morbidities. Second-look endoscopy was performed in 20%, angiographic intervention in 1.5% and surgical intervention in 4% of patients. Only 5/201 (2.5%) patients died during hospitalization and none died during the 30-day post-hospitalization period. Conclusions The majority of patients with NVUGIB in tertiary Greek hospitals are elderly, with co-morbidities, hemodynamic instability and required transfusion(s), while one fourth undergoes therapeutic endoscopic interventions. However, NVUGIB is associated with moderate degrees of continued bleeding/re-bleeding, low surgical rates and, most importantly, low mortality. PMID:24714268

  7. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun

    2009-04-01

    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment.

  8. Streptococcus sanguinis meningitis following endoscopic ligation for oesophageal variceal haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Chin-Fu; Lee, Ya-Ling

    2013-05-01

    We report a case of acute purulent meningitis caused by Streptococcus sanguinis after endoscopic ligation for oesophageal variceal haemorrhage in a cirrhotic patient without preceding symptoms of meningitis. Initial treatment with flomoxef failed. The patient was cured after 20 days of intravenous penicillin G. This uncommon infection due to S. sanguinis adds to the long list of infectious complications among patients with oesophageal variceal haemorrhage.

  9. ENDOSCOPIC DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY IN GASTRO-ESOPAGEAL VARICEAL BLEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Arun J.

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage is a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic therapy is the mainstay of management of bleeding varices. It requires attention to technique and the appropriate choice of therapy for a given patient at a given point in time. Subjects must be monitored continuously after initiation of therapy for control of bleeding and second line definitive therapies introduced quickly if endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment fails. PMID:26142034

  10. Usefulness of angiographic embolization endoscopic metallic clip placement in patient with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Min Jae; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Ho Jun; Cho, Young Jun; Bae, Seok Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chae Hoon [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of angiographic embolization after endoscopic metallic clip placement around the edge of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding ulcers. We have chosen 41 patients (mean age, 65.2 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (22 gastric ulcers, 16 duodenal ulcers, 3 malignant ulcers) between January 2010 and December 2012. We inserted metallic clips during the routine endoscopic treatments of the bleeding ulcers. Subsequent transcatheter arterial embolization was performed within 2 hours. We analyzed the angiographic positive rates, angiographic success rates and clinical success rates. Among the 41 patients during the angiography, 19 patients (46%) demonstrated active bleeding points. Both groups underwent embolization using microcoils, N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA), microcoils with NBCA or gelfoam particle. There are no statistically significant differences between these two groups according to which embolic materials are being used. The bleeding was initially stopped in all patients, except the two who experienced technical failures. Seven patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding within two weeks. Among them, 4 patients were successful re-embolized. Another 3 patients underwent gastrectomy. Overall, clinical success was achieved in 36 of 41 (87.8%) patients. The endoscopic metallic clip placement was helpful to locate the correct target vessels for the angiographic embolization. In conclusion, this technique reduced re-bleeding rates, especially in patients who do not show active bleeding points.

  11. Usefulness of angiographic embolization endoscopic metallic clip placement in patient with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Min Jae; Hwang, Cheol Mog; Kim, Ho Jun; Cho, Young Jun; Bae, Seok Hwan; Shin, Byung Seok; Ohm, Joon Young; Kang, Chae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the usefulness of angiographic embolization after endoscopic metallic clip placement around the edge of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding ulcers. We have chosen 41 patients (mean age, 65.2 years) with acute bleeding ulcers (22 gastric ulcers, 16 duodenal ulcers, 3 malignant ulcers) between January 2010 and December 2012. We inserted metallic clips during the routine endoscopic treatments of the bleeding ulcers. Subsequent transcatheter arterial embolization was performed within 2 hours. We analyzed the angiographic positive rates, angiographic success rates and clinical success rates. Among the 41 patients during the angiography, 19 patients (46%) demonstrated active bleeding points. Both groups underwent embolization using microcoils, N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA), microcoils with NBCA or gelfoam particle. There are no statistically significant differences between these two groups according to which embolic materials are being used. The bleeding was initially stopped in all patients, except the two who experienced technical failures. Seven patients experienced repeated episodes of bleeding within two weeks. Among them, 4 patients were successful re-embolized. Another 3 patients underwent gastrectomy. Overall, clinical success was achieved in 36 of 41 (87.8%) patients. The endoscopic metallic clip placement was helpful to locate the correct target vessels for the angiographic embolization. In conclusion, this technique reduced re-bleeding rates, especially in patients who do not show active bleeding points.

  12. Successful Endoscopic Hemostasis Is a Protective Factor for Rebleeding and Mortality in Patients with Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yong Jae; Cha, Jae Myung; Park, Jae Hyun; Jeon, Jung Won; Shin, Hyun Phil; Joo, Kwang Ro; Lee, Joung Il

    2016-07-01

    Rebleeding and mortality rates remain high in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To identify clinical and endoscopic risk factors for rebleeding and mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. This study was performed in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent upper endoscopic procedures between July 2006 and February 2013. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were compared among patients with and without rebleeding and mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine independent risk factors for rebleeding and mortality. After excluding 64 patients, data for 689 patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding were analyzed. Peptic ulcer (62.6 %) was by far the most common source of bleeding. Endoscopic intervention was performed within 24 h in 99.0 % of patients, and successful endoscopic hemostasis was possible in 80.7 % of patients. The 30-day rebleeding rate was 13.1 % (n = 93). Unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis was found to be the only independent risk factor for rebleeding (odds ratio 79.6; 95 % confidence interval 37.8-167.6; p = 0.000). The overall 30-day mortality rate was 3.2 % (n = 23). Unsuccessful endoscopic hemostasis (odds ratio 4.9; 95 % confidence interval 1.7-13.9; p = 0.003) was also associated with increased 30-day mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Successful endoscopic hemostasis is an independent protective factor for both rebleeding and mortality in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  13. Risk Factors Associated with Rebleeding in Patients with High Risk Peptic Ulcer Bleeding: Focusing on the Role of Second Look Endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Bum; Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Park, Kyung Sik; Cho, Kwang Bum; Kim, Eun Soo; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Chang Keun; Park, Jeong Bae; Yang, Chang Heon

    2016-02-01

    Re-bleeding after initial hemostasis in peptic ulcer bleeding can be life threatening. Identification of factors associated with re-bleeding is important. The aims of this study were to determine incidence of rebleeding in patients with high risk peptic ulcer bleeding and to evaluate factors associated with rebleeding. Among patients diagnosed as upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage at seven hospitals in Daegu-Gyeongbuk, and one hospital in Gyeongnam, South Korea, from Feb 2011 to Dec 2013, 699 patients diagnosed as high risk peptic ulcer bleeding with Forrest classification above llb were included. The data were obtained in a prospective manner. Among 699 patients, re-bleeding occurred in 64 (9.2 %) patients. Second look endoscopy was significantly more performed in the non-rebleeding group than the rebleeding group (81.8 vs 62.5 %, p peptic ulcer bleeding. In our study, rebleeding was observed in 9.2 % of patients with high risk peptic ulcer bleeding. Performance of second look endoscopy seems to lower the risk of rebleeding in high risk peptic ulcer bleeding patients and caution should be paid to patients receiving high volume transfusion and on medication with NSAIDs.

  14. Fatal rebleeding following coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms: the role of long-term systemic anticoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinson, G.; Bagley, L.J.; Hurst, R.W.; Flamm, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Embolization of cerebral aneurysms has become a common technique. Its impact on subsequent medical management of the patient is not well known. We report two patients who presented in a poor neurological grade after subarachnoid hemorrhage from posterior communicating artery aneurysms. Both were treated by coil embolization and both developed subclavian vein thrombosis, requiring systemic anticoagulation, initiated 11 and 21 days after embolization, respectively. Both developed a large, fatal intracranial hemorrhage adjacent to the embolized aneurysm in the fourth week of anticoagulation. Systemic anticoagulation of patients who have had a ruptured aneurysm treated by coil embolization may carry a significant risk of rebleeding. Alternate management strategies should be considered in these patients. (orig.)

  15. Fatal rebleeding following coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms: the role of long-term systemic anticoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinson, G. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bagley, L.J.; Hurst, R.W. [Dept. of Radiology-Neuroradiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Flamm, E.S. [Hyman-Newman Institute for Neurology and Neurosurgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2001-05-01

    Embolization of cerebral aneurysms has become a common technique. Its impact on subsequent medical management of the patient is not well known. We report two patients who presented in a poor neurological grade after subarachnoid hemorrhage from posterior communicating artery aneurysms. Both were treated by coil embolization and both developed subclavian vein thrombosis, requiring systemic anticoagulation, initiated 11 and 21 days after embolization, respectively. Both developed a large, fatal intracranial hemorrhage adjacent to the embolized aneurysm in the fourth week of anticoagulation. Systemic anticoagulation of patients who have had a ruptured aneurysm treated by coil embolization may carry a significant risk of rebleeding. Alternate management strategies should be considered in these patients. (orig.)

  16. Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngu, JH; Laursen, Stig Borbjerg; Chin, YK

    2017-01-01

    Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study.......Performance of upper gastrointestinal bleeding risk assessment scores in variceal bleeding: a prospective international multicenter study....

  17. Color doppler findings of gastric varices compared with findings on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Suga, Toshihiro [Sapporo Kosei General Hospital (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamics of gastric varices. We evaluated the detection rates of gastric varices, inflowing vessels to gastric varices, and outflowing vessels from gastric varices in 24 patients with gastric varices, using color Doppler sonography, and compared these findings with computed tomography findings. Eighteen patients had F2-type varices and 6 had F3-type, classified according to the Japanese Research Society for Portal Hypertension. Fourteen patients had fundal varices, and 10 had cardiac and fundal varices. The detection rates of collateral veins using color Doppler sonography were as follows: gastric varices were detected in all 24 patients (100%); inflowing vessels, in 21 of the 24 patients (87.5%); and outflowing vessels, in 18 of the 24 patients (75.0%). The detection rates of collateral veins, using computed tomography, were: gastric varices were detected in all 24 patients (100%); inflowing vessels, in all 24 patients (100%); and outflowing vessles, in 21 of the 24 patients (87.5%). The color Doppler findings agreed perfectly with the computed tomography findings in 13 of the 24 patients (54.2%). Although color Doppler sonography is a useful, noninvasive modality for evaluating the hemodynamics of gastric varices, it falls short in visualizing the detailed hemodynamics of the inflowing and outflowing vessels of gastric varices in half of the patients when compared with computed tomography. (author)

  18. Color Doppler evaluation of left gastric vein hemodynamics in cirrhosis with portal hypertension and its correlation with esophageal varices and variceal bleed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adithan, Subathra; Venkatesan, Bhuvaneswari; Sundarajan, Elangovan; Kate, Vikram; Kalayarasan, Raja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the value of Doppler evaluation of left gastric vein hemodynamics when monitoring portal hypertension patients, by correlating Doppler ultrasonography (USG) parameters with the severity of esophageal varices and occurrence of variceal bleeding. This study was carried out on 100 patients using Doppler USG and endoscopy. Forty-seven of these were patients with cirrhosis with portal hypertension, who had not had a recent variceal bleed (group 1) and 26 were patients with cirrhosis with portal hypertension, with a recent history of bleeding (group 2). The control group comprised of 27 subjects who did not have liver disease or varices on endoscopy (group 3). The hemodynamic parameters, namely the diameter of the left gastric vein and the direction and flow velocity in the vessel, were compared in these groups, with the grade of esophageal varices. Hepatofugal flow velocity in the left gastric vein was higher in patients with large-sized varices compared to those patients with small-sized varices (P < 0.001). The left gastric vein hepatofugal flow velocity was higher in patients with a recent variceal bleed than in those patients without a history of a recent variceal bleed (P < 0.0149). Large-sized varices were more commonly found in patients with a history of a recent variceal bleed (P < 0.0124). Left gastric vein hemodynamics were found to correlate with the severity of the varices and the occurrence of recent variceal bleed in patients with cirrhosis with portal hypertension. Evaluation of the left gastric vein portal dynamics could be helpful in monitoring the progress of the disease in these patients

  19. The Effects of Vasospasm and Re-Bleeding on the Outcome of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipce, Venko; Caparoski, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Vasospasm and re-bleeding after subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm are devastating complication that can severely affect the outcome of the patients. We are presenting a series of total number of 224 patients treated and operated at our Department due to subarachnoid hemorrhage, out of which certain number developed vasospasm and re-bleeding. We are evaluating the effect of these complications on the outcome of the patients according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale at the day of discharge. In our experience both vasospasm and ReSAH can significantly influence the outcome of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

  20. An Unusual Reason for Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: Wandering Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köseoğlu, Hüseyin; Atalay, Roni; Büyükaşık, Naciye Şemnur; Canyiğit, Murat; Özer, Mehmet; Solakoğlu, Tevfik; Akın, Fatma Ebru; Bolat, Aylin Demirezer; Yürekli, Öykü Tayfur; Ersoy, Osman

    2015-12-01

    Wandering spleen is the displacement of the spleen due to the loss or weakening of the ligaments of the spleen and is seen very rarely with an incidence of less than 0.5 %. It can cause portal hypertension, but gastric variceal hemorrhage is a quite rare condition within the spectrum of this uncommon disease. We report a 22-year-old woman with wandering spleen presenting with life-threatening gastric variceal hemorrhage. Her diagnosis was made by computerized tomography. Endoscopic therapy was not adequate to stop the bleeding, and urgent splenectomy was performed. After surgery she has been well with no symptoms until now.

  1. Fatores preditores de recidiva hemorrágica em cirróticos submetidos à cirurgia de Warren Predictive factors of rebleeding in cirrhotic patients submitted to the Warren's surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gonçalves Ferreira

    2005-10-01

    rebleeding in cirrhotic patients submitted to the Warren's surgery. METHODS: 57 cirrhotic patients with good hepatic functional reserve and previous variceal bleeding that had not responded to clinical, endoscopic treatment were submitted to the Warren's surgery (distal splenorenal shunt. They were divided in two groups: I (31 had presented rebleeding at postoperative care and II (26 had not presented new bleeding. Group I was again divided into 2 groups according to time of rebleeding: Group I.A (12 that presented rebleeding until hospital discharge and Group I.B (19 that presented rebleeding after hospital discharge. We analyzed the clinical, endoscopic, laboratorial and Doppler-ultrasound information at the pre- and postoperative moments and also intrasurgery data that were compared between the established groups. RESULTS: Serum albumin and bilirubins were 3.33 mg% and 1.7 mg% in group I, 3.56 mg% and 1.16 mg% in group II. Portal flow and diameter were 0.24 cm/s and 1.34 cm in group I, and 0.18 cm/s and 1.21 cm in group II, respectively. In group I.A the volume of crystalloid given during surgery was 3.692 ml against 2.166 ml in group I.B. CONCLUSION: Albumin and total bilirubins dosages in the preoperative period, added to the value of the flow and portal diameter were predictive factors for rebleeding in cirrhotic patients submitted to the Warren's surgery. The volume of crystalloid given during the surgery was a predictive factor for early rebleeding.

  2. EFFICACY OF THROMBIN FIBRIN GLUE AND SCLE ROSANT IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BLEEDI NG GASTRIC VARICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric varices are noted in up to 20 % of patents with portal hypertension , and are more common in those with non - cirrhotic etiology 1 . They bleed at lower portal pressures , bleed more severely and are associated with higher rates of rebleed , encephalopathy and mortality 1,2,3 . Variceal obliteration using tissue adhesives such as N - butyl cyanoacrylate leading to plugging and thrombosis of the gastric varices is currently the first line management option for obliteration of the gastric varices 3 . Although various options have been proposed , gold standard for management of gastric variceal bleeds is yet to be defined. We theorized that injection of the gastric varices using thrombin based glue followed by injection of a sclerosant shall be effective in optimum sclerotherapy and eradication of gastric varices. MATERIAL AND METHODS : All patients presenting with gastric variceal bleed were offered sclerotherapy with Thrombin fibrin based glue and sclerosant (TFG/S . During the study period 18 patients were enrolled in the TGF/S group. 21 patients underwent variceal plugging with n - butyl cyanoacrylate (NBC . There was no significant difference in age/ sex , duration of bleed or time interval between onset of bleed and endotherapy. RESULTS: Patients undergoing endotherapy with TGF/S had less episodes of bleed , and greater eradication of varices. CONCLUSION: The results with thrombin / fibrin glue and sclerotherapy are highly encouraging. Well - designed trials need to be performed KEYWORDS:Gastric varices; Thrombin Sclerotherapy

  3. Outcomes of pregnancies complicated by liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puljic, Anela; Salati, Jennifer; Doss, Amy; Caughey, Aaron B

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of 2,284,218 pregnancies in 2005-2009 recorded in the California Birth Registry database. Utilizing ICD-9 codes we analyzed the following outcomes for liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices in pregnancy: preeclampsia (PET), preterm delivery (PTD; Portal hypertension in pregnancy was associated with PTD, LBW, NND, and PPH. Non-bleeding esophageal varices in pregnancy were not associated with the outcomes assessed in a statistically significant manner. One case of bleeding esophageal varices was observed, resulting in PTD with a LBW infant. There were three cases of concomitant portal hypertension or concomitant esophageal varices with cirrhosis in pregnancy. Pregnancy in women with concomitant liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, or esophageal varices can be successful. However, pregnancy outcomes are worse and may warrant closer antenatal monitoring and patient counseling. Cirrhosis in pregnancy with concomitant portal hypertension or esophageal varices is rare.

  4. Impact of INR monitoring, reversal agent use, heparin bridging, and anticoagulant interruption on rebleeding and thromboembolism in acute gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available Anticoagulant management of acute gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB during the pre-endoscopic period has not been fully addressed in American, European, or Asian guidelines. This study sought to evaluate the risks of rebleeding and thromboembolism in anticoagulated patients with acute GIB.Baseline, endoscopy, and outcome data were reviewed for 314 patients with acute GIB: 157 anticoagulant users and 157 age-, sex-, and important risk-matched non-users. Data were also compared between direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs and warfarin users.Between anticoagulant users and non-users, of whom 70% underwent early endoscopy, no endoscopy-related adverse events or significant differences were found in the rate of endoscopic therapy need, transfusion need, rebleeding, or thromboembolism. Rebleeding was associated with shock, comorbidities, low platelet count and albumin level, and low-dose aspirin use but not HAS-BLED score, any endoscopic results, heparin bridge, or international normalized ratio (INR ≥ 2.5. Risks for thromboembolism were INR ≥ 2.5, difference in onset and pre-endoscopic INR, reversal agent use, and anticoagulant interruption but not CHA2DS2-VASc score, any endoscopic results, or heparin bridge. In patients without reversal agent use, heparin bridge, or anticoagulant interruption, there was only one rebleeding event and no thromboembolic events. Warfarin users had a significantly higher transfusion need than DOACs users.Endoscopy appears to be safe for anticoagulant users with acute GIB compared with non-users. Patient background factors were associated with rebleeding, whereas anticoagulant management factors (e.g. INR correction, reversal agent use, and drug interruption were associated with thromboembolism. Early intervention without reversal agent use, heparin bridge, or anticoagulant interruption may be warranted for acute GIB.

  5. A Modified APACHE II Score for Predicting Mortality of Variceal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Modified APACHE II score is effective in predicting outcome of patients with variceal bleeding. Score of L 15 points and long ICU stay are associated with high mortality. Keywords: liver cirrhosis, periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, schistosomiasis udan Journal of Medical Sciences Vol. 2 (2) 2007: pp. 105- ...

  6. Circadian occurrence of variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringo, S; Bolondi, L; Sofia, S; Hermida, R C; Gramantieri, L; Gaiani, S; Piscaglia, F; Carbone, C; Misitano, B; Corinaldesi, R

    1996-12-01

    Several clinical events have a rhythmicity over the 24 h period. We assessed the presence of periodic rhythm in the occurrence of haematemesis in patients with liver cirrhosis under different daylight regimens, namely during standard time and during daylight savings. Over a 48 month period there were 212 consecutive admissions of 118 cirrhotics with variceal bleeding. Complete data were available for 181 episodes of bleeding: 121 (66.9%) started with haematemesis and 60 (33.1%) started with melaena. One hundred and two (56%) episodes occurred during daylight savings and 79 (44%) occurred during standard time. The cosinor test showed a 24 h biphasic peak for the occurrence of haematemesis (09.45 and 21.45 h). Moreover, a biphasic diurnal asymmetric frequency was also found by multiple component rhythmometry. The time peaks of onset of variceal haemorrhage did not change significantly during standard time and daylight savings. Patients with more than one haematemesis episode significantly bled over the same time interval. The present study confirms that over the 24 h period variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients occurs with a predictable rhythmicity that does not seem to be under the control of the light-dark cycle. The finding of a chronorisk for variceal haemorrhage addresses specific questions for pathophysiological studies as well as for new treatment strategies.

  7. The difference of variceal distribution in the portal hypertension on CT between hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwa Yeon; Yoo, Seung Min; Lim, Sang Joon; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Yang Soo; Choi, Young Hee; Choi, Yun Sun

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether there is any difference in variceal distribution between patients with and without a history of esophageal variceal bleeding. To compare the distribution of varices, abdominal CT scans of 24 patients with a history of esophageal variceal bleeding (hemorrhagic group) and 90 patients without a history of bleeding (non-hemorrhagic group) were retrospectively assessed. The most common varices in both the hemorrhagic (n=21, 87.5%) and nonhemorrhagic group (n=53, 58.9%) were coronary varices, with a statistically significant frequency (p<.01). Esophageal varices were also more common in the hemorrhagic than the nonhemorrhagic group (n=19, 79.2% vs n=36, 40.0% : P<.005). Splenorenal shunts were more common in the nonhemorrhagic (n=8, 8.9%) than in the hemorrhagic group (n=0, 0%)(P<.05). Other types of varice such as paraumbilical (n=10, 41.7% vs n=21, 23.3%), perisplenic (n=6, 25% vs n=15, 16.7%) and retroperitoneal-paravertebral (n=11, 45.8% vs n=24, 26.7%) were more common in the hemorrhagic group, but without a statistically significant frequency. The frequency of coronary and esophageal varices was significant in patients with a history of esophageal variceal bleeding. In patients without such a history, splenorenal shunts were seen

  8. Bleeding 'downhill' esophageal varices associated with benign superior vena cava obstruction: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudin, Michael; Anderson, Sharon; Schlansky, Barry

    2016-10-24

    Proximal or 'downhill' esophageal varices are a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Unlike the much more common distal esophageal varices, which are most commonly a result of portal hypertension, downhill esophageal varices result from vascular obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC). While SVC obstruction is most commonly secondary to malignant causes, our review of the literature suggests that benign causes of SVC obstruction are the most common cause actual bleeding from downhill varices. Given the alternative pathophysiology of downhill varices, they require a unique approach to management. Variceal band ligation may be used to temporize acute variceal bleeding, and should be applied on the proximal end of the varix. Relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of definitive treatment of downhill varices. A young woman with a benign superior vena cava stenosis due to a tunneled internal jugular vein dialysis catheter presented with hematemesis and melena. Urgent upper endoscopy revealed multiple 'downhill' esophageal varices with stigmata of recent hemorrhage. As there was no active bleeding, no endoscopic intervention was performed. CT angiography demonstrated stenosis of the SVC surrounding the distal tip of her indwelling hemodialysis catheter. The patient underwent balloon angioplasty of the stenotic SVC segment with resolution of her bleeding and clinical stabilization. Downhill esophageal varices are a distinct entity from the more common distal esophageal varices. Endoscopic therapies have a role in temporizing active variceal bleeding, but relief of the underlying SVC obstruction is the cornerstone of treatment and should be pursued as rapidly as possible. It is unknown why benign, as opposed to malignant, causes of SVC obstruction result in bleeding from downhill varices at such a high rate, despite being a less common etiology of SVC obstruction.

  9. Endoscopic Color Doppler Ultrasonographic Evaluation of GastricVarices Secondary to Left-Sided Portal Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Kimura, Mutsuumi; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Gastric varices that arise secondary to the splenic vein occlusion can result in gastrointestinal hemorrhaging. Endoscopic color Doppler ultrasonography (ECDUS) was performed in 16 patients with gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion. This study retrospectively evaluated the role of ECDUS in the diagnosis of gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion. Thirteen patients had co-existing pancreatic diseases: 8 with chronic pancreatitis, 4 with cancer of the pancreatic body or tail and 1 with severe acute pancreatitis. Of the remaining 3 patients, 1 had myeloproliferative disease, 1 had advanced gastric cancer, and the third had splenic vein occlusion due to an obscure cause. The endoscopic findings of gastric varices were: variceal form (F) classified as enlarged tortuous (F2) in 12 cases and large, coil-shaped (F3) in 4 cases, and positive for erosion or red color sign of the variceal surface in 4 cases and negative in 12 cases. ECDUS color flow images of gastric variceal flow clearly depicted a round fundal region at the center, with varices expanding to the curvatura ventriculi major of the gastric body in all 16 cases. The velocities of F3 type gastric varices were significantly higher than those of the F2 type. The wall thickness of varices positive for erosion or red color sign was significantly less than the negative cases. I conclude that ECDUS color flow images of gastric variceal flow depicted specific findings of gastric varices secondary to splenic vein occlusion at the round fundal region at the center, with varices expanding to the curvatura ventriculi major of the gastric body. PMID:26852679

  10. [Hospital mortality associated with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to ruptured esophageal varices at the Lomé Campus Hospital in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouglouga, O; Bagny, A; Lawson-Ananissoh, L; Djibril, M

    2014-01-01

    To study hospital mortality associated with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhages due to variceal bleeding in the department of hepatology and gastroenterology at the Lome Campus University Hospital. This retrospective cross-sectional and analytic study examined the 55 patients admitted for variceal bleeding on upper endoscopies during the 3-year period from January 1, 2008, through December 31, 2010. These patients accounted for 4.1% of all hospitalizations during the study period in the department. Their average age was 35 years, and their sex-ratio 4. A history of chronic liver disease was found in 65.5%. Liver cirrhosis was the principal cause of the esophageal varices, complicated by hepatocellular carcinoma in 30.9% of them. The mortality rate was 25.5% and was not related to the cause of portal hypertension. All the patients with a recurrence of bleeding died. Mortality was associated with jaundice. Blood transfusion did not significantly improve the prognosis. the mortality rate among patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage linked to variceal bleeding is high in our unit. The prevention of hepatitis virus B is important because it is the main cause of chronic liver disease causing portal hypertension in our department.

  11. The Novel Scoring System for 30-Day Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sejin; Jeon, Seong Woo; Kwon, Joong Goo; Lee, Dong Wook; Ha, Chang Yoon; Cho, Kwang Bum; Jang, ByungIk; Park, Jung Bae; Park, Youn Sun

    2016-07-01

    Although the mortality rates for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) have recently decreased, it remains a significant medical problem. The main aim of this prospective multicenter database study was to construct a clinically useful predictive scoring system by using our predictors and compare its prognostic accuracy with that of the Rockall scoring system. Data were collected from consecutive patients with NVUGIB. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of 30-day mortality. Each independent predictor was assigned an integral point proportional to the odds ratio (OR) and we used the area under the curve to compare the discrimination ability between the new predictive model and the Rockall score. The independent predictors of mortality included age >65 years [OR 2.627; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.298-5.318], hemodynamic instability (OR 2.217; 95 % CI 1.069-4.597), serum blood urea nitrogen level >40 mg/dL (OR 1.895; 95 % CI 1.029-3.490), active bleeding at endoscopy (OR 2.434; 95 % CI 1.283-4.616), transfusions (OR 3.811; 95 % CI 1.640-8.857), comorbidities (OR 3.481; 95 % CI 1.405-8.624), and rebleeding (OR 10.581; 95 % CI 5.590-20.030). The new predictive model showed a high discrimination capability and was significantly superior to the Rockall score in predicting the risk of death (OR 0.837;95 % CI 0.818-0.855 vs. 0.761; 0.739-0.782; P = 0.0123). The new predictive score was significantly more accurate than the Rockall score in predicting death in NVUGIB patients. We need to prospectively validate the accuracy of this score for predicting mortality in NVUGIB patients.

  12. Gastroesophageal Variceal Filling and Drainage Pathways: An Angiographic Description of Afferent and Efferent Venous Anatomic Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron C Gaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Varices commonly occur in liver cirrhosis patients and are classified as esophageal (EV, gastroesophageal (GEV, or isolated gastric (IGV varices. These vessels may be supplied and drained by several different afferent and efferent pathways. A working knowledge of variceal anatomy is imperative for Interventional Radiologists performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and embolization/obliteration procedures. This pictorial essay characterizes the angiographic anatomy of varices in terms of type and frequency of venous filling and drainage, showing that different varices have distinct vascular anatomy. EVs typically show left gastric vein filling and “uphill” drainage, and GEVs and IGVs exhibit additional posterior/short gastric vein contribution and “downhill” outflow. An understanding of these variceal filling and drainage pathways can facilitate successful portal decompression and embolization/obliteration procedures.

  13. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Taura, Kojiro; Arizono, Shigeki; Shimada, Kotaro; Togashi, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40 o C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  14. Application of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration to Gastric Varices Complicating Refractory Ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Tetsuya; Hirota, Shozo; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Sugimoto, Koji; Fujii, Masahiko; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Izaki, Kenta; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-01-01

    We report two cases of gastric varices complicated by massive ascites that disappeared after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). The first patient had progressive gastric varices that continued to enlarge even after three episodes of esophagogastric variceal bleeding, and the second patient was admitted to our hospital because of the bleeding from gastric varices. After B-RTO procedures in both patients, significant improvement of the ascites, hepatic function reserve, and hypoalbuminemia was observed. Although further experience is needed, our experience points to the likelihood of the amelioration of ascites after B-RTO

  15. Non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding in cirrhotic patients in Nile Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabr, Mamdouh Ahmed; Tawfik, Mohamed Abd El-Raouf; El-Sawy, Abd Allah Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) in cirrhotic patients occurs mainly from esophageal and gastric varices; however, quite a large number of cirrhotic patients bleed from other sources as well. The aim of the present work is to determine the prevalence of non-variceal UGIB as well as its different causes among the cirrhotic portal hypertensive patients in Nile Delta. Emergency upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy for AUGIB was done in 650 patients. Out of these patients, 550 (84.6%) patients who were proved to have cirrhosis were the subject of the present study. From all cirrhotic portal hypertensive patients, 415 (75.5%) bled from variceal sources (esophageal and gastric) while 135 (24.5%) of them bled from non-variceal sources. Among variceal sources of bleeding, esophageal varices were much more common than gastric varices. Peptic ulcer was the most common non-variceal source of bleeding. Non-variceal bleeding in cirrhosis was not frequent, and sources included peptic ulcer, portal hypertensive gastropathy, and erosive disease of the stomach and duodenum.

  16. Portal hypertension and variceal bleeding: Clinical and pharmacological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Blødende esophagus varicer er en af den mest frygtede komplikationer til cirrose og portal hypertension pga. den høje mortalitet. Et klassisk studie fra 1981 opgjorde 6-ugers mortaliteten til 42%, hvoraf 75% døde indenfor den første uge. Gennem de sidste 2-3 årtier er der introduceret en række nye...

  17. High rebleeding risk associated with choroidal collateral vessels in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease: analysis of a nonsurgical cohort in the Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, Takeshi; Takahashi, Jun C; Houkin, Kiyohiro; Kuroda, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Shigekazu; Fujimura, Miki; Tomata, Yasutake; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2018-03-02

    OBJECTIVE Choroidal collateral vessels typical of moyamoya disease have received attention as a potential bleeding source. The authors' previous angiographic cross-sectional analysis suggested a possible association between choroidal collaterals and posterior hemorrhage, indicating a high risk for rebleeding. The present longitudinal analysis is intended to determine whether choroidal collaterals are a predictor of rebleeding in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease. METHODS The Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial group designed an ancillary cohort study using 5-year follow-up data on 37 patients included in the nonsurgical arm of the original randomized controlled trial and compared the rebleeding rate of those with and those without choroidal collaterals, represented by the connection between the anterior or posterior choroidal arteries and the medullary arteries. An expert panel determined whether a choroidal collateral was present in each patient through the measurement of baseline angiography studies. The rebleeding rate comparison was adjusted for age, diagnosis of hypertension, and involvement of the posterior cerebral artery. RESULTS Choroidal collaterals were present in 21 patients (56.8%). The rebleeding rate was 13.1% per year in the collateral-positive group as compared with 1.3% in the negative group (p = 0.008, log-rank test). The adjusted hazard ratio for rebleeding in the collateral-positive group relative to the negative group remained statistically significant (HR 11.10, 95% CI 1.37-89.91). Radiographic assessment of the collateral-positive group revealed good correspondence between the distribution of collaterals and rebleeding sites. CONCLUSIONS Results of this study suggest that choroidal collaterals are a bleeding source with a high risk for hemorrhagic recurrence and a predictor of rebleeding in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

  18. Endocrine carcinoma of the pancreatic tail exhibiting gastric variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas is uncommon. Without excess hormone secretion, it is clinically silent until the enlarging or metastatic tumor causes compressive symptoms. Epigastric pain, dyspepsia, jaundice, and abdominal mass are the usual symptoms, whereas upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding is rare. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old man with the chief complaint of hematemesis. Upper GI panendoscopy revealed isolated gastric varices at the fundus and upper body. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a tumor mass at the pancreatic tail causing a splenic vein obstruction, engorged vessels near the fundus of the stomach, and splenomegaly. After distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy, the bleeding did not recur. The final pathologic diagnosis was endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas. Gastric variceal bleeding is a possible manifestation of nonfunctional endocrine carcinoma of the pancreas if the splenic vein is affected by a tumor. In non-cirrhotic patients with isolated gastric variceal bleeding, the differential diagnosis should include pancreatic disorders.

  19. Recombinant factor VIIa for variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: A randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bosch, Jaime; Thabut, Dominique; Albillos, Agustín

    2008-01-01

    A beneficial effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in Child-Pugh class B and C patients with cirrhosis who have variceal bleeding has been suggested. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active variceal...

  20. Gallblader varices in children with portal cavernoma: duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Lopez, A.

    1998-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of varices in the gallbladder wall, observed by duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound, in children with cavernoma of the portal vein. Nineteen patients with portal hypertension were studied prospectively by duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound: 12 of the patients had developed a cavernoma of the portal vein. The presence of peri vesicular varices was assessed in the group of patients with portal cavernoma. Duplex-Doppler and color Doppler ultrasound disclosed the presence of varices in gallbladder wall in nine of the 12 patients (75%). The varices appeared as anechoic and serpiginous areas, and Doppler ultrasound revealed slowed venous flow. However, the three patients in whom gallbldder varices were not detected presented collateral gastric ciculation and spontaneous splenorenal shunt. Gallbladder varices are common in children with portal vein cavernoma; they present hepatopetal flow. Their developments is not related to the size of the portal cavernoma, the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts, or endoscopic obliteration of gastric and esophageal varices. The detection of gallbladder varices in patients with portal hypertension who are to undergo biliary surgery is highly important for the surgeon, helping to avoid perioperative complications. (Author) 15 refs

  1. Banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in esophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Klingenberg, Sarah; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2007-01-01

    To compare banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in patients with esophageal varices and no previous bleeding.......To compare banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in patients with esophageal varices and no previous bleeding....

  2. Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities: Case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Rew, Jong Sun; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Hee Joon; Han, Mingui; Cho, Kyu Man

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2-5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results. We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years. All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis. All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case). Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case. EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery.

  3. Endoscopic Sclerotherapy for Bleeding Oesophageal Varices: Experience in Gezira State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawia Elbalal Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bleeding due to oesophageal varices is the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage in Gezira State, Central Sudan. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EST is a valuable therapeutic modality for the management of variceal bleeding. Other options for treatment such as variceal band ligation are either expensive or unavailable. Objectives A retrospective study to evaluate the outcome of (EST in the management of bleeding oesophageal varices due to portal hypertension in Gezira State, the centre of a developing country, Sudan. Methods A total of 1073 patients, during 2001-2010, were carefully selected particularly those with bleeding oesophageal varices consequent to portal hypertension. EST was performed using a standard technique and ethanolamine oleate (5% was utilized as sclerosing agent. Results There were 777 males (72.4% and 296 females (27.6% in a ratio of 2.6. The causes of portal hypertension were found to be schistosomal periportal fibrosis (PPF in 1001 (93.3% patients, liver cirrhosis in 60 (5.5% mixed PPF and cirrhosis in seven (0.7% and portal vein thrombosis in five (0.5% patients. Full obliteration of varices required a mean of four sessions with a range of 2-6. In the present study 350 (32.6% patients have been followed up until complete sclerosis of varices. Conclusion This study provides evidence that endoscopic injection sclerotherapy is an important component in the management of bleeding oesophageal varices caused by hypertension. It is a safe and effective procedure.

  4. Percutaneous Trans-hepatic Obliteration for Bleeding Esophagojejunal Varices After Total Gastrectomy and Esophagojejunostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boku, Michiko; Sugimoto, Koji; Nakamura, Tetsu; Kita, Yasufumi; Zamora, Carlos A.; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2006-01-01

    A 72-year-old man who had undergone a total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for gastric cancer 6 years earlier presented to our hospital with massive hematemesis and melena. Endoscopic examination indicated esophageal varices with cherry-red spots and hemorrhage arising from beyond the anastomosis. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography and angiography revealed a dilated vein in the elevated jejunal limb supplying the varices. Percutaneous trans-hepatic obliteration (PTO) of the varices through the jejunal vein was performed using microcoils, ethanolamine oleate, and gelatin sponge cubes. Ten days after the procedure, endoscopic examination revealed reduction and thrombosis of the varices. We consider PTO to be an effective alternative method for treating ruptured esophagojejunal varices after total gastrectomy

  5. Efficacy of absolute alcohol injection compared with band ligation in the eradication of esophageal varices Eficácia da injeção de álcool absoluto comparada com ligadura elástica na erradicação de varizes de esôfago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Paulo Ferrari

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endoscopic sclerotherapy is an absolute indication for treating esophageal varices. Re-bleeding is common during the treatment period, before all varices become eradicated. AIM: To compare two techniques of endoscopic esophageal varices eradication: sclerotherapy with absolute alcohol and banding ligation. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Forty-six patients with liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices were prospectively randomized into two treatment groups: endoscopic sclerotherapy with absolute alcohol and banding ligation. Patients were included if they had large varices with signs of high bleeding risk. Informed writing consent was obtained from every patient and the Ethics Committee of Federal University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, approved the study. After eradication, all patients were followed up to 1 year to look for re-bleeding episodes and variceal recurrence. RESULTS: Both groups were similar except that male gender was more common in the sclerotherapy group. There was no statistical difference regarding variceal eradication (78.3% in sclerotherapy group vs 73.9% in the ligation group, recurrence (26.7% vs 42.9%, respectively and death related to any cause (21.7% vs 13.9%. In the sclerotherapy group more sessions were need to obtain complete variceal eradication. In this group we did observe a high re-bleeding rate (34.8% and more ulcers associated with retrosternal pain right after the procedure. There was no difference regarding overall morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Banding ligation requires fewer sessions than sclerotherapy with absolute alcohol to eradicate esophageal varices. Both methods are equally efficient regarding variceal eradication and recurrence during a short follow-up period.RACIONAL: Escleroterapia endoscópica tem indicação absoluta no tratamento das varizes de esôfago. Ressangramento é comum durante o período de tratamento, antes que as varizes sejam erradicadas. OBJETIVO: Comparar duas técnicas de

  6. Treatment of symptomatic pelvic varices by ovarian vein embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, Patrizio; Simons, Christine; Trotteur, Genevieve; Dondelinger, Robert F.; Henroteaux, Denis; Gaspard, Ulysse

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. Pelvic congestion syndrome is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain in women and its association with venous congestion has been described in the literature. We evaluated the potential benefits of lumboovarian vein embolization in the treatment of lower abdominal pain in patients presenting with pelvic varicosities. Methods. Nineteen patients were treated. There were 13 unilateral embolizations, 6 initial bilateral treatments and 5 treated recurrences (a total of 30 procedures). All embolizations were performed with either enbucrilate and/or macrocoils, and there was an average clinical and Doppler duplex follow-up of 15.4 months. Results. The initial technical success rate was 96.7%. There were no immediate or long-term complications. Variable symptomatic relief was observed in 73.7% of cases with complete responses in 57.9%. All 8 patients who had partial or no pain relief complained of dyspareunia. The direct relationship between varices and chronic pelvic pain was difficult to ascertain in a significant number of clinical failures. Conclusion. Transcatheter embolization of lumboovarian varices is a safe technique offering symptomatic relief of pelvic pain in the majority of cases. The presence of dyspareunia seemed to be a poor prognostic factor, indicating that other causes of pelvic pain may coexist with pelvic varicosities

  7. Percutaneous transsplenic varices embolization for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Li Jingyu; Lu Junliang; Xu Liyang; Liu Tao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of percutaneous transsplenic varices embolization (PTSVE) for treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: Twenty cases with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension suffered upper gastrointestinal bleeding. PTSVE was administered to them with hardener and coils. Among them, 8 cases had massive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in right lobe; 10 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma had portal vein tumor thrombus and occlusion; the other two cases with liver cirrhosis had portal vein thrombosis. All of these cases were not suitable for percutaneous transhepatic varices embolization (PTHVE). PTSVE was performed under the guidance of fluoroscopy. Results: Technical success was achieved in 18 patients. A total of 35 gastric coronary veins were embolized. In all these cases, upper gastrointestinal bleeding stopped after PTSVE. There was no recurrence within 1 month follow-up. No serious complication occurred. Conclusion: PTSVE is a safe and efficient alternative treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially for cases with portal vein occlusion or with massive HCC in right lobe of liver. (authors)

  8. Association of left renal vein variations and pelvic varices in abdominal MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Zafer; Ulusan, Serife; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether left renal vein (LRV) variation is associated with pelvic varices and left ovarian vein (LOV) reflux. Routine abdominal multidetector-row computed tomography scans of 324 women without symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome were analyzed. Presence and type of LRV variants (circumaortic [CLRV] or retroaortic [RLRV]) were recorded. Diameters of the LRV, ovarian veins (OVs), and parauterine veins were measured and a specific LRV diameter ratio was calculated for each patient. Presence and severity of pelvic varices and LOV reflux were noted. Pelvic varices were detected in 59 (18%) of the total of 324 women, in 7 (37%) of the 19 women with RLRVs, in 7 (29%) of the 24 women with CLRVs, and in 45 (16%) of the 281 women with normal LRVs. The frequency of pelvic varices in the women with LRV variation was significantly higher than that in the group with normal LRV anatomy (33 vs. 16%; p=0.009). The frequency of pelvic varices in the women with RLRVs was also significantly higher than that in the group with normal LRV anatomy (p=0.02). LRV diameter ratio was correlated with presence of pelvic varices and presence of LOV reflux (p=0.0001 for both). This study revealed an association between pelvic varices and LRV variations in a population of predominantly multiparous women. (orig.)

  9. Jejunal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy in patients with post-liver transplant portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lee M; Kim, Stanley; Superina, Riccardo; Mohammad, Saeed

    2017-02-01

    Portal hypertension secondary to portal vein obstruction following liver transplant occurs in 5%-10% of children. Jejunal varices are uncommon in this group. We present a case series of children with significant GI blood loss, negative upper endoscopy, and jejunal varices detected by CE. Case series of patients who had CE for chronic GI blood loss following liver transplantation. Three patients who had their initial transplants at a median age of 7 months were identified at our institution presenting at a median age of 8 years (range 7-16 years) with a median Hgb of 2.8 g/dL (range 1.8-6.8 g/dL). Upper endoscopy was negative for significant esophageal varices, gastric varices, and bleeding portal gastropathy in all three children. All three patients had significant jejunal varices noted on CE in mid-jejunum. Jejunal varices were described as large prominent bluish vessels underneath visualized mucosa, one with evidence of recent bleeding. The results led to venoplasty of the portal vein in two patients and a decompressive shunt in one patient with resolution of GI bleed and anemia. CE is useful to diagnose intestinal varices in children with portal hypertension and GI bleeding following liver transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in treatment of gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Shanhong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in the treatment of gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension. Methods The endoscopic features and efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection were examined and compared in two groups of patients admitted to our hospital from June 2012 to December 2012. One of the groups included 6 patients with gastric variceal bleeding caused by regional portal hypertension and the other group included 6 patients with gastric variceal bleeding caused by hepatitis B cirrhosis-related portal hypertension. Between-group comparison of categorical data was made by Fisher′s test. Results In patients with regional portal hypertension, five of them had severe isolated gastric varices (IGV and one had severe IGV with mild esophageal varices. All six patients with hepatitis B cirrhosis-related portal hypertension had severe IGV and the endoscopic features were similar to those of patients with regional portal hypertension. Significant differences were observed between the group with regional portal hypertension and the group with hepatitis B cirrhosis related portal hypertension in short-term response rate (1/6 vs 6/6, P=0.015 and long-term response rate (0/6 vs 5/6, P=0.015. Conclusion The gastric varices caused by regional portal hypertension has a fast progression rate and a high bleeding risk. The efficacy of endoscopic histoacryl injection in patients with this type of gastric varices is poor.

  11. Association of left renal vein variations and pelvic varices in abdominal MDCT

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    Koc, Zafer [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Baskent Universitesi Adana Hastanesi, Adana (Turkey); Ulusan, Serife; Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University, Adana Teaching and Medical Research Center, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether left renal vein (LRV) variation is associated with pelvic varices and left ovarian vein (LOV) reflux. Routine abdominal multidetector-row computed tomography scans of 324 women without symptoms of pelvic congestion syndrome were analyzed. Presence and type of LRV variants (circumaortic [CLRV] or retroaortic [RLRV]) were recorded. Diameters of the LRV, ovarian veins (OVs), and parauterine veins were measured and a specific LRV diameter ratio was calculated for each patient. Presence and severity of pelvic varices and LOV reflux were noted. Pelvic varices were detected in 59 (18%) of the total of 324 women, in 7 (37%) of the 19 women with RLRVs, in 7 (29%) of the 24 women with CLRVs, and in 45 (16%) of the 281 women with normal LRVs. The frequency of pelvic varices in the women with LRV variation was significantly higher than that in the group with normal LRV anatomy (33 vs. 16%; p=0.009). The frequency of pelvic varices in the women with RLRVs was also significantly higher than that in the group with normal LRV anatomy (p=0.02). LRV diameter ratio was correlated with presence of pelvic varices and presence of LOV reflux (p=0.0001 for both). This study revealed an association between pelvic varices and LRV variations in a population of predominantly multiparous women. (orig.)

  12. Prevalence of gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with Symmer's periportal fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudawi, H.; Ali, Y.; El-Tahir, M.

    2008-01-01

    Symmer's periportal fibrosis secondary to schistosomiasis is a common cause of portal hypertension worldwide. Data on the prevalence of gastric variances and portal hypertensive gastropathy in this group of patients with portal of hypertension is relatively scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients presenting with portal hypertension secondary to Symmer's periportal fibrosis. In a prospective study, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with portal hypertension secondary to Symmer's fibrosis. Of 143 patients studied, 24 patients (16.8%) had gastric varices (grade I in 10.5%, grade Ii in 6.3%) and 31 patients (21.7%) had portal hypertensive gastropathy (mild in 11.2%, severe in 10.5%). Gastric varices were more prevalent in patients with grade I and II esophageal varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy was more prevalent in those with grade III and IV esophageal varices, but the differences were not statistically significant. We conclude that both gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy seem to have a lower prevalence in patients with portal hypertension secondary to Symmer's periportal fibrosis when compared to reported data in patients with portal hypertension secondary to liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis. (author)

  13. Frequency of gastric varices in patients with portal hypertension based on endoscopic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, A.W.; Chaudry, A.A.; Mir, S.; Ahmed, N.; Khan, A.A.; Shahzadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the frequency of gastric varices in patients with portal hypertension based on endoscopic findings. Study Design: Descriptive Study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gastroenterology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jan to Jun 2011. Material and Methods: All patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected through consecutive sampling. The patients presenting with hematemesis, melena or ascites with portal hypertension on ultrasound abdomen were admitted in the hospital. The patients were first stabilized hemodynamically and then kept empty stomach for at least four hours before endoscopy. The patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam and endoscopic findings obtained were entered on the patient proforma. Results: The overall frequency of gastric varices was 11 percent, whereas 89 percent had no gastric varices. Conclusion: A large number of patients with portal hypertension have gastric varices. It is recommended that endoscopy be carried out in all patients with identified portal hypertension. (author)

  14. Influência do grau de insuficiência hepática e do índice de congestão portal na recidiva hemorrágica de cirróticos submetidos a cirurgia de Teixeira-Warren Role of liver function and portal vein congestion index on rebleeding in cirrhotics after distal splenorenal shunt

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    Fabio Gonçalves Ferreira

    2007-06-01

    distal em relação aos Child-Pugh A.BACKGROUND: Bleeding from esophagogastric varices is the worst and most lethal complication of cirrhotic portal hypertension. Distal splenorenal shunt (Warren’s surgery is used in the therapeutic of this patients, Child A and B, with rebleeding after clinical endoscopic therapy. The portal vein congestion index is elevated in cirrhotic portal hypertension and could predict rebleeding after Warren’s surgery in these patients. AIM: To verify if the portal vein congestion index or liver function (Child-Pugh at preoperative are predictive factors of rebleeding after Warren’s surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two cirrhotic patients were submitted to Warren’s surgery at "Santa Casa" Medical School and Hospital - Liver and Portal Hypertension Unit, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Fifty-eight were analyzed for Child-Pugh class and 36 for portal vein congestion index, divided in two groups: with or without rebleeding and statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: In the rebleeding group, 69% were Child B, with portal vein congestion index = 0.09. The group without rebleeding show us 62% patients Child A with portal vein congestion index = 0.076. The difference was significant for Child-Pugh class but not to portal vein congestion index. CONCLUSION: Portal vein congestion index was not predictive of rebleeding after Warren’s surgery, but cirrhotics Child B have more chance to rebleed after this surgery than Child A.

  15. Octreotide in the Control of Post-Sclerotherapy Bleeding from Oesophageal Varices, Ulcers and Oesophagitis

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    Spencer A. Jenkins

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding from oesophageal varices, oesophageal ulcers or oesophagitis is occasionally massive and difficult to control. Octreotide, a synthetic analogue of somatostin lowers portal pressure and collateral blood flow including that through varices, increases lower oesophageal sphincter pressure, and inhibits the gastric secretion of acid as well as pepsin. Our current experience suggests it is effective in controlling acute variceal haemorrhage. Therefore we have examined the efficacy of octreotide in the control of postsclerotherapy bleeding from oesophageal varices, oesophageal ulcers and oesophagitis. During the study period 77 patients experienced a significant gastrointestinal bleed (blood pressure 100 beats per min or the need to transfuse 2 or more units of blood to restore the haemoglobin level following injection sclerotherapy of oesophageal varices. The source of bleeding was varices in 42 patients, oesophageal ulcers in 31 and oesophagitis in 4. All patients received a continuous intravenous infusion of octreotide (50 μg/h for between 40–140h. If bleeding was not controlled in the first 12h after commencing octreotide hourly bolus doses (50 μg for 24h were superimposed on the continuous infusion. Haemorrhage was successfully controlled by an infusion of octreotide in 38 of the 42 patients with bleeding from varices, in 30 of 31 patients with oesophageal ulceration, and all patients with oesophagitis. In the 1 patient with persistent bleeding from oesophageal ulceration and in 2 of the 4 with continued haemorrhage from varices, haemostasis was achieved by hourly boluses of 50 μg octreotide for 24h in addition to the continuous infusion. No major complications were associated with octreotide administration. The results of this study clearly indicate that octreotide is a safe and effective treatment for the control of severe haemorrhage after technically successful injection sclerotherapy.

  16. Gallbladder varices in extrahepatic portal venous obstruction: demonstration by intravenous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We performed a prospective study to determine frequency of presence of gallbladder varices (GBV) by intravenous CT portography (CTP) in patients with extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO). 90 patients (age range: 2-55 years) with EHPVO (initially diagnosed on abdominal sonography) underwent CTP using a subsecond helical CT scanner. Axial overlapping sections of 2mm were obtained with collimation 3mm and table speed 4.5mm/sec (pitch 1.5). Presence and patterns of GBV were studied. CTP demonstrated GBV in 54 (60%) of 90 patients.GBV were said to be present when one or more of the following findings were seen: diffuse wall enhancement (26/90), pinpoint areas of enhancement in GB wall (33/90), obvious large collaterals in GB wall (8/90) and pericholecystic collaterals (49/90). Presence of GBV did not correlate with the site and extent of EHPVO. Contiguous intrahepatic collaterals extending from GB bed to intrahepatic portal vein branches were seen in 41 of 54 (76%) of patients with GBV, suggesting the role of GBV serving as bridging portoportal collaterals. Hepatic perfusion defects were seen in 5/54 patients with GBV and were not seen in remaining 36/90 patients of EHPVO. GB calculi were seen in only 4/54 cases with GBV (as determined on sonography) suggesting no increase in risk for cholelithiasis. GBV commonly develop as bridging collaterals in patients with EHPVO. CTP is very useful in detecting these varices and planning biliary surgery, given the frequency of iatrogenic surgical bleeding in these patients. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Ascending colonic variceal bleeding: utility of phase-contrast MR portography in diagnosis and follow-up after treatment with TIPS and variceal embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, P.; Motamedi, J.P.; Oddo, F.; Padovani, B.; Demuth, N.; Caroli-Bosc, F.X.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe the discovery of ascending colonic variceal veins via celiomesenteric diagnostic angiography following a bout of melena in a 44-year-old woman. Magnetic resonance imaging, including phase-contrast MR venography, allowed visualization of the portal and systemic veins immediately after the initial angiograms. The hemorrhagic episode did not resolve until after transjugular intrahepatic shunt insertion and selective variceal embolization through the shunt. At 1 week-, 3 months-, and 6 months post treatment, follow-up MR venography no longer revealed the presence of colonic varices. Colonoscopy at 6 months was normal and the patient did not have any further episodes of bleeding until a liver transplantation was performed after 9 months. (orig.)

  18. Trans-anastomotic porto-portal varices in patients with gastrointestinal haemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.W.M.; Jackson, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: Porto-portal varices are commonly seen in patients with segmental extra-hepatic portal hypertension and develop to provide a collateral circulation around an area of portal venous obstruction. It is not well recognized that such communications may also develop across surgical anastomoses and be the source of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The possible mode of development of such communications has not been previously discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a 3-year period between 1995 and 1998, porto-portal varices were demonstrated across surgical anastomoses in four patients who were referred for the investigation of acute (two), acute-on-chronic (one) and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding (one). Their medical notes and the findings at angiography were reviewed. RESULTS: Three patients had segmental portal hypertension due to extra-hepatic portal vein (one) or superior mesenteric vein (two) stenosis/occlusion. One patient had mild portal hypertension due to hepatic fibrosis secondary to congenital biliary atresia. At angiography all patients were shown to have varices crossing previous surgical anastomoses. These varices were presumed to be the cause of bleeding in three of the four patients; the site of bleeding in the fourth individual was not determined. CONCLUSIONS: Trans-anastomotic porto-portal varices are rare. They develop in the presence of extra-hepatic portal hypertension and presumably arise within peri-anastomotic inflammatory tissue. Such varices may be difficult to manage and their prognosis is poor when bleeding occurs. Mitchell, A.W.M., Jackson, J.E. (2000)

  19. Endovascular obliteration of bleeding duodenal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamora, Carlos Armando; Sugimoto, Koji; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Izaki, Kenta; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Kawasaki, Ryota; Taniguchi, Takanori; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe-shi, Hyogo-ken (Japan); Kuwata, Yoichiro [Nishi-Kobe Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kobe-shi, Hyogo-ken (Japan); Hirota, Shozo [Hyogo Medical College, Department of Radiology, Nishinomiya-shi, Hyogo-ken (Japan)

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe our experience with endovascular obliteration of duodenal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Balloon-occluded transvenous retrograde and percutaneous transhepatic anterograde embolizations were performed for duodenal varices in five patients with liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and decreased liver function. All patients had undergone previous endoscopic treatments that failed to stop bleeding and were poor surgical candidates. Temporary balloon occlusion catheters were used to achieve accumulation of an ethanolamine oleate-iopamidol mixture inside the varices. Elimination of the varices was successful in all patients. Retrograde transvenous obliteration via efferent veins to the inferior vena cava was enough to achieve adequate sclerosant accumulation in three patients. A combined anterograde-retrograde embolization was used in one patient with balloon occlusion of afferent and efferent veins. Transhepatic embolization through the afferent vein was performed in one patient under balloon occlusion of both efferent and afferent veins. There was complete variceal thrombosis and no bleeding was observed at follow-up. No major complications were recorded. Endovascular obliteration of duodenal varices is a feasible and safe alternative procedure for managing patients with portal hypertension and hemorrhage from this source. (orig.)

  20. Hypoalbuminemia is a predictor of mortality and rebleeding in peptic ulcer bleeding under proton pump inhibitor use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Yang, Er-Hsiang; Wu, Chung-Tai; Wang, Wen-Lun; Chen, Po-Jun; Lin, Meng-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2018-04-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding remains a deadly disease, and a simple indicator of long-term outcomes is crucial. This study validated whether hypoalbuminemia and its related factors in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding can indicate long-term mortality and rebleeding under proton pump inhibitor use. The prospective cohort study enrolled 426 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding who had high risk stigmata at endoscopy and had received endoscopic hemostasis. They were divided into 79 patients in the hypoalbuminemia group (Hypo-AG, serum albumin ulcer size ≥1.0 cm independently (p peptic ulcer bleeding can be an alarm indicator of all-cause mortality and recurrent bleeding in a long-term follow-up situation under proton pump inhibitor use (NCT01591083). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Comparison on Endoscopic Hemoclip and Hemoclip Combination Therapy in Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Patients Based on Clinical Practice Data: Is There Difference between Prospective Cohort Study and Randomized Study?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Jung, Jin Tae; Lee, Dong Wook; Ha, Chang Yoon; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Si Hyung; Yang, Chang Heon; Park, Youn Sun; Jeon, Seong Woo

    2015-08-01

    Endoscopic hemoclip application is an effective and safe method of endoscopic hemostasis. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study on hemoclip and hemoclip combination therapy based on prospective cohort database in terms of hemostatic efficacy not in clinical trial but in real clinical practice. Data on endoscopic hemostasis for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) were prospectively collected from February 2011 to December 2013. Among 1,584 patients with NVUGIB, 186 patients treated with hemoclip were enrolled in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 62), hemoclipping only; group 2 (n = 88), hemoclipping plus epinephrine injection; and group 3 (n = 36), hemocliping and epinephrine injection plus other endoscopic hemostatic modalities. Primary outcomes included rebleeding, other therapeutic management, hospitalization period, fasting period and mortality. Secondary outcomes were bleeding associated mortality and overall mortality. Active bleeding and peptic ulcer bleeding were more common in group 3 than in group 1 and in group 2 (p bleeding associated mortality and total mortality) were not different among groups. Combination therapy of epinephrine injection and other modalities with hemoclips did not show advantage over hemoclipping alone in this prospective cohort study. However, there is a tendency to perform combination therapy in active bleeding which resulted in equivalent hemostatic success rate, and this reflects the role of combination therapy in clinical practice.

  2. [Surgical treatment of varices at the stage of trophic disorders in chronic venous insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludin, A; Ammann, J

    1991-01-01

    Most ulcers of the lower limbs are caused by existing chronic venous insufficiency. Later on, true social and professional problems will arise, with serious economic and psychological consequences not only for the patient himself, but for the community as well, such as huge medical costs--hence the importance of prevention and treatment, which must in no case be purely symptomatic. The ligation of the arch and of the perforating veins and stripping of the affected vein are part of the classical management of varices. These procedures can may prove to be virtually impossible in case of chronic venous insufficiency, if the patient also presents with subcutaneous liposclerosis or atrophy in an already pregangrenous skin. This preulcerous stage can be aggravated later on if the requirements for surgical repair are not met. Necrosis can then occur, if too aggressive surgery directly or indirectly injures the microcirculatory system of the damaged skin. Omitted or undesirable acts are dangerous at the stage of trophic disorders and surgery may fail to reach its aim, which of course would be to definitively and quickly eliminate the varicose disease.

  3. Severe gastric variceal haemorrhage due to splenic artery thrombosis and consecutive arterial bypass

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    Wasmuth Hermann E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is mainly caused by ulcers. Gastric varicosis due to portal hypertension can also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Portal hypertension causes the development of a collateral circulation from the portal to the caval venous system resulting in development of oesophageal and gastric fundus varices. Those may also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Case presentation In this study, we describe the case of a 69-year-old male with recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by arterial submucosal collaterals due to idiopathic splenic artery thrombosis. The diagnosis was secured using endoscopic duplex ultrasound and angiography. The patient was successfully treated with a laparoscopic splenectomy and complete dissection of the short gastric arteries, resulting in the collapse of the submucosal arteries in the gastric wall. Follow-up gastroscopy was performed on the 12th postoperative week and showed no signs of bleeding and a significant reduction in the arterial blood flow within the gastric wall. Subsequent follow-up after 6 months also showed no further gastrointestinal bleeding as well as subjective good quality of life for the patient. Conclusion Submucosal arterial collaterals must be excluded by endosonography via endoscopy in case of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Laparoscopic splenectomy provides adequate treatment in preventing any recurrent bleeding, if gastric arterial collaterals are caused by splenic artery thrombosis.

  4. Hand-assisted laparoscopic Hassab's procedure for esophagogastric varices with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takashi; Miura, Kohei; Ishikawa, Hirosuke; Soma, Daiki; Zhang, Zhengkun; Ando, Takuya; Yuza, Kizuki; Hirose, Yuki; Katada, Tomohiro; Takizawa, Kazuyasu; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Sakata, Jun; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2017-10-23

    Laparoscopic surgery for patients with portal hypertension is considered to be contraindicated because of the high risk of massive intraoperative hemorrhaging. However, recent reports have shown hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery for devascularization and splenectomy to be a safe and effective method of treating esophagogastric varices with portal hypertension. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of hand-assisted laparoscopic devascularization and splenectomy (HALS Hassab's procedure) for the treatment of esophagogastric varices with portal hypertension. From 2009 to 2016, seven patients with esophagogastric varices with portal hypertension were treated with hand-assisted laparoscopic devascularization and splenectomy in our institute. Four men and three women with a median age of 61 years (range 35-71) were enrolled in this series. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records for the perioperative variables, postoperative mortality and morbidity, and postoperative outcomes of esophagogastric varices. The median operative time was 455 (range 310-671) min. The median intraoperative blood loss was 695 (range 15-2395) ml. The median weight of removed spleen was 507 (range 242-1835) g. The conversion rate to open surgery was 0%. The median postoperative hospital stay was 21 (range 13-81) days. During a median 21 (range 3-43) months of follow-up, the mortality rate was 0%. Four postoperative complications (massive ascites, enteritis, intra-abdominal abscess, and intestinal ulcer) were observed in two patients. Those complications were treated successfully without re-operation. Esophagogastric varices in all patients disappeared or improved. Bleeding from esophagogastric varices was not observed during the follow-up period. Although our data are preliminary, hand-assisted laparoscopic devascularization and splenectomy proved an effective procedure for treating esophagogastric varices in patients with portal hypertension.

  5. Right ovarian vein drainage variant: Is there a relationship with pelvic varices?

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    Koc, Zafer [Baskent Universitesi, Adana Hastanesi, Radyoloji Boeluemue, Serin Evler 39, Sok. No. 6 Yueregir, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail: koczafer@gmail.com; Ulusan, Serife [Baskent Universitesi, Adana Hastanesi, Radyoloji Boeluemue, Serin Evler 39, Sok. No. 6 Yueregir, Adana (Turkey); Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent Universitesi, Adana Hastanesi, Radyoloji Boeluemue, Serin Evler 39, Sok. No. 6 Yueregir, Adana (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Objective: To correlate right ovarian vein (ROV) variations that drain into the right renal vein (RRV) with the presence of pelvic varices. Materials and methods: Routine abdominal multidetector-row computed tomography scans of 324 women were analyzed for the presence and type of ROV variations in this retrospective study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with ROV variations and those without such variations. The diameters of the subjects' ROV, left ovarian vein (LOV), and parauterine veins were measured. Pelvic varices and the presence and degree of ovarian vein reflux were noted and compared between the 2 groups. The {chi}{sup 2}-test and the Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Thirty-two (9.9%) of 324 women studied exhibited ROV variant that drained into the right renal vein, and the remaining subjects (90.1%) exhibited a normal pattern of ROV drainage that flowed directly into the inferior vena cava. Pelvic varices were identified in 59 (18%) of the subjects. Reflux was not observed in any patient without pelvic varices. Fifty-seven of 59 women exhibited ovarian vein reflux. In 56 of those 57 individuals, reflux occurred only in the LOV, and in 1 subject, reflux was noted predominantly in the ROV. No significant relationship between the presence of an ROV that drained into the right renal vein and pelvic varices was noted. Conclusion: Although right-sided pelvic varices associated with right ovarian vein drainage variations are rare, anatomic variations of the right ovarian vein are not. This study did not find an association between the presence of right ovarian vein and pelvic varices.

  6. Right ovarian vein drainage variant: Is there a relationship with pelvic varices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Zafer; Ulusan, Serife; Oguzkurt, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To correlate right ovarian vein (ROV) variations that drain into the right renal vein (RRV) with the presence of pelvic varices. Materials and methods: Routine abdominal multidetector-row computed tomography scans of 324 women were analyzed for the presence and type of ROV variations in this retrospective study. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: those with ROV variations and those without such variations. The diameters of the subjects' ROV, left ovarian vein (LOV), and parauterine veins were measured. Pelvic varices and the presence and degree of ovarian vein reflux were noted and compared between the 2 groups. The χ 2 -test and the Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Thirty-two (9.9%) of 324 women studied exhibited ROV variant that drained into the right renal vein, and the remaining subjects (90.1%) exhibited a normal pattern of ROV drainage that flowed directly into the inferior vena cava. Pelvic varices were identified in 59 (18%) of the subjects. Reflux was not observed in any patient without pelvic varices. Fifty-seven of 59 women exhibited ovarian vein reflux. In 56 of those 57 individuals, reflux occurred only in the LOV, and in 1 subject, reflux was noted predominantly in the ROV. No significant relationship between the presence of an ROV that drained into the right renal vein and pelvic varices was noted. Conclusion: Although right-sided pelvic varices associated with right ovarian vein drainage variations are rare, anatomic variations of the right ovarian vein are not. This study did not find an association between the presence of right ovarian vein and pelvic varices

  7. Correlation Between Esophageal Varices and Lok Score as a Non-invasive Parameter in Liver Cirrhosis Patients

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    Iqbal Sungkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding from gastro-esophageal varices is the most serious and life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. Endoscopic surveillance of esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients is expensive and uncomfortable for the patients. Therefore, there is a particular need for non-invasive predictors for esophageal varices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate association of esophageal varices and Lok Score as non-invasive parameter in liver cirrhosis patients. This is a cross-sectional study of patients admitted at the Adam Malik hospital Medan between September to December 2014 with a diagnosis of cirrhosis based on clinical, biochemical examination, ultrasound, and gastroscopy. Lok Score was calculated for all patients, tabulated and analyzed. Among 76 patients with esophageal varices, 55.3% was due to hepatitis B virus (HBV. The majority of patients were Child C with only 13,2% being Child Pugh class A. Majority of the population had F2 esophageal varices (42.1%, F1 (32.9%, and F3 (25%. There is significance difference between Lok Score and grading of esophageal varices, in which Lok Score is higher in large esophageal varices compared with small esophageal varises (0.92 ± 0.14 vs. 0.70 ± 0.29; p = 0.001. Lok Score with cut-off point of > 0.9141 was highly predictive in the diagnosis large esophageal varices with a sensitivity of 74.5%, specificity of 72%, positive predictive value of 84%, negative predictive value 58%, and accuracy was 73.7%. Lok Score was significantly associated with esophageal varices. Lok Score is a good non-invasive predictor of large esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients.

  8. Bleeding Duodenal Varices Successfully Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (B-RTO) Assisted by CT During Arterial Portography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Sugimoto, Koji; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Izaki, Kenta; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Akasaka, Yoshinobu; Fujii, Masahiko; Hirota, Shozo; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2006-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman with massive hemorrhage from duodenal varices was transferred to our hospital for the purpose of transcatheter intervention. Although digital subtraction arterial portography could not depict the entire pathway of collateral circulation, the efferent route of the duodenal varices was clearly demonstrated on subsequent CT during arterial portography. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) of the varices was performed via the efferent vein and achieved complete thrombosis of the varices

  9. Splenomegaly and its Relation to Esophageal Varices in Patient with liver Cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheid, S.A.; Hafez, E.N.; Al Kady, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis has been associated with portal hypertension as a common complication with subsequent development of esophageal varices (EV).Bleeding due to rupture of esophageal varices (EV) is one of main cause of death in liver cirrhosis, that endoscopy screening is recommended. The aim of work was to determin the of the degree esophageal varices endoscopically in in 60 cirrhotic patients,(32 in Child-Pugh's class A, 16 in Child-Pugh's class B, and 12 in Child-Pugh's class C) who were examined clinically, laboratory , ultrasonography to and comparing them with the determines of the spleen ultrasonography and some biochemical data . Correlation analysis was done to assess this study. Of 60 patients, 20 were admitted to hospital because of acute gastro-intestinal bleeding and 40 without history of gastro-intestinal bleeding. The range age of patients was 30-65 years (average 48.4 ± 8.6 years), 6 (10%) patients with EV grade I, 14(23.4%) patients with grade II and 10 (16.6%) patients with grade III. Twinty patients having esophageal varices of different degrees, had no splenomegaly. A negative correlation was found between spleen diameter and the degree of EV (p < 0.05). The percentage of patients with varices increased with the severty of Liver cirrhosis: 6(18.8) of 32 patients in Child-Pugh class A,14 (87.5%) of 16 in Child-Pugh class B, and 10(83.3%) of 12 in Child-Pugh class C had varices.The degree of EV significantly correlated with Child-Puph score. Patients with varices had lower platelet counts comparison to those without varices (237.259 ± 100.305, 298.424 ± 103.09 respectively; p<0.001), and lower serum albumin comparison to those without varices (1.8 ± 0.92, 2.8 ± 0.83 respectively; p<0.001). The platelet count to spleen diameter ratio (PC/SD) in patients with EV were significantly Rasheid et. al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., 266 Vol. 6, No. 1B (2013) different from patients without EV (945.84±778.59, 686.26± 546.39 respectively; p<0.001).

  10. Size of gastroesophageal varices: its behavior after the surgical treatment of portal hypertension

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    Strauss Edna

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The size of gastroesophageal varices is one of the most important factors leading to hemorrhage related to portal hypertension. An endoscopic evaluation of the size of gastroesophageal varices before and after different operations for portal hypertension was performed in 73 patients with schistosomiasis, as part of a randomized trial: proximal splenorenal shunt (PSS n=24, distal splenorenal shunt (DSS n=24, and esophagogastric devascularization with splenectomy (EGDS n=25. The endoscopic evaluation was performed before and up to 10 years after the operations. Variceal size was graded according to Palmer's classification: grade 1 -- up to 3 mm, grade 2 -- from 3 to 6 mm, grade 3 -- greater than 6 mm, and were analyzed in four anatomical locations: inferior, middle or superior third of the esophagus, and proximal stomach. The total number of points in the pre-operative grading minus the number of points in the post-operative grading gave a differential grading, allowing statistical comparison among the surgical groups. Good results, in terms of disappearance or decrease of variceal size, were observed more frequently after PSS than after DSS or EGDS - 95.8%, 83.3%, and 72%, respectively. When differential grading was analyzed, a statistically significant difference was observed between PSS and EGDS, but not between proximal and distal splenorenal shunts. In conclusion, shunt surgeries were more efficient than devascularization in diminishing variceal size.

  11. Therapeutic effects of percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization combined with partial splenic embolization for portal hypertention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Yingxue; Yan Zhiping; Cheng Yongde; Qiao Delin; Zhou Bing; Chen Shiwei; Li Yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficiency of percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization (PTVE) combined with patial splenic embolization (PES)for portal hypertension. Methods: 30 patients with critical portal hypertension were divided randomly into two groups, 15 patients of A group underwent PSE PTVE combined with PSE and 15 of B group underwent PES only. The changes of collateral circulation of the two groups were compared via color Doppler ultrasonography pre-and postoperatively. Results: The hypersplenism was well controlled in both groups after PTVE and PSE. The varices of A group were embolized completely, the flow rate and velocity of portal blood stream were significantly reduced (P<0.05). In addition, the flow rate and velocity together with inner diameter of the azygous vein decreased (P<0.01), but no change shown on portal vein diameter, only with decrease of blood flow and velocity postoperatively were shown in the two groups (P<0.05). During 13-16 months follow-up, gastroesophageal variceal bleeding appeared in 2 patients and formation of portal thrombi in 1 patients of B group. There was no gastroesophageal variceal bleeding in A group but 2 patients appeared portal hypertensive gastroenteropathy (PHG)under endoscopic confirmations. Conclusion: PTVE combined PSE is very efficient for gastroesophageal variceal bleeding and hypersplenism due to portal hypertension, especially for patients with poor hepatic function, possessing simple, economic, less invasive properties and deserving to be recommended. (authors)

  12. Recurrent Bacteremia, a Complication of Cyanoacrylate Injection for Variceal Bleeding: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Galperine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first description of recurrent bacteremia in two patients after cyanoacrylate injection for gastric varices bleeding treated with antibiotics alone. Adapted and prolonged antibiotic treatment allowed a complete resolution of the infection with no relapse after more than 6 months. According to recent data, prophylactic antibiotics should be further investigated for patients with bleeding varices undergoing cyanoacrylate injection.

  13. Outcome of the Pediatric Patients with Portal Cavernoma: The Retrospective Study for 10 Years Focusing on Recurrent Variceal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Portal cavernoma (PC is the most critical condition with risk or variceal hemorrhage in pediatric patients. We retrospectively investigated the patients with PC focusing on the predictors for recurrent variceal bleeding. Methods. Between July 2003 and June 2013, we retrospectively enrolled all consecutive patients admitted to our department with a diagnosis of PC without abdominal malignancy or liver cirrhosis. The primary endpoint of this observational study was recurrent variceal bleeding. Independent predictors of recurrent variceal bleeding were identified using the logistic regression model. Results. A total of 157 patients were enrolled in the study. During the follow-up period, 24 patients exhibited onset of recurrent variceal bleeding. Acute variceal bleeding was subjected to conservative symptomatic treatment and emergency endoscopic sclerotherapy. Surgical procedure selection was based on the severity of vascular dilation and collateral circulation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of ascites, collateral circulation, and portal venous pressure were independent prognostic factors of recurrent variceal bleeding for patients with portal cavernoma. Conclusions. The presence of ascites, collateral circulation, and portal venous pressure evaluation are important and could predict the postsurgical recurrent variceal bleeding in patients with portal cavernoma.

  14. Peptic ulcer bleeding patients with Rockall scores ≥6 are at risk of long-term ulcer rebleeding: A 3.5-year prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Er-Hsiang; Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Wu, Chung-Tai; Chen, Wei-Ying; Lin, Meng-Ying; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2018-01-01

    Patients with high Rockall scores have increased risk of rebleeding and mortality within 30 days after peptic ulcer bleeding, but long-term outcomes deserve follow-up after cessation of proton pump inhibitors. The paper aimed to validate whether patients with high Rockall scores have more recurrent ulcer bleeding in a 3.5-year longitudinal cohort. Between August 2011 and July 2014, 368 patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were prospectively enrolled after endoscopic hemostasis to receive proton pump inhibitors for at least 8 to 16 weeks. These subjects were categorized into either a Rockall scores ≥6 group (n = 257) or a Rockall scores ulcer bleeding. The proportion of patients with rebleeding during the 3.5-year follow-up was higher in patients with Rockall scores ≥6 than in those with scores ulcer (P = 0.04) were three additional independent factors found to increase rebleeding risk. The cumulative rebleeding rate was higher in patients with Rockall scores ≥6 with more than or equal to any two additional factors than in those with fewer than two additional factors (15.69 vs. 7.63 per 100 person-year, P = 0.012, log-rank test). Patients with Rockall scores ≥6 are at risk of long-term recurrent peptic ulcer bleeding. The risk can be independently increased by the presence of activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged ≥1.5-fold, American Society of Anesthesiologists class ≥III, and gastric ulcer in patients with Rockall scores ≥6. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Correlation of Major Scan Findings and Esophageal Varices in Liver Cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J. S.; Bahk, Y. W.; Lim, J. L.

    1970-01-01

    In an endeavor to help understand some typical scan findings and portal hemodynamics in liver cirrhosis, several commonly occurring scan changes and esophageal varices as demonstrated by esophagram were correlated one another from quantitative and qualitative stand points. Clinical materials consisted of 34 patients with proven diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Liver scan was performed with colloidal 198-Au and the changes in the size and internal architecture of the Liver, splenic uptake and splenomegaly were graded and scored by repeated double-blind readings. The variceal changes on esophagrams were also graded according to the classification of Shanks and Kerley following modification. Of 34 patients, 91% showed definite reducing in liver volume(shrinkage) constituting the most frequent scan change. The splenic uptake and splenomegaly were noted in 73.5 and 79.4%, respectively. The present study revealed no positive correlation between the graded scan findings including shrinkage of the liver, splenic uptake or splenomegaly and severity of variceal changes of the esophagus. Exceptionally, however, apparently paradoxical correlation was noted between the severity of mottling and varices. Thus, in the majority(73.5%) of patients mottling were either absent or mild. This interesting observation is in favor of the view held by Christie et al. who consider the mottlings to be not faithful expression of actual scarring of the cirrhosis liver. This also would indicate that variceal changes are to be the results of intrahepatic arteriovenous shunting of blood with hypervolemic load to the portal system rather than simple hypertension secondary to fibrosis and shrinkage.

  16. Correlation of Major Scan Findings and Esophageal Varices in Liver Cirrhosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J S; Bahk, Y W; Lim, J L [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1970-03-15

    In an endeavor to help understand some typical scan findings and portal hemodynamics in liver cirrhosis, several commonly occurring scan changes and esophageal varices as demonstrated by esophagram were correlated one another from quantitative and qualitative stand points. Clinical materials consisted of 34 patients with proven diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and esophageal varices. Liver scan was performed with colloidal 198-Au and the changes in the size and internal architecture of the Liver, splenic uptake and splenomegaly were graded and scored by repeated double-blind readings. The variceal changes on esophagrams were also graded according to the classification of Shanks and Kerley following modification. Of 34 patients, 91% showed definite reducing in liver volume(shrinkage) constituting the most frequent scan change. The splenic uptake and splenomegaly were noted in 73.5 and 79.4%, respectively. The present study revealed no positive correlation between the graded scan findings including shrinkage of the liver, splenic uptake or splenomegaly and severity of variceal changes of the esophagus. Exceptionally, however, apparently paradoxical correlation was noted between the severity of mottling and varices. Thus, in the majority(73.5%) of patients mottling were either absent or mild. This interesting observation is in favor of the view held by Christie et al. who consider the mottlings to be not faithful expression of actual scarring of the cirrhosis liver. This also would indicate that variceal changes are to be the results of intrahepatic arteriovenous shunting of blood with hypervolemic load to the portal system rather than simple hypertension secondary to fibrosis and shrinkage.

  17. Predictors of a variceal source among patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Ahmad; Almadi, Majid; Barkun, Alan; Martel, Myriam

    2012-04-01

    Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require an early, tailored approach best guided by knowledge of the bleeding lesion, especially a variceal versus a nonvariceal source. To identify, by investigating a large national registry, variables that would be predictive of a variceal origin of UGIB using clinical parameters before endoscopic evaluation. A retrospective study was conducted in 21 Canadian hospitals during the period from January 2004 until the end of May 2005. Consecutive charts for hospitalized patients with a primary or secondary discharge diagnosis of UGIB were reviewed. Data regarding demographics, including historical, physical examination, initial laboratory investigations, endoscopic and pharmacological therapies administered, as well as clinical outcomes, were collected. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was performed to identify clinical predictors of a variceal source of bleeding. The patient population included 2020 patients (mean [± SD] age 66.3±16.4 years; 38.4% female). Overall, 215 (10.6%) were found to be bleeding from upper gastrointestinal varices. Among 26 patient characteristics, variables predicting a variceal source of bleeding included history of liver disease (OR 6.36 [95% CI 3.59 to 11.3]), excessive alcohol use (OR 2.28 [95% CI 1.37 to 3.77]), hematemesis (OR 2.65 [95% CI 1.61 to 4.36]), hematochezia (OR 3.02 [95% CI 1.46 to 6.22]) and stigmata of chronic liver disease (OR 2.49 [95% CI 1.46 to 4.25]). Patients treated with antithrombotic therapy were more likely to experience other causes of hemorrhage (OR 0.44 [95% CI 0.35 to 0.78]). Presenting historical and physical examination data, and initial laboratory tests carry significant predictive ability in discriminating variceal versus nonvariceal sources of bleeding.

  18. Ektopiske varicer i den distale ileum som årsag til gastrointestinal blødning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Tine Juhl; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Bruun, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Varices of the terminal ileum are not a common complication to portal hypertension but we describe a case where a 60-year-old male patient had massive, recurrent intestinal bleeding due to collateral blood supply from umbilical veins to varicose veins of the terminal ileum.......Varices of the terminal ileum are not a common complication to portal hypertension but we describe a case where a 60-year-old male patient had massive, recurrent intestinal bleeding due to collateral blood supply from umbilical veins to varicose veins of the terminal ileum....

  19. Correlation between severity of portal hypertensive gastropathy and size of oesophageal varices in cirrhotic hepatitis-C patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Baig, F.A.; Javed, M.

    2018-01-01

    Portal hypertension can lead to oesophageal varices (EV) and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG). The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between severity of Portal hypertensive gastropathy and size of oesophageal varices. Methods: One hundred and ninety-five patients of hepatitis C positive chronic liver disease having oesophageal varices were assessed for severity of portal hypertensive gastropathy. Results: Mild Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy was observed in 16 (8.2 %), moderate in 54 (27.7 %) and severe in 120 (61.6 %) patients. Grade 1 Oesophageal Varices were present in 79 (40.5%) patients, grade 2 in 44(21.9%) patients, grade 3 in 62 (31.8%) and grade 4 in 10 (5.2%) patients. No significant correlation was observed between grades of gastropathy and size of varices. Conclusion: The frequency of portal hypertensive gastropathy was 97.5% in Hepatitis C positive cirrhotic patients having oesophageal varices. Severity of gastropathy is not related to the grade or size of oesophageal varices. (author)

  20. Successful Treatment of Bleeding Gastric Varices with Splenectomy in a Patient with Splenic, Portal, and Mesenteric Thromboses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lior Menasherian-Yaccobe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old female with a history of multiple splanchnic and portal thromboses treated with warfarin underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy for cancer screening, and a polypoid mass was biopsied. One week later, she was admitted with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Her therapeutic coagulopathy was reversed with fresh frozen plasma, and she was transfused with packed red blood cells. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated an erosion of a gastric varix without evidence of recent bleeding. Conservative measures failed, and she continued to bleed during her stay. She was not considered a candidate for a shunt procedure; therefore, a splenectomy was performed. Postoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated near complete resolution of gastric varices. One year after discharge on warfarin, there has been no recurrence of hemorrhage. Gastric varices often arise from either portal hypertension or splenic vein thrombosis. Treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage can be challenging. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is often effective for emergency control in varices secondary to portal hypertension. Splenectomy is the treatment for varices that arise from splenic vein thrombosis. However, treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage in the context of multiple splanchnic and portal vein thromboses is more complicated. We report splenectomy as a successful treatment of gastric varices in a patient with multiple extrahepatic thromboses.

  1. Efficacy and safety of terlipressin in cirrhotic patients with variceal bleeding or hepatorenal syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Borup, Tine; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Terlipressin is an analog of the natural hormone arginine-vasopressin. It is used in the treatment of patients with cirrhosis and bleeding esophageal varices (BEV) and in patients with hepatorenal syndrome (HRS): two of the most dramatic and feared complications of cirrhosis. Terlipressin exerts...

  2. Effect of Transfusion Strategy in Acute Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Rasmus; Svenningsen, Peter; Hillingsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) is a common cause of admissions as well as aggressive transfusion of blood products. Whether the transfusion strategy in NVUGIB impacts on hemostasis is unknown and constitutes the focus of this study. METHOD: Retrospective...

  3. Evaluation of the formation of esophageal varices by per-rectal portal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeoka, Naoko; Monna, Takeyuki; Shiomi, Susumu; Kuroki, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Kenzo; Ochi, Hironobu; Onoyama, Yasuto (Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Yamamoto, Sukeo

    1989-12-01

    Portal circulation in patients with liver diseases was evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate per-rectal portal scintigraphy, and we retrospectively examined the relationship between the extent of abnormality in the portal circulation and the development of esophageal varices. The per-rectal portal shunt index (PRPSI) was calculated for 13 healthy subjects and 79 patients with chronic hepatitis and 214 with cirrhosis of the liver. In the healthy subjects, the mean PRPSI was 4.8%. In the patients with hepatitis, the mean PRPSI was 8.4%, and in the patients with cirrhosis, it was 48.5%. The PRPSI was significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices than in those without it, and also in the cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy than in those without it. The cumulative incidence of esophageal varices in the 3 years of the study in patients whose PRPSI was 20% or over was significantly higher than that in patients whose PRPSI was under 20%. The results suggested that this non-invasive method should be useful for predictions of the formation of esophageal varices. (author).

  4. Fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with sodium morrhuate for the treatment of lower extremity varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiting; Jiang Zhongpu; Zhou Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate in treating lower extremity varices. Methods: A total of 30 cases (39 diseased lower limbs) with lower extremity varices were enrolled in this study. Under fluoroscopic guidance foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate was carried out in all patients. The obstructed condition of the great saphenous vein was observed during the following three months. Results: The technical success was achieved in all 39 patients. The mean dose of foam sclerosant used for each diseased limb was 5.9 ml (3.4-8.2 ml). Disappearance of blood flow reflux in lower extremity vein immediately after the treatment was seen in 35 patients (90%). Three months after the therapy, vascular sonography showed that the great saphenous vein was obstructed, and no serious complications occurred. Conclusion: For the treatment of lower extremity varices, fluoroscopically-guided foam sclerotherapy with injection of domestic sodium morrhuate is safe and effective with satisfactory results. This technique is a newly-developed micro-invasive therapy for lower extremity varices. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of the formation of esophageal varices by per-rectal portal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeoka, Naoko; Monna, Takeyuki; Shiomi, Susumu; Kuroki, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Kenzo; Ochi, Hironobu; Onoyama, Yasuto; Yamamoto, Sukeo.

    1989-01-01

    Portal circulation in patients with liver diseases was evaluated by 99m Tc-pertechnetate per-rectal portal scintigraphy, and we retrospectively examined the relationship between the extent of abnormality in the portal circulation and the development of esophageal varices. The per-rectal portal shunt index (PRPSI) was calculated for 13 healthy subjects and 79 patients with chronic hepatitis and 214 with cirrhosis of the liver. In the healthy subjects, the mean PRPSI was 4.8%. In the patients with hepatitis, the mean PRPSI was 8.4%, and in the patients with cirrhosis, it was 48.5%. The PRPSI was significantly higher in the cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices than in those without it, and also in the cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy than in those without it. The cumulative incidence of esophageal varices in the 3 years of the study in patients whose PRPSI was 20% or over was significantly higher than that in patients whose PRPSI was under 20%. The results suggested that this non-invasive method should be useful for predictions of the formation of esophageal varices. (author)

  6. Poor endoscopic findings in children with non variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding: is biopsy necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Giannakopoulos, A; Logothetis, A; Panayiotou, J; Van-Vliet, K; Orfanou, I; Roma-Giannikou, E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gastrointestinal bleeding in infants and children is a potentially serious condition in the practice of general pediatrics that requires investigation. The objective of this study is to describe the endoscopic and histopathological findings in children with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding of non variceal origin.

  7. Identifying Emergency Department Patients at Low Risk for a Variceal Source of Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Lauren R; Money, Joel; Maharaj, Kaveesh; Robinson, Aaron; Lai, Tarissa; Driver, Brian E

    2017-11-01

    Assessing the likelihood of a variceal versus nonvariceal source of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) guides therapy, but can be difficult to determine on clinical grounds. The objective of this study was to determine if there are easily ascertainable clinical and laboratory findings that can identify a patient as low risk for a variceal source of hemorrhage. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult ED patients with UGIB between January 2008 and December 2014 who had upper endoscopy performed during hospitalization. Clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from the medical record. The source of the UGIB was defined as variceal or nonvariceal based on endoscopic reports. Binary recursive partitioning was utilized to create a clinical decision rule. The rule was internally validated and test characteristics were calculated with 1,000 bootstrap replications. A total of 719 patients were identified; mean age was 55 years and 61% were male. There were 71 (10%) patients with a variceal UGIB identified on endoscopy. Binary recursive partitioning yielded a two-step decision rule (platelet count > 200 × 10 9 /L and an international normalized ratio [INR] study must be externally validated before widespread use, patients presenting to the ED with an acute UGIB with platelet count of >200 × 10 9 /L and an INR of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. Determination of frequency and treatment outcome in patients of fundal varices presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naseer, M.; Khan, A.U.; Gillani, F.M.; Saeed, F.; Ahmed, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of fundal varices and treatment outcome with histoacryl in patients presenting with upper GI bleeding. Design: Single centre, retrospective study. Place and duration of study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi from Jan 2009 to July 2011. Methods: Total 1327 patients were included in the study. In 41(3.1%) patients fundal varices were diagnosed on upper GI endoscopy. The mean age of the patients was 48.1+-16.96 years. Minimum age was 12 years and maximum age was 85 years. Out of 41 patients 29 (70.73%) were male and 12 (29.3%) were female. GOV1 was seen in 28 (68.3%) patients, GOV2 in 10 (24.4%) patients, IGV1 in 2 (4.87%) patients, and IGV2 in 1 patient (2.43%). Conclusion: The frequency of fundal varices in our study was 3.1%, diagnosed on upper GI endoscopy. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate sclerotherapy was found to be highly effective for the treatment of active bleeding gastric varices. (author)

  9. Diagnosis of a complication of endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy by combined use of radiology and endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulke, H.; Auer, I.O.; Burghardt, W.; Braun, H.

    1982-01-01

    A case is reported of an intramural oesophageal fistula developing after fiberoptic injection sclerotherapy for oesophageal varices in a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. Only the combined use of endoscopic application of radiographic contrast medium and detailed radiological investigation allowed the definite diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  10. Correlation of thrombocytopenia with grading of esophageal varices in chronic liver disease patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasi, A.; Butt, N.; Bhutto, A.R.; Munir, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the severity of thrombocytopenia in different grades of esophageal varices. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, Medical Unit-III, Ward-7 from January to December 2008. Methodology: Subjects were eligible if they had a diagnosis of cirrhosis. Patient with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class C), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatocellular carcinoma, portal vein thrombosis, parenteral drug addiction, current alcohol abuse and previous or current treatment with b-blockers, diuretics and other vasoactive drugs were excluded from the study. All patients under went upper gastrointestinal endoscopy after consent. On the basis of platelet count patients were divided into four groups. Group I with platelets greater or equal to 20000/mm/sup 3/, Group II with values of 21000- 50000/mm/sup 3/, Group III with count of 51000-99000/mm/sup 3/ and Group IV with count of 100000-150000/mm/sup 3/. Correlation of severity of thrombocytopenia with the grading of esophageal varices was assessed using Spearman's correlation with r-values of 0.01 considered significant. Results: One hundred and two patients with thrombocytopenia and esophageal varices were included in the study. There were 62 (60.8%) males and 40 (39.2%) females. The mean age of onset of the disease in these patients was 49.49 +- 14.3 years with range of 11-85 years. Major causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis C (n=79, 77.5%), hepatitis B (n=12, 11.8%), mixed hepatitis B and C infection (n=8, 7.8%) and Wilson's disease (n=3,2.9%). Seven patients had esophageal grade I, 24 had grade II, 35 had grade III, and 36 had grade IV. Gastric varices were detected in 2 patients. Portal hypertensive gastropathy were detected in 87 patients. There was an inverse correlation of platelet count with grading of esophageal varices (r=-0.321, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The severity of thrombocytopenia increased as the grading of

  11. Balloon occlusion retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices in two-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borhei, Peyman; Kim, Seung Kwon; Zukerman, Darryl A [Interventional Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (United States)

    2014-02-15

    This report describes two non-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis who underwent successful balloon occlusion retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of gastric varices with a satisfactory response and no complications. One patient was a 35-year-old female with a history of Crohn's disease, status post-total abdominal colectomy, and portal vein and mesenteric vein thrombosis. The other patient was a 51-year-old female with necrotizing pancreatitis, portal vein thrombosis, and gastric varices. The BRTO procedure was a useful treatment for gastric varices in non-cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis in the presence of a gastrorenal shunt.

  12. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J; Sanchez, Leon D; Wolfe, Richard E; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W; Cocchi, Michael N

    2017-10-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47-63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p<0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcomes in variceal hemorrhage following the use of a balloon tamponade device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, Jonathan; Stankovic, Nikola; Uber, Amy; Holmberg, Mathias J.; Sanchez, Leon D.; Wolfe, Richard E.; Chase, Maureen; Donnino, Michael W.; Cocchi, Michael N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Variceal hemorrhage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A balloon tamponade device (BTD), such as the Sengstaken-Blakemore or Minnesota tube, may be used in cases of variceal hemorrhage. While these devices may be effective at controlling acute bleeding, the effect on patient outcomes remains less clear. We sought to describe the number of patients with variceal hemorrhage and a BTD who survive to discharge, survive to one-year, and develop complications related to a BTD. Methods In this retrospective study, we identified patients at a single, tertiary care center who underwent placement of a BTD for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage between 2003 and 2014. Patient characteristics and outcomes were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 34 patients with a BTD were identified. Median age was 57.5 (IQR 47–63) and 76% (26/34) were male. Approximately 59% (20/34) of patients survived to discharge, and 41% (13/32) were alive after one year. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Of those surviving to discharge, 95% (19/20) had undergone transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), while 36% (5/14) of patients who did not survive to discharge had TIPS (p < 0.01). One complication, an esophageal perforation, was identified and managed conservatively. Conclusion In this cohort of patients undergoing BTD placement for variceal hemorrhage, approximately 59% of patients were alive at discharge and 41% were alive after one year. Placement of a BTD as a temporizing measure in the management of acute variceal hemorrhage may be helpful, particularly when utilized as a bridge to more definitive therapy. PMID:28460805

  14. Customization of laparoscopic gastric devascularization and splenectomy for gastric varices based on CT vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Kinjo, Nao; Yoshida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric devascularization(Lap GDS) and splenectomy (SPL) for gastric varices is technically challenging because of highly developed collateral vessels and bleeding tendency. We investigated the feasibility of customization of Lap GDS and SPL based on CT vascular anatomy. We analyzed 61 cirrhotic patients with gastric varices who underwent Lap GDS and SPL between 2006 and 2014. Lap GDS was customized according to the afferent feeding veins (left gastric vein (LGV) and/or posterior gastric vein (PGV)/short gastric vein (SGV)) and efferent drainage veins (gastrorenal shunt and/or gastrophrenic shunt, or numerous retroperitoneal veins) based on CT imaging. Thirty-four patients with efferent drainage veins suitable for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) underwent B-RTO instead of surgical GDS, with subsequent Lap SPL. Among 27 patients with gastric varices unsuitable for B-RTO, 15 patients with PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater curvature and SPL, and 12 patients with LGV or LGV/PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater and lesser curvature and SPL. The mean operation time was 294 min and mean blood loss was 198 g. There was no mortality or severe morbidity. Gastric varices were eradicated in all 61 patients, with no bleeding or recurrence during a mean follow-up of 55.9 months. The cumulative 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 92, 82, and 64%, respectively. Lap GDS and SPL customized based on CT vascular anatomy is a safe and effective procedure for treating gastric varices.

  15. The clinical value of 3D dynamic contrast enhanced MR angiography on haemorrhage of esophageal and gastric varices compared with endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhou; Liang Biling; Li Yong; Zhong Jinglian; Ye Ruixin; Wang Dongye; Li Chuqiang; Yuan Yuhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of three dimensional dynamic contrast enhanced MRA (3D DCE MRA) on esophageal and gastric varices compared with endoscopy. Methods: From April 2003 to June 2008, 153 patients with portal hypertension who underwent both 3D DCE MRA and endoscopy were reviewed retrospectively. All the patients were divided into bleeding group and non-bleeding group according to the clinical symptoms. The location and degree of the esophagogastric varices on 3D DCE MRA were assessed with postprocessing images, including subtraction, MIP and thin-slab masimum intensity projection (tin-MIP), and were compared with the results of endoscopy. The maximum, minimum and mean diameters of esophagogastric varices inside and outside of the wall were measured on the reformed images. The correlation between the findings of 3D DCE MRA and endoscopy were analyzed with Spearman rank correlation coefficient test. The rates of esophagogastric varices outside of the wall in bleeding and non-bleeding group were compared by means of Chi-square test. Results: In bleeding group, severe esophageal varices were documented in 59 patients, moderate in 6 patients, mild in 5 patients; in non-bleeding group, severe esophageal varices were documented in 32 patients, moderate in 4 patients, mild in 5 patients. Severe, moderate, and mild gastric varices were documented in 28, 34 and 16 in bleeding group, while they were 7, 12 and 9 in non-bleeding group. Esophageal and gastric varices can be wholly pressnted on MIP images after subtraction, while the esophagogastric varices inside and outside of the wall can be differentiated on thin-MIP images. The location and degree of esophagogastric varices on 3D DCE MRA were correlated with the findings of the endoscopy. The range of r was from 0.544 to 0.878 (P 2 =7.199, P<0.01). In 35 patients with severe gastric varices, 22 patients showed adventitial gastric varices in bleeding group (n=28) and 4 patients showed adventitial

  16. The use of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) is not associated with increased risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding, rebleeding or mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, S B; Leontiadis, G I; Stanley, A J; Hallas, J; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B

    2017-08-01

    Observational studies have consistently shown an increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in users of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs), probably explained by their inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, treatment with SSRIs is often temporarily withheld in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. However, abrupt discontinuation of SSRIs is associated with development of withdrawal symptoms in one-third of patients. Further data are needed to clarify whether treatment with SSRIs is associated with poor outcomes, which would support temporary discontinuation of treatment. To identify if treatment with SSRIs is associated with increased risk of: (1) endoscopy-refractory bleeding, (2) rebleeding or (3) 30-day mortality due to peptic ulcer bleeding. A nationwide cohort study. Analyses were performed on prospectively collected data on consecutive patients admitted to hospital with peptic ulcer bleeding in Denmark in the period 2006-2014. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between treatment with SSRIs and outcome following adjustment for pre-defined confounders. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate the validity of the findings. A total of 14 343 patients were included. Following adjustment, treatment with SSRIs was not associated with increased risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding (odds ratio [OR] [95% Confidence Interval (CI)]: 1.03 [0.79-1.33]), rebleeding (OR [95% CI]: 0.96 [0.83-1.11]) or 30-day mortality (OR [95% CI]: 1.01 [0.85-1.19]. These findings were supported by sensitivity and subgroup analyses. According to our data, treatment with SSRIs does not influence the risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding, rebleeding or 30-day mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evaluation of some pulmonary functions and pleuropulmonary complications after endoscopic sclerotherapy of gastric fundal varices at Zagazig university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan A. Shawky

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: NBCA injection of gastric fundal varices was associated with significant, reversible deterioration in some pulmonary functions, atelectasis and minimal pleural effusion with significant rapid improvement if incentive spirometry is used.

  18. Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors associated with survival after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uozumi, Shojiro; Baba, Toshiyuki; Sai, Syouei; Seino, Noritaka; Hashimoto, Toshi; Honda, Minoru; Gokan, Takehiko; Imawari, Michio

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated clinical outcomes and prognostic factors associated with survival after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) of gastric varices in patients with portal hypertension. Of 50 patients with gastric varices who underwent B-RTO, 46 (94.0%) patients in whom B-RTO was technically successful were reviewed retrospectively. Gastric and esophageal varices after B-RTO were evaluated by contrast-enhanced computer tomography and endoscopy, respectively. Liver function parameters and Child-Pugh scores were estimated before and at 1 year after B-RTO. The cumulative survival rate was calculated, and univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the prognostic factors. No major complications occurred in any of the patients following B-RTO and no recurrence or bleeding of gastric varices was noted. Of the 42 patients who were followed up for the progression of esophageal varices, 13 (31.0%) had worsened varices and of these, 6 (14.3%) showed bleeding. Prothrombin activity had significantly improved at 1 year after B-RTO, although there were no changes in other liver function parameters. The overall cumulative survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years after B-RTO were 91.6%, 70.9%, and 53.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified the occurrence of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during the observation period as a prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio=4.1497, 95% CI=1.32314-13.0319, P=0.0148). B-RTO of gastric varices is an effective treatment ensuring lower recurrence and bleeding rates; however, these patients require careful observation for progression of esophageal varices. The management of HCC is crucial for achieving long-term survival after B-RTO. (author)

  19. Costs and clinical outcomes of primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: a decision analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Sammy; DeRosa, Vincent; Nieto, Jose; Durazo, Francisco; Han, Steven; Roth, Bennett

    2003-04-01

    Current guidelines recommend upper endoscopic screening for patients with hepatic cirrhosis and primary prophylaxis with a nonselective beta-blocker for those with large varices. However, only 25% of cirrhotics develop large varices. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the most cost-effective approach for primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage. Using a Markov model, we compared the costs and clinical outcomes of three strategies for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In the first strategy, patients were given a beta-blocker without undergoing upper endoscopy. In the second strategy, patients underwent upper endoscopic screening; those found to have large varices were treated with a beta-blocker. In the third strategy, no prophylaxis was used. Selected sensitivity analyses were performed to validate outcomes. Our results show screening prophylaxis was associated with a cost of $37,300 and 5.72 quality-adjusted life yr (QALYs). Universal prophylaxis was associated with a cost of $34,100 and 6.65 QALYs. The no prophylaxis strategy was associated with a cost of $36,600 and 4.84 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $800/QALY for the endoscopic strategy relative to the no prophylaxis strategy. Screening endoscopy was cost saving when the compliance, bleed risk without beta-blocker, and variceal bleed costs were increased, and when the discount rate, bleed risk on beta-blockers, and cost of upper endoscopy were decreased. In contrast, the universal prophylaxis strategy was persistently cost saving relative to the no prophylaxis strategy. In comparing the strategies, sensitivity analysis on the death rates from variceal hemorrhage did not alter outcomes. Our results provide economic and clinical support for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Universal prophylaxis with beta-blocker is preferred because it is consistently associated with the lowest costs and highest QALYs.

  20. Safe and successful endoscopic initial treatment and long-term eradication of gastric varices by endoscopic ultrasound-guided Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, Christoph; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Optimal endoscopic treatment of gastric varices is still not standardized nowadays. Actively bleeding varices may prohibit a successful endoscopic injection therapy of Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Since 2006, we have treated gastric varices by standardized endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided Histoacryl injection therapy without severe adverse events. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present a large single-center cohort over 7 years with a standardized EUS-guided sclerotherapy o...

  1. Clinical problems of the patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage which had not been diagnosed until they suffered ischemic neurological deficits and/or rebleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Issei; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Moroi, Junta

    2011-01-01

    A small part of the patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are not properly diagnosed until they suffer ischemic neurological deficits and/or rebleeding during vasospasm. We therefore investigated the clinical profile of such patients. We retrospectively analyzed 581 patients with aneurysmal SAH experienced in our institute between 2001 and 2009. Patient's characteristics, presence and severity of headache before final diagnosis, imaging investigations they received, their World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grades at admission, the location of aneurysm, treatment, and outcome at discharge were investigated. Five patients were not correctly diagnosed until they presented neurological deficits due to vasospasm or experienced simultaneous rebleeding. Their mean age was 69.4, and all were female. Although all patients had a bad headache, they did not undergo any imaging examinations. Immediate coil embolization was performed for 2 patients, 1 died due to rupturing during embolization procedure. The other 3 were treated by open clipping surgery (2 delayed and 1 immediate). Four patients had some disability as a sequel, and their outcomes were significantly worse compared with 53 patients with SAH in WFNS Grade II. The patients with SAH who had not been properly diagnosed in the acute stage had a poor outcome. We should be very careful when we see patients complaining of severe headache. (author)

  2. Successful Embolization of Bleeding Ileal Varices with N-butyl Cyanoacrylate via a Recanalized Paraumbilical Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yasuyuki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Oka, Shojiro; Fukumoto, Genki; Otani, Tomoaki; Matsubara, Naoko; Kawabata, Kazuna; Namikawa, Mio; Matsumura, Takeshi; Kimura, Toshiyuki

    2018-04-23

    A 48-year-old woman with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital because of hematochezia and severe anemia. She had been hospitalized many times over the past year for hematochezia of unknown etiology. Contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated ileal varices, which were fed by several ileal veins. These feeding veins were selectively embolized with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) via a recanalized paraumbilical vein. The paraumbilical vein instead of the portal vein was punctured to decrease the risk of bleeding complications because she had coagulopathy and ascites. We consider antegrade embolization of ileal varices with NBCA to be a feasible and effective treatment. Access via a paraumbilical vein is an alternative to the transhepatic approach.Level of Evidence Level V, case report.

  3. Plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Min Yung; Kim, Man Deuk; Shin, Won Seon; Shin, Min Woo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Tae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension

  4. Gastric Varices with Remarkable Collateral Veins in Valpronic Acid-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Hattori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Valproic acid (VPA is a commonly prescribed and approved treatment for epilepsy, including Angelman syndrome, throughout the world. However, the long-term administration of drugs like VPA is associated with the possible development of gastric varices and splenic obstruction as a result of chronic pancreatitis. Such cases can be difficult to treat using endoscopy or interventional radiology because of hemodynamic abnormalities; therefore, surgical treatment is often necessary.

  5. Plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the treatment of gastric variceal hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Min Yung; Kim, Man Deuk; Shin, Won Seon; Shin, Min Woo; Kim, Gyoung Min; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, National Health Insurance Serivce Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and clinical outcomes of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) to treat gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension. From May 2012 to June 2014, 19 patients (11 men and 8 women, median age; 61, with history of gastric variceal hemorrhage; 17, active bleeding; 2) who underwent PARTO using a vascular plug and a gelfoam pledget were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were examined to evaluate primary (technical and clinical success, complications) and secondary (worsening of esophageal varix [EV], change in liver function) end points. Median follow-up duration was 11 months, from 6.5 to 18 months. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare laboratory data before and after the procedure. Technical success (complete occlusion of the efferent shunt and complete filling of gastric varix [GV] with a gelfoam slurry) was achieved in 18 of 19 (94.7%) patients. The embolic materials could not reach the GV in 1 patient who had endoscopic glue injection before our procedure. The clinical success rate (no recurrence of gastric variceal bleeding) was the same because the technically failed patient showed recurrent bleeding later. Acute complications included fever (n = 2), fever and hypotension (n = 2; one diagnosed adrenal insufficiency), and transient microscopic hematuria (n = 3). Ten patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; all exhibited GV improvement, except 2 without endoscopic change. Five patients exhibited aggravated EV, and 2 of them had a bleeding event. Laboratory findings were significantly improved after PARTO. PARTO is technically feasible, safe, and effective for gastric variceal hemorrhage in patients with portal hypertension.

  6. A clinical predictor of varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with chronic liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Won Min

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/AimsThe aim of this study was to identify the parameters that could noninvasively predict the presence of esophageal/gastric varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD, and to determine the accuracy of those parameters.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed 232 patients with CLD who underwent both upper endoscopy and liver CT within an interval of 3 months. The multidimensional index (M-Index for spleen volume was obtained from the multiplication of splenic length, width, and thickness, as measured by computer tomography.ResultsThe multivariate analysis revealed that platelet, albumin, and M-Index were independently associated with the presence of varices and PHG. We combined three independent parameters, and developed a varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy (VAP scoring system (=[platelet count (/mm3×albumin (g/dL]/[M-Index (cm3]. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the VAP score was 0.850 (95% confidence interval, 0.801-0.899. The VAP cut-off value of 861 had a sensitivity of 85.3%, a positive likelihood ratio of 3.17, and a negative predictive value of 86.4%. For predicting high-risk lesions for bleeding, with a cut-off value of 861 the sensitivity was 92.0%, the positive likelihood ratio was 2.20, and the negative predictive value was 96.4%.ConclusionsThe VAP score can predict the presence of varices and PHG in patients with CLD and may increase the cost-benefit of screening endoscopy in the clinical practice setting. A prospective validation study is necessary in the future.

  7. Evaluation of large esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients by transient elastography: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Transient elastography (TE has been shown to be a valuable tool for the prediction of large esophageal varices. However, the conclusions have not been always consistent throughout the different studies. Therefore, we performed a further meta-analysis in order to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography for the prediction of large esophageal varices. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library without time restriction. The strategy we used was "(fibroscan OR transient elastography OR stiffness AND esophageal varices". Accuracy measures such as pooled sensitivity, specificity, among others, were calculated using Meta-DiSc statistical software. Results: Twenty studies (2,994 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The values of pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratio were as follows: 0.81 (95% CI, 0.79-0.84, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.69-0.73, 2.63 (95% CI, 2.15-3.23, 0.27 (95% CI, 0.22-0.34 and 10.30 (95% CI, 7.33-14.47. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.83. The Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.246 with a p-value of 0.296, indicating the absence of any significant threshold effects. In our subgroup analysis, the heterogeneity could be partially explained by the geographical origin of the study or etiology; or it could be partially explained blindingly, through the appropriate interval and cut-off value of the liver stiffness (LS. Conclusions: Transient elastography could be used as a valuable non-invasive screening tool for the prediction of large esophageal varices. However, since LS cut-off values vary throughout the different studies and significant heterogeneity also exists among them, we need more reasonable approaches or flow diagram in order to improve the operability of this technology.

  8. Value of Adjusted Blood Requirement Index in determining failure to control bleed in patients with variceal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shahab; Khalid, Abdullah B; Awan, Safia; Shah, Hasnain A; Hamid, Saeed; Jafri, Wasim

    2015-03-01

    Variceal bleeding is a serious complication in patients with cirrhosis. Among the criteria that were proposed in Baveno conferences, the Adjusted Blood Requirement Index (ABRI) has not been validated prospectively in clinical practice. We therefore aim to evaluate the measurement of ABRI as a marker of failure to control bleeding and to evaluate the consistency of ABRI in relation to other criteria of failure to control variceal bleeding. All patients with variceal bleeding who presented to Aga Khan University Hospital from January 2010 to December 2012 who were administered transfusion of packed red blood cells were included after obtaining informed consent. All patients were managed as per the standard protocol with intravenous terlipressin along with band ligation and injection of cyanoacrylate in cases of esophageal and fundal varices, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were measured every 6 h for 48 h and then every 12 h until 5 days of index bleed in each patient. Packed cells were transfused if hemoglobin decreased below 8 g/dl. The number of blood units transfused, change in hemoglobin values, and ABRI were calculated after each unit of blood transfusion till 120 h. In patients in whom bleed could not be controlled, an ABRI value of 0.75 or more was compared with other Baveno IV-based parameters that define failure to control variceal bleeding. During the study period, 137 eligible patients with variceal bleed were admitted. The mean age of the patients was 52±12 years. The majority of patients (50.4%) were in Child-Pugh class B, followed by 38% in Child-Pugh class C. According to the Baveno IV criteria, overall failure to control acute variceal bleeding occurred in 52 (37.9%) patients. Excluding ABRI, failure to control bleeding was found in 22/137 (16%) patients, whereas ABRI-based criteria showed that in 34/137 (24.8%) patients, bleeding could not be controlled. There were only four (2.9%) patients with variceal bleeding in whom ABRI and

  9. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  10. Comparison of computed tomography and endoscopy in the diagnosis and grading of esophageal varices; value of computed tomography for predict prognosis of chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gi Young; Park, Cheol Min; Lee, Jin Seong; Hyun, Chang Dong; Lee, Moon Gyu; Auh, Yong Ho; Kim, Hae Ryun

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of conventional CT of abdomen in the detection of esophageal varices, and to correlate CT grade of esophageal varices with prognosis and risk for bleeding. Both CT and endoscopy were performed in 100 patients. Endoscopy revealed that while 54 patients had varices, 46 did not. CT criteria of variceal grading were follows;(1) wallthickening of more than 5 mm or irregular wall contour(grade 1):(2) intraluminal protruding tubular structures with contrast enhancement(grade II);(3) confluent varices in the wall of esophagus or multiplied paraesophageal collaterals(gradeIII). CT were reviewed by three radiologists without reference to clinical and endoscopic data. Sensitivity and specificity of CT in the detection of esophageal varices were 80%, retrospectively. CT and endoscopic grades agreed with each other in 68% of patients, and there was high correlation between CT and endoscopy. (Gamma statistics, p=0.828). No history or endoscopic evidence of variceal bleeding was present on grade I, but there was a high incidence on grade II(35%) and on grade III(50%)(MH Chi-Square, Ridit scores=50.561, p=0.000). Abdominal CT is useful in the detection of esophageal varices, and can predict the risk factors of bleeding in patients with chronic liver diseases

  11. The use of selective serotonin receptor inhibitors (SSRIs) is not associated with increased risk of endoscopy-refractory bleeding, rebleeding or mortality in peptic ulcer bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Leontiadis, Grigorios I; Stanley, Adrian J

    2017-01-01

    in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. However, abrupt discontinuation of SSRIs is associated with development of withdrawal symptoms in one-third of patients. Further data are needed to clarify whether treatment with SSRIs is associated with poor outcomes, which would support temporary discontinuation...... of treatment. AIM: To identify if treatment with SSRIs is associated with increased risk of: (1) endoscopy-refractory bleeding, (2) rebleeding or (3) 30-day mortality due to peptic ulcer bleeding. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study. Analyses were performed on prospectively collected data on consecutive...... patients admitted to hospital with peptic ulcer bleeding in Denmark in the period 2006-2014. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between treatment with SSRIs and outcome following adjustment for pre-defined confounders. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed...

  12. Balloon-Occluded Antegrade Transvenous Sclerotherapy to Treat Rectal Varices: A Direct Puncture Approach to the Superior Rectal Vein Through the Greater Sciatic Foramen Under CT Fluoroscopy Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yasuyuki, E-mail: onoyasy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kariya, Shuji, E-mail: kariyas@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Nakatani, Miyuki, E-mail: nakatanm@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Yoshida, Rie, E-mail: yagir@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kono, Yumiko, E-mail: kohnoy@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Kan, Naoki, E-mail: kanna@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Ueno, Yutaka, E-mail: uenoyut@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp; Komemushi, Atsushi, E-mail: komemush@takii.kmu.ac.jp; Tanigawa, Noboru, E-mail: tanigano@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Kansai Medical University, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Rectal varices occur in 44.5 % of patients with ectopic varices caused by portal hypertension, and 48.6 % of these patients are untreated and followed by observation. However, bleeding occurs in 38 % and shock leading to death in 5 % of such patients. Two patients, an 80-year-old woman undergoing treatment for primary biliary cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A) and a 63-year-old man with class C hepatic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class A), in whom balloon-occluded antegrade transvenous sclerotherapy was performed to treat rectal varices are reported. A catheter was inserted by directly puncturing the rectal vein percutaneously through the greater sciatic foramen under computed tomographic fluoroscopy guidance. In both cases, the rectal varices were successfully treated without any significant complications, with no bleeding from rectal varices after embolization.

  13. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for the treatment of achalasia in a patient with esophageal varices. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Naning; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoyin; Yao, Liping; Xie, Huahong; Zhang, Hongbo

    2017-06-01

    Achalasia is very uncommon, and rarely does achalasia co-exist with esophageal varices. We present a 62-year-old woman who was diagnosed with both achalasia and esophageal varices in December 2014 and had a past history of hematemesis. The patient's achalasia symptoms' Eckardt score was 9, and her hepatic function was Child-Pugh grade A6. After comprehensive assessment of the patient's health and discussion of the pros and cons of various therapies for achalasia, the patient underwent a peroral endoscopic myotomy. She was symptom-free after the operation and had no recurrence of achalasia symptoms at 20-month follow-up. No adverse events were reported. Peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia with esophageal varices has not been previously reported in the English literature.

  14. von Willebrand factor as a novel noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension and esophageal varices in hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Yan, Shiping; Wang, Guangchuan; Cui, Shaobo; Zhang, Chunqing; Zhu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is no perfect noninvasive method to assess portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Early predicting esophageal varices can provide evidence for managing cirrhotic patients. We aimed to further investigate von Willebrand factor (vWF) as a noninvasive predictor of portal hypertension, especially of esophageal varices. A total of 60 hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis and 45 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Levels of six markers were examined. All patients underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. We evaluated the performance of six factors for diagnosis of portal hypertension and esophageal varices. The vWF levels in liver tissues were observed by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between the level of vWF in liver tissues and HVPG and between levels of vWF in tissues and plasma were examined. Cutoff values of plasma vWF (1510.5 mU/mL and 1701 mU/mL) showed high positive predictive value (PPV, 90.2% and 87.5%) in predicting clinically significant portal hypertension and severe portal hypertension. Cutoff values of vWF (1414 mU/ml and 1990 mU/mL, PPV 90.3% and 86.3%, respectively) were provided to detect the presence and degree of esophageal varices. Linear correlations were observed between levels of vWF in liver tissues and HVPG (r(2) = 0.552, p portal hypertension and esophageal varices in hepatitis B patients with cirrhosis. Increased levels of vWF in liver tissues may induce the elevated plasma vWF levels, but molecular mechanism is needed for further study.

  15. Hemodynamic effects of terlipressin in patients with bleeding esophageal varices secondary to cirrhosis of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budruddin, A.H.; Rasool, G.; Chaudhry, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    To study the hemodynamics of terlipressin in bleeding esophageal varices due to cirrhosis of the liver. Seventy-eight consecutive patients with bleeding esophageal varices were evaluated. The diagnosis of cirrhosis was based on history, physical examination, laboratory data and abdominal ultrasound. Blood-pressure and pulse rate were monitored. Injection terlipressin 2 mg intravenous bolus was given followed by 2 mg i/v 6 hourly. Intravenous plasma expanders, whole blood, fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates were transfused as needed. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed for evaluation and grading of varices, detection of portal gastropathy, and banding. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied as applicable. Seventy patients of either gender, aged 18 - 95 years were included in the study. Systolic blood pressure(SP) increased by 7.77 mmHg (mean SP: 108.1 mmHg, SD + 9.84, 95% CI: 105.77 - 110.43 mmHg; p-value: 0.0002); diastolic blood-pressure(DP) by 21.57 mmHg (mean DP: 79.71 mmHg, SD + 7.35, 95% CI: 77.97 - 81.45 mmHg; p-value: 0.001) and mean arterial pressure by 9.42 mmHg(mean MAP: 89.12 mmHg, SD + 6.98, 95% CI: 87.45 - 90.78 mmHg; p-value: 0.0007) within 24 hours of initiating terlipressin in majority of patients. The pulse rate decreased in 34 (48.5%) patients by 6-24 beats/min in 30 min, and by 2-12 beats/min in 24 hours; and increased in 30 (42.85)% patients by 10-15 beats/min at 30 min and by 2-8 beats/min at 24 hours. (author)

  16. Varic acid analogues from fungus as PTP1B inhibitors: Biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenlong; Zhuang, Chunlin; Li, Xia; Zhang, Bowei; Lu, Xinhua; Zheng, Zhihui; Dong, Yuesheng

    2017-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors as potential therapies for diabetes and obesity have attracted much attention in recent years. Six varic acid analogues were isolated from two strains of fungi and evaluated for PTP1B inhibition activities. The structure-activity relationships were also characterized and predicted by molecular modeling. Further kinetic studies indicated the reversible and competitive inhibition manner of varic acid analogues. Trivaric acid showed insulin-sensitizing effect not only in vitro but also in vivo, representing a promising lead compound for further optimization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M.; Williams, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful

  18. Adrenal pseudomasses due to varices: angiographic-CT-MRI-pathologic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, T.M.; Gross, B.H.; Glazer, G.M. Williams, D.M.

    1985-08-01

    Periadrenal and adrenal portosystemic collaterals are a recently reported cause of adrenal pseudotumor on computed tomography (CT). Nine patients with this left adrenal pseudotumor illustrate its typical position and appearance on CT, angiography, CT-angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anatomic basis for variceal adrenal pseudotumors is the left inferior phrenic vein, which passes immediately anterior to the left adrenal gland and which serves as a collateral pathway from splenic to left renal vein in portal hypertension. Thus, unlike previously described adrenal pseudotumors, these venous collaterals are not anatomically distinguishable from the adrenal gland on CT. Bolus dynamic CT is usually diagnostic, but in equivocal cases, MRI may prove useful.

  19. Embolization with NBCA for the treatment of esophago-fundal varices: its complications and nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lingyun; Li Xiaohui; Qiu Xuanying; Lai Lisha; Zhong Qiuying; Zhu Kangshun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the nursing care for patients with portal hypertension after receiving NBCA embolization treatment of esophago-fundal varices. Methods: The clinical data and nursing care effect in 28 patients with portal hypertension after NBCA embolization treatment of esophago-fundal varices were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Successful embolization was achieved in 27 patients, and the bleeding was stopped. Failure of embolization occurred in one patient. Slight pulmonary embolism was found in 4 cases, of which 2 had mild cough. Pain in different degree was seen in 24 cases, and vomiting with mild abdominal pain in 20 cases. Neither puncture site bleeding nor intraperitoneal hemorrhage occurred. Conclusion: In order to increase the success rate and to reduce the occurrence of complications, it is very important for nurses to take the following obligations seriously: to give the patient pertinent psychological nursing care before the procedure, to take a close observation on the patient's condition during and after the surgery and to deal with the complications promptly. (authors)

  20. Relationship between recurrence of esophageal varices and changes of portal circulation after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, Masayoshi; Kashiwagi, Toru; Ohata, Hiroyuki

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between recurrence of esophageal varices after endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) and changes of the blood pool of portosystemic collaterals was studied in 36 patients with liver cirrhosis. Examination of the blood pool of portosystemic collaterals was performed by single photon emission CT (SPECT). Seven hundreds and forty MBq of 99m Tc-RBCs, labeled by an in vivo technique, were given intra-venously, and tomographic imaging of the intraabdominal vascular blood pool was performed. Before EIS, the blood pool images of the coronary vein was demonstrated in 34 cases (94.4%). According to changes of SPECT images, the patients were divided into 3 groups, that is, the groups showing a disappearance, decrease, and no changes of the blood pool images of the coronary vein. The recurrence rates of esophageal varices after EIS were 11.1% (1 of 9 patients), 40.0% (6 of 15 patients), and 90.0% (9 of 10 patients) in the disappeared, decreased and unchanged groups respectively. These values were significantly different between the disappeared group and the unchanged group (P<0.01), and between the decreased group and the unchanged group (P<0.05). These results indicate that the abdominal blood pool SPECT is useful for evaluating the therapeutic effectiveness of EIS. (author)

  1. Embolization for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsadraee, S.; Tirukonda, P.; Nicholson, A. [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); Everett, S.M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom); McPherson, S.J., E-mail: simon.mcpherson@leedsth.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Aim: To assess the published evidence on the endovascular treatment of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Materials and methods: An Ovid Medline search of published literature was performed (1966-2009). Non-English literature, experimental studies, variceal haemorrhage and case series with fewer than five patients were excluded. The search yielded 1888 abstracts. Thirty-five articles were selected for final analysis. Results: The total number of pooled patients was 927. The technical and clinical success of embolization ranged from 52-100% and 44-100%, respectively. The pooled mean technical/clinical success rate in primary upper gastrointestinal tract haemorrhage (PUGITH) only, trans-papillary haemorrhage (TPH) only, and mixed studies were 84%/67%, 93%/89%, and 93%/64%, respectively. Clinical outcome was adversely affected by multi-organ failure, shock, corticosteroids, transfusion, and coagulopathy. The anatomical source of haemorrhage and procedural variables did not affect the outcome. A successful embolization improved survival by 13.3 times. Retrospective comparison with surgery demonstrated equivalent mortality and clinical success, despite embolization being applied to a more elderly population with a higher prevalence of co-morbidities. Conclusions: Embolization is effective in this very difficult cohort of patients with outcomes similar to surgery.

  2. The role of collateral veins detected by endosonography in predicting the recurrence of esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalaite, Laura; Valantinas, Jonas; Stanaitis, Juozas

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopic therapy is the principal method of treatment for esophageal varices. The recurrence of varices is still common following endoscopic treatment. The aim was to identify predictive factors for variceal recurrence detected by endosonography. We performed a systematic review of studies published prior to June 2013. Studies analyzing gastroesophageal collateral veins as risk factors for variceal recurrence after endoscopic treatment were included. The primary outcome was to identify predictive factors for variceal recurrence investigated by endosonography. After a full-text review, 13 studies were included in our analysis. Analysis of risk factors was not possible for all studies included. Perforating veins and periesophageal collateral veins were related to a higher risk of variceal recurrence (OR = 3.93; 95 % CI 1.06-14.51; I (2) = 96 %; OR = 2.29; 95 % CI 1.58-3.33; I (2) = 55 %). Analysis of cardiac intramural veins and paragastric/cardiac collateral veins showed the same trend, but without reaching statistical significance because of the small group size and wide CI (OR = 3.72; 95 % CI 0.14-101.53; I (2) = 91 %; OR = 1.85; 95 % CI 0.84-4.07; I (2) = 0 %). Analysis of other collateral veins as risk factors for variceal recurrence and analysis of risk factors with regard to the endoscopic treatment method was not possible because of the limited number of cases and different methodologies. A positive association between variceal recurrence and type and grade of collateral veins, investigated by endosonography, was demonstrated. Endosonography is a promising tool for predicting recurrence of esophageal varices following endoscopic treatment. These findings should be interpreted with caution because of the heterogeneity of the studies.

  3. Long-term effects of oral propranolol on splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I

    1991-01-01

    1 year of treatment with propranolol, whereas a decrease in azygos blood flow was observed only in the propranolol group. The beneficial effect of propranolol on the risk of bleeding from oesophageal varices may, therefore, mostly be due to a selective decrease in collateral blood flow and thereby...

  4. Clinical value of acoustic radiation force impulse in quantitative prediction of the degree of esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Min

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI in quantitative prediction of the degree of esophageal varices in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Methods A total of 116 patients with liver cirrhosis who were admitted to 302 Hospital of PLA from October 2014 to February 2016 were enrolled. ARFI was used to measure real-time liver and spleen stiffness for all patients. With the degree of esophageal varices determined by gastroscopy as the gold standard for diagnosis, these patients were divided into non-varices group (EV0, 16 patients, mild varices group (EV1, 39 patients, moderate varices group (EV2, 26 patients, and severe varices group (EV3, 35 patients. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to analyze the clinical value of liver/spleen ARFI in predicting the degree of esophageal varices. An analysis of variance or the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference Mann-Whitney U test was used for further comparison between any two groups; the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the stiffness measured by ARFI and the degree of esophageal varices. Results The ARFI value of the spleen was 2.54±0.34 m/s for EV0 patients, 3.05±0.34 m/s for EV1 patients, 3.48±0.50 m/s for EV2 patients, and 3.69±0.33 m/s for EV3 patients (χ2=60.121,P<0.001. The ARFI value of the spleen was positively correlated with the grade of esophageal varices (r=0.713, P<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve for the ARFI value of the spleen in the diagnosis of ≥EV1, ≥EV2, or EV3 esophageal varices were 0.93, 0.88, and 0.83, respectively. There was no significant difference in the ARFI value of the liver between groups (P=0.085, and the ARFI value of the liver was not correlated with the degree of

  5. Regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly in two patients with hepatitis-C-related liver cirrhosis after interferon and ribavirin combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Jae Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Some recent studies have found regression of liver cirrhosis after antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV-related liver cirrhosis, but there have been no reports of complete regression of esophageal varices after interferon/peg-interferon and ribavirin combination therapy. We describe two cases of complete regression of esophageal varices and splenomegaly after interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. Esophageal varices and splenomegaly regressed after 3 and 8 years of sustained virologic responses in cases 1 and 2, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that complications of liver cirrhosis, such as esophageal varices and splenomegaly, can regress after antiviral therapy in patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis.

  6. Resultados del tratamiento de la hemorragia digestiva alta por varices esofagogástricas

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Luna, David; Farran, L.; Ramos, E.; Biondo, Sebastián; Moreno Llorente, Pablo; Bettónica, C.; Jorba, R.; Borobia, F. G.; Jaurrieta Mas, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    Introducción: el tratamiento de la hemorragia digestiva alta por rotura de varices esofágicas y/o gástricas en pacientes con cirrosis hepática debe estar dirigido al control inicial de la hemorragia sin alterar más una función hepática ya deteriorada , y a la prevención de la recidiva hemorrágica precoz. Métodos endoscópicos, farmacológicos y quirúrgicos forman el conjunto de alternativas terapéuticas. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo de los resultados obtenidos tras el seguimiento de...

  7. Monometric and scintiscanning evaluation of esophageal function after endoscopic sclerosis of esophageal varices. Controlled prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, J.L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Esophageal function was studied in twenty-one patients with esophageal varices of different etiology submitted to endoscopic sclerosis for the detection of possible alterations in the functional pattern of the organ after this treatment. The endoscopic injection sclerosis (EIS) was performed electively in 14 patients (Group I) and in the presence of bleeding in 07 (Group II). The sclerotizing agent used was a solution of equal parts of ethanolamine oleate (Ethamolin R ) and 50% glucose. The injections were preferentially performed by the perivascular technique at weekly intervals. Esophageal function was studied by manometry, and esophageal transit time by scintillography. Group I patients were evaluated before and two to three months and five to nine months after EIS, and Group II patients were only evaluated six to nine months after EIS. The manometry and scintillography procedures were performed in sequence on the same day. The scintillographic examinations were performed with the patient in the supine and sitting positions. (author)

  8. Prognostic variables in patients with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices without prior bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Christensen, E

    1994-01-01

    As identification of patients at risk of bleeding or death is essential for prophylaxis, we determined the prognostic influence of various patient characteristics on the risk of bleeding and death. Fifty-five patients with cirrhosis and oesophageal varices without previous bleeding were included...... in the study and followed up after an average observation period of 446 days (range: 5-1211 days). A total of 55 clinical, biochemical, haemodynamic, and endoscopic variables were classified as systemic haemodynamic, portal haemodynamic, or metabolic. Using univariate analysis, the following variables showed....... The prognostic significance of central circulation time stresses the importance of the hyperdynamic systemic circulation in assessing the increased risk of bleeding or death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  9. Breast varices: imaging findings of an unusual presentation of collateral pathways in superior vena caval syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezdemir, Ayseguel; Ilgit, Erhan T.; Konus, Oeznur L.; Cetin, Meltem; Oezsunar, Yelda

    2000-01-01

    Imaging findings are presented of an unusual pathway of collateral circulation consisting of bilateral and diffuse dilated breast veins from a patient with long standing superior vena caval syndrome. The main importance of this case is the extent of the collateral development through the breast veins, serving as the major pathway of collateral circulation. Identification of this unusual collateral development, which resembles breast varices, was performed with contrast-enhanced chest CT scans, digital subtraction venography, color Doppler ultrasonography, and mammographic studies. Collateral development was secondary to a long segment idiopathic venous occlusion involving bilateral subclavian and brachiocephalic veins as well as vena cava superior. We conclude that dilated breast veins when detected on any imaging modality should raise the suspicion of central venous obstruction

  10. Role of Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Acute Variceal Bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Maufa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute variceal bleeding continues to be associated with significant mortality. Current standard of care combines hemodynamic stabilization, antibiotic prophylaxis, pharmacological agents, and endoscopic treatment. Rescue therapies using balloon tamponade or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt are implemented when first-line therapy fails. Rescue therapies have many limitations and are contraindicated in some cases. Placement of fully covered self-expandable metallic stent is a promising therapeutic technique that can be used to control bleeding in cases of refractory esophageal bleeding as an alternative to balloon tamponade. These stents can be left in place for as long as two weeks, allowing for improvement in liver function and institution of a more definitive treatment.

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Stent-Shunt for Therapy of Bleeding Esophageal Varices Due to Extramedullary Hematopoiesis in Primary Myelofibrosis: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip, Veit;Berger, Hermann;Straub, Melanie;Saugel, Bernd;Treiber, Matthias;Einwächter, Henrik;Schmid, Roland M.;Huber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary myelofibrosis belongs to the group of myeloproliferative syndromes. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver can lead to portal hypertension. Patient and Methods: We report a case of a patient with life-threatening, endoscopically not treatable bleeding from esophageal varices due to extramedullary hematopoiesis of the liver that was successfully treated with placement of a transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent-shunt (TIPS). Results: Therapy of variceal bleeding ...

  12. Report from two cases of vesicular varices secondary to thrombosis of the aorta vein, diagnosed by ultrasound Doppler color and pressed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana R, Gustavo; Romero E, Javier; Prada, Mario; Uribe, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    We report two cases of gallbladder varices diagnosed by ultrasound. The first one is a 71-year-old patient who was diagnosed with liver cirrhosis of unknown etiology. The second patient is a 27-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a hypercoagulability state. Both of them were evaluated with Doppler ultrasound of the esplenoportal circulation, gallbladder varices associated with complete portal vein thrombosis were found

  13. Sucralfate and Lidocain: Antacid 50:50 solution in Post Esophageal Variceal Band Ligation Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Kadir, Ehsan; Aijaz, Anjum

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of pain relief of Sucralfate and lidocain antacid 50:50 solution in post esophageal variceal band ligation pain. All patients who had under gone Esophageal Variceal Band Ligation (EVBL) were included in the study. Patients un-willing to be included in the study or those who didn't have post EVBL pain were excluded. Patients with post EVBL pains were divided into two groups: one group was given sucralfate and other was given lidocaine: antacid 50:50 solution. Both were inquired about the duration of the pain relief after the medication. The results were analyzed on SPSS 23. Independent samples T-test was performed to find out whether the difference in duration of pain relief was significantly different in the two groups. Out of 110 patients who have EVBL, 66(60.00%) had pain and 44(40.00%) were pain free. In the pain group 46 (69.7%) were given sucralfate and 20 (30.3%) were given lidocain: antacid 50:50 solution. Mean duration of pain relief in two groups was 2.78 (SD ± 2.096) and 2.5 days (SD ±. 0.76) respectively. Independent samples T-test results revealed that there was no statistically significant difference in the duration of pain relief between these two groups with p value 0.426. Both Sucralfate and Lidocain: antacid 50:50 solutions are effective in relieving the post EVBL pain. However, no statistically significant difference in duration of pain relief was detected in separate groups of patients treated with either treatment.

  14. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided coil or glue injection in post-cyanoacrylate gastric variceal re-bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkada, Roy J; Antony, Rajesh; Chooracken, Mathew J; Francis, Jose V; Chettupuzha, Antony P; Mathew, Pradeep G; Augustine, Philip; Koshy, Abraham

    2018-04-09

    N-butyl-cyanoacrylate injection is recommended in bleeding/recently bled gastric varices. However, cyanoacrylate injection is associated with re-bleed in 25% to 50% of patients. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided coil application is an emerging treatment modality for bleeding gastric varices. The aim of this study was to compare EUS-guided coil application combined with or without cyanoacrylate glue injection to injection alone in post-glue gastric variceal re-bleed. A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed. Thirty patients who re-bled after cyanoacrylate injection and who had EUS-guided coil application to gastric varices were included. The comparison was done with data of 51 patients who had only repeat cyanoacrylate injection. Both groups had a follow up for 12 months. EUS-guided coil application was done under endosonographic guidance. A single coil was placed in 7, two coils in each of 13 patients, three in 5, four in 3, five in one, and 6 coils in one patient. In addition, cyanoacrylate glue injection was given in 15 patients. Eight patients had repeat EUS-guided coil application 1 month later. Re-bleed and mortality were assessed. Coilng: Six out of 30 (20%) patients re-bled during follow up of 9 to 365 days. Three out of 30 (10%) died. One patient died 9 days after the procedure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, one died 4 months after the procedure due to a re-bleed and one 5 months after the procedure due to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Glue only: 26/51 (51%) re-bled during follow up of 45 to 365 days. EUS-guided coil application resulted in significantly less re-bleed than glue-only (Kaplan-Meir survival analysis with log-rank test, z = 5.4, p guided coil application with/without cyanoacrylate injection for the obliteration of gastric varices is effective for post-cyanoacrylate gastric variceal re-bleed.

  15. Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Persisting Esophageal Variceal Bleeding after Band Ligation or Injection-Therapy: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Müller

    Full Text Available Despite a pronounced reduction of lethality rates due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding, esophageal variceal bleeding remains a challenge for the endoscopist and still accounts for a mortality rate of up to 40% within the first 6 weeks. A relevant proportion of patients with esophageal variceal bleeding remains refractory to standard therapy, thus making a call for additional tools to achieve hemostasis. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS incorporate such a tool.We evaluated a total number of 582 patients admitted to our endoscopy unit with the diagnosis "gastrointestinal bleeding" according to our documentation software between 2011 and 2014. 82 patients suffered from esophageal variceal bleeding, out of which 11 cases were refractory to standard therapy leading to SEMS application. Patients with esophageal malignancy, fistula, or stricture and a non-esophageal variceal bleeding source were excluded from the analysis. A retrospective analysis reporting a series of clinically relevant parameters in combination with bleeding control rates and adverse events was performed.The initial bleeding control rate after SEMS application was 100%. Despite this success, we observed a 27% mortality rate within the first 42 days. All of these patients died due to non-directly hemorrhage-associated reasons. The majority of patients exhibited an extensive demand of medical care with prolonged hospital stay. Common complications were hepatic decompensation, pulmonary infection and decline of renal function. Interestingly, we found in 7 out of 11 patients (63.6% stent dislocation at time of control endoscopy 24 h after hemostasis or at time of stent removal. The presence of hiatal hernia did not affect obviously stent dislocation rates. Refractory patients had significantly longer hospitalization times compared to non-refractory patients.Self-expandable metal stents for esophageal variceal bleeding seem to be safe and efficient after failed standard therapy

  16. Safe and successful endoscopic initial treatment and long-term eradication of gastric varices by endoscopic ultrasound-guided Histoacryl (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, Christoph; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Optimal endoscopic treatment of gastric varices is still not standardized nowadays. Actively bleeding varices may prohibit a successful endoscopic injection therapy of Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate). Since 2006, we have treated gastric varices by standardized endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guided Histoacryl injection therapy without severe adverse events. We present a large single-center cohort over 7 years with a standardized EUS-guided sclerotherapy of all patients with gastric varices. Application was controlled by fluoroscopy to immediately detect any glue embolization. Only perforating veins located within the gastric wall were treated. In the follow up, we repeated this treatment until varices were eradicated. Utmost patients (36 of 40) were treated during or within 24 h of active bleeding. About 32.5% of patients were treated while visible bleeding. Histoacryl injection was always technically successful and only two patients suffered a minor complication. Acute bleeding was stopped in all patients. About 15% (6 of 40) of patients needed an alternative rescue treatment in the longer course. Three patients got a transjugular portosystemic shunt and another three underwent an orthotopic liver transplantation. Mean long-term survival of 60 months was excellent. Active bleeding of gastric varices can be treated successfully without the necessity of gastric rinsing with EUS-guided injection of Histoacryl.

  17. Variceal bleeding: consensus meeting report from the Brazilian Society of Hepatology Hemorragia digestiva alta varicosa: relatório do 1º Consenso da Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia

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    Paulo Lisboa Bittencourt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, several improvements in the management of variceal bleeding have resulted in a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality of patients with cirrhosis and bleeding varices. Progress in the multidisciplinary approach to these patients has led to a better management of this disease by critical care physicians, hepatologists, gastroenterologists, endoscopists, radiologists and surgeons. In this respect, the Brazilian Society of Hepatology has, recently, sponsored a consensus meeting in order to draw evidence-based recommendations on the management of these difficult-to-treat subjects. An organizing committee comprised of four people was elected by the Governing Board and was responsible to invite 27 researchers from distinct regions of the country to make a systematic review of the subject and to present topics related to variceal bleeding, including prevention, diagnosis, management and treatment, according to evidence-based medicine. After the meeting, all participants met together for discussion of the topics and the elaboration of the aforementioned recommendations. The organizing committee was responsible for writing the final document. The meeting was held at Salvador, May 6th, 2009 and the present manuscript is the summary of the systematic review that was presented during the meeting, organized in topics, followed by the recommendations of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology.Vários avanços científicos obtidos nas últimas duas décadas foram incorporados no manejo da hemorragia digestiva alta varicosa, levando a uma redução significante da sua morbimortalidade, atribuída à abordagem multidisciplinar do sangramento varicoso por paramédicos, emergencistas, intensivistas, gastroenterologistas, hepatologistas, endoscopistas, radiologistas intervencionistas e cirurgiões. Recentemente, a Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia patrocinou uma reunião de consenso, visando o estabelecimento de recomendações nacionais

  18. Treatment of Esophageal Variceal Hemorrhage with Self-Expanding Metal Stents as a Rescue Maneuver in a Swiss Multicentric Cohort

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    Fabienne C. Fierz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension remains a complication with a high mortality today. In cases refractory to standard therapy including endoscopic band ligation and pharmacological therapy, traditionally balloon tamponade has been used as salvage therapy. However, these techniques show several important limitations. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS have been proposed as an alternative rescue treatment. The use of variceal stenting in 7 patients with a total of 9 bleeding episodes in three different Swiss hospitals is demonstrated. While immediate bleeding control is achieved in a high percentage of cases, the 5-day and 6-week mortality rate remain high. Mortality is strongly influenced by the severity of the underlying liver disease. Accordingly, our data represent a high-risk patient collective. Thanks to their safety and easy handling, SEMS are an interesting alternative to balloon tamponade as a bridging intervention to definitive therapy including the pre-hospital setting.

  19. Correlation of adjusted blood requirement index with treatment intervention and outcome in patients presenting with acute variceal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaberi, B.F.; Riaz, M.F.; Sultan, B.A.; Gobindram, P.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the correlation of ABRI with treatment intervention and outcome as discharged or expired in patients of acute variceal bleed. Records of all the patients admitted in Medical Unit-IV, Civil Hospital Karachi with acute variceal bleeding during January 2004 to October 2006 were retrieved. Use of vasoactive agents (Terlipressin/Octreotide), endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and outcome (Discharged/Expired) were noted. ABRI was calculated by the following formula. ABRI= Blood Units Transfused/((Final Hematocrit-Initial Hematocrit)+0.01) Mean ABRI were compared by student's 't' test according to vasoactive therapy, EBL and outcome. Correlation of ABRI with the same variables was also studied by plotting Receiver Operative Curves (ROC). Seventy six patients fulfilling inclusion criteria were selected. No statistically significant difference was observed in the mean ABRI scores when compared according to vasoactive drug administration, EBL and outcome. Significant correlation with mortality was seen on ROC plot with significantly larger area under the curve. (author)

  20. Correlation study of spleen stiffness measured by FibroTouch with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEI Yutong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the correlation of spleen stiffness measured by FibroScan with esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsSpleen and liver stiffness was measured by FibroScan in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis who received gastroscopy in our hospital from December 2012 to December 2013. Categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test, and continuous data were analyzed by t test. Pearson's correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between the degree of esophageal varices and spleen stiffness. ResultsWith the increase in the Child-Pugh score in patients, the measurements of liver and spleen stiffness showed a rising trend. Correlation was found between the measurements of spleen and liver stiffness (r=0.367, P<0.05. The differences in measurements of spleen stiffness between patients with Child-Pugh classes A, B, and C were all significant (t=5.149, 7.231, and 6.119, respectively; P=0031, 0.025, and 0.037, respectively. The measurements of spleen and liver stiffness showed marked increases in patients with moderate and severe esophageal and gastric varices. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, and specificity for spleen stiffness were significantly higher than those for liver stiffness and platelet count/spleen thickness. ConclusionThe spleen stiffness measurement by FibroScan shows a good correlation with the esophageal and gastric varices in patients with liver cirrhosis. FibroScan is safe and noninvasive, and especially useful for those who are not suitable for gastroscopy.

  1. Thirty-Day Readmission Among Patients With Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Effects on Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abougergi, Marwan S; Peluso, Heather; Saltzman, John R

    2018-03-28

    We aimed to determine the rate of hospital readmission within 30 days of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and its impact on mortality, morbidity, and health care use in the United States. We performed a retrospective study using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Readmission Database for the year 2014 (data on 14.9 million hospital stays at 2048 hospitals in 22 states). We collected data on hospital readmissions of 203,220 adults who were hospitalized for urgent non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and discharged. The primary outcome was rate of all-cause readmission within 30 days of discharge. Secondary outcomes were reasons for readmission, readmission mortality rate, morbidity (shock and prolonged mechanical ventilation) and resource use (length of stay and total hospitalization costs and charges). Independent risk factors for readmission were identified using Cox regression analysis. The 30-day rate of readmission was 13%. Only 18% of readmissions were due to recurrent non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The rate of death among patients readmitted to the hospital (4.7%) was higher than that for index admissions (1.9%) (P upper endoscopy, and prolonged mechanical ventilation were associated with lower odds for readmission. In a retrospective study of patients hospitalized for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, 13% are readmitted to the hospital within 30 days of discharge. Readmission is associated with higher mortality, morbidity, and resource use. Most readmissions are not for recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding. Copyright © 2018 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. PROPHYLACTIC ENDOSCOPIC INJECTION SCLEROTHERAPY FOR GASTRIC VARICES : 1. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW SCLEROTHERAPY TECHNIQUE AND ITS APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Masahiko

    1994-01-01

    The author designed a direct injection method of endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) for gastric varices with a newly developed technique for controlling bleeding from the punctured site, and subsequently used it for prophylactic treatment in 10 cases. EIS was performed under X-ray monitoring in the absence of a balloon, and 5% ethanolamine oleate containing 49% Iopamidol was used as the sclerosant. A twenty-five gauge needle wearing an outer tube was used for the puncture. After injecti...

  3. Can transient elastography, Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score predict esophageal varices in HCV-related cirrhotic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Eman M; Omran, Dalia A; El Beshlawey, Mohamad L; Abdo, Mahmoud; El Askary, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in approximately 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM), Fib-4, Forns Index and Lok Score as noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices (EV). This prospective study included 65 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, transient elastograhy (TE) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were calculated. The diagnostic performances of these methods were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curves. All predictors (LSM, FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score) demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the presence and the grade of EV. TE could diagnose EV at a cutoff value of 18.2kPa. Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score could diagnose EV at cutoff values of 2.8, 6.61 and 0.63, respectively. For prediction of large varices (grade 2, 3), LSM showed the highest accuracy (80%) with a cutoff of 22.4kPa and AUROC of 0.801. Its sensitivity was 84%, specificity 72%, PPV 84% and NPV 72%. The diagnostic accuracies of FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were 70%, 70% and76%, respectively, at cutoffs of 3.3, 6.9 and 0.7, respectively. For diagnosis of large esophageal varices, adding TE to each of the other diagnostic indices (serum fibrosis scores) increased their sensitivities with little decrease in their specificities. Moreover, this combination decreased the LR- in all tests. Noninvasive predictors can restrict endoscopic screening. This is very important as non invasiveness is now a major goal in hepatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  4. INVASIVE AND NON-INVASIVE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING PORTAL HYPERTENSION AND PREDICTING VARICEAL BLEEDING IN CIRRHOSIS: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardi, Enrico Maria; Di Matteo, Francesco Maria; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a severe syndrome that may derive from pre-sinusoidal, sinusoidal and post-sinusoidal causes. As a consequence, several complications (i.e., ascites, oesophageal varices) may develop. In sinusoidal portal hypertension, hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) is a reliable method for defining the grade of portal pressure, establishing the effectiveness of the treatment and predicting the occurrence of complications; however, some questions exist regarding its ability to discriminate bleeding from nonbleeding varices in cirrhotic patients. Other imaging techniques (transient elastography, endoscopy, endosonography and duplex Doppler sonography) for assessing causes and complications of portal hypertensive syndrome are available and may be valuable for the management of these patients. In this review, we evaluate invasive and non-invasive techniques currently employed to obtain a clinical prediction of deadly complications, such as variceal bleeding in patients affected by sinusoidal portal hypertension, in order to create a diagnostic algorithm to manage them. Again, HVPG appears to be the reference standard to evaluate portal hypertension and monitor the response to treatment, but its ability to predict several complications and support management decisions might be further improved through the diagnostic combination with other imaging techniques. PMID:24328372

  5. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in patients with active variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension and portal vein thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Woong; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Lee, Sang Kwon; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Sun; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Tae Hun; Kim, Yong Joo

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in patients with active variceal bleeding due to liver cirrhosis and pre-existing portal vein thrombosis. Of a total of 123 patients who underwent TIPS, 14 patients with intractable variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension and portal vein thrombosis were included in this study. Noncavernomatous portal vein occlusion was seen in eight patients, and complete portal vein occlusion with cavernomatous trans-formation in six. For all patients, the methods used for TIPS placement were the same as those used in patients with patents portal veins. In seven of eight patients with noncavernomatous occlusion, right hepatic vein-right portal vein shunting was performed; in one with knoncavernomatous occlusion, a shunt was created between the right hepatic and left portal vein. In five of six patients with cavernomatous occlusion, the right hepatic and main portal vein were connected via a collateral vein. The procedures were technically successful in all except one patient. Immediate hemostatis was achieved after all technically successful procedures, and no significant complications were encountered. Minor complications were noted in six patients (three biliary tree punctures, one transperitoneal puncture, one splenic vein perforation, one hepatic subcapsular hematoma). TIPS is a technically feasible and hemodynamically effective procedure, even in patients with active variceal bleeding due to cirrhosis and complete portal vein occlusion

  6. Spleen Stiffness Correlates with the Presence of Ascites but Not Esophageal Varices in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo Mori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although spleen stiffness has recently been identified as potential surrogate marker for portal hypertension, the relationship between spleen stiffness and portal hypertension has not been fully elucidated. We attempted to determine the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and the presence of ascites or esophageal varices by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI imaging. A total of 33 chronic hepatitis C (CHC patients (median age 68; range 51–84 were enrolled. We evaluated the relationship between the liver or spleen stiffness and indicators of portal hypertension as well as clinical and biochemical parameters. Fourteen healthy volunteers were used for validating the accuracy of AFRI imaging. The liver and spleen stiffness increased significantly with progression of liver disease. A significant positive correlation was observed between the liver and spleen stiffness. However, spleen stiffness, but not liver stiffness, was significantly associated with the presence of ascites (, while there was no significant association between the spleen stiffness and spleen index/presence of esophageal varices in CHC patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve based on the spleen stiffness was 0.80. In conclusion, spleen stiffness significantly correlates with the presence of ascites but not esophageal varices in CHC patients.

  7. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (2015, Nanchang, China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yu; Li, Zhao Shen

    2016-02-01

    Acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (ANVUGIB) is one of the most common medical emergencies in China and worldwide. In 2009, we published the "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding" for the patients in China; however, during the past years numerous studies on the diagnosis and treatment of ANVUGIB have been conducted, and the management of ANVUGIB needs to be updated. The guidelines were updated after the databases including PubMed, Embase and CNKI were searched to retrieve the clinical trials on the management of ANVUGIB. The clinical trials were evaluated for high-quality evidence, and the advances in definitions, diagnosis, etiology, severity evaluation, treatment and prognosis of ANVUGIB were carefully reviewed, the recommendations were then proposed. After several rounds of discussions and revisions among the national experts of digestive endoscopy, gastroenterology, radiology and intensive care, the 2015 version of "Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding" was successfully developed by the Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine, National Medical Journal of China, Chinese Journal of Digestion and Chinese Journal of Digestive Endoscopy. It shall be noted that although much progress has been made, the clinical management of ANVUGIB still needs further improvement and refinement, and high-quality randomized trials are required in the future. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices: Comparative effectiveness between gelatin sponge embolization and permanent sclerosant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jo, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Byeong Ho; Jung, Gyoo Sik

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term outcome of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) using vascular plugs and gelatin sponges in comparison with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for the management of gastric varices. From January 2005 to October 2014, 171 patients were referred for management of gastric varices, of which, 52 patients with hemodynamically stable gastric varices (48 recent bleeding; 4 primary prophylaxes) were evaluated. Of these, 38 received BRTO (men/women 23/15; mean age 61.3; Child-Pugh classes A/B/C = 11/25/2) and 14 underwent PARTO (men/women 11/3; mean age 63.4; Child-Pugh classes A/B/C = 9/4/1). The technical success rate, complications, variceal changes, liver function, and exacerbation of ascites/pleural effusion were compared between the 2 groups within 3 months after the procedure. The technical success rates were 92.1% in the BRTO and 100% in the PARTO group. Procedure-related early complications occurred in the BRTO group alone (8%, n = 3). Among patients with technical success, follow-up CT at 1 month was available for 98% (n = 48/49). Complete thrombosis of gastric varices was achieved in 97.1% in the BRTO and 100% in the PARTO group. Worsening of esophageal varices was observed in 24% of the BRTO group alone (n = 8). The albumin level increased significantly in both groups and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase level improved significantly in the PARTO group (p < 0.05). Exacerbation of ascites/pleural effusion was observed in both groups (35.2% vs. 21.4%, both p > 0.05). PARTO appears to be equivalent to BRTO for short-term management of gastric varices

  9. Vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration for the management of gastric varices: Comparative effectiveness between gelatin sponge embolization and permanent sclerosant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jo, Jeong Hyun; Park, Jae Hyung; Park, Byeong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Dong A University Hospital, Dong A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Gyoo Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gospel Hospital, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    To evaluate the short-term outcome of plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO) using vascular plugs and gelatin sponges in comparison with balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for the management of gastric varices. From January 2005 to October 2014, 171 patients were referred for management of gastric varices, of which, 52 patients with hemodynamically stable gastric varices (48 recent bleeding; 4 primary prophylaxes) were evaluated. Of these, 38 received BRTO (men/women 23/15; mean age 61.3; Child-Pugh classes A/B/C = 11/25/2) and 14 underwent PARTO (men/women 11/3; mean age 63.4; Child-Pugh classes A/B/C = 9/4/1). The technical success rate, complications, variceal changes, liver function, and exacerbation of ascites/pleural effusion were compared between the 2 groups within 3 months after the procedure. The technical success rates were 92.1% in the BRTO and 100% in the PARTO group. Procedure-related early complications occurred in the BRTO group alone (8%, n = 3). Among patients with technical success, follow-up CT at 1 month was available for 98% (n = 48/49). Complete thrombosis of gastric varices was achieved in 97.1% in the BRTO and 100% in the PARTO group. Worsening of esophageal varices was observed in 24% of the BRTO group alone (n = 8). The albumin level increased significantly in both groups and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase level improved significantly in the PARTO group (p < 0.05). Exacerbation of ascites/pleural effusion was observed in both groups (35.2% vs. 21.4%, both p > 0.05). PARTO appears to be equivalent to BRTO for short-term management of gastric varices.

  10. Characteristics of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding taking antithrombotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tsuruoka, Nanae; Shimoda, Ryo; Higuchi, Toru; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Iwakiri, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the features and management of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) in Japanese patients taking antithrombotic agents. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of 560 patients who underwent emergency endoscopy for UGIB from 2002 to 2013. The patients were divided into two groups: group A, antithrombotic agent use; and group NA, no antithrombotic agent use. We compared clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and causes of UGIB between the groups. We also investigated management with antithrombotics. Of 560 patients with UGIB, 27.5% were taking antithrombotics, and this proportion gradually increased during the study period. Mean hemoglobin levels on admission were significantly lower in group A (8.0 ± 1.7 g/dL) than in group NA (8.9 ± 2.9 g/dL) (P bleeding was lower in group A than in group NA (P < 0.001), and the rate of endoscopic hemostasis was significantly higher in group A (98.7%) than in group NA (94.3%) (P = 0.022). After the release of the 2012 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society guidelines, the antithrombotic agent cessation periods were significantly shortened (P < 0.001). Among patients with UGIB, those taking antithrombotics exhibited more severe clinical signs. However spurting hemorrhage was rare. Antithrombotics may be resumed early after endoscopic hemostasis. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  11. Ectasias and varices of the vocal fold: clearing the striking zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochman, I; Sataloff, R T; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M

    1999-01-01

    Vascular malformations such as ectasias and varices (Es and Vs) are frequently encountered in patients who present with recurrent vocal fold hemorrhage and/or other traumatic vocal fold lesions. This study examined Es and Vs with regard to their anatomic presentation, phonomicrosurgical management, and treatment outcome. Forty-two patients (39 of them singers) were treated for a total of 87 Es and Vs: 67 of 87 (77%) were on the superior surface of the vocal fold and 20 of 87 (23%) were on the medial surface of the vocal fold. Eighty-three percent were located in the middle musculomembranous region (the striking zone), where the greatest aerodynamically induced shearing stresses occur during phonation. Treatment was performed with carbon dioxide laser cauterization (13 patients), or a new technique utilizing cold instrument excision by means of epithelial cordotomies (23 patients), while a combined approach was employed in 6 patients. Comparisons of preoperative and postoperative stroboscopy revealed improvement or no significant change in all patients in whom the cold instrument technique was used, and increased epithelial stiffness was noted in 4 of 19 patients in whom the carbon dioxide laser was used. Clearing the striking zone appears to have halted further hemorrhages by removing the the fragile Es and Vs from this injury-prone region of the vocal fold. Interpretations of stroboscopic examinations were directed at providing new insights into the biomechanical forces of vocal fold vibration that probably contribute to the genesis of Es and Vs in the vocal folds.

  12. Transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent-shunt for therapy of bleeding esophageal varices due to extramedullary hematopoiesis in primary myelofibrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip, Veit; Berger, Hermann; Straub, Melanie; Saugel, Bernd; Treiber, Matthias; Einwächter, Henrik; Schmid, Roland M; Huber, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis belongs to the group of myeloproliferative syndromes. Extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver can lead to portal hypertension. We report a case of a patient with life-threatening, endoscopically not treatable bleeding from esophageal varices due to extramedullary hematopoiesis of the liver that was successfully treated with placement of a transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic stent-shunt (TIPS). Therapy of variceal bleeding by TIPS insertion was successful. During a 29-month follow-up, no hepatic failure, hepatic encephalopathy, or further variceal bleeding episode occurred. TIPS placement is a well-established procedure for the treatment of complications due to portal hypertension mainly due to liver cirrhosis. This report illustrates that TIPS placement can also be a promising treatment option in patients with primary myelofibrosis and portal hypertension due to extramedullary hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Prospective study of bacteremia rate after elective band ligation and sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate for esophageal varices in patients with advanced liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Danielle Queiroz; Correia, Lucianna Motta; Monaghan, Marie; Lenz, Luciano; Santos, Marcus; Libera, Ermelindo Della

    2011-01-01

    Band ligation (BL) is the most appropriate endoscopic treatment for acute bleeding or prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. Sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CY) can be an alternative for patients with advanced liver disease. Bacteremia is an infrequent complication after BL while the bacteremia rate following treatment with CY for esophageal varices remains unknown. To evaluate and compare the incidence of transient bacteremia between cirrhotic patients submitted to diagnostic endoscopy, CY and BL for treatment of esophageal varices. A prospective study comprising the period from 2004 to 2007 was conducted at Hospital of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, SP, Brazil. Cirrhotic patients with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh B or C) were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according treatment: BL Group (patients undergoing band ligation, n = 20) and CY Group (patients receiving cyanoacrylate injection for esophageal variceal, n = 18). Cirrhotic patients with no esophageal varices or without indication for endoscopic treatment were recruited as control (diagnostic group n = 20). Bacteremia was evaluated by blood culture at baseline and 30 minutes after the procedure. After 137 scheduled endoscopic procedures, none of the 58 patients had fever or any sign suggestive of infection. All baseline cultures were negative. No positive cultures were observed after CY or in the control group - diagnostic endoscopy. Three (4.6 %) positive cultures were found out of the 65 sessions of band ligation (P = 0.187). Two of these samples were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, which could be regarded as a contaminant. The isolated microorganism in the other case was Klebsiella oxytoca. The patient in this case presented no evidence of immunodeficiency except liver disease. There was no significant difference in bacteremia rate between these three groups. BL or CY injection for non-bleeding esophageal varices may be considered

  14. EVALUATION OF PRIMARY PROPHYLAXIS WITH PROPRANOLOL AND ELASTIC BAND LIGATION IN VARICEAL BLEEDING IN CIRRHOTIC CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Rocha PIMENTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background The efficacy of nonselective β-blocker and endoscopic procedures, such as endoscopic variceal ligation, as primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic adults was demonstrated by numerous controlled trials, but in pediatric population, few are the number of studies. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the primary prophylaxis with β-blocker in cirrhotic children and adolescents with portal hypertension. Methods This is a cohort study encompassing 26 cirrhotic patients. β-blocker prophylaxis was performed with propranolol. When contraindicated the use of β-blocker, or if side effects presents, the patients were referred to endoscopic therapy with band ligation. Patients were evaluated by endoscopy, and those who had varicose veins of medium and large caliber or reddish spots, regardless of the caliber of varices, received primary prophylaxis. Results Of the 26 patients evaluated, 9 (34.6% had contraindications to the use of propranolol and were referred for endoscopic prophylaxis. Six (35.3% of the 17 patients who received β-blocker (propranolol, had bled after a median follow-up time of 1.9 years. β-blockage dosage varied from 1 mg/kg/day to 3.1 mg/kg/day and seven (41.2% patients had the propranolol suspended due to fail of the β-blockage or adverse effects, such as drowsiness, bronchospasm and hypotension. Patients who received endoscopic prophylaxis (elastic bandage had no bleeding during the follow-up period. Conclusion All of the patients that had upper gastroinstestinal bleeding in this study were under propranolol prophylaxis. The use of propranolol showed a high number of contraindications and side effects, requiring referral to endoscopic prophylaxis. The endoscopic prophylaxis was effective in reducing episodes of bleeding.

  15. Predictive value of CT for first esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: Value of para-umbilical vein patency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calame, Paul [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Besançon (France); Ronot, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.ronot@aphp.fr [Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); INSERM U1149, centre de recherche biomédicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Bouveresse, Sébastien [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Besançon (France); Cervoni, Jean-Paul [Department of Hepatology, University Hospitals of Besançon (France); Vilgrain, Valérie [Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine (France); University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris (France); INSERM U1149, centre de recherche biomédicale Bichat-Beaujon, CRB3, Paris (France); Delabrousse, Éric [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Besançon (France)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Large PUV are more frequent in patients without variceal bleeding and in those low-risk esophageal varices. • The PUV diameter is smaller in patients who experience variceal bleeding. • The imaging score could help to identify cirrhotic patients at high-risk for EVH. • Cirrhotic patients with high imaging score should be referred for treatment. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate if the presence/size of a para-umbilical vein (PUV) on computed tomography (CT) are associated with a first esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH) in patients with cirrhosis and whether imaging features can help identify patients at increased risk of EVH. Materials and methods: From January 2010 to June 2012 patients with cirrhosis who underwent CT and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within six months were included. The presence/size of PUV was noted. PUV >5 mm were considered large (LPUV). Association with a first EVH was searched for, and validated in a prospective cohort of 55 patients. Results: 172 patients (113 men, mean 60 ± 12 yo) were included. Forty-three patients (25%) experienced a first EVH. LPUV were more frequent in the group without EVH (27% vs. 7%, p = 0.005). At multivariate analysis, factors associated with a first EVH were spleen size > 135 mm (Odd Ratio [OR] = 1.32 [95% confident interval [CI] 1.16–1.51], p < 0.001), ascites (OR = 4.07 [95%CI-1.84–9.01], p = 0.001) and small/absent PUV (OR = 3.06 [95%CI-1.86–5.05], p < 0.001). An imaging score combining these factors was significantly associated with first EVH in the study and the validation cohorts (EVH in 0%, 19%, and 33% when score 0–1, 2–3, and 4–5, respectively). Conclusions: A simple imaging score combining the PUV and spleen size, and the presence of ascites could help to identify cirrhotic patients at high-risk for EVH.

  16. A Rare Case of Retrogastric Abscess Occurring Six Months after N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate Injection into Gastric Varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Injection with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is a proven and successful therapeutic modality for treatment of patients with bleeding gastric varices. However, a variety of complications have also been associated with its use. Here, we report a rare case of retrogastric abscess which occurred almost six months after this therapy. This abscess was attributed to the hampered microbial clearance caused by the venous obliterations from N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The abscess was successfully treated with 3 months of antibiotics.

  17. Predictive value of CT for first esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: Value of para-umbilical vein patency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calame, Paul; Ronot, Maxime; Bouveresse, Sébastien; Cervoni, Jean-Paul; Vilgrain, Valérie; Delabrousse, Éric

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Large PUV are more frequent in patients without variceal bleeding and in those low-risk esophageal varices. • The PUV diameter is smaller in patients who experience variceal bleeding. • The imaging score could help to identify cirrhotic patients at high-risk for EVH. • Cirrhotic patients with high imaging score should be referred for treatment. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate if the presence/size of a para-umbilical vein (PUV) on computed tomography (CT) are associated with a first esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH) in patients with cirrhosis and whether imaging features can help identify patients at increased risk of EVH. Materials and methods: From January 2010 to June 2012 patients with cirrhosis who underwent CT and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy within six months were included. The presence/size of PUV was noted. PUV >5 mm were considered large (LPUV). Association with a first EVH was searched for, and validated in a prospective cohort of 55 patients. Results: 172 patients (113 men, mean 60 ± 12 yo) were included. Forty-three patients (25%) experienced a first EVH. LPUV were more frequent in the group without EVH (27% vs. 7%, p = 0.005). At multivariate analysis, factors associated with a first EVH were spleen size > 135 mm (Odd Ratio [OR] = 1.32 [95% confident interval [CI] 1.16–1.51], p < 0.001), ascites (OR = 4.07 [95%CI-1.84–9.01], p = 0.001) and small/absent PUV (OR = 3.06 [95%CI-1.86–5.05], p < 0.001). An imaging score combining these factors was significantly associated with first EVH in the study and the validation cohorts (EVH in 0%, 19%, and 33% when score 0–1, 2–3, and 4–5, respectively). Conclusions: A simple imaging score combining the PUV and spleen size, and the presence of ascites could help to identify cirrhotic patients at high-risk for EVH.

  18. Excess Long-Term Mortality following Non-Variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Colin John; Card, Timothy Richard; West, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether an upper gastrointestinal bleed is an isolated gastrointestinal event or an indicator of a deterioration in a patient's overall health status. Therefore, we investigated the excess causes of death in individuals after a non-variceal bleed compared with deaths in a matched sample of the general population. Methods and Findings Linked longitudinal data from the English Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) data, General Practice Research Database (GPRD), and Office of National Statistics death register were used to define a cohort of non-variceal bleeds between 1997 and 2010. Controls were matched at the start of the study by age, sex, practice, and year. The excess risk of each cause of death in the 5 years subsequent to a bleed was then calculated whilst adjusting for competing risks using cumulative incidence functions. 16,355 patients with a non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleed were matched to 81,523 controls. The total 5-year risk of death due to gastrointestinal causes (malignant or non-malignant) ranged from 3.6% (≤50 years, 95% CI 3.0%–4.3%) to 15.2% (≥80 years, 14.2%–16.3%), representing an excess over controls of between 3.6% (3.0%–4.2%) and 13.4% (12.4%–14.5%), respectively. In contrast the total 5-year risk of death due to non-gastrointestinal causes ranged from 4.1% (≤50 years, 3.4%–4.8%) to 46.6% (≥80 years, 45.2%–48.1%), representing an excess over controls of between 3.8% (3.1%–4.5%) and 19.0% (17.5%–20.6%), respectively. The main limitation of this study was potential misclassification of the exposure and outcome; however, we sought to minimise this by using information derived across multiple linked datasets. Conclusions Deaths from all causes were increased following an upper gastrointestinal bleed compared to matched controls, and over half the excess risk of death was due to seemingly unrelated co-morbidity. A non-variceal bleed may therefore warrant a careful assessment of co

  19. Hypoalbuminemia in the outcome of patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-González, J A; Vázquez-Elizondo, G; Monreal-Robles, R; García-Compean, D; Borjas-Almaguer, O D; Hernández-Velázquez, B; Maldonado-Garza, H J

    The role of serum albumin level in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGB) has not been extensively studied. Our aim was to evaluate the role of serum albumin on admission in terms of in-hospital mortality in patients with NVUGB. Patients admitted with NVUGB during a 4-year period were prospectively included. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cutoff value for serum albumin on admission that made a distinction between deceased patients and survivors with respect to serum albumin on admission, as well as its overall performance compared with the Rockall score. 185 patients with NVUGB were evaluated. Men predominated (56.7%) and a mean age of 59.1±19.9 years was found. Mean serum albumin on admission was 2.9±0.9g/dl with hypoalbuminemia (< 3.5g/dl) detected on admission in 71.4% of cases. The ROC curve found that the best value for predicting hospital mortality was an albumin level of 3.1g/dl (AUROC 0.738). Mortality in patients with albumin ≥ 3.2g/dl was 1.2% compared with 11.2% in patients with albumin<3.2g/dl (P=.009; OR 9.7, 95%CI 1.2-76.5). There was no difference in overall performance between the albumin level (AUORC 0.738) and the Rockall score (AUROC 0.715) for identifying mortality. Patients with hypoalbuminemia presenting with NVUGB have a greater in-hospital mortality rate. The serum albumin level and the Rockall score perform equally in regard to identifying the mortality rate. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Liver stiffness plus platelet count can be used to exclude high-risk oesophageal varices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nik S; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David M; Hong, Thai; Flanagan, Emma; Wong, Avelyn; Luiz, Lauren; Tan, Jonathan Y C; Fulforth, James; Holmes, Jacinta; Ryan, Marno; Bell, Sally J; Desmond, Paul V; Roberts, Stuart K; Lubel, John; Kemp, William; Thompson, Alexander J

    2016-02-01

    Endoscopic screening for high-risk gastro-oesophageal varices (GOV) is recommended for compensated cirrhotic patients with transient elastography identifying increasing numbers of patients with cirrhosis without portal hypertension. Using liver stiffness measurement (LSM) ± platelet count, the aim was to develop a simple clinical rule to exclude the presence of high-risk GOV in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. A retrospective analysis of 71 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis diagnosed by transient elastography (LSM >13.6 kPa) who underwent screening gastroscopy was conducted. A predictive model using LSM ± platelet count was assessed to exclude the presence of high-risk GOV (diameter >5 mm and/or the presence of high-risk stigmata) and validated using a second cohort of 200 patients from two independent centres. High-risk GOV were present in 10 (15%) and 16 (8%) of the training and validation cohorts, respectively, which was associated with LSM and Pl count (P < 0.05). A combined model based on LSM and Pl count was more accurate for excluding the presence of high-risk GOV than either alone (training cohort AUROC: 0.87 [0.77-0.96] vs. 0.78 [0.65-0.92] for LSM and 0.71 [0.52-0.90] for platelets) with the combination of LSM ≤25 kPa and Pl ≥100 having a NPV of 100% in both the training and validation cohorts. A total of 107 (39%) patients meet this criterion. The combination of LSM ≤25 kPa and Pl ≥100 can be used in clinical practice to exclude the presence of high-risk GOV in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Laparoendoscopic transgastric histoacryl injection of gastric varices: a new surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed I; El-Haddad, Hani M; El-Bahrawi, Hassan A

    2013-02-01

    Gastric varices (GVs) are a common finding in Egyptian patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis or schistosomal hepatic fibrosis. These patients present with an acute attack or history of hematemesis. Endoscopic histoacryl injection is the standard treatment in Egypt; however, because of technical difficulties it is possible to inject only a little amount of this material, as it may endanger the channels of the flexible endoscope. We thought of a new surgical laparoendoscopic technique to obviate the need for repeated endoscopies and complete obliteration of GVs. This study was conducted on 20 patients with portal hypertension and GVs. After the patient was placed under general anesthesia, a small gastrostomy was done in the anterior gastric wall through which a 10-mm trocar was inserted for the laparoscopic camera. Injection of GVs was done via a spinal needle or a central venous line needle inserted directly. Injection of an adequate amount of histoacryl was done under direct vision. This study was conducted from July 2009 to August 2011 on 20 patients with GVs. The age range was from 22 to 56 years, with a mean age of 39.8±7.85 years. There were 14 men (70%) and 6 women (30%). Fourteen patients (70%) showed complete obliteration of GVs after one session of treatment, whereas 6 patients (30%) had unsatisfactory results and were subjected to another session. GVs were completely obliterated after the second session in 4 patients. Two cases of recurrence of GVs were operated on. This new technique enabled us to inject GVs with a suitable amount of glue material under direct vision without harming the endoscope. Use of this procedure is recommended in patients fit for surgery and those who had failed endoscopic injection sclerotherapy.

  2. Gastric Polyp Growth during Endoscopic Surveillance for Esophageal Varices or Barrett's Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livovsky, Dan M; Pappo, Orit; Skarzhinsky, Galina; Peretz, Asaf; Turvall, Elliot; Ackerman, Zvi

    2016-05-01

    We recently observed patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) or chronic reflux symptoms (CRS) who developed gastric polyps (GPs) while undergoing surveillance gastroscopies for the detection of esophageal varices or Barrett's esophagus, respectively. To identify risk factors for GP growth and estimate its growth rate. GP growth rate was defined as the number of days since the first gastroscopy (without polyps) in the surveillance program, until the gastroscopy when a GP was discovered. Gastric polyp growth rates in CLD and CRS patients were similar. However, hyperplastic gastric polyps (HGPs) were detected more often (87.5% vs. 60.5%, P = 0.051) and at a higher number (2.57 ± 1.33 vs. 1.65 ± 0.93, P = 0.021) in the CLD patients. Subgroup analysis revealed the following findings only in CLD patients with HGPs: (i) a positive correlation between the GP growth rate and the patient's age; the older the patient, the higher the GP growth rate (r = 0.7, P = 0.004). (ii) A negative correlation between the patient's age and the Ki-67 proliferation index value; the older the patient, the lower the Ki-67 value (r = -0.64, P = 0.02). No correlation was detected between Ki-67 values of HGPs in CLD patients and the presence of portal hypertension, infection with Helicobacter pylori, or proton pump inhibitor use. In comparison with CRS patients, CLD patients developed HGPs more often and at a greater number. Young CLD patients may have a tendency to develop HGPs at a faster rate than elderly CLD patients.

  3. Alterações da motilidade esofagiana em pacientes cirróticos com varizes de esôfago não submetidos a tratamento endoscópico Esophageal motor disorders in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices non-submitted to endoscopic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Pollo Flores

    2005-12-01

    the development of esophageal varices, the possibility of a digestive hemorrhage and worsening of hepatic insufficiency. It is important to identify causal predictive or aggravating factors and if possible to prevent them. In the last years, it has been observed the association of esophageal motor disorders and gastro-esophageal reflux in cirrhotic patients with esophageal varices. AIMS: To study the prevalence of the esophageal motility disorders and among them, the ineffective esophageal motility, in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and esophageal varices, without previous endoscopic therapeutic and the predictives factors. METHODS: Prospectively, it has been evaluate 74 patients suffering from liver cirrhosis and esophagic varices, without previous endoscopic treatment. All of them were submitted to a clinical protocol, esophageal manometry and 55 patients also held the ambulatory esophageal pHmetry. RESULTS: Esophageal motility disorders have been found in 44 patients (60%. The most prevalent was the ineffective esophageal motility, observed in 28%. The abnormal reflux disease was diagnosed through the pHmetry in 35% of the patients. There were no correlation between the manometrical abnormality in general and the ineffective esophageal motility in particular and the esophageal or gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms, the abnormal reflux, the disease seriousness, the ascites presence and the gauge of the varices. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of cirrhotic patients with non-treated esophageal varices present esophageal motor disorders. No predictive factor was found. The clinical relevance of these findings need more researches in the scope to define the real meaning of theses abnormalities.

  4. Combination of TIPSS and azygoportal disconnection for portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianmin; Wu Xingjiang; Han Jianming; Wu Xuehao; Li Jieshou

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical results of combined TIPSS and azygoportal disconnection for portal hypertension in controlling and preventing esophageal variceal bleeding. Methods: From Oct. 1996 to Dec. 2001, 60 patients with portal hypertension were admitted to authors' department because of variceal bleeding and submitted to the treatment with the combination TIPSS and azygoportal disconnection. According to Child-Pugh classification, 11 patients were in class A, 37 in class B, and 12 in class C. 41 patients showed mild ascites and 8 with severe ascites. The mild and severe esophageal varices were proven by upper digestive barium meal. The procedure was divided into two stages; first, TIPSS procedure with the stent of diameter 0.8 cm and length 6-7 cm was successfully in planted in all patients, second, all patients underwent azygoportal disconnection two weeks later after TIPSS. Results: After the combination TIPSS and azygoportal disconnection, the recent complications included three cases with bleeding at operative fields, one case with infradiaphragmatic abscess and seven with slight encephalopathy. No rebleeding of esophageal varices and death occurred during the treatment. During the follow-up of 1-5 years, the rates of shunt occlusion, rebleeding and death were 11.9%, 3.5% and 7.0% respectively. Conclusions: The combination TIPSS and azygoportal disconnection is an efficient therapeutic methods for portal hypertension

  5. Acute Variceal Bleeding: Does Octreotide Improve Outcomes in Patients with Different Functional Hepatic Reserve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Cortez-Hernández, Carlos A; González-González, José A; Abraldes, Juan G; Bosques-Padilla, Francisco J; Silva-Ramos, Héctor N; García-Flores, Jorge A; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor J

    2018-01-01

    Current guidelines do not differentiate in the utilization of vasoactive drugs in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding (AVB) depending on liver disease severity. In this retrospective study, clinical outcomes in 100 patients receiving octreotide plus endoscopic therapy (ET) and 216 patients with ET alone were compared in terms of failure to control bleeding, in-hospital mortality, and transfusion requirements stratifying the results according to liver disease severity by Child-Pugh (CP) score and MELD. In patients with CP-A or those with MELD < 10 octreotide was not associated with a better outcome compared to ET alone in terms of hospital mortality (CP-A: 0.0 vs. 0.0%; MELD < 10: 0.0 vs. 2.9%, p = 1.00), failure to control bleeding (CP-A: 8.7 vs. 3.7%, p = 0.58; MELD < 10: 5.3 vs. 4.3%, p = 1.00) and need for transfusion (CP-A: 39.1 vs. 61.1%, p = 0.09; MELD < 10: 63.2 vs. 62.9%, p = 1.00). Those with severe liver dysfunction in the octreotide group showed better outcomes compared to the non-octreotide group in terms of hospital mortality (CP-B/C: 3.9 vs. 13.0%, p = 0.04; MELD ≥ 10: 3.9 vs. 13.3%, p = 0.03) and need for transfusion (CP-B/C: 58.4 vs. 71.6%, p = 0.05; MELD ≥ 10: 50.6 vs. 72.7%, p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, octreotide was independently associated with in-hospital mortality (p = 0.028) and need for transfusion (p = 0.008) only in patients with severe liver dysfunction (CP-B/C or MELD ≥ 10). Patients with cirrhosis and AVB categorized as CP-A or MELD < 10 had similar clinical outcomes during hospitalization whether or not they received octreotide.

  6. Development of Thrombus in a Systemic Vein after Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimatsu, Rika; Yamagami, Takuji; Tanaka, Osamu; Miura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Okuda, Kotaro; Hashiba, Mitsuoki

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and risk factors for developing thrombus in a systemic vein such as the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the iliac vein, in which a balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) catheter was indwelled. Forty-nine patients who underwent B-RTO for gastric varices were included in this study. The B-RTO procedure was performed from the right femoral vein, and the B-RTO catheter was retained overnight in all patients. Pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared in order to evaluate the development of thrombus in the systemic vein in which the catheter was indwelled. Additionally, several variables were analyzed to assess risk factors for thrombus in a systemic vein. In all 49 patients (100%), B-RTO was technically successful, and in 46 patients (94%), complete thrombosis of the gastric varices was achieved. In 6 patients (12%), thrombus developed in the infrarenal inferior vena cava or the right common-external iliac vein. All thrombi lay longitudinally on the right side of the inferior vena cava or the right iliac vein. One of the aforementioned 6 patients required anticoagulation therapy. No symptoms suggestive of pulmonary embolism were observed. Prothrombin time-international normalized ratio and the addition of 5% ethanolamine oleate iopamidol, on the second day, were related to the development of thrombus. Development of a thrombus in a systemic vein such as the inferior vena cava or iliac vein, caused by indwelling of the B-RTO catheter, is relatively frequent. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of pulmonary embolism due to iliocaval thrombosis.

  7. Retrospective analysis of surgery and trans-arterial embolization for major non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ewen A; McDonald, Chris R; Bryant, Robert V; Devitt, Peter G; Bright, Tim; Holloway, Richard H; Thompson, Sarah K

    2016-05-01

    With proton pump inhibitors and current sophisticated endoscopic techniques, the number of patients requiring surgical intervention for upper gastrointestinal bleeding has decreased considerably while trans-arterial embolization is being used more often. There are few direct comparisons between the effectiveness of surgery and embolization. A retrospective study of patients from two Australian teaching hospitals who had surgery or trans-arterial embolization (n = 103) for severe upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage between 2004 and 2012 was carried out. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, disease pathology, length of stay, complications, and overall clinical outcome and mortality were compared. There were 65 men and 38 women. The median age was 70 (range 36-95) years. Patients requiring emergency surgical intervention (n = 79) or trans-arterial embolization (n = 24) were compared. The rate of re-bleeding after embolization (42%) was significantly higher compared with the surgery group (19%) (P = 0.02). The requirement for further intervention (either surgery or embolization) was also higher in the embolization group (33%) compared with the surgery group (13%) (P = 0.03). There was no statistical difference in mortality between the embolization group (5/24, 20.8%) and the surgical group (13/79, 16.5%) (P = 0.75). Emergency surgery and embolization are required in 2.6% of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Both techniques have high mortalities reflecting the age, co-morbidities and severity of bleeding in this patient group. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. [Can Glasgow-Blatchford Score and Pre-endoscopic Rockall Score Predict the Occurrence of Hypotension in Initially Normotensive Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, June Sung; Ko, Byuk Sung; Son, Chang Hwan; Ahn, Shin; Seo, Dong Woo; Lee, Yoon Seon; Lee, Jae Ho; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2016-01-25

    The aim of this study was to identify the ability of Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS) and pre-endoscopic Rockall score (pre-E RS) to predict the occurrence of hypotension in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding who are initially normotensive at emergency department. Retrospective observational study was conducted at Asan Medical Center emergency department (ED) in patients who presented with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013. Study population was divided according to the development of hypotension, and demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory findings were compared. GBS and pre-E RS were estimated to predict the occurrence of hypotension. A total of 747 patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding were included during the study period, and 120 (16.1%) patients developed hypotension within 24 hours after ED admission. The median values GBS and pre-E RS were statistically different according to the occurrence of hypotension (8.0 vs. 10.0, 2.0 vs. 3.0, respectively; pupper gastrointestinal bleeding. Development of other scoring systems are needed.

  9. Endoscopic Management of Tumor Bleeding from Inoperable Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Il

    2015-01-01

    Tumor bleeding is not a rare complication in patients with inoperable gastric cancer. Endoscopy has important roles in the diagnosis and primary treatment of tumor bleeding, similar to its roles in other non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases. Although limited studies have been performed, endoscopic therapy has been highly successful in achieving initial hemostasis. One or a combination of endoscopic therapy modalities, such as injection therapy, mechanical therapy, or ablative therapy, can be used for hemostasis in patients with endoscopic stigmata of recent hemorrhage. However, rebleeding after successful hemostasis with endoscopic therapy frequently occurs. Endoscopic therapy may be a treatment option for successfully controlling this rebleeding. Transarterial embolization or palliative surgery should be considered when endoscopic therapy fails. For primary and secondary prevention of tumor bleeding, proton pump inhibitors can be prescribed, although their effectiveness to prevent bleeding remains to be investigated. PMID:25844339

  10. [Evaluation and treatment of portal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brůha, Radan; Petrtýl, Jaromír

    Liver cirrhosis is a serious disease shortening the life expectancy. Unavoidable consequence of cirrhosis is portal hypertension, which usually limits the prognosis by its complications. Portal hypertension is a prognostic factor for cirrhosis decompensation, variceal bleeding and even the mortality in cirrhotic patients. In the evaluation of portal hypertension hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is used.Measurement of HVPG is used in clinical praxis in these situations: diagnosis of portal hypertension, evaluation of prognosis of patients with cirrhosis, monitoring the treatment efficacy in the prevention of variceal bleeding, management of acute variceal bleeding. Decrease of HVPG below 12 mmHg or at least for more than 20% of initial value in the treatment by beta-blockers is associated with the lower risk of bleeding from varices or other complications. HVPG above 20 mm Hg is associated with the high risk of early rebleeding from varices and can discriminate those patients profiting from early TIPS.HVPG measurement is an invasive, but simple, reproducible and safe catheterization technique with minimal complication rate. The most frequent complication could be incorrect assessment of obtained values. HVPG measurement should be a routine technique in centers specialized to liver diseases.

  11. Long-term outcome following trans-jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Jinguo; Zhang Shutian; Feng Zitan; Zhou Guifen; Pan Xinyuan; Liang Zhihui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the 6-year outcome following trans-jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS) for variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension. Methods: 65 patients, 51 males, 14 females, aged 35-72 years old with averaged 4.5 years, have been undergone TIPSS because of portal hypertension due to cirrhosis or Budd-Chiari syndrome. The portal pressures were measured before and after TIPSS. Follow-up study was done by color Doppler sonography or Barium esophageal radiography for 3 months to 6 years (averaged 18 months). Repeated interventional treatments were done in cases of restenosis of the shunts. Results: There were 0, 2, 10, 5, 0 cases of recurrent bleeding after 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 year and 3-6 year following TIPSS respectively. Stenosis occurred in shunt paths due to thrombosis or smooth muscle cell proliferation or neo-intimal hyperplasia were relieved after thrombolytic therapy and repeated balloon angioplasty or stent plant among most of them. 2 were failed due to serious stenosis. 7 cases died, 2 of massive bleeding, 1 of the other cause and 4 of hepatic cancer. The other patients are getting well. Conclusions: Although there were very high rates of restenosis (34%), but most of them could be treated again with interventional therapy, and in kept patency effectively. TIPSS is a still practical valuable management for massive gastric bleeding

  12. Ultrathin disposable gastroscope for screening and surveillance of gastroesophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Dep K; Toscano, Leanne; Phan, Vinh-An; Ow, Tsai-Wing; Schoeman, Mark; Nguyen, Nam Q

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the role of unsedated, ultrathin disposable gastroscopy (TDG) against conventional gastroscopy (CG) in the screening and surveillance of gastroesophageal varices (GEVs) in patients with liver cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients (56.4 ± 1.3 years; 38 male, 10 female) with liver cirrhosis referred for screening (n = 12) or surveillance (n = 36) of GEVs were prospectively enrolled. Unsedated gastroscopy was initially performed with TDG, followed by CG with conscious sedation. The 2 gastroscopies were performed by different endoscopists blinded to the results of the previous examination. Video recordings of both gastroscopies were validated by an independent investigator in a random, blinded fashion. Endpoints were accuracy and interobserver agreement of detecting GEVs, safety, and potential cost saving. CG identified GEVs in 26 (54%) patients, 10 of whom (21%) had high-risk esophageal varices (HREV). Compared with CG, TDG had an accuracy of 92% for the detection of all GEVs, which increased to 100% for high-risk GEVs. The interobserver agreement for detecting all GEVs on TDG was 88% (κ = 0.74). This increased to 94% (κ = 0.82) for high-risk GEVs. There were no serious adverse events. Unsedated TDG is safe and has high diagnostic accuracy and interobserver reliability for the detection of GEVs. The use of clinic-based TDG would allow immediate determination of a follow-up plan, making it attractive for variceal screening and surveillance programs. (Clinical trial (ANZCTR) registration number: ACTRN12616001103459.). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimizing logistics for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of gastric varices by doing away with the indwelling balloon: concept and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Wael E; Nicholson, David B

    2013-06-01

    Since the conception of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) of gastric varices 25 years ago, the placement of an indwelling balloon for hours has been central to the BRTO procedure. Numerous variables and variations of the BRTO procedure have been described, including methods to reduce sclerosant, combining percutaneous transhepatic obliteration, varying sclerosant, and using multiple sclerosants within the same procedure. However, the consistent feature of BRTO has always remained the indwelling balloon. Placing an indwelling balloon over hours for the BRTO procedure is a logistical burden that taxes the interventional radiology team and hospital resources. Substituting the balloon with hardware (coils or Amplatzer vascular plugs [AVPs] or both) is technically feasible and its risks most likely correlate with gastrorenal shunt (GRS) size. The current authors use packed 0.018- or 0.035-in coils or both for small gastric variceal systems (GRS size A and B) and AVPs for GRS sizes up to size E (from size A-E). The current authors recommend an indwelling balloon (no hardware substitute) for very large gastric variceal system (GRS size F). Substituting the indwelling balloon for hardware in size F and potentially size E GRS can also be risky. The current article describes the techniques of placing up to 16-mm AVPs through balloon occlusion guide catheters and then deflating the balloon once it has been substituted with the AVPs. In addition, 22-mm AVPs can be placed through sheaths once the balloon occlusion catheters are removed to further augment the 16-mm Amplatzer occlusion. To date, there are no studies describing, let alone evaluating, the clinical feasibility of performing BRTO without indwelling balloons. The described techniques have been successfully performed by the current authors. However, the long-term safety and effectiveness of these techniques is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of APRI, AAR, FIB-4, FI, and King Scores for Diagnosis of Esophageal Varices in Liver Cirrhosis: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han; Qi, Xingshun; Peng, Ying; Li, Jing; Li, Hongyu; Zhang, Yongguo; Liu, Xu; Sun, Xiaolin; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2015-12-20

    BACKGROUND Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), aspartate aminotransferase-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), FIB-4, fibrosis index (FI), and King scores might be alternatives to the use of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for the diagnosis of esophageal varices (EVs) in liver cirrhosis. This study aimed to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy in predicting the presence and severity of EVs in liver cirrhosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS All patients who were consecutively admitted to our hospital and underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy between January 2012 and June 2014 were eligible for this retrospective study. Areas under curve (AUCs) were calculated. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and splenectomy. RESULTS A total of 650 patients with liver cirrhosis were included, and 81.4% of them had moderate-severe EVs. In the overall analysis, the AUCs of these non-invasive scores for predicting moderate-severe EVs and presence of any EVs were 0.506-0.6 and 0.539-0.612, respectively. In the subgroup analysis of patients without UGIB, their AUCs for predicting moderate-severe varices and presence of any EVs were 0.601-0.664 and 0.596-0.662, respectively. In the subgroup analysis of patients without UGIB or splenectomy, their AUCs for predicting moderate-severe varices and presence of any EVs were 0.627-0.69 and 0.607-0.692, respectively. CONCLUSIONS APRI, AAR, FIB-4, FI, and King scores had modest diagnostic accuracy of EVs in liver cirrhosis. They might not be able to replace the utility of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for the diagnosis of EVs in liver cirrhosis.

  15. Migration to the pulmonary artery of nine metallic coils placed in the internal iliac vein for treatment of giant rectal varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Yamasaki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcatheter venous embolization with metallic coils is a safe and reliable method for the treatment of pelvic congestion syndrome and pelvic varicocele. While rare, coil migration to the pulmonary arteries is potentially fatal. We report the migration to the pulmonary artery of a cluster of nine metallic microcoils placed in the internal iliac vein to obliterate giant rectal varices. Our patient suffered no severe sequelae. To avoid coil migration to the pulmonary arteries, the coils chosen for placement must take into consideration the characteristics of the target vessels, particularly of larger veins.

  16. Blood flow parameters in the short gastric vein and splenic vein on Doppler ultrasound reflect gastric variceal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Ishihara, Takeshi; Ishii, Hiroshi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Yoshikawa, Masaharu; Matsutani, Shoichi; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Hemodynamic features associated with the bleeding from gastric fundal varices (FV) have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to elucidate hemodynamics in the short gastric vein (SGV) which is a major inflow route for FV and flow direction of the splenic vein (SV) in relation to bleeding FV. Materials and Methods: The subject of this retrospective study was 54 cirrhotic patients who had medium- or large-sized FV (20 bleeders, 34 non-bleeders) on endoscopy with SGV on both angiogram and sonogram. Diameter, flow velocity, flow volume of SGV and flow direction in the SV were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound. Results: Diameter, flow velocity and flow volume of SGV were significantly greater in bleeders (9.6 ± 3.1 mm, 11.4 ± 5.2 cm/s, 499 ± 250.1 ml/min) than non-bleeders (6.5 ± 2.2 mm, p = 0.0141; 7.9 ± 3.3 cm/s, p = 0.022; 205 ± 129.1 ml/min, p = 0.0031). SV showed forward flow in 37 (68.5%), to and fro in 3 (5.6%) and reversed flow in 14 patients (25.9%). The frequency of FV bleeding was significantly higher in case with reversed or 'to and fro' SV flow (11/17) than forward SV flow (9/37, p = 0.0043). The cumulative bleeding rate at 3 and 5 years was significantly higher in patients without forward SV flow (38.8% at 3 years, 59.2% at 5 years) than in patients with forward SV flow (18.7% at 3 years, 32.2% at 5 years, p = 0.0199). Conclusion: Advanced SGV blood flow and reversed SV flow direction may be a hemodynamic features closely related to the FV bleeding.

  17. Value of Glasgow-Blatchford score in predicting early prognosis of cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Shu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the value of Glasgow-Blatchford score (GBS, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP score, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD score in predicting the 1- and 6-week prognosis of cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding via a comparative analysis. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 202 cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding who were hospitalized in Tianjin Third Central Hospital from January 1 to December 31, 2014. According to the endpoint of death at 6 weeks after admission, the patients were divided into 1-week death group (10 patients, 6-week death group (23 patients, and survival group (179 patients. The Glasgow-Blatchford score, MELD score, CTP score, and CTP score and classification were calculated on admission, and these scores were compared between the three groups. The two-independent-samples t test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between groups, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between groups. The chi-square test or the Fisher′s exact test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. The Z test was used for comparison of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC of these three scoring systems. ResultsThere were significant differences between the 1-week death group and the survival group in the incidence rates of liver cancer with vascular invasion or metastasis (χ2=4.559, P=0.033, hepatic encephalopathy (χ2=25.568, P<0.01, melena (χ2=0.842, P=0.04, and heart failure (P=0.003, pulse rate (Z=-2.943, P=0.003, CTP classification (χ2=12.22, P=0.002, CTP score (Z=-2.505, P=0.012, MELD score (t=-2.395, P=0.018, and GBS score (Z=-2545, P=0.011. There were significant differences between the 6-week death group and the survival group in the incidence rates of liver cancer (χ2=9.374, P=0.002, liver

  18. Hemodynamic evaluation of portal blood flow with transrectal scintigraphy using sup 123 I-iodoamphetamine with special reference to esophageal varices and bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Keiji; Ishii, Kohdoh; Kokubu, Shigehiro; Shibata, Hisao; Ishii, Katsumi (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-12-01

    Portosystemic shunting was evaluated by portal scintigraphy with transrectally admininistered {sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in 21 patients with liver diseases. IMP was injected in an amount of 111 MBq (3 mCi) into the upper part of the rectum through the catheter. Images of the liver and lungs were monitores for up to 60 minutes with scintillation camera. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the images of the organs: the tracer was accumulated predominantly in the lungs (group A); almost equally accumulated in the both organs (group B); accumulated predominantly in the liver (group C). Advanced liver cirrhosis and IPH with esophageal varices were almost exclusively seen in group A, whereas early stage of liver cirrhosis and other mild hepatic lesions without esophageal varix remainded in group C. Patients of group A showed worse laboratory data than those of group C, including platelet count, serum levels of ch-E and {gamma}-globulin. It is noteworthy that in patients with esophageal bleeding, clear lung images appeared shortly after IMP administration in contrast with extremely delayed visualization of the liver. On the contrary, liver images was demonstrated early in cirrhotic patients without esophageal bleeding. It was coucluded that portal scintigraphy with IMP is useful for the evaluation of portosystemic shunting, especially in esophageal varices. (author).

  19. Prediction of Mortality after Emergent Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement: Use of APACHE II, Child-Pugh and MELD Scores in Asian Patients with Refractory Variceal Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen Sheng; Wu, Reng Hong; Lin, Ching Yih; Chen, Jyh Jou; Sheu, Ming Juen; Koay, Lok Beng; Lee, Chuan

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if existing methods of grading liver function that have been developed in non-Asian patients with cirrhosis can be used to predict mortality in Asian patients treated for refractory variceal hemorrhage by the use of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. Data for 107 consecutive patients who underwent an emergency TIPS procedure were retrospectively analyzed. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II), Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were calculated. Survival analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of the various models to predict 30-day, 60-day and 360-day mortality. The ability of stratified APACHE II, Child-Pugh, and MELD scores to predict survival was assessed by the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test. No patient died during the TIPS procedure, but 82 patients died during the follow-up period. Thirty patients died within 30 days after the TIPS procedure; 37 patients died within 60 days and 53 patients died within 360 days. Univariate analysis indicated that hepatorenal syndrome, use of inotropic agents and mechanical ventilation were associated with elevated 30-day mortality (p 11 or an MELD score > 20 predicted increased risk of death at 30, 60 and 360 days (p 11 or an MELD score > 20 are predictive of mortality in Asian patients with refractory variceal hemorrhage treated with the TIPS procedure. An APACHE II score is not predictive of early mortality in this patient population

  20. South African Gastroenterology Review - Vol 2, No 2 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variceal recurrence, rebleeding and survival after injection sclerotherapy in 306 alcoholic cirrhotic patients with bleeding oesophageal varices: original · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. JEJ Krige, UK Kotze, PC Bornman, W Ddamulira, M Klipin, 8-13.

  1. Pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved with long-term survival of cirrhotic patients after embolization of gastric fundal varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi; Okugawa, Hidehiro; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yoshizumi, Hiroaki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved in the long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with gastric fundal varices (FV) after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Materials and methods: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with medium- or large-grade FV treated by B-RTO were enrolled in this retrospective study. Pre-treatment flow volume ratio between gastric vein and portal trunk (GP-R) was obtained by Doppler ultrasound. Results: The cumulative survival rate was 90% at 1 year, 74.8% at 3 years, 57.2% at 5 years, and 45.8% at 7 years without recurrence in a median period of 1148.5 days The survival was poorer in patients with HCC (47% at 3 years, 9.4% at 5 years, p < 0.0001) than without (89.2% at 3 years, 81.9% at 5 years, 67.5% at 7 years), in patients with Child B/C (57.7% at 3 years, 42.1% at 5 years, 28.1% at 7 years, p = 0.0016) than with Child A (91.8% at 3 years, 71.5% at 5 years, 62.1% at 7 years), and in patients with GP-R ≥ 1.0 (58.9% at 3 years, p = 0.0485) than with GP-R < 1.0 (76.3% at 3 years, 62% at 5 years, 49.6% at 7 years). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of HCC (hazard ratio, 12.486; 95% CI, 4.08-38.216; p < 0.0001), Child B/C (hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.594-7.15; p = 0.0051) and GP-R ≥ 1.0 (hazard ratio, 2.701; 95% CI, 1.07-6.15; p = 0.0221) as independent factors for poor prognosis. Conclusion: GP-R ≥ 1.0 on Doppler ultrasound before B-RTO may be a predictive indicator for poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients with FV after B-RTO, in addition to the presence of HCC and severe liver damage.

  2. Pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved with long-term survival of cirrhotic patients after embolization of gastric fundal varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hitoshi, E-mail: maru-cib@umin.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Okugawa, Hidehiro, E-mail: hideun@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Kobayashi, Satoshi, E-mail: kobakobakopa@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yoshizumi, Hiroaki, E-mail: yossih04@yahoo.co.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu, E-mail: yokosukao@faculty.chiba-u.j [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To clarify the pre-treatment hemodynamic features involved in the long-term survival of cirrhotic patients with gastric fundal varices (FV) after balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO). Materials and methods: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with medium- or large-grade FV treated by B-RTO were enrolled in this retrospective study. Pre-treatment flow volume ratio between gastric vein and portal trunk (GP-R) was obtained by Doppler ultrasound. Results: The cumulative survival rate was 90% at 1 year, 74.8% at 3 years, 57.2% at 5 years, and 45.8% at 7 years without recurrence in a median period of 1148.5 days The survival was poorer in patients with HCC (47% at 3 years, 9.4% at 5 years, p < 0.0001) than without (89.2% at 3 years, 81.9% at 5 years, 67.5% at 7 years), in patients with Child B/C (57.7% at 3 years, 42.1% at 5 years, 28.1% at 7 years, p = 0.0016) than with Child A (91.8% at 3 years, 71.5% at 5 years, 62.1% at 7 years), and in patients with GP-R {>=} 1.0 (58.9% at 3 years, p = 0.0485) than with GP-R < 1.0 (76.3% at 3 years, 62% at 5 years, 49.6% at 7 years). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of HCC (hazard ratio, 12.486; 95% CI, 4.08-38.216; p < 0.0001), Child B/C (hazard ratio, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.594-7.15; p = 0.0051) and GP-R {>=} 1.0 (hazard ratio, 2.701; 95% CI, 1.07-6.15; p = 0.0221) as independent factors for poor prognosis. Conclusion: GP-R {>=} 1.0 on Doppler ultrasound before B-RTO may be a predictive indicator for poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients with FV after B-RTO, in addition to the presence of HCC and severe liver damage.

  3. The Short-Term Effects of Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration, for Treating Gastric Variceal Bleeding, on Portal Hypertensive Changes: a CT Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Ki; Shin, Sung Wook; Yoo, Eun Young; Do, Young Soo; Park, Kwang Bo; Choo, Sung Wook; Choo, In Wook; Han, Heon

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the short-term effects of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) for treating gastric variceal bleeding, in terms of the portal hypertensive changes, by comparing CT scans. We enrolled 27 patients who underwent BRTO for gastric variceal bleeding and they had CT scans performed just before and after BRTO. The pre- and post-procedural CT scans were retrospectively compared by two radiologists working in consensus to evaluate the short-term effects of BRTO on the subsequent portal hypertensive changes, including ascites, splenomegaly, portosystemic collaterals (other than gastrorenal shunt), the gall bladder (GB) edema and the intestinal wall edema. Statistical differences were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the paired t-test. Following BRTO, ascites developed or was aggravated in 22 (82%) of 27 patients and it was improved in two patients; the median spleen volumes increased from 438.2 cm 3 to 580.8 cm 3 , and based on a 15% volume change cutoff value, splenic enlargement occurred in 15 (56%) of the 27 patients. The development of new collaterals or worsening of existing collaterals was not observed in any patient. GB wall edema developed or was aggravated in four of 23 patients and this disappeared or improved in five; intestinal wall edema developed or was aggravated in nine of 27 patients, and this disappeared or improved in five. Statistically, we found significant differences for ascites and the splenic volumes before and after BRTO (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Some portal hypertensive changes, including ascites and splenomegaly, can be aggravated shortly after BRTO

  4. Prediction of Mortality after Emergent Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement: Use of APACHE II, Child-Pugh and MELD Scores in Asian Patients with Refractory Variceal Hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Wen Sheng; Wu, Reng Hong; Lin, Ching Yih; Chen, Jyh Jou; Sheu, Ming Juen; Koay, Lok Beng; Lee, Chuan [Chi-Mei Foundation Medical Center, Tainan (China)

    2009-10-15

    This study was designed to determine if existing methods of grading liver function that have been developed in non-Asian patients with cirrhosis can be used to predict mortality in Asian patients treated for refractory variceal hemorrhage by the use of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure. Data for 107 consecutive patients who underwent an emergency TIPS procedure were retrospectively analyzed. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II), Child-Pugh and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were calculated. Survival analyses were performed to evaluate the ability of the various models to predict 30-day, 60-day and 360-day mortality. The ability of stratified APACHE II, Child-Pugh, and MELD scores to predict survival was assessed by the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test. No patient died during the TIPS procedure, but 82 patients died during the follow-up period. Thirty patients died within 30 days after the TIPS procedure; 37 patients died within 60 days and 53 patients died within 360 days. Univariate analysis indicated that hepatorenal syndrome, use of inotropic agents and mechanical ventilation were associated with elevated 30-day mortality (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that a Child-Pugh score > 11 or an MELD score > 20 predicted increased risk of death at 30, 60 and 360 days (p < 0.05). APACHE II scores could only predict mortality at 360 days (p < 0.05). A Child-Pugh score > 11 or an MELD score > 20 are predictive of mortality in Asian patients with refractory variceal hemorrhage treated with the TIPS procedure. An APACHE II score is not predictive of early mortality in this patient population.

  5. Review article: definition and diagnosis in portal hypertension--continued problems with the Baveno consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Franchis, R

    2004-09-01

    The goals of the Baveno workshops were to develop consensus definitions of key events related to portal hypertension and variceal bleeding, and to produce guidelines to facilitate the conduct and reporting of clinical trials. The consensus definitions concern the diagnosis of active bleeding, failure to control bleeding, the criteria to distinguish continuing bleeding from rebleeding, and the means of assessing failure to prevent rebleeding. The guidelines concern the timing of diagnostic endoscopy, the policy for blood volume restitution, the measures to prevent infection and encephalopathy, and the treatment options for acute bleeding, as well as primary and secondary prophylaxis. The intention of the experts who developed the guidelines was that, as feedback from their practical application develops, they should be adapted to better fit the practical needs. The applicability of the Baveno definitions has been evaluated in a study where the definitions of clinically significant bleeding, failure to control bleeding, the time frame for the acute bleeding episode and the definition of rebleeding were tested. The main criticism raised in this study was that tachycardia, one of the criteria that define failure to control bleeding, was misleading in 15% of patients who had the symptom but were not bleeding.

  6. Two randomized controlled studies comparing the nutritional benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture for patients with esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Saito, Masaki; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2014-01-01

    Background The usefulness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and BCAA-enriched nutrient mixtures for patients with liver cirrhosis is often reported. However, no randomized controlled studies have investigated the usefulness of these supplements in the nutritional intervention of cirrhotic patients receiving endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices. Methods Patients without BCAA before endoscopic treatment were divided into study 1, and those who received BCAA were divided into s...

  7. A combined model based on spleen stiffness measurement and Baveno VI criteria to rule out high risk varices in advanced chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colecchia, Antonio; Ravaioli, Federico; Marasco, Giovanni; Colli, Agostino; Dajti, Elton; Biase, Annarita Di; Reggiani, Maria Letizia Bacchi; Berzigotti, Annalisa; Pinzani, Massimo; Festi, Davide

    2018-05-02

    Recently, Baveno VI guidelines suggested that esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) can be avoided in patients with cACLD who have a liver stiffness measurement (LSM) 150,000/mm 3 . We aimed to: assess the performance of spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) in ruling out patients with high-risk varices (HRV); validate Baveno VI criteria in a large population and assess how the sequential use of Baveno VI criteria and SSM could safely avoid the need for endoscopy. We retrospectively analysed 498 cACLD patients who had undergone LSM/SSM by transient elastography (TE) (Fibroscan®), platelet count and EGDs from 2012 to 2016 referred to our tertiary centre. The new combined model was validated internally by a split-validation method, and externally in a prospective multicentre cohort of 115 patients. SSM, LSM, platelet count and Child-Pugh-B were independent predictors of HRV. Applying the newly identified SSM cut-off (≤46 kPa) or Baveno VI criteria, 35.8% and 21.7% of patients in the internal validation cohort could have avoided EGD, with HRV being missed in only 2% in both cases. The combination of SSM with Baveno VI criteria would have led to additionally avoiding 22.5% of EGDs, reaching a final value of 43.8% spared EGDs, with <5% missed HRV. Results were confirmed in the prospective external validation cohort, as the combined Baveno VI/SSM≤46 Model would have safely spared (0 HRV missed) 37.4% of EGDs, compared to 16.5% avoiding Baveno VI Criteria only. A non-invasive prediction model combining SSM with Baveno VI criteria may be useful to rule out HRV and could make it possible to avoid a significantly larger number of unnecessary EGDs compared to Baveno VI criteria only. Spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) assessed by TE, the most widely used electrographic technique, is a non-invasive technique that can help the physician to better stratify the degree of portal hypertension and the risk of oesophageal varices in patients with cACLD. Performing SSM together with LSM

  8. Fifty-three years' experience with randomized clinical trials of emergency portacaval shunt for bleeding esophageal varices in Cirrhosis: 1958-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Marshall J

    2014-02-01

    Emergency treatment of bleeding esophageal varices (BEV) consists mainly of endoscopic and pharmacologic measures, with transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunt (TIPS) performed when bleeding is not controlled. Surgical shunt has been relegated to salvage. At the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center, our group has conducted 10 studies of emergency portacaval shunt (EPCS) during 46 years. To describe 2 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted from 1988 to 2011 in unselected consecutive patients who received emergency treatment for BEV. In RCT No. 1, a total of 211 unselected consecutive patients with cirrhosis and acute BEV were randomized to emergency endoscopic sclerotherapy (EEST) (n=106) or EPCS (n=105). In RCT No. 2, a total of 154 unselected consecutive patients with cirrhosis and acute BEV were randomized to TIPS (n=78) or EPCS (n=76). Diagnostic workup was completed within 6 hours of initial contact, and primary treatment was initiated within 8 to 12 hours. Regular follow-up for up to 10 years was accomplished in 100% of the patients. In RCT No. 1, EEST or EPCS; in RCT No. 2, TIPS or EPCS. The 2 groups were compared with regard to survival, control of bleeding, portal-systemic encephalopathy, and direct cost of care. RESULTS Distribution in Child risk classes was almost identical. One-third of patients were in Child class C. Permanent control of bleeding was achieved by EEST in only 20% of the patients and by TIPS in only 22%. In contrast, EPCS permanently controlled bleeding in 97% and 100% of the patients in RCT No. 2 and RCT No. 1, respectively (Pcases. Recurrent portal-systemic encephalopathy developed in 35% of the patients who underwent EEST and 61% of those who received TIPS. In contrast, portal-systemic encephalopathy occurred in 15% of the patients who received EPCS in RCT No. 1 and 21% of those in RCT No. 2. Direct costs of care were 5 to 7 times greater in the EEST ($168100) and TIPS ($264800) groups than in the EPCS

  9. Prevention of the Rerupture of Collateral Artery Aneurysms on the Ventricular Wall by Early Surgical Revascularization in Moyamoya Disease: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Fumiaki; Takasu, Syuntaro; Ota, Shinji; Seki, Yukio

    2018-01-01

    Collateral artery aneurysms are a source of intracranial hemorrhage in moyamoya disease. Several reports have shown that surgical revascularization leads to the obliteration of collateral artery aneurysms. However, its effect on the prevention of rebleeding has not been established, and the optimal timing of the operation remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of surgical revascularization and to investigate the optimal operation timing in patients with moyamoya disease who have ruptured collateral artery aneurysms on the ventricular wall. Two patients with moyamoya disease who presented with intraventricular hemorrhage caused by rupture of collateral artery aneurysms on the wall of the lateral ventricle are presented here. In both cases, the aneurysms reruptured approximately 1 month after the initial hemorrhage. Both patients successfully underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis combined with indirect bypass in the subacute stage. The aneurysms decreased with the development of collateral circulation through the direct bypasses, and rebleeding did not occur after the surgery. Because ruptured collateral artery aneurysms on the wall of the lateral ventricle in moyamoya disease are prone to rerupture within 1 month, surgical revascularization may be recommended as soon as the patients are stable and able to withstand the operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Narrow-band imaging can increase the visibility of fibrin caps after bleeding of esophageal varices: a case with extensive esophageal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuichi, Yoshihiro; Kasai, Yoshitaka; Takeuchi, Hirohito; Yoshimasu, Yuu; Kawai, Takashi; Sugimoto, Katsutoshi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Itoi, Takao

    2017-08-01

    A 58-year-old man with hepatitis B cirrhosis noticed black stools and underwent an endoscopy at a community hospital. The presence of esophageal varices (EVs) was confirmed, but the bleeding point was not found. He was referred to our institution and underwent a second endoscopy. Extensive white patches of esophageal candidiasis were visible on endoscopy by white-light imaging (WLI), but it was difficult to find the fibrin cap of the EVs. This was easier under narrow-band imaging (NBI), however, as the color turned red from absorption by hemoglobin adhered to it. We retrospectively measured the color differences (CD) between the fibrin cap and the surrounding mucosa 10 times using the CIE (L*a*b*) color space method. The median value of CD increased after NBI (13.9 → 43.0, p candidiasis, but the increased visibility of the fibrin cap by NBI enabled it to be found more easily. This is the first report of a case in which NBI was helpful in locating a fibrin cap of EVs.

  11. Aplicación del método clínico para el diagnóstico de pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta no variceal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel González Sosa

    Full Text Available La utilización del método clínico para lograr un diagnóstico preciso de las enfermedades en el ser humano, surge con el nacimiento de la Medicina, en la antigua Grecia y tiene como componentes fundamentales la relación médico-paciente, el interrogatorio, el examen físico y la historia clínica; esta última constituye su herramienta más importante en la recogida de datos. Se reflexiona sobre la importancia de su aplicación correcta para llegar a un diagnóstico preciso en los pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta no variceal comenzando en la atención primaria de salud donde se puede lograr un diagnóstico precoz de esta entidad y evitar complicaciones que ocurren en estos pacientes cuando el diagnóstico es tardío, por lo que lejos pensar en la muerte del método clínico, su vigencia e importancia en la medicina contemporánea es incuestionable.

  12. Sistema Progetto Nazionale Emorragia Digestiva (PNED) vs. escala de Rockall como predictores de mortalidad en pacientes con hemorragia de tubo digestivo alto no variceal: un estudio multicéntrico prospectivo

    OpenAIRE

    R. Contreras-Omaña; J.A. Alfaro-Reynoso; C.E. Cruz-Chávez; A. Velarde-Ruiz Velasco; D.I. Flores-Ramírez; I. Romero-Hernández; I. Donato-Olguín; X. García-Samper; A. Bautista-Santos; M. Reyes-Bastidas; E. Millán-Marín

    2017-01-01

    Antecedentes: El grupo Progetto Nazionale Emorragia Digestiva (PNED) de Italia publicó su propuesta de escala predictora de riesgo de mortalidad en pacientes con hemorragia digestiva alta no variceal (HTDANV), que desde su publicación no ha sido validada en Latinoamérica. Objetivo: Comparar el sistema PNED contra la escala de Rockall en la predicción de mortalidad de pacientes hospitalizados por HTDANV. Material y métodos: Estudio multicéntrico prospectivo, transversal, analítico, en el...

  13. Prediction of esophageal variceal bleeding in B-viral liver cirrhosis using the P2/MS noninvasive index based on complete blood counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Kyung; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Park, Jun Yong; Han, Min Seok; Jo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Kwan Sik; Chon, Chae Yoon; Kim, Do Young

    2012-01-01

    Periodic endoscopy for esophageal varices (EVs) and prophylactic treatment of high-risk EVs, i.e., medium/large EVs, small EVs with the red-color sign or decompensation, are recommended in cirrhotic patients. We assessed the cumulative risks for future EV bleeding using the following simple P2/MS index: (platelet count)2/[monocyte fraction (%) × segmented neutrophil fraction (%)]. We enrolled 475 consecutive B-viral cirrhosis patients for 4 years, none of whom experienced EV bleeding. All underwent laboratory work-ups, endoscopy and ultrasonography. Those with EV bleeding took a nonselective β-blocker as prophylaxis. The major endpoint was the first occurrence of EV bleeding, analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. Among patients with EV bleeding (n = 131), 25 experienced their first EV bleeding during follow-up. To differentiate the risk for EV bleeding, we divided them into two subgroups according to their P2/MS value (subgroup 1: P2/MS ≥9 and subgroup 2: P2/MS P2/MS (p = 0.040) remained a significant predictor for EV bleeding along with large varix size (p = 0.015), red-color sign (p = 0.041) and Child-Pugh classification B/C (p = 0.001). In subgroup 1, the risk for EV bleeding was similar to that of patients with low-risk EVs (p = 0.164). The P2/MS is a reliable predictor for the risk of EV bleeding among patients with EV bleeding. According to risk stratification, different prophylactic treatments should be considered for the subgroup with a P2/MS <9. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Noninvasive assessment of oesophageal varices presence and size in patients with liver cirrhosis using right liver lobe/serum albumin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alempijević Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease and it is usually accompanied by portal hypertension. The development of oesophageal varices (OV is one of the major complications of portal hypertension. Cirrhotic patients should be screened for the presence of OV when portal hypertension is diagnosed. In order to reduce the increasing burden that endoscopy units have to bear, some studies have attempted to identify parameters for noninvasive prediction of OV presence. The aim of our study was to evaluate the value of biochemical and ultrasonography parameters for prediction of OV presence. Methods. This study included 58 cirrhotic patients who underwent a complete biochemical workup, ultrasonography examination and upper digestive endoscopy. Right liver lobe diameter/albumin ratio was calculated and its correlation to the presence and degree of OV, and Child-Pugh score of liver cirrhosis explored. Results. The mean age of the patients included in the study was 53.07±13.09 years; 40 were males and 18 females. In the Child-Pugh class A were 53.4% patients, class B 39.7%, whereas 6.9% were in the class C. In 24.1% of the patients no OV were identified by upper digestive endoscopy, 19% had OV grade I, 34.5% grade II, 20.7% grade III, and 1.7% OV grade IV. The mean value of the right liver lobe diameter/ albumin ratio was 5.43±1.79 (range of 2.76−11.44. Statistically significant correlation (p < 0.01 was confirm by Spearman's test between OV grade and calculated index (ρ = 0.441. Conclusion. The right liver lobe diameter/albumin ratio is a noninvasive parameter which provides an accurate information pertinent to the determination of OV presence and their grading in patients with liver cirrhosis. .

  15. Usefulness of Noninvasive Predictors of Oesophageal Varices in Black African Cirrhotic Patients in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassan Kouamé Mahassadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To determine the usefulness of platelet count (PC, spleen diameter (SD and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio (PC/SD ratio for the prediction of oesophageal varices (OV and large OV in black African patients with cirrhosis in Côte d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods. Study was conducted in a training sample (111 patients and in a validation sample (91 patients. Results. Factors predicting OV were sex: (OR=0.08, P=0.0003, PC (OR = 12.4, P=0.0003, SD (OR = 1.04, P=0.002 in the training sample. The AUROCs (±SE of the model (cutoff ≥ 0.6, PC (cutoff 140 and PC/SD ratio (cutoff ≤ 868 were, respectively; 0.879 ± 0.04, 0.768 ± 0.06, 0.679 ± 0.06, 0.793 ± 0.06. For the prediction of large OV, the model’s AUROC (0.850 ± 0.05 was superior to that of PC (0.688 ± 0.06, SD (0.732 ± 0.05 and PC/SD ratio (0.752 ± 0.06. In the validation sample, with PC, PC/SD ratio and the model, upper digestive endoscopy could be obviated respectively in 45.1, 45.1, and 44% of cirrhotic patients. Prophylactic treatment with beta blockers could be started undoubtedly respectively in 36.3, 41.8 and 28.6% of them as having large OV. Conclusion. Non-invasive means could be used to monitor cirrhotic patients and consider treatment in African regions lacking endoscopic facilities.

  16. Can non-selective beta-blockers prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Maja; Wiest, Reiner; Gluud, Lise Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main liver-related cause of death in patients with compensated cirrhosis. The early phases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is poor, which makes prevention essential. We propose that non-selective beta-blockers decrease the incidence and growth of hepatocellular...... and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Rodent and in vitro studies support the hypothesis, but clinical verification is needed. Different study designs may be considered. The feasibility of a randomized controlled trial is limited due to the necessary large number of patients and long follow......-up. Observational studies carry a high risk of bias. The meta-analytic approach may be used if the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma can be extracted from trials on variceal bleeding and if the combined sample size and follow up is sufficient....

  17. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  18. Can non-selective beta-blockers prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with cirrhosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Maja; Wiest, Reiner; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Albillos, Agustín; Krag, Aleksander

    2013-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the main liver-related cause of death in patients with compensated cirrhosis. The early phases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is poor, which makes prevention essential. We propose that non-selective beta-blockers decrease the incidence and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma via a reduction of the inflammatory load from the gut to the liver and inhibition of angiogenesis. Due to their effect on the portal pressure, non-selective beta-blockers are used for prevention of esophageal variceal bleeding. Recently, non-hemodynamic effects of beta-blockers have received increasing attention. Blockage of β-adrenoceptors in the intestinal mucosa and gut lymphatic tissue together with changes in type and virulence of the intestinal microbiota lead to reduced bacterial translocation and a subsequent decrease in the portal load of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. This may reduce hepatic inflammation. Blockage of β-adrenoceptors also decrease angiogenesis by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factors. Because gut-derived inflammation and neo-angiogenesis are important in hepatic carcinogenesis, non-selective beta-blockers can potentially reduce the development and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. Rodent and in vitro studies support the hypothesis, but clinical verification is needed. Different study designs may be considered. The feasibility of a randomized controlled trial is limited due to the necessary large number of patients and long follow-up. Observational studies carry a high risk of bias. The meta-analytic approach may be used if the incidence and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma can be extracted from trials on variceal bleeding and if the combined sample size and follow up is sufficient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  20. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  1. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  2. Two randomized controlled studies comparing the nutritional benefits of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture for patients with esophageal varices after endoscopic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yoshiyuki; Iwata, Yoshinori; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Saito, Masaki; Yoh, Kazunori; Ishii, Akio; Takashima, Tomoyuki; Aizawa, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Naoto; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The usefulness of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) granules and BCAA-enriched nutrient mixtures for patients with liver cirrhosis is often reported. However, no randomized controlled studies have investigated the usefulness of these supplements in the nutritional intervention of cirrhotic patients receiving endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices. Patients without BCAA before endoscopic treatment were divided into study 1, and those who received BCAA were divided into study 2. In study 1, 44 eligible patients were divided into a control group (n = 13), a general liquid nutrient (snack) group (n = 15), and a BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture (BCAA-EN) group (n = 16). In study 2, 48 eligible patients were divided into a BCAA group (n = 24) and a BCAA-EN group (n = 24). The nutritional status including non-protein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) levels, weight gain, and albumin were evaluated on days 0, 7, and 50. In study 1, the BCAA-EN group showed significant improvement in NPRQ levels on day 7 as compared with the snack group. In study 2, the BCAA-EN group showed significant improvement in NPRQ levels on day 7 and in weight levels on day 50 relative to the BCAA group, while the BCAA group showed improved serum albumin levels on day 7 compared to the BCAA-EN group. The BCAA-enriched nutrient mixture maintained NPRQ and weight in cirrhotic patients. Our findings suggest that supplements including both BCAA and a nutritional energy supplement would be beneficial for cirrhotic patients undergoing endoscopic treatment for esophageal varices.

  3. Complications of endoscopic variceal therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    during the initial 48 hours after injection of sclerosant, are thrombosis in ..... cumulative volume of injection and an association with pre- existing .... presence of venous and urine catheters and endotracheal tubes. ...... a meta-analytic review.

  4. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  5. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  6. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  7. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  10. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  13. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  14. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  15. Rebleeding of a Splenic Artery Aneurysm after Coil Embolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra D. Kingma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA is an uncommon and difficult diagnosis. SAA is more common in females. Only 20% of SAA is symptomatic and may present as a rupture. A ruptured SAA is associated with a 25% mortality rate. Case Presentation. We present a case of a male patient with a bleeding SAA that rapidly increased in size. Distal coiling was technically impossible and despite proximal coil embolisation the SAA continued to bleed. A laparotomy including splenectomy and partial pancreatectomy was performed with an uneventful patient recovery. Discussion. Endovascular management is currently considered the optimal treatment of SAA. However, careful monitoring and follow-up is needed after embolisation as rapid recanalization of the SAA may possibly occur, especially when distal coiling of the aneurysm is unsuccessful. Conclusion. Endovascular treatment of an SAA is not necessarily effective. Surgeons must be prepared to perform open procedures to further reduce mortality rates.

  16. The Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Treatment of Portal Hypertension: Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Pomier-Layrargues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS represents a major advance in the treatment of complications of portal hypertension. Technical improvements and increased experience over the past 24 years led to improved clinical results and a better definition of the indications for TIPS. Randomized clinical trials indicate that the TIPS procedure is not a first-line therapy for variceal bleeding, but can be used when medical treatment fails, both in the acute situation or to prevent variceal rebleeding. The role of TIPS to treat refractory ascites is probably more justified to improve the quality of life rather than to improve survival, except for patients with preserved liver function. It can be helpful for hepatic hydrothorax and can reverse hepatorenal syndrome in selected cases. It is a good treatment for Budd Chiari syndrome uncontrollable by medical treatment. Careful selection of patients is mandatory before TIPS, and clinical followup is essential to detect and treat complications that may result from TIPS stenosis (which can be prevented by using covered stents and chronic encephalopathy (which may in severe cases justify reduction or occlusion of the shunt. A multidisciplinary approach, including the resources for liver transplantation, is always required to treat these patients.

  17. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  19. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  20. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  1. Tratamento da recidiva hemorrágica por varizes do esôfago em doentes esquistossomóticos operados Treatment of recurrent hemorrhage esophageal varices in schistosomotic patients after surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cesar Assef

    2003-01-01

    ástrica esquerda ocluída e veia gástrica esquerda não-opacificada.OBJECTIVE: To standardize the treatment recurrent hemorrhage esophageal varices in schistosomotic patients after non decompressive surgery. METHODS: We treated 45 patients with schistosomotic portal hypertension who presented recurrent hemorrhage esophageal varices. Performance of abdominal ultra-sonography and arteriographic studies and two groups were defined: Group A: Nineteen patients (42,2% with absence of spleen, occluded splenic artery and patency of left gastric artery and vein, thus characterizing splenectomy at prior operation. Group B: Twenty six patients (57,8% with absence of spleen image, occluded splenic and left gastric artery and non-opacified left gastric vein, showing splenectomy and some type of gastroesophageal devascularization performed before. Patients of Group A were reoperated to carry out the gastroesophageal devascularization and patients of Group B were submitted to a sclerotherapy program. RESULTS: In Group A, one patient (5.3% presented recurrent hemorrhage on the late postoperative period. The esophageal varices decreased in number or diameter in 14 patients (73.7%, disappeared in three (15.8% and remained unchanged in two (10.5%, under final endoscopic evaluation. In Group B, six patients (23.1% presented recurrent bleeding. In four patients the acute hemorrhagic event were controlled. Two patients who underwent mesocaval shunt owing to unsuccess of these methods died postoperatively. Esophageal varices disappeared in 17 patients (65.4%, decreased in number or diameter in seven (26.9% and remained unchanged in two (7.7% after the last endoscopic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The gastroesophageal devascularization is appropriated to splenectomized patients, with patency of left gastric artery and vein. 2 A long term of esophageal varices endoscopic sclerotherapy may be an option to splenectomized patients, with occluded left gastric artery and non-opacified left gastric ven.

  2. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  3. New placement of TIPS during pregnancy for recurring esophageal variceal bleeding: Estimation of fetal radiation exposure; TIPS-Neuanlage in der Schwangerschaft bei rezidivierender Oesophagusvarizenblutung - Abschaetzung der fetalen Strahlenexposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildberger, J.E.; Vorwerk, D.; Stargardt, A.; Guenther, R.W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Winograd, R.; Busch, N. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Medizinische Klinik 3

    1998-10-01

    Recurrent variceal bleeding due to liver cirrhosis led to treatment with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in a pregnant woman at 20 weeks` gestation. Fetal radiation exposure was estimated to be less than 10 mSv. The use of a graduated catheter allowed measurement of field size and reliable determination of the patient`s entrance dose. Radiation exposure of an approximated fetal dosage of 5.2 mSv did not justify abortion for medical reasons. Therefore, TIPS procedure is not generally contraindicated during pregnancy itself. TIPS placement may be a therapeutic option related to the severity of the underlying maternal disease, after radiation exposure of the fetus has been estimated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei rezidivierender Oesophagusvarizenblutung auf dem Boden einer Leberzirrhose wurde bei bestehender Schwangerschaft der 20. Woche ein transjugulaerer portosystemischer Stent-Shunt (TIPS) neu angelegt. Praeinterventionell wurde die zu erwartende Strahlenexposition fuer den Feten kleiner 10 mSv abgeschaetzt. Der Einsatz eines Messkatheters waehrend des Eingriffs ermoeglichte die genaue Bestimmung der Feldgroesse und somit eine verlaessliche Berechnung der Einfallsdosis. Die applizierte Strahlendosis lag mit 5,2 mSv unter der praeinterventionellen Abschaetzung. Eine Strahlenexposition in diesem Dosisbereich stellt keine Indikation fuer einen medizinisch induzierten Schwangerschaftsabbruch dar. Eine intakte Graviditaet ist keine absolute Kontraindikation zur TIPS-Neuanlage. Diese muss unter Beruecksichtigung der Schwere des muetterlichen Krankheitsbildes und unter Vorausabschaetzung der zu erwartenden Strahlenexposition fuer den Feten als moegliche Therapieoption geprueft werden. (orig.)

  4. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  5. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  6. Association between portal vein pressure drop gradient after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and clinical prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Zhengguo

    2016-12-01

    .e., a 36%-40% reduction in portal vein pressure. The results of splenic venography performed immediately after surgery showed that varicose veins almost disappeared and that there were no collateral varices. Gastroscopy was performed again within 1 month after surgery and 5 patients had no significant changes in esophageal varices. The other patients were followed up for 2 years, and the severity of esophageal and gastric varices gradually changed from severe varices with red color sign to moderate and mild varices and even disappeared. The proportion of patients with mild and disappeared varices increased from 22% on day 3 after surgery to 52% in the second year after surgery. No patients experienced rebleeding within 1 month after surgery. Six patients each experienced rebleeding at 2, 6, 10, 14, 16, and 24 months after surgery, and in one patient, duodenal bulbar ulcer and bleeding was not excluded; the other 5 patients experienced gastric variceal bleeding again, with a median portal vein pressure of 36.46 mmHg before surgery and 24.8 mmHg after surgery, with a 32% reduction in portal vein pressure. ConclusionTIPS has a good clinical effect in hemostasis and prevention of rebleeding in patients with cirrhotic portal hypertension and can control the portal vein pressure below 21.21±2.90 mmHg, and the degree of reduction in portal vein pressure is below 36%-40%. It can reduce the incidence of postoperative rebleeding and avoid the development of hepatic encephalopathy. TIPS can cause liver impairment within a short period of time after surgery, and liver function can return to normal within 1-6 months after surgery, but splenic function does not recover significantly.

  7. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  8. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  9. The White Nipple Sign: Please Do Not Disturb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser M. Khan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood spurting or oozing from a varix confirms the diagnosis of variceal hemorrhage. In most cases of variceal hemorrhage, however, the bleeding has ceased by the time endoscopy is performed. Endoscopists rely on identification of stigmata of recent hemorrhage to determine whether varices are the cause of bleeding and to predict the likelihood of rebleeding. Most of the attention has focused on red color signs, such as red wale markings, described by Beppu et al. [Gastrointest Endosc 1981;27:213–218] and well known to endoscopists. Here we describe our experience with a less recognized stigma of variceal hemorrhage known as the ‘white nipple sign’, which resulted in active hemorrhage when manipulated.

  10. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...

  11. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  12. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... Call The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  13. Prevention Research Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Prevention Research Matters is a series of one-on-one interviews with researchers from 26 university prevention research centers across the country. Their work focuses on preventing and controlling chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, and heart disease.

  14. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  15. Platelet count/spleen diameter ratio: analysis of its capacity as a predictor of the existence of esophageal varices Índice contagem de plaquetas/diâmetro do baço: análise de sua capacidade como preditor da existência de varizes esofágicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Zambam de Mattos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated to esophageal varices is the most dramatic complication of cirrhosis. It is recommended screening every cirrhotic for esophageal varices with endoscopy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the capacity of the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio in non-invasively predicting esophageal varices in a population of cirrhotics originated in an independent center from the one in which it was developed. METHODS: The study included patients from the ambulatory care clinic of cirrhosis of a Brazilian hospital and studied platelet count, spleen diameter and presence of esophageal varices, as well as Child and MELD scores. It used a cutoff value of 909 for the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio, as previously published. A sample of 139 patients was needed to grant results a 95% confidence level. RESULTS: The study included 164 cirrhotics, 56.7% male, with a mean age of 56.6 ± 11.6 years. In the univariate analysis, platelet count, spleen diameter, presence of ascites, Child and MELD scores and the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio were related to esophageal varices (PCONTEXTO: Hemorragia digestiva por varizes esofágicas é a complicação mais dramática da cirrose. É recomendada triagem de varizes esofágicas em todo o cirrótico. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o índice de contagem de plaquetas/diâmetro do baço como predição de varizes esofágicas em uma população distinta daquela em que ele foi desenvolvido. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu pacientes do ambulatório de cirrose de um hospital brasileiro quanto ao número de plaquetas, diâmetro ecográfico do baço, presença de varizes esofágicas, Child e MELD. O ponto de corte do índice foi de 909. Amostra de 139 pacientes foi estimada para conferir nível de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Incluíram-se 164 cirróticos, 56,7% homens e com média de idade de 56,6 anos. Na análise univariada, número de plaquetas, diâmetro do baço, ascite, Child, MELD e o

  16. Clinical value of spleen acoustic radiation force impulse, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in predicting esophageal varices in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Dakun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the spleen stiffness of patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis by spleen acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI, aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI, and aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR, as well as the clinical value of these three noninvasive techniques in predicting esophageal varices (EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 247 patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis were enrolled, and ARFI was used to measure real-time spleen stiffness. APRI and AAR were calculated. Gastroscopy was performed within one week before and after measurement to clarify the degree of EV. With the results of gastroscopy as the gold standard, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to compare the clinical value of spleen ARFI value, APRI, and AAR in the diagnosis of EV in patients with liver cirrhosis. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. ResultsThere were significant differences between the EV group (n=169 and the non-EV group (n=78 in spleen ARFI stiffness (3.64±0.53 m/s vs 2.97±0.65 m/s, t=-7.93, P<0.001, APRI (0.87±091 vs 0.52±0.80, t=-2.90, P=0.004, and AAR (1.54±0.67 vs 1.29±0.55, t=-2.93, P=0.004. Spleen ARFI, APRI, and AAR had an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, 0.72, and 0.63, respectively, in predicting EV in patients with liver cirrhosis, there was a significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and AAR (P=0.005, while there was no significant difference between spleen ARFI stiffness and APRI (P=0.10. ConclusionARFI is a real-time ultrasound elastography technique, and compared with APRI and AAR, spleen stiffness measured by ARFI can predict EV in patients with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis more accurately and noninvasively and thus holds promise for clinical application.

  17. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  20. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  2. Research Areas: Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  3. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  5. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  6. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  7. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  8. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  9. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suicide Populations Racial/Ethnic Groups Older Adults Adolescents LGBT Military/Veterans Men Effective Prevention Comprehensive Approach Identify ... Based Prevention Settings American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Schools Colleges and Universities Primary Care Emergency Departments Behavioral ...

  11. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  12. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  13. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  14. Statewide Suicide Prevention Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Statewide Suicide Prevention Council DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and Agencies National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Alaska Community Mental Health Centers National Survivors of Suicide Meetings Presentations 2010 Alaska Statewide Suicide Prevention Summit: Mending the Net Connect with us on

  15. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  16. Endoveneuze lasertherapie: een nieuwe behandeling van varices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bremer, J; Hedeman Joosten, P.P.H.A.; Moll, F.L.

    2007-01-01

    – Varicositas is een veelvoorkomende aandoening. De meest toegepaste behandeling van een insufficiënte V. saphena magna (VSM) bestaat al jaren uit het chirurgisch verwijderen van de vene en een crossectomie. – Sinds een aantal jaren zijn de minimaal-invasieve technieken sterk in opkomst, onder

  17. Haemoperitoneurn Secondary to Rupture of Retroperitoneal Variceal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Molina-Perez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old alcoholic male patient presented with hypovolemic shock and intense anemia (Hemoglobin 04.7 g/dl, and was operated on. A bleeding retroperitoneal varix located near the right colon was responsible for the clinical picture and was sutured. After operation the patient developed haemodynamic instability and pneumonia a situation which was reverted with intensive medical therapy. The patient is now doing well.

  18. Testicular Cancer Presenting as Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Salazar-Mejía

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular cancer is the most common solid malignancy affecting males between the ages of 15 and 35. The symptomatology caused by this tumor varies according to the site of metastasis. We present the case of a 26-year-old male who arrived to the emergency department with hematemesis. He had no previous medical history. On arrival, we noted enlargement of the left scrotal sac. There was also a mass in the left scrotum which provoked displacement of the penis and right testis. The serum alpha-fetoprotein level was 17,090 ng/mL, lactate dehydrogenase was 1480 U/L, and human chorionic gonadotropin was 287.4 IU/mL. Upper endoscopy revealed a type 1 isolated gastric varix, treated with cyanoacrylate. A CT scan showed extrinsic compression of the portal vein by lymphadenopathy along with splenic vein partial thrombosis, which caused left-sided portal hypertension. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was started with etoposide and cisplatin, and seven days later the patient underwent left radical orchiectomy. A postoperative biopsy revealed a pure testicular teratoma. Noncirrhotic left portal hypertension with bleeding from an isolated gastric varix secondary to metastasic testicular cancer has not been described before. Clinicians must consider the possibility of malignancy in the differential diagnosis of a young man presenting with unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding.

  19. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  1. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  2. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  3. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    OpenAIRE

    S Ramakrishnan; Manisha Kaushik

    2015-01-01

    The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressur...

  4. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  5. Prevention, not just treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G L; Hilling, L

    1998-03-01

    A tragic burden of disease, disability, and death has resulted from smoking. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation is not only in treatment and rehabilitation of lung disease but in the prevention of lung disease. The skills of the pulmonary rehabilitation specialist should be used in the earlier detection and prevention of lung disease through primary and secondary prevention. The spirometer must gain acceptance in the medical community as the early tool to evaluate lung health, not the chest radiograph or the stethoscope. The lung age formula and sputum pap smears are just a few of the evaluation tools used to detect and motivate susceptible individuals. Prevention is the key to enhancing lung health.

  6. Crime-prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone

    In Denmark, crime prevention is embedded in state professional practices in kindergartens, schools and youth clubs. These welfare institutions are conceived as safe places that safeguard children and young people through inclusive learning environments, warm and empathic relationships between......-sectional cooperation called “SSP”. SSP is a locally anchored cooperation of the school (S), the social services (S) and the police (P) and its aim is to create a coordinated system of prevention, e.g., to prevent crime or school drop outs. In continuation of this, crime preventive work is understood as a practice...

  7. Work hazard prevention plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertos Campos, F.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  8. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  9. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

  10. HIV Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  11. Can I Prevent Acne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can I Prevent Acne? Print en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  12. [Prevention of psychosocial risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie

    2018-02-01

    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartalena, Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-01-08

    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  15. Poison Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  16. Considerable delay in diagnosis and acute management of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Carl Christian; Eskesen, Vagn; Hauerberg, John

    2010-01-01

    Rebleeding from subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) usually occurs within the first six hours after the initial bleeding. Rebleeding can be prevented effectively with tranexamic acid (TXA). Although a broad consensus has evolved that SAH should be treated as an emergency, it is likely that delays do...

  17. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  18. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration with sodium tetradecyl sulfate liquid sclerotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Il Soo; Park, Sang Woo; Kwon, So Young; Cheo, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Shim, Chan Sup; Lee, Tae Yoon; Kim, Jeong Han [Digestive Disease Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) liquid sclerotherapy of gastric varices. Between February 2012 and August 2014, STS liquid sclerotherapy was performed in 17 consecutive patients (male:female = 8:9; mean age 58.6 years, range 44-86 years) with gastric varices. Retrograde venography was performed after occlusion of the gastrorenal shunt using a balloon catheter and embolization of collateral draining veins using coils or gelfoam pledgets, to evaluate the anatomy of the gastric varices. We prepared 2% liquid STS by mixing 3% STS and contrast media in a ratio of 2:1. A 2% STS solution was injected into the gastric varices until minimal filling of the afferent portal vein branch was observed (mean 19.9 mL, range 6-33 mL). Patients were followed up using computed tomography (CT) or endoscopy. Technical success was achieved in 16 of 17 patients (94.1%). The procedure failed in one patient because the shunt could not be occluded due to the large diameter of gastrorenal shunt. Complete obliteration of gastric varices was observed in 15 of 16 patients (93.8%) with follow-up CT or endoscopy. There was no rebleeding after the procedure. There was no procedure-related mortality. BRTO using STS liquid can be a safe and useful treatment option in patients with gastric varices.

  20. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  1. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  2. Obesity Prevention and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressure Survey, and CSI Smart Heart App. A total of 848 delegates/faculties attended this conference against a total of 1140 people registered for the meeting.

  4. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  5. Help prevent hospital errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  6. Institutional Preventive Stress Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, James C.

    1987-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  7. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... to help control symptoms and restore intimacy. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  10. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  11. Preventing Learned Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Cheri

    1986-01-01

    To prevent learned helplessness in learning disabled students, teachers can share responsibilities with the students, train students to reinforce themselves for effort and self control, and introduce opportunities for changing counterproductive attitudes. (CL)

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  13. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examples of safe sex. 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Self-study STD module—vaginitis . ... Halvorson New Chief of Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, ...

  14. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform clinical...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  15. Naval Preventive Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassel, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Naval power, as part of a U.S. preventive diplomacy effort, can be flexibly mixed with political, economic, and informational power to intervene early in places of incipient crisis or before mass violence...

  16. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  17. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei

    2001-01-01

    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  18. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.

  19. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  20. United to prevent emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2001-01-01

    The paper is about the national plan of contingencies, as tool of coordination inter-institutional that has allowed strengthening the actions of prevention and attention of spills of hydrocarbons and chemical substances in Colombia

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  2. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, John

    2006-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  3. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  4. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you have an injury, health condition, or disability, ask your doctor or nurse which types of exercise are best for you. Get tips on staying active with a disability . Next section Prevent Injuries Previous section Am I ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ...

  6. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  8. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  9. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  10. Sexual Violence Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  11. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  12. Prevention of malignant neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    D. G. Zaridze; D. M. Maksimovich

    2017-01-01

    Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in proc...

  13. Early prevention of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  14. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  15. [Can falls be prevented?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  16. Preventive Migraine Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  17. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  18. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  19. [Preventive strategies for dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Patrick; Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Notger G

    2017-05-01

    In the context of the demographically induced increase in the prevalence of dementia and the simultaneous lack of causal pharmacological therapies, preventive approaches are gaining in importance. By reducing risk factors and with measures which induce neuroplasticity successful aging can be supported. This article summarizes the current developments in preventing dementia by modification of life style factors. The main focus lies on the impact of cognitive and physical activity on neuroprotection. A promising approach combines both activities within a dance training program. Further studies that meet the demanding criteria of a randomized clinical trial are urgently needed.

  20. Building in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    this chapter devotes its focus primarily on the small bumps on the road by initially discussing how physical structural prevention can be an appropriate strategy not only to bring about behavioural change in the population as a whole but also to reduce the negative consequences of a stigmatising health...... preventive work might be changed to direct focus onto a greater extent on establishing frameworks for people to master their own lives instead of one-sided initiatives, which leave the individual with a sense of guilt at their own illness....

  1. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  2. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  3. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  4. Aspirin for Primary Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Ilana B; Owens, Douglas K

    2017-07-01

    Aspirin reduces the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding. The best available evidence supports initiating aspirin in select populations. In 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended initiating aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer among adults ages 50 to 59 who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Adults 60 to 69 who are at increased cardiovascular disease risk may also benefit. There remains considerable uncertainty about whether younger and older patients may benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevention in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul

    2015-01-01

    could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. CONCLUSIONS: While examples of best practice were...... provided from both social care and insurance models it was clear that further work was required on both provider and payer side to ensure that evidence based prevention was both implemented properly but also reimbursed sufficiently. It is clear that savings can be made but these must not be overstated...

  6. HOW TO PREVENT FRAUD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela – Corina Chersan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

  7. Prevention of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove

    2018-01-01

    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity...... of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema...

  8. Preventing falls and fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfarsson, J; Robinson, B E

    1994-11-01

    One of four persons over age 65 in the community falls; those over age 75 in institutions fall more frequently. Falls, a complex phenomena suggesting present disease and predicting future disability, are caused by interactions between the environment and dynamic balance which is determined by the quality of sensory input, central processing, and motor responses. Clinical factors which predispose to falling often produce observable disturbances in gait and balance, making observation critical in assessment. Acute illness and drug therapy produce particularly preventable falls. Therapeutic exercise and environmental modification for safety are the clinical interventions most likely to successfully prevent fall-related injury.

  9. Valoración del pronóstico a corto y largo plazo de pacientes con cirrosis y hemorragia digestiva por hipertensión portal Assessing the short- and long-term prognosis of patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sempere

    2009-04-01

    -term survival in patients with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding. Material and methods: prognostic indicators were calculated for a cohort of 201 cirrhotic patients with acute variceal bleeding hospitalized in our center, a third-level teaching hospital. The studied variables were: age, sex, etiology of cirrhosis, endoscopic findings, previous variceal bleeding episodes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, infection during episode, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores within 24 hours of bleeding onset. Patients were followed up for at least 6 months until death, liver transplantation, or end of observation. Results: median follow-up was 66.85 weeks (range 0-432.4. The 6-week, 3-month, 12-month and 36-month mortality rates were 22.9, 24.9, 34.3, and 39.8%, respectively. Age ≥ 65 years, presence of HCC, CTP score ≥ 10, and MELD score ≥ 18 were the variables associated with mortality in the multivariate analysis. The accuracy of MELD scores as predictors of 6-week, 3-month, 12-month, and 36-month mortality was better than that of CTP scores (c-statistics: 6 week MELD 0.804, CTP 0.762; 3-month MELD 0.794, CTP 0.760; 12-month MELD 0.766, CTP 0.741; 36 month MELD 0.737, CTP 0.717. Conclusion: MELD and CTP scores together with age and a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma are useful indicators to assess the short- and long-term prognosis of patients with acute variceal bleeding.

  10. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  11. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_ ...

  12. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  13. Cervical Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  14. Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  15. Endometrial Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  16. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  17. Esophageal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  18. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  20. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  1. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  2. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-05-18

    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  3. Police and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith

    2016-05-01

    Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.

  4. [Improving suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debout, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Suicidal thoughts precede a suicide attempt. Knowing the people who are exposed to such thoughts enables prevention to be improved. The results of a study of the general population show that one in five French people claim to have already seriously considered committing suicide. This represents a particularly concerning public health issue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Why Prevention? Why Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  7. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of ...

  8. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  9. To Prevent Misbehavior

    OpenAIRE

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on preventing misbehavior.

  10. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  11. Preventing infections when visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need.) When you visit a patient in the hospital, keep your hands away from your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow, not into the air. References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. Preventing the White Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter S.; Madsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide and, while treatable by antibiotics since the 1940s, drug resistant strains have emerged. This paper estimates the effects of the establishment of a pre-antibiotic era public health institution, known as a TB dispensary, designed to prevent...

  13. Travel health prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.

  14. Statins and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opposed to the use of another type of lipid-lowering drug, fibrates). [Statins and the risk of colorectal cancer. Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cushion? play_arrow What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  16. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.

  17. Preventing School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  18. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  19. Prevention of COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is eviden...

  20. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  1. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  2. Preventive Detention: A Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Mishra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available State, ever since, its emergence, has been concerned with the maintenance of law and order and protecting people from external aggression and internal threats, thereby, ensuring safety and security to its inhabitants. The authority to maintain law and order empowers the state to use coercive power. It also emanates from various laws that are enacted from time to time. More often than not, coercive laws are self-contradictory because on the one hand they guarantee rights to people and on the other hand, they take away the right of a person or persons. Therefore, it is not wrong to say that modern states are repository of contradictions and India is no exception. There are several undemocratic provisions in the Indian Constitution; preventive detention is one of them. It seeks to detain a person to prevent him/her from indulging in any activity which is likely to pose a threat to the security of the State. In Britain and America this provision was used during World War II while, in India it can be used even in peacetime. This provision has been extensively used against the political dissidents during the post-colonial period. Justice Mahajan of the Supreme Court of India has held that ‘preventive detention laws are repugnant to democratic constitution and they cannot be found to exist in any of the democratic countries of the world’. The question that one can ask at this juncture is that why did the Government of ‘independent’ India retain preventive detention laws? And further, framed new ones. This research contribution examines the circumstances which compelled the Government to frame ‘preventive detention’ laws, and its use during national emergency and peace time.

  3. [Recommendation for the prevention and treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal ulcers and its complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    prevention and treatment of NSAID-induced GI injury. Gastric mucosal protective agents also suggested.(9) H 2 receptor antagonist (H 2 RA) can reduce the risk of NSAID-induced duodenal injury, however, the therapeutic effect of NSAID-induced gastric ulcer remains to be further confirmed. (10) Endoscopic treatment is the first recommendation for NSAID-induced peptic ulcers combined with upper GI bleeding, high-dose PPI effectively prevent rebleeding, reduce the possibility of surgery and mortality rate.

  4. Maintenance therapy with peginterferon alfa-2b does not prevent hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhotic patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruix, Jordi; Poynard, Thierry; Colombo, Massimo; Schiff, Eugene; Burak, Kelly; Heathcote, Elizabeth J L; Berg, Thomas; Poo, Jorge-Luis; Mello, Carlos Brandao; Guenther, Rainer; Niederau, Claus; Terg, Ruben; Bedossa, Pierre; Boparai, Navdeep; Griffel, Louis H; Burroughs, Margaret; Brass, Clifford A; Albrecht, Janice K

    2011-06-01

    Several studies have reported that low doses of interferon can delay the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and progression of chronic hepatitis C. We investigated the incidence of clinical events among participants of the Evaluation of PegIntron in Control of Hepatitis C Cirrhosis (EPIC)3 program. Data were analyzed from an open-label randomized study of patients with chronic hepatitis C who had failed to respond to interferon alfa plus ribavirin. All patients had compensated cirrhosis with no evidence of HCC. Patients received peginterferon alfa-2b (0.5 μg/kg/week; n=311) or no treatment (controls, n=315) for a maximum period of 5 years or until 98 patients had a clinical event (hepatic decompensation, HCC, death, or liver transplantation). The primary measure of efficacy was time until the first clinical event. There was no significant difference in time to first clinical event among patients who received peginterferon alfa-2b compared with controls (hazard ratio [HR], 1.452; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.880-2.396). There was no decrease in the development of HCC with therapy. The time to disease progression (clinical events or new or enlarged varices) was significantly longer for patients who received peginterferon alfa-2b compared with controls (HR, 1.564; 95% CI: 1.130-2.166). In a prospectively defined subanalysis of patients with baseline portal hypertension, peginterferon alfa-2b significantly increased the time to first clinical event compared with controls (P=.016). There were no new safety observations. Maintenance therapy with peginterferon alfa-2b is not warranted in all patients and does not prevent HCC. However, there is a potential clinical benefit of long-term suppressive therapy in patients with preexisting portal hypertension. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references

  6. Crime prevention and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone Bæk

    , street worker, social workers) by focusing on how welfare workers form, reform and transform interventions, and thereby instigate the structure of welfare work with social effects. Finally, the paper aims to examine how an inter-professional meeting outside the school environment produces understandings...... of such a preventive work aiming at creating trustful relations between the school and the children and focusing on children’s democracy understandings, experienced discrimination and peer pressure. Furthermore, the school are to activate children’s reflections on existential questions and their empathy with others...... a statutory duty for schools to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. The school and education in general are seen as safe spaces. Notions like “safe space” and school as a “protection factor” reflect an educational discourse that reflect discoursive changes...

  7. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...... has implications for how tax authorities (and other state authorities) reform their coercive regulation. If they decide to pursue a voluntary based approach where the actions of external partners play a central role, then the analysis helps to show some of the implied challenges and potentials....

  8. Let's prevent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Laura J.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Williams, Sian

    2012-01-01

    Background: The prevention of type 2 diabetes is a globally recognised health care priority, but there is a lack of rigorous research investigating optimal methods of translating diabetes prevention programmes, based on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, into routine primary care. The aim...... of the study is to establish whether a pragmatic structured education programme targeting lifestyle and behaviour change in conjunction with motivational maintenance via the telephone can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose regulation (a composite of impaired glucose...... of type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include changes in HbA1c, blood glucose levels, cardiovascular risk, the presence of the Metabolic Syndrome and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.Methods: The study consists of screening and intervention phases within 44 general practices coordinated from...

  9. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  10. The Prevention of Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-01-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods taht are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus. PMID:23378598

  11. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  12. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  13. Prevention of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author) [es

  14. Prevention in insurance markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Cécile FAGART; Bidénam KAMBIA-CHOPIN

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a competitive insurance market under moral hazard and adverse selection, in which preventive efforts and self-protection costs are unobservable by insurance companies. Under reasonable assumptions, the conclusions of Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976) are preserved in our context even if it involves moral hazard. The riskier agents in equilibrium, who would also be the riskier agents under perfect information, receive their moral hazard contract. For other agents, adverse sel...

  15. Optimal preventive bank supervision

    OpenAIRE

    Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...

  16. Spot sign as a predictor of rebleeding after endoscopic surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Koichi; Yagi, Kenji; Nonaka, Masani; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Morishita, Takashi; Arima, Hisatomi; Inoue, Tooru

    2018-05-25

    OBJECTIVE In patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), postoperative recurrent hemorrhage (PRH) is one of the most severe complications after endoscopic evacuation of hematoma (EEH). However, no predictors of this complication have been identified. In the present study, the authors retrospectively investigated whether PRH can be preoperatively predicted by the presence of the spot sign on CT scans. METHODS In total, 143 patients with sICH were treated by EEH between June 2009 and March 2017, and 127 patients who underwent preoperative CT angiography were included in this study. Significant correlations of PRH with the patients' baseline, clinical, and radiographic characteristics, including the spot sign, were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS The incidence of and risk factors for PRH were assessed in 127 patients with available data. PRH occurred in 9 (7.1%) patients. Five (21.7%) cases of PRH were observed among 23 patients with the spot sign, whereas only 4 (3.8%) cases of PRH occurred among 104 patients without the spot sign. The spot sign was the only independent predictor of PRH (OR 5.81, 95% CI 1.26-26.88; p = 0.02). The following factors were not independently associated with PRH: age, hypertension, poor consciousness, antihemostatic factors (thrombocytopenia, coagulopathy, and use of antithrombotic drugs), the location and size of the sICH, other radiographic findings (black hole sign and blend sign), surgical duration and procedures, and early surgery. CONCLUSIONS The spot sign is likely to be a strong predictor of PRH after EEH among patients with sICH. Complete and careful control of bleeding in the operative field should be ensured when surgically treating such patients. New surgical strategies and procedures might be needed to improve these patients' outcomes.

  17. Failure of Sengstaken balloon tamponade for rebleeding after tissue adhesive injection in a fundic varix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, JA; Peters, FTM; Sanders, J; Van der Werf, TS; Zijlstra, JG

    A 61-year-old man developed a huge fundic varix due to portal hypertension in alcoholic liver cirrhosis. After a third injection therapy session with tissue adhesive (Histoacryl(R)) massive hemorrhage developed. Sengstaken (gastric) balloon tamponade failed. Autopsy showed a huge, solid varix with a

  18. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions

  19. Prevention of malignant neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Zaridze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in processed meat and poor in vegetables and fruits, certain types of viral and bacterial infection, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, ambient air pollution, carcinogens at workplace, exogenous hormones.Cancer mortality is decreasing in majority of developed countries, including Russia. This mortality trend is mostly due to decrease in incidence and death rates of lung and other smoking related cancers and is caused by decline in smoking prevalence and change in tar content of cigarette smoke.In Russia trend in mortality from all cancers is as well determined by decrease in incidence and mortality from gastric cancer, which is due to decline in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and improvement of diet, increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables. Thus the decline in cancer mortality is mostly the result of primary prevention which is the most effective avenue of cancer control. 

  20. [Prevention of pressure ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kenichi

    2009-12-01

    Even though they have not been diagnosed with a recognized disease, many people have or are at risk of contracting debilitating conditions. They can be referred to as being in the "ill-health zone." For example, many bedridden elderly develop pressure ulcers. The prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers should focus on two main factors: the role of pressure in the development of circulatory disorders; and increased dermal pH. In preventing the development of circulatory disorders resulting in pressure ulcers, using an air or polyurethane mattress is helpful. However, changing the mattress has little effect if the position of the bedridden person is not also changed regularly. To avoid an increase in dermal pH, caregivers should apply moisture-repellent cream and/or oil to the sacral region after careful cleansing. It is important that such preventive measures and treatment be performed daily, and caregivers should be educated on this need and subsequently monitored. Pharmacists have a role in caring for those in the ill-health zone.